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Sample records for purifying gases desulfurization

  1. Catalytic desulfurization of industrial waste gases

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, Th.

    1985-07-30

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organosulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  2. Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.; Liu, Jun; Huo, Qisheng

    2012-04-17

    A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

  3. Catalyst for Desulfurization of Industrial Waste Gases and Process for Preparing the Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, T.

    1983-12-27

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organo-sulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  4. Catalyst for the desulfurization of industrial waste gases and process for its preparation

    SciTech Connect

    Dupin, T.

    1984-11-27

    Industrial waste gases containing objectionable/polluting compounds of sulfur, e.g., H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/ and such organosulfur derivatives as COS, CS/sub 2/ and mercaptans, are catalytically desulfurized, e.g., by Claus process, employing an improved catalyst comprising titanium dioxide and calcium, barium, strontium or magnesium sulfate.

  5. Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

  6. Method for the desulfurization of hot product gases from coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of sulfur-bearing coal produces a synthesis gas which contains a considerable concentration of sulfur compounds especially hydrogen sulfide that renders the synthesis gas environmentally unacceptable unless the concentration of the sulfur compounds is significantly reduced. To provide for such a reduction in the sulfur compounds a calcium compound is added to the gasifier with the coal to provide some sulfur absorption. The synthesis gas from the gasifier contains sulfur compounds and is passed through an external bed of a regenerable solid absorbent, preferably zinc ferrite, for essentially completed desulfurizing the hot synthesis gas. This absorbent is, in turn, periodically or continuously regenerated by passing a mixture of steam and air or oxygen through the bed for converting absorbed hydrogen sulfide to sulfur dioxide. The resulting tail gas containing sulfur dioxide and steam is injected into the gasifier where the sulfur dioxide is converted by the calcium compound into a stable form of sulfur such as calcium sulfate.

  7. Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters.

    PubMed

    Fortuny, Marc; Gamisans, Xavier; Deshusses, Marc A; Lafuente, Javier; Casas, Carles; Gabriel, David

    2011-11-01

    Biological removal of reduced sulfur compounds in energy-rich gases is an increasingly adopted alternative to conventional physicochemical processes, because of economical and environmental benefits. A lab-scale biotrickling filter reactor for the treatment of high-H(2)S-loaded gases was developed and previously proven to effectively treat H(2)S concentrations up to 12,000 ppm(v) at gas contact times between 167 and 180 s. In the present work, a detailed study on selected operational aspects affecting this system was carried out with the objective to optimize performance. The start-up phase was studied at an inlet H(2)S concentration of 1000 ppm(v) (loading of 28 g H(2)S m(-3) h(-1)) and inoculation with sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. After reactor startup, the inlet H(2)S concentration was doubled and the influence of different key process parameters was tested. Results showed that there was a significant reduction of the removal efficiency at gas contact times below 120 s. Also, mass transfer was found to be the main factor limiting H(2)S elimination, whereas performance was not influenced by the bacterial colonization of the packed column after the initial startup. The effect of gas supply shutdowns for up to 5 days was shown to be irrelevant on process performance if the trickling liquid recirculation was kept on. Also, the trickling liquid velocity was investigated and found to influence sulfate production through a better use of the supplied dissolved oxygen. Finally, short-term pH changes revealed that the system was quite insensitive to a pH drop, but was markedly affected by a pH increase, affecting both the biological activity and the removal of H(2)S. Altogether, the results presented and discussed herein provide new insight and operational data on H(2)S removal from energy gases in biotrickling filters. PMID:21890165

  8. Apparatus for purifying arsine, phosphine, ammonia, and inert gases to remove Lewis acid and oxidant impurities therefrom

    DOEpatents

    Tom, Glenn M.; Brown, Duncan W.

    1991-01-08

    An apparatus for purifying a gaseous mixture comprising arsine, phosphine, ammonia, and/or inert gases, to remove Lewis acid and/or oxidant impurities therefrom, comprising a vessel containing a bed of a scavenger, the scavenger including a support having associated therewith an anion which is effective to remove such impurities, such anion being selected from one or more members of the group consisting of: (i) carbanions whose corresponding protonated compounds have a pK.sub.a value of from about 22 to about 36; and (ii) anions formed by reaction of such carbanions with the primary component of the mixture.

  9. Investigation of processes to treat zinc-ferrite regeneration offgases in high temperature desulfurization of coal gases

    SciTech Connect

    Woodland, L. R.

    1988-08-01

    A bench-scale test program has been performed to evaluate the effect of critical operating variables on sulfur dioxide removal efficiency for two candidate throwaway'' desulfurization processes for treating zinc-ferrite reactor regeneration offgas. These two throwaway'' processes, dual-alkali wet scrubbing and spray dryer desulfurization, generate a gypsum waste sludge environmentally acceptable for disposal. They have seen extensive commercial application in flue gas desulfurization, but have not been evaluated for such high levels of removal efficiency and such high inlet sulfur dioxide concentrations as would be required for this application. 13 figs., 15 tabs.

  10. Removal of hazardous gaseous pollutants from industrial flue gases by a novel multi-stage fluidized bed desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, C R; Adapala, Sivaji; Meikap, B C

    2009-06-15

    Sulfur dioxide and other sulfur compounds are generated as primary pollutants from the major industries such as sulfuric acid plants, cupper smelters, catalytic cracking units, etc. and cause acid rain. To remove the SO(2) from waste flue gas a three-stage counter-current multi-stage fluidized bed adsorber was developed as desulfurization equipment and operated in continuous bubbling fluidization regime for the two-phase system. This paper represents the desulfurization of gas mixtures by chemical sorption of sulfur dioxide on porous granular calcium oxide particles in the reactor at ambient temperature. The advantages of the multi-stage fluidized bed reactor are of high mass transfer and high gas-solid residence time that can enhance the removal of acid gas at low temperature by dry method. Experiments were carried out in the bubbling fluidization regime supported by visual observation. The effects of the operating parameters such as sorbent (lime) flow rate, superficial gas velocity, and the weir height on SO(2) removal efficiency in the multistage fluidized bed are reported. The results have indicated that the removal efficiency of the sulfur dioxide was found to be 65% at high solid flow rate (2.0 kg/h) corresponding to lower gas velocity (0.265 m/s), wier height of 70 mm and SO(2) concentration of 500 ppm at room temperature. PMID:19036509

  11. Biocatalytic desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Monticello, D.J. )

    1994-02-01

    Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) has many advantages compared to traditional refinery desulfurization processes, including: lower capital and operating costs, low-temperature and low-pressure operation and no hydrogen requirement. Biotechnology has developed from an art into a science in recent years. The HPI is familiar with an artful' application of biotechnology in the biotreatment of refinery wastes, and has experimented with other technologies for over 50 years. This paper discusses the following: biorefining, sulfur management, conventional solutions, bioprocessing precedents, new biotechnology tools, microbial desulfurization, biocatalytic desulfurization, specificity, biodesulfurization conceptual design, development issues, and implementation.

  12. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-10-07

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology, emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  13. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine); Kitchell, J.P. )

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  14. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-06-16

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes as well as commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  15. Fluidized bed desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kallvinskas, J. J. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    High sulfur content carbonaceous material, such as coal is desulfurized by continuous fluidized suspension in a reactor with chlorine gas, inert dechlorinating gas and hydrogen gas. A source of chlorine gas, a source of inert gas and a source of hydrogen gas are connected to the bottom inlet through a manifold and a heater. A flow controler operates servos in a manner to continuously and sequentially suspend coal in the three gases. The sulfur content is reduced at least 50% by the treatment.

  16. Performance of a novel synthetic Ca-based solid sorbent suitable for desulfurizing flue gases in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Pacciani, R.; Muller, C.R.; Davidson, J.F.; Dennis, J.S.; Hayhurst, A.N.

    2009-08-05

    The extent and mechanism of sulfation and carbonation of limestone, dolomite, and chalk, were compared with a novel, synthetic sorbent (85 wt % CaO and 15 wt % Ca{sub 12}A{sub l14}O{sub 33}), by means of experiments undertaken in a small, electrically heated fluidized bed. The sorbent particles were used either (I) untreated, sieved to two particle sizes and reacted with two different concentrations of SO{sub 2}, or (ii) after being cycled 20 times between carbonation, in 15 vol % CO{sub 2} in N2, and calcination, in pure N2, at 750 degrees C. The uptake of untreated limestone and dolomite was generally low (<0.2 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)), confirming previous results, However, the untreated chalk and the synthetic sorbent were found to be substantially more reactive with SO{sub 2}, and their final uptake was significantly higher (>0.5 g(SO{sub 2})/g(sorbent)) and essentially independent of the particle size. Here, comparisons are made on the basis of the sorbents in the calcined state. The capacities for the uptake of SO{sub 2}, on a basis of unit mass of calcined sorbent, were comparable for the chalk and the synthetic sorbent. However, previous work has demonstrated the ability of the synthetic sorbent to retain its capacity for CO{sub 2} over many cycles of carbonation and calcination: much more so than natural sorbents such as chalk and limestone. Accordingly, the advantage of the synthetic sorbent is that it could be used to remove CO{sub 2} from flue gases and, at the end of its life, to remove SO{sub 2} on a once-through basis.

  17. Purifying Nanomaterials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh (Inventor); Hurst, Janet (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A method of purifying a nanomaterial and the resultant purified nanomaterial in which a salt, such as ferric chloride, at or near its liquid phase temperature, is used to penetrate and wet the internal surfaces of a nanomaterial to dissolve impurities that may be present, for example, from processes used in the manufacture of the nanomaterial.

  18. Desulfurization of pure coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J. ); Crelling, J.C. )

    1988-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to modify the present density gradient centrifugation (DGC) techniques for coal macerals to obtain 10-20 grams of target maceral concentrates and to determine the reactivity or ease of removing the organic sulfur in the various macerals with supercritical methanol extraction. Although the chemistry needed for this objective is not difficult, the accumulation of 10 to 20 gram quantities of ''pure'' petrographically verified single maceral concentrates has not been possible until now. The results of recent work have demonstrated that the individual macerals can be separated and verified. The accumulation of much larger quantities than have previously been separated was a problem that has been overcome by pre-concentrating target macerals at their density cut points. Supercritical fluid extraction of coals has previously been reported as a method in the production of liquid fuel products from coal under mild conditions and as a medium for selective desulfurization of coal. Alcohols are expected to exhibit greater solubility for polar organic molecules due to hydrogen bonding and dipole attractive forces, also providing the opportunity for chemical reactions during the extraction due to the nucleophilicity of the alcohol oxygen and the tendency to act as a hydrogen donor. In addition, enol rearrangements may play a role in desulfurization. As previously reported different supercritical reaction conditions produced different extents of desulfurization of coals (33.9 - 65.7%). These variable desulfurizations are probably a result of differences in extents of conversion of the pyritic sulfur (to various alteration products, such as pyrrhotite), as well as organic sulfur functionalities (thiophenol, sulfide, and thiopenes) to light gases such as dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methylmercaptons.

  19. Desulfurization of pure coal macerals

    SciTech Connect

    Hippo, E.J.; Crelling, J.C. )

    1988-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to modify the present density gradient centrifugation (DGC) techniques for coal macerals to obtain 10-20 grams of target maceral concentrates and to determine the reactivity or ease of removing the organic sulfur in the various macerals with supercritical methanol extraction. Although the chemistry needed for this objective is not difficult, the accumulation of 10 to 20 gram quantities of pure petrographically verified single maceral concentrates has not been possible until now. The results of recent work have demonstrated that the individual macerals can be separated and verified. The accumulation of much larger quantities than have previously been separated was a problem that has been overcome by pre-concentrating target macerals at their density cut points. Supercritical fluid extraction of coals has previously been reported as a method in the production of liquid fuel products from coal under mild conditions and as a medium for selective desulfurization of coal. Alcohols are expected to exhibit greater solubility for polar organic molecules due to hydrogen bonding and dipole attractive forces, also providing the opportunity for chemical reactions during the extraction due to the nucleophilicity of the alcohol oxygen and the tendency to act as a hydrogen donor. In addition, enol rearrangements may play a role in desulfurization. As previously reported different supercritical reaction conditions produced different extents of desulfurization of coals (33.9 - 65.7%). These variable desulfurizations are probably a result of differences in extents of conversion of the pyritic sulfur (to various alteration products, such as pyrrhotite), as well as organic sulfur functionalities (thiophenol, sulfide, and thiophenes) to light gases such as dimethylsulfide, hydrogen sulfide, and methylmercaptons.

  20. Gas purifier unit

    SciTech Connect

    Hawryluk, J.

    1984-09-18

    A liquid contact type gas purifier unit in which gases to be treated are passed upwardly through a bath cleansing fluid to impart a circular and radially outward movement alone a central perforate support plate, the periphery of which has a circular rim with an adjacent collecting and reciprocating trough to provide for an even outward flow of cleansing fluid and stability of flow of the interacting fluid and gas streams and wider latitude of operable gas and pressure and flows.

  1. Water Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Floatron water purifier combines two space technologies - ionization for water purification and solar electric power generation. The water purification process involves introducing ionized minerals that kill microorganisms like algae and bacteria. The 12 inch unit floats in a pool while its solar panel collects sunlight that is converted to electricity. The resulting current energizes a specially alloyed mineral electrode below the waterline, causing release of metallic ions into the water. The electrode is the only part that needs replacing, and water purified by the system falls within EPA drinking water standards.

  2. Water Purifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Technology developed to purify the water aboard manned spacecraft has led to a number of spinoff applications. One of them is the Ambassador line of bacteriostatic water treatment systems, which employ high grade, high absorption media to inhibit bacteria growth and remove the medicinal taste and odor of chlorine. Company President, Ray Ward, originally became interested in the technology because of the "rusty" taste of his water supply.

  3. DESULFURIZATION OF STEEL MILL SINTER PLANT GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of using limestone scrubbing technology to control sinter plant emissions. Data from Soviet and Japanese sinter plants employing limestone scrubbing technology were used to develop a realistic des...

  4. Crude oil desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  5. Hydrogen purifier module with membrane support

    DOEpatents

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

    2012-07-24

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen-permeable membrane to purify hydrogen from mixed gases containing hydrogen is disclosed. Improved mechanical support for the permeable membrane is described, enabling forward or reverse differential pressurization of the membrane, which further stabilizes the membrane from wrinkling upon hydrogen uptake.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal: Third quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K.; Kitchell, J.P.

    1989-03-14

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ''model'' organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix. In this quarter we obtained important results both with the development of our understanding of the enzyme reaction systems and also with the microbial work at Woods Hole. 12 figs., 11 tabs.

  7. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  8. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment of solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  9. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, Charles T.

    1980-01-01

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  10. Process for purifying geothermal steam

    DOEpatents

    Li, C.T.

    Steam containing hydrogen sulfide is purified and sulfur recovered by passing the steam through a reactor packed with activated carbon in the presence of a stoichiometric amount of oxygen which oxidizes the hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur which is adsorbed on the bed. The carbon can be recycled after the sulfur has been recovered by vacuum distillation, inert gas entrainment or solvent extraction. The process is suitable for the purification of steam from geothermal sources which may also contain other noncondensable gases.

  11. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  12. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1991-05-16

    The overall objective of this program was to investigate the feasibility of an enzymatic desulfurization process specifically intended for organic sulfur removal from coal. Toward that end, a series of specific objectives were defined: (1) establish the feasibility of (bio)oxidative pretreatment followed by biochemical sulfate cleavage for representative sulfur-containing model compounds and coals using commercially-available enzymes; (2) investigate the potential for the isolation and selective use of enzyme preparations from coal-utilizing microbial systems for desulfurization of sulfur-containing model compounds and coals; and (3) develop a conceptual design and economic analysis of a process for enzymatic removal of organic sulfur from coal. Within the scope of this program, it was proposed to carry out a portion of each of these efforts concurrently. (VC)

  13. Flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Korosy, L.B.; Senatore, P.J.

    1982-12-28

    A regenerative process for the desulfurization of gas containing from about 100 ppm to about 30 volume percent sulfur dioxide in which the gas is contacted at from about 15/sup 0/ to 80/sup 0/C with an about 0.1 molar to saturated aqueous solution of potassium citrate at a ph of from about 3 to 9 and the contacted solution is then heated to strip sulfur dioxide therefrom.

  14. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  15. Microbial desulfurization of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dastoor, M. N.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments indicate that several sulfur-oxidizing bacteria strains have been very efficient in desulfurizing coal. Process occurs at room temperature and does not require large capital investments of high energy inputs. Process may expand use of abundant reserves of high-sulfur bituminous coal, which is currently restricted due to environmental pollution. On practical scale, process may be integrated with modern coal-slurry transportation lines.

  16. Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Coal desulfurization with iron pentacarbonyl treatment under mild conditions removes up to eighty percent of organic sulfur. Preliminary tests on treatment process suggest it may be economical enough to encourage investigation of use for coal desulfurization. With mild operating conditions, process produces environmentally-acceptable clean coal at reasonable cost.

  17. Coal desulfurization by cyclonic whirl

    SciTech Connect

    Jianguo, Y.; Wenjun, Z.; Yuling, W.

    1999-07-01

    The crux of coal desulfurization is how to improve separation efficiency for 3--0.1mm materials. Cyclonic whirl produce centrifugal force and shearing force, heavy medium cyclone uses former, and cyclone flotation column uses both of them. A new system with heavy medium cyclone and cyclone flotation column is provided and testified to be very efficient in commercial desulfurization.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  19. Irradiation pretreatment for coal desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Process using highly-penetrating nuclear radiation (Beta and Gamma radiation) from nuclear power plant radioactive waste to irradiate coal prior to conventional desulfurization procedures increases total extraction of sulfur.

  20. New regents for coal desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, D.H.; Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, S.; Warfel, L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary goal of this project was development and exploration of potential new desulfurization reagents for the removal of organic sulfur'' from Illinois coals by mild chemical methods. Potential new desulfurization reagents were investigated using organic sulfur compounds of the types thought to be present in coals. Reagents included low-valent metal complexes based on nickel and on iron as well as possible Single Electron Transfer reagents. Soluble coal extracts served as second generation model compounds during this reagent development project.

  1. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V. ); Marquis, J.K. . School of Medicine)

    1989-11-07

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to selectively catalyze oxidation at sulfur.

  2. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1990-03-23

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds. In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  3. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.

    1989-12-14

    Our experimental approach focuses on the use of enzymes which catalyze the addition of oxygen to organic compounds., In tailoring the application of these enzymes to coal processing, we are particularly interested in ensuring that oxidation occurs at sulfur and not at carbon-carbon bonds. Previous studies with DBT have shown that the reaction most frequently observed in microbial oxidative pathways is one in which DBT is oxidized at ring carbons. These reactions, as we have said, are accompanied by a considerable decrease in the energy content of the compound. In addition, microbial pathways have been identified in which the sulfur atom is sequentially oxidized to sulfoxide, to sulfone, to sulfonate, and finally to sulfuric acid. In this case, the fuel value of the desulfurized compounds is largely retained. We are evaluating the potential of commercially available enzymes to perform this function.

  4. The Biocatalytic Desulfurization Project

    SciTech Connect

    David Nunn; James Boltz; Philip M. DiGrazia; Larry Nace

    2006-03-03

    The material in this report summarizes the Diversa technical effort in development of a biocatalyst for the biodesulfurization of Petro Star diesel as well as an economic report of standalone and combined desulfurization options, prepared by Pelorus and Anvil, to support and inform the development of a commercially viable process. We will discuss goals of the projected as originally stated and their modification as guided by parallel efforts to evaluate commercialization economics and process parameters. We describe efforts to identify novel genes and hosts for the generation of an optimal biocatalyst, analysis of diesel fuels (untreated, chemically oxidized and hydrotreated) for organosulfur compound composition and directed evolution of enzymes central to the biodesulfurization pathway to optimize properties important for their use in a biocatalyst. Finally we will summarize the challenges and issues that are central to successful development of a viable biodesulfurization process.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization process using potassium tartrate. Paper 81. 45. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, K.; Wayabayashi, A.; Tsukada, R.

    1981-01-01

    An outline is given of the development of a flue gases desulfurization process by aqueous scrubbing with steam regeneration, to produce concentrated sulfur dioxide. Measurement of basic equilibria and reaction rates were carried out. The steam consumption is half as much as compared with other conventional processes. This process also may lessen the amount waste water 6 refs.

  6. Field studies on the use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum in agriculture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a product of precipitation of sulfur from stack gases from coal-fired electric power plants. This material is produced in increasingly large quantities by electric power companies to meet clean air standards. We have evaluated this material for beneficial us...

  7. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The expiration... ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400 ppm... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  8. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  9. 40 CFR 89.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 89.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of all calibration gases must not be exceeded. The...) (Contamination ≤ 31 ppm C, ≤ 400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1 ppm CO, ≤ 400... having the following chemical compositions shall be available: (i) C3H8 and purified synthetic air ;...

  10. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) (Oxygen content between 18-21 percent vol.) (c) Calibration and span gases. (1) Calibration gas values are... purified nitrogen. Note: For the HFID or FID, the manufacturer may choose to use as a diluent span gas and... calibration and span gases. If a manufacturer chooses to use C3 H8 and purified nitrogen for the...

  11. Gas stream purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Steven J.

    1994-01-01

    A gas stream purifier has been developed that is capable of removing corrosive acid, base, solvent, organic, inorganic, and water vapors as well as particulates from an inert mixed gas stream using only solid scrubbing agents. This small, lightweight purifier has demonstrated the ability to remove contaminants from an inert gas stream with a greater than 99 percent removal efficiency. The Gas Stream Purifier has outstanding market and sales potential in manufacturing, laboratory and science industries, medical, automotive, or any commercial industry where pollution, contamination, or gas stream purification is a concern. The purifier was developed under NASA contract NAS9-18200 Schedule A for use in the international Space Station. A patent application for the Gas Stream Purifier is currently on file with the United States Patent and Trademark Office.

  12. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Steven E. Bonde; David Nunn

    2003-01-01

    During the first quarter of the Biological Desulfurization project several activities were pursued. A project kickoff meeting was held at the Diversa facility in San Diego, CA. Activities that were in process before the meeting and begun afterwards by Diversa Corporation and Petro Star Inc. include: Technology transfer in the form of information generated by Enchira to Diversa, the purchase and installation of equipment by Diversa, development of synthetic methods and preparation of organo-sulfur substrates for use in determining enzyme activities, production of extract via Petro Star's CED process, detailed analysis of Petro Star Inc. diesel and CED extract, and several activities in molecular biology. Diversa Corporation, in the area of molecular biology, engaged in several activities in support of the task list of the contract. These included: construction of a genomic library; development and utilization of a sequence-based gene discovery effort; a parallel discovery approach based on functional expression of enzymes with the ability to oxidize organosulfur compounds. Biodesulfurization genes have already been identified and are being sequenced and subcloned for expression in heterologous biological hosts. Diversa has evaluated and adapted assays developed by Enchira used to assess the activities of DBT and DBTO{sub 2} monooxygenases. Finally, Diversa personnel have developed two novel selection/screen strategies for the improvement of biocatalyst strains by directed evolution.

  13. Desulfurization apparatus and method

    SciTech Connect

    Rong, Charles; Jiang, Rongzhong; Chu, Deryn

    2013-06-18

    A method and system for desulfurization comprising first and second metal oxides; a walled enclosure having an inlet and an exhaust for the passage of gas to be treated; the first and second metal oxide being combinable with hydrogen sulfide to produce a reaction comprising a sulfide and water; the first metal oxide forming a first layer and the second metal oxide forming a second layer within the walled surroundings; the first and second layers being positioned so the first layer removes the bulk amount of the hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas prior to passage through the second layer, and the second layer removes substantially all of the remaining hydrogen sulfide from the treated gas; the first metal oxide producing a stoichiometrical capacity in excess of 500 mg sulfur/gram; the second metal oxide reacts with the hydrogen sulfide more favorably but has a stoichometrical capacity which is less than the first reactant; whereby the optimal amount by weight of the first and second metal oxides is achieved by utilizing two to three units by weight of the first metal oxide for every unit of the second metal oxide.

  14. METHOD FOR PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Knighton, J.B.; Feder, H.M.

    1960-04-26

    A process is given for purifying a uranium-base nuclear material. The nuclear material is dissolved in zinc or a zinc-magnesium alloy and the concentration of magnesium is increased until uranium precipitates.

  15. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-Shing

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  16. Purified silicon production system

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Tihu; Ciszek, Theodore F.

    2004-03-30

    Method and apparatus for producing purified bulk silicon from highly impure metallurgical-grade silicon source material at atmospheric pressure. Method involves: (1) initially reacting iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to create silicon tetraiodide and impurity iodide byproducts in a cold-wall reactor chamber; (2) isolating silicon tetraiodide from the impurity iodide byproducts and purifying it by distillation in a distillation chamber; and (3) transferring the purified silicon tetraiodide back to the cold-wall reactor chamber, reacting it with additional iodine and metallurgical-grade silicon to produce silicon diiodide and depositing the silicon diiodide onto a substrate within the cold-wall reactor chamber. The two chambers are at atmospheric pressure and the system is open to allow the introduction of additional source material and to remove and replace finished substrates.

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Anirban Mukherjee; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2004-03-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing ceria and zirconia have been studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents with the objective of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv or less H{sub 2}S in the product gas. The research was justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeOn (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and was postulated to have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures was developed and the products were characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} were prepared. XRD analysis showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Unfortunately, the quantity of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} that could be prepared electrochemically was too small to permit desulfurization testing. Also during year 01 a laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactor was constructed for desulfurization testing. All components of the reactor and analytical systems that were exposed to low concentrations of H{sub 2}S were constructed of quartz, Teflon, or silcosteel. Reactor product gas composition as a function of time was determined using a Varian 3800 gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) for measuring low H{sub 2}S concentrations from approximately 0.1 to 10 ppmv, and a thermal conductivity detector (TCD) for higher concentrations of H{sub 2}S. Larger quantities of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures from other sources, including mixtures prepared in this laboratory using a coprecipitation procedure, were obtained

  18. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2003-11-01

    characterization and desulfurization testing of materials obtained from commercial sources. To properly evaluate the effect of ZrO{sub 2} addition on desulfurization capability, the physical properties of the sorbent must be similar. That is, a CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixture from source A would not necessarily be superior to pure CeO{sub 2} from source B if the properties were dissimilar. Therefore, research during year 03 concentrated CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures prepared in this laboratory using the coprecipitation procedure. The structure of these sorbents is similar and the effect of ZrO{sub 2} addition can better be separated from other effects. X-ray diffraction tests of the sorbents prepared in house have confirmed the existence of a solid solution of ZrO{sub 2} in CeO{sub 2}. Reduction tests using an electrobalance reactor have confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures are more easily reduced than pure CeO{sub 2}. Reduction of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} begins at a lower temperature and the final value of n in CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0) is smaller in CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} than in pure CeO{sub 2}. Desulfurization tests have shown that both CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbents are capable of reaching the target sub-ppmv H{sub 2}S level in highly reducing gases. Both CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbents have successfully removed H{sub 2}S to the minimum detectable limit of the PFPD detector, approximately 100 ppbv.

  19. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2002-11-01

    testing of these sorbents began in year 02 and is continuing. To properly evaluate the effect of ZrO{sub 2} addition on desulfurization capability, the physical properties of the sorbent mixtures must be similar. That is, a CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixture from source A would not necessarily be superior to pure CeO{sub 2} from source B if the properties were dissimilar. Therefore, current research is concentrating on CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures prepared in this laboratory using the coprecipitation procedure. The structure of these sorbents is similar and the effect of ZrO{sub 2} addition can be separated from other effects. X-ray diffraction tests of the sorbents prepared in house have confirmed the existence of a solid solution of ZrO{sub 2} in CeO{sub 2}. Reduction tests using an electrobalance reactor have confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixtures are more easily reduced than pure CeO{sub 2}. Reduction of CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} begins at a lower temperature and the final value of n in CeO{sub n} (1.5 desulfurization tests have shown that both CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbents are capable of reaching the target sub-ppmv H{sub 2}S level in highly reducing gases. Some CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbents have successfully removed H{sub 2}S to the minimum detectable limit of the PFPD detector, approximately 100 ppbv.

  20. THE BIOCATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Scott Collins; David Nunn

    2003-10-01

    The analysis of Petro Star diesel sulfur species is complete and a report is attached. Further analytical efforts will concentrate on characterization of diesel fuel, hydrodesulfurized to varying degrees, in order to determine sulfur species that may be problematic to hydrogen treatment and represent potential target substrates for biodesulfurization in a combined HDS-BDS process. Quotes have been received and are being considered for the partial treatment of Petro Star Inc. marine diesel fuel. Direction of research is changing slightly; economic analysis of the hyphenated--BDSHDS, BDS-CED--has shown the highest probability of success to be with a BDS-HDS process where the biodesulfurization precedes hydrodesulfurization. Thus, the microorganisms will be tailored to focus on those compounds that tend to be recalcitrant to hydrodesulfurization and decrease the severity of the hydrodesulfurization step. A separate, detailed justification for this change is being prepared. Research activities have continued in the characterization of the desulfurization enzymes from multiple sources. Genes for all DszA, -B, -C and -D enzymes (and homologs) have been cloned and expressed. Activity determinations, on a variety of substituted benzothiophene and dibenzothiophene substrates, have been carried out and continue. In addition, chemical synthesis efforts have been carried out to generate additional substrates for analytical standards and activity determinations. The generation of a GSSM mutant library of the ''Rhodococcus IGTS8 dszA'' gene has been completed and development of protocols for a high throughput screen to expand substrate specificity are nearing completion. In an effort to obtain improved hosts as biocatalyst, one hundred-thirty ''Rhodococcus'' and related strains are being evaluated for growth characteristics and other criteria deemed important for an optimal biocatalyst strain. We have also begun an effort to generate derivatives of the entire IGTS8 BDS plasmid

  1. Purifying Water by Imbibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawton, E. A.

    1986-01-01

    Concept for purifying water uses absorbent material to remove organic substances. Entire bulk of material employed, not just surface. Proposed purification process uses inexpensive equipment and low energy. Material is methyl acrylate polymer. Material cheap and regenerated by rinsing with methanol or by allowing absorbed compounds to evaporate from it.

  2. Method of purifying isosaccharinate

    DOEpatents

    Rai, Dhanpat; Moore, Robert C.; Tucker, Mark D.

    2010-09-07

    A method of purifying isosaccharinate by mixing sodium carbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with calcium isosaccharinate, removing the precipitated calcium carbonate and adjusting the pH to between approximately 4.5 to 5.0 thereby removing excess carbonate and hydroxide to provide an acidic solution containing isosaccharinate.

  3. Desulfurization from Bauxite Water Slurry (BWS) Electrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Xuzhong; Ge, Lan; Wang, Zhi; Zhuang, Siyuan; Wang, Yuhua; Ren, Lihui; Wang, Mingyong

    2016-02-01

    Feasibility of high-sulfur bauxite electrolysis desulfurization was examined using the electrochemical characterization, XRD, DTA, and FTIR. The cyclic voltammetry curves indicated that bauxite water slurry (BWS) electrolysis in NaOH system was controlled by diffusion. Additionally, the desulfurization effect of NaCl as the electrolyte was significantly better than that of NaOH as an electrolyte. As the stirring rate increased, the desulfurization ratio in NaCl system was not increased obviously, while the desulfurization ratio in NaOH system increased significantly, indicating further that electrolysis desulfurization in NaOH solution was controlled by diffusion. According to XRD, DTA, and FTIR analysis, the characteristic peaks of sulfur-containing phase in bauxite after electrolysis weakened or disappeared, indicating that the pyrite in bauxite was removed from electrolysis. Finally, the electrolytic desulfurization technology of bauxite was proposed based on the characteristics of BWS electrolysis.

  4. Biocatalytic Desulfurization of Petroleum Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2003-07-01

    Biological desulfurization offers an attractive alternative to conventional treatments due to its mild operating conditions resulting in energy savings, greater sulfur removal, and higher selectivity.

  5. PROCESS OF PURIFYING URANIUM

    DOEpatents

    Seaborg, G.T.; Orlemann, E.F.; Jensen, L.H.

    1958-12-23

    A method of obtaining substantially pure uranium from a uranium composition contaminated with light element impurities such as sodium, magnesium, beryllium, and the like is described. An acidic aqueous solution containing tetravalent uranium is treated with a soluble molybdate to form insoluble uranous molybdate which is removed. This material after washing is dissolved in concentrated nitric acid to obtaln a uranyl nitrate solution from which highly purified uranium is obtained by extraction with ether.

  6. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Second quarterly report, October 1--December 15, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K.; Kitchell, J.P.

    1988-12-15

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  7. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. Fourth quarterly report, March 16--June 15, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Y.N.; Crooker, S.C.; Kitchell, J.P.; Nochur, S.V.; Marquis, J.K.

    1989-06-16

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes as well as commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  8. Enzymatic desulfurization of coal. First quarterly report, May 5--September 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Marquis, J.K.; Kitchell, J.P.

    1988-10-07

    Our current efforts to develop clean coal technology, emphasize the advantages of enzymatic desulfurization techniques and have specifically addressed the potential of using partially-purified extracellular microbial enzymes or commercially available enzymes. Our work is focused on the treatment of ``model`` organic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene (DBT) and ethylphenylsulfide (EPS). Furthermore, we are designing experiments to facilitate the enzymatic process by means of a hydrated organic solvent matrix.

  9. Coal desulfurization by aqueous chlorination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method of desulfurizing coal is described in which chlorine gas is bubbled through an aqueous slurry of coal at low temperature below 130 degrees C., and at ambient pressure. Chlorinolysis converts both inorganic and organic sulfur components of coal into water soluble compounds which enter the aqueous suspending media. The media is separated after chlorinolysis and the coal dechlorinated at a temperature of from 300 C to 500 C to form a non-caking, low-sulfur coal product.

  10. NOBLE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Noble Gases symposium, on which this report is based, provided comprehensive coverage of the noble gases. The coverage included, but was not limited to, the properties, biokinetics, bioeffects, production and release to the environment, detection techniques, standards, and ap...

  11. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, William A.; Healy, Francis E.; Sapienza, Richard S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  12. Low temperature aqueous desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Slegeir, W.A.; Healy, F.E.; Sapienza, R.S.

    1985-04-18

    This invention describes a chemical process for desulfurizing coal, especially adaptable to the treatment of coal-water slurries, at temperatures as low as ambient, comprising treating the coal with aqueous titanous chloride whereby hydrogen sulfide is liberated and the desulfurized coal is separated with the conversion of titanous chloride to titanium oxides.

  13. GENERAL VIEW OF PURIFIERS ON SECOND FLOOR. (THE PURIFIERS DATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF PURIFIERS ON SECOND FLOOR. (THE PURIFIERS DATE FROM CA. 1910 AND WERE MANUFACTURED BY THE ALLIS CHALMERS COMPANY OF MILWAUKEE, WISCONSIN.) - Patterson Milling Company, Feed Mill, Water & Point Streets, Saltsburg, Indiana County, PA

  14. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The expiration...); (4) Purified synthetic air, also referred to as “zero air” or “zero gas” (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C... following chemical compositions must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air and/or C3 H8...

  15. Natural Air Purifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    NASA environmental research has led to a plant-based air filtering system. Dr. B.C. Wolverton, a former NASA engineer who developed a biological filtering system for space life support, served as a consultant to Terra Firma Environmental. The company is marketing the BioFilter, a natural air purifier that combines activated carbon and other filter media with living plants and microorganisms. The filter material traps and holds indoor pollutants; plant roots and microorganisms then convert the pollutants into food for the plant. Most non-flowering house plants will work. After pollutants have been removed, the cleansed air is returned to the room through slits in the planter. Terra Firma is currently developing a filter that will also disinfect the air.

  16. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and span gases. (1) Calibration gas values are to be derived from NIST “Standard Reference Materials... or FID the manufacturer may choose to use as a diluent span gas and the calibration gas either... choice of diluent (zero air or purified nitrogen) between the calibration and span gases. If...

  17. High temperature desulfurization using molten salt carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Nobuhiro; Iwahashi, Takashi; Kosaka, Hitoshi; Tsuji, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yamashita, Keijiro; Murata, Keiji; Hori, Michio

    1998-07-01

    A new desulfurization process using molten salt carbonate as an absorber is proposed. Main feature of this process is its high operating temperature (600{approximately}800 C) as well as the possibility of simultaneous desulfurization and dechlorination. Some chemical equilibrium calculations and basic experiments of this process have been done as the first step of basic theoretical investigations for this new gas cleanup concept. It is confirmed from this calculation that this new gas cleanup concept has enough ability of desulfurization and regeneration of molten salt carbonate.

  18. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1996-10-14

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343 C to 650 C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  19. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future Emissions Recycling and Energy Nonrenewable Sources Oil and Petroleum Products ... Power Wave Power Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Biomass Wood and Wood Waste Waste-to-Energy (MSW) Landfill ...

  20. BENCH SCALE DEVELOPMENT OF MEYERS PROCESS FOR COAL DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of coal desulfurization experiments to determine the feasibility and advantages of combining gravity separation of coal with chemical desulfurization. The investigations led to the definition of the Gravichem Process, a combination physical/chemical coal ...

  1. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    This research project examined the feasibility of a second generation high-temperature coal gas desulfurization process in which elemental sulfur is produced directly during the sorbent regeneration phase. Two concepts were evaluated experimentally. In the first, FeS was regenerated in a H2O-O2 mixture. Large fractions of the sulfur were liberated in elemental form when the H2O-O2 ratio was large. However, the mole percent of elemental sulfur in the product was always quite small (<<1%) and a process based on this concept was judged to be impractical because of the low temperature and high energy requirements associated with condensing the sulfur. The second concept involved desulfurization using CeO2 and regeneration of the sulfided sorbent, Ce2O2S, using SO2 to produce elemental sulfur directly. No significant side reactions were observed and the reaction was found to be quite rapid over the temperature range of 500°C to 700°C. Elemental sulfur concentrations (as S2) as large as 20 mol% were produced. Limitations associated with the cerium sorbent process are concentrated in the desulfurization phase. High temperature and highly reducing coal gas such as produced in the Shell gasification process are required if high sulfur removal efficiencies are to be achieved. For example, the equilibrium H2S concentration at 800°C from a Shell gas in contact with CeO2 is about 300 ppmv, well above the allowable IGCC specification. In this case, a two-stage desulfurization process using CeO2 for bulk H2S removal following by a zinc sorbent polishing step would be required. Under appropriate conditions, however, CeO2 can be reduced to non-stoichiometric CeOn (n<2) which has significantly greater affinity for H2S. Pre-breakthrough H2S concentrations in the range of 1 ppmv to 5 ppmv were measured in sulfidation tests using CeOn at 700°C in highly reducing gases, as measured by equilibrium O2 concentration, comparable to the Shell gas. Good sorbent durability was indicated in

  2. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, David R.

    1987-01-01

    A process and apparatus for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS.sub.2 to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe.sub.1-x S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H.sub.2 S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents.

  3. Method for desulfurization of coal

    DOEpatents

    Kelland, D.R.

    1987-07-07

    A process and apparatus are disclosed for desulfurizing coal which removes sulfur in the inorganic and organic form by preferentially heating the inorganic iron sulfides in coal in a flowing gas to convert some of the inorganic iron sulfides from a pyrite form FeS[sub 2] to a troilite FeS form or a pyrrhotite form Fe[sub 1[minus]x]S and release some of the sulfur as a gaseous compound. The troilite and pyrrhotite forms are convenient catalyst for removing the organic sulfur in the next step, which is to react the coal with chemical agents such as alcohol, thus removing the organic sulfur as a liquid or a gas such as H[sub 2]S. The remaining inorganic sulfur is left in the predominantly higher magnetic form of pyrrhotite and is then removed by magnetic separation techniques. Optionally, an organic flocculant may be added after the organic sulfur has been removed and before magnetic separation. The flocculant attaches non-pyrite minerals with the pyrrhotite for removal by magnetic separation to reduce the ash-forming contents. 2 figs.

  4. Coal desulfurization by low-temperature chlorinolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C.; Kalvinskas, J. J.; Ganguli, P. S.; Gavalas, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    Among the three principal methods for precombustion desulfurization of coal, which include physical depyriting, chemical desulfurization, and coal conversion to low-sulfur liquid and gaseous fuels, the potential of chemical methods looks promising in terms of both total sulfur removal and processing cost. The principal chemical methods for coal desulfurization involve treatment with either oxidizing agents or basic media at elevated temperature and pressure. A description is given of some recent experimental results which show the feasibility of removing sulfur, particularly organic sulfur, from high-sulfur coals by a simple method of low-temperature chlorinolysis followed by hydrolysis and dechlorination. The chemical feasibility of sulfur removal by chlorinolysis rather than the detailed engineering process is emphasized.

  5. Coal desulfurization. [using iron pentacarbonyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, G. C. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    Organic sulfur is removed from coal by treatment with an organic solution of iron pentacarbonyl. Organic sulfur compounds can be removed by reaction of the iron pentacarbonyl with coal to generate CO and COS off-gases. The CO gas separated from COS can be passed over hot iron fillings to generate iron pentacarbonyl.

  6. Molten carbonate fuel cell powerplant desulfurization systems. Final report, November 1978-November 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Jalan, V.; Wu, D.

