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Sample records for purple glove syndrome

  1. Purple glove syndrome: a dreadful complication of intravenous phenytoin administration

    PubMed Central

    Lalla, Rakesh; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Sahu, Ritesh

    2012-01-01

    Purple glove syndrome is an uncommon but dreaded complication of intravenous phenytoin administration characterised by pain, oedema and purple-blue discolouration of the limb distal to the site of injection. We describe a 37-year-old gentleman having the characteristic purple glove appearance after phenytoin loading, and discuss the salient features of this syndrome highlighting the pathophysiological and preventive aspects. PMID:22922927

  2. [Purple glove syndrome - a case report].

    PubMed

    Warnecke, I C; Raute-Kreinsen, U; Schirmer, S; Kretschmer, F; Fansa, H

    2010-08-01

    The purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a soft tissue injury after peripheral intravenous phenytoin administration or oral overdosage. The incidence of PGS is described with 0-6%. Typical symptoms are purple discoloration, oedema, pain, and a decrease of range of motion. In severe cases PGS may lead to abscess, skin loss and compartment syndrome. The established treatment of PGS is immediate interruption of phenytoin injections, splinting, elevation, and close observation. In cases of severe complications (e. g., compartment syndrome), surgical intervention is necessary. The case of a 40-year-old female patient is reported who was transferred to our department 4 days after intravenous phenytoin administration and who underwent successful surgical revision. PMID:19847748

  3. An anaesthesiologist's encounter with purple glove syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Uma, B; Kochhar, Anjali

    2016-01-01

    Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a devastating complication of intravenous (IV) phenytoin administration. Anaesthetic management during the amputation of the limb for such patients is very challenging due to limited clinical experience. A 65-year-old woman developed PGS of left upper extremity after IV administration of phenytoin following generalised tonic-clonic seizures. The condition progressed rapidly leading to gangrene of left hand extending to the mid arm. Amputation was carried out under general anaesthesia with a supraglottic airway device. We discuss the prevention and alternate managements in PGS, which is a rare clinical entity with limited data in the literature. PMID:27053784

  4. An anaesthesiologist's encounter with purple glove syndrome.

    PubMed

    Uma, B; Kochhar, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    Purple glove syndrome (PGS) is a devastating complication of intravenous (IV) phenytoin administration. Anaesthetic management during the amputation of the limb for such patients is very challenging due to limited clinical experience. A 65-year-old woman developed PGS of left upper extremity after IV administration of phenytoin following generalised tonic-clonic seizures. The condition progressed rapidly leading to gangrene of left hand extending to the mid arm. Amputation was carried out under general anaesthesia with a supraglottic airway device. We discuss the prevention and alternate managements in PGS, which is a rare clinical entity with limited data in the literature. PMID:27053784

  5. Warfarin and phenytoin drug interaction with possible purple glove syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Carolyn S; Phan, Stephanie V

    2016-01-01

    Though the impact of phenytoin on warfarin has been reported to potentiate the anticoagulant effect or interact in a biphasic manner, the effect of phenytoin on warfarin appears to be unpredictable and dependent upon multiple factors. Additionally, purple glove syndrome has rarely been reported secondary to therapeutic doses of oral phenytoin. We report on the case of a patient who experienced international normalized ratio (INR) fluctuations upon initiation of warfarin and phenytoin concurrently and who subsequently required discontinuation of therapeutic-dose phenytoin secondary to possible purple glove syndrome. PMID:27440955

  6. Phenytoin-Induced Purple Glove Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Okogbaa, John I.; Arije, Oluwatoyin A.; Harris, Martha B.; Lillis, Rebecca A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To present a case report and literature review of phenytoin-induced purple glove syndrome (PGS). Case summary: A 54-year-old African American male presented to our hospital’s emergency department (ED) following a seizure episode, cardiac arrest, and loss of consciousness. On arrival to the ED, the patient’s total phenytoin level was subtherapeutic at 4.1 mcg/mL and his corrected total phenytoin level was subtherapeutic at 5.1 mcg/mL. In the ED, the patient received a loading dose of intravenous (IV) phenytoin 1,000 mg once via the left cephalic vein, at a rate of 50 mg/min, and was admitted to the medicine service. A day following IV phenytoin administration, a nurse noticed an IV fluid infiltration on the skin tissue around the left cephalic vein. The area appeared dark blue and purple in color, swollen, erythematous, and warm to touch. An ultrasound of the left upper extremity was performed and revealed subcutaneous fluid collection without evidence of thrombosis. Discussion: The Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction Probability Scale assigned a score of 7, indicating phenytoin as the probable cause of purple glove syndrome (PGS). The patient’s PGS was managed with a combination of dry dressing material, left forearm elevation, collagenase topical cream, 0.1% IV bupivacaine, and IV fentanyl. The patient’s injury was resolving at the time of discharge to a rehabilitation facility. Conclusion: PGS is a rare complication of IV phenytoin therapy. The risk of PGS for this patient may have been abated by decreasing the phenytoin infusion rate from 50 mg/min to less than 25 mg/min. PMID:26405326

  7. Purple Glove Syndrome after Phenytoin or Fosphenytoin Administration: Review of Reported Cases and Recommendations for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Garbovsky, Lyudmila A; Drumheller, Byron C; Perrone, Jeanmarie