    1980-01-01

    With an objective to contribute to the integration of coal gasifier with advanced power generation systems, such as molten carbonate fuel cells, this study has investigated high-temperature, regenerable, desulfurization processes in which the H/sub 2/s content of coal gases is reduced from 200 ppM to 1 ppM. Commercially available processes involve very low temperature scrubbing prior to use in the fuel cells and, consequently, introduce penalties in capital cost and system efficiency. As a result of a systematic thermodynamic screening, four candidates (ZnO, V/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Cu and WO/sub 2/) show feasibility for intermediate to high temperature (350 to 700/sup 0/C) desulfurization of fuel gases derived from coal. Of these, ZnO was experimentally studied using a bench scale, isothermal packed bed reactor. It was demonstrated that ZnO can reduce the sulfur levels to less than 1 ppM from coal gases at 650/sup 0/C, and it can be completely regenerated to ZnO. However, severe decrease in sulfur capacity at high temperatures and further degradation upon regeneration were observed. Electron microscopy, microanalysis, and surface area measurements were obtained and examined in conjunction with a pore plugging model for this type of gas-solid reaction. Evidence is presented to conclude that the combination of pore plugging during sulfurization and sintering during regeneration reaction are two major causes for the observed decrease in its activity of the sorbent.

  7. Fluidized bed coal desulfurization. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindram, M.

    1983-08-01

    Laboratory scale experiments were conducted on two high volatile bituminous coals in a bench scale batch fluidized bed reactor. Chemical pretreatment and posttreatment of coals were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization. Sequential chlorination and dechlorination cum hydrodesulfurization under modest conditions relative to the water slurry process were found to result in substantial sulfur reductions of about 80%. Sulfur forms as well as proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coals are included. These studies indicate that a fluidized bed reactor process has considerable potential for being developed into a simple and economic process for coal desulfurization.

  8. Desulfurization of coal using formic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Perkson, A.; Trass, O.

    1995-12-31

    Desulfurization of preoxidized Illinois Basin coal, IBC-108, with formic acid has been studied using a factorial design with four process variables: temperature, reaction time, amount of formic acid and amount of hydrogen peroxide used in the preoxidation step. Maximum total removal of 74% sulfur was achieved by pre-treatment of 5 g coal with 10 ml hydrogen peroxide followed by reaction with 7.5 ml formic acid at 500 C, in a 300 ml batch reactor. The results show that oxidation with hydrogen peroxide significantly enhances the level of desulfurization that may be obtained with subsequent chemical or thermal treatments.

  9. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The...); (4) Purified synthetic air, also refered to as “zero air” or “zero gas” (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1... following chemical compositions must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air and/or C3 H8...

  10. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Provisions § 90.312 Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. The...); (4) Purified synthetic air, also refered to as “zero air” or “zero gas” (Contamination ≤ 1 ppm C, ≤ 1... following chemical compositions must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air and/or C3 H8...

  11. Biological production of products from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2002-01-22

    A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  12. Toxic gases.

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, G.

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the widespread use of gases and some volatile solvents in modern society is given. The usual circumstances in which undue exposure may occur are described. The most prominent symptoms and general principles of diagnosis and treatment are given and are followed by more specific information on the commoner, more toxic materials. While acute poisonings constitute the greater part of the paper, some indication of chronic disorders arising from repeated or prolonged exposure is also given. PMID:2687827

  13. Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podosek, F. A.

    2003-12-01

    The noble gases are the group of elements - helium, neon, argon, krypton, xenon - in the rightmost column of the periodic table of the elements, those which have "filled" outermost shells of electrons (two for helium, eight for the others). This configuration of electrons results in a neutral atom that has relatively low electron affinity and relatively high ionization energy. In consequence, in most natural circumstances these elements do not form chemical compounds, whence they are called "noble." Similarly, much more so than other elements in most circumstances, they partition strongly into a gas phase (as monatomic gas), so that they are called the "noble gases" (also, "inert gases"). (It should be noted, of course, that there is a sixth noble gas, radon, but all isotopes of radon are radioactive, with maximum half-life a few days, so that radon occurs in nature only because of recent production in the U-Th decay chains. The factors that govern the distribution of radon isotopes are thus quite different from those for the five gases cited. There are interesting stories about radon, but they are very different from those about the first five noble gases, and are thus outside the scope of this chapter.)In the nuclear fires in which the elements are forged, the creation and destruction of a given nuclear species depends on its nuclear properties, not on whether it will have a filled outermost shell when things cool off and nuclei begin to gather electrons. The numerology of nuclear physics is different from that of chemistry, so that in the cosmos at large there is nothing systematically special about the abundances of the noble gases as compared to other elements. We live in a very nonrepresentative part of the cosmos, however. As is discussed elsewhere in this volume, the outstanding generalization about the geo-/cosmochemistry of the terrestrial planets is that at some point thermodynamic conditions dictated phase separation of solids from gases, and that the

  14. Low-Cost Aqueous Coal Desulfurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Vasilakos, N.; Corcoran, W. H.; Grohmann, K.; Rohatgi, N. K.

    1982-01-01

    Water-based process for desulfurizing coal not only eliminates need for costly organic solvent but removes sulfur more effectively than an earlier solvent-based process. New process could provide low-cost commercial method for converting high-sulfur coal into environmentally acceptable fuel.

  15. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  16. COMMERCIAL UTILITY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The article discusses the current status of commercial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes applied to coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. Major objectives of the work were to examine the impacts of the 1979 New Source Performance Standards on FGD system design and operati...

  17. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  18. Methods for purifying carbon materials

    DOEpatents

    Dailly, Anne; Ahn, Channing; Yazami, Rachid; Fultz, Brent T.

    2009-05-26

    Methods of purifying samples are provided that are capable of removing carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from a sample containing a carbon material having a selected structure. Purification methods are provided for removing residual metal catalyst particles enclosed in multilayer carbonaceous impurities in samples generate by catalytic synthesis methods. Purification methods are provided wherein carbonaceous impurities in a sample are at least partially exfoliated, thereby facilitating subsequent removal of carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous impurities from the sample. Methods of purifying carbon nanotube-containing samples are provided wherein an intercalant is added to the sample and subsequently reacted with an exfoliation initiator to achieve exfoliation of carbonaceous impurities.

  19. Removal of polychlorinated biphenyls by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated biphenyls from sintering plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Hou, Meifang; Zhao, Kai; Li, Haifeng; Han, Ying; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Liu, Wenbin

    2016-04-01

    The influence of desulfurization on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from sintering plants was investigated. The concentrations of dioxin-like (dl) PCBs, toxic equivalents (TEQs), indicator PCBs, and total tri- to deca-chlorinated PCB homolog groups (∑PCBs) in the flue gases at the desulfurization system inlets were 290-1906 pg m(-3) (2.4-18.8 pg World Health Organization (WHO) TEQ m(-3)), 420-2885 pg m(-3), and 6496-22,648 pg m(-3), respectively. Desulfurization reduced the values to 43.3-500 pg m(-3) (0.46-9.5 pg WHO-TEQ m(-3)), 183-587 pg m(-3), and 2383-11,639 pg m(-3), respectively. The removed PCBs were adsorbed by gypsum from the flue gas; the PCB concentration distributions at the inlets and outlets and in the gypsum samples were similar. The emission factors were 9.86 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for the flue gas and 8.37 ng WHO-TEQ t(-1) for gypsum. Desulfurization decreased the annual atmospheric PCB emissions from 48.6 to 30.7 g WHO-TEQ, and the estimated annual emissions in gypsum were 8.06 g WHO-TEQ. PCBs in the gypsum have not been effectively eliminated and will probably reenter the environment and in turn become a new source of PCB emission. The PCB concentrations in fly ashes from series-connected electrostatic precipitators clearly increased. PMID:26690582

  20. [Performance of desulfurizing absorbent of roasted navajoite].

    PubMed

    Chen, Fang; Yang, Chun-ping; Gan, Hai-ming; Wu, Ting; Chen, Hai-lin; Chen, Hong; Xu, Ke-hui; Xie, Geng-xin

    2010-04-01

    An innovative flue gas desulfurization (FGD) coupling process was proposed in this study to overcome the problems in wet-type limestone/lime processes which include fouling, clogging, and difficulty of selling the by-products and the problems in traditional process for vanadium extraction from navajoite ore such as excessive consumption of sulfuric acid and emissions of pollutants. The performance of a jet bubbling reactor (JBR) at pilot-scale was evaluated using navajoite ore produced in the process of extracting vanadium pentoxide as desulfurization absorbent. Results showed that navajoite ore slurry achieved better desulfurization performance than limestone slurry. When the inlet flue gas pressure drop was 3.0 kPa, the gas flow was about 2350 m3 x h(-1) and the pH of the navajoite ore slurry was higher than 4.5, the desulfurization efficiency was stable about 90%. The SO2 removal efficiency appeared to increase along with the increasing of absorbent cycle-index. The efficiency of the second circulation was improved 3.5% compared to the first circulation. After an operating duration of 40 minutes, the leaching rate of vanadium pentoxide was about 20%, and reached 60% when the by-products were leached with 5% dilute sulfuric acid for 10 hours. The by-product from this process not only could be used to produce vanadium pentoxide which is a valuable industrial product, but also could significantly overcome the pollution problem existing in the traditional refining process of vanadium pentoxide when navajoite ore is used as the feed material. This FGD process using roasted navajoite slurry as absorbent is environmental sound and cost-effective, and shows the potential for application in the field of flue gas desulfurization as well as hydrometallurgy. PMID:20527168

  1. Purifying Aluminum by Vacuum Distillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Du Fresne, E. R.

    1985-01-01

    Proposed method for purifying aluminum employs one-step vacuum distillation. Raw material for process impure aluminum produced in electrolysis of aluminum ore. Impure metal melted in vacuum. Since aluminum has much higher vapor pressure than other constituents, boils off and condenses on nearby cold surfaces in proportions much greater than those of other constituents.

  2. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  3. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas desulfurization Sorbents.

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-02

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 {degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a one-half inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel- gases. Screening criteria will include chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  4. Scale-Up of Advanced Hot-Gas Desulfurization Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-04-21

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343{degrees}C (650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity.

  5. Desulfurization sorbent development at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, R.V.; Grimm, U.; Poston, J.A.; Monaco, S.J.

    1994-10-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The major criteria for the development of novel sorbents included reasonable chemical reactivity and physical durability during repeated sulfidation and regeneration cycles. Various formulations of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate in the form of extrudates and spherical pellets have been studied at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) for removal of sulfurous gases from coal gasification gas streams. Problems of decrepitation and spalling have occurred after sulfidation and regeneration of these sorbents. Z-Sorb, a proprietary sorbent developed at Phillips Petroleum Company, showed good physical durability during testing at METC, but there was a continuous decrease in reactivity during multiple cycle tests due to steam regeneration. A series of novel sorbents containing zinc oxide have been developed at METC to address these problems. These METC-developed sorbents showed superior performance during a 20-cycle, high-pressure, fixed-bed test with steam regeneration conducted at METC. Nine sorbents were prepared, but results are given for only three.

  6. Catalytic seawater flue gas desulfurization model.

    PubMed

    Vidal Barrero, F; Ollero, P; Villanueva Perales, A L; Gómez-Barea, A

    2009-12-15

    A model of a seawater flue gas desulfurization process (SFGD) where oxidation of the absorbed SO(2) is catalyzed by activated carbon is presented. The modeled SFGD process is comprised of two main units, an absorption packed scrubber, where SO(2) absorption takes place, and an oxidation basin, where the absorbed SO(2) is catalytically oxidized to sulfate, a natural component of seawater. The model takes into account the complex physical-chemical features of the process, combining mass-transfer, kinetics and equilibrium equations, and considering the electrolyte nature of the liquid phase. The model was validated with data from a SFGD pilot plant and a sensitivity analysis was performed, showing its predictive capability. The model is a useful tool for designing industrial desulfurization units with seawater. PMID:20000534

  7. Offshore desulfurization unit permits gas lift operations

    SciTech Connect

    Cabes, A.; Elgue, J.; Tournier-Lasserve, J. )

    1992-01-13

    This paper reports on the installation of a desulfurization unit for the Tchibouela oil field, offshore Congo, which allowed produced low-pressure associated gas containing CO{sub 2} to be kept for gas lift operations while, for safety reasons, the large volume of H{sub 2}S at low pressure was removed prior to compression. Since October 1989, the world's first offshore amine sweetening unit has worked satisfactorily and continues to prove that it is an attractive production alternative. For desulfurization, a selective methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) process, developed by Elf Aquitaine, was chosen because it was the only process that met the required specifications at a low pressure of 3.5 bar (51 psi).

  8. Desulfurizing Coal With an Alkali Treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravindram, M.; Kalvinskas, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental coal-desulfurization process uses alkalies and steam in fluidized-bed reactor. With highly volatile, high-sulfur bituminous coal, process removed 98 percent of pyritic sulfur and 47 percent of organic sulfur. Used in coal liquefaction and in production of clean solid fuels and synthetic liquid fuels. Nitrogen or steam flows through bed of coal in reactor. Alkalies react with sulfur, removing it from coal. Nitrogen flow fluidizes bed while heating or cooling; steam is fluidizing medium during reaction.

  9. Hot Gas Desulfurization Using Transport Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Moorehead, E.L.

    1996-12-31

    Sierra Pacific Power Company is building a 100 MW, IGCC power plant based on KRW fluid bed gasifier technology that utilizes transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization and sorbent regeneration. Use of a transport absorber avoids the need for pre-filtration of dust-laden gasifier effluent, while a transport regenerator allows for the use of 100% air without the need for heat exchange equipment. Selection of transport reactors for hot gas desulfurization using a proprietary sorbent, based on testing performed in a transport reactor test unit (TRTU) at the M. W. Kellogg Technology Development Center and in a fixed bed reactor at Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), is outlined. The results obtained in these two test facilities and reasons for selecting transport reactors for the IGCC power plant in preference to either fixed bed or fluidized bed reactors are discussed. This paper reviews the evolution of the hot gas desulfurization system designs and includes selected results on H{sub 2}S absorption and regeneration of sulfided sorbent over several absorption/regeneration cycles conducted in the TRTU and the METC fixed bed reactor. The original design for the Sierra Pacific Project was based on fixed bed reactors with zinc ferrite as the sorbent. Owing to the high steam requirements of this sorbent, zinc titanate was selected and tested in a fixed bed reactor and was found unacceptable due to loss of strength on cyclic absorption/regeneration operation. Another sorbent evaluated was Z-Sorb{reg_sign}, a proprietary sorbent developed by Phillips Petroleum Company, was found to have excellent sulfur capacity, structural strength and regenerability. Steam was found unsuitable as fixed bed regenerator diluent, this results in a requirement for a large amount of inert gas, whereas a transport regenerator requires no diluent. The final Sierra design features transport reactors for both desulfurization and regeneration steps using neat air. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Zirconia-silica based mesoporous desulfurization adsorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomino, Jessica M.; Tran, Dat T.; Kareh, Ana R.; Miller, Christopher A.; Gardner, Joshua M. V.; Dong, Hong; Oliver, Scott R. J.

    2015-03-01

    We report a series of mesoporous silicate sorbent materials templated by long-chain primary alkylamines that display record level of desulfurization of the jet fuel JP-8. Pure silica frameworks and those with a Si:Zr synthesis molar ratio ranging from 44:1 to 11:1 were investigated. The optimum sorbent was identified as dodecylamine-templated silica-zirconia synthesized from a gel with Si:Zr molar ratio of 15:1. With an optimized silver loading of 11 wt.%, a saturation adsorption capacity of 39.4 mgS g-1 and a silver efficiency of 1.21 molS mol Ag-1 were observed for JP-8. This sorbent displayed exceptional regenerability, maintaining 86% of its initial capacity in model fuel after solvent regeneration with diethyl ether. Low-cost, portable and reusable sorbents for the desulfurization of JP-8 jet fuel are needed to make solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) a reality for military power needs. SOFCs require ultra-low sulfur content fuel, which traditional desulfurization methods cannot achieve.

  11. Biological desulfurization (BDS) of middle distillates

    SciTech Connect

    Monticello, D.J. )

    1993-01-01

    As implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment draws near, sulfur management will play a key role for the refining industry. Industry experts have estimated that the petroleum industry will spend billions of dollars to conform to the Clean Air Act and desulfurization capacity will account for a significant portion of those expenditures. The need to limit the sulfur content of finished products is not new, but this dramatic increase in expenditures is the result of the increasingly stringent environmental regulations in the US, Europe and the Far East. These regulations will be implemented over the next ten years and will have serious implications for the refining industry. The purpose of this paper is to describe an alternative approach to desulfurization based on the recent advances in biotechnology and to outline the progress which has been made in recent years in this area. Biocatalytic Desulfurization (BDS) is not a commercial technology, but conceptual engineering and sensitivity analyses have shown that the approach has great promise. Several Government, University and Industrial groups are working now to develop the technology. The recent advances which have resulted from the application of the new tools of biotechnology to the problem have accelerated the development effort, and the first commercial BDS units may be available in 1996.

  12. Philippine refiner completes diesel desulfurization project

    SciTech Connect

    Candido, S.S.; Crisostomo, E.V.

    1997-01-27

    In anticipation of tightening sulfur specifications on diesel fuel, Petron Corp. built a new 18,000 b/sd gas oil desulfurization unit (GODU) at its refinery in Bataan, Philippines. The GODU gives Petron sufficient diesel oil desulfurization capacity to meet demand for lower-sulfur diesel in the country. The project places the refinery in a pacesetter position to comply with the Philippine government`s moves to reduce air pollution, especially in urban centers, by reducing the sulfur specification for diesel to 0.5 wt% in 1996 from 0.7 wt% at the start of the project. Performance tests and initial operations of the unit have revealed a desulfurization efficiency of 91% vs. a guaranteed efficiency of 90%. A feed sulfur content of 1.33 wt% is reduced to 0.12 wt% at normal operating conditions. Operating difficulties during start-up were minimized through use of a detailed prestartup check conducted during the early stages of construction work.

  13. HIGH-TEMPERATURE DESULFURIZATION OF LOW-BTU-GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes and gives results of economic studies of a process for desulfurizing low-Btu fuel gas. The gas is first desulfurized at high temperature in a fluidized bed of half-calcined dolomite. It is then cooled to 700 C and passed through high-pressure-drop cyclones to...

  14. Liquefaction and desulfurization of coal using synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Fu, Yuan C.

    1977-03-08

    A process for desulfurizing and liquefying coal by heating said coal at a temperature of 375.degree.-475.degree. C in the presence of a slurry liquid, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, steam, and a catalyst comprising a desulfurization catalyst and an alkali metal salt.

  15. Development of a Desulfurization Strategy for a NOx Adsorber Catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Tomazic, Dean

    2000-08-20

    Improve NOx regeneration calibration developed in DECSE Phase I project to understand full potential of NOx adsorber catalyst over a range of operating temperatures. Develop and demonstrate a desulfurization process to restore NOx conversion efficiency lost to sulfur contamination. Investigate effect of desulfurization process on long-term performance of the NOx adsorber catalyst.

  16. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PILOT STUDY. PHASE II. APPLICABILITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North Atlantic Treaty Organization Committee on the Challenges of Modern Society (NATO-CCMS) Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Study Group prepared status reports on 12 FGD processes. Results of this work are summarized in NATO Report No. 95 titled 'Flue Gas Desulfurization Pilo...

  17. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum agricultural network alabama (cotton)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is an excellent source of gypsum (CaSO4•2H2O) that can be beneficially used in agriculture. Research was conducted as part of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum Agricultural Network program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute in collaboration wi...

  18. Solar purifier of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Fawzy, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Around 1920, ultraviolet radiation was used in Switzerland and France for water purification. Now, it is in use in more than 2000 European water works. In the United States, between 1916 and 1928, four municipal water installations of ultraviolet apparatus were in operation. By 1939, they were all abandoned in favor of chlorination primarily because of economy and the inadequacy of technology available at that time. In recent years, ultraviolet purification has had a comeback, partly because of the realization of what chlorination is doing to the environment and partly due to the vast advances in UV technology. Although solar ultraviolet radiation has a marginal biocidal effect, a property designed solar purifier could be a viable option in certain application. Among possible uses are: (1) rural single-family dwellings; (2) underdeveloped countries; and (3) small usage rates where electric power is not available. A solar purifier model is presented in this study. The data it provided illustrates that it can be effective in treating partially contaminated water.

  19. Process for purifying zirconium sponge

    SciTech Connect

    Abodishish, H.A.M.; Kimball, L.S.

    1992-03-31

    This patent describes a Kroll reduction process wherein a zirconium sponge contaminated with unreacted magnesium and by-product magnesium chloride is produced as a regulus, a process for purifying the zirconium sponge. It comprises: distilling magnesium and magnesium chloride from: a regulus containing a zirconium sponge and magnesium and magnesium chloride at a temperature above about 800{degrees} C and at an absolute pressure less than about 10 mmHg in a distillation vessel to purify the zirconium sponge; condensing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride distilled from the zirconium sponge in a condenser; and then backfilling the vessel containing the zirconium sponge and the condenser containing the magnesium and the magnesium chloride with a gas; recirculating the gas between the vessel and the condenser to cool the zirconium sponge from above about 800{degrees} C to below about 300{degrees} C; and cooling the recirculating gas in the condenser containing the condensed magnesium and the condensed magnesium chloride as the gas cools the zirconium sponge to below about 300{degrees} C.

  20. Purified discord and multipartite entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Eric G.; Webster, Eric J.; Martín-Martínez, Eduardo; Kempf, Achim

    2013-10-15

    We study bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of a multipartite entanglement structure in the tripartite purified system. In particular, we find that bipartite quantum discord requires the presence of both bipartite and tripartite entanglement in the purification. This allows one to understand the asymmetry of quantum discord, D(A,B)≠D(B,A) in terms of entanglement monogamy. As instructive special cases, we study discord for qubits and Gaussian states in detail. As a result of this we shed new light on a counterintuitive property of Gaussian states: the presence of classical correlations necessarily requires the presence of quantum correlations. Finally, our results also shed new light on a protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party. -- Highlights: •Bipartite quantum discord as a manifestation of multipartite entanglement. •Relevance of quantum discord as a utilizable resource for quantum info. tasks. •Quantum discord manifests itself in entanglement in the purified state. •Relation between asymmetry of discord and entanglement monogamy. •Protocol for remote activation of entanglement by a third party.

  1. Methods for Purifying Enzymes for Mycoremediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullings, Kenneth W. (Inventor); DeSimone, Julia C. (Inventor); Paavola, Chad D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A process for purifying laccase from an ectomycorrhizal fruiting body is disclosed. The process includes steps of homogenization, sonication, centrifugation, filtration, affinity chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration. Purified laccase can also be separated into isomers.

  2. Flue gas desulfurization wastewater treatment primer

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, T.E.; Sandy, A.T.; Givens, S.W.

    2009-03-15

    Purge water from a typical wet flue gas desulfurization system contains myriad chemical constituents and heavy metals whose mixture is determined by the fuel source and combustion products as well as the stack gas treatment process. A well-designed water treatment system can tolerate upstream fuel and sorbent arranged in just the right order to produce wastewater acceptable for discharge. This article presents state-of-the-art technologies for treating the waste water that is generated by wet FGD systems. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Sorbent for use in hot gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.; Atimtay, Aysel T.

    1993-01-01

    A multiple metal oxide sorbent supported on a zeolite of substantially silicon oxide is used for the desulfurization of process gas streams, such as from a coal gasifier, at temperatures in the range of about 1200.degree. to about 1600.degree. F. The sorbent is provided by a mixture of copper oxide and manganese oxide and preferably such a mixture with molybdenum oxide. The manganese oxide and the molybdenum are believed to function as promoters for the reaction of hydrogen sulfide with copper oxide. Also, the manganese oxide inhibits the volatilization of the molybdenum oxide at the higher temperatures.

  4. Kinetics of the desulfurization of molten iron. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gaskell, D.R.

    1981-03-01

    Experimental work has involved the fabrication of impervious slip-cast CaO crucibles, measurement of the rate of desulfurization of liquid iron by solid CaO and measurement of the rate of desulfurization of liquid iron by CaO-saturated liquid FeO. Above 0.087 < wt % S < 0.67, the activity of FeS is high enough to form a liquid phase in the system CaO-Fe-S. With lower sulfur levels, CaO does not cause any desulfurization of the liquid iron. When CaO-saturated liquid FeO is brought into contact with a liquid Fe-S alloy a rapid initial rate of desulfurization occurs due to surface tension-induced local convection at the slag-metal interface. After this initial period, the rate of desulfurization is determined by diffusion of sulfur in the metal. No change occurs in the oxygen content of the metal during desulfurization and hence the half cell reactions occurring in the electrochemical transfer process are (Fe) ..-->.. (Fe/sup 2 +/) + 2e/sup -/ and (S) + 2e/sup -/ ..-->.. (S/sup 2 -/). Addition of CaF/sub 2/ to the CaO-saturated slag has no effect on the desulfurization.

  5. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    1998-08-31

    The nonionic superbase P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (A) efficiently desulfurizes trisulfides to disulfides and monosulfides, disulfides to monosulfides, and propylene sulfide to propene. S=P(MeNCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}){sub 3}N (B) was formed as the sulfur acceptor. P(NMe{sub 2}){sub 3} was a much poorer desulfurizing agent than A under the same reaction conditions. Thiocyanates and triphenylphosphine sulfide were also desulfurized with A, but N-(phenylthio)phthalimide formed [A-SP]{sup +} phthalimide in quantitative yield.

  6. Biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) of petrodiesel fuels.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, Ghasemali; Ball, Andrew S

    2008-08-01

    Oil refineries are facing many challenges, including heavier crude oils, increased fuel quality standards, and a need to reduce air pollution emissions. Global society is stepping on the road to zero-sulfur fuel, with only differences in the starting point of sulfur level and rate reduction of sulfur content between different countries. Hydrodesulfurization (HDS) is the most common technology used by refineries to remove sulfur from intermediate streams. However, HDS has several disadvantages, in that it is energy intensive, costly to install and to operate, and does not work well on refractory organosulfur compounds. Recent research has therefore focused on improving HDS catalysts and processes and also on the development of alternative technologies. Among the new technologies one possible approach is biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS). The advantage of BDS is that it can be operated in conditions that require less energy and hydrogen. BDS operates at ambient temperature and pressure with high selectivity, resulting in decreased energy costs, low emission, and no generation of undesirable side products. Over the last two decades several research groups have attempted to isolate bacteria capable of efficient desulfurization of oil fractions. This review examines the developments in our knowledge of the application of bacteria in BDS processes, assesses the technical viability of this technology and examines its future challenges. PMID:18667551

  7. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    SciTech Connect

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  8. Selenium speciation in flue desulfurization residues.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Liping; Cao, Yan; Li, Wenying; Xie, Kechang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Flue gas from coal combustion contains significant amounts of volatile selenium (Se). The capture of Se in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber unit has resulted in a generation of metal-laden residues. It is important to determine Se speciation to understand the environmental impact of its disposal. A simple method has been developed for selective inorganic Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se determination in the liquid-phase FGD residues by hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). It has been determined that Se(IV), Se(VI) and organic Se can be accurately determined with detection limits (DL) of 0.05, 0.06 and 0.06 microg/L, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was evaluated by analyzing the certified reference material, NIST CRM 1632c, and also by analyzing spiked tap-water samples. Analysis indicates that the concentration of Se is high in FGD liquid residues and primarily exists in a reduced state as selenite (Se(IV)). The toxicity of Se(IV) is the strongest of all Se species. Flue gas desulfurization residues pose a serious environmental risk. PMID:21476358

  9. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date... synthetic air, also referred to as “zero gas” (Contamination≤1 ppm C, ≤1 ppm CO, ≤400 ppm CO2, ≤0.1 ppm NO... chemical compositions must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air (dilute measurements); C3 H8...

  10. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Analytical gases. (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date... synthetic air, also referred to as “zero gas” (Contamination≤1 ppm C, ≤1 ppm CO, ≤400 ppm CO2, ≤0.1 ppm NO... chemical compositions must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air (dilute measurements); C3 H8...

  11. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this contract was to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Desired properties to be enhanced for moving-bed sorbent materials are: (1) high chemical reactivity (sulfur absorption rate and total sulfur capacity), (2) high mechanical strength (pellet crush strength and attrition resistance), and (3) suitable pellet morphology (e.g., pellet size, shape, surface area, and average specific pore volume). In addition, it is desired to maintain the sorbent properties over extended cyclic use in moving- bed systems.

  12. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications. [Zinc titanate

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents to be employed for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluid-bed reactor. The sorbent formulation specified for study during the base period of this project was zinc ferrite. Zinc titanate sorbents are being studied under two options to the base contract. Specific objectives of the zinc titanate sorbent development work are the following: The effect of following process variables was investigated o the performance of zinc titanate sorbents: Method of sorbent preparation, Composition of fuel gas, Zn to Ti ratio of the sorbent, Sulfidation temperature, and Superficial gas velocity. The effect of first three variables has been covered in RTI's 1991 paper (Gupta and Gangwal, 1991b), while the effect of temperature and superficial gas velocity is described here.

  13. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1992-11-01

    The objectives of this project are to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing long-term chemical reactivity and attrition resistance of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents to be employed for desulfurization of hot coal-derived gases in a high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) fluid-bed reactor. The sorbent formulation specified for study during the base period of this project was zinc ferrite. Zinc titanate sorbents are being studied under two options to the base contract. Specific objectives of the zinc titanate sorbent development work are the following: The effect of following process variables was investigated o the performance of zinc titanate sorbents: Method of sorbent preparation, Composition of fuel gas, Zn to Ti ratio of the sorbent, Sulfidation temperature, and Superficial gas velocity. The effect of first three variables has been covered in RTI`s 1991 paper (Gupta and Gangwal, 1991b), while the effect of temperature and superficial gas velocity is described here.

  14. CHEMICAL SPECIATION OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE CONSTITUENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project addresses the problem of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge disposal to land. Specifically, the chemical species of FGD sludge constituents are thermodynamically modeled using the equilibrium constant approach, in an attempt to predict the constituent concentratio...

  15. Plane flame furnace combustion tests on JPL desulfurized coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reuther, J. J.; Kim, H. T.; Lima, J. G. H.

    1982-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of three raw bituminous (PSOC-282 and 276) and subbituminous (PSOC-230) coals, the raw coals partially desulfurized (ca -60%) by JPL chlorinolysis, and the chlorinated coals more completely desulfurized (ca -75%) by JPL hydrodesulfurization were determined. The extent to which the combustion characteristics of the untreated coals were altered upon JPL sulfur removal was examined. Combustion conditions typical of utility boilers were simulated in the plane flame furnace. Upon decreasing the parent coal voltaile matter generically by 80% and the sulfur by 75% via the JPL desulfurization process, ignition time was delayed 70 fold, burning velocity was retarded 1.5 fold, and burnout time was prolonged 1.4 fold. Total flame residence time increased 2.3 fold. The JPL desulfurization process appears to show significant promise for producing technologically combustible and clean burning (low SO3) fuels.

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY DESULFURIZATION OF SYNTHESIS GAS

    SciTech Connect

    Anirban Mukherjee; Kwang-Bok Yi; Elizabeth J. Podlaha; Douglas P. Harrison

    2001-11-01

    Mixed metal oxides containing CeO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2} are being studied as high temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of achieving the DOE Vision 21 target of 1 ppmv of less H{sub 2}S. The research is justified by recent results in this laboratory that showed that reduced CeO{sub 2}, designated CeO{sub n} (1.5 < n < 2.0), is capable of achieving the 1 ppmv target in highly reducing gas atmospheres. The addition of ZrO{sub 2} has improved the performance of oxidation catalysts and three-way automotive catalysts containing CeO{sub 2}, and should have similar beneficial effects on CeO{sub 2} desulfurization sorbents. An electrochemical method for synthesizing CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} has been developed and the products have been characterized by XRD and TEM during year 01. Nanocrystalline particles having a diameter of about 5 nm and containing from approximately 10 mol% to 80 mol% ZrO{sub 2} have been prepared. XRD showed the product to be a solid solution at low ZrO{sub 2} contents with a separate ZrO{sub 2} phase emerging at higher ZrO{sub 2} levels. Phase separation did not occur when the solid solutions were heat treated at 700 C. A flow reactor system constructed of quartz and teflon has been constructed, and a gas chromatograph equipped with a pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD) suitable for measuring sub-ppmv levels of H{sub 2}S has been purchased with LSU matching funds. Preliminary desulfurization tests using commercial CeO{sub 2} and CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} in highly reducing gas compositions has confirmed that CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} is more effective than CeO{sub 2} in removing H{sub 2}S. At 700 C the product H{sub 2}S concentration using CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sorbent was near the 0.1 ppmv PFPD detection limit during the prebreakthrough period.

  17. Recent advances in flue gas desulfurization technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent advances in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies are reported. The technological advances include conventional wet FGD system improvements, advanced wet FGD system development, spray dryer system operations, technologies for furnace sorbent injections, post-combustion dry technologies, combined SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} technologies, and several emerging FGD technologies. In addition, progress of by-product utilization that affects the operating cost of FGD systems is described. Economics of some commercially available and nearly maturing FGD technologies is also discussed. The materials included in this report are obtained from technical presentations made through September 1990, at several national and international conferences. This report is intended to document current advances and status of various FGD technologies. 101 refs., 16 figs.

  18. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  19. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-08-18

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  20. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, Deborah A.; Farthing, George A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse.

  1. Flue gas desulfurization method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Madden, D.A.; Farthing, G.A.

    1998-09-29

    A combined furnace limestone injection and dry scrubber flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system collects solids from the flue gas stream in first particulate collection device located downstream of an outlet of a convection pass of the furnace and upstream of the dry scrubber. The collected solids are diverted to the dry scrubber feed slurry preparation system to increase sulfur oxide species removal efficiency and sorbent utilization. The level of lime in the feed slurry provided to the dry scrubber is thus increased, which enhances removal of sulfur oxide species in the dry scrubber. The decreased particulate loading to the dry scrubber helps maintain a desired degree of free moisture in the flue gas stream entering the dry scrubber, which enhances sulfur oxide species removal both in the dry scrubber and downstream particulate collector, normally a baghouse. 5 figs.

  2. Genetic approach to microbial coal desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D.P. . Dept. of Microbiology)

    1990-07-01

    Naturally occurring sulfur bacteria such as Thiobacillus and Sulfolobus can remove inorganic sulfur from coal. We hope to contribute to the development of genetically engineered bacteria which can remove the organic sulfur effectively. A process which used an appropriate mixture of bacteria to remove both types of sulfur from coal should be inexpensive and produce harmless waste products. We are cloning genes from an Escherichia coli mutant with the ability to oxidize thiophene derivatives in order to enhance this ability. We are also cloning plasmid-borne genes from wild dibenzothiophene degrading strains. By putting together the best genes from various organisms we hope to construct an efficient desulfurizing bacterium. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. LIFAC sorbent injection desulfurization demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-06

    In December 1990, the US Department of Energy selected 13 projects for funding under the Federal Clean Coal Technology Program (Round III). One of the projects selected was the project sponsored by LIFAC North America, (LIFAC NA), titled LIFAC Sorbent Injection Desulfurization Demonstration Project.'' The host site for this $17 million, three-phase project is Richmond Power and Light's Whitewater Valley Unit No. 2 in Richmond, Indiana. The LIFAC technology uses upper-furnace limestone injection with patented humidification of the flue gas to remove 75--85% of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas. In this report, progress for the period July--September 1991 is covered.

  4. Developing clean fuels: Novel techniques for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehlsen, James P.

    The removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum is crucial to producing clean burning fuels. Sulfur compounds poison emission control catalysts and are the source of acid rain. New federal regulations require the removal of sulfur in both gasoline and diesel to very low levels, forcing existing technologies to be pushed into inefficient operating regimes. New technology is required to efficiently produce low sulfur fuels. Two processes for the removal of sulfur compounds from petroleum have been developed: the removal of alkanethiols by heterogeneous reaction with metal oxides; and oxidative desulfurization of sulfides and thiophene by reaction with sulfuric acid. Alkanethiols, common in hydrotreated gasoline, can be selectively removed and recovered from a hydrocarbon stream by heterogeneous reaction with oxides of Pb, Hg(II), and Ba. The choice of reactive metal oxides may be predicted from simple thermodynamic considerations. The reaction is found to be autocatalytic, first order in water, and zero order in thiol in the presence of excess oxide. The thiols are recovered by reactive extraction with dilute oxidizing acid. The potential for using polymer membrane hydrogenation reactors (PEMHRs) to perform hydrogenation reactions such as hydrodesulfurization is explored by hydrogenating ketones and olefins over Pt and Au group metals. The dependence of reaction rate on current density suggests that the first hydrogen addition to the olefin is the rate limiting step, rather than the adsorption of hydrogen, for all of the metals tested. PEMHRs proved unsuccessful in hydrogenating sulfur compounds to perform HDS. For the removal of sulfides, a two-phase reactor is used in which concentrated sulfuric acid oxidizes aromatic and aliphatic sulfides present in a hydrocarbon solvent, generating sulfoxides and other sulfonated species. The polar oxidized species are extracted into the acid phase, effectively desulfurizing the hydrocarbon. A reaction scheme is proposed for this

  5. Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    2000-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

  6. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

    1986-08-26

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  7. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.

    1986-01-01

    Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

  8. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, S.

    1986-08-19

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  9. Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases

    DOEpatents

    Kulprathipanja, Santi

    1986-01-01

    The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

  10. Reactor for dry flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, J.V.; Baran, S.J.

    1986-04-29

    A method is described for cleansing waste stack gases containing sulfur oxides from a generator of such gases, the generator being operable at a predetermined load and a turndown from such load. The method consists of: introducing the waste stack gases into a reaction zone; introducing an aqueous slurry containing an alkaline reagent into the zone for reaction of the reagent with the sulfur oxides, to produce an effluent stream containing precipitated particulate; passing the effluent stream from the reaction zone to a filter zone and filtering the precipitated particulate from the stream in the filter zone; controlling the ratio of aqueous slurry flow to waste stack gases to maintain a relatively dry flow in the filter zone; determining the level of waste stack gas flow velocity required for optimum mixing in the reaction zone of sulfur oxides and alkaline reagent; and varying the area of flow of waste stack gases at the point of introduction of such gases into the reaction zone with turndown in generator load to maintain the gas flow velocity at or near the level.

  11. Improving Enzyme Activity and Broadening Selectivity for Biological Desulfurization and Upgrading of Petroleum Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijeet P. Borole; Choo Y. Hamilton; Karen Miller; Brian Davison; Matthew Grossman; Robert Shong

    2003-05-12

    The objective of this project was to develop improved biocatalysts for desulfurization and upgrading of petroleum feedstocks. The goal was to improve the activity and broaden the selectivity of desulfurization enzymes using directed evolution as a tool as well as to explore the impact of ring-opening on biological desulfurization

  12. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    2001-11-01

    Column chromatographic separation of the S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} product mixture followed by weighing the S=PBu{sub 3}, and by vacuum distillation of S=PBu{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3}mixture followed by gas chromatographic analysis are described. Effects of coal mesh size, pre-treatment with methanol Coal (S) + excess PR{sub 3} {yields} Coal + S=PR{sub 3}/PBu{sub 3} and sonication on sulfur removal by PBu{sub 3} revealed that particle size was not observed to affect desulfurization efficiency in a consistent manner. Coal pretreatment with methanol to induce swelling or the addition of a filter aid such as Celite reduced desulfurization efficiency of the PBu{sub 3} and sonication was no more effective than heating. A rationale is put forth for the lack of efficacy of methanol pretreatment of the coal in desulfurization runs with PBu{sub 3}. Coal desulfurization with PBu{sub 3} was not improved in the presence of miniscule beads of molten lithium or sodium as a desulfurizing reagent for SPBu{sub 3} in a strategy aimed at regenerating PBu{sub 3} inside coal pores. Although desulfurization of coals did occur in sodium solutions in liquid ammonia, substantial loss of coal mass was also observed. Of particular concern is the mass balance in the above reaction, a problem which is described in some detail. In an effort to solve this difficulty, a specially designed apparatus is described which we believe can solve this problem reasonably effectively. Elemental sodium was found to remove sulfur quantitatively from a variety of polycyclic organosulfur compounds including dibenzothiophene and benzothiophene under relatively mild conditions (150 C) in a hydrocarbon solvent without requiring the addition of a hydrogen donor. Lithium facilitates the same reaction at a higher temperature (254 C). Mechanistic pathways are proposed for these transformations. Curiously, dibenzothiophene and its corresponding sulfone was virtually quantitatively desulfurized in sodium solutions in liquid

  13. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    SciTech Connect

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with

  14. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Dharmapurikar, R.

    1992-01-01

    Under DOE Grant No. DE-FG22-90PC90309, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is contracted to further develop its anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. From environmental as well as economic viewpoints, it is necessary to remove soluble sulfates from the wastes created by flue gas desulfurization systems. In order to do this economically, a low-cost desulfurization process for spent sorbents is necessary. UTSI's anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization concept is believed to satisfy these requirements. During the reporting period, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992, UTSI has completed the batch mode experiments to evaluate the performance enhancement effect caused by organic acids on the resin's exhaustion efficiency. At present, batch mode experiments are being conducted to locate the position of the CO[sub 3]= and SO[sub 4]= ions in the affinity chart, and also reviewing/assessing the ASPEN Code's capabilities for use in the development of the Best Process Schematic and related economics.

  15. Microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} as a means of by-product recovery/disposal from regenerable processes for the desulfurization of flue gas. Technical progress report, March 11, 1993--June 11, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Sublette, K.L.

    1993-11-01

    There are two basic approaches to addressing the problem of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions: (1) desulfurize (and denitrogenate) the feedstock prior to or during combustion; or (2) scrub the resultant SO{sub 2} and oxides of nitrogen from the boiler flue gases. The flue gas processing alternative has been addressed in this project via microbial reduction of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} by sulfate-reducing bacteria

  16. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  17. Transient transfection of purified Babesia bovis merozoites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transient transfection of intraerythrocytic Babesia bovis parasites has been previously reported. In this study, we describe the development and optimization of methods for transfection of purified B. bovis merozoites using either nucleofection (Amaxa) or conventional electroporation (Gene Pulser II...

  18. Method for purifying solids-stabilized emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Knowlton, H.E.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for purifying oil contaminated with both solids and water capable of forming a solids-stabilized emulsion layer which comprises: (a) settling the contaminated oil essentially without agitation in a first vessel, at a temperature of between 50/sup 0/C and 95/sup 0/C, to form an upper partially purified oil layer, an intermediate first oil cuff layer including a solids-stabilized emulsion of oil and 5 to 80 weight percent of solids and water, and a lower first water layer, and withdrawing water from the first water layer; (b) settling the partially purified oil essentially without agitation in a second vessel, at a temperature of between 50/sup 0/C and 95/sup 0/C, to form an upper purified oil layer, an intermediate second oil cuff layer including a solids-stabilized emulsion of oil and 5 to 80 weight percent of solids and water, and a lower second water layer, and providing purified oil containing not more than 2 weight percent of solids and water from the purified oil layer; and (c) settling the intermediate first and second oil cuff layers essentially without agitation in a third vessel, at a temperature between 50/sup 0/C and 95/sup 0/C , to form an upper layer including oil and 5 to 80 weight percent of solids and water and a lower third water layer.

  19. Biogas desulfurization using autotrophic denitrification process.

    PubMed

    Bayrakdar, Alper; Tilahun, Ebrahim; Calli, Baris

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an autotrophic denitrification process for desulfurization of biogas produced from a chicken manure digester. A laboratory scale upflow fixed bed reactor (UFBR) was operated for 105 days and fed with sodium sulfide or H2S scrubbed from the biogas and nitrate as electron donor and acceptor, respectively. The S/N ratio (2.5 mol/mol) of the feed solution was kept constant throughout the study. When the UFBR was fed with sodium sulfide solution with an influent pH of 7.7, about 95 % sulfide and 90 % nitrate removal efficiencies were achieved. However, the inlet of the UFBR was clogged several times due to the accumulation of biologically produced elemental sulfur particles and the clogging resulted in operational problems. When the UFBR was fed with the H2S absorbed from the biogas and operated with an influent pH of 8-9, around 98 % sulfide and 97 % nitrate removal efficiencies were obtained. In this way, above 95 % of the H2S in the biogas was removed as elemental sulfur and the reactor effluent was reused as scrubbing liquid without any clogging problem. PMID:26428238

  20. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  1. Coal desulfurization by low temperature chlorinolysis, phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Rohatgi, N. K.; Ernest, J.

    1981-01-01

    Laboratory scale, bench scale batch reactor, and minipilot plant tests were conducted on 22 bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Chemical pretreatment and post treatment of coals relative to the chlorination were tried as a means of enhancing desulfurization by the chlorinolysis process. Elevated temperature (500-700 C) hydrogen treatment of chlorinolysis-processed coal at atmospheric pressure was found to substantially increase coal desulfurization up to 90 percent. Sulfur forms, proximate and ultimate analyses of the processed coal are included. Minipilot plant operation indicates that the continuous flow reactor provides coal desulfurization results comparable to those obtained in the batch reactor. Seven runs were conducted at coal feed rates of 1.5 to 8.8 kg per hour using water and methylchloroform solvents, gaseous chlorine feed of 3 to 31.4 SCFH at 21 to 70 C, and atmospheric pressure for retention times of 20 to 120 minutes.

  2. Enzymes desulfurizing diesel fuel in pilot plant tests

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, A.K.

    1995-05-15

    Energy BioSystems Corp., The Woodlands, Texas, is collecting data from a new 5 b/d, continuous-operation, biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) pilot plant. Hurdles to commercialization are catalyst activity, stability, and fermentation yield. Since 1990, however, Energy BioSystems Corp. (EBC) has made great strides in improving all three of these factors. The BDS process uses enzymes to remove organically bound sulfur from petroleum streams at mild temperatures and atmospheric pressure. Objectives of the pilot plant studies include: validating and refining the computer simulations used to control the process and establishing the process design basis. So far, the results from pilot plant operations have met expectations. The projected 45% desulfurization rate has been achieved, within a few percent. This rate was simply the target for the initial evaluation experiments, and that the process is capable of desulfurizing almost to extinction.

  3. Ultrasonic coal-wash for de-sulfurization.

    PubMed

    Ambedkar, B; Nagarajan, R; Jayanti, S

    2011-05-01

    Coal is the one of the world's most abundant fossil fuel resources. It is not a clean fuel, as it contains ash and sulfur. SOx as a pollutant are a real threat to both the ecosystem and to human health. There are numerous de-sulfurization methods to control SO(2) emissions. Nowadays, online flue gas de-sulfurization is being used as one such method to remove sulfur from coal during combustion. The biggest disadvantage associated with this method is formation of by-products (FGD gypsum). A way for effective usage of FGD gypsum has not yet been found. This will lead to acute and chronic effects to humans as well as plants. Power ultrasound can be used for the beneficiation of coal by the removal of sulfur from coal prior to coal combustion. The main effects of ultrasound in liquid medium are acoustic cavitation and acoustic streaming. The process of formation, growth and implosion of bubbles is called cavitation. Bulk fluid motion due to sound energy absorption is known as acoustic streaming. In addition, coupling of an acoustic field to water produces OH radicals, H(2)O(2), O(2), ozone and HO(2) that are strong oxidizing agents. Oxidation that occurs due to ultrasound is called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). It converts sulfur from coal to water-soluble sulphates. Conventional chemical-based soaking and stirring methods are compared here to ultrasonic methods of de-sulfurization. The main advantages of ultrasonic de-sulfurization over conventional methods, the mechanism involved in ultrasonic de-sulfurization and the difference between aqueous-based and solvent-based (2N HNO(3), 3-volume percentage H(2)O(2)) de-sulfurization are investigated experimentally. PMID:21115263

  4. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

    1992-11-17

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

  5. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

  6. Desulfurization of fuel gases in fluidized bed gasification and hot fuel gas cleanup systems

    DOEpatents

    Steinberg, M.; Farber, G.; Pruzansky, J.; Yoo, H.J.; McGauley, P.

    1983-08-26

    A problem with the commercialization of fluidized bed gasification is that vast amounts of spent sorbent are generated if the sorbent is used on a once-through basis, especially if high sulfur coals are burned. The requirements of a sorbent for regenerative service in the FBG process are: (1) it must be capable of reducing the sulfur containing gas concentration of the FBG flue gas to within acceptable environmental standards; (2) it must not lose its reactivity on cyclic sulfidation and regeneration; (3) it must be capable of regeneration with elimination of substantially all of its sulfur content; (4) it must have good attrition resistance; and, (5) its cost must not be prohibitive. It has now been discovered that calcium silicate pellets, e.g., Portland cement type III pellets meet the criteria aforesaid. Calcium silicate removes COS and H/sub 2/S according to the reactions given to produce calcium sulfide silicate. The sulfur containing product can be regenerated using CO/sub 2/ as the regenerant. The sulfur dioxide can be conveniently reduced to sulfur with hydrogen or carbon for market or storage. The basic reactions in the process of this invention are the reactions with calcium silicate given in the patent. A convenient and inexpensive source of calcium silicate is Portland cement. Portland cement is a readily available, widely used construction meterial.

  7. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Option 2 Program: Development and testing of zinc titanate sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1993-04-01

    One of the most advantageous configurations of the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power system is coupling it with a hot gas cleanup for the more efficient production of electric power in an environmentally acceptable manner. In conventional gasification cleanup systems, closely heat exchangers are necessary to cool down the fuel gases for cleaning, sometimes as low as 200--300{degree}F, and to reheat the gases prior to injection into the turbine. The result is significant losses in efficiency for the overall power cycle. High-temperature coal gas cleanup in the IGCC system can be operated near 1000{degree}F or higher, i.e., at conditions compatible with the gasifier and turbine components, resulting is a more efficient overall system. GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for IGCC power systems in which mixed-metal oxides are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. The objective of this contract is to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical durability of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Zinc ferrite was studied under the base program of this contract. In the next phase of this program novel sorbents, particularly zinc titanate-based sorbents, are being studied under the remaining optional programs. This topical report summarizes only the work performed under the Option 2 program. In the course of carrying out the program, more than 25 zinc titanate formulations have been prepared and characterized to identify formulations exhibiting enhanced properties over the baseline zinc titanate formulation selected by the US Department of Energy.

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-11-14

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  9. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  10. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1988-08-19

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  11. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-03-06

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization information system (FGDIS) data base user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.

    1981-03-01

    This manual is intended to provide a guide to the use of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS) data base which is a collection of data files consisting of information pertaining to the design and performance of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The files are stored at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Computer Center (NCC), Research Triangle Park, NC. Access to these files and manipulation of the data therein is accomplished via System 2000, general data base management system developed by INTEL Corp. and supported by the NCC Univac 1100 hardware.

  13. Long-term testing of the zinc titanate for desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.C.; Gupta, R.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1993-12-31

    Research Triangle Institute (RTI) under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Morgantown energy Technology Center has recently completed a long-term test consisting of 100 sulfidation-regeneration cycles on a zinc titanate material intended for use as a high-temperature, regenerable sorbent to desulfurize coal-derived gas. The primary motivation for this development is to generate a more economical, environmentally superior, and reliable process to purify the product gas of coal gasifiers for use in gas turbines and fuel cells. This zinc titanate formulation (designated as ZT-4 and containing Zn-to-Ti in a molar ratio of 1.5) exhibited the best overall performance in terms of chemical reactivity, sulfur capacity, regenerability, structural properties and, most importantly, the attrition resistance based on multicycle testing of a number of sorbent formulations in a bench scale fluidized-bed reactor. The conditions in the test were -- desulfurization temperature: 750C (1382F); pressure: 1.52 MPa (220 psia); coal gas: simulated Texaco entrained-bed oxygen-blown gasifier gas containing 12,000 ppmv of H{sub 2}S; superficial gas velocity: 15 cm/s (0.49 ft/s). The ZT-4 sorbent used in this test was prepared using a granulation technique and 500 g of the sorbent in the 100 to 300 microns particle diameter range were used in a 5.1-cm (2-inch) i.d. stainless steel reactor.

  14. Transport of Trace Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.

    2005-01-01

    Trace gases measurements are used to diagnose both the chemistry and transport of the atmosphere. These lectures emphasize the interpretation of trace gases measurements and techniques used to untangle chemistry and transport effects. I will discuss PV transform, trajectory techniques, and age-of-air as far as the circulation of the stratosphere.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-01-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE [number sign]FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0[sub 2] absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0[sub 2] absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m[sub 2]/m[sub 3]. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m[sub 2], gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m[sub 2], and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  16. Performance assessment of O-18 water purifier.

    PubMed

    Kitano, H; Magata, Y; Tanaka, A; Mukai, T; Kuge, Y; Nagatsu, K; Konishi, J; Saji, H

    2001-02-01

    In the synthesis of 18F-FDG by the nucleophilic substitution method, 18O-H2O is usually used as target water. The target water should be recovered after synthesis and reused, because it is expensive, but recovered water contains impurities such as organic substances, and it must be purified before reuse. For this reason Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. developed an O-18 water purifier for elimination of organic substances in recovered water. This instrument consists of a UV irradiation unit and low-temperature distillation unit. Our institution had an opportunity to test use this instrument and evaluated its performance. The concentrations of organic substances after UV irradiation was greatly reduced, and recovery efficiency after distillation by the low-temperature distillation unit was very satisfactory at 99.3 +/- 0.5%. Furthermore, the yield of 18F-FDG from 18O-H20 purified with this instrument was sufficient for the clinical use. PMID:11355788

  17. Enhanced gelation properties of purified gellan gum.

    PubMed

    Kirchmajer, Damian Martin; Steinhoff, Benedikt; Warren, Holly; Clark, Ross; in het Panhuis, Marc

    2014-03-31

    Gellan gum is a hydrogel-forming polysaccharide when combined with monovalent or divalent cations such as sodium, magnesium, potassium or calcium. Commercially, gellan gums are sold with trace amounts of these cations, which have been proven to affect the gelation and mechanical properties of the resultant hydrogels. A new method based on impedance analysis for determining the gel transition temperature of purified and un-purified gellan gum is presented. The sodium salt form of gellan gum is shown to have lower dissolution and gel transition temperatures. PMID:24637048

  18. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorous compounds

    DOEpatents

    McIsaac, Lyle D.; Krupa, Joseph F.; Schroeder, Norman C.

    1981-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorous compounds are purified of undesirable impurities by contacting a solution of the compounds with a mercuric nitrate solution to form an insoluble mercuric bidentate compound which precipitates while the impurities remain in solution. The precipitate is washed and then contacted with a mixture of an aqueous solution of a strong mercuric ion complexing agent and an organic solvent to complex the mercuric ion away from the bidentate compound which then dissolves in the solvent. The purified bidentate compounds are useful for extracting the actinide elements from aqueous acidic nuclear waste solutions.

  19. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  20. High temperature desulfurization of synthesis gas

    DOEpatents

    Najjar, Mitri S.; Robin, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The hot process gas stream from the partial oxidation of sulfur-containing heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel and/or sulfur-containing solid carbonaceous fuel comprising gaseous mixtures of H.sub.2 +CO, sulfur-containing gases, entrained particulate carbon, and molten slag is passed through the unobstructed central passage of a radiant cooler where the temperature is reduced to a temperature in the range of about 1800.degree. F. to 1200.degree. F. From about 0 to 95 wt. % of the molten slag and/or entrained material may be removed from the hot process gas stream prior to the radiant cooler with substantially no reduction in temperature of the process gas stream. In the radiant cooler, after substantially all of the molten slag has solidified, the sulfur-containing gases are contacted with a calcium-containing material to produce calcium sulfide. A partially cooled stream of synthesis gas, reducing gas, or fuel gas containing entrained calcium sulfide particulate matter, particulate carbon, and solidified slag leaves the radiant cooler containing a greatly reduced amount of sulfur-containing gases.

  1. Workshop on sulfur chemistry in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, W.E. Jr.

    1980-05-01

    The Flue Gas Desulfurization Workshop was held at Morgantown, West Virginia, June 7-8, 1979. The presentations dealt with the chemistry of sulfur and calcium compounds in scrubbers. DOE and EPRI programs in this area are described. Ten papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  2. Effect of Flue Gas Desulfurization Waste on Corn Plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) is a by-product of conversion of sulfur dioxide into solid waste from coal combustion power generation plant. This by-product is rich in calcium, magnesium, and contains various other essential plant nutrients. The beneficial use of application of this waste as...

  3. Selecting the right pumps and valves for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, D.; Ahluwalia, H.

    2006-07-15

    Limestone slurry needs to move efficiently through a complex process, meaning that selecting the right pumps and valves is critical. The article discusses factors to consider in selecting pumps and values for flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants. 2 photos.

  4. MARKETING OF BYPRODUCT GYPSUM FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the 1985 marketing potential of byproduct gypsum from utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD), for the area east of the Rocky Mountains, using the calculated gypsum production rates of 14 selected power plants. The 114 cement plants and...

  5. GYPSUM CRYSTALLIZATION FOR LIMESTONE FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of pilot plant tests using a double draw-off crystallizer as the hold tank to improve the gypsum dewatering properties of a forced oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization process. A hydroclone was used as the size classification device for solids sepa...

  6. EVALUATION OF GYPSUM CRYSTALLIZATION FOR LIMESTONE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of pilot plant tests using a double draw-off crystallizer as the hold tank to improve the gypsum dewatering properties of a forced oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization process. A hydroclone was used as the size classification device for solids sepa...

  7. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of a review of commercially available flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have an established record of full-scale performance. (NOTE: Sulfur dioxide (SO2) scrubbers may be used by coal-fired electrcity generating units to meet the requiremen...

  8. CURRENT STATUS OF COMMERCIAL UTILITY FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the current status of commercial flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes applied to coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. Major objectives of the work were to examine the impacts of the 1979 New Source Performance Standards on FGD system design and operatio...

  9. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION INFORMATION SYSTEM (FGDIS) DATA BASE USER'S MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The document is a user's manual and reference book/primer for Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS) users and recipients of the quarterly Utility FGD Survey. Part I, interactive computer procedures for the FGDIS, addresses the use of and terminology related to the u...

  10. SHAWNEE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION COMPUTER MODEL USERS MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual describes a Shawnee flue gas desulfurization (FGD) computer model and gives detailed instructions for its use. The model, jointly developed by Bechtel National, Inc. and TVA (in conjunction with the EPA-sponsored Shawnee test program), is capable of projecting prelimin...

  11. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.W. . Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Because a substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organically bound sulfur, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities holds great potential for complementing pyritic sulfur removal. The release of H{sub 2}S from anaerobic systems such as the gut, sewage, and marine and freshwater sediments, is a common occurrence and the role of microorganisms in this process has long been recognized. The principal goals of our project are: to obtain anaerobic microbial cultures that produce H{sub 2}S from compounds representative of the organosulfur functionalities in coal; to optimize this activity; to evaluate the effectiveness of using these cultures to remove organic sulfur from Illinois coal. Our immediate objectives for this year are the following: To obtain additional cultures from coal mine waste and municipal sewage sludge, two environments previously unexplored by our laboratory; to continue optimizing activity in cultures that desulfurize model compounds, including identification of individual microbial species; to expand coal desulfurization experiments to include additional coals; and, to address the recently discovered problem of sulfide sorbing to coal. This quarter we report on the following: (1) desulfurization experiments with IBC-101; (2) quantitative experiments dealing with dibenzyldisulfide (DBDS) degradation in mixed cultures derived from petroleum wastes; (3) thiophene, dibenzothiophene (DBT), DBT sulfone, or phenyl sulfone as substrates for pure cultures of sulfate-reducing bacteria. 36 refs., 1 fig. 6 tabs.

  12. DISPOSAL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION WASTES: EPA SHAWNEE FIELD EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal field evaluation project sponsored by EPA at TVA's Shawnee steam plant, Paducah, KY. This pilot-scale project, initiated in 1974 and completed in September 1980, evaluated methods and costs for dis...

  13. EPA UTILITY FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION): AUGUST-SEPTEMBER, 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report is an updated supplement to EPA-600/7-78-051a and should be used in conjunction with it. It presents a survey of utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the U.S., summarizing information contributed by the utility industry, process suppliers, regulatory agenc...

  14. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOEpatents

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  15. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION INSPECTION AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION. MANUAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The intent of the manual is to provide inspectors from Federal and state environmental agencies with information regarding the problems that plague lime/limestone slurry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems that will aid them in their inspections and performance evaluations of ...

  16. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION: THE STATE OF THE ART: JOURNAL ARTICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Srivastava*, R.K., and Jozewicz, W. Flue Gas Desulfurization: The State of the Art. Journal of Air and Waste Management Association (Air & Waste Management Asiciation) 51 (12):1676-88 (2001). EPA/600/J-01/391, Available: Journal of Air and Waste Management Association (journal)...

  17. CURRENT STATUS OF ADVACATE PROCESS FOR FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The following report discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in preparation of ADVAnced siliCATE (ADVACATE) calcium silicate sorbentsfor flue gas desulfurization. It also discusses current bench- and pilot-plant advances in sorbent preparation. Fly ash was ground in a l...

  18. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Haiying Qi; Bo Hou; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters. Structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Effect of operating parameters and reactor structure on moderate temperature dry desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Qi, Haiying; Hou, Bo; Chen, Changhe; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-07-01

    A moderate temperature dry desulfurization process at 600-800 degrees C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed flue gas desulfurization (CFB-FGD) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was investigated for various operating parameters, such as bed temperature, CO2 concentration, and solids concentration. In addition, structural improvements in key parts of the CFB-FGD system, i.e., the cyclone separator and the distributor, were made to improve the desulfurization efficiency and flow resistance. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiency increased rapidly with increasing temperature above 600 degrees C due to enhanced gas diffusion and the shift of the equilibrium for the carbonate reaction. The sorbent sulfated gradually after quick carbonation of the sorbent with a long particle residence time necessary to realize a high desulfurization ratio. A reduced solids concentration in the bed reduced the particle residence time and the desulfurization efficiency. A single-stage cyclone separator produced no improvement in the desulfurization efficiency compared with a two-stage cyclone separator. Compared with a wind cap distributor, a large hole distributor reduced the flow resistance which reduced the desulfurization efficiency due to the reduced bed pressure drop and worsened bed fluidization. The desulfurization efficiency can be improved by increasing the collection efficiency of fine particles to prolong their residence time and by improving the solids concentration distribution to increase the gas-solid contact surface area. PMID:16856750

  20. Home Air Purifiers Eradicate Harmful Pathogens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center funded the University of Madison-Wisconsin to develop ethylene scrubbers to keep produce fresh in space. Akida Holdings of Jacksonville, Florida, licensed the technology and developed Airocide, an air purifier that can kill airborne pathogens. Previously designed for industrial spaces, there is now a specially designed unit for home use.

  1. Two systems developed for purifying inert atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, M. S.; Johnson, C. E.; Kyle, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Two systems, one for helium and one for argon, are used for purifying inert atmospheres. The helium system uses an activated charcoal bed at liquid nitrogen temperature to remove oxygen and nitrogen. The argon system uses heated titanium sponge to remove nitrogen and copper wool beds to remove oxygen. Both use molecular sieves to remove water vapor.

  2. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  3. Improvement of Linde Kryotechnik's internal purifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Lutz; Meier, Albert; Wilhelm, Hanspeter

    2014-01-01

    With the recent shortage in supply of helium, recovery solutions have experienced a new focus with a tendency to recover streams with higher impurity content. This development calls for purifier systems operating efficiently and with low impact on liquefaction capacity for helium streams with impurity levels in the percentage range. Linde Kryotechnik has answered this demand by improving the performance of its purifier technology. Since 1983, its standardized helium liquefiers of the L- and former TCF-series type contain an internal purifier which already allows efficient impurity removal with minimized space demand. Along with a line dryer to absorb humidity, it is designed to remove air impurities up to 5 mol%. However, with increasing impurity level, liquefaction capacity reduced significantly being furthermore restricted to an upper level of approx. 180 l/h and continuous purification became limited in time. With the current redesign of this purifier, the impact on liquefaction capacity is now minimized without any limitation within the capacity range of the L-series plants. Continuous purification is hence ensured beyond previous maximum impurity content. This paper provides the key design changes and the achievable performance, which has been verified in the recent L-series plants delivered to customers.

  4. Electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccreight, L. R.

    1978-01-01

    A program to develop an engineering model of an electrophoretic separator for purifying biologicals is summarized. An extensive mathematical modeling study and numerous ground based tests were included. Focus was placed on developing an actual electrophoretic separator of the continuous flow type, configured and suitable for flight testing as a space processing applications rocket payload.

  5. Development of a high-sensitivity 80 L radon detector for purified gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosokawa, K.; Murata, A.; Nakano, Y.; Onishi, Y.; Sekiya, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tasaka, S.

    2015-03-01

    In underground particle physics experiments, the radioactive noble gas ^{222}Rn generated from the decay chain of the uranium series could be a serious background source. We have been developing high-sensitivity radon detectors to assay radon in the Kamioka underground laboratory. In order to achieve a further low background level, we developed a new radon detector with better hermeticity. The high-voltage dependence and humidity dependence of the detection efficiencies were obtained through our calibration systems. The background level of the new radon detector was also measured.

  6. Desulfurization ability of refining slag with medium basicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hui-xiang; Wang, Xin-hua; Wang, Mao; Wang, Wan-jun

    2014-12-01

    The desulfurization ability of refining slag with relative lower basicity ( B) and Al2O3 content ( B = 3.5-5.0; 20wt%-25wt% Al2O3) was studied. Firstly, the component activities and sulfide capacity ( C S) of the slag were calculated. Then slag-metal equilibrium experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium sulfur distribution ( L S). Based on the laboratorial experiments, slag composition was optimized for a better desulfurization ability, which was verified by industrial trials in a steel plant. The obtained results indicated that an MgO-saturated CaO-Al2O3-SiO2-MgO system with the basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and the Al2O3 content in the range of 20wt%-25wt% has high activity of CaO ( a CaO), with no deterioration of C S compared with conventional desulfurization slag. The measured L S between high-strength low-alloyed (HSLA) steel and slag with a basicity of about 3.5 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% and between HSLA steel and slag with a basicity of about 5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 25wt% is 350 and 275, respectively. The new slag with a basicity of about 3.5-5.0 and an Al2O3 content of about 20wt% has strong desulfurization ability. In particular, the key for high-efficiency desulfurization is to keep oxygen potential in the reaction system as low as possible, which was also verified by industrial trials.

  7. Photochemistry of biogenic gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the biosphere and the atmosphere is examined, emphasizing the composition and photochemistry and chemistry of the troposphere and stratosphere. The reactions of oxygen, ozone, and hydroxyl are reviewed and the fate of the biogenic gases ammonia, methane, reduced sulfur species, reduced halogen species, carbon monoxide, nitric oxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide are described. A list is given of the concentration and sources of the various gases.

  8. Mechanistic analysis of ultrasound assisted enzymatic desulfurization of liquid fuels using horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Bhasarkar, Jaykumar; Borah, Arup Jyoti; Goswami, Pranab; Moholkar, Vijayanand S

    2015-11-01

    This study has attempted to gain physical insight into ultrasound-assisted enzymatic desulfurization using system comprising horseradish peroxidase enzyme and dibenzothiophene (DBT). Desulfurization pathway (comprising DBT-sulfoxide and DBT-sulfone as intermediates and 4-methoxy benzoic acid as final product) has been established with GC-MS analysis. Intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectra of ultrasound-treated enzyme reveal conformational changes in secondary structure (reduction in α-helix and β-conformations and increase in random coil content) leading to enhancement in activity. Concurrent analysis of desulfurization profiles, Arrhenius and thermodynamic parameters, and simulations of cavitation bubble dynamics reveal that strong micro-convection generated by sonication enhances enzyme activity and desulfurization kinetics. Parallel oxidation of DBT by radicals generated from transient cavitation gives further boost to desulfurization kinetics. However, random motion of enzyme molecules induced by shock waves reduces frequency factor and limits the ultrasonic enhancement of enzymatic desulfurization. PMID:26231128

  9. Oxidative desulfurization of fuel oil by pyridinium-based ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Dishun; Wang, Yanan; Duan, Erhong

    2009-01-01

    In this work, an N-butyl-pyridinium-based ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) was prepared. The effect of extraction desulfurization on model oil with thiophene and dibenzothiophene (DBT) was investigated. Ionic liquids and hydrogen peroxide (30%) were tested in extraction-oxidation desulfurization of model oil. The results show that the ionic liquid [BPy]BF(4) has a better desulfurization effect. The best technological conditions are: V(IL)/V(Oil) /V(H(2)O(2)) = 1:1:0.4, temperature 55 degrees C, the time 30 min. The ratio of desulfurization to thiophene and DBT reached 78.5% and 84.3% respectively, which is much higher than extraction desulfurization with simple ionic liquids. Under these conditions, the effect of desulfurization on gasoline was also investigated. The used ionic liquids can be recycled up to four times after regeneration. PMID:19924069

  10. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Uday Turaga; Shingo Watanabe; Subramani Velu; Chunshan Song

    2004-05-01

    The overall objective of this project is to explore a new desulfurization system concept, which consists of efficient separation of the refractory sulfur compounds from diesel fuel by selective adsorption, and effective hydrodesulfurization of the concentrated fraction of the refractory sulfur compounds in diesel fuels. Our approaches focused on (1) selecting and developing new adsorbents for selective adsorption of sulfur or sulfur compounds in commercial diesel fuel; (2) conducting the adsorption desulfurization of model fuels and real diesel fuels by the selective-adsorption-for-removing-sulfur (PSUSARS) process over various developed adsorbents, and examining the adsorptive desulfurization performance of various adsorbents; (3) developing and evaluating the regeneration methods for various spent adsorbent; (4) developing new catalysts for hydrodesulfurization of the refractory sulfur existing in the commercial diesel fuel; (5) on the basis of the fundamental understanding of the adsorptive performance and regeneration natures of the adsorbents, further confirming and improving the conceptual design of the novel PSU-SARS process for deep desulfurization of diesel fuel Three types of adsorbents, the metal-chloride-based adsorbents, the activated nickel-based adsorbents and the metal-sulfide-based adsorbents, have been developed for selective adsorption desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons. All of three types of the adsorbents exhibit the significant selectivity for sulfur compounds, including alkyl dibenzothiophenes (DBTs), in diesel fuel. Adsorption desulfurization of real diesel fuels (regular diesel fuel (DF), S: 325 ppmw; low sulfur diesel fuel (LSD-I), S: 47 ppmw) over the nickel-based adsorbents (A-2 and A-5) has been conducted at different conditions by using a flowing system. The adsorption capacity of DF over A-2 corresponding to an outlet sulfur level of 30 ppmw is 2.8 mg-S/g-A. The adsorption capacity of LSD-I over A-5 corresponding to the break

  11. Visible-Light-Induced Specific Desulfurization of Cysteinyl Peptide and Glycopeptide in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiao-Fei; Du, Jing-Jing; Liu, Zheng; Guo, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Visible-light-induced specific desulfurization of cysteinyl peptides has been explored. The photocatalytic desulfurization catalyzed by Ru(bpy)3(2+) can proceed efficiently at room temperature in aqueous solution or in binary mixtures of aqueous/organic solvent and be compatible with the presence of residues of amino acids, carbohydrates, and various sulfur-containing functional groups. This approach was successfully applied to synthesize linear and cyclic peptides through the ligation-desulfurization protocol. PMID:26892036

  12. Preparation of purified tuberculin RT 23

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Mogens; Bentzon, M. Weis

    1958-01-01

    The technical procedure used in the preparation of a batch of more than 500 g of purified tuberculin (PPD) is described. This batch is designated RT 23, and it is estimated that the quantity now prepared will cover the global demand for purified tuberculin for human use for several years. RT 23 has been prepared by mixing 77 smaller lots of tuberculin selected from a total of 95 lots. The method of preparing the individual lots is described and the experimental data, i.e., the yield and the biological activity ascertained by skin tests in BCG-vaccinated guinea-pigs, are given for all lots. The possible causes of variations in the yield and biological activity of the individual lots are discussed. PMID:13618721

  13. Purified Rabies Vaccine (Suckling Rat Brain Origin)

    PubMed Central

    Lavender, J. F.

    1970-01-01

    A 10% suckling rat brain rabies vaccine free from encephalitogenic activity was prepared and inactivated with 1:8,000 beta-propiolactone (BPL), or ultraviolet light, or a combination of ultraviolet light and BPL, or 1% phenol. Potency was excellent in all samples, with the exception of the phenolized product which was marginal. A purified suckling rat brain (SRB) vaccine prepared by zonal centrifugation and inactivated with 1:8,000 BPL contained about 0.01 the amount of protein nitrogen of the unpurified 10% SRB vaccine. This purified product passed the National Institutes of Health potency test for rabies vaccine after administration of a quantity equivalent to a standard 10% brain suspension. PMID:5456012

  14. The optimization of saccharification of desulfurated red seaweed-derived polysaccharides and analysis of their composition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaolin; Li, Yinping; Mou, Haijin; Gao, Yan; Hwang, Hueymin; Wang, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Currently processes of ethanol production from desulfurated red seaweed derived polysaccharides (De-RSDP) are well established. However, the optimization of the enzymatic saccharification process has not been reported. In this study, De-RSDP from Kappaphycus alvarezii was subjected to saccharification by different enzymes, including pectinase, cellobiase, cellulase, and hemicellulase. The best saccharification enzyme was determined as pectinase. In order to obtain more reducing sugar (RS), the single-factor experiment followed by central composite rotatable design (CCD) was used to optimize the parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis. The optimal saccharification parameters of De-RSDP were 4400 U/g pectinase dosage, 96 hr, and 55.5°C, respectively, and the yield of RS reached 81.3%. Subsequently, the saccharification liquids of De-RSDP were isolated and purified with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) to separate saccharides with different molecular weights. Simultaneously, the composition of saccharification liquids was analyzed by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone high-pressure liquid chromatography (PMP-HPLC) and mass spectroscopy (MS). The result showed that the content is mainly composed of galactose (65.2%) with the average molecular mass in the fourth peak 181.1 Da. The saccharification liquids of De-RSDP inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-4 for ethanol fermentation produced 0.3 g ethanol/g De-RSDP, which corresponded to 71.8% of the theoretical yield (0.38 g ethanol/g). PMID:24117151

  15. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  16. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    DOEpatents

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  17. Dermatitis from purified sea algae toxin (debromoaplysiatoxin).

    PubMed

    Solomon, A E; Stoughton, R B

    1978-09-01

    Cutaneous inflammation was induced by debromoaplysiatoxin, a purified toxin extracted from Lyngbya majuscula Gomont. This alga causes a seaweed dermatitis that occurs in persons who have swum off the coast of Oahu in Hawaii. By topical application, the toxin was found to produce an irritant pustular folliculitis in humans and to cause a severe cutaneous inflammatory reaction in the rabbit and in hairless mice. PMID:686747

  18. Microbiological testing of the Blairex Water Purifier.

    PubMed

    Meng, K E; Harris, M G

    1987-04-01

    The Blairex Water Purifier (previously called The Blairex Deionizer) is a filtration unit designed to purify tap water for uses that require distilled or deionized water. The unit is intended to offer soft contact lens wearers a more convenient and safe method of obtaining distilled water when using salt tablets or enzymatic cleaning tablets. In this study, the safety of these units was analyzed from a microbiological point of view. The microbial starting state of 18 factory sealed Blairex Water Purifiers was evaluated by filtering sterile water through each unit and enumerating the organisms in the effluent. Then a known number of specific microorganisms was filtered through each unit. For the next 30 days, subsequent sterile distilled water filtrations were done each day. The effluent was collected with each filtration and enumerated for microorganisms. The results indicated that the majority of Blairex units tested were not sterile from the onset. Several Blairex units evaluated did support bacterial growth, as the bacteria that were passed through the unit on day 1 of the study were found in the effluent in increasing numbers with use. The clinical implications of our findings are discussed. Each time Blairex units were obtained for evaluation, the units appeared different in either filter attachments, plastic composition, or shape. The results varied according to which type of Blairex unit was tested. PMID:3296767

  19. Steroidogenesis in amlodipine treated purified Leydig cells

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, Rabia; Lodhi, Ghulam Mustafa; Hameed, Waqas; Aslam, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Drugs have been shown to adversely affect male fertility and recently anti-hypertensive drugs were added to the list. The anti-fertility effects of amlodipine, a calcium channel blocker, are well-illustrated in in vivo experiments but lack an in vitro proof. The present study was designed to experimentally elucidate the effects of amlodipine on Leydig cell steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in vitro. Leydig cells of Sprague–Dawley rats were isolated and purified by Percoll. Cells were incubated for 3 h with/without amlodipine in the presence/absence of LH, dbcAMP, Pregnenolone and 25-Hydroxycholesterol. Cytosolic calcium was measured in purified Leydig cells by fluorometric technique. The results showed significantly reduced (P < 0.05) steroidogenesis and intracellular calcium in amlodipine exposed rats. The site of amlodipine induced steroidogenic inhibition seems to be prior to the formation of Pregnenolone at the level of StAR protein. -- Highlights: ► Inhibition of steroidogenesis in isolated and purified Leydig cells by amlodipine. ► Site of inhibition was before Pregnenolone formation, at the level of StAR protein. ► Inhibition of LH stimulated rise in cytosolic calcium by amlodipine.

  20. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, September 15--December 15, 1994. Task 1: Literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-01-06

    Manganese ore as well as manganese carbonate, precipitated from aqueous solutions, combined with alumina to form indurated pellets hold promise of being a high-effective, inexpensive, regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gases. Although the thermodynamics for sulfur removal by manganese predicts somewhat higher hydrogen sulfide over-pressures (i.e. poorer degree of desulfurization) than can be accomplished with zinc-based sorbents, zinc tends to be reduced to the metallic state under coal gasification conditions resulting in loss of capacity and reactivity by volatilization of reactive surfaces. This volatilization phenomenon limits the temperatures for which desulfurization can be effectively accomplished to less than 550 C for zinc ferrite and 700 C for zinc titanate; whereas, manganese-based sorbents can be utilized at temperatures well in temperatures exceeding 700 C. Also the regeneration of manganese-based pellets under oxidizing conditions may be superior to that of zinc titanate since they can be loaded from a simulated reducing coal-derived gas and then be regenerated at higher temperatures (up to 1,300 C). The topics that will be addressed by this study include: preparation of an effective manganese-based sorbent; thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by this sorbent; analysis of kinetics and mechanisms by which sulfur is absorbed by the sorbent (i.e., whether by gaseous diffusion, surface-controlled reaction, or pore diffusion); and cyclic sulfidation and regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the sulfur. 38 refs.

  1. Effect of Silicon on Desulfurization of Aluminum-killed Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Debdutta

    Recent reports have suggested that silicon has a beneficial effect on the rate of desulfurization of Al-killed steel. This effect is difficult to understand looking at the overall desulfurization reaction which does not include silicon. However an explanation is proposed by taking into account the (SiO2)/[Si] equilibrium in which some Al reaching the slag-metal interface is used in reducing the SiO2 in the slag. This reaction can be suppressed to some extent if the silicon content of the metal is increased and in doing so, more Al will be available at the slag-metal interface for the desulfurization reaction and this would increase the rate of the desulfurization reaction. A model was developed, assuming the rates are controlled by mass transfer, taking into account the coupled reactions of the reduction of silica, and other unstable oxides, namely iron oxide and manganese oxide, in the slag and desulfurization reaction in the steel by aluminum. The model predicts that increasing silicon increases the rate and extent of desulfurization. Plant data was analyzed to obtain rough estimates of ladle desulfurization rates and also used to validate the model predictions. Experiments have been conducted on a kilogram scale of material in an induction furnace to test the hypothesis. The major conclusions of the study are as follows: The rate and extent of desulfurization improve with increasing initial silicon content in the steel; the effect diminishes at silicon contents higher than approximately 0.2% and with increasing slag basicity. This was confirmed with kilogram-scale laboratory experiments. The effects of the silicon content in the steel (and of initial FeO and MnO in the slag) largely arise from the dominant effects of these reactions on the equilibrium aluminum content of the steel: as far as aluminum consumption or pick-up is concerned, the Si/SiO2 reaction dominates, and desulfurization has only a minor effect on aluminum consumption. The rate is primarily

  2. Enhanced durability for high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications -- Option 3 program: Development and testing of additional zinc titanate sorbents. Final report, September 1992--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.; Chuck, T.L.

    1996-12-31

    GE is developing a moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization system for the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power cycle in which zinc-based regenerable sorbents are currently being used as desulfurization sorbents. Zinc titanate and other zinc-based oxides are being considered as sorbents for use in the Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program at Tampa Electric Co.`s Polk Power Station. A key to success in the development of high-temperature desulfurization systems is the matching of sorbent properties for the selected process operating conditions, namely, sustainable desulfurization kinetics, high sulfur capacity, and mechanical durability over multiple cycles. Additionally, the sulfur species produced during regeneration of the sorbent must be in a form compatible with sulfur recovery systems, such as sulfuric acid or elemental sulfur processes. The objective of this contract is to identify and test sorbent fabrication methods and chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc titanate and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. A parametric study on the use of calcium sulfate additives to zinc titanate was conducted for zinc titanates having a 2:1 and 1.5:1 zinc-to-titanium molar ratio, and they showed a beneficial effect on crush strength of fresh 2:1 zinc titanate sorbents. In addition, a test procedure was developed to screen sorbent formulations based on resistance to spalling and pellet breakage induced by zinc sulfate formation in the presence of sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen conditions.

  3. Fullerenes: A New Carrier Phase for Noble Gases in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Luann

    2004-01-01

    The major focus of our research effort has been to measure the noble gases encapsulated within fullerenes, a new carbon carrier phase and compare it to the myriad of components found in the bulk meteorite acid residues. We have concentrated on the carbonaceous chondrites (Allende, Murchison and Tagish Lake) since they have abundant noble gases, typically with a planetary signature that dominates the stepped-release of the meteorite bulk acid residue. They also contain an extractable fullerene component that can be isolated and purified from the same bulk material.

  4. Fixed bed testing of a molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate for hot gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Mei, J.S.; Everitt, C.E.; Katta, S.

    1993-09-01

    The following conclusions were made, based upon this study of T-2535 molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate: (1) Results of the half-cycle sulfidation experiments showed that sorbent efficiency and capacity of this formulation of zinc titanate were weak functions of operating-bed temperature. Evidence of diffusion limitations on the sulfidation reaction were observed, particularly at superficial velocities greater than 30 cm/s (1 ft/s). Sorbent performance appeared to be affected by the concentration of reducing gases and/or water content of the simulated coal gas mixtures. Sorbent capacity and efficiency deteriorated during the first three cycles, but stabilized thereafter. (2) Sorbent spalling was observed and appeared to increase with sulfur loading. Possible causes of spalling may be attributed to the induced crystal lattice stresses due to the formation of ZnS and especially ZnSO{sub 4}, which have relative molar volumes that are approximately 1-1/2 and 3 times larger, respectively, than that of the original ZnO. (3) Based on these results, it is apparent that the molybdenum-promoted zinc titanate with Zn/Ti molar ratio of 1.91 may not be a suitable sorbent for hot gas desulfurization in the fixed bed reactor for the Pinon Pine project, due to problems with spalling and loss of reactivity during sulfidation/regeneration cycling.