    2015-12-01

    The aim of our study was to identify all previously reported cases of phenytoin- or fosphenytoin-associated purple glove syndrome (PGS) and summarize the most current understanding of the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. We searched the English language references from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, TOXNET, and gray literature that featured one or more case descriptions of phenytoin- or fosphenytoin-associated PGS after administration and provided information on the clinical setting of the event and associated outcome(s). Descriptive statistics were employed to summarize relevant facts about the cases. We identified 82 unique cases of parenteral phenytoin-associated PGS and 5 cases of fosphenytoin-associated PGS that were published from 1984 to 2015. Additionally, we found two cases of PGS associated with oral formulation of phenytoin published from 1999 to 2015. The spectrum of tissue injury ranged from mild local cutaneous reactions around the infusion site to frank limb ischemia. Just over a half of cases reported symptoms after one dose of IV phenytoin. Pathologic findings included evidence for microvascular thrombosis and possible microvascular or subclinical extravasation as a contributing mechanism. Dopper ultrasound and conventional angiography were used in some patients to identify arterial or venous thrombosis. Various treatments were documented including the use of supportive care such as limb elevation and heat or cold application, utilization of systemic antibiotics, anticoagulants, or vasodilators, and local infiltration of hyaluronidase, heparin, or other compounds. In a small number of patients, invasive interventions such as regional anesthesia, thrombectomy, fasciotomy, and debridement were described. Time to resolution varied from days to weeks. Resolution of PGS without deficits was documented in the majority of cases. Skin changes followed by sensory and motor deficits were described in 16, 6, and 5

  8. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abubacker, Naufal Rizwan Taraganar; Jayaraman, Senthil Manikandan Thirumanilayur; R, Kannan; Sivanesan, Magesh Kumar; Mathew, Renu

    2015-08-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is a rare disorder seen in elderly persons, wherein the urinary bag and the tubing turn in to purple colour. It is usually seen in patients who are on urinary catheters for a long time. Purple coloured urine occurs due to the accumulation of indigo and indirubin, which are the end products of tryptophan metabolism due to the action of sulfatases and phosphatases formed by bacteria like Providencia, Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Klebsiella etc. We present this interesting phenomenon of purple urine in a young male who was on prolonged urinary catheterization. The urine culture was positive for Providencia and constipation was an added risk factor for the purple urine. The urinary catheter and tubing was changed along with a course of antibiotics which lead to the normalization of the urine colour. PMID:26435987

  9. The purple bag syndrome.

    PubMed

    McSherry, J A

    1980-10-01

    This is an account of an unusual case of purple discoloration of plastic disposable urethral catheters and urine collecting bags. The likely causes are discussed with reference to the analogous situation of purple diapers in children. In this instance it appears that the phenomenon may have been due to the presence of indigo in the urine as a degradation product of tryptophan in the bowel lumen. PMID:21293710

  10. Recognizing purple bag syndrome at first look.

    PubMed

    Canavese, Caterina; Airoldi, Andrea; Quaglia, Marco; Barbè, Maria Cristina; Brustia, Maddalena; Vidali, Matteo; Bagnati, Marco; Andreone, Stefano; Corrà, Tjibbo; Sciarrabba, Calogera; Bellomo, Giorgio; Stratta, Piero

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a clinical entity first described in 1978. Its typical discoloration is worrying for clinicians. In the past, these patients sometimes reached the emergency unit only because of this exceptional worrying urinary sign and underwent invasive diagnostic examinations including cystoscopy, without any abnormal finding. It is now clear that this astonishing phenomenon of double discoloration of the urine, appearing purple in the bag and dark blue in the test tube, results from the formation of 2 different pigments (indirubin and indigo) in very alkaline urines due to enzymes produced by gram-negative bacteria, such as indoxyl phosphatase/sulfatase, which can convert urinary metabolites of dietary tryptophan. Practicing physicians should identify purple urine bag syndrome as a usually benign medical condition diagnosed in asymptomatic patients, which only requires treatment of bacteriuria with antibiotics, prevention of constipation, substitution of catheter and acidification of the urine. After these measures, urine typically returns to its normal color. PMID:22941873

  11. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation

    PubMed Central

    Faridi, M S; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  12. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome- An Alarming Situation.

    PubMed

    Faridi, M S; Rahman, Md Jawaid; Mibang, Naloh; Shantajit, N; Somarendra, Khumukchum

    2016-02-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon condition that occurs mainly in chronically catheterized patient and associated with urinary tract infection. It is characterised by purple discolouration of urine bag which leads to significant stress and anxiety to patient, care takers and health workers, so awareness regarding this condition is of utmost importance. In our report, an old gentleman with Benign Prostate Hyperplasia (BPH) on per urethral catheter (PUC) with past history of recurrent urinary tract infection developed burning micturition of urine with purple discoloration of urine bag. After proper antibiotic and catheter changed, discoloration subsided. In India, as life expectancy and geriatric care is improving, more patients are on PUC for various diseases. So, the incidence of PUBS will increase and awareness is required about the condition and its management. PMID:27042522

  13. Purple urine bag syndrome in an elderly patient from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Mondragón-Cardona, Alvaro; Jiménez-Canizales, Carlos Eduardo; Alzate-Carvajal, Verónica; Bastidas-Rivera, Fabricio; Sepúlveda-Arias, Juan Carlos

    2015-07-01

    A 71-year-old woman in a nursing home, with indwelling urinary catheter, bedridden, presented with a purple urine collector bag. The purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition associated with the metabolism of tryptophan by overgrowth of intestinal bacteria. The purple color is formed by a combination of indigo and indirubin produced as a result of phosphatase and sulfatase enzymatic activity of bacteria on indoxyl sulfate, under alkaline pH of the urine. We present the second case of this syndrome reported in Colombia detailing the management of this rare syndrome associated with urinary tract infection. Several conditions should be considered in the differential diagnose of diseases that cause discoloration of the urine. PMID:26230133

  14. [Purple urine bag syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Lazimy, Yaël; Delotte, Jérôme; Machiavello, Jean-Christophe; Lallement, Michel; Imbenotte, Michel; Bongain, André

    2007-06-01

    The authors report a case of dark purple urine in a woman with bowel obstruction and bilateral percutaneous nephrostomy urinary diversion for 30 years. This colour was due to the presence of high urinary concentrations of 3-indoxyl sulphate due to the enzymatic activity of Providencia rettgeri. A favourable course was observed in response to antibiotics. PMID:17634003

  15. [Purple urine bag syndrome in two institutionalised patients].