  5. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1997-10-01

    The objective of this project was to develop hot-gas desulfurization sorbent formulations for relatively lower temperature application, with emphasis on the temperature range from 343--538 C. The candidate sorbents include highly dispersed mixed metal oxides of zinc, iron, copper, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum. The specific objective was to develop suitable sorbents, that would have high and stable surface area and are sufficiently reactive and regenerable at the relatively lower temperatures of interest in this work. Stability of surface area during regeneration was achieved by adding stabilizers. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives that promote the light-off of the regeneration reaction at lower temperature was considered. Another objective of this study was to develop attrition-resistant advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents which show stable and high sulfidation reactivity at 343 to 538 C and regenerability at lower temperatures than leading first generation sorbents.

  6. Unraveling heavy oil desulfurization chemistry: targeting clean fuels.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Tushar V; Parrott, Stephen; Johnson, Byron

    2008-03-15

    The sulfur removal chemistry of heavy oils has been unraveled by systematically investigating several heavy oils with an extremely wide range of properties. The heavy oil feed and product properties have been characterized by advanced analytical methods, and these properties have been related to the sulfur conversion data observed in pilot hydrotreating units. These studies coupled with kinetic treatment of the data have revealed that the desulfurization chemistry of heavy oils is essentially controlled by the strongly inhibiting three and larger ring aromatic hydrocarbon content and surprisingly not by the content of the "hard-to-remove" sulfur compounds. Such enhanced understanding of the heavy oil sulfur removal is expected to open new avenues for catalyst/process optimization for heavy oil desulfurization and thereby assist the efficent production of clean transporation fuels. PMID:18409618

  7. Exploring the Mechanism of Biocatalyst Inhibition in Microbial Desulfurization

    PubMed Central

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I. C.

    2013-01-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  8. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    1998-02-28

    The reactions of dialkyl mono- and disulfides and functionalized alkylthio compounds with sodium in refluxing hydrocarbon solvent (tetradecane, mesitylene or toluene) resulted in sulfur-free products in very high yields. Greater than 95% sulfur removal was observed when dialkyl mono or polysulfides were treated with Na in liquid ammonia. Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles were only moderately desulfurized under these conditions while phenylthio derivatives gave thiophenol as the major product and dithiophenols as the minor products.

  9. Numerical simulation of flow in the wet scrubber for desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novosád, Jan; Vít, Tomáš

    2015-05-01

    This article deals with numerical simulation of flow and chemical reactions in absorber for desulfurization of flue-gas. The objective of the work is the investigation of effect of different nozzles types and their placement in spray layers. These nozzles distribute lime suspension into flue gas stream. The research includes two types of nozzles and four different arrangements of nozzles and spray layers. Conclusion describes the effect of nozzle types and their arrangements on the suspension concentration in absorber.

  10. Exploring the mechanism of biocatalyst inhibition in microbial desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Abin-Fuentes, Andres; Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Wang, Daniel I C; Prather, Kristala L J

    2013-12-01

    Microbial desulfurization, or biodesulfurization (BDS), of fuels is a promising technology because it can desulfurize compounds that are recalcitrant to the current standard technology in the oil industry. One of the obstacles to the commercialization of BDS is the reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with the accumulation of the end product, 2-hydroxybiphenyl (HBP), during the process. BDS experiments were performed by incubating Rhodococcus erythropolis IGTS8 resting-cell suspensions with hexadecane at 0.50 (vol/vol) containing 10 mM dibenzothiophene. The resin Dowex Optipore SD-2 was added to the BDS experiments at resin concentrations of 0, 10, or 50 g resin/liter total volume. The HBP concentration within the cytoplasm was estimated to decrease from 1,100 to 260 μM with increasing resin concentration. Despite this finding, productivity did not increase with the resin concentration. This led us to focus on the susceptibility of the desulfurization enzymes toward HBP. Dose-response experiments were performed to identify major inhibitory interactions in the most common BDS pathway, the 4S pathway. HBP was responsible for three of the four major inhibitory interactions identified. The concentrations of HBP that led to a 50% reduction in the enzymes' activities (IC50s) for DszA, DszB, and DszC were measured to be 60 ± 5 μM, 110 ± 10 μM, and 50 ± 5 μM, respectively. The fact that the IC50s for HBP are all significantly lower than the cytoplasmic HBP concentration suggests that the inhibition of the desulfurization enzymes by HBP is responsible for the observed reduction in biocatalyst activity concomitant with HBP generation. PMID:24096431

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1995-11-01

    The primary major deposit of manganese in the US which can be readily mined by an in situ process is located in the Emily district of Minnesota. The US Bureau of Mines Research Centers at both the Twin Cities and Salt Lake City have developed a process for extracting and refining manganese in the form of a high-purity carbonate product. This product has been formulated into pellets by a multi-step process of drying, calcination, and induration to produce relatively high-strength formulations which are capable of being used for hot fuel gas desulfurization. These pellets, which have been developed at the University of Minnesota under joint sponsorship of the US Department of Energy and the US Bureau of Mines, appear superior to other, more expensive, formulations of zinc titanate and zinc ferrite which have previously been studied for multi-cycle loading (desulfurization) and regeneration (evolution of high-strength SO{sub 2} and restoration of pellet reactivity). Although these other formulations have been under development for the past twelve years, their prices still exceed $7 per pound. If manganese pellets perform as predicted in fixed bed testing, and if a significant number of utilities which burn high-sulfur coals incorporate combined-cycle gasification with hot coal gas desulfurization as a viable means of increasing conversion efficiencies, then the potential market for manganese pellets may be as high as 200,000 tons per year at a price not less than $3 per pound. This paper discusses the role of manganese pellets in the desulfurization process with respect to the integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) for power generation.

  12. Planetary noble gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the history and current status of research on planetary noble gases is presented. The discovery that neon and argon are vastly more abundant on Venus than on earth points to the solar wind rather than condensation as the fundamental process for placing noble gases in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets; however, solar wind implantation may not be able to fully reproduce the observed gradient, nor does it obviously account for similar planetary Ne/Ar ratios and dissimilar planetary Ar/Kr ratios. More recent studies have emphasized escape rather than accretion. Hydrodynamic escape, which is fractionating, readily accounts for the difference between atmospheric neon and isotopically light mantle neon. Atmospheric cratering, which is nearly nonfractionating, can account for the extreme scarcity of nonradiogenic noble gases (and other volatiles) on Mars.

  13. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1994-12-31

    During the period from 1986 through 1993 the prospect of bacterial desulfurization of fossil fuel was transformed from a theoretically appealing concept to a demonstrable laboratory phenomenon. Results from several laboratories confirmed that there was not one but, rather, several metabolic bases of selectively removing sulfur from the carbon frame of sulfur-containing organic compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. Results in this report relate solely to the so-called ``4S`` pathway (named for the four sulfur-containing compounds in the sequence: (l) dibenzothiophene [DBT] {yields} (2) dibenzothiophene sulfoxide [DBTO] {yields} (3) dibenzosulfone [DBTO{sup 2}] {yields} (4) dibenzosulfonate {yields} monohydroxybiphenyl [OH-BP] + SO{sub 4}{sup =}. [An additional desulfurized product, biphenyl, has been hypothesized and another, o,o{prime}-biphenyl, observed.]) The following subjects are discussed: isolating bacteria with a DbtS{sup +} phenotype; confirming the production of a desulfurized product; determining the identity of the isolates; determining the growth characteristics of the isolates in batch and continuous cultures; determining the kinetics and yields of product in batch and continuous cultures.

  14. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  15. Peroxide-mediated desulfurization of phosphorothioate oligonucleotides and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Krotz, Achim H; Mehta, Rahul C; Hardee, Gregory E

    2005-02-01

    Desulfurization at the internucleotide phosphorothioate linkage of antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) in dermatological formulations has been investigated using strong ion exchange chromatography and mass spectroscopy. The formation of phosphate diester linkages appeared to arise from a reaction between the phosphorothioate oligonucleotide and a potent oxidizing agent. Screening of excipients used in the formulation indicated that the cause of desulfurization was related to the presence of polyethylene glycol-derived nonionic surfactants MYRJ 52 or BRIJ 58. Autoxidation of the polyethylene glycol chain is suggested as the probable origin for the observed incompatibility. The ability of various antioxidants to prevent oxidative degradation of ASO-1 in simple test systems and in oil-in-water emulsions is described. It is found that in test systems both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants are effective. However, in cream formulation (oil-in-water emulsions) of ASO-1 the addition of hydrophilic antioxidants L-cysteine or DL-alpha-lipoic acid has been shown to be superior in protecting the oligonucleotide from desulfurization upon storage. PMID:15614814

  16. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  17. Purified estrogen receptor enhances in vitro transcription.

    PubMed

    Nigro, V; Molinari, A M; Armetta, I; de Falco, A; Abbondanza, C; Medici, N; Puca, G A

    1992-07-31

    An in vitro transcription system was developed to investigate the mechanisms of gene regulation by the estrogen receptor (ER). ER purified from calf uterus was highly active in enhancing RNA transcription from a template DNA containing estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream from a minimal promoter. Under the conditions employed, no addition of tissue specific factors was required and both estrogen or antiestrogens were ineffective. The stimulation of transcription correlated with the copy number of EREs in the template. The addition of competitor ERE oligonucleotides specifically inhibited the ER-induced transcription. We suggest that the ER may be involved in the formation of the stable initiation complex. PMID:1497666

  18. Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

  19. Gases in Tektite Bubbles.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A; Lowman, P D; Dunning, K L

    1962-07-20

    Spectroscopic analysis of light produced by electrodeless discharge in a tektite bubble showed the main gases in the bubble to be neon, helium, and oxygen. The neon and helium have probably diffused in from the atmosphere, while the oxygen may be atmospheric gas incorporated in the tektite during its formation. PMID:17801113

  20. Use of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Gypsum as a Heavy Metal Stabilizer in Contaminated Soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a synthetic by-product generated from the flue gas desulfurization process in coal power plants. It has several beneficial applications such as an ingredient in cement production, wallboard production and in agricultural practice as a soil...

  1. Deep catalytic oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) with oxalate-based deep eutectic solvents (DESs).

    PubMed

    Lü, Hongying; Li, Pengcheng; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Wang, Shunan; Liu, Pan; Zhang, Han

    2015-07-01

    An oxalate-based DES with a tetrabutyl ammonium chloride and oxalate acid molar ratio of 1/2 (TBO1 : 2) exhibited high activity in oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) under mild reaction conditions. It is potentially a promising and highly environmentally friendly approach for desulfurization of fuels. PMID:26051675

  2. Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Second [quarterly] technical report, December 1, 1992--March 1, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-03-01

    At present, the focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E. T. Turkdogan indicate that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a preferable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. A significant domestic source of manganese in Minnesota is being explored for an in situ leach process which has potential for producing large tonnages of solutions which may be ideal for precipitation and recovery of pure manganese as a carbonate in a reactive form. In the current program the following studies will be addressed: Preparation of manganese sorbent pellets and characterization tests on pellets for strength and surface area; analysis of the thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by individual sorbent pellets (loading tests) by thermogravimetric testing; regeneration tests via TGA on individual sorbent pellets by oxidation; and bench-scale testing on sorbent beds in a two-inch diameter reactor. The developed information will be of value to METC in its determination of whether or not a manganese-based regenerable sorbent holds real promise for sulfur cleanup of hot fuel gases. This information is necessary prior to pilot-scale testing leading to commercial development is undertaken.

  3. Isolating and Purifying Clostridium difficile Spores.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Adrianne N; McBride, Shonna M

    2016-01-01

    The ability for the obligate anaerobe, Clostridium difficile to form a metabolically dormant spore is critical for the survival of this organism outside of the host. This spore form is resistant to a myriad of environmental stresses, including heat, desiccation, and exposure to disinfectants and antimicrobials. These intrinsic properties of spores allow C. difficile to survive long-term in an oxygenated environment, to be easily transmitted from host-to-host, and to persist within the host following antibiotic treatment. Because of the importance of the spore form to the C. difficile life cycle and treatment and prevention of C. difficile infection (CDI), the isolation and purification of spores are necessary to study the mechanisms of sporulation and germination, investigate spore properties and resistances, and for use in animal models of CDI. Here we provide basic protocols, in vitro growth conditions, and additional considerations for purifying C. difficile spores for a variety of downstream applications. PMID:27507337

  4. Method of separating and purifying gadolinium-153

    DOEpatents

    Bray, Lane A [Richland, WA; Corneillie, Todd M [Davis, CA

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an improvement to the method of separating and purifying gadolinium from a mixture of gadolinium and europium having the steps of (a) dissolving the mixture in an acid; (b) reducing europium+3 to europium+2; and (c) precipitating the europium+2 with a sulfate ion in a superstoichiometric amount; wherein the improvement is achieved by using one or more of the following: (i) the acid is an anoic acid; (ii) the reducing is with zinc metal in the absence of a second metal or with an amount of the second metal that is ineffective in the reducing; (iii) adding a group IIA element after step (c) for precipitating the excess sulfate prior to repeating step (c); (iv) the sulfate is a sulfate salt with a monovalent cation; (v) adding cold europium+3 prior to repeating step (c).

  5. Apparatus and methods for purifying lead

    DOEpatents

    Tunison, Harmon M.

    2016-01-12

    Disclosed is an exemplary method of purifying lead which includes the steps of placing lead and a fluoride salt blend in a container; forming a first fluid of molten lead at a first temperature; forming a second fluid of the molten fluoride salt blend at a second temperature higher than the first temperature; mixing the first fluid and the second fluid together; separating the two fluids; solidifying the molten fluoride salt blend at a temperature above a melting point of the lead; and removing the molten lead from the container. In certain exemplary methods the molten lead is removed from the container by decanting. In still other exemplary methods the molten salt blend is a Lewis base fluoride eutectic salt blend, and in yet other exemplary methods the molten salt blend contains sodium fluoride, lithium fluoride, and potassium fluoride.

  6. Induction slag reduction process for purifying metals

    DOEpatents

    Traut, Davis E.; Fisher, II, George T.; Hansen, Dennis A.

    1991-01-01

    A continuous method is provided for purifying and recovering transition metals such as neodymium and zirconium that become reactive at temperatures above about 500.degree. C. that comprises the steps of contacting the metal ore with an appropriate fluorinating agent such as an alkaline earth metal fluosilicate to form a fluometallic compound, and reducing the fluometallic compound with a suitable alkaline earth or alkali metal compound under molten conditions, such as provided in an induction slag metal furnace. The method of the invention is advantageous in that it is simpler and less expensive than methods used previously to recover pure metals, and it may be employed with a wide range of transition metals that were reactive with enclosures used in the prior art methods and were hard to obtain in uncontaminated form.

  7. New polypeptide components purified from mamba venom.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, J; Vandenberghe, I; Ulens, C; Van Beeumen, J

    2001-03-01

    New polypeptide components have been isolated from Dendroaspis angusticeps venom using chromatography. Two polypeptides containing 59 and 57 amino acids, called 'DaE1' and 'DaE2' respectively, have been purified to homogeneity and fully sequenced. Spectrometric analysis yielded masses of 6631.5 and 6389.0 Da, respectively. The polypeptides share 98 and 95% identity, respectively, with trypsin inhibitor E (DpE) of Dendroaspis polylepis polylepis. 'DaE' polypeptides inhibit Kv1.1 channels with an IC(50) value in the range of 300 nM. They can be considered as new dendrotoxins, albeit with fairly low affinity as compared to alpha-DTX. 'DaE' polypeptides do not affect Kir2.1 channels. PMID:11240130

  8. Subpopulations in purified platelets adhering on glass.

    PubMed

    Donati, Alessia; Gupta, Swati; Reviakine, Ilya

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how platelet activation is regulated is important in the context of cardiovascular disorders and their management with antiplatelet therapy. Recent evidence points to different platelet subpopulations performing different functions. In particular, procoagulant and aggregating subpopulations have been reported in the literature in platelets treated with the GPVI agonists. How the formation of platelet subpopulations upon activation is regulated remains unclear. Here, it is shown that procoagulant and aggregating platelet subpopulations arise spontaneously upon adhesion of purified platelets on clean glass surfaces. Calcium ionophore treatment of the adhering platelets resulted in one platelet population expressing both the procoagulant and the adherent population markers phosphatidylserine and the activated form of GPIIb/IIIa, while all of the platelets expressed CD62P independently of the ionophore treatment. Therefore, all platelets have the capacity to express all three activation markers. It is concluded that platelet subpopulations observed in various studies reflect the dynamics of the platelet activation process. PMID:27338300

  9. Method for removing acid gases from a gaseous stream

    DOEpatents

    Gorin, Everett; Zielke, Clyde W.

    1981-01-01

    In a process for hydrocracking a heavy aromatic polynuclear carbonaceous feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuels boiling below about 475.degree. C. at atmospheric pressure by contacting the feedstock with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst, thereafter separating a gaseous stream containing hydrogen, at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases from the molten metal halide and regenerating the molten metal halide, thereby producing a purified molten metal halide stream for recycle to the hydrocracking zone, an improvement comprising; contacting the gaseous acid gas, hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels-containing stream with the feedstock containing reactive alkaline constituents to remove acid gases from the acid gas containing stream. Optionally at least a portion of the hydrocarbon fuels are separated from gaseous stream containing hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels and acid gases prior to contacting the gaseous stream with the feedstock.

  10. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet air purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in the air by...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6710 - Medical ultraviolet water purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet water purifier. 880.6710... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6710 Medical ultraviolet water purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet water purifier is a device intended for medical purposes that is used to destroy bacteria in water...

  16. Selective Catalytic Oxidation of Hydrogen Sulfide to Elemental Sulfur from Coal-Derived Fuel Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, Todd H.; Berry, David A.; Lyons, K. David; Beer, Stephen K.; Monahan, Michael J.

    2001-11-06

    The development of low cost, highly efficient, desulfurization technology with integrated sulfur recovery remains a principle barrier issue for Vision 21 integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation plants. In this plan, the U. S. Department of Energy will construct ultra-clean, modular, co-production IGCC power plants each with chemical products tailored to meet the demands of specific regional markets. The catalysts employed in these co-production modules, for example water-gas-shift and Fischer-Tropsch catalysts, are readily poisoned by hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), a sulfur contaminant, present in the coal-derived fuel gases. To prevent poisoning of these catalysts, the removal of H{sub 2}S down to the parts-per-billion level is necessary. Historically, research into the purification of coal-derived fuel gases has focused on dry technologies that offer the prospect of higher combined cycle efficiencies as well as improved thermal integration with co-production modules. Primarily, these concepts rely on a highly selective process separation step to remove low concentrations of H{sub 2}S present in the fuel gases and produce a concentrated stream of sulfur bearing effluent. This effluent must then undergo further processing to be converted to its final form, usually elemental sulfur. Ultimately, desulfurization of coal-derived fuel gases may cost as much as 15% of the total fixed capital investment (Chen et al., 1992). It is, therefore, desirable to develop new technology that can accomplish H{sub 2}S separation and direct conversion to elemental sulfur more efficiently and with a lower initial fixed capital investment.

  17. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization. Quarterly progress report, March 15, 1995--July 15, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-07-15

    Hot gas desulfurization may be accomplished by using solid sorbents such as oxides of those metals that form stable sulfides. The effectiveness of a desulfurizing agent in treating such gases is related to the predicted equilibrium partial pressure of hydrogen sulfide which will be present in a phase combination of the reduced form of sulfide and oxide phases. The focus of much current work being performed by the Department of Energy on sorbent development is in the use of zinc ferrite, zinc titanate, and Z-Sorb. The latter sorbent is a commercial product consisting of ZnO, a promoter, and a proprietary supporting matrix designed to provide stability and prolong sorbent life. Although these Zn-based sorbents have been the subject of extensive pilot-scale and process development work, all sorbents produced to date still experience structural and reactive degradation over multi-cycle use at relatively moderate temperatures. An effective alternative to zinc-based sorbents could be manganese sorbents which withstand high temperature operation and also maintain structural and reactive integrity over many cycles, as investigations by Ben-Slimane and Hepworth have indicated. Thermodynamic limits may prevent MnO from achieving the low sulfur specifications of the product gas for use in a molten carbonate fuel cell, but under the correct conditions the guideline for IGCC systems can easily be achieved. Furthermore, manganese sorbents could possibly be used in conjunction with a polishing sorbent (such as zinc oxide) possessing more favorable thermodynamic properties to reach levels acceptable for fuel cell applications (< 10 ppmv). Such an arrangement may not require that the zinc sulfide be regenerated since the sulfur concentration of the cleaned gas is low enough that the zinc oxide may be discarded when exhausted.

  18. Removal of acid gases from gas streams

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1988-10-04

    This patent describes a method for the purification of a stream of gas comprising a normally gaseous hydrocarbon or synthesis gas contaminated with acid gases which comprises the steps of: countercurrently contacting the gas stream in an absorption zone with a stream of a treating agent consisting essentially of an aqueous solution of N-methyldiethanolamine and imidazole or a methyl substituted imidazole to thereby remove a substantial portion of the acid contaminants from the hydrocarbon gas stream by absorption into the treating agent, discharging an at least partially purified gas stream from the absorption zone, discharging the treating agent enriched with absorbed acid gas components from the absorption zone; and subsequently regenerating the enriched treating agent.

  19. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1995-01-01

    Fresh isolates of bacteria presumptively identified as R. erythropolis unequivocally have a DbtS{sup +} phenotype. The production of OH-BP from either DBT or DBTO{sub 2} was confirmed by difference spectroscopy, HPLC, and mass spectrometry. The temperature, pH, and means of supplying the thiophenic or sulfonic sole source of sulfur were optimized. The maximal rate of growth of the organism, its affinity for sulfone, and the extent to which substrate was converted to product were determined by using batch, fed batch, and continuous cultures. For strain N1-36, the maximum specific growth rate was 0.235 hr{sup -1} which corresponds to a minimal generation time of 2.95 hr. The K{sub s} was estimated to be 0.39 {mu}M. With 100 {mu}M DBT as the sole sulfur source, approximately 40 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth); with 100 {mu}M DBTO{sub 2} as the sole sulfur source, approximately 70 {mu}M OH-BP are produced (after 40 hr of growth). The desulfurization activity is repressed by SO{sub 4}{sup =} OH-BP does not serve as a carbon source. The DbtS{sup +} phenotype of the R. erythropolis isolates is stable and discrete. The isolates selectively remove sulfur from DBT, a compound which models a refractory form of organic sulfur in compounds characteristic of fossil fuels. The desulfurization occurs with no oxidation of carbon-carbon bonds. The stability and specificity (along with genetic regulation) indicate that microbial desulfurization in a real phenomenon in which a noxious element is removed without significantly affecting the calorific value of the substrate. Additional characterization (and optimization) would provide the basis of a very important form of fossil fuel beneficiation.

  20. DEEP DESULFURIZATION OF DIESEL FUELS BY A NOVEL INTEGRATED APPROACH

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaoliang Ma; Lu Sun; Chunshan Song

    2001-09-01

    Due to the increasingly stricter regulations for deep reduction of fuel sulfur content, development of new deep desulfurization processes for liquid transport fuels has become one of the major challenges to the refining industry and to the production of hydrocarbon fuels for fuel cell applications. The sulfur compounds in the current transport fuels corresponding to the S level of 350-500 ppm account for only about 0.12-0.25 wt % of the fuel. The conventional hydrotreating approaches will need to increase catalyst bed volume at high-temperature and high-pressure conditions for treating 100 % of the whole fuel in order to convert the fuel mass of less than 0.25 wt %. In the present study, we are exploring a novel adsorption process for desulfurization at low temperatures, which can effectively reduce the sulfur content in gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel at low investment and operating cost to meet the needs for ultra-clean transportation fuels and for fuel cell applications. Some adsorbents were prepared in this study for selective adsorption of sulfur compounds in the fuels. The adsorption experiments were conducted by using a model fuel and real fuels. The results show that the adsorbent (A-1) with a transition metal compound has a significant selectivity for sulfur compounds with a saturated adsorption capacity of {approx}0.12 mol of sulfur compounds per mol of the metal compound. Most sulfur compounds existing in the current commercial gasoline, jet fuel and diesel fuel can be removed by the adsorption using adsorbent A-1. On the basis of the preliminary results, a novel concept for integrated process for deep desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons was proposed.

  1. New process for coke-oven gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Currey, J.H.

    1995-10-01

    With the EPA reclassifying spent iron oxide as a hazardous waste material in 1990, an alternative technology was sought for desulfurizing coke-oven gas. Vacasulf technology was adopted for reasons that included: producing of coke battery heating gas without further polishing and high-quality elemental sulfur; lowest operating cost in comparison with other methods; no waste products; and integrates with existing ammonia destruction facility. Vacasulf requires a single purchased material, potassium hydroxide, that reacts with carbon dioxide in coke-oven gas to form potassium carbonate which, in turn, absorbs hydrogen sulfide. Operation of the system has been successful following the resolution of relatively minor start-up problems.

  2. Cost effective materials for flue gas desulfurization (FGD)

    SciTech Connect

    Kelley, D.H.; Brady, B.

    1996-10-01

    Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) is an effective way to remove sulfur dioxide from coal combustion processes and reduce the potential for acid rain. However, wet FGD processes often require highly corrosion resistant construction materials such as high alloys for adequate service life. An excellent material for wet FGD applications at about one half the cost of high alloys is fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) based on epoxy vinyl ester resin. This paper discusses the background and improvements that have led to the use of some of the world`s largest composite structures in FGD service.

  3. Traceless purification and desulfurization of tau protein ligation products.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Oliver; Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for the traceless purification and synthetic modification of peptides and proteins obtained by native chemical ligation. The strategy involves immobilization of a photocleavable semisynthetic biotin-protein conjugate on streptavidin-coated agarose beads, which eliminates the need for tedious rebuffering steps and allows the rapid removal of excess peptides and additives. On-bead desulfurization is followed by delivery of the final tag-free protein product. The strategy is demonstrated in the isolation of a tag-free Alzheimer's disease related human tau protein from a complex EPL mixture as well as a triphosphorylated peptide derived from the C-terminus of tau. PMID:25404175

  4. The use of FRP in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Kamody, J.F.

    1995-11-01

    New federal laws and evolving regulations over the last few years have led to significant applications in such areas as flue gas desulfurization (FGD) as well as underground and aboveground bulk storage tanks. Conformance to the new environmental regulations represents very serious corrosion problems to metals and other materials traditionally used in these applications. FRP offers solutions to these problems and invites more creativity and participation by the industry to even further extend its use. Although each of these markets deserves special attention, the focus herein is placed on FGD.

  5. Flue gas desulfurization information system data base user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This document was prepared to provide a guide to the use of the Flue Gas Desulfurization Information System (FGDIS), a collection of data base files stored at the National Computer Center (NCC), Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Access to these files and manipulation of the data therein is accomplished via SYSTEM 2000, a general data base management system developed by INTEL Corporation and supported by the NCC Univac 1100 hardware. This manual describes the content and use of the FGDIS data. It also serves as a general guide and reference manual for the use of SYSTEM 2000 (and the Univac 1100) as it applies to the FGDIS.

  6. Phosphopeptides in highly purified calf thymus DNA.

    PubMed

    Welsh, R S; Vyska, K

    1987-01-01

    Highly purified DNA obtained from calf thymus nuclei was found to cleave after reaction with a chelating agent and subsequent dialysis against 0.01 M phosphate. During the cleavage release of proteineous material into the dialysate was observed. By means of anion exchange resin column chromatography, this material was separated into 9 main fractions. Two of these fractions P1 and P5) were found to contain the amino acids phosphoserine, asp, thr, ser, glu, gly, ala, val, ile, leu, and arg, as well as metal ion complexes of phosphoserine. The complexes were dissociated by Chelex 100 treatment. The proportion of phosphoserine was much greater in P5 than in P1. P1 and P5 contained essentially no nucleotide material. All other fractions (P2, P3, P3a, P4, P5a, P6, P7, P8, P6a, P9) were found to contain ribonucleotides and deoxynucleotides. The deoxynucleotide content was about 10% of total nucleotide content. After a deionizing treatment with Chelex, the amounts of nucleotides were extensively reduced to a level corresponding to about 1 nucleotide of 10 amino acids. In separate experiments, commercial DNA (S-DNA) was ultrasonicated, and digested with pancreatic DNAase, exonuclease III, and S1 nuclease. From DEAE Sephacel chromatography of this material the fraction obtained having the highest proportion of protein aceous material was hydrolyzed with Pronase and again chromatographed on DEAE Sephacel. From this fractionation a single fraction containing deoxynucleotides and amino acids was found. The mixture obtained by hydrolysis of this fraction with snake venom diesterase and was again rechromatographed, which revealed two peaks, one corresponding to deoxynucleotide material and a second one to a mixture of 4 amino acids, phosphoserine, asp, glu, and gly. From this it was concluded that the fraction used for diesterase digestion consisted of deoxynucleotide-amino acids, with covalent diester bonds between their deoxynucleotide and amino acid portions. The results

  7. Autoantibodies interacting with purified native thyrotropin receptor.

    PubMed

    Atger, M; Misrahi, M; Young, J; Jolivet, A; Orgiazzi, J; Schaison, G; Milgrom, E

    1999-11-01

    Native thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography from membrane extracts of stably transfected L cells. An ELISA test was devised to study anti-TSHR autoantibodies directly. Comparison of native TSHR with bacterially expressed, denatured TSHR showed that the latter was not recognized by the autoantibodies, suggesting that they bind to conformational epitopes only present on the native receptor. The use of deglycosylated TSHR and of purified receptor ectodomain (alpha-subunit) showed that the autoantibodies recognized only the protein backbone moiety of the receptor and that their epitopes were localized entirely in its ectodomain. Autoantibodies were detected in 45 of 48 subjects with untreated Graves' disease and in 26 of 47 healthy volunteers. The affinity for the receptor was similar in the two groups (Kd = 0.25-1 x 10-10 M) and the autoantibodies belonged to the IgG class in all cases. Although the concentration of autoantibodies was higher in Graves' disease patients (3.50 +/- 0.36 mg.L-1) than in control subjects (1.76 +/- 0.21) (mean +/- SEM), there was an overlap between the groups. Receptor-stimulating autoantibodies (TSAb) were studied by measuring cAMP synthesis in stably transfected HEK 293 cells. Their characteristics (recognition of alpha-subunit, of deglycosylated TSHR, nonrecognition of bacterially expressed denatured receptor) were similar to those of the antibodies detected by the ELISA test. TSAb were only found in individuals with Graves' disease. The ELISA test measures total anti-TSHR antibodies, whereas the test using adenylate cyclase stimulation measures antibodies that recognize specific epitopes involved in receptor activation. Our observations thus disprove the hypothesis according to which Graves' disease is related to the appearance of anti-TSHR antibodies not present in normal subjects. Actually, anti-TSHR antibodies exist in many euthyroid subjects, in some cases even at concentrations higher than those

  8. Effect of solids concentration distribution on the flue gas desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Haiying Qi; Changhe Chen; Xuchang Xu

    2006-06-15

    A dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at 600-800{sup o}C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. Various fresh sorbent distribution types and internal structures were modeled numerically to investigate their effect on the gas-solid flow and sulfate reaction characteristics. Experimental results show that, after the fresh sorbent supply was stopped, the desulfurization efficiency declined rapidly even though the sorbent recirculation was maintained. Therefore, the fresh sorbent is the main contributor to the desulfurization process and the primary effect of the recirculated sorbent was to evenly distribute the fresh sorbent and to prolong the sorbent particle residence time. The numerical results demonstrate that the desulfurization efficiency varied greatly for the various fresh sorbent bottom injection methods. The desulfurization efficiency of the bottom-even injection method was 1.5 times that of the bottom two-sided injection method. Internal structures effectively improved the fresh sorbent solids concentration distribution and the desulfurization efficiency. Optimized internal structures increased the desulfurization efficiency of the bottom two-sided injection method by 46%, so that it was very close to that of the bottom-even injection method with only a 4.6% difference. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Effect of solids concentration distribution on the flue gas desulfurization process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Qi, Haiying; Chen, Changhe; Xu, Xuchang

    2006-06-15

    A dry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process at 600-800 degrees C was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. Various fresh sorbent distribution types and internal structures were modeled numerically to investigate their effect on the gas-solid flow and sulfate reaction characteristics. Experimental results show that, after the fresh sorbent supply was stopped, the desulfurization efficiency declined rapidly even though the sorbent recirculation was maintained. Therefore, the fresh sorbent is the main contributor to the desulfurization process and the primary effect of the recirculated sorbent was to evenly distribute the fresh sorbent and to prolong the sorbent particle residence time. The numerical results demonstrate thatthe desulfurization efficiency varied greatly for the various fresh sorbent bottom injection methods. The desulfurization efficiency of the bottom-even injection method was 1.5 times that of the bottom two-sided injection method. Internal structures effectively improved the fresh sorbent solids concentration distribution and the desulfurization efficiency. Optimized internal structures increased the desulfurization efficiency of the bottom two-sided injection method by 46%, so that it was very close to that of the bottom-even injection method with only a 4.6% difference. PMID:16830575

  10. Mimicking respiratory phosphorylation using purified enzymes.

    PubMed

    von Ballmoos, Christoph; Biner, Olivier; Nilsson, Tobias; Brzezinski, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The enzymes of oxidative phosphorylation is a striking example of the functional association of multiple enzyme complexes, working together to form ATP from cellular reducing equivalents. These complexes, such as cytochrome c oxidase or the ATP synthase, are typically investigated individually and therefore, their functional interplay is not well understood. Here, we present methodology that allows the co-reconstitution of purified terminal oxidases and ATP synthases in synthetic liposomes. The enzymes are functionally coupled via proton translocation where upon addition of reducing equivalents the oxidase creates and maintains a transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient that energizes the synthesis of ATP by the F1F0 ATP synthase. The method has been tested with the ATP synthases from Escherichia coli and spinach chloroplasts, and with the quinol and cytochrome c oxidases from E. coli and Rhodobacter sphaeroides, respectively. Unlike in experiments with the ATP synthase reconstituted alone, the setup allows in vitro ATP synthesis under steady state conditions, with rates up to 90 ATP×s(-1)×enzyme(-1). We have also used the novel system to study the phenomenon of "mild uncoupling" as observed in mitochondria upon addition of low concentrations of ionophores (e.g. FCCP, SF6847) and the recoupling effect of 6-ketocholestanol. While we could reproduce the described effects, our data with the in vitro system does not support the idea of a direct interaction between a mitochondrial protein and the uncoupling agents as proposed earlier. PMID:26707617

  11. Purifying Cytokinetic Cells from an Asynchronous Population

    PubMed Central

    Panet, Einat; Ozer, Efrat; Mashriki, Tal; Lazar, Itay; Itzkovich, Devora; Tzur, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Cytokinesis is an intensively studied process by which the cell cytoplasm divides to produce two daughter cells. Like any other aspect of cell cycle research, the study of cytokinesis relies heavily on cell synchronization. However, the synchronization of cells during cytokinesis is challenging due to the rapid nature of this process and the shortage of cell cycle blocking agents specifically targeting this phase. Here, we demonstrate the use of standard flow cytometry for directly isolating cytokinetic cells from an asynchronous population of normally proliferating cells. This approach is based on a cell cycle marker whose temporal proteolysis, in combination with DNA quantification or cell size approximation, distinguishes cells undergoing cytokinesis. Furthermore, by avoiding doublet discrimination, typically used in flow cytometry analyses, we were able to further increase selectivity, specifically purifying cells at late cytokinesis. Our method circumvents checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and any other means of pre-synchronization. These qualities, as demonstrated for both unattached and adherent cells, enable high selectivity for cytokinetic cells despite their overall low abundance in an asynchronous population. The sorted cells can then be readily used for cell biological, biochemical, and genomic applications to facilitate cytokinesis and cell cycle research. PMID:26260981

  12. Nucleotide Phosphohydrolase in Purified Vaccinia Virus

    PubMed Central

    Munyon, William; Paoletti, Enzo; Ospina, Julio; Grace, James T.

    1968-01-01

    Purified infectious vaccinia virus has been shown to contain an enzyme or enzymes that remove the terminal phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP), guanosine triphosphate (GTP), uridine triphosphate (UTP), and cytidine triphosphate (CTP). The Km for ATP of this enzyme is 5.5 × 10−4m, and the relative rates of the reaction with ATP, GTP, UTP, and CTP are 1.00, 0.34, 0.15, and 0.29, respectively. The virus enzyme does not react with any of the diphosphates. The rate of the reaction is proportional to the amount of virus added and is linear for 130 min. The virus nucleotide phosphohydrolase activity is greatly stimulated by Mg++ and very slightly stimulated by Ca++. The small residual activity observed in the absence of divalent cations is completely inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Neither Na+ nor K+ ions, nor any mixture of these, was found to stimulate the reaction significantly, and ouabain, at 10−4m, inhibited the reaction by only 27%. The response of the vaccinia enzyme to mono- and divalent cations and to ouabain indicates that the vaccinia enzyme has different properties from those associated with microsomes and mitochondria. PMID:4986904

  13. Nature of the gases released from lunar rocks and soils upon crushing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Andrawes, F. F.

    1978-01-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analyses of inorganic gases released from lunar basalts, breccias and soils by crushing have been performed in an apparatus which consists of a piston operating in a stream of purified He and a dual-column gas chromatograph equipped with He-ionization detectors. The apparatus eliminates the problem of adsorption of the released gases by fresh sample surfaces generated by crushing. Upper concentration levels for nitrogen, H2, CH4, O2 and other gases released from crushed basalts are reported. A direct correlation is established between the amount of nitrogen released from lunar soils by crushing and the lunar soil maturity indicator proposed by Morris (1976).

  14. Anion-exchange resin-based desulfurization process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.; Strevel, S.D.

    1991-01-01

    Under the current grant (FG22-90PC90309), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) will carry out the necessary bench scale experiments to further develop it anion-exchange, resin-based desulfurization concept to desulfurize alkali metal sulfates. In particular, it is planned to screen commercially available resins and then carry out process optimization work with three selected resins. Further optimization of the resin regeneration step as well as evaluation of the effect of various performance enhancers will then be carried out with one selected resin. A process schematic, to be developed based on the bench scale results, will be used to estimate the related economics. Some limited scope testing will also be carried out using the spent-seed and sorbent materials obtained from both the coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and the in-duct sorbent injection pilot scale facilities. During this reporting period, 90% of the planned batch mode screening experiments for the eleven samples of candidate resins were completed. Preliminary evaluation of the resulting data is continuing in order to select a smaller number (3--4) of samples for screening in the fixed-bed setup. The installation of the semi-automated fixed-bed setup is about 70% complete and shakedown experiments will be started in 3--4 weeks. Progress made in relation to these activities is presented below. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  16. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2}TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  17. The effect of coal desulfurization on flotation through ultrasonic treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu Jun; Chen Jianqi

    1997-12-31

    This paper carries out a study on the influence of ultrasonic treatment upon the changes of these aspects: pulp particle granularity, dissolving oxygen, pulp pH, surface potential (x), pulp potential (Eh) and conductivity rate, through the introduction of primary application and functional mechanism of ultrasonic wave such as ultrasonic comminution, ultrasonic cleaning and ultrasonic atomization. The effect of ultrasonic pretreatment on the size composition of the feeds and the floatability of coal and pyrite is examined. The tests affected the size composition of raw coal distinctively and caused the removal of sulfur from coals. It has been found that ultrasonic pretreatment of slurry enhances the differences in physico-chemical surface properties of coal and pyrite. In this case it is possible to obtain low-sulfur coals from high-sulfur coals. This may be explained by the different effects of ultrasonic vibrations on coal and pyrite which cause some improvement of the selectivity of their flotation separation. According to the authors` research, it explores the feasibility of flotation desulfurization by means of ultrasonic reinforcement, and puts forward that ultrasonic treatment of a slurry under the appropriate period of time, sonic frequency and energy density, along with appropriate flotation process and coal pyrite depression method, can achieve the best effect of flotation desulfurization. It offers a new method or means to gain abstraction of the clean coal.

  18. Desulfurization Activated Phosphorothioate DNAzyme for the Detection of Thallium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jung Jimmy; Vazin, Mahsa; Liu, Juewen

    2015-10-20

    Thallium (Tl) is a highly toxic heavy metal situated between mercury and lead in the periodic table. While its neighbors have been thoroughly studied for DNA-based sensing, little is known about thallium detection. In this work, in vitro selection of RNA-cleaving DNAzymes is carried out using Tl(3+) as the target metal cofactor. Both normal DNA and phosphorothioate (PS)-modified DNA are tested for this purpose. While no Tl(3+)-dependent DNAzymes are obtained, a DNA oligonucleotide containing a single PS-modified RNA nucleotide is found to cleave by ∼7% by Tl(3+) at the RNA position. The remaining 93% are desulfurized. By hybridization of this PS-modified oligonucleotide with the Tm7 DNAzyme, the cleavage yield increases to ∼40% in the presence of Tl(3+) and Er(3+). Tm7 is an Er(3+)-dependent RNA-cleaving DNAzyme. It cleaves only the normal substrate but is completely inactive using the PS-modified substrate. Tl(3+) desulfurizes the PS substrate to the normal substrate to be cleaved by Tm7 and Er(3+). This system is engineered into a catalytic beacon for Tl(3+) with a detection limit of 1.5 nM, which is below its maximal contamination limit defined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (10 nM). PMID:26393365

  19. For fuel desulfurization: Invite a bioengineered bug to dinner

    SciTech Connect

    Shelley, S.

    1995-05-01

    Last March, Energy BioSystems Corp. (EBC; The Woodlands, Tex.) brought online the world`s first biocatalytic desulfurization (BDS) facility. The $1.5-million pilot plant, located at the St. Louis, MO, research and development facility of Petrolite Corp., is designed to process up to 5 bbl/d to high-sulfur diesel fuel. EBC has partnered with Paris-based Total Raffinage S.A., France`s largest refiner, which is supplying the largest refiner, which is supplying the target diesel. The initial pilot plant was designed to desulfurize middle distillates, because of existing US and European regulations that target sulfur in this petroleum fraction. The firm hopes to have a 10,000-bbl/d commercial unit under construction by 1996. Meanwhile, EBC has partnered with Koch Refining (Wichita, KS) to adapt the process for gasoline, and with Texaco, Inc.`s Exploration and Production Division (Houston, TX) to sweeten sour crude before it reaches the refinery.

  20. Shore-to-ship steam purification Inverse Flash Steam Purifier (IFSTEP) field unit tests. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, G.; Maga, S.; Silbernagel, M.

    1995-10-01

    The Inverse Flash Steam Purifier (IFSTEP), a device to remove noncondensable gases from steam, was developed, tested, and evaluated. IFSTEP provides an alternative to methods that generate pure steam. Steam can now be purified at selected points in the steam distribution line, thus improving steam for facilities where required. This differs from reverse osmosis, de-mineralization, and de-alkalization that necessarily purify all the steam, as they are feed water treatment methods. With IFSTEP, simple water softening is adequate. The expense of the comprehensive feed water treatment, hazardous material handling, and labor intensive operation is diminished. Test data illustrate the behavior of IFSTEP during early bench tests and current field tests. Under a wide variety of upstream pressure and downstream steam demands, including boiler shutoff and startup conditions, IFSTEP consistently provided clean steam. The best results were achieved with a pressure difference control valve, which maintained a constant pressure or temperature difference between the shell and tube side of the heat exchanger. A prototype design is presented that reflects the improvements suggested by all previous testing. The prototype is modular to allow capacity growth and to meet most activity requirements.

  1. Equilibration of quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrelly, Terry

    2016-07-01

    Finding equilibration times is a major unsolved problem in physics with few analytical results. Here we look at equilibration times for quantum gases of bosons and fermions in the regime of negligibly weak interactions, a setting which not only includes paradigmatic systems such as gases confined to boxes, but also Luttinger liquids and the free superfluid Hubbard model. To do this, we focus on two classes of measurements: (i) coarse-grained observables, such as the number of particles in a region of space, and (ii) few-mode measurements, such as phase correlators. We show that, in this setting, equilibration occurs quite generally despite the fact that the particles are not interacting. Furthermore, for coarse-grained measurements the timescale is generally at most polynomial in the number of particles N, which is much faster than previous general upper bounds, which were exponential in N. For local measurements on lattice systems, the timescale is typically linear in the number of lattice sites. In fact, for one-dimensional lattices, the scaling is generally linear in the length of the lattice, which is optimal. Additionally, we look at a few specific examples, one of which consists of N fermions initially confined on one side of a partition in a box. The partition is removed and the fermions equilibrate extremely quickly in time O(1/N).

  2. Hydrogen purifier module and method for forming the same

    SciTech Connect

    DeVries, Peter David

    2012-02-07

    A hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane, and a gas-tight seal, where the seal is uses a low temperature melting point metal, which upon heating above the melting point subsequently forms a seal alloy with adjacent metals, where the alloy has a melting point above the operational temperature of the purifier. The purifier further is constructed such that a degree of isolation exists between the metal that melts to form the seal and the active area of the purifier membrane, so that the active area of the purifier membrane is not corrupted. A method of forming a hydrogen purifier utilizing a hydrogen permeable membrane with a seal of the same type is also disclosed.

  3. Apparatus for scrubbing gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ganter, W.

    1984-10-30

    In a disintegrator gas scrubber having a flat fan casing in which a stator bar cage is provided which consists of a plurality of concentric rings of bars extending parallel to the axis, and in which a rotor bar cage rotates which engages in the stator bar cage and likewise consists of a plurality of concentric rings of bars extending parallel to the axis, a cleansing liquid is injected by means of a cleansing liquid distributor means disposed on the rotor shaft of the rotor bar cage into the centrally aspired gas which is conveyed by the bars, the liquid being finely divided by those bars. A novel geometry and design of the stator bar cage and of the rotor bar cage are indicated to enlarge the purifying effect so as to embrace also the finest dusts of a particle size of less than 1 ..mu..m and to permit separation of the same at optimum effectiveness without impairing the fan efficiency.

  4. Enhanced durability of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents for moving-bed applications. Base Program: Development and testing of zinc ferrite sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, R.E.

    1991-08-01

    The objective of this contract was to identify and test fabrication methods and sorbent chemical compositions that enhance the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite and other novel sorbents for moving-bed, high-temperature desulfurization of coal-derived gases. Desired properties to be enhanced for moving-bed sorbent materials are: (1) high chemical reactivity (sulfur absorption rate and total sulfur capacity), (2) high mechanical strength (pellet crush strength and attrition resistance), and (3) suitable pellet morphology (e.g., pellet size, shape, surface area, and average specific pore volume). In addition, it is desired to maintain the sorbent properties over extended cyclic use in moving- bed systems.

  5. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA, NOVEMBER 1977. VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-product ...

  6. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT HOLLYWOOD, FLORIDA, NOVEMBER 1977. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-product ...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - NEW ORLEANS, MARCH 1976, VOLUME I

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the presentation made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, nonregenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-produc...

  8. Performance evaluation and effect of biogas circulation rate of a bubble column for biological desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Takuro; Xu, Kai-Qin; Li, Yu-You; Inamori, Yuhei

    2012-01-01

    Biological desulfurization using a bubble column reactor was investigated in a continuous biogas treatment. Rapid biogas circulation between the digester and the bubble column for biological desulfurization was used to stimulate the gas-liquid mass transfer of H(2)S. A positive correlation between the biogas circulation rate and H(2)S removal rate was observed. Moreover, the increase in the circulation rate stimulated the O(2) mass transfer, eventually translating into an increase in sulfate production from the oxidation of H(2)S. Throughout the continuous experiment, the reactor retained sufficient levels of sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. A comparison of the results of the continuous biogas treatment and batch tests suggests that the gas-liquid mass transfer rate of H(2)S was the rate-limiting step in the biological desulfurization in the reactor, indicating that the mass transfer efficiency of H(2)S needs to be improved to enhance the desulfurization performance. PMID:22925864

  9. EPA UTILITY FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SURVEY: DECEMBER 1977 - JANUARY 1978

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a survey of utility flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems in the U.S. It summarizes information contributed by the utility industry, process suppliers, regulatory agencies, and consulting engineering firms. Systems are tabulated alphabetically, by development...

  10. EVALUATION OF PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL COAL CLEANING AND FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of evaluations of physical coal cleaning (PCC), chemical coal cleaning (CCC), and coal cleaning combined with flue gas desulfurization (FGD). It includes process descriptions, cleaning performances, comparative capital investments, and annual revenue requ...

  11. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-15

    M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2} (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5) or the M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2} doping W-HZSM-5 (M{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 and Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV–Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu{sub 2}(PcTN){sub 2}/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N{sub 2} adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed. - Graphical abstract: The ODS reaction schematic shows the reaction mechanism of ultra-deep desulfurization. The sulfur compounds are oxidized to their corresponding sulfoxides or sulfones through the use of oxygen and catalysts. The reaction process of ultra-deep desulfurization. - Highlights: • A kind of novel catalyst for deep desulfurization was synthesized. • Cu{sub 2}(PcAN){sub 2}–W-HZSM-5 exhibits excellent catalytic performance for desulfurization. • The reaction conditions that affect desulfurization efficiency are investigated. • The reaction process of model sulfur compounds is proposed.

  12. New reagents for coal desulfurization. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, D.H.; Kalembasa, S.; Olson, D.; Wang, S.; Warfel, L.

    1991-12-31

    The primary goal of this project was development and exploration of potential new desulfurization reagents for the removal of ``organic sulfur`` from Illinois coals by mild chemical methods. Potential new desulfurization reagents were investigated using organic sulfur compounds of the types thought to be present in coals. Reagents included low-valent metal complexes based on nickel and on iron as well as possible Single Electron Transfer reagents. Soluble coal extracts served as second generation model compounds during this reagent development project.

  13. Continuous Operation of Spray-Dried Zinc Based Sorbent in a Hot Gas Desulfurization Process Consisting of a Transport Desulfurizer and a Fluidized Regenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, C-K.; Jo, S-H.; Jin, G-T.; Son, J-E.; Han, M-H.; Ryu, C-K.

    2002-09-19

    We see the sorbent reaction performance in a HGD process consisting of a transport desulfurizer and a fluidized regenerator in this study. We have obtained the solid hold-up and solid circulation rate necessary to reach the target desulfurization efficiency. A major obstacle for fluidized- or transport bed sorbent developments is sorbent durability withstanding attrition. Continuous operation only makes similar conditions of real processes such as rapid temperature swing, chemical transformations between sulfidation and regeneration, stresses induced by fluidization and continuous particle circulation between two reactors. Therefore, an integrated system of transport desulfurizer and bubbling regenerator is operated continuously more than 150 hours to see system reliability, sorbent reaction characteristics, sorbent morphology before and after test.

  14. A novel semidry flue gas desulfurization process with the magnetically fluidized bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Gui, Keting

    2009-09-15

    The magnetically fluidized bed (MFB) was used as the reactor in a novel semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process to achieve high desulfurization efficiency. Experiments in a laboratory-scale apparatus were conducted to reveal the effects of approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, Ca/S molar ratio and applied magnetic field intensity on SO(2) removal. Results showed that SO(2) removal efficiency can be obviously enhanced by decreasing approach to adiabatic saturation temperature, increasing Ca/S molar ratio, or increasing applied magnetic field intensity. At a magnetic field intensity of 300Oe and a Ca/S molar ratio of 1.0, the desulfurization efficiency (excluding desulfurization efficiency in the fabric filter) was over 80%, while spent sorbent appeared in the form of dry powder. With the SEM, XRD and EDX research, it can be found that the increase of DC magnetic field intensity can make the surface morphology on the surface of the ferromagnetic particles loose and enhance the oxidation of S(IV), hence reducing the liquid phase mass transfer resistance of the slurry droplets and increasing desulfurization reaction rate, respectively. Therefore, the desulfurization efficiency increased obviously with the increase of DC field intensity. PMID:19369002

  15. Cu Nanoparticles Inlaid Mesoporous Carbon Aerogels as a High Performance Desulfurizer.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Yang, Siyuan; Liu, Qizhen; He, Ping; Tian, Huan; Ren, Jianxing; Guan, ZhenZhen; Hu, Tao; Ni, Bu; Zhang, Chong

    2016-05-17

    In the present study, to insert the Cu nanoparticles (NPs) into mesoporous carbon aerogels and first applied it to remove H2S efficiently. This desulfurizer was made based on the dimensional policy by inserting the Cu NPs on mesoporous carbon aerogels to overcome the sintering problem and improve the activity, which has potential performance at high-temperature catalysis. The obtained desulfurizer was employed for H2S removal at middle temperature conditions (optimal H2S adsorption at 550 °C). We explored the optimum doping amount of CuOx, optimum temperature conditions, and the influence of textural parameters of carbon aerogels. The desulfurizers were characterized by means of field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), N2-adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), H2 temperature-programmed reduction (H2-TPR), and Raman spectra techniques. The results confirmed that the presence of H2 was unfavorable for sulfidation and obviously shortened the breakthrough time. However, the existence of CO had little impact on the desulfurization and sulfur capacity. In a nutshell, this work could provide a new synthetic route to prepare Cu NPs deep into the lattice of carbon aerogels structure of desulfurizers and understand the desulfurization mechanism. PMID:27128500

  16. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL HOSPITAL AND PERSONAL USE DEVICES General Hospital and Personal Use Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  18. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  19. 21 CFR 880.6500 - Medical ultraviolet air purifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... to ultraviolet radiation. (b) Classification. Class II (performance standards). ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Medical ultraviolet air purifier. 880.6500 Section... Miscellaneous Devices § 880.6500 Medical ultraviolet air purifier. (a) Identification. A medical ultraviolet...

  20. Hydrogen purifiers go to Savannah River Site to process tritium

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, W.

    1996-12-31

    The Johnson Matthey Fabricated Equipment group has been awarded a contract to supply the United States government Savannah River Site (SRS) with six additional ultra-high purity hydrogen purifier systems specially designed to process tritium in support of national defense programs. The purifiers employ palladium membrane diffusion technology.

  1. Desulfurization of dibenzothiophene by Corynebacterium sp. strain SY1

    SciTech Connect

    Omori, Toshio; Monna, L.; Saiki, Yuko; Kodama, Tohru )

    1992-03-01

    Strain SY1, identified as a Corynebacterium sp., was isolated on the basis of the ability to utilize dibenzothiophene (DBT) as a sole source of sulfur. Strain SY1 could utilize a wide range of organic and inorganic sulfur compounds, such as DBT sulfone, dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfoxide, dimethyl sulfone, CS{sub 2}, FeS{sub 2}, and even elemental sulfur. Strain SY1 metabolized DBT to dibenzothiophene-5-oxide, DBT sulfone, and 2-hydroxybiphenyl, which was subsequently nitrated to produce at least two different hydroxynitrobiphenyls during cultivation. These metabolites were separated by silica gel column chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance, UV, and mass spectral techniques. Resting cells of SY1 desulfurized toluenesulfonic acid and released sulfite anion. On the basis of these results, a new DBT degradation pathway is proposed.

  2. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-07-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable solid amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGS by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  3. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, S. Jr.; Dick, W.; Chen, L.

    1998-04-01

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called {open_quotes}Fluesorbent{close_quotes} has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved.

  4. Agricultural use of a flue gas desulfurization by-product

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, W.; Chen, L.; Nelson, S. Jr.

    1998-12-31

    Few, if any, economical alternatives exist for operators of small coal-fired boilers that require a flue-gas desulfurization system which does not generate wastes. A new duct-injection technology called Fluesorbent has been developed to help fill this gap. Fluesorbent FGD was intentionally designed so that the saturated SO{sub 2}-sorbent materials would be valuable soil amendments for agricultural or turf-grass land. Agricultural and turf grass studies recently commenced using spent Fluesorbent materials from an FGD pilot program at an Ohio power plant. In the first year of testing, alfalfa yields on field plots with the FGD by-products were approximately 250% greater than on plots with no treatment, and about 40% greater than on plots treated with an equivalent amount of agricultural lime. Because the FGD by-products contained trace elements from included fly ash, the chemical composition of the alfalfa was significantly improved. Detailed yield and chemical data are presented.

  5. Oxidative desulfurization of Tufanbeyli coal by hydrogen peroxide solution

    SciTech Connect

    Guru, M.; Sarioz, B.V.; Cakanyildirim, C.

    2008-07-01

    It is becoming popular to use fossil fuels efficiently since the necessary energy is mostly supplied from fossil fuels. Altough there are high lignite reserves, high sulfur content limits the efficient use of them. In this article, we aimed to convert combustible sulfur in coal to non-combustible sulfate form in the ash by oxidizing it with a hydrogen peroxide solution. The parameters affecting the sulfur conversion were determined to be: hydrogen peroxide concentration, reaction time, mean particle size at constant room temperature and shaking rate. The maximum desulfurization efficiency reached was 74% of the original combustible sulfur with 15% (w/w) hydrogen peroxide solution, 12 hours of reaction time, and 0.25 mm mean particle size.

  6. The durability of stabilized flue gas desulfurization sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, X.; Wolfe, W.E.; Hargraves, M.D.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of freeze-thaw cycling on the strength and durability of samples of compacted, stabilized, wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products are reported. The results of laboratory tests show a clear relationship between higher water contents and increasing vulnerability to freeze-thaw effects. In the samples tested, water contents at or above 40% were characteristic of all the freeze-thaw specimens exhibiting low strengths. Lime content and curing time were also shown to have a marked influence on the durability of the FGD material. It was shown that samples can maintain good strength under freeze-thaw conditions provided 5% lime was added before compaction and the time from compaction to first freeze was at least 60 days.

  7. Gases in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nightingale, P. D.; Liss, P. S.

    2003-12-01

    The annual gross and net primary productivity of the surface oceans is similar in size to that on land (IPCC, 2001). Marine productivity drives the cycling of gases such as oxygen (O2), dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methyl iodide (CH3I) which are of fundamental importance in studies of marine productivity, biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric chemistry, climate, and human health, respectively. For example, ˜30% of the world's population (1,570 million) is thought to be at risk of iodine-deficiency disorders that impair mental development (WHO, 1996). The main source of iodine to land is the supply of volatile iodine compounds produced in the ocean and then transferred to the atmosphere via the air-surface interface. The flux of these marine iodine species to the atmosphere is also thought to be important in the oxidation capacity of the troposphere by the production of the iodine oxide radical ( Alicke et al., 1999). A further example is that the net flux of CO2 from the atmosphere to the ocean, ˜1.7±0.5 Gt C yr-1, represents ˜30% of the annual release of anthropogenic CO2 to the atmosphere (IPCC, 2001). This net flux is superimposed on a huge annual flux (90 Gt C yr-1) of CO2 that is cycled "naturally" between the ocean and the atmosphere. The long-term sink for anthropogenic CO2 is recognized as transfer to the ocean from the atmosphere. A final example is the emission of volatile sulfur, in the form of DMS, from the oceans. Not only is an oceanic flux from the oceans needed to balance the loss of sulfur (a bioessential element) from the land via weathering, it has also been proposed as having a major control on climate due to the formation of cloud condensation nuclei (Charlson et al., 1987). Indeed, the existence of DMS and CH3I has been used as evidence in support of the Gaia hypothesis (Lovelock, 1979).There are at least four main processes that affect the concentration of gases in the water column: biological

  8. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Berggren, M.H.; Jha, M.C.

    1989-10-01

    AMAX Research Development Center (AMAX R D) investigated methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbents. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For this program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such as size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation. Two base case sorbents, a spherical pellet and a cylindrical extrude used in related METC-sponsored projects, were used to provide a basis for the aimed enhancement in durability and reactivity. Sorbent performance was judged on the basis of physical properties, single particle kinetic studies based on thermogravimetric (TGA) techniques, and multicycle bench-scale testing of sorbents. A sorbent grading system was utilized to quantify the characteristics of the new sorbents prepared during the program. Significant enhancements in both reactivity and durability were achieved for the spherical pellet shape over the base case formulation. Overall improvements to reactivity and durability were also made to the cylindrical extrude shape. The primary variables which were investigated during the program included iron oxide type, zinc oxide:iron oxide ratio, inorganic binder concentration, organic binder concentration, and induration conditions. The effects of some variables were small or inconclusive. Based on TGA studies and bench-scale tests, induration conditions were found to be very significant.

  9. Separation of Mercury from Flue Gas Desulfurization Scrubber Produced Gypsum

    SciTech Connect

    Hensman, Carl, E., P.h.D; Baker, Trevor

    2008-06-16

    Frontier Geosciences (Frontier; FGS) proposed for DOE Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER84669 that mercury control could be achieved in a wet scrubber by the addition of an amendment to the wet-FGD scrubber. To demonstrate this, a bench-scale scrubber and synthetic flue-gas supply was designed to simulate the limestone fed, wet-desulfurization units utilized by coal-fired power plants. Frontier maintains that the mercury released from these utilities can be controlled and reduced by modifying the existing equipment at installations where wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed. A key element of the proposal was FGS-PWN, a liquid-based mercury chelating agent, which can be employed as the amendment for removal of all mercury species which enter the wet-FGD scrubber. However, the equipment design presented in the proposal was inadequate to demonstrate these functions and no significant progress was made to substantiate these claims. As a result, funding for a Phase II continuation of this work will not be pursued. The key to implementing the technology as described in the proposal and report appears to be a high liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) between the flue-gas and the scrubber liquor, a requirement not currently implemented in existing wet-FGD designs. It may be that this constraint can be reduced through parametric studies, but that was not apparent in this work. Unfortunately, the bench-scale system constructed for this project did not function as intended and the funds and time requested were exhausted before the separation studies could occur.

  10. A NOVEL APPROACH TO CATALYTIC DESULFURIZATION OF COAL

    SciTech Connect

    John G. Verkade

    1997-08-31

    Remarkably mild conditions have been discovered for quantitative sulfur removal from dibenzothiophene and other organosulfur systems using relatively cheap elemental sodium. The project objectives are: (1) Optimize the coal desulfurization reaction with respect to time, temperature, coal type and the R groups (including R = H), and also on extraction, impregnation and sonication conditions; (2) Optimize the conditions for the HDS reaction (which allows the PR{sub 3} to function as an HDS catalyst for coal) with respect to R group, temperature, pressure, H{sub 2} gas flow rate and inert solvent presence; (3) Determine the product(s) and the pathway of the novel redox reaction that appears to quantitatively remove sulfur from dibenzothiophene (DBT) when R = Bu when FeCl{sub 3} is used as a catalyst; (4) Impregnate sulfur-laden coals with Fe{sup 3+} to ascertain if the PR{sub 3} desulfurization rate increases; (5) Determine the nature of the presently unextractable phosphorus compounds formed in solid coals by PR{sub 3}; (6) Explore the efficacy of PR{sub 3}/Fe{sup 3+} in removing sulfur from petroleum feedstocks, heavy ends (whether solid or liquid), coal tar and discarded tire rubber; (7) Explore the possibility of using water-soluble PR{sub 3} compounds and Fe{sup 3+} to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to remove the SPR{sub 3} (and Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) by water extraction (for subsequent HDS of the SPR{sub 3}); and (8) Explore the possibility of using solid-supported PR{sub 3} compounds (plus Fe{sup 3+} catalyst) to remove sulfur from petroleum feedstocks and heavy ends in order to keep the oil and the SPR{sub 3} (formed in the reaction) in easily separable phases.

  11. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} or ZnTiO{sub 3}), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2H{sub 2}S {yields} 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 2H{sub 2}O; Regeneration: 2ZnS + TiO{sub 2} + 3O{sub 2} {yields} Zn{sub 2} TiO{sub 4} + 2SO{sub 2} The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO{sub 2}.

  12. Ultrasound-promoted chemical desulfurization of Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, S.S.; Mensinger, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Ultrasound can increase the rates of chemical reactions by many orders of magnitude at conditions much less severe than if the process were conducted without ultrasound. IGT proposed this work to promote chemical reactions that remove organic sulfur from coal using ultrasound at relatively mild conditions. Two model compounds (dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) and dibenzothiophene (DBT)) impregnated on a carbon substrate, and two coals from the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program were used for this study. A number of agents, oxidizing chemicals and hydroperoxide precursors, were employed to react with organically bound sulfur in a variety of media. Desulfurization tests were conducted in a low-intensity ultrasonic bath unit and a high-intensity bench-scale ultrasonic unit. Results showed that DBS can be partially decomposed under milder conditions than those required for DBT. Hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBPO) in acetic acid solution were the most effective for oxidation of DBS and DBT. Mo(CO){sub 6} catalyst was effective for oxidative desulfurization of the C-DBS and C-DBT model coals. Ultrasonic irradiation appears to promote the oxidative reactions of DBS and DBT through its kinetic effect of transporting oxidants onto the DBS and DBT sites on the carbon substrate. Increasing the reactor pressure to 100 psig did not affect the overall DBT conversion. However, hydroperoxide precursors, such as tetralin and decalin (used neat) under 100 psig oxygen converted a small amount of DBT to DBT sulfoxide. A limited number of tests were conducted with IBC-101 coal using H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and TBPO in acetic acid. About 60% of the pyritic sulfur or 20% total sulfur was removed. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  13. Portable self-contained solar powered water purifier

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.

    1991-10-22

    This patent describes a portable self-contained solar powered water purifier. It comprises housing means for buoyantly supporting the purifier; solar cell means supported by the housing means above water to be treated; purification means depending from the housing means so as to be positioned in water to be treated and including sacrificial anode means providing ionized metallic ions for purifying the water and cathode means providing abstraction of electrons to facilitate the release of oxygen into the water; means for electrically connecting the solar cell means to the electrolytic purification means to enable the electrolytic purification means to purify water when the purifier is placed therein; and diode means for preventing reverse current flow between the anode means and cathode means.

  14. Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.

    1997-01-01

    A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

  15. Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.

    1997-01-14

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

  16. Scale-up of advanced hot-gas desulfurization sorbents. [Semi-annual report], October 1, 1995--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.; Adeyiga, A.A.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1996-08-01

    The overall objective of this project is to develop regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective of the project is to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high activity at temperatures as low as 343 {degrees}C(650{degrees}F). A number of formulations will be prepared and screened in a 1/2-inch fixed bed reactor at high pressure (1 to 20 atm) and high temperatures using simulated coal-derived fuel-gases. Screening criteria will include, chemical reactivity, stability, and regenerability over the temperature range of 343{degrees}C to 650{degrees}C. After initial screening, at least 3 promising formulations will be tested for 25-30 cycles of absorption and regeneration. One of the superior formulations with the best cyclic performance will be selected for investigating scale up parameters. The scaled-up formulation will be tested for long term durability and chemical reactivity. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: optimization of preparation; investigation of scale-up; and preparation of 100 lb batch.

  17. Hot-gas desulfurization. II. Use of gasifier ash in a fluidized-bed process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schrodt, J.T.

    1981-02-01

    Three gasifier coal ashes were used as reactant/sorbents in batch fluidized-beds to remove hydrogen sulfide from hot, made-up fuel gases. It is predominantly the iron oxide in the ash that reacts with and removes the hydrogen sulfide; the sulfur reappears in ferrous sulfide. Sulfided ashes were regenerated by hot, fluidizing streams of oxygen in air; the sulfur is recovered as sulfur dioxide, exclusively. Ash sorption efficiency and sulfur capacity increase and stabilize after several cycles of use. These two parameters vary directly with the iron oxide content of the ash and process temperature, but are independent of particle size in the range 0.01 - 0.02 cm. A western Kentucky No. 9 ash containing 22 weight percent iron as iron oxide sorbed 4.3 weight percent sulfur at 1200/sup 0/F with an ash sorption efficiency of 0.83 at ten percent breakthrough. A global, fluidized-bed, reaction rate model was fitted to the data and it was concluded that chemical kinetics is the controlling mechanism with a predicted activation energy of 19,600 Btu/lb mol. Iron oxide reduction and the water-gas-shift reaction were two side reactions that occurred during desulfurization. The regeneration reaction occurred very rapidly in the fluid-bed regime, and it is suspected that mass transfer is the controlling phenomenon.

  18. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  19. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  20. [Experimental investigation of nano-TiO2 on combustion and desulfurization Catalysis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shu-qin; Zhao, Yi; Tan, Qian; Xu, Pei-yao

    2008-02-01

    Experiment research of nanometer TiO2 catalytic combustion to CaO desulfurization was studied. Desulfurization effect was measured by the composition analysis of fly ash after combustion and the content of SO2 in flue gas. The effects of analytical grade CaO desulfurization by nanometer TiO2 addition, Ca/S molar ratio, nanometer TiO2 that was prepared at different conditions and combustion temperature were discussed. Desulfurization effects were compared with different coals and Ca-base agents by nanometer TiO2 addition. The reaction products wereanalyzed by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The combustion desulfurization mechanisms of CaO by nanometer TiO2 addition were discussed. The experiment results show that nanometer TiO2 has good catalytic effect to CaO combustion desulfurization. When nanometer TiO2 was added together with CaO, the optimal addition dosage of nanometer TiO2 is 8%, Ca/S molar ratio is 2 and the combustion temperature is 850 degrees C. The desulfurization efficiency of analytical and industrial grade CaO catalyzed by nanometer TiO2 can achieve to 87.8% and 60.3%, and it increased 13.4% and 29.6% than that without nanometer TiO2. The pore diameter and surface area of different coal ashes with nano-TiO2 addition increase because of the active centers of nano-TiO2 surface which are helpful to the diffusion of SO2 and reaction of SO2 to SO3 and increase the desulphurization efficiency of CaO. PMID:18613530

  1. Antisera against electrophoretically purified tubulin stimulate colchicine-binding activity.

    PubMed

    Aubin, J E; Subrahmanyan, L; Kalnins, V I; Ling, V

    1976-04-01

    Several rabbit antisera have been prepared against reduced and alkylated, electrophoretically purified tubulin isolated from chick brain. These antisera give a single precipitin line in Ouchterlony double diffusion plates when tested against partially purified tubulin, and label specifically microtubule- and tubulin-containing structures, such as mitotic spindles, cilia, and vinblastine-induced crystals, in a variety of cells. The same antisera also display the unique ability to stimulate the colchicine-binding activity of tubulin preparations from chick brain and Chinese hamster ovary tissue culture cells. This specific stimulation of colchicine binding activity is also obtained with the gamma globulin fractions purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation of these antisera. PMID:57619

  2. Testing a purified lanolin preparation by a randomized procedure.

    PubMed

    Edman, B; Möller, H

    1989-04-01

    Patients with a previous contact allergy to lanolin (wool alcohols and/or Amerchol L 101) were patch tested 1 to 4 years later with lanolin allergens, as well as purified anhydrous lanolin contained in a commercial cream. At this retest, only 20 out of 33 patients with a previous contact allergy to lanolin reacted to lanolin allergens, and only 1 to the purified lanolin (as is). None reacted to the commercial cream containing 6% purified lanolin, this being ascertained by patch test as well as by usage test. To avoid bias at reading, patch tests were applied in a randomized computer-based order and read blindly. PMID:2752739

  3. Physics of Hyperpolarized Noble Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Happer, William

    1999-11-01

    The production of highly spin-polarized (hyperpolarized) gases by optical pumping with lasers involves spin-dependent interactions of atoms in gases, liquids, solids and on surfaces. Although enough is understood about these interactions to allow large quantities of hyperpolarized gas to be prepared, some of the basic physics is still mysterious. A better understanding of the physics would lead to worthwhile improvements in the performance of polarization systems. The most important physics involved in the production of hyperpolarized gases will be reviewed, with particular emphasis on areas where the physics is still not understood.

  4. Environmental implications of anesthetic gases.

    PubMed

    Yasny, Jeffrey S; White, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, anesthetic gases have greatly enhanced the comfort and outcome for patients during surgery. The benefits of these agents have heavily outweighed the risks. In recent years, the attention towards their overall contribution to global climate change and the environment has increased. Anesthesia providers have a responsibility to minimize unnecessary atmospheric pollution by utilizing techniques that can lessen any adverse effects of these gases on the environment. Moreover, health care facilities that use anesthetic gases are accountable for ensuring that all anesthesia equipment, including the scavenging system, is effective and routinely maintained. Implementing preventive practices and simple strategies can promote the safest and most healthy environment. PMID:23241038

  5. Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases

    SciTech Connect

    Chin Cheng; Grimm, Rudolf; Julienne, Paul; Tiesinga, Eite

    2010-04-15

    Feshbach resonances are the essential tool to control the interaction between atoms in ultracold quantum gases. They have found numerous experimental applications, opening up the way to important breakthroughs. This review broadly covers the phenomenon of Feshbach resonances in ultracold gases and their main applications. This includes the theoretical background and models for the description of Feshbach resonances, the experimental methods to find and characterize the resonances, a discussion of the main properties of resonances in various atomic species and mixed atomic species systems, and an overview of key experiments with atomic Bose-Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and ultracold molecules.

  6. Noble gases in the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manuel, O. K.; Srinivasan, B.; Hennecke, E. W.; Sinclair, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon which were released by stepwise heating of lunar fines (15601.64) and (15271.65) were measured spectrometrically. The results of a composition of noble gases released from the lunar fines with noble gases in meteorites and in the earth are presented along with the isotopic composition of noble gases in lunar fines, in meteorites, and in the atmosphere. A study of two isotopically distinct components of trapped xenon in carbonaceous chondrites is also included.

  7. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. [Rhodococcus erythropolis, Thiobacillus acidophilus, Thiobacillus novellus

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-01-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA's of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  8. Molecular biological enhancement of coal desulfurization: Cloning and expression of the sulfoxide/sulfone/sulfonate/sulfate genes in Pseudomonads and Thiobacillae. Eleventh quarterly report

    SciTech Connect

    Krawiec, S.

    1992-08-01

    Research continues on desulfurization of coal using microorganisms. Topics reported on this quarter include: desulfurization with N1-36 (presumptively identified as Rhodochrous erythropolis), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of chromosomal DNA`s of Thiobacillus spp., and fresh isolates with the presumptive capacity to desulfurize dibenzothiophenes.

  9. A simple, general procedure for purifying restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed Central

    Bickle, T A; Pirrotta, V; Imber, R

    1977-01-01

    A simple, general method for purifying restriction endonucleases is described. The method employs precipitation of nucleic acids from crude extracts with polyethyleneimine followed by affinity chromatography on columns of heparin covalently linked to agarose. Most of the sixteen enzymes tested could be purified to a degree sufficient for DNA sequencing work by this method sometimes supplemented by at most one step of ion exchange chromatography. Images PMID:909783

  10. Three-qubit Protocol to Purify Generalized Werner States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarpour, M.; Ashrafpouri, F.

    2015-05-01

    Generalizing the two-qubit purification method of Bennett et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 722-725 1996), we present a three-qubit protocol, to purify partially entangled pairs of generalized Werner states, with application of controlled-not gates, projective measurements and Pauli rotations. The protocol is simple and recyclable and the fidelity of the purified states converge rapidly to 1, after a few cycles.

  11. Enhanced adsorptive desulfurization with flexible metal-organic frameworks in the presence of diethyl ether and water.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazmul Abedin; Yoon, Ji Woong; Chang, Jong-San; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-07-01

    Several metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) were employed in adsorptive desulfurization in the presence of oxygen-containing compounds (OCCs). Unlike conventional MOFs and activated carbon, flexible MOFs with a MIL-53 topology showed remarkable performances for the desulfurization in the presence of OCCs. PMID:27284597

  12. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; You, Changfu; Zhao, Suwei; Chen, Changhe; Qi, Haiying

    2008-03-01

    Semidry flue gas desulfurization with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH)2 content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH)2 particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH)2 particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH)2 particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. PMID:18441824

  13. Adhesive carrier particles for rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; You, Changfu; Song, Chenxing

    2010-06-15

    A rapidly hydrated sorbent for moderate-temperature dry flue gas desulfurization was prepared by rapidly hydrating adhesive carrier particles and lime. The circulation ash from a circulating fluidized bed boiler and chain boiler ash, both of which have rough surfaces with large specific surface areas and specific pore volumes, can improve the adhesion, abrasion resistance, and desulfurization characteristics of rapidly hydrated sorbent when used as the adhesive carrier particles. The adhesion ability of sorbent made from circulation ash is 67.4% higher than that of the existing rapidly hydrated sorbent made from fly ash, the abrasion ratio is 76.2% lower, and desulfurization ability is 14.1% higher. For sorbent made from chain boiler ash, the adhesion ability is increased by 74.7%, the desulfurization ability is increased by 30.3%, and abrasion ratio is decreased by 52.4%. The abrasion ratios of the sorbent made from circulation ash having various average diameters were all about 9%, and their desulfurization abilities were similar (approximately 150 mg/g). PMID:20481549

  14. FGD (flue gas desulfurization) mist eliminator system troubleshooting manual

    SciTech Connect

    Colley, J.D.; Jones, A.F.; Keeth, R.J. . Stearns-Roger Div.)

    1990-10-01

    Problems with the mist elimination system (MES) in the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems have occurred since the application of FGD technology to utility boilers in the late 1960s. Availability studies have found that failure of the MES is the second most common cause of FGD system outages. Moreover, MES problems often result in additional operating and maintenance costs and can cause particulate emission problems. This manual, prepared under sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), contains a troubleshooting methodology for systematically identifying and addressing the underlying cause(s) of MES problems. It is based on information collected in an ongoing EPRI program to determine the causes of MES problems and evaluate potential solutions. This program involves the characterization of MES problems and development of potential solutions at various utility FGD systems. Further work at utility FGD systems is planned along with the evaluation of various MES designs at a pilot test facility to continue to improve the ability to troubleshoot mist eliminators. 2 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Flue Gas Desulfurization Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM) Software Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-08-01

    In response to the data management needs of utility FGD systems, EPRI has sponsored the development of a computer program, the FGD Information Resource Manager (FGDIRM), designed to help efficiently manage the data associated with an FGD system and to perform calculations essential for monitoring the performance of an FGD process. FGDIRM is an integrated software package consisting of five application programs -- the Laboratory Data Manager, the Process Data Manager, the Mass balance, the Data Presentations application, and the Configuration application -- each designed to address specific needs in FGD data management. FGDIRM may be run on IBM compatible personal computers with 512 kilobytes of main memory and a hard disk. Typical uses of FGDIRM would be to assist in the routine monitoring of an FGD system or to help with troubleshooting activities by ''recreating'' events based on historical data. By efficiently managing process chemistry data from flue gas desulfurization systems, the FGDIRM integrated soft ware package can contribute to improved system reliability, performance, and cost-effectiveness. Sample FGDIRM applications include monitoring, optimizing, and troubleshooting system performance.

  16. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Bryan P.; Brown, Shannon R.; Senko, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SOx gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  17. Microbial communities associated with wet flue gas desulfurization systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, Bryan P; Brown, Shannon R; Senko, John M

    2012-01-01

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems are employed to remove SO(x) gasses that are produced by the combustion of coal for electric power generation, and consequently limit acid rain associated with these activities. Wet FGDs represent a physicochemically extreme environment due to the high operating temperatures and total dissolved solids (TDS) of fluids in the interior of the FGD units. Despite the potential importance of microbial activities in the performance and operation of FGD systems, the microbial communities associated with them have not been evaluated. Microbial communities associated with distinct process points of FGD systems at several coal-fired electricity generation facilities were evaluated using culture-dependent and -independent approaches. Due to the high solute concentrations and temperatures in the FGD absorber units, culturable halothermophilic/tolerant bacteria were more abundant in samples collected from within the absorber units than in samples collected from the makeup waters that are used to replenish fluids inside the absorber units. Evaluation of bacterial 16S rRNA genes recovered from scale deposits on the walls of absorber units revealed that the microbial communities associated with these deposits are primarily composed of thermophilic bacterial lineages. These findings suggest that unique microbial communities develop in FGD systems in response to physicochemical characteristics of the different process points within the systems. The activities of the thermophilic microbial communities that develop within scale deposits could play a role in the corrosion of steel structures in FGD systems. PMID:23226147

  18. Kinetics of hot-gas desulfurization sorbents for transport reactors

    SciTech Connect

    K.C. Kwon

    2000-01-01

    Hot-gas desulfurization for the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) process has been investigated by many researchers to remove effectively hydrogen sulfide with various metal oxide sorbents at elevated temperatures. Various metal oxide sorbents are formulated with metal oxides such as Fe, Co, Zn, and Ti. Initial reaction kinetics of formulated sorbents with hydrogen sulfide is studied in the presence of various amounts of moisture and hydrogen at various reaction temperatures. The objectives of this research are to study initial reaction kinetics for a sorbent-hydrogen sulfide heterogeneous reaction system, to investigate effects of concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, and moisture on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents, to understand effects of space time of reaction gas mixtures on initial reaction kinetics of the sorbent-hydrogen sulfide system, and to evaluate effects of temperature and sorbent amounts on dynamic absorption of H{sub 2}S into sorbents. Experimental data on initial reaction kinetics of hydrogen sulfide with metal oxide sorbents were obtained with a 0.83-cm{sup 3} differential reactor. The reactivity of MCRH-67 sorbent and AHI-1 was examined. These sorbents were obtained from the Research Triangle Institute (RTI). The sorbents in the form of 70 {micro}m particles are reacted with 1,000--4,000 ppm hydrogen sulfide at 450--600 C. The range of space time of reaction gas mixtures is 0.03--0.09 s. The range of reaction duration is 4--14,400 s.

  19. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Lizama, H.M.; Scott, T.C.; Scott, C.D.

    1995-10-17

    A method is described for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the ``Sulfate Reducing Bacteria``. These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing. 5 figs.

  20. Apparatus and method for the desulfurization of petroleum by bacteria

    DOEpatents

    Lizama, Hector M.; Scott, Timothy C.; Scott, Charles D.

    1995-01-01

    A method for treating petroleum with anaerobic microorganisms acting as biocatalysts that can remove sulfur atoms from hydrocarbon molecules, under anaerobic conditions, and then convert the sulfur atoms to hydrogen sulfide. The microorganisms utilized are from the family known as the "Sulfate Reducing Bacteria." These bacteria generate metabolic energy from the oxidation of organic compounds, but use oxidized forms of sulfur as an electron acceptor. Because the biocatalyst is present in the form of bacteria in an aqueous suspension, whereas the reacting substrate consists of hydrocarbon molecules in an organic phase, the actual desulfurization reaction takes place at the aqueous-organic interphase. To ensure adequate interfacial contacting and mass transfer, a biphasic electrostatic bioreactor system is utilized. The bioreactor is utilized to disperse and recoalesce a biocatalyst contained in the aqueous liquid phase into the organic liquid phase containing the sulfur. High-intensity electrical fields rupture the aqueous drops into a plurality of microdroplets and induce continuous coalescence and redispersion as the microdroplets travel through the organic phase, thus increasing surface area. As the aqueous microdroplets progress through the organic phase, the biocatalyst then reacts with the sulfur to produce hydrogen sulfide which is then removed from the bioreactor. The organic liquid, now free of the sulfur, is ready for immediate use or further processing.

  1. Revegetation of flue gas desulfurization sludge pond disposal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Artiola, J.F.