    PubMed

    Iglesias Barreira, Rebeca; Albiñana Pérez, M Sandra; Rodríguez Penín, Isaura; Bilbao Salcedo, José

    2013-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) is an uncommon but particularly striking phenomenon characterised by a chemical reaction involving the urine, plastic and certain enzymes from some sulphatase- and phosphatase-producing bacteria, including Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli and Morganella morganii, amongst others. Following this reaction, the catheter and the bag may be stained red, blue or purple. This phenomenon tends to occur in patients with multiple pathology and with urinary catheters, as part of a urinary tract infection. We describe two clinical cases of PUBS in institutionalised patients with permanent urinary catheters. PMID:23199817

  16. Purple toes syndrome associated with warfarin therapy in a patient with antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Talmadge, David B; Spyropoulos, Alex C

    2003-05-01

    Purple toes syndrome is an extremely uncommon, nonhemorrhagic, cutaneous complication associated with warfarin therapy. It is characterized by the sudden appearance of bilateral, painful, purple lesions on the toes and sides of the feet that blanch with pressure. The syndrome usually develops 3-8 weeks after the start of warfarin therapy. A 47-year-old man with a history of purple toes syndrome that resolved after discontinuing warfarin--prescribed for a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in his right lower leg--experienced an acute, proximal DVT in his other leg. Warfarin again was prescribed; 1 week later, purple toes syndrome developed in that extremity. Warfarin therapy again was discontinued, and intravenous unfractionated heparin was started; the patient's clinical picture indicated a possible pulmonary embolism, and laboratory analysis suggested antiphospholipid syndrome. The patient's toe pain resolved, but the purple discoloration persisted. Follow-up laboratory analysis confirmed antiphospholipid syndrome, and warfarin was restarted with close monitoring. No further complications occurred with long-term therapy. Although a rare complication of therapy, clinicians should monitor for the development of purple toes syndrome in patients taking warfarin. PMID:12741443

  17. A unilateral purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Karim, Adil; Abed, Firas; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    A change in the colour of urine is always of clinical significance, and a source of concern for the patient and his physician. Among the different urine colours observed, purple is the least common. Although purple discolouration of a catheter and a urine bag is an uncommon finding, it was reported in the literature as early as 1978, by Barlow and Dickson. We present a unique case of purple urine bag syndrome in a patient with bilateral nephrostomy tubes (NT) and associated urine bags (UB) with only the left nephrostomy tube and urine bag exhibiting the purple colour, which resolved with a course of appropriate antibiotics eradicating the causative bacterial pathogen, and change of NT and UB. PMID:26701992

  18. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  19. Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in Two Elderly Men with Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Van Keer, Jan; Detroyer, Daan; Bammens, Bert

    2015-01-01

    Purple urine bag syndrome is a rare condition in which purple discoloration of urine inside its collection bag occurs. We describe two illustrative cases. The first patient is an 81-year-old man who was hospitalized for a newly diagnosed lymphoma with acute obstructive renal failure for which a nephrostomy procedure was performed. During the hospitalization, a sudden purple discoloration of the suprapubic catheter urine was noted, while the nephrostomy urine had a normal color. Urine culture from the suprapubic catheter was positive for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecalis; urine from the nephrostomy was sterile. The second case is an 80-year-old man who was admitted for heart failure with cardiorenal dilemma and who was started on intermittent hemodialysis. There was a sudden purple discoloration of the urine in the collection bag from his indwelling catheter. He was diagnosed with an E. coli urinary infection and treated with amoxicillin and removal of the indwelling catheter. These two cases illustrate the typical characteristics of purple urine bag syndrome. PMID:26351597

  20. Anti-vibration gloves?

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren G; Welcome, Daniel E; McDowell, Thomas W

    2015-03-01

    For exposure to hand-transmitted vibration (HTV), personal protective equipment is sold in the form of anti-vibration (AV) gloves, but it remains unclear how much these gloves actually reduce vibration exposure or prevent the development of hand-arm vibration syndrome in the workplace. This commentary describes some of the issues that surround the classification of AV gloves, the assessment of their effectiveness and their applicability in the workplace. The available information shows that AV gloves are unreliable as devices for controlling HTV exposures. Other means of vibration control, such as using alternative production techniques, low-vibration machinery, routine preventative maintenance regimes, and controlling exposure durations are far more likely to deliver effective vibration reductions and should be implemented. Furthermore, AV gloves may introduce some adverse effects such as increasing grip force and reducing manual dexterity. Therefore, one should balance the benefits of AV gloves and their potential adverse effects if their use is considered. PMID:25381184

  1. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​ PMID:27182466

  2. A Case of Purple Urine Bag Syndrome in a Spastic Partial Quadriplegic Male.

    PubMed

    Tul Llah, Sibghat; Khan, Salman; Dave, Atman; Morrison, Amelia Jane A; Jain, Swapna; Hermanns, David