    1994-12-01

    A comprehensive search of published literature was conducted to summarize research undertaken to date on revegetation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) waste disposal ponds. A review of the physical and chemical properties of FGD sludges and wastes with similar characteristics is also included in order to determine the advantages and limitations of FGD sludge for plant growth. No specific guidelines have been developed for the revegetation of FGD sludge disposal sites. Survey studies showed that the wide-ranging composition of FGD wastes was determined primarily by the sulfur dioxide and other flue gas scrubbing processes used at powerplants. Sulfate rich (>90%CaSO{sub 4}) FGD sludges are physically and chemically more stable, and thus more amenable to revegetation. Because of lack of macronutrients and extremely limited microbial activity, FBD sludge ponds presented a poor plant growth environment without amendment. Studies showed the natural process of inoculation of the FGD sludge with soil microbes that promote plant growth be can after disposal but proceeded slowly. Revegetation studies reviewed showed that FGD sludges amended with soils supported a wider variety of plant species better and longer than abandoned FGD ponds. Two major types of plants have been successful in revegetation of FGD waste ponds and similar wastes: salt-tolerant plants and aquatic plants. A comprehensive list of plant species with potential for regetation of FGD sludge disposal pond sites is presented along with successful revegetation techniques.

  2. Producing ammonium sulfate from flue gas desulfurization by-products

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chou, I.-Ming; Bruinius, J.A.; Benig, V.; Chou, S.-F.J.; Carty, R.H.

    2005-01-01

    Emission control technologies using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have been widely adopted by utilities burning high-sulfur fuels. However, these technologies require additional equipment, greater operating expenses, and increased costs for landfill disposal of the solid by-products produced. The financial burdens would be reduced if successful high-volume commercial applications of the FGD solid by-products were developed. In this study, the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate from FGD residues by allowing it to react with ammonium carbonate in an aqueous solution was preliminarily assessed. Reaction temperatures of 60, 70, and 80??C and residence times of 4 and 6 hours were tested to determine the optimal conversion condition and final product evaluations. High yields (up to 83%) of ammonium sulfate with up to 99% purity were achieved under relatively mild conditions. The optimal conversion condition was observed at 60??C and a 4-hour residence time. The results of this study indicate the technical feasibility of producing ammonium sulfate fertilizer from an FGD by-product. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Inc.

  3. Economic assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bierman, G. R.; May, E. H.; Mirabelli, R. E.; Pow, C. N.; Scardino, C.; Wan, E. I.

    1981-09-01

    This report presents the results of a project sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC). The purpose of the study was to perform an economic and market assessment of advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes for application to coal-fired electric utility plants. The time period considered in the study is 1981 through 1990, and costs are reported in 1980 dollars. The task was divided into the following four subtasks: (1) determine the factors affecting FGD cost evaluations; (2) select FGD processes to be cost-analyzed; (3) define the future electric utility FGD system market; and (4) perform cost analyses for the selected FGD processes. The study was initiated in September 1979, and separate reports were prepared for the first two subtasks. The results of the latter two subtasks appear only in this final reprot, since the end-date of those subtasks coincided with the end-date of the overall task. The Subtask 1 report, Criteria and Methods for Performing FGD Cost Evaluations, was completed in October 1980. A slightly modified and condensed version of that report appears as appendix B to this report. The Subtask 2 report, FGD Candidate Process Selection, was completed in January 1981, and the principal outputs of that subtask appear in Appendices C and D to this report.

  4. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, D.; Hepworth, M.T.

    1993-09-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies at the US Steel Fundamental Research Laboratories in Monroeville, PA, by E.T. Turkdogan indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}/O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This presentation gives the thermodynamic background for consideration of manganese-based sorbents as an alternative to zinc ferrite. To date the work which has been in progress for nine months is limited at this stage to thermogravimetric testing of four formulations of manganese-alumina sorbents to determine the optimum conditions of pelletization and induration to produce reactive pellets.

  5. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Ben-Slimane, R.

    1994-12-01

    The focus of work being performed on Hot Coal Gas Desulfurization at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center is primarily in the use of zinc ferrite and zinc titanate sorbents; however, prior studies indicated that an alternate sorbent, manganese dioxide-containing ore in mixture with alumina (75 wt % ore + 25 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) may be a viable alternative to zinc-based sorbents. Manganese, for example, has a lower vapor pressure in the elemental state than zinc hence it is not as likely to undergo depletion from the sorbent surface upon loading and regeneration cycles. Also manganese oxide is less readily reduced to the elemental state than iron hence the range of reduction potentials for oxygen is somewhat greater than for zinc ferrite. In addition, thermodynamic analysis of the manganese-oxygen-sulfur system shows it to be less amenable to sulfation than zinc ferrite. Potential also exists for utilization of manganese at higher temperatures than zinc ferrite or zinc titanate. This annual topical report documents progress in pelletizing and testing via thermo-gravimetric analysis of individual pellet formulations of manganese ore/alumina combinations and also manganese carbonate/alumina with two binders, dextrin and bentonite.

  6. Enhanced durability of desulfurization sorbents for fluidized-bed applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, R.P.; Gangwal, S.K.

    1991-06-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power systems require the development of high-temperature desulfurization sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier down to very low levels. The objective of this investigation was to identify and demonstrate methods for enhancing the long-term chemical reactivity and mechanical strength of zinc ferrite, a leading regenerable sorbent, for fluidized-bed applications. Fluidized sorbent beds offer significant potential in IGCC systems because of their ability to control the highly exothermic regeneration involved. However, fluidized beds require a durable, attrition-resistant sorbent in the 100--300 {mu}m size range. A bench-scale high-temperature, high- pressure (HTHP) fluidized-bed reactor (7.6-cm I.D.) system capable of operating up to 24 atm and 800{degree}C was designed, built and tested. A total of 175 sulfidation-regeneration cycles were carried out using KRW-type coal gas with various zinc ferrite formulations. A number of sorbent manufacturing techniques including spray drying, impregnation, crushing and screening, and granulation were investigated. While fluidizable sorbents prepared by crushing durable pellets and screening had acceptable sulfur capacity, they underwent excessive attrition during multicycle testing. The sorbent formulations prepared by a proprietary technique were found to have excellent attrition resistance and acceptable chemical reactivity during multicycle testing. However, zinc ferrite was found to be limited to 550{degree}C, beyond which excessive sorbent weakening due to chemical transformations, e.g., iron oxide reduction, was observed.

  7. SCALE-UP OF ADVANCED HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    K. JOTHIMURUGESAN; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop advanced regenerable sorbents for hot gas desulfurization in IGCC systems. The specific objective was to develop durable advanced sorbents that demonstrate a strong resistance to attrition and chemical deactivation, and high sulfidation activity at temperatures as low as 343 C (650 F). Twenty sorbents were synthesized in this work. Details of the preparation technique and the formulations are proprietary, pending a patent application, thus no details regarding the technique are divulged in this report. Sulfidations were conducted with a simulated gas containing (vol %) 10 H{sub 2}, 15 CO, 5 CO{sub 2}, 0.4-1 H{sub 2}S, 15 H{sub 2}O, and balance N{sub 2} in the temperature range of 343-538 C. Regenerations were conducted at temperatures in the range of 400-600 C with air-N{sub 2} mixtures. To prevent sulfation, catalyst additives were investigated that promote regeneration at lower temperatures. Characterization were performed for fresh, sulfided and regenerated sorbents.

  8. Evaluation of sulfur-reducing microorganisms for organic desulfurization. [Pyrococcus furiosus

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of substantial portion of the sulfur in Illinois coal is organic, microbial desulfurization of sulfidic and thiophenic functionalities could hold great potential for completing pyritic sulfur removal. We are testing the hypothesis that organic sulfur can be reductively removed as H{sub 2}S through the activities of anaerobic microorganisms. Our objectives for this year include the following: (1) To obtain cultures that will reductively desulfurize thiophenic model compounds. In addition to crude oil enrichments begun last year, we sampled municipal sewage sludge. (2) To continue to work toward optimizing the activity of the DBDS-reducing cultures obtained during the previous year. (3) To expand coal desulfurization work to include other coals including Illinois Basin Coal 101 and a North Dakota lignite, which might be more susceptible to the dibenzyldisulfide reducing cultures due to its lower rank. (4) To address the problem of sulfide sorption, by investigating the sorption capacity of coals in addition to Illinois Basin Coal 108.

  9. Influence of Dust on High Temperature Desulfurization of Iron Oxide Sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Huang, J.; Wu, J.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Y.

    2002-09-19

    The understanding of influence of deposited dust on desulfurization performance of sorbent is of significance for developing combined processes for simultaneous desulfurization and dust removal in hot gas cleanup. In this paper, the influence of dust from a fluidized-bed coal gasifier on iron oxide desulfurization sorbent made by a kind of waste material containing iron oxide was systemically evaluated at different temperatures (400 C-550 C) and at different quantity of dust (0.5%-5%) in a fixed-bed reactor. The result showed that dust could interact with sorbent and adversely influenced sulfur capacity and sulfidation rate of sorbent. The influence was promoted with increasing sulfidation temperature and quantity of dust. But below 450 C, the interaction could be neglected. Kinetic studies were also conducted using the grain model. Deposition of dust on the surface of the sorbent could cause the deterioration of mass transfer and the decrease of the effective diffusivities.

  10. Reusing pretreated desulfurization slag to improve clinkerization and clinker grindability for energy conservation in cement manufacture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Liang; Chang, Juu-En; Shih, Pai-Haung; Ko, Ming-Sheng; Chang, Yi-Kuo; Chiang, Li-Choung

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to combine the physical pretreatments of grinding, sieving, and magnetic-separation processes to reclaim iron-rich materials from the desulfurization slag, and to use the remainder for cement clinker production. The iron-rich materials can be separated out efficiently by grinding for 30 min and sieving with a 0.3 mm mesh. The non-magnetic fraction of the particles smaller than 0.3 mm was in the majority, and proved to be suitable for use as a cement raw material. The raw mixes prepared with a pretreated desulfurization slag had a relatively high reactivity, and the temperature at which alite forms was significantly reduced during the clinkerization process. The clinkers produced with 10% desulfurization slag had a high level of alite and good grindability. Generally, the improvements in clinkerization and clinker grindability are beneficial to energy conservation in cement manufacture. PMID:20493627

  11. Effect of molten caustic leaching on demineralization and desulfurization of asphaltite

    SciTech Connect

    Duz, M.Z.; Erdogan, S.; Saydut, A.; Merdivan, M.; Hamamci, C.

    2008-07-01

    Molten caustic leaching process is effective in reducing significant amounts of ash-forming minerals, pyritic sulfur, and organic sulfur from solid fossil fuels. The effect of leaching asphaltite samples from Seguruk and Harbul collieries of Sirnak and Silopi asphaltite fields (situated in the Southeast Anatolia region of Turkey) with molten sodium hydroxide and followed by mild acid on demineralization and desulfurization was investigated. The effects of alkali/asphaltite ratio, time, and temperature on the leaching efficiency were detailed, and the experimental results are presented here. Chemical demineralization and desulfurization of asphaltite samples using molten sodium hydroxide were investigated in the temperature range of 200-400{sup o}C. The percentage of demineralization and desulfurization increased with the increase in alkali/asphaltite ratio. The removal of total sulfur and ash increased with increasing leaching temperature and time. Most of the inorganic sulfur and a significant portion of the organic sulfur were removed.

  12. Kinetics of Mn-based sorbents for hot coal gas desulfurization: Quarterly progress report, December 15, 1994--March 15, 1995. Task 2 -- Exploratory experimental studies: Single pellet tests; Rate mechanism analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1995-03-15

    In earlier studies, zinc ferrite and zinc titanate were developed as regenerable sorbents capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from hot fuel gases originating from coal gasification. Manganese ore as well as manganese carbonate, precipitated from aqueous solutions, combined with alumina to form indurated pellets hold promise of being a highly-effective, inexpensive, regenerable sorbent for hot fuel gases. Although the thermodynamics for sulfur removal by manganese predicts somewhat higher hydrogen sulfide over-pressures (i.e. poorer degree of desulfurization) than can be accomplished with zinc-based sorbents, zinc tends to be reduced to the metallic state under coal gasification conditions resulting in loss of capacity and reactivity by volatilization of reactive surfaces. This volatilization phenomenon limits the temperatures for which desulfurization can be effectively accomplished to less than 500 C for zinc ferrite and 700 C for zinc titanate; whereas, manganese-based sorbents can be utilized at temperatures well in temperatures exceeding 700 C. Also the regeneration of manganese-based pellets under oxidizing conditions may be superior to that of zinc titanate since they can be loaded from a simulated reducing coal-derived gas and then be regenerated at higher temperatures (up to 1,300 C). The topics that will be addressed by this study include: preparation of an effective manganese-based sorbent, thermodynamics and kinetics of sulfur removal from hot fuel gases by this sorbent, analysis of kinetics and mechanisms by which sulfur is absorbed by the sorbent (i.e., whether by gaseous diffusion, surface-controlled reaction, ore pore diffusion), and cyclic sulfidation and regeneration of the sorbent and recovery of the sulfur.

  13. Coke oven gas desulfurization: at Republic Steel's New Coking Facility, Warren, OH

    SciTech Connect

    Boak, S.C.; Prucha, D.G.; Turic, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Our performance test indicates that the Sulfiban process is an effective method for removing H/sub 2/S from coke-oven gas. The process is able to handle variations in coke-oven gas flow and composition. Continuing efforts are underway to maintain optimum desulfurization conditions while trying to reduce waste production and MEA consumption. The problems which have prevented us from operating continuously have given us a better understanding of the process. This has contributed to better plant operations and greater equipment reliability for us to obtain continuous coke-oven gas desulfurization. 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Desulfurization with a modified limestone formulation in an industrial CFBC boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Young Goo Park; Seung Ho Kim

    2006-02-01

    This work presents a practical result of experimental investigation of the limestone particle size effect on de-SOx from a circulating fluidized bed combustion (CFBC) boiler that burns domestic anthracite and is the first industrial scale in Korea. Because of combustion problems such as clinker formation, fine limestone has not been used as a desulfurization agent. The present test, however, showed that higher content (up to 50%) of the particles under 0.1 mm did not entail any malfunction in a modern CFBC system. In addition, the desulfurization efficiency was found to be comparable to the old mode of limestone sorbents. 17 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Abating environmentally harmful waste gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sridhar, S.; Sichen, Du; Pal, U. B.; Seetharaman, S.

    2002-05-01

    A gas-purification method, based on the condensation of nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon-containing environmentally hazardous gases produced from industrial processes, is proposed in this article. The method, which utilizes the cooling capacity of waste nitrogen in the oxygen plant to condense the hazardous gases, is capable of removing hazardous impurities up to 99.98%. Theoretical calculations underlying the condensation process are presented employing gases produced in a blast furnace and coke oven in an integrated steel plant. The cooling power required for the condensation process is calculated using the waste nitrogen generated from an oxygen plant that generates captive oxygen for the steel plant. Design modifications that need to be made to the oxygen plant in order to utilize the cooling power of the waste nitrogen gas are also presented. As a case study, the advantages of the method are illustrated with purification of coke-oven gas. The economic impact and the investment aspects are also discussed.

  16. Isothermal compressors for process gases

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederuh, E.; Meinhart, D. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports on isothermal compressors which are more efficient for all gases. The study of several representative gases considered stage efficiencies, pressure ratios and pressure losses of the intercoolers. Generally there are two ways to reduce power consumption of a gas compression process: minimize losses of the compressor or improve the thermodynamics of the process. But there are some new ways to reduce losses of turbocompressors. Losses of the impeller labyrinth seals and the balance piston labyrinth seal can be reduced by optimizing the labyrinth geometry and minimizing labyrinth clearances. Therefore, conventional labyrinth seals are still being studied and will be improved.

  17. Conduction of Electricity through Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, J. J.; Thomson, G. P.

    2013-06-01

    1. Electrical conductivity of gases in a normal state; 2. Properties of a gas when in a conducting state; 3. Mobility of ions; 4. Mathematical theory of the conduction of electricity through a gas containing ions; 5. Effect produced by a magnetic field on the motion of the ions; 6. Determination of the ratio of the charge to the mass of an ion; 7. Determination of the charge carried by the negative ion; 8. On some physical properties of gaseous ions; 9. Ionisation by incandescent solids; 10. Ionisation in gases from flames; 11. Ionisation by light. Photo-electric effects; Name index; Subject index.

  18. Quantum Gases in Optical Lattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmettler, Peter; Kollath, Corinna

    2015-09-01

    The experimental realization of correlated quantum phases with ultracold gases in optical lattices and their theoretical understanding has witnessed remarkable progress during the last decade. In this review we introduce basic concepts and tools to describe the many-body physics of quantum gases in optical lattices. This includes the derivation of effective lattice Hamiltonians from first principles and an overview of the emerging quantum phases. Additionally, state-of-the-art numerical tools to quantitatively treat bosons or fermions on different lattices are introduced.

  19. Purify First: rapid expression and purification of proteins from XMRV.

    PubMed

    Gillette, William K; Esposito, Dominic; Taylor, Troy E; Hopkins, Ralph F; Bagni, Rachel K; Hartley, James L

    2011-04-01

    Purifying proteins from recombinant sources is often difficult, time-consuming, and costly. We have recently instituted a series of improvements in our protein purification pipeline that allows much more accurate choice of expression host and conditions and purification protocols. The key elements are parallel cloning, small scale parallel expression and lysate preparation, and small scale parallel protein purification. Compared to analyzing expression data only, results from multiple small scale protein purifications predict success at scale-up with greatly improved reliability. Using these new procedures we purified eight of nine proteins from xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV) on the first attempt at large scale. PMID:21146612

  20. Catalytic oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbon fuels using air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaman, Ramanathan

    Conventional approaches to oxidative desulfurization of liquid hydrocarbons involve use of high-purity, expensive water soluble peroxide for oxidation of sulfur compounds followed by post-treatment for removal of oxidized sulfones by extraction. Both are associated with higher cost due to handling, storage of oxidants and yield loss with extraction and water separation, making the whole process more expensive. This thesis explores an oxidative desulfurization process using air as an oxidant followed by catalytic decomposition of sulfones thereby eliminating the aforementioned issues. Oxidation of sulfur compounds was realized by a two step process in which peroxides were first generated in-situ by catalytic air oxidation, followed by catalytic oxidation of S compounds using the peroxides generated in-situ completing the two step approach. By this technique it was feasible to oxidize over 90% of sulfur compounds present in real jet (520 ppmw S) and diesel (41 ppmw S) fuels. Screening of bulk and supported CuO based catalysts for peroxide generation using model aromatic compound representing diesel fuel showed that bulk CuO catalyst was more effective in producing peroxides with high yield and selectivity. Testing of three real diesel fuels obtained from different sources for air oxidation over bulk CuO catalyst showed different level of effectiveness for generating peroxides in-situ which was consistent with air oxidation of representative model aromatic compounds. Peroxides generated in-situ was then used as an oxidant to oxidize sulfur compounds present in the fuel over MoO3/SiO2 catalyst. 81% selectivity of peroxides for oxidation of sulfur compounds was observed on MoO3/SiO2 catalyst at 40 °C and under similar conditions MoO3/Al2O3 gave only 41% selectivity. This difference in selectivity might be related to the difference in the nature of active sites of MoO3 on SiO2 and Al2O 3 supports as suggested by H2-TPR and XRD analyses. Testing of supported and bulk Mg

  1. Shawnee flue gas desulfurization computer model users manual

    SciTech Connect

    Sudhoff, F.A.; Torstrick, R.L.

    1985-03-01

    In conjunction with the US Enviromental Protection Agency sponsored Shawnee test program, Bechtel National, Inc., and the Tennessee Valley Authority jointly developed a computer model capable of projecting preliminary design and economics for lime- and limestone-scrubbing flue gas desulfurization systems. The model is capable of projecting relative economics for spray tower, turbulent contact absorber, and venturi-spray tower scrubbing options. It may be used to project the effect on system design and economics of variations in required SO/sub 2/ removal, scrubber operating parameters (gas velocity, liquid-to-gas (L/G) ration, alkali stoichiometry, liquor hold time in slurry recirculation tanks), reheat temperature, and scrubber bypass. It may also be used to evaluate alternative waste disposal methods or additives (MgO or adipic acid) on costs for the selected process. Although the model is not intended to project the economics of an individual system to a high degree of accuracy, it allows prospective users to quickly project comparative design and costs for limestone and lime case variations on a common design and cost basis. The users manual provides a general descripton of the Shawnee FGD computer model and detailed instructions for its use. It describes and explains the user-supplied input data which are required such as boiler size, coal characteristics, and SO/sub 2/ removal requirments. Output includes a material balance, equipment list, and detailed capital investment and annual revenue requirements. The users manual provides information concerning the use of the overall model as well as sample runs to serve as a guide to prospective users in identifying applications. The FORTRAN-based model is maintained by TVA, from whom copies or individual runs are available. 25 refs., 3 figs., 36 tabs.

  2. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    G. Blythe; B. Marsh; S. Miller; C. Richardson; M. Richardson

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI have co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems and to future FGD installations. Field tests have been conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit has been used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months at each of three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998 and at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal in the fall of 1999. Testing at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, began in June 2000 and was completed at the end of January 2001. This Topical Reports includes results from Site 3; results from Sites 1 and 2 were reported previously. At Site 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand bed reactors and in a commercially available form as a coated honeycomb structure. Field testing has been supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results related to the Site 3 field effort are also included and discussed in this Topical Report.

  3. ENHANCED CONTROL OF MERCURY BY WET FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2001-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and EPRI co-funded this project to improve the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants equipped with wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The project has investigated catalytic oxidation of vapor-phase elemental mercury to a form that is more effectively captured in wet FGD systems. If successfully developed, the process could be applicable to over 90,000 MW of utility generating capacity with existing FGD systems, and to future FGD installations. Field tests were conducted to determine whether candidate catalyst materials remain active towards mercury oxidation after extended flue gas exposure. Catalyst life will have a large impact on the cost effectiveness of this potential process. A mobile catalyst test unit was used to test the activity of four different catalyst materials for a period of up to six months each at three utility sites. Catalyst testing was completed at the first site, which fires Texas lignite, in December 1998; at the second test site, which fires a Powder River Basin subbituminous coal, in November 1999; and at the third site, which fires a medium- to high-sulfur bituminous coal, in January 2001. Results of testing at each of the three sites were reported in previous technical notes. At Site 1, catalysts were tested only as powders dispersed in sand bed reactors. At Sites 2 and 3, catalysts were tested in two forms, including powders dispersed in sand and in commercially available forms such as extruded pellets and coated honeycomb structures. This final report summarizes and presents results from all three sites, for the various catalyst forms tested. Field testing was supported by laboratory tests to screen catalysts for activity at specific flue gas compositions, to investigate catalyst deactivation mechanisms and methods for regenerating spent catalysts. Laboratory results are also summarized and discussed in this report.

  4. PRODUCTION OF CONSTRUCTION AGGREGATES FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    Through a cooperative agreement with DOE, the Research and Development Department of CONSOL Inc. (CONSOL R and D) is teaming with SynAggs, Inc. and Duquesne Light to design, construct, and operate a 500 lb/h continuous pilot plant to produce road construction aggregate from a mixture of wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, fly ash, and other components. The proposed project is divided into six tasks: (1) Project Management; (2) Mix Design Evaluation; (3) Process Design; (4) Construction; (5) Start-Up and Operation; and (6) Reporting. In this quarter, Tasks 1 and 2 were completed. A project management plan (Task 1) was issued to DOE on October 22, 1998 . The mix design evaluation (Task 2) with Duquesne Light Elrama Station FGD sludge and Allegheny Power Hatfields Ferry Station fly ash was completed. Eight semi-continuous bench-scale tests were conducted to examine the effects of mix formulation on aggregate properties. A suitable mix formulation was identified to produce aggregates that meet specifications of the American Association of State High Transport Officials (AASHTO) as Class A aggregate for use in highway construction. The mix formulation was used in designing the flow sheet of the pilot plant. The process design (Task 3) is approximately 80% completed. Equipment was evaluated to comply with design requirements. The design for the curing vessel was completed by an outside engineering firm. All major equipment items for the pilot plant, except the curing vessel, were ordered. Pilot plant construction (Task 4) was begun in October. The Hazardous Substance Plan was issued to DOE. The Allegheny County (PA) Heat Department determined that an air emission permit is not required for operation of the pilot plant.

  5. Organic coatings in simulated flue gas desulfurization environments: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Leidheiser, H. Jr.; White, M.L.; Mills, D.J.

    1987-10-01

    Coatings prepared from the following resin systems and applied to steel were evaluated in simulated flue gas desulfurization environments: nine combinations of epoxy resin and amine hardeners, three vinyl systems, a polyester, a fluoropolymer, a urethane/asphalt and an electrostatically sprayed, fusion-bonded epoxy. The evaluation techniques used on the coatings before and after environmental exposure included: corrosion potential, AC conductance at 2 kHz, DC resistance, weight gain and tensile adhesion. The results for the nine combinations of three epoxy resins and three hardeners exposed to 0.1M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and to H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing other salts and adjusted to pH 0.5, showed that the hardener had more effect on behavior than the resin; a bisphenol A and two novolac resins showed the poorest performance when hardened with a mixed aromatic/aliphatic amine, and the best performance when hardened with an aliphatic or cycloaliphatic amine. Two epoxy systems showed particularly good performance: a bisphenol A hardened with a cycloaliphatic amine and a novolac hardened with an aliphatic amine. The electrostatically applied, fusion-bonded epoxy coating showed no evidence of deterioration of the coating nor corrosion of the substrate after 5000 h exposure to 0.1M H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Epoxy and vinyl coatings exhibited no cracking and no corrosion in welded and non-welded areas after thermal cycling twelve times between room temperature and 100 to 120/sup 0/C followed by exposure to acid. The epoxy coatings had better impact resistance after thermal cycling than the vinyl coatings. 15 refs., 20 figs., 23 tabs.

  6. Analytical chemistry of the citrate process for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Marchant, W.N.; May, S.L.; Simpson, W.W.; Winter, J.K.; Beard, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The citrate process for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) is a product of continuing research by the US Bureau of Mines to meet the goal of minimizing the objectionable effects of minerals industry operations upon the environment. The reduction of SO/sub 2/ in solution by H/sub 2/S to produce elemental sulfur by the citrate process is extremely complex and results in solutions that contain at least nine different sulfur species. Process solution analysis is essential to a clear understanding of process chemistry and its safe, efficient operation. The various chemical species, the approximate ranges of their concentrations in citrate process solutions, and the analytical methods evolved to determine them are hydrogen sulfide (approx. 0M to 0.06M) by specific ion electrode, polysulfides (unknown) by ultraviolet (uv) spectrophotometry, elemental sulfur (approx. 0M to approx. 0.001M dissolved, approx. 0M to approx. 0.1M suspended) by uv spectrophotometry, thiosulfate (approx. 0M to approx. 0.25M) by iodometry or high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), polythionates (approx. 0M to approx. 0.01M) by thin layer chromatography (TLC), dithionite (searched for but not detected in process solutions) by polarography or TLC, bisulfite (approx. 0M to 0.2M) by iodometry, sulfate (approx. 0M to 1M) by a Bureau-developed gravimetric procedure, citric acid (approx. 0M to 0.5M) by titration or visible colorimetry, glycolic acid (approx. 0M to 1M) by HPLC, sodium (approx. 1.5M) by flame photometry, and chloride by argentometric titration.

  7. Adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Imteaz; Jhung, Sung Hwa

    2016-01-15

    With the increasing worldwide demand for energy, utilization of fossil fuels is increasing proportionally. Additionally, new and unconventional energy sources are also being utilized at an increasing rate day-by-day. These sources, along with some industrial processes, result in the exposal of several sulfur- and nitrogen-containing compounds (SCCs and NCCs, respectively) to the environment, and the exposure is one of the greatest environmental threats in the recent years. Although, several methods were established for the removal of these pollutants during the last few decades, recent advancements in adsorptive desulfurization and denitrogenation (ADS and ADN, respectively) with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) make this the most promising and remarkable method. Therefore, many research groups are currently involved with ADS and ADN with MOFs, and the results are improving gradually by modifying the MOF adsorbents according to several specific adsorption mechanisms. In this review, ADS and ADN studies are thoroughly discussed for both liquid-phase and gas-phase adsorption. The MOF modification procedures, which are important for improved adsorption, are also described. To improve the knowledge among the scientific community, it is very important to understand the detailed chemistry and mechanism involved in a chemical process, which also creates the possibility and pathway for further developments in research and applications. Therefore, the mechanisms related to the adsorption procedures are also discussed in detail. From this review, it can be expected that the scientific community will obtain an understanding of the current state of ADS and ADN, their importance, and some encouragement and insight to take the research knowledge base to a higher level. PMID:26368800

  8. Flue gas desulfurization by rotating beds. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, N.; Keyvani, M.; Coskundeniz, A.

    1992-12-01

    The operating and mass transfer characteristics of rotating foam metal beds were studied to determine the potential for flue gas desulfurization. This is a final technical report on the work supported by DOE {number_sign}FG22-87-PC79924. The report is divided into two sections, Part 1 deals primarily with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, and Part 2 covers the mass transfer characteristics of S0{sub 2} absorption in water-lime slurries. Rotating foam metal beds are in essence packed towers operated in high gravitational fields. The foam metal bed is in the form of a cylindrical donut, or torus, and is rotated to produced the high centrifugal forces. The liquid phase enters the bed at the inner surface of the torus and is pulled by the field through the bed. Gas flows countercurrent to the liquid. The bed packing can have a very large specific surface areas and not flood. Possible benefits include much smaller height of a transfer unit resulting in smaller equipment and supporting structures, reduced solvent inventory, faster response with improved process control, reduced pressure drop, and shorter startup and shut-down times. This work is concerned broadly with the operating characteristics of rotating beds, the objectives being to (1) determine the pressure drop through the rotating bed; (2) determine the power required to operate the beds, (3) investigate the residence time distribution of the liquid phase in the beds; and (4) determine the mass transfer coefficients of S0{sub 2} absorption. Three packings of differing specific surface areas were studied, with areas ranging from 656 to 2952 m{sub 2}/m{sub 3}. Liquid flow rates to 36 kg/s*m{sub 2}, gas flow rate to 2.2 kg/s*m{sub 2}, and gravitational fields to 300 g were covered in this study.

  9. Dibenzothiophene desulfurization capability and evolutionary divergence of newly isolated bacteria.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nasrin; Ghauri, Muhammad A; Akhtar, Kalsoom

    2016-08-01

    Metabolically microorganisms are diverse, and they are capable of transforming almost every known group of chemical compounds present in coal and oil in various forms. In this milieu, one of the important microbial metabolic processes is the biodesulfurization [cleavage of carbon-sulfur (C-S) bond] of thiophenic compounds, such as dibenzothiophene (DBT), which is the most abundant form of organic sulfur present in fossil fuels. In the current study, ten newly isolated bacterial isolates, designated as species of genera Gordonia, Amycolatopsis, Microbacterium and Mycobacterium, were enriched from different samples in the presence of DBT as a sole source of organic sulfur. The HPLC analysis of the DBT grown cultures indicated the consumption of DBT and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Detection of 2-HBP, a marker metabolite of 4S (sulfoxide-sulfone-sulfinate-sulfate) pathway, suggested that the newly isolated strains harbored metabolic activity for DBT desulfurization through the cleavage of C-S bond. The maximum 2-HBP formation rate was 3.5 µmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h. The phylogenetic analysis of the new isolates showed that they had diverse distribution within the phylogenetic tree and formed distinct clusters, suggesting that they might represent strains of already reported species or they were altogether new species. Estimates of evolutionary divergence showed high level of nucleotide divergence between the isolates within the same genus. The new isolates were able to use a range of heterocyclic sulfur compounds, thus making them suitable candidates for a robust biodesulfurization system for fossil fuels. PMID:26973057

  10. Thermodynamic analysis of the process of removing fluorine from industrial gases using complex inorganic sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, A.I.; Shustareva, T.K.

    1988-10-10

    Industrial gases generated during the calcining of apatites are purified of fluorine, hydrofluoric acid, and silicon tetrafluoride by adsorption. As solid adsorbents, available industrial sludges, which are complex inorganic compounds, can be used. This paper presents results of a thermodynamic analysis of the defluorination process and of the interaction of fluorine and its derivatives with calcium silicate, calcium aluminate, and calcium ferrite adsorbents derived from sludges.

  11. Interaction quenches of Fermi gases

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, Goetz S.

    2009-12-15

    It is shown that the jump in the momentum distribution of Fermi gases evolves smoothly for small and intermediate times once an interaction between the fermions is suddenly switched on. The jump does not vanish abruptly. The loci in momentum space where the jumps occur are those of the noninteracting Fermi sea. No relaxation of the Fermi surface geometry takes place.

  12. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, John B. L.; Doctor, Richard D.; Wingender, Ronald J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  13. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOEpatents

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  14. Effect of refrigeration on microbial growth in the Blairex Water Purifier.

    PubMed

    Harris, M G; Meng, K E; Frank, L J; Mamalis, G

    1987-05-01

    The Blairex Water Purifier is designed to make tap water into purified water that can be used to make saline solution for soft contact lens disinfection and rinsing. The micropore filters of eight Purifiers were perforated to allow a controlled contamination by either Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Serratia marcescens. The bacterial growth was evaluated in these altered Blairex Water Purifiers under refrigerated and unrefrigerated conditions. Those Purifiers that were refrigerated showed significantly less bacterial growth than those Purifiers that were kept at room temperature between samplings. Our findings imply that soft contact lens wearers may reduce the level of microbial growth in undamaged Purifiers by refrigerating the Purifiers between uses. PMID:3111265

  15. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... (a) The shelf life of a calibration gas may not be exceeded. Record the expiration date stated by the... percent hydrogen, balance helium) (Contamination≤1 ppm C, ≤400 ppm CO) (4) Purified synthetic air, also... must be available: C3 H8 and purified synthetic air (dilute measurements); C3 H8 and purified...

  16. Contingency and entrenchment in protein evolution under purifying selection

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Premal; McCandlish, David M.; Plotkin, Joshua B.

    2015-01-01

    The phenotypic effect of an allele at one genetic site may depend on alleles at other sites, a phenomenon known as epistasis. Epistasis can profoundly influence the process of evolution in populations and shape the patterns of protein divergence across species. Whereas epistasis between adaptive substitutions has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about epistasis under purifying selection. Here we use computational models of thermodynamic stability in a ligand-binding protein to explore the structure of epistasis in simulations of protein sequence evolution. Even though the predicted effects on stability of random mutations are almost completely additive, the mutations that fix under purifying selection are enriched for epistasis. In particular, the mutations that fix are contingent on previous substitutions: Although nearly neutral at their time of fixation, these mutations would be deleterious in the absence of preceding substitutions. Conversely, substitutions under purifying selection are subsequently entrenched by epistasis with later substitutions: They become increasingly deleterious to revert over time. Our results imply that, even under purifying selection, protein sequence evolution is often contingent on history and so it cannot be predicted by the phenotypic effects of mutations assayed in the ancestral background. PMID:26056312

  17. Stabilizing Selection, Purifying Selection, and Mutational Bias in Finite Populations

    PubMed Central

    Charlesworth, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Genomic traits such as codon usage and the lengths of noncoding sequences may be subject to stabilizing selection rather than purifying selection. Mutations affecting these traits are often biased in one direction. To investigate the potential role of stabilizing selection on genomic traits, the effects of mutational bias on the equilibrium value of a trait under stabilizing selection in a finite population were investigated, using two different mutational models. Numerical results were generated using a matrix method for calculating the probability distribution of variant frequencies at sites affecting the trait, as well as by Monte Carlo simulations. Analytical approximations were also derived, which provided useful insights into the numerical results. A novel conclusion is that the scaled intensity of selection acting on individual variants is nearly independent of the effective population size over a wide range of parameter space and is strongly determined by the logarithm of the mutational bias parameter. This is true even when there is a very small departure of the mean from the optimum, as is usually the case. This implies that studies of the frequency spectra of DNA sequence variants may be unable to distinguish between stabilizing and purifying selection. A similar investigation of purifying selection against deleterious mutations was also carried out. Contrary to previous suggestions, the scaled intensity of purifying selection with synergistic fitness effects is sensitive to population size, which is inconsistent with the general lack of sensitivity of codon usage to effective population size. PMID:23709636

  18. Generation of leukotrienes by purified human lung mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    MacGlashan, D W; Schleimer, R P; Peters, S P; Schulman, E S; Adams, G K; Newball, H H; Lichtenstein, L M

    1982-01-01

    Although mediator release from mast cells and basophils plays a central role in the pathogenesis of human allergic disease, biochemical studies have been restricted to rat peritoneal mast cells and basophilic leukemia cells because they could be easily purified. We have used two new techniques of cell separation to purify human lung mast cells to 98% homogeneity. Lung cell suspensions were obtained by dispersion of chopped lung tissue with proteolytic enzymes. Mast cells were then purified from the suspensions by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation and affinity chromatography. The purified mast cells released both histamine and slow-reacting substance of anaphylaxis (SRS-A) (leukotriene C and D) during stimulation with goat anti-human IgE antibody. Moreover, these preparations were able to generate significant quantities of SRS-A (32 +/- 7 x 10(-17) LTD mole-equivalents/mast cell) at all stages of purification, indicating that a secondary cell is not necessary for the antigen-induced release of SRS. Images PMID:7119113

  19. Purified guar galactomannan as an improved pharmaceutical excipient.

    PubMed

    Gebert, M S; Friend, D R

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess certain pharmaceutical attributes of guar galactomannan, a hydrocolloid polysaccharide obtained from the endosperm of the leguminous plant Cyamopsis tetragonolobus (L.), following purification using both literature procedures and new processes. Experiments were performed to measure viscosity, hydration rate, tablet hardness, and dissolution profiles of guar galactomannan both before and after purification. The viscosity of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution is typically 40-50% higher than its unpurified guar galactomannan precursor. The hydration rate of an aqueous 1% purified galactomannan solution increases by 100% after purification. These physicochemical changes resulted in improvements in pharmaceutical properties such as better stir speed independence in both tablet and capsule dissolution profiles and improved tablet hardness. For instance, time to 50% dissolution of ranitidine HCl from capsules containing unpurified guar gum was 0.4 and 1.8 hr at 20 and 40 rpm, respectively, using USP Apparatus II. Using the same amount of purified guar gum and the same conditions (20 and 40 rpm), these values were increased to 2.9 and 3.8 hr, respectively. These data demonstrate a reduced effect of changing agitation conditions and the need for less guar gum to sustain the release of a water-soluble drug. Tablet hardness of purified guar gum (particle size < 75 microns) was about 7 kP and the same unpurified guar gum of equal particle size and hydration gave a hardness of less than 1 kP. PMID:9742552

  20. Small-Scale Evaluation of the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Throughout 2007, an evaluation the Expeditionary Unit Water Purifier (EUWP), a mobile water treatment techno...

  1. Broiler litter ash and flue gas desulfurization gypsum effects on peanut yield and uptake of nutrients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important crop that requires large amounts of soluble calcium and phosphorus. Flue gas desulfurization gypsum (FGDG) and super phosphate (SP) have been used for calcium and phosphorus fertilizer for peanut. Broiler litter ash (BLA), a high phosphorus byproduct pr...

  2. Deep Desulfurization of Extensively Hydrodesulfurized Middle Distillate Oil by Rhodococcus sp. Strain ECRD-1

    PubMed Central

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Minak-Bernero, V.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    2001-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  3. THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 1. FIELD TEST RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of the effect of adding adipic acid on the SO2 removal of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on a coal-fired industrial boiler at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base near Columbus, OH. Emission data were collected in a...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INFRARED METHODS FOR CHARACTERIZATION OF INORGANIC SULFUR SPECIES RELATED TO INJECTION DESULFURIZATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current methods designed to control and reduce the amount of sulfur dioxide emitted into the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and factories rely upon the reaction between SO2 and alkaline earth compounds and are called flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. Of these met...

  5. COMPARISON OF WEST GERMAN AND U.S. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION COSTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report documents a comparison of the actual cost retrofitting flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on Federal Republic of German (FRG) boilers to cost estimating procedures used in the U.S. to estimate the retrofit of these controls on U.S. b...

  6. GERMAN FGD/DE-NOX (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION/DENITRIFICATION) EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives updated details of major flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and denitrification (de-NOx) installations in West Germany for coal-fired boilers. The paper provides an understanding of the principal types of control system designs that have been applied, outlines technol...

  7. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION-NEW ORLEANS, MARCH 1976. VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The proceedings document the presentations made during the symposium, which dealt with the status of flue gas desulfurization technology in the United States and abroad. Subjects considered included: regenerable, non-regenerable, and advanced processes; process costs; and by-prod...

  8. A modeling and experimental study of flue gas desulfurization in a dense phase tower.

    PubMed

    Chang, Guanqin; Song, Cunyi; Wang, Li

    2011-05-15

    We used a dense phase tower as the reactor in a novel semi-dry flue gas desulfurization process to achieve a high desulfurization efficiency of over 95% when the Ca/S molar ratio reaches 1.3. Pilot-scale experiments were conducted for choosing the parameters of the full-scale reactor. Results show that with an increase in the flue gas flow rate the rate of the pressure drop in the dense phase tower also increases, however, the rate of the temperature drop decreases in the non-load hot gas. We chose a water flow rate of 0.6 kg/min to minimize the approach to adiabatic saturation temperature difference and maximize the desulfurization efficiency. To study the flue gas characteristics under different processing parameters, we simulated the desulfurization process in the reactor. The simulated data matched very well with the experimental data. We also found that with an increase in the Ca/S molar ratio, the differences between the simulation and experimental data tend to decrease; conversely, an increase in the flue gas flow rate increases the difference; this may be associated with the surface reactions caused by collision, coalescence and fragmentation between the dispersed phases. PMID:21377795

  9. Deep desulfurization of extensively hydrodesulfurized middle distillate oil by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1.

    PubMed

    Grossman, M J; Lee, M K; Prince, R C; Minak-Bernero, V; George, G N; Pickering, I J

    2001-04-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), and in particular substituted DBTs, are resistant to hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and can persist in fuels even after aggressive HDS treatment. Treatment by Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 of a middle distillate oil whose sulfur content was virtually all substituted DBTs produced extensive desulfurization and a sulfur level of 56 ppm. PMID:11282654

  10. A Reusable Calcium-Based Sorbent for Desulfurizing Hot Coal Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Wheelock, T.D.; Hasler, D.J.L.

    2002-09-19

    The overall objective of this project has been to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas. The sorbent should be strong, durable, inexpensive to manufacture, and capable of being reused many times. To achieve these objectives the project has focused on the development of the very promising core-in-shell sorbent.

  11. Comparison of soil applied flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and agricultural gypsum on soil physical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gypsum can come from different sources. Agricultural gypsum is typically mined and used to supply calcium to crops. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a by-product of coal power plants. Although their chemical formulas are the same, different trace elements and materials are present in them....

  12. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: CANE RUN STATION, LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the U.S. The FGD systems installed on Units 4, 5, and 6 at the Cane Run Station are described in terms of design and performance. The Cane Run No. 4 FGD sys...

  13. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: ST. CLAIR STATION, DETROIT EDISON CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted on Unit 6 of Detroit Edison Co.'s St. Clair Station. The experimental FGD system, which operated through a 2-month (October 1976-January 1977) demonstration program, utilized a limestone...

  14. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: DUCK CREEK STATION, CENTRAL ILLINOIS LIGHT CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents the results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. The FGD system installed on Unit 1 at the Duck Creek Station of Central Illinois Light Company is described in terms of design and...

  15. A Hg 2+-selective chemodosimeter based on desulfurization of coumarin thiosemicarbazide in aqueous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wenhui; Xu, Qun; Du, Jianjun; Song, Bo; Peng, Xiaojun; Wang, Zhuo; Li, Guodong; Wang, Xifang

    2010-07-01

    A fluorescence-enhanced chemodosimeter 1 based on coumarin thiosemicarbazide for Hg 2+ was developed via a Hg 2+-induced desulfurization reaction. Spectroscopic results reveal that chemodosimeter 1 exhibits high sensitivity and selectivity for Hg 2+ in comparison to common interfering metal ions in aqueous media at room temperature.

  16. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SLUDGE: ESTABLISHMENT OF VEGETATION ON PONDED AND SOIL-APPLIED WASTE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of research to identify and evaluate forms of vegetation and methods of their establishment for reclaiming retired flue gas desulfurization sludge ponds. Also studied were the soil liming value of limestone scrubber sludge (LSS) and plant uptake and perco...

  17. EFFECT OF DISSOLVED SOLIDS ON LIMESTONE FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SCRUBBING CHEMISTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of experiments in a 0.1 MW pilot plant to determine the effects of high concentrations of chloride ions and dissolved salts on flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing chemistry, both in the natural and forced oxidation modes of operation. (Note: The tight...

  18. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - SPRAY DRYER PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Described spray dryer flue gas desulfurization (FGD), which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from flue gas by an atomized lime slurry [Ca(OH)2]. he hot flue gas dries the droplets to form a dry waste product, while the absorbent reacts with sulfur d...

  19. MODELING OF SO2 REMOVAL IN SPRAY-DRYER FLUE-GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the SO2 removal process in a spray-dryer flue-gas desulfurization system. Simultaneous evaporation of a sorbent droplet and absorption/reaction of SO2 in the droplet are described by the corresponding heat- and mass-transf...

  20. THE ADIPIC ACID ENHANCED FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION PROCESS FOR INDUSTRIAL BOILERS. VOLUME 2. TECHNICAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of an adipic acid enhanced limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on industrial boilers at Rickenbacker Air National Guard Base. The SO2 removal efficiency with the adipic acid averaged 94.3% over a 30-day period. This represents...

  1. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. As a soil amendment for crop and pasture production it may increase water infiltration, reduce soil erosion, and decrease nutrient losses from applications of animal manures. Broiler litter is used as a source of plan...

  2. OXIDATIVE DEGRADATION OF ORGANIC ACIDS CONJUGATED WITH SULFITE OXIDATION IN FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation under flue gas desulfurization (FGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k12, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate times th...

  3. Coal desulfurization by chlorinolysis production and combustion test evaluation of product coals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Daly, D.

    1982-01-01

    Laboratory-scale screening tests were carried out on coal from Harrison County, Ohio to establish chlorination and hydrodesulfurization conditions for the batch reactor production of chlorinolysis and chlorinolysis-hydrodesulfurized coals. In addition, three bituminous coals, were treated on the lab scale by the chlorinolysis process to provide 39 to 62% desulfurization. Two bituminous coals and one subbituminous coal were then produced in 11 to 15 pound lots as chlorinolysis and hydrodesulfurized coals. The chlorinolysis coals had a desulfurization of 29-69%, reductions in voltatiles and hydrogen. Hydrodesulfurization provided a much greater desulfurization (56-86%), reductions in volatiles and hydrogen. The three coals were combustion tested in the Penn State ""plane flame furnace'' to determine ignition and burning characteristics. All three coals burned well to completion as: raw coals, chlorinolysis processed coals, and hydrodesulfurized coals. The hydrodesulfurized coals experienced greater ignition delays and reduced burning rates than the other coals because of the reduced volatile content. It is thought that the increased open pore volume in the desulfurized-devolatilized coals compensates in part for the decreased volatiles effect on ignition and burning.

  4. A cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene: synthesis, study and utility as a desulfurization reagent.

    PubMed

    McCarty, Zachary R; Lastovickova, Dominika N; Bielawski, Christopher W

    2016-04-01

    The synthesis and study of a cyclic (alkyl)(amido)carbene is described. The carbene was found to undergo C-H insertion at low temperatures, formed cyclopropenes upon exposure to alkynes, and facilitated desulfurization reactions. Spectroscopic studies revealed that the carbene is strongly π-accepting but retains a complimentary degree of σ-donating properties. PMID:27010415

  5. Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, David; Sichen, Du

    2015-02-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 °C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaO particles, and 2.4 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO·SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO·SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, and application of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel.

    PubMed

    Dharaskar, Swapnil A; Wasewar, Kailas L; Varma, Mahesh N; Shende, Diwakar Z

    2016-05-01

    1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium thiocyanate [BMIM]SCN has been presented on extractive desulfurization of liquid fuel. The FTIR, (1)H-NMR, and C-NMR have been discussed for the molecular confirmation of synthesized [BMIM]SCN. Further, thermal, conductivity, moisture content, viscosity, and solubility analyses of [BMIM]SCN were carried out. The effects of time, temperature, sulfur compounds, ultrasonication, and recycling of [BMIM]SCN on removal of dibenzothiophene from liquid fuel were also investigated. In extractive desulfurization, removal of dibenzothiophene in n-dodecane was 86.5 % for mass ratio of 1:1 in 30 min at 30 °C under the mild process conditions. [BMIM]SCN could be reused five times without a significant decrease in activity. Also, in the desulfurization of real fuels, multistage extraction was examined. The data and results provided in the present paper explore the significant insights of imidazolium-based ionic liquids as novel extractant for extractive desulfurization of liquid fuels. PMID:26139406

  7. Kinetic Study on Desulfurization of Hot Metal Using CaO and CaC2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindström, David; Sichen, Du

    2014-09-01

    The kinetics and reaction mechanisms of hot metal desulfurization using CaO and CaC2 were studied in a well-controlled atmosphere with a lab scale high temperature furnace. The growths of CaS around CaO and CaC2 were measured and compared at 1773 K (1500 °C). The parabolic rate constant was evaluated to be 5 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaO particles, and 2.4 × 10-7 (cm s-1) on CaC2. The bigger parabolic constant of CaO resulted in more efficient desulfurization. Agglomerates and big CaO particles led to 2CaO·SiO2 formation which hindered further utilization of CaO for desulfurization. The 2CaO·SiO2 formation was favoured by a high oxygen potential. Since the desulfurization reaction of CaO not only produced CaS but also oxygen, the local oxygen concentration around big CaO particles was higher than around small particles.

  8. Effects of fluidized gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum on non-target freshwater and sediment dwelling organims

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluidized gas desulfurization gypsum is a popular agricultural soil amendment used to increase calcium and sulfur contents, and reduce aluminum toxicity. Due to its surface application in conservation tillage systems and high solubility, the soluble components of gypsum may be transferred with agri...

  9. High Temperature Flue Gas Desulfurization In Moving Beds With Regenerable Copper Based Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Cengiz, P.A.; Ho, K.K.; Abbasian, J.; Lau, F.S.

    2002-09-20

    The objective of this study was to develop new and improved regenerable copper based sorbent for high temperature flue gas desulfurization in a moving bed application. The targeted areas of sorbent improvement included higher effective capacity, strength and long-term durability for improved process control and economic utilization of the sorbent.

  10. EFFECTIVE CONTROL OF SECONDARY WATER POLLUTION FROM FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes tests to demonstrate the feasibility of using a vertical-tube, falling-film, vapor-compression evaporator to concentrate waste water from a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. Tests showed that waste water from the Chiyoda FGD process can be concentrated ...

  11. DISPOSAL OF SPENT SORBENT FROM DRY FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of sintering and leaching mechanisms of fly ash/spent sodium sorbent mixtures from a dry injection flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process. It includes an estimate of the economics of pelletizing and sintering to handle the fly ash and spent sor...

  12. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: LAWRENCE ENERGY CENTER, KANSAS POWER AND LIGHT CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes the results of a survey of operational flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems on coal-fired utility boilers in the United States. The FGD systems installed on Units 4 and 5 at the Lawrence Energy Center of the Kansas Power and Light Company is described in t...

  13. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: GREEN RIVER STATION, KENTUCKY UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system retrofitted to Boilers 1, 2, and 3 at the Green River Station of Kentucky Utilities. The FGD system consists of one wet lime scrubber module designed to handle a maximum of 170 cu m/sec (360,000 afc...

  14. ADIPIC ACID DEGRADATION MECHANISM IN AQUEOUS FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a field and laboratory study of the adipic acid degradation mechanism in aqueous flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. (Adding adipic acid to limestone-based, SO2 wet scrubbers increases SO2 removal and limestone utilization. However, as much as 80% ...

  15. Decreasing phosphorus loss in tile-drained landscapes using flue gas desulfurization gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elevated phosphorus (P) loading from agricultural non-point source pollution continues to impair inland waterbodies throughout the world. The application of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum to agricultural fields has been suggested to decrease P loading because of its high calcium content and P...

  16. THE USE OF PH AND CHLORIDE ELECTRODES FOR THE AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study to determine the applicability of chloride and pH electrodes in automated control systems. It included a survey of chloride and pH electrodes in different flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems and an evaluation of an industrial pH electrode sy...

  17. Environmental evaluation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum as a BMP for erosion control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flue Gas Desulfurization Gypsum (FGDG) is produced from pollution control systems reducing sulfur dioxide emissions from thermo-electric coal-fired power plants. Natural gypsum and FGDG both have been shown to be useful in control of soil erosion. However, concerns have been raised recently by envir...

  18. SUMMARY REPORT: SULFUR OXIDES CONTROL TECHNOLOGY SERIES: FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION - DUAL ALKALI PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Describes dual alkali (or double alkali) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) which is a throwaway process in which sulfur dioxide (SO2) is removed from the flue gas by a soluble sodium-based scrubbing liquor. he collected SO2 is precipitated as calcium sulfite (CaSO3), calcium sulfate...

  19. SURVEY OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: LA CYGNE STATION, KANSAS CITY POWER AND LIGHT CO

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a second survey of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system on Unit 1 of Kansas City Power and Light Co.'s La Cygne Station. The FGD system, first started up in February 1973 and commercially available in June 1973, uses a limestone slurry in eight sc...

  20. FULL-SCALE DUAL ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) DEMONSTRATION AT LOUISVILLE GAS AND ELECTRIC COMPANY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes the 1-year demonstration of the full-scale dual-alkali flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system at Louisville Gas and Electric Co.'s (LG/E's) Cane Run Unit 6. Systems performance is described in terms of performance guarantees and other parameters that were mon...

  1. Investigation Of A Mercury Speciation Technique For Flue Gas Desulfurization Materials

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most of the synthetic gypsum generated from wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbers is currently being used for wallboard production. Because oxidized mercury is readily captured by the wet FGD scrubber, and coal-fired power plants equipped with wet scrubbers desire to bene...

  2. THE EFFECT OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AVAILABILITY ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the effect of the availability of a flue gas desulfurization system on the ability of an individual power plant to generate electricity at its rated capacity. (The availability of anything is the fraction of time it is capable of service...

  3. THE EFFECT OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION AVAILABILITY ON ELECTRIC UTILITIES. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an analysis of the effect of the availability of a flue gas desulfurization system on the ability of an individual power plant to generate electricity at its rated capacity. (The availability of anything is the fraction of time it is capable of service...

  4. Hydrologic transport of fecal bacteria attenuated by flu gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Flue gas desulfurized (FGD) gypsum is a byproduct of coal-fired power plants. As a soil amendment for crop production it has the potential of improving soil water infiltration, soil conservation, and decreasing nutrient losses from broiler litter applications. Because broiler litter is a ...

  5. Bench-scale development of mild gasification char desulfurization. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.

    1994-09-01

    The goal of this project is to scale up a process, developed under a previous ICCI grant, for desulfurization of mild gasification char by treatment with hydrogen-rich process-derived fuel gas at 650--760 C and 7--15 atm. The char can be converted into a low-sulfur metallurgical form coke. In the prior study, IBC-105 coal with 4.0 wt% sulfur was converted to chars with less than 1.0 wt% sulfur in a laboratory-scale batch reactor. The susceptibility of the char to desulfurization was correlated with physicochemical char properties and mild gasification conditions. Acid pretreatment of the coal prior to mild gasification was also shown to significantly enhance subsequent sulfur removal. In this study, IGT is conducting continuous bench-scale tests in a 1-lb/h fluidized-bed reactor to determine the preferred process conditions and obtain steady-state data necessary for process design and scale-up. The desulfurized chars are to be used to produce low-sulfur form coke, which will be evaluated for density, reactivity, and strength properties relevant to utilization in blast furnaces. This quarter, 2,500 g of mild gasification char was produced from untreated IBC-105 coal in the bench-scale reactor. Half of this char will be subjected to sulfuric acid treatment to enhance subsequent desulfurization. Char-producing runs were also initiated with acid-pretreated coal, which will produce about 1,250 g of char.

  6. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME II. TECHNICAL REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  7. FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEM CAPABILITIES FOR COAL-FIRED STEAM GENERATORS. VOLUME I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the availability of technology for reducing SO2 emissions from coal-fired steam generators using flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Foreign and domestic lime, limestone, double alkali, magnesium slurry, and Wellman-Lord FGD systems are described, and the...

  8. ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF A SODIUM/LIMESTONE DOUBLE-ALKALI FGD (FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION) PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a comparison of results from a recent forced-oxidation limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process evaluation and those from a conceptual design and economic evaluation of a sodium/limestone double-alkali FGD process, based on recent EPA-sponsored...

  9. Integration and testing of hot desulfurization and entrained-flow gasification for power generation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.M.; Kassman, J.S.; Leininger, T.F.; Wolfenbarger, J.K.; Wu, C.M.; Yang, P.P.

    1991-09-01

    This second Topical Report describes the work that was completed between January 1, 1989 and December 31, 1990 in a Cooperative Agreement between Texaco and the US Department of Energy that began on September 30, 1987. During the period that is covered in this report, the development and optimization of in-situ and external desulfurization processes were pursued. The research effort included bench scale testing, PDU scoping tests, process economic studies and advanced instrument testing. Two bench scale studies were performed at the Research Triangle Institute with zinc titanate sorbent to obtain data on its cycle life, sulfur capacity, durability and the effect of chlorides. These studies quantify sulfur capture during simulated air and oxygen-blown gasification for two zinc titanate formulations. Eight PDU runs for a total of 20 days of operation were conducted to evaluate the performance of candidate sorbents for both in-situ and external desulfurization. A total of 47 tests were completed with oxygen and air-blown gasification. Candidate sorbents included iron oxide for in-situ desulfurization and calcium based and mixed metal oxides for external desulfurization. Gasifier performance and sorbent sulfur capture are compared for both air-blown and oxygen-blown operation.

  10. DISPOSAL OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM NONREGENERABLE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a 4-year study to determine environmentally sound methods for disposing of wastes from nonregenerable flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Data presented incorporates results obtained during the fourth year with material from report EPA-600/7-77-052...

  11. DISPOSAL OF BY-PRODUCTS FROM NONREGENERABLE FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION SYSTEMS: SECOND PROGRESS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of the first 3 years of study to determine environmentally sound methods for disposing of wastes from nonregenerable flue gas desulfurization systems. Untreated and treated wastes from seven different scrubbers at eastern and western plants, using lime, l...

  12. PROCEEDINGS: SYMPOSIUM ON FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION HELD AT LAS VEGAS, NEVADA, MARCH 1979; VOLUME II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The publication, in two volumes, contains the text of all papers presented at EPA's fifth flue gas desulfurization (FGD) symposium, March 5-8, 1979, at Las Vegas, Nevada. A partial listing of papers in Volume 2 includes the following: Basin Electric's involvement with dry flue ga...

  13. Continuous desulfurization and bacterial community structure of an integrated bioreactor developed to treat SO2 from a gas stream.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jian; Li, Lin; Ding, Wenjie; Zhang, Jingying; Liu, Junxin

    2015-11-01

    Sulfide dioxide (SO2) is often released during the combustion processes of fossil fuels. An integrated bioreactor with two sections, namely, a suspended zone (SZ) and immobilized zone (IZ), was applied to treat SO2 for 6months. Sampling ports were set in both sections to investigate the performance and microbial characteristics of the integrated bioreactor. SO2 was effectively removed by the synergistic effect of the SZ and IZ, and more than 85% removal efficiency was achieved at steady state. The average elimination capacity of SO2 in the bioreactor was 2.80g/(m(3)·hr) for the SZ and 1.50g/(m(3)·hr) for the IZ. Most SO2 was eliminated in the SZ. The liquid level of the SZ and the water content ratio of the packing material in the IZ affected SO2 removal efficiency. The SZ served a key function not only in SO2 elimination, but also in moisture maintenance for the IZ. The desired water content in IZ could be feasibly maintained without any additional pre-humidification facilities. Clone libraries of 16S rDNA directly amplified from the DNA of each sample were constructed and sequenced to analyze the community composition and diversity in the individual zones. The desulfurization bacteria dominated both zones. Paenibacillus sp. was present in both zones, whereas Ralstonia sp. existed only in the SZ. The transfer of SO2 to the SZ involved dissolution in the nutrient solution and biodegradation by the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. This work presents a potential biological treatment method for waste gases containing hydrophilic compounds. PMID:26574096

  14. EDITORIAL: Cold Quantum GasesEditorial: Cold Quantum Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassen, W.; Hemmerich, A.; Arimondo, E.

    2003-04-01

    This Special Issue of Journal of Optics B: Quantum and Semiclassical Optics brings together the contributions of various researchers working on theoretical and experimental aspects of cold quantum gases. Different aspects of atom optics, matter wave interferometry, laser manipulation of atoms and molecules, and production of very cold and degenerate gases are presented. The variety of subjects demonstrates the steadily expanding role associated with this research area. The topics discussed in this issue, extending from basic physics to applications of atom optics and of cold atomic samples, include: bulletBose--Einstein condensation bulletFermi degenerate gases bulletCharacterization and manipulation of quantum gases bulletCoherent and nonlinear cold matter wave optics bulletNew schemes for laser cooling bulletCoherent cold molecular gases bulletUltra-precise atomic clocks bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to metrology and spectroscopy bulletApplications of cold quantum gases to quantum computing bulletNanoprobes and nanolithography. This special issue is published in connection with the 7th International Workshop on Atom Optics and Interferometry, held in Lunteren, The Netherlands, from 28 September to 2 October 2002. This was the last in a series of Workshops organized with the support of the European Community that have greatly contributed to progress in this area. The scientific part of the Workshop was managed by A Hemmerich, W Hogervorst, W Vassen and J T M Walraven, with input from members of the International Programme Committee who are listed below. The practical aspects of the organization were ably handled by Petra de Gijsel from the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. The Workshop was funded by the European Science Foundation (programme BEC2000+), the European Networks 'Cold Quantum Gases (CQG)', coordinated by E Arimondo, and 'Cold Atoms and Ultraprecise Atomic Clocks (CAUAC)', coordinated by J Henningsen, by the German Physical Society (DFG), by

  15. Characteristics and reactivity of rapidly hydrated sorbent for semidry flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Jie Zhang; Changfu You; Suwei Zhao; Changhe Chen; Haiying Qi

    2008-03-01

    The semidry flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process has many advantages over the wet FGD process for moving sulfur dioxide emissions from pulverized coal-fired power plants. Semidry FGD with a rapidly hydrated sorbent was studied in a pilot-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB) experimental facility. The sorbent was made from lumps of lime and coal fly ash. The desulfurization efficiency was measured for various operating parameters, including the sorbent recirculation rate and the water spray method. The experimental results show that the desulfurization efficiencies of the rapidly hydrated sorbent were 1.5-3.0 times higher than a commonly used industrial sorbent for calcium to sulfur molar ratios from 1.2 to 3.0, mainly due to the higher specific surface area and pore volume. The Ca(OH){sub 2} content in the cyclone separator ash was about 2.9% for the rapidly hydrated sorbent and was about 0.1% for the commonly used industrial sorbent, due to the different adhesion between the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles and the fly ash particles, and the low cyclone separation efficiency for the fine Ca(OH){sub 2} particles that fell off the sorbent particles. Therefore the actual recirculation rates of the active sorbent with Ca(OH){sub 2} particles were higher for the rapidly hydrated sorbent, which also contributed to the higher desulfurization efficiency. The high fly ash content in the rapidly hydrated sorbent resulted in good operating stability. The desulfurization efficiency with upstream water spray was 10-15% higher than that with downstream water spray. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Desulfurization of coal: Enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development of viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigates the application of phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions than otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidations for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal. During this quarter aliquots of the IBC-101 coal have been ground to various particle sizes in an attempt to find the optimum physical pretreatment for mineral, especially pyrite, removal. Analysis of these various aliquots shows them to be representative of the original coal. In addition, preliminary desulfurization reactions using fly ash and scrubber sludges have been performed on an unoxidized IBC-101 sample. Results will be available next quarter. Also, SEM-EDAX analysis of the fly ash indicates that it contains oxides that have shown activity in base desulfurization reactions.

  17. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-10-14

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of an advanced hot-gas process that can eliminate the problematic SO{sub 2} tail gas and yield elemental sulfur

  18. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    2000-04-17

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3 % of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to testing the FHR-32 sorbent. FHR-32 sorbent was tested for 50 cycles of sulfidation in a laboratory scale reactor.

  19. Development of advanced hot-gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jothimurugesan, K.

    1999-04-26

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants nearing completion, such as Sierra-Pacific, employ a circulating fluidized-bed (transport) reactor hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) process that uses 70-180 {micro}m average particle size (aps) zinc-based mixed-metal oxide sorbent for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gas down to less than 20 ppmv. The sorbent undergoes cycles of absorption (sulfidation) and air regeneration. The key barrier issues associated with a fluidized-bed HGD process are chemical degradation, physical attrition, high regeneration light-off (initiation) temperature, and high cost of the sorbent. Another inherent complication in all air-regeneration-based HGD processes is the disposal of the problematic dilute SO{sub 2} containing regeneration tail-gas. Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), a leading first generation technology, efficiently reduces this SO{sub 2} to desirable elemental sulfur, but requires the use of 1-3% of the coal gas, thus resulting in an energy penalty to the plant. Advanced second-generation processes are under development that can reduce this energy penalty by modifying the sorbent so that it could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur. The objective of this research is to support the near and long term DOE efforts to commercialize the IGCC-HGD process technology. Specifically we aim to develop: optimized low-cost sorbent materials with 70-80 {micro}m average aps meeting all Sierra specs; attrition resistant sorbents with 170 {micro}m aps that allow greater flexibility in the choice of the type of fluidized-bed reactor e.g. they allow increased throughput in a bubbling-bed reactor; and modified fluidizable sorbent materials that can be regenerated to produce elemental sulfur directly with minimal or no use of coal gas. The effort during the reporting period has been devoted to development of optimized low-cost zinc-oxide-based sorbents for Sierra-Pacific. The sorbent surface were modified to prevent

  20. Flue gas desulfurization: the state of the art.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Jozewicz, W

    2001-12-01

    Coal-fired electricity-generating plants may use SO2 scrubbers to meet the requirements of Phase II of the Acid Rain SO2 Reduction Program. Additionally, the use of scrubbers can result in reduction of Hg and other emissions from combustion sources. It is timely, therefore, to examine the current status of SO2 scrubbing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the state of the art in flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies for coal-fired boilers. Data on worldwide FGD applications reveal that wet FGD technologies, and specifically wet limestone FGD, have been predominantly selected over other FGD technologies. However, lime spray drying (LSD) is being used at the majority of the plants employing dry FGD technologies. Additional review of the U.S. FGD technology applications that began operation in 1991 through 1995 reveals that FGD processes of choice recently in the United States have been wet limestone FGD, magnesium-enhanced lime (MEL), and LSD. Further, of the wet limestone processes, limestone forced oxidation (LSFO) has been used most often in recent applications. The SO2 removal performance of scrubbers has been reviewed. Data reflect that most wet limestone and LSD installations appear to be capable of approximately 90% SO2 removal. Advanced, state-of-the-art wet scrubbers can provide SO2 removal in excess of 95%. Costs associated with state-of-the-art applications of LSFO, MEL, and LSD technologies have been analyzed with appropriate cost models. Analyses indicate that the capital cost of an LSD system is lower than those of same capacity LSFO and MEL systems, reflective of the relatively less complex hardware used in LSD. Analyses also reflect that, based on total annualized cost and SO2 removal requirements: (1) plants up to approximately 250 MWe in size and firing low- to medium-sulfur coals (i.e., coals with a sulfur content of 2% or lower) may use LSD; and (2) plants larger than 250 MWe and firing medium- to high-sulfur coals (i

  1. Superoxide radical and UV irradiation in ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD): A potential alternative for greener fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ngo Yeung

    This study is aimed at improving the current ultrasound assisted oxidative desulfurization (UAOD) process by utilizing superoxide radical as oxidant. Research was also conducted to investigate the feasibility of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation-assisted desulfurization. These modifications can enhance the process with the following achievements: (1) Meet the upcoming sulfur standards on various fuels including diesel fuel oils and residual oils; (2) More efficient oxidant with significantly lower consumption in accordance with stoichiometry; (3) Energy saving by 90%; (4) Greater selectivity in petroleum composition. Currently, the UAOD process and subsequent modifications developed in University of Southern California by Professor Yen's research group have demonstrated high desulfurization efficiencies towards various fuels with the application of 30% wt. hydrogen peroxide as oxidant. The UAOD process has demonstrated more than 50% desulfurization of refractory organic sulfur compounds with the use of Venturella type catalysts. Application of quaternary ammonium fluoride as phase transfer catalyst has significantly improved the desulfurization efficiency to 95%. Recent modifications incorporating ionic liquids have shown that the modified UAOD process can produce ultra-low sulfur, or near-zero sulfur diesels under mild conditions with 70°C and atmospheric pressure. Nevertheless, the UAOD process is considered not to be particularly efficient with respect to oxidant and energy consumption. Batch studies have demonstrated that the UAOD process requires 100 fold more oxidant than the stoichiometic requirement to achieve high desulfurization yield. The expected high costs of purchasing, shipping and storage of the oxidant would reduce the practicability of the process. The excess use of oxidant is not economically desirable, and it also causes environmental and safety issues. Post treatments would be necessary to stabilize the unspent oxidant residual to prevent the waste

  2. Isotopic Analysis and Evolved Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swindle, Timothy D.; Boynton, William V.; Chutjian, Ara; Hoffman, John H.; Jordan, Jim L.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; McEntire, Richard W.; Nyquist, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Precise measurements of the chemical, elemental, and isotopic composition of planetary surface material and gases, and observed variations in these compositions, can contribute significantly to our knowledge of the source(s), ages, and evolution of solar system materials. The analyses discussed in this paper are mostly made by mass spectrometers or some other type of mass analyzer, and address three broad areas of interest: (1) atmospheric composition - isotopic, elemental, and molecular, (2) gases evolved from solids, and (3) solids. Current isotopic data on nine elements, mostly from in situ analysis, but also from meteorites and telescopic observations are summarized. Potential instruments for isotopic analysis of lunar, Martian, Venusian, Mercury, and Pluto surfaces, along with asteroid, cometary and icy satellites, surfaces are discussed.

  3. Strongly Interacting Homogeneous Fermi Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Patel, Parth; Yan, Zhenjie; Struck, Julian; Zwierlein, Martin

    2016-05-01

    We present a homogeneous box potential for strongly interacting Fermi gases. The local density approximation (LDA) allows measurements on traditional inhomogeneous traps to observe a continuous distribution of Fermi gases in a single shot, but also suffer from a broadened response due to line-of-sight averaging over varying densities. We trap ultracold Fermionic (6 Li) in an optical homogeneous potential and characterize its flatness through in-situ tomography. A hybrid approach combining a cylindrical optical potential with a harmonic magnetic trap allows us to exploit the LDA and measure local RF spectra without requiring significant image reconstruction. We extract various quantities from the RF spectra such as the Tan's contact, and discuss further measurements of homogeneous Fermi systems under spin imbalance and finite temperature.

  4. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  5. Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drachman, Richard J. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    This publication contains most of the papers, both invited and contributed, that were presented at the Workshop of Annihilation in Gases and Galaxies. This was the fifth in a biennial series associated with the International Conference on the Physics of Electronic and Atomic Collisions. Subjects covered included the scattering and annihilation of positrons and positronium atoms in various media, including those of astrophysical interest. In addition, the topics of antimatter and dark matter were covered.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Ehhalt, D.; Prather, M.; Dentener, F.; Derwent, R.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Holland, E.; Isaksen, I.; Katima, J.; Kirchhoff, V.; Matson, P.; Midgley, P.; Wang, M.; Berntsen, T.; Bey, I.; Brasseur, G.; Buja, L.; Collins, W. J.; Daniel, J. S.; DeMore, W. B.; Derek, N.; Dickerson, R.; Etheridge, D.; Feichter, J.; Fraser, P.; Friedl, R.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Gauss, M.; Grenfell, L.; Grubler, Arnulf; Harris, N.; Hauglustaine, D.; Horowitz, L.; Jackman, C.; Jacob, D.; Jaegle, L.; Jain, Atul K.; Kanakidou, M.; Karlsdottir, S.; Ko, M.; Kurylo, M.; Lawrence, M.; Logan, J. A.; Manning, M.; Mauzerall, D.; McConnell, J.; Mickley, L. J.; Montzka, S.; Muller, J. F.; Olivier, J.; Pickering, K.; Pitari, G.; Roelofs, G.-J.; Rogers, H.; Rognerud, B.; Smith, Steven J.; Solomon, S.; Staehelin, J.; Steele, P.; Stevenson, D. S.; Sundet, J.; Thompson, A.; van Weele, M.; von Kuhlmann, R.; Wang, Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Wigley, T. M.; Wild, O.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Yantosca, R.; Joos, Fortunat; McFarland, M.

    2001-10-01

    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Sections include: Executive Summary 2414.1 Introduction 2434.2 Trace Gases: Current Observations, Trends and Budgets 2484.3 Projections of Future Emissions 2664.4 Projections of Atmospheric Composition for the 21st Century 2674.5 Open Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric Chemistry Change 279

  7. 40 CFR 92.112 - Analytical gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Analytical gases. 92.112 Section 92...) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.112 Analytical gases. (a) Gases for the CO and CO2 analyzers shall be single blends of CO and CO2, respectively, using...

  8. Method of preparing highly purified kiln dried solar salt

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, J.L.; Hass, L.M.; Rose, D.L.

    1984-12-18

    Partially purified salt containing less than about 00.4 weight percent insolubles is further purified to reduce the insolubles until the milk pad rating is 3 or better for certain industrial uses and 1 for human consumption. The entry salt is washed in clarified brine to dislodge insoluble impurities adhered to the salt surfaces. The washed salt is then scrubbed with fresh water sprays to displace the wash brine from salt surfaces. The washed salt is drained and then dried in a kiln where flowing air blows away some impurities. The dried salt is passed through a magnetic separator, doubly sifted to remove both large and small impurities, and, where food grade salt is required, passed through a color sorter that removes relatively dark impurities.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite ores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuad, Abdulloh; Mufti, Nandang; Diantoro, Markus; Subakti, S., Septa Kurniawati

    2016-03-01

    A simple method based on alkaline extraction followed by acid precipitation and acid dissolution has been developed to produce highly purified nanosilica from pyrophyllite materials. The reaction parameters such as molar ratio NaOH/SiO2, reaction time and reaction temperature are varied for obtaining maximum nanosilica convertion. About 99,45% highly purified precipitated nanosilica measure with ICP, 259 m2/gr measure with BET surface area, 97% whiteness and 3 ml/gr oil absorbtion from pyrophyllite materials has been achieved in closed system at 150°C within 180 min. The physicals and chemical properties (such as X-Ray Diffraction from PANalytical, X-Ray Fluorescence Minipal4 from PANanalytical, BET surface area, Forier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy from Hitachi, and SEM-EDS Inspect-S50 from FEI Company) of the highly purity nanosilica were studied.

  10. Purifying food-grade, naturally occurring CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Nobles, J.E.; Stancik, J.W.

    1983-12-26

    Technology to purify naturally occurring CO/sub 2/ into products suitable for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and food grade CO/sub 2/ markets has been commercially demonstrated in a 20 MMscfd (1,100 ton/day) CO/sub 2/ processing facility owned and operated by Columbia Hydrocarbon Corp. The unit demonstrates that it is technically and economically feasible to process low grade natural gas to produce pipeline specification natural gas, raw CO/sub 2/, and food grade CO/sub 2/. The Selexol treating facility is located on a reclaimed coal strip mine with very restricted plot area. Only compression and dehydration equipment for the CO/sub 2/ is located there. The CO/sub 2/ is transported by pipeline to the Marmet site, approx. 7 miles away. This site contains the facilities for purifying the CO/sub 2/ and for storage.

  11. Treatment of gas streams for removal of acid gases

    SciTech Connect

    Nieh, E.C.Y.

    1987-09-29

    A method is described for the purification of a stream of gas comprising a normally gaseous hydrocarbon or synthesis gas contaminated with acid gases which comprises the steps of: countercurrently contacting the gas stream in an absorption zone with a treating agent to remove a substantial portion of the acid contaminants from the hydrocarbon gas stream by absorption into the treating agent, discharging an at least partially purified hydrocarbon gas stream from the absorption zone, and discharging the treating agent enriched with absorbed acid gas components from the absorption zone. The treating agent consists essentially of an aqueous solution of from about 40 to about 60 wt. % of N-methyldiethanolamine and from about 5 to about 15 wt. % of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine.

  12. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from thermophilic bacterium acidothermus cellulolyticus

    DOEpatents

    Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Mohagheghi, Ali

    1992-01-01

    A substantially purified high molecular weight cellulase enzyme having a molecular weight of between about 156,000 to about 203,400 daltons isolated from the bacterium Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) and a method of producing it are disclosed. The enzyme is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzymatic activity, has a high degree of stability toward heat and exhibits both a high optimum temperature activity and high inactivation characteristics.

  13. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, William S.; Thomas, Steven R.; Nieves, Rafael A.; Himmel, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1, and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  14. Thermostable purified endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC

    DOEpatents

    Adney, W.S.; Thomas, S.R.; Nieves, R.A.; Himmel, M.E.

    1994-11-22

    A purified low molecular weight endoglucanase II from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is disclosed. The endoglucanase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1], and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 81 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and at a inactivation temperature of about 100 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 9 figs.

  15. [Proteomic Analyses of Purified Particles of the Rabies Virus].

    PubMed

    Tu, Zhongzhong; Gong, Wenjie; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Ye; Li, Nan; Tu, Changchun

    2015-05-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) is an enveloped RNA virus. It mainly damages the central nervous system and causes anencephaly in mammals and humans. There is now compelling evidence that enveloped virions released from infected cells can carry many host proteins, some of which may play an important part in viral replication. Several host proteins have been reported to be incorporated into RABV particles. However, a systematic study to reveal the proteomics of RABV particles has not been conducted. In the present study, after virus culture and purification by sucrose density gradient ultracentrifugation, a proteomics approach was used to analyze the protein composition of purified RABV particles to understand the molecular mechanisms of virus-cell interactions. Fifty host proteins, along with five virus-encoded structural proteins, were identified in purified RABV particles. These proteins could be classified into ten categories according to function: intracellular trafficking (14%), molecular chaperone (12%), cytoskeletal (24%), signal transduction (8%), transcription regulation (12%), calcium ion-binding (6%), enzyme binding (6%), metabolic process (2%), ubiquitin (2%) and other (14%). Of these, four proteins (beta-actin, p-tubulin, Cofilin, Hsc70) were validated by western blotting to be present in purified RABV particles. This novel study of the composition of host proteins in RABV particles may aid investigation of the mechanism of RABV replication. PMID:26470524

  16. Mackerel Trypsin Purified from Defatted Viscera by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Byung-Soo; Kishimura, Hideki; Nalinanon, Sitthipong; Klomklao, Sappasith; Benjakul, Soottawat

    2011-01-01

    Viscera of mackerel (Scomber sp.) were defatted by supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) treatment. Trypsin (SC-T) was then extracted from the defatted powder and purified by a series of chromatographies including Sephacryl S-200 and Sephadex G-50. The purified SC-T was nearly homogeneous on SDS-PAGE, and its molecular weight was estimated as approximately 24,000 Da. N-terminal twenty amino acids sequence of SC-T was IVGGYECTAHSQPHQVSLNS. The specific trypsin inhibitors, soybean trypsin inhibitor and TLCK, strongly inhibited the activities of SC-T. The pH and temperature optimums of SC-T were at around pH 8.0 and 60°C, respectively, using Nα-p-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester as a substrate. The SC-T was unstable below pH 5.0 and above 40°C, and it was stabilized by calcium ion. These enzymatic characteristics of SC-T were the same as those of other fish trypsins, especially spotted mackerel (S. borealis) trypsin, purified from viscera defatted by acetone. Therefore, we concluded that the SCO2 defatting process is useful as a substitute for organic solvent defatting process. PMID:22312468

  17. Coupled ER to Golgi Transport Reconstituted with Purified Cytosolic Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Barlowe, Charles

    1997-01-01

    A cell-free vesicle fusion assay that reproduces a subreaction in transport of pro-α-factor from the ER to the Golgi complex has been used to fractionate yeast cytosol. Purified Sec18p, Uso1p, and LMA1 in the presence of ATP and GTP satisfies the requirement for cytosol in fusion of ER-derived vesicles with Golgi membranes. Although these purified factors are sufficient for vesicle docking and fusion, overall ER to Golgi transport in yeast semi-intact cells depends on COPII proteins (components of a membrane coat that drive vesicle budding from the ER). Thus, membrane fusion is coupled to vesicle formation in ER to Golgi transport even in the presence of saturating levels of purified fusion factors. Manipulation of the semi-intact cell assay is used to distinguish freely diffusible ER- derived vesicles containing pro-α-factor from docked vesicles and from fused vesicles. Uso1p mediates vesicle docking and produces a dilution resistant intermediate. Sec18p and LMA1 are not required for the docking phase, but are required for efficient fusion of ER- derived vesicles with the Golgi complex. Surprisingly, elevated levels of Sec23p complex (a subunit of the COPII coat) prevent vesicle fusion in a reversible manner, but do not interfere with vesicle docking. Ordering experiments using the dilution resistant intermediate and reversible Sec23p complex inhibition indicate Sec18p action is required before LMA1 function. PMID:9382859

  18. Sequence and molecular characterization of a DNA region encoding the dibenzothiophene desulfurization operon of Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8.

    PubMed Central

    Piddington, C S; Kovacevich, B R; Rambosek, J

    1995-01-01

    Dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model compound for sulfur-containing organic molecules found in fossil fuels, can be desulfurized to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8. Complementation of a desulfurization (dsz) mutant provided the genes from Rhodococcus sp. strain IGTS8 responsible for desulfurization. A 6.7-kb TaqI fragment cloned in Escherichia coli-Rhodococcus shuttle vector pRR-6 was found to both complement this mutation and confer desulfurization to Rhodococcus fascians, which normally is not able to desulfurize DBT. Expression of this fragment in E. coli also conferred the ability to desulfurize DBT. A molecular analysis of the cloned fragment revealed a single operon containing three open reading frames involved in the conversion of DBT to 2-HBP. The three genes were designated dszA, dszB, and dszC. Neither the nucleotide sequences nor the deduced amino acid sequences of the enzymes exhibited significant similarity to sequences obtained from the GenBank, EMBL, and Swiss-Prot databases, indicating that these enzymes are novel enzymes. Subclone analyses revealed that the gene product of dszC converts DBT directly to DBT-sulfone and that the gene products of dszA and dszB act in concert to convert DBT-sulfone to 2-HBP. PMID:7574582

  19. Thermodynamics of Trapping Gases for Underwater Superhydrophobicity.

    PubMed

    Patankar, Neelesh A

    2016-07-12

    Rough surfaces submerged in a liquid can remain almost dry if the liquid does not fully wet the roughness, and gases are sustained in roughness grooves. Such partially dry surfaces can help reduce drag, enhance boiling, and reduce biofouling. Gases sustained in roughness grooves would be composed of air and the vapor phase of the liquid itself. In this work, the thermodynamics of sustaining gases (e.g., air) is considered. Governing equations are presented along with a solution methodology to determine a critical condition to sustain gases. The critical roughness scale to sustain gases is estimated for different degrees of saturation of gases dissolved in the liquid. It is shown that roughness spacings of less than a micron are essential to sustain gases on surfaces submerged in water at atmospheric pressure. This is consistent with prior empirical data. PMID:27276525

  20. Tunneling in degenerate atomic gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraoanu, Gheorghe-Sorin

    The experimental achievement of Bose-Einstein condensation in cold alkali atomic gases in 1995 has started a period of fertile research at the intersection of atomic physics, quantum optics, and condensed matter. In this thesis, various tunneling effects in both bosonic and fermionic gases are investigated. The first part of this work deals with bosons in different Josephson-type experimental setups. After a brief general introduction we establish, in Chapter 2, a mapping between the phase and the Bogoliubov representation for the Josephson oscillations; in Chapter 3 we calculate the Josephson coupling constant for the condensate in the external Josephson effect. Chapter 4 deals with Josephson effects at the level of depletion: we describe in detail the oscillatory dynamics of the virtual quasiparticles. The next Chapter is a stability analysis for the formation of vortices in the Kibble Zurek scenario. Finally, Chapter 6 contains a discussion on the time-evolution of the many-body states in the absence of tunneling. The second part of the thesis (Chapter 7--Chapter 9) deals with fermionic systems below the BCS critical temperature. The first two of these Chapters explore the possibility of driving transitions between hyperfine states with lasers. In Chapter 7 we show that these transitions could be used to investigate the coherence of the Cooper pairs. In Chapter 8 we imagine an internal Josephson experiment which uses a pair of lasers to drive transitions between two superfluids. Finally, in Chapter 9 we examine the properties of vortices formed in trapped Cooper-paired fermionic gases.