    2016-01-01

    Purple bag urine syndrome (PUBS) is a benign and unique phenomenon of the urine turning a deep violet color within the urinary catheter tubing and bag. This phenomenon is commonly encountered in patients indicated with long-term catheter placement or, in certain conditions like chronic constipation, alkaline urine, limited ambulation, and, in terms of gender distribution, the female sex, predominates. PUBS gets its name from a unique phenomenon that takes places inside the gut where tryptophan (an amino acid) is metabolized, producing blue and red hues which together emanate a deep violet color. Here, the case of a middle-aged male patient with a suprapubic catheter in situ, following trauma causing spastic partial quadriplegia, is being presented with PUBS due to UTI secondary to Proteus vulgaris. The risk factors, in this case, include chronic constipation and recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).​. PMID:27182466

  3. Glove 101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Amy

    2008-01-01

    This presentation addressed the question "What is a spacesuit glove?" - a highly specialized mobility system. It is an excellent basic tutorial on the design considerations of a spacesuit glove and the many facets of developing a glove that provides good mobility and thermal protection.

  4. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  5. GLOVE BOX ATTACHMENT

    DOEpatents

    Butts, H.L.

    1962-02-13

    This invention comprises a housing unit to be fitted between a glove box port and a glove so that a slidable plate within the housing seals off the glove box port for evacuation of the glove box without damage to the glove. The housing and the glove may be evacuated without damage to the glove since movement of the glove is restricted during evacuation by the slidable plate. (AEC)

  6. Comprehension Strategy Gloves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Gayle

    2002-01-01

    Describes the idea of creating a glove for each of the comprehension strategies for use with different text structures. Notes that the gloves serve as a multisensory approach by providing visual clues through icons on each finger and the palm. Discusses three different gloves: the prereading glove, the narrative text structure glove, and the…

  7. Improved Gloves for Firefighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R.; Arons, I. J.

    1983-01-01

    New firefighter's gloves are more flexible and comfortable than previous designs. Since some firefighters prefer gloves made of composite materials while others prefer dip-coated gloves, both types were developed. New gloves also find uses in foundries, steelmills, and other plants where they are substituted for asbestos gloves.

  8. Pityriasis Rosea, Gianotti-Crosti Syndrome, Asymmetric Periflexural Exanthem, Papular-Purpuric Gloves and Socks Syndrome, Eruptive Pseudoangiomatosis, and Eruptive Hypomelanosis: Do Their Epidemiological Data Substantiate Infectious Etiologies?

    PubMed Central

    Zawar, Vijay; Sciallis, Gabriel F.; Kempf, Werner; Lee, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Many clinical and laboratory-based studies have been reported for skin rashes which may be due to viral infections, namely pityriasis rosea (PR), Gianotti-Crosti syndrome (GCS), asymmetric periflexural exanthem/unilateral laterothoracic exanthem (APE/ULE), papular-purpuric gloves and socks syndrome (PPGSS), and eruptive pseudo-angiomatosis (EP). Eruptive hypomelanosis (EH) is a newly discovered paraviral rash. Novel tools are now available to investigate the epidemiology of these rashes. To retrieve epidemiological data of these exanthema and analyze whether such substantiates or refutes infectious etiologies. We searched for articles published over the last 60 years and indexed by PubMed database. We then analyzed them for universality, demography, concurrent patients, temporal and spatial-temporal clustering, mini-epidemics, epidemics, and other clinical and geographical associations. Based on our criteria, we selected 55, 60, 29, 36, 20, and 4 articles for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, PPGSS, EP, and EH respectively. Universality or multiple-continental reports are found for all exanthema except EH. The ages of patients are compatible with infectious causes for PR, GCS, APE/ULE, and EH. Concurrent patients are reported for all. Significant patient clustering is demonstrated for PR and GCS. Mini-epidemics and epidemics have been reported for GCS, EP, and EH. The current epidemiological data supports, to a moderate extent, that PR, GCS, and APE could be caused by infectious agents. Support for PPGSS is marginal. Epidemiological evidences for infectious origins for EP and EH are inadequate. There might be growing epidemiological evidence to substantiate or to refute our findings in the future. PMID:27103975

  9. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    The design of the EVA glove is examined, emphasizing the development of a more flexible metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint for the EVA glove. The analysis of the EVA glove MCP joint is reviewed and the glove design process is recapitulated. Experimental tests of the glove are summarized.

  10. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and its risk of transmission... examination and by a water leak test method, using 1,000 milliliters (ml) of water. (i) Units examined. Each... appearance of water on the outside of the glove. This emergence of water from the glove constitutes...

  11. Failure of glove hole detection device for synthetic gloves.

    PubMed

    Neal, J G; Jackson, E M; Cox, M J; Thacker, J G; Edlich, R F

    1999-01-01

    Holes in latex gloves can be reliably detected by commercially available electronic devices. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of an electronic glove hole detection device using latex gloves to that of neoprene, vinyl, and nitrile latex-free gloves. The electronic hole detection device accurately detected holes in the latex gloves during the 2-h study. In contrast, the latex-free gloves were immediately conductive of electricity in the absence of holes. Consequently, electronic glove hole detection devices cannot be reliably used with latex-free gloves. PMID:10029145

  12. EV space suit gloves (passive)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, E. G.; Dodson, J. D.; Elkins, W.; Tickner, E. G.

    1975-01-01

    A pair of pressure and thermal insulating overgloves to be used with an Extravehicular (EV) suit assembly was designed, developed, fabricated, and tested. The design features extensive use of Nomex felt materials in lieu of the multiple layer insulation formerly used with the Apollo thermal glove. The glove theoretically satisfies all of the thermal requirements. The presence of the thermal glove does not degrade pressure glove tactility by more than the acceptable 10% value. On the other hand, the thermal glove generally degrades pressure glove mobility by more than the acceptable 10% value, primarily in the area of the fingers. Life cycling tests were completed with minimal problems. The thermal glove/pressure glove ensemble was also tested for comfort; the test subjects found no problems with the thermal glove although they did report difficulties with pressure points on the pressure glove which were independent of the thermal glove.

  13. The effects of vibration-reducing gloves on finger vibration

    PubMed Central

    Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Xu, Xueyan S.; Warren, Christopher; McDowell, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been used to reduce the hand-transmitted vibration exposures from machines and powered hand tools but their effectiveness remains unclear, especially for finger protection. The objectives of this study are to determine whether VR gloves can attenuate the vibration transmitted to the fingers and to enhance the understanding of the mechanisms of how these gloves work. Seven adult male subjects participated in the experiment. The fixed factors evaluated include hand force (four levels), glove condition (gel-filled, air bladder, no gloves), and location of the finger vibration measurement. A 3-D laser vibrometer was used to measure the vibrations on the fingers with and without wearing a glove on a 3-D hand-arm vibration test system. This study finds that the effect of VR gloves on the finger vibration depends on not only the gloves but also their influence on the distribution of the finger contact stiffness and the grip effort. As a result, the gloves increase the vibration in the fingertip area but marginally reduce the vibration in the proximal area at some frequencies below 100 Hz. On average, the gloves reduce the vibration of the entire fingers by less than 3% at frequencies below 80 Hz but increase at frequencies from 80 to 400 Hz. At higher frequencies, the gel-filled glove is more effective at reducing the finger vibration than the air bladder-filled glove. The implications of these findings are discussed. Relevance to industry Prolonged, intensive exposure to hand-transmitted vibration can cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves have been used as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. However, their effectiveness for reducing finger-transmitted vibrations remains unclear. This study enhanced the understanding of the glove effects on finger vibration and provided useful information on the effectiveness of typical VR gloves at reducing the vibration transmitted to the fingers. The new

  14. Just a glove?

    PubMed

    Townsend, M

    1994-08-01

    Surgical gloves were introduced in the early years of this century, initially to protect nurses' and surgeons' hands from the strong antiseptic chemicals used during surgery. William Stewart Halstead is generally credited with introducing gloves to protect his scrub nurse (who later became his wife) from the carbolic acid in which the instruments were immersed. They soon became an essential requirement for asepsis and today, along with procedure gloves, are seen to protect both staff and patients from blood borne infections such as Hepatitis B and HIV. But, how many of us question the dangers posed to patients and staff through gloves? Most of us have read about the dangers of starch, but gloves may pose other significant risks to all who come into contact with them. 'With an ever increasing number of workers who don gloves as a means of personal protection, increased incidents of dermatitis, anaphylactic reactions, and respiratory problems from airborne antigens from glove powders have raised new concerns about allergies.' PMID:7633073

  15. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Hoenes, Glenn R.

    1981-01-01

    According to the present invention, a shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user withdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  16. Glove box shield

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Hoenes, G.R.

    A shield for a glove box housing radioactive material is comprised of spaced apart clamping members which maintain three overlapping flaps in place therebetween. There is a central flap and two side flaps, the side flaps overlapping at the interior edges thereof and the central flap extending past the intersection of the side flaps in order to insure that the shield is always closed when the user wthdraws his hand from the glove box. Lead loaded neoprene rubber is the preferred material for the three flaps, the extent of lead loading depending upon the radiation levels within the glove box.

  17. GLOVEBOX GLOVE CHARACTERIZATION SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-05-14

    A task was undertaken to determine primarily the permeation behavior of various glove compounds from four manufacturers. As part of the basic characterization task, the opportunity to obtain additional mechanical and thermal properties presented itself. Consequently, a total of fifteen gloves were characterized for permeation, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Puncture Resistance, Tensile Properties and Dynamic Mechanical Analysis. Detailed reports were written for each characterization technique used. This report contains the summary of the results.

  18. 6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF INTERIOR GLOVE BOX DURING CONSTRUCTION. GLOVE BOXES CONTAINED ALL PRODUCTION OPERATIONS AND WERE INTERCONNECTED BY CONVEYORS. (9/21/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. System and method for changing a glove attached to a glove box

    DOEpatents

    Aluisi, Alan

    2001-01-01

    A system for changing the gloves of a glove box. The system requires the use of a new glove and a glove change ring to form a temporary secondary barrier to the exchange of atmospheres between the inner glove box and the room in which the glove box is operated. The system describes specific means for disengaging a used glove from the glove box port. The means for disengaging the used glove include use of a glove change hook and use of a glove with an attached tab for use in removal. A method for changing the gloves of a glove box is also described.

  20. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Wearing gloves in the hospital helps prevent the spread of germs. This helps protect both patients and health care ... Gloves are called personal protective equipment (PPE). Other types of PPE are gowns, masks, and shoe and ...

  1. EVA Glove Research Team

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Alvin M.; Peterson, Steven W.; Main, John A.; Dickenson, Rueben D.; Shields, Bobby L.; Lorenz, Christine H.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the basic research portion of the extravehicular activity (EVA) glove research program is to gain a greater understanding of the kinematics of the hand, the characteristics of the pressurized EVA glove, and the interaction of the two. Examination of the literature showed that there existed no acceptable, non-invasive method of obtaining accurate biomechanical data on the hand. For this reason a project was initiated to develop magnetic resonance imaging as a tool for biomechanical data acquisition and visualization. Literature reviews also revealed a lack of practical modeling methods for fabric structures, so a basic science research program was also initiated in this area.

  2. Glovebox plug for glove changing

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David O.; Shalkowski, Jr., Edward

    1992-01-01

    A plug for use in plugging a glove opening of a glovebox when the glove is eplaced. An inflated inner tube which is retained between flat plates mounted on a threaded rod is compressed in order to expand its diameter to equal that of the inside of the glove opening.

  3. Glovebox plug for glove changing

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.O.; Shalkowski, E. Jr.

    1991-04-05

    This invention is comprised of a plug for use in plugging a glove opening of a glovebox when the glove is replaced. An inflated inner tube which is retained between flat plates mounted on a 05 threaded rod is compressed in order to expand its diameter to equal that of the inside of the glove opening.

  4. Delayed reactions to reusable protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Dubnika, Inese

    2009-04-01

    The materials in plastic protective gloves are thought to cause less contact allergy than rubber gloves. Our aim was to estimate the frequency of delayed reactions to different types of reusable protective gloves among dermatitis patients. 2 x 2 cm pieces of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves, nitrile gloves, and natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves were tested as is in consecutive dermatitis patients tested with the baseline series. Among 658 patients, 6 patients reacted to PVC gloves and 6 patients to the NRL gloves. None reacted to both these types of gloves. Five of six patients with reactions to rubber gloves reacted to thiuram mix in the baseline series. Delayed reactions to reusable PVC gloves may be as common as to reusable NRL gloves. In contrast to most reactions to the NRL glove, the reactions to the PVC glove had no obvious association with reactions to any allergen(s) in the baseline series. PMID:19338595

  5. Glove perforation during plastic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cole, R P; Gault, D T

    1989-07-01

    Intraoperative perforation of surgical gloves is common. Nine hundred and forty surgical gloves were tested after 100 consecutive plastic surgical operations, each involving a surgeon, a variable number of assistants and a scrub nurse. In the first 52 operations, single gloves were used and 21.5% of the staff were found to have a perforated glove. In the second 48 operations, double gloves were used by all members of the surgical team and the number with perforations (of both inner and outer gloves) was reduced to 9%. Most perforations occurred on the dorsum of the hand and fingers and on the thumb tip, especially in the non-dominant hand. The risk of acquiring AIDS due to glove perforation is low but the consequences of such an event could be lethal. PMID:2765743

  6. Power assist EVA glove development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1992-01-01

    Structural modeling of the EVA glove indicates that flexibility in the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint can be improved by selectively lowering the elasticity of the glove fabric. Two strategies are used to accomplish this. One method uses coil springs on the back of the glove to carry the tension in the glove skin due to pressurization. These springs carry the loads normally borne by the glove fabric, but are more easily deformed. An active system was also designed for the same purpose and uses gas filled bladders attached to the back of the EVA glove that change the dimensions of the back of the glove and allow the glove to bend at the MCP joint, thus providing greater flexibility at this joint. A threshold control scheme was devised to control the action of the joint actuators. Input to the controller was provided by thin resistive pressure sensors placed between the hand and the pressurized glove. The pressure sensors consist of a layer of polyester film that has a thin layer of ink screened on the surface. The resistivity of the ink is pressure dependent, so an extremely thin pressure sensor can be fabricated by covering the ink patch with another layer of polyester film and measuring the changing resistance of the ink with a bridge circuit. In order to sense the force between the hand and the glove at the MCP joint, a sensor was placed on the palmar face of the middle finger. The resultant signal was used by the controller to decide whether to fill or exhaust the bladder actuators on the back of the glove. The information from the sensor can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a given control scheme or glove design since the magnitude of the measured pressures gives some idea of the torque required to bend a glove finger at the MCP joint. Tests of this actuator, sensor, and control system were conducted in an 57.2 kPa glove box by performing a series of 90 degree finger bends with a glove without an MCP joint assembly, a glove with the coil spring

  7. Microgravity Science Glovebox - Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This photo shows a rubber glove and its attachment ring for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by the European Space Agency (ESA) and NASA for use aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Photo Credit: NASA/MSFC

  8. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole-Induced Rhabdomyolysis; Gabapentin-Induced Hypoglycemia in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Patients; Purple Glove Syndrome After Oral Phenytoin Administration; Acute Dystonic Reaction After Methylphenidate Initiation; Serotonin Syndrome with Vilazodone Monotherapy; Cabozantinib-Associated Dermatologic Adverse Reactions.

    PubMed

    Mancano, Michael A

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:26715798

  9. Glove permeation by organic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Lum, B.Y.; Carlson, G.J.; Wong, C.M.; Johnson, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    The vapor penetration of 29 common laboratory solvents on 28 protective gloves has been tested and measured using gas-phase, infrared spectrophotometric techniques to determine the permeation characteristics. Five different types of permeation behavior were identified. No one glove offered complete protection against all the solvents tested. The permeation rate of the solvent was found to be inversely proportional to glove thickness for a given manufacturer's material. Of two solvent mixtures tested, one exhibited a large, positive, synergistic rate.

  10. Small, Lightweight, Collapsible Glove Box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    A small, lightweight, collapsible glove box enables its user to perform small experiments and other tasks. Originally intended for use aboard a space shuttle or the International Space Station (ISS), this glove box could also be attractive for use on Earth in settings in which work space or storage space is severely limited and, possibly, in which it is desirable to minimize weight. The development of this glove box was prompted by the findings that in the original space-shuttle or ISS setting, (1) it was necessary to perform small experiments in a large general-purpose work station, so that, in effect, they occupied excessive space; and it took excessive amounts of time to set up small experiments. The design of the glove box reflects the need to minimize the space occupied by experiments and the time needed to set up experiments, plus the requirement to limit the launch weight of the box and the space needed to store the box during transport into orbit. To prepare the glove box for use, the astronaut or other user has merely to insert hands through the two fabric glove ports in the side walls of the box and move two hinges to a locking vertical position (see figure). The user could do this while seated with the glove box on the user fs lap. When stowed, the glove box is flat and has approximately the thickness of two pieces of 8-in. (.20 cm) polycarbonate.

  11. Electrolytic glove-box decontamination

    SciTech Connect

    Wedman, D.; Lugo, J.; Nelson, T.

    1997-12-01

    Programmatic requirements at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) require the decommissioning of obsolete glove boxes contaminated interiorly with high levels of transuranic (TRU) radioisotopes. At least 300 glove boxes will be decommissioned in the next 5 yr and more over the long term. Most of these glove boxes are located at the two facilities that handle plutonium, the plutonium facility at technical area 55 (TA-55) and the chemistry and metallurgy research (CMR) facility at technical area. In addition to these active LANL glove boxes, which are in need of decommissioning, there are also on the order of 200 {open_quotes}legacy{close_quotes} TRU categorized glove boxes in storage at technical area 54.

  12. Purple Pelisse: a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and purple flesh

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  13. Interchangeable breech lock for glove boxes

    DOEpatents

    Lemonds, David Preston

    2015-11-24

    A breech lock for a glove box is provided that may be used to transfer one or more items into the glove box. The breech lock can be interchangeably installed in place of a plug, glove, or other device in a port or opening of a glove box. Features are provided to aid the removal of items from the breech lock by a gloved operator. The breech lock can be reused or, if needed, can be replaced with a plug, glove, or other device at the port or opening of the glove box.

  14. Glutaraldehyde permeation: choosing the proper glove.

    PubMed

    Jordan, S L; Stowers, M F; Trawick, E G; Theis, A B

    1996-04-01

    Six different gloves were tested with five different aqueous glutaraldehyde formulations to determine each glove's resistance to permeation. When tested against 2% or 3.4% glutaraldehyde solutions, nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, a synthetic surgical glove, and polyethylene were each impermeable for at least 4 hours. The two latex gloves tested showed glutaraldehyde breakthrough at 45 minutes. When the latex gloves were doubled, the time to first breakthrough increased to 3 to 4 hours. With 50% glutaraldehyde, only butyl rubber and nitrile rubber were impermeable for extended periods. The surgical synthetic glove had breakthrough at 1 hour, whereas polyethylene and the two latex gloves had breakthrough in less than 1 hour. PMID:8731028

  15. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn C.

    2010-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 - 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a clean, controlled ISS environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 - 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 - 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of ISS-based tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center Crew and Thermal Systems Division to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected at periodic intervals throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the development of improved cycle model tables. This paper provides a

  16. Gloved Human-Machine Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard (Inventor); Olowin, Aaron (Inventor); Hannaford, Blake (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Certain exemplary embodiments can provide a system, machine, device, manufacture, circuit, composition of matter, and/or user interface adapted for and/or resulting from, and/or a method and/or machine-readable medium comprising machine-implementable instructions for, activities that can comprise and/or relate to: tracking movement of a gloved hand of a human; interpreting a gloved finger movement of the human; and/or in response to interpreting the gloved finger movement, providing feedback to the human.

  17. Phase VI Glove Durability Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art space suit gloves, the Phase VI gloves, have an operational life of 25 -- 8 hour Extravehicular Activities (EVAs) in a dust free, manufactured microgravity EVA environment. Future planetary outpost missions create the need for space suit gloves which can endure up to 90 -- 8 hour traditional EVAs or 576 -- 45 minute suit port-based EVAs in a dirty, uncontrolled planetary environment. Prior to developing improved space suit gloves for use in planetary environments, it is necessary to understand how the current state-of-the-art performs in these environments. The Phase VI glove operational life has traditionally been certified through cycle testing consisting of International Space Station (ISS)-based EVA tasks in a clean environment, and glove durability while performing planetary EVA tasks in a dirty environment has not previously been characterized. Testing was performed in the spring of 2010 by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD) to characterize the durability of the Phase VI Glove and identify areas of the glove design which need improvement to meet the requirements of future NASA missions. Lunar simulant was used in this test to help replicate the dirty lunar environment, and generic planetary surface EVA tasks were performed during testing. A total of 50 manned, pressurized test sessions were completed in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) using one pair of Phase VI gloves as the test article. The 50 test sessions were designed to mimic the total amount of pressurized cycling the gloves would experience over a 6 month planetary outpost mission. The gloves were inspected periodically throughout testing, to assess their condition at various stages in the test and to monitor the gloves for failures. Additionally, motion capture and force data were collected during 18 of the 50 test sessions to assess the accuracy of the cycle model predictions used in testing and to feed into the

  18. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Nam, Da-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Baek, Sun Jung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of a dietary supplement of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient mice were investigated. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg), purple sweet potato water extract (PSPWE) (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of PSPE 300 mg/kg), PSP10EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 10% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg), and PSP80EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 80% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of PSPE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and attenuated the suppression of T- and B-cell proliferation and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Dietary supplement of PSPE increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The data suggest that PSPE may ameliorate immune dysfunction due to LP-BM5 MuLV infection by modulating antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26076116

  19. Frequency of glove perforation and the protective effect of double gloves in gynecological surgery.

    PubMed

    Murta, Eddie F C; Silva, Cléber S; Júnior, Odilon R A

    2003-06-01

    The purposes of this prospective study were to verify the frequency of glove perforation during gynecological operations and to evaluate the efficacy of double gloving in preventing damage to the inner glove. From May 2000 to May 2001, three house staff and 12 residents were asked to place their used gloves in bags labeled with the following information: procedure performed, presence of a recognized glove perforation, and role in operating team (surgeon, first or second assistant, and instrumentalist). All glove sets were tested using the method of water pression. Damaged gloves were excluded from that analysis. In all, 35 and 51 operations were utilized with single and double gloves, respectively. There were 240 single gloves and 792 double gloves tested. Perforation occurred in 10.4% of the single gloves and 9.8% of the outer double gloves. There were no cases of perforation in the inner double gloves. In cases of operating time that lasted more than 2 h, 56% of the surgeries that used single gloves had perforation vs 58.5% of the double gloves. The first assistant had the major risk for glove perforation with the use of single or double gloves. The indicator finger of the non-dominant hand was the major risk for perforation. In conclusion, we recommend double gloving in all gynecological surgery to reduce the risk of contracting blood-borne diseases. PMID:12768294

  20. Nitrile glove permeation of benomyl.

    PubMed

    Zainal, H; Hee, S S Que

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate permeation of the fungicide benomyl at its highest field application concentration (0.70 mg/mL) in Benlate 50 WP aqueous solution (1.4 mg/mL) through two types of unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves--a disposable latex glove (Safeskin) and an industrial chemical-resistant glove (Solvex)--using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ATSM)-type permeation cell with isopropanol collection medium. The permeation cell was contained in a moving-tray water bath at 30.0 degrees C +/- 0.5 degrees C. The collection medium was evaporated and the residue derivatized with an optimized method (2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro)benzyl bromide to form the disubstituted derivative of carbendazim (CARB), CARB.2PFB. The latter in isooctane was then quantified by gas chromatography- 63Ni-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) by the internal standard method. GC-ECD, GC-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and reflectance infrared investigations showed that little degradation of benomyl occurred in the challenge solution of aqueous Benlate during an 8-hour exposure period. Benomyl was collected as a mixture of CARB and benomyl as shown by the presence of a diagnostic chromatographic peak identified by GC-MS. The amounts permeated during the same time period were always higher for Safeskin than for Solvex gloves, with the latter being approximately 18 times more protective than the former after 8 hours of continuous exposure. Although the Solvex gloves were safe to wear at least for 4 hours and for almost 8 hours, the ASTM breakthrough threshold was used as reference and thus ignored carcinogenic effects. Reflectance infrared investigations detected benomyl and CARB on the glove challenge surface after drying and confirmed that the cleaned glove surfaces after permeation experiments did not differ in infrared reflectance spectra from the corresponding surfaces just before the permeation experiments. PMID:16446997

  1. Detection of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in Purple and Non-purple Dairy Wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Leytem, April B

    2015-09-01

    The presence of purple bacteria in manure storage lagoons is often associated with reduced odors. In this study, our objectives were to determine the occurrence of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) in seven dairy wastewater lagoons and to identify possible linkages between wastewater properties and purple blooms. Community DNA was extracted from composited wastewater samples, and a conservative 16S rRNA gene sequence within and genes found in both purple sulfur and nonsulfur bacteria was amplified. Analysis of the genes indicated that all of the lagoons contained sequences that were 92 to 97% similar with . Sequences from a few lagoons were also found to be similar with other PSB, such as sp. (97%), (93-100%), and (95-98%). sequences amplified from enrichment and pure cultures were most similar to (93-96%). Carotenoid pigment concentrations, which were used as an indirect measure of purple bacteria levels in the wastewaters, were found to be positively correlated with salinity, nitrogen, total and volatile solids, and chemical oxygen demand; however, salinity could be the dominant factor influencing purple blooms. Due to the detection of PSB sequences in all lagoons, our findings suggest that the non-purple lagoons may have been purple in the past or may have the potential to become purple in the future. PMID:26436272

  2. Tool-specific performance of vibration-reducing gloves for attenuating palm-transmitted vibrations in three orthogonal directions

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ren G.; Welcome, Daniel E.; Peterson, Donald R.; Xu, Xueyan S.; McDowell, Thomas W.; Warren, Christopher; Asaki, Takafumi; Kudernatsch, Simon; Brammer, Antony

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-reducing (VR) gloves have been increasingly used to help reduce vibration exposure, but it remains unclear how effective these gloves are. The purpose of this study was to estimate tool-specific performances of VR gloves for reducing the vibrations transmitted to the palm of the hand in three orthogonal directions (3-D) in an attempt to assess glove effectiveness and aid in the appropriate selection of these gloves. Four typical VR gloves were considered in this study, two of which can be classified as anti-vibration (AV) gloves according to the current AV glove test standard. The average transmissibility spectrum of each glove in each direction was synthesized based on spectra measured in this study and other spectra collected from reported studies. More than seventy vibration spectra of various tools or machines were considered in the estimations, which were also measured in this study or collected from reported studies. The glove performance assessments were based on the percent reduction