  1. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  2. Spark ignition of flowing gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swett, Clyde C , Jr

    1956-01-01

    Research conducted at the NACA Lewis Laboratory on ignition of flowing gases by means of long-duration discharges is summarized and analyzed. Data showing the effect of a flowing combustible mixture on the physical and electrical characteristics of spark discharges and data showing the effects of variables on the spark energy required for ignition that has been developed to predict the effect of many of the gas-stream and spark variables is described and applied to a limited amount of experimental data.

  3. Magnetism in ultracold quantum gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmaljohann, H.; Erhard, M.; Kronjäger, J.; Kottke, M.; van Staa, S.; Arlt, J. J.; Bongs, K.; Sengstock, K.

    2004-12-01

    We study the static and dynamic magnetic properties of ultracold quantum gases, in particular the spinor physics of F = 1 and F = 2 Bose-Einstein condensates of 87Rb atoms. Our data lead to the conclusion, that the F = 2 ground state of 87Rb is polar, while we find the F = 1 ground state to be ferromagnetic. The dynamics of spinor systems is linked to an interplay between coherent mean-field interactions, losses and interactions with atoms in the thermal cloud. Within this rich parameter space we observe indications for coherent spinor dynamics and novel thermalization regimes.

  4. Reclamation of abandoned surface coal mined land using flue gas desulfurization products

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Kost, D.; Dick, W.A.

    2009-07-01

    Details are given of a field-scale research project where the Fleming site, in Ohio, of highly degraded and acid-forming abandoned surface coal-mined land, was reclaimed using a dry flue gas desulfurization product from an atmospheric fluidized bed combustion burner at a General Motors plant Pontiac, MI, which burned eastern Ohio coal and used dolomitic limestone for desulfurization. Plots were seeded with a mixture of grasses, wheat and clover, in 1994 and soil and water samples were analysed in 1995 and in 2009. It was found that FGD-treated plots promoted good regenerative growth, similar to that in plots using more concentrated re-soil material. The FGD treatment also greatly improved overall water quality. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Characterization and fixed-bed testing of a nickel-based hot gas desulfurization sorbent

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper-Galvin, L.D.; Swisher, J.H.; Hammerbeck, K.

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this project was to (1) extend a preliminary investigation completed earlier on dispersed nickel sorbents by developing new processing methods, characterizing sorbent materials more extensively, and evaluating the materials in fixed bed reactor tests, and (2) to determine the feasibility of using dispersed nickel sorbents with reductive regeneration for hot gas desulfurization. One of the properties of nickel that is somewhat unique is that it forms a liquid sulfide at sufficiently high temperatures with high sulfur potentials or H{sub 2}S levels. A eutectic exists in the Ni-S phase diagram at 637 C and a composition of 33.4 wt% or 21.5 wt% S. Under controlled conditions, the formation of a liquid phase can be used to advantage in hot gas desulfurization. Sorbent preparation, the experimental unit, and experimental procedure are described. Results from the sorbent, 24Ni-7Cu-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, are given.

  6. Oxidative desulfurization of model diesel via dual activation by a protic ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Lü, Hongying; Wang, Shunan; Deng, Changliang; Ren, Wanzhong; Guo, Baocun

    2014-08-30

    A novel and green carboxylate-anion-based protic ionic liquid (PIL), [Hnmp]HCOO, was prepared through a simple and atom economic neutralization reaction between N-methyl-2-pyrrolidonium (NMP) and formic acids. Both FT-IR spectra and (1)H NMR confirmed its simple salt structure. [Hnmp]HCOO exhibited so high catalytic activity that the dibenzothiophene (DBT) removal reached 99% at 50°C in 3h under conditions of VPIL/Vmodel oil=1:10 and H2O2/DBT (O/S, molar ratio)=5. The catalytic oxidation reactivity of S-compounds was found to be in the order of DBT>4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT)>benzothiophene (BT). The investigation on mechanism showed that oxidative desulfurization was realized through dual activation of PIL. Moreover, [Hnmp]HCOO can be recycled for five times with an unnoticeable decrease in desulfurization activity. PMID:25064259

  7. A New Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization Process-Underfeed Circulating Spouted Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, M.; Jin, B. S.; Yang, Y. P.

    Applying an underfeed system, the underfeed circulating spouted bed was designed as a desulfurization reactor. The main objective of the technology is to improve the mixing effect and distribution uniformity of solid particles, and therefore to advance the desulfurization efficiency and calcium utility. In this article, a series of experimental studies were conducted to investigate the fluidization behavior of the solid-gas two-phase flow in the riser. The results show that the technology can distinctly improve the distribution of gas velocity and particle flux on sections compared with the facefeed style. Analysis of pressure fluctuation signals indicates that the operation parameters have significant influence on the flow field in the reaction bed. The existence of injecting flow near the underfeed nozzle has an evident effect on strengthening the particle mixing.

  8. Photooxidative desulfurization for diesel using Fe / N - TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Muhammad Saqib; Kait, Chong Fai; Mutalib, Mohd Ibrahim Abdul

    2014-10-01

    A series of N - TiO2 with different mol% N was synthesized via sol-gel method and characterized using thermal gravimetric analyzer and raman spectroscopy. 0.2 wt% Fe was incorporated onto the calcined (200°C) N - TiO2 followed by calcination at 200°C, 250°C and 300°C. Photooxidative desulfurization was conducted in the presence of 0.2wt% Fe / N - TiO2 with different mol% N with and without oxidant (H2O2). Oxidative desulfurization was only achieved when H2O2 was used while without H2O2 no major effect on the sulfur removal. 0.2Fe -30N - H2O2 photocatalysts showed best performance at all calcination temperatures as compared to other mol% N - H2O2 photocatalysts. 16.45% sulfur removal was achieved using photocatalysts calcined at 300 °C.

  9. Desulfurization behavior in rapid pyrolysis of coal treated by KOH solution

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Katsuyasu; Abe, Keiko; Tozuka, Yasuhito; Sugawara, Takuo; Sholes, M.A.

    1994-12-31

    Three kinds of subbituminous and bituminous coals containing potassium hydroxide were heated at 523 K in a nitrogen atmosphere in an attempt to transform thermally stable forms of organic sulfur to reactive ones. Desulfurization extents were 27--52% by alkali leaching while weight loss was observed to be 8-10%. The desulfurization extents were proportional linearly to internal surface area of the parent coals. The parent coals and alkali leached samples were pyrolyzed rapidly by using a free fall reactor in a nitrogen stream up to 1,233K. The alkali-leached samples provided higher extents of reduction for organic sulfur than the parent coals. The combined process of rapid pyrolysis with alkali leaching was effective for reduction of organic sulfur except for a high range coal having small internal surface area.

  10. Hydrogen sulfide removal from livestock biogas by a farm-scale bio-filter desulfurization system.

    PubMed

    Su, J-J; Chang, Y-C; Chen, Y-J; Chang, K-C; Lee, S-Y

    2013-01-01

    A farm-scale biogas desulfurization system was designed and tested for H2S removal efficiency from livestock biogas. This work assesses the H2S removal efficiency of a novel farm-scale biogas bio-desulfurization system (BBS) operated for 350 days on a 1,000-head pig farm. Experimental data demonstrated that suitable humidity and temperature can help sulfur-oxidizing bacteria to form active bio-films on the bio-carriers. The daily average removal rate increased to 879.16 from 337.75 g-H2S/d with an average inlet H2S concentration of 4,691 ± 1,532 mg/m(3) in biogas. Thus, the overall (0-350 days) average H2S removal efficiency exceeded 93%. The proposed BBS overcomes limitations of H2S in biogas when utilizing pig farm biogas for power generation and other applications. PMID:23508153

  11. Bioactivation of Nitroglycerin by Purified Mitochondrial and Cytosolic Aldehyde Dehydrogenases*

    PubMed Central

    Beretta, Matteo; Gruber, Karl; Kollau, Alexander; Russwurm, Michael; Koesling, Doris; Goessler, Walter; Keung, Wing Ming; Schmidt, Kurt; Mayer, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Metabolism of nitroglycerin (GTN) to 1,2-glycerol dinitrate (GDN) and nitrite by mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) is essentially involved in GTN bioactivation resulting in cyclic GMP-mediated vascular relaxation. The link between nitrite formation and activation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is still unclear. To test the hypothesis that the ALDH2 reaction is sufficient for GTN bioactivation, we measured GTN-induced formation of cGMP by purified sGC in the presence of purified ALDH2 and used a Clark-type electrode to probe for nitric oxide (NO) formation. In addition, we studied whether GTN bioactivation is a specific feature of ALDH2 or is also catalyzed by the cytosolic isoform (ALDH1). Purified ALDH1 and ALDH2 metabolized GTN to 1,2- and 1,3-GDN with predominant formation of the 1,2-isomer that was inhibited by chloral hydrate (ALDH1 and ALDH2) and daidzin (ALDH2). GTN had no effect on sGC activity in the presence of bovine serum albumin but caused pronounced cGMP accumulation in the presence of ALDH1 or ALDH2. The effects of the ALDH isoforms were dependent on the amount of added protein and, like 1,2-GDN formation, were sensitive to ALDH inhibitors. GTN caused biphasic sGC activation with apparent EC50 values of 42 ± 2.9 and 3.1 ± 0.4 μm in the presence of ALDH1 and ALDH2, respectively. Incubation of ALDH1 or ALDH2 with GTN resulted in sustained, chloral hydrate-sensitive formation of NO. These data may explain the coupling of ALDH2-catalyzed GTN metabolism to sGC activation in vascular smooth muscle. PMID:18450747

  12. Antigen binding properties of highly purified bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Allard, W J; Moran, C A; Nagel, E; Collins, G; Largen, M T

    1992-10-01

    A panel of three bispecific monoclonal antibodies (bsMAbs) binding to follitropin (FSH) and to beta-galactosidase have been prepared by fusion of hybridoma cell lines resistant to oubain and neomycin. One of these bispecific antibodies contains heavy chains of the same IgG subclass, and two are composed of heavy chains of different IgG subclasses. We have investigated methods for the purification of bispecific antibodies from hybrid hybridoma supernatant fluids grown in serum-free medium. Following ammonium sulfate precipitation, bispecific antibodies can be purified in a single step by mixed mode ion-exchange HPLC on Bakerbond Abx columns. In one case, three species were resolved by ion-exchange HPLC and functional analysis showed that two peaks contained parental antibodies, and the third contained the bispecific. Ion-exchange HPLC purification of serum-free preparations from two other hybrid hybridomas resolved seven protein-containing peaks, only one of which was active in a bispecific ELISA. The equilibrium affinity constants for each of the parental antibodies for both FSH and beta-galactosidase were determined and found to be similar to those of the purified bsMAbs. Further, the association of FSH to one binding site on a bispecific antibody was shown to have no effect on the equilibrium binding constant for beta-galactosidase binding to the other site. Our results suggest that bsMAbs can be readily purified from hybrid hybridomas by a simple and rapid method, and the binding of antigen to one binding site on a bsMAb is independent of antigen binding to the second site. PMID:1528192

  13. Purified recombinant EBV desoxyribonuclease in serological diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stolzenberg, M C; Debouze, S; Ng, M; Sham, J; Choy, D; Bouguermouh, A; Chan, K H; Ooka, T

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate applications of highly purified recombinant EBV DNAase in the diagnosis and prognosis of NPC, we tested sera from patients with NPC, other EBV-associated diseases and EBV-seropositive and -seronegative healthy subjects by immunoblotting and DNAase inhibitory assay. The results were compared with those obtained by the conventional immunofluorescence assays against the EBV-specified early antigens and capsid antigens. The antigenic specificity of the immunoblotting assay for IgG antibody against the viral enzyme, but not that for the IgA antibody, was correlated with DNAase-inhibitory activity of the sera and their titers of IgG antibodies against the viral early antigens. Purified IgA as well as IgG from NPC sera inhibited enzyme activity with similar efficiency. The use of highly purified viral DNase has increased the sensitivity of detection of the corresponding antibodies by immunoblotting, with the IgG antibody being detected in all but one, and IgA antibody in all but 2, of the 174 NPC sera tested. The IgG antibody was also commonly detected in the other groups of control sera, while the IgA antibody was detected in about 10% of African Burkitt's lymphoma and Algerian Hodgkin's lymphoma patients and less than 3% of the other control subjects. These results suggest that IgA antibody against recombinant EBV DNAase may be useful in the diagnosis of NPC, but the level of this antibody did not appear to be related to clinical stages of this cancer. PMID:8621254

  14. Ferromagnetic levan composite: an affinity matrix to purify lectin.

    PubMed

    Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V N; Maciel, Jackeline C; Araújo, Flávia F B; Paiva, Patrícia M G; Calazans, Glícia M T; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fábio C L; Coelho, Luana C B B; Carvalho, Luiz B; Silva, Maria da Paz C; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2009-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

  15. Ferromagnetic Levan Composite: An Affinity Matrix to Purify Lectin

    PubMed Central

    Angeli, Renata; da Paz, Nathalia V. N.; Maciel, Jackeline C.; Araújo, Flávia F. B.; Paiva, Patrícia M. G.; Calazans, Glícia M. T.; Valente, Ana Paula; Almeida, Fábio C. L.; Coelho, Luana C. B. B.; Carvalho, Luiz B.; Silva, Maria da Paz C.; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2009-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive procedure used magnetite and levan to synthesize a composite recovered by a magnetic field. Lectins from Canavalia ensiformis (Con A) and Cratylia mollis (Cramoll 1 and Cramoll 1, 4) did bind specifically to composite. The magnetic property of derivative favored washing out contaminating proteins and recovery of pure lectins with glucose elution. Cramoll 1 was purified by this affinity binding procedure in two steps instead of a previous three-step protocol with ammonium sulfate fractionation, affinity chromatography on Sephadex G-75, and ion exchange chromatography through a CM-cellulose column. PMID:19547713

  16. Growth of purified astrocytes in a chemically defined medium

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, R.S.; De Vellis, J.

    1981-11-01

    Astrocytes purified from primary cultures of neonatal rat cerebrum can not be grown in a synthetic medium supplemented with putrescine, prostaglandin F/sub 2//sub ..cap alpha../, insulin, fibroblast growth factor, and hydrocortisone. These five supplements have a marked synergistic effect on growth when used in combination but have little effect when used individually. Astrocytes grown in the defined medium exhibit dramatic changes in morphological characteristics in comparison to cells grown in serum-free or serum-supplemented medium. In addition, these cells express the astrocyte-specific marker glial fibrillary acidic protein and are estimated by several criteria to be greater than 95% astrocytes.

  17. Mitogenic effects of purified outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y H; Hancock, R E; Mishell, R I

    1980-01-01

    Three major outer membrane proteins from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 were purified and tested for their ability to stimulate resting murine lymphocytes to proliferate. It was demonstrated that picomole amounts of all three proteins were mitogenic for both intact and T-lymphocyte-depleted populations of spleen cells from C3H/HeJ mice. In contrast, they had no activity against either mature or immature thymocytes. Since the strain of mice used is unable to respond to lipopolysaccharide, we condlude that the three proteins are B-cell mitogens. Images Fig. 2 PMID:6769818

  18. Thermostable purified endoglucanas from acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, Michael E.; Adney, William S.; Tucker, Melvin P.; Grohmann, Karel

    1994-01-01

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068). The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C.sub.1 and C.sub.x types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110.degree. C. at pH's from about 2 to about 9.

  19. Isolation of Microorganisms Able To Metabolize Purified Natural Rubber

    PubMed Central

    Heisey, R. M.; Papadatos, S.

    1995-01-01

    Bacteria able to grow on purified natural rubber in the absence of other organic carbon sources were isolated from soil. Ten isolates reduced the weight of vulcanized rubber from latex gloves by >10% in 6 weeks. Scanning electron microscopy clearly revealed the ability of the microorganisms to colonize, penetrate, and dramatically alter the physical structure of the rubber. The rubber-metabolizing bacteria were identified on the basis of fatty acid profiles and cell wall characteristics. Seven isolates were strains of Streptomyces, two were strains of Amycolatopsis, and one was a strain of Nocardia. PMID:16535106

  20. Thermostable purified endoglucanase from Acidothermus cellulolyticus ATCC 43068

    DOEpatents

    Himmel, M.E.; Adney, W.S.; Tucker, M.P.; Grohmann, K.

    1994-01-04

    A purified low molecular weight cellulase endoglucanase I having a molecular weight of between about 57,420 to about 74,580 daltons from Acidothermus cellulolyticus (ATCC 43068) is presented. The cellulase is water soluble, possesses both C[sub 1] and C[sub x] types of enzyme activity, a high degree of stability toward heat, and exhibits optimum temperature activity at about 83 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9, and in inactivation temperature of about 110 C at pH's from about 2 to about 9. 7 figures.

  1. Oxidative desulfurization of fuels catalyzed by Fenton-like ionic liquids at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yunqing; Zhu, Wenshuai; Li, Huaming; Yin, Sheng; Liu, Hua; Xie, Qingjie

    2011-03-21

    Oxidation of the sulfur-containing compounds benzothiophene (BT), dibenzothiophene (DBT), and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene (4,6-DMDBT) has been studied in a desulfurization system composed of model oil, hydrogen peroxide, and different types of ionic liquids [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/CuCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/ZnCl(2), [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/SnCl(2), [(C(4)H(9))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [C(10)H(21)(CH(3))(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3), [(C(10)H(21))(2)(CH(3))(2)N]Cl/FeCl(3). Deep desulfurization is achieved in the Fenton-like ionic liquid [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) at 25 °C for 1 h. The desulfurization of DBT reaches 97.9%, in consuming very low amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) (only 0.702 mmol). The reaction conditions, for example, the amount of [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl/FeCl(3) or H(2)O(2), the temperature, and the molar ratio of FeCl(3) to [(C(8)H(17))(3)CH(3)N]Cl, are investigated for this system. The oxidation reactivity of the different sulfur-containing compounds is found to decrease in the order of DBT>BT>4,6-DMDBT. The desulfurization system can be recycled six times without significant decrease in activity. The sulfur level of FCC gasoline could be reduced from 360 ppm to 110 ppm. PMID:21394927

  2. Biocatalytic desulfurization of thiophenic compounds and crude oil by newly isolated bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Magdy El-Said; Al-Yacoub, Zakariya H.; Vedakumar, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms possess enormous highly specific metabolic activities, which enable them to utilize and transform nearly every known chemical class present in crude oil. In this context, one of the most studied biocatalytic processes is the biodesulfurization (BDS) of thiophenic sulfur-containing compounds such as benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT) in crude oils and refinery streams. Three newly isolated bacterial strains, which were affiliated as Rhodococcus sp. strain SA11, Stenotrophomonas sp. strain SA21, and Rhodococcus sp. strain SA31, were enriched from oil contaminated soil in the presence of DBT as the sole S source. GC-FID analysis of DBT-grown cultures showed consumption of DBT, transient formation of DBT sulfone (DBTO2) and accumulation of 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP). Molecular detection of the plasmid-borne dsz operon, which codes for the DBT desulfurization activity, revealed the presence of dszA, dszB, and dszC genes. These results point to the operation of the known 4S pathway in the BDS of DBT. The maximum consumption rate of DBT was 11 μmol/g dry cell weight (DCW)/h and the maximum formation rate of 2-HBP formation was 4 μmol/g DCW/h. Inhibition of both cell growth and DBT consumption by 2-HBP was observed for all isolates but SA11 isolate was the least affected. The isolated biocatalysts desulfurized other model DBT alkylated homologs. SA11 isolate was capable of desulfurizing BT as well. Resting cells of SA11 exhibited 10% reduction in total sulfur present in heavy crude oil and 18% reduction in total sulfur present in the hexane-soluble fraction of the heavy crude oil. The capabilities of the isolated bacteria to survive and desulfurize a wide range of S compounds present in crude oil are desirable traits for the development of a robust BDS biocatalyst to upgrade crude oils and refinery streams. PMID:25762990

  3. Preparation of sodium humate/{alpha}-aluminum oxide adsorbents for flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Z.G.; Gao, H.Y.; Hu, G.X.; Li, Y.H.

    2009-06-15

    A new composite adsorbent of sodium humate (HNa)=alpha-aluminium oxide ({alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) for flue gas desulfurization (FGD) was prepared using the impregnation method. Both the adsorbent of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HNa={alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Desulfurization activity of the adsorbent impregnated with ammonia (NH{sub 4}OH) was investigated in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. Experimental results indicate that HNa, which coats the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} fibers impregnated with HNa solution, improved the property of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} support for FGD. On the other hand, the HNa-coating on the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} impregnated with NH{sub 4}OH played an important role in enhancing the desulfurization property of the {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Due to the strong adsorption capability of HNa, more NH{sub 4}OH was adsorbed in the adsorbent of HNa/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} the longer a high sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) conversation rate was maintained. In addition, because the desulfurization product was a compound fertilizer consisting of ammonium sulfate ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}), ammonium humate (HNH{sub 4}), and HNa, the recycling use of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also easily achieved. Thus, this study can provide a new cost-effective way to remove SO{sub 2} from flue gas.

  4. Pore structure and reactivity changes in hot coal gas desulfurization sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Sotirchos, S.V.

    1991-05-01

    The primary objective of the project was the investigation of the pore structure and reactivity changes occurring in metal/metal oxide sorbents used for desulfurization of hot coal gas during sulfidation and regeneration, with particular emphasis placed on the effects of these changes on the sorptive capacity and efficiency of the sorbents. Commercially available zinc oxide sorbents were used as model solids in our experimental investigation of the sulfidation and regeneration processes.

  5. Filter for cleaning hot gases

    SciTech Connect

    Gresch, H.; Holter, H.; Hubner, K.; Igelbuscher, H.; Weber, E.

    1981-10-20

    In an apparatus for cleaning hot gases a filter housing has an inlet for unfiltered gas and an outlet for filtered gas. A plurality of filtered inserts are placed within the housing in a manner capable of filtering undesirable components from the gas feed stream. Each filter insert is made of a fibrous filter material. Silicic-acid glass fibers have a silicic acid content of at least 90%. Coated upon the fibers and absorbed into their pores is a metal oxide of aluminum, titanium, zirconium, cromium, nickle or cobalt. A honeycombed cage filled with high temperature resistant perlite is located within the housing between the gas inlet and the fiber inserts. The cage has an inlet and outlet external to the housing for replacing the perlite. A combustion chamber mounted in the housing has a discharge nozzle located so that the nozzle is directed at the filter inserts. Combusting materials in the chamber causes an explosive backflow of gases through the filter inserts.

  6. Predicting Flows of Rarefied Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBeau, Gerald J.; Wilmoth, Richard G.

    2005-01-01

    DSMC Analysis Code (DAC) is a flexible, highly automated, easy-to-use computer program for predicting flows of rarefied gases -- especially flows of upper-atmospheric, propulsion, and vented gases impinging on spacecraft surfaces. DAC implements the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, which is widely recognized as standard for simulating flows at densities so low that the continuum-based equations of computational fluid dynamics are invalid. DAC enables users to model complex surface shapes and boundary conditions quickly and easily. The discretization of a flow field into computational grids is automated, thereby relieving the user of a traditionally time-consuming task while ensuring (1) appropriate refinement of grids throughout the computational domain, (2) determination of optimal settings for temporal discretization and other simulation parameters, and (3) satisfaction of the fundamental constraints of the method. In so doing, DAC ensures an accurate and efficient simulation. In addition, DAC can utilize parallel processing to reduce computation time. The domain decomposition needed for parallel processing is completely automated, and the software employs a dynamic load-balancing mechanism to ensure optimal parallel efficiency throughout the simulation.

  7. Preliminary evaluation of a process using plasma reactions to desulfurize heavy oils. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Grimes, P.W.; Miknis, F.P.

    1997-09-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) has conducted exploratory experiments on the use of microwave-induced plasmas to desulfurize heavy oils. Batch mode experiments were conducted in a quartz reactor system using various reactive and nonreactive plasmas. In these experiments a high-sulfur asphalt was exposed to various plasmas, and the degree of conversion to distillate, gas, and solids was recorded. Products from selected experiments were analyzed to determine if the plasma exposure had resulted in a significant reduction in sulfur content. Exploratory experiments were conducted using reactive plasmas generated from hydrogen and methane and nonreactive plasmas generated from nitrogen. The effects of varying exposure duration, sample temperature, and location of the sample with respect to the plasma discharge were investigated. For comparative purposes two experiments were conducted in which the sample was heated under nitrogen with no plasma exposure. Distillates containing approximately 28% less sulfur than the feedstock represented the maximum desulfurization attained in the plasma experiments. It does not appear that plasma reactions using the simple configurations employed in this study represent a viable method for the desulfurization of heavy oils.

  8. Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas.

    PubMed

    Deng, Jia-Jia; Pan, Liang-Ming; Chen, De-Qi; Dong, Yu-Quan; Wang, Cheng-Mu; Liu, Hang; Kang, Mei-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of nozzles, the spray droplet size and flue gas temperature limitation have been obtained by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The simulation results show that a longer duct, smaller diameter and higher flue gas temperature could help to increase the evaporation rate. The optimal DWETS design of Shangdu plant is 100 μm droplet sprayed by two nozzles located at the long duct when the flue gas temperature is 130 °C. Field tests were carried out based on the simulation results. The effects of running DWETS on the downstream devices have been studied. The results show that DWETS has a positive impact on ash removal efficiency and does not have any negative impact on the electrostatic precipitator (ESP), flue gas heat exchanger and WFGD. The pH values of the slurry of WFGD slightly increase when the DWETS is running. The simulation and field test of the DWETS show that it is a feasible future technology for desulfurization wastewater treatment. PMID:25325555

  9. Surface acidity effects of Al-SBA-15 mesoporous materials on adsorptive desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiuhong; Wang, Yuan; Duan, Linhai; Qin, Yucai; Yu, Wenguang; Wang, Qiang; Dong, Shiwei; Ruan, Yanjun; Wang, Haiyan; Song, Lijuan

    2014-09-01

    SBA-15 and Aluminum-substituted SBA-15 with Si/Al molar ratio 10 (Al-SBA-15(10)) mesoporous materials were directly synthesized by a hydrolysis approach and characterized by a powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 physisorption analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) etc. The relative number of hydroxyl groups was investigated by in situ FTIR systematically. The acid type and acid strength of the adsorbents were monitord by FTIR at 423 K and 673 K, respectively, utilizing pyridine as a probe. Desulfurization performances of the adsorbents were investigated via static adsorption experiment. Gas chromatography-sulfur chemiluminescence detector (GC-SCD) was employed to detect the sulfur compounds in model fuels before and after treated by the adsorbents. The calcined Al-SBA-15(10) material shows well-ordered hexagonal mesostructure and strong Lewis acid sites (L acid) and weak Brönsted acid sites (B acid). The number of hydroxy on the surface of the Al-SBA-15(10) is more than that of SBA-15, which is beneficial to further modifications such as spontaneous monolayer dispersion. Desulfurization performance of the adsorbents is affected by surface acidity of adsorbents and the constituent of model fuels (olefins, arene, etc.). The thiophene and olefins adsorbed on the B acid site of the adsorbent may occur subsequently alkylation reactions, which may block the pores of the adsorbents and thus cause the reduction of desulfurization capacity. PMID:25924387

  10. Removal of polychlorinated naphthalenes by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated naphthalenes from sintering plant

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Liu, Guorui; Li, Haifeng; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    The sintering flue gas samples were collected at the inlets and outlets of the desulfurization systems to evaluate the influence of the systems on PCNs emission concentrations, profiles, and emission factors. The PCNs concentrations at the inlets and outlets were 27888–153672 pg m−3 and 11988–42245 pg m−3,respectively. Desulfurization systems showed excellent removal for PCNs, and the removal efficiencies of PCNs increase with increasing chlorination level. Lower chlorinated homologs are more sensitive to the desulfurization process than higher ones. High levels of PCNs were also detected in the gypsum (11600–29720 pg g−1) and fly ash samples (4946–64172 pg g−1). The annual total emissions of PCNs released to flue gas and gypsum from the sintering plants were about 394 kg, 48.5% of which was in gypsum. The surface area of the fly ash samples increased significantly from the first to the fourth stage of the series-connected electrostatic precipitator, accompanying obvious rising of concentration of PCNs in the fly ash samples. PMID:27197591

  11. Competitive adsorption desulfurization performance over K - Doped NiY zeolite.

    PubMed

    Li, Haizheng; Han, Xiaona; Huang, Haokai; Wang, Yuxian; Zhao, Liang; Cao, Liyuan; Shen, Baojian; Gao, Jinsen; Xu, Chunming

    2016-12-01

    NiY and KNiY were successfully prepared by impregnation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 sorption (BET), scanning electron microscope (SEM), infrared spectrum (IR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The competitive adsorption mechanisms of adsorbents were studied by in situ FTIR to explain different desulfurization performance which was evaluated in a miniature fixed-bed flow by gasoline model compounds with 1-hexene or toluene. NiY and KNiY adsorbents showed better desulfurization performance than HY zeolite due to the high selectivity of loaded active metals. Especially, KNiY adsorbent showed its advantages in desulfurization performance with 5vol% olefins or 5vol% aromatics involvement. It could be assigned that introduced K cation enhanced dispersion and content of active Ni species on the surface which made Ni species reduce easily. On the other hand, adsorption mechanisms showed that the protonation reactions of thiophene and 1-hexene occurred on the Brönsted acid sites of NiY, which resulted in pore blockage and the coverage of adsorption active centers. By doping K cation on NiY, the amount of the Brönsted acid sites of NiY was decreased and protonation reactions were weaken. Therefore, the negative effects of Brönsted acid sites were reduced. PMID:27552418

  12. Enhanced pervaporative desulfurization by polydimethylsiloxane membranes embedded with silver/silica core-shell microspheres.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ruijian; Zhang, Xiongfei; Wu, Hong; Wang, Jingtao; Liu, Xiaofei; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2011-03-15

    Pervaporative desulfurization based on membrane technology provides a promising alternative for removal of sulfur substances (as represented by thiophene) in fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) gasoline. The present study focused on the performance enhancement of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane by incorporation of core-shell structured silver/silica microspheres. A silane coupling agent, N-[3-(trimethoxysily)propyl]-ethylenediamine (TSD), was used to chelate the Ag(+) via its amino groups and attach the silver seeds onto the silica surface via condensation of its methoxyl groups. The resultant microspheres were characterized by Zeta-positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (ZetaPALS), inductively coupled plasmaoptical emission spectrophotometer (ICP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Ag(+)/SiO(2)-PDMS composite membranes were prepared by blending PDMS with the as-synthesized silver/silica microspheres. PALS analysis was used to correlate the apparent fractional free volume with permeation flux. The sorption selectivity towards thiophene was enhanced after incorporation of silver/silica microspheres due to the π-complexation between the silver on the microsphere surface and the thiophene molecules. The pervaporative desulfurization performance of the composite membrane was investigated using thiophene/n-octane mixture as a model gasoline. The composite membrane exhibited an optimum desulfurization performance with a permeation flux of 7.76 kg/(m(2)h) and an enrichment factor of 4.3 at the doping content of 5%. PMID:21288638

  13. Bioprocessing of crude oils and desulfurization using electro-spray reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.; Borole, A.P.

    1998-07-01

    Biological removal of organic sulfur from petroleum feedstocks offers an attractive alternative to conventional thermochemical treatment due to the mild operating conditions afforded by the biocatalyst. Electro-spray bioreactors were investigated for use in desulfurization due to their reported operational cost savings relative to mechanically agitated reactors and their capability of forming emulsions < 5 {micro}m. Here, the rates dibenzothiophene (DBT) oxidation to 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) in hexadecane, by Rhodococcus sp. IGTS8 are compared in the two reactor systems. Desulfurization rates ranged from 1.0 and 5.0 mg 2-HBP/(dry g cells-h), independent of the reactor employed. The batch stirred reactor was capable of forming a very fine emulsion in the presence of the biocatalyst IGTS8, similar to that formed in the electro-spray reactors, presumably due to the fact that the biocatalyst produces its own surfactant. While electro-spray reactors did not prove to be advantageous for the IGTS8 desulfurization system, it may prove advantageous for systems which do not produce surface-active bioagents in addition to being mass transport limited.

  14. Desulfurization of coal: enhanced selectivity using phase transfer catalysts. Quarterly report, March 1 - May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Hippo, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    Due to environmental problems related to the combustion of high sulfur Illinois coal, there continues to be interest in the development in viable pre-combustion desulfurization processes. Recent studies by the authors have obtained very good sulfur removals but the reagents that are used are too expensive. Use of cheaper reagents leads to a loss of desired coal properties. This study investigated the application phase transfer catalysts to the selective oxidation of sulfur in coal using air and oxygen as oxidants. The phase transfer catalyst is expected to function as a selectivity moderator by permitting the use of milder reaction conditions that otherwise necessary. This would enhance the sulfur selectivity and help retain the heating value of the coal. The use of certain coal combustion wastes for desulfurization, and the application of cerium (IV) catalyzed air oxidation for selective sulfur oxidation are also being studied. If successful, this project could lead to the rapid development of a commercially viable desulfurization process. This would significantly improve the marketability of Illinois coal.

  15. [Research on desulfurization using coke-oven wastewater with pulsed corona discharge].

    PubMed

    Shao, Gui-wei; Li, Jin; Wang, Wan-lin; Li, Sheng-li

    2004-03-01

    A recent investigation into the application of pulsed corona discharge process, in which simultaneous SO2 removal from simulated flue gas and coke-oven wastewater degradation, was conducted at Wuhan Integrated Steel Plant. The outcome indicates that coke-oven wastewater had good desulfurization ability, and SO2 removal efficiency increased gradually as the simulated flue gas temperature increasing in the temperature range used during the experiment. When the flow of simulated flue gas was 428 m3/h, the temperature of simulated flue gas was 65 degrees C and coke-oven wastewater flow was 107 L/h, the desulfurization rate was 85%. Introducing pulsed corona discharge to the reactor enhanced the removal efficiencies of SO2, the desulfurization rate increased to 90% when high voltage was 52kV. When SO2 was removed from simulated flue gas by pulsed corona discharge, oil and phenols content in coke-oven wastewater decreased 39.26% and 68.75% respectively, and 99.98% content of cyanide was degraded, which is of important value in solving the inactivation problem of aerobic bacteria in biological treatment of coke-oven wastewater. PMID:15202239

  16. Removal of polychlorinated naphthalenes by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated naphthalenes from sintering plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Liu, Guorui; Li, Haifeng; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    The sintering flue gas samples were collected at the inlets and outlets of the desulfurization systems to evaluate the influence of the systems on PCNs emission concentrations, profiles, and emission factors. The PCNs concentrations at the inlets and outlets were 27888-153672 pg m(-3) and 11988-42245 pg m(-3),respectively. Desulfurization systems showed excellent removal for PCNs, and the removal efficiencies of PCNs increase with increasing chlorination level. Lower chlorinated homologs are more sensitive to the desulfurization process than higher ones. High levels of PCNs were also detected in the gypsum (11600-29720 pg g(-1)) and fly ash samples (4946-64172 pg g(-1)). The annual total emissions of PCNs released to flue gas and gypsum from the sintering plants were about 394 kg, 48.5% of which was in gypsum. The surface area of the fly ash samples increased significantly from the first to the fourth stage of the series-connected electrostatic precipitator, accompanying obvious rising of concentration of PCNs in the fly ash samples. PMID:27197591

  17. Synthesis and application of different phthalocyanine molecular sieve catalyst for oxidative desulfurization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Na; Li, Siwen; Wang, Jinyi; Zhang, Ronglan; Gao, Ruimin; Zhao, Jianshe; Wang, Junlong

    2015-05-01

    M2(PcAN)2 (M=Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mn) anchored onto W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5) or the M2(PcTN)2 doping W-HZSM-5 (M2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5) were prepared and their catalytic performances were tested for oxidative desulfurization in the presence of oxygen. Thiophene (T), benzothiophene (BT), and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were considered as sulfur compounds. Among zeolite-based catalysts, the Cu2(PcAN)2-W-HZSM-5 and Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5 showed superior desulfurization performance and the activity of selectivity followed the order: T>BT>DBT. The effects of phthalocyanine concentration were studied by UV-Vis and calcination temperature was obtained by TG-DSC for Cu2(PcTN)2/W-HZSM-5. Catalysts were characterized by EA, IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, ICP, and N2 adsorption. Reaction time, temperature and the amount of catalyst were investigated as the important parameters for optimization of the reaction. Furthermore, a possible process of oxidative desulfurization and the reaction products were proposed.

  18. Controlling Peptide Self-Assembly through a Native Chemical Ligation/Desulfurization Strategy.

    PubMed

    Rasale, Dnyaneshwar B; Konda, Maruthi; Biswas, Sagar; Das, Apurba K

    2016-03-18

    Self-assembled peptides were synthesized by using a native chemical ligation (NCL)/desulfurization strategy that maintained the chemical diversity of the self-assembled peptides. Herein, we employed oxo-ester-mediated NCL reactions to incorporate cysteine, a cysteine-based dipeptide, and a sterically hindered unnatural amino acid (penicillamine) into peptides. Self-assembly of the peptides resulted in the formation of self-supporting gels. Microscopy analysis indicated the formation of helical nanofibers, which were responsible for the formation of gel matrices. The self-assembly of the ligated peptides was governed by covalent and non-covalent interactions, as confirmed by FTIR, CD, fluorescence spectroscopy, and MS (ESI) analyses. Peptide disassembly was induced by desulfurization reactions with tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine (TCEP) and glutathione at 80 °C. Desulfurization reactions of the ligated peptides converted the Cys and penicillamine functionalities into Ala and Val moieties, respectively. The self-supporting gels showed significant shear-thinning and thixotropic properties. PMID:26808117

  19. Influence factors on the flue gas desulfurization in the circulating fluidized bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, J.; Tang, D.; Liu, H.; Suzuki, Yoshizo; Kito, Nobo

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a dry SO{sub 2} removal method -- the absorbent (Ca(OH){sub 2}) was injected into the Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactor at the coolside of the duct to abate SO{sub 2} in the flue gas -- with the potential to significantly enhance desulfurization performance over that of existing dry/semi-dry Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) technology such as Spray Drying. A patent for coolside Flue Gas Desulfurization in the Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor (CFB-FGD) was approved by the China Patent Bureau in September of 1995 and the additional laboratory experiment was carried out in an electrically heated bench scale quartz circulating fluidized bed reactor of 2350mm in height and 23mm in diameter in January, 1996. The influences of steam, ratio of calcium and sulfur, reactor temperature, and absorbent utilization efficiency were invested. The results show that: (1) Water steam plays a key role in the reaction of Ca(OH){sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in the CFB reactor; (2) There is a positive effect of Ca/S on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency; (3) The temperature is an another key factor for SO{sub 2} removal efficiency for the CFB-FGD process; (4) The absorbent can be enhanced in the CFB reactor; (5) The CFB reactor is better than the dry/semi-dry FDG technology. SO{sub 2} removal efficiency can be as high as 84.8%.

  20. Removal of polychlorinated naphthalenes by desulfurization and emissions of polychlorinated naphthalenes from sintering plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengjing; Liu, Wenbin; Hou, Meifang; Li, Qianqian; Han, Ying; Liu, Guorui; Li, Haifeng; Liao, Xiao; Chen, Xuebin; Zheng, Minghui

    2016-05-01

    The sintering flue gas samples were collected at the inlets and outlets of the desulfurization systems to evaluate the influence of the systems on PCNs emission concentrations, profiles, and emission factors. The PCNs concentrations at the inlets and outlets were 27888–153672 pg m‑3 and 11988–42245 pg m‑3,respectively. Desulfurization systems showed excellent removal for PCNs, and the removal efficiencies of PCNs increase with increasing chlorination level. Lower chlorinated homologs are more sensitive to the desulfurization process than higher ones. High levels of PCNs were also detected in the gypsum (11600–29720 pg g‑1) and fly ash samples (4946–64172 pg g‑1). The annual total emissions of PCNs released to flue gas and gypsum from the sintering plants were about 394 kg, 48.5% of which was in gypsum. The surface area of the fly ash samples increased significantly from the first to the fourth stage of the series-connected electrostatic precipitator, accompanying obvious rising of concentration of PCNs in the fly ash samples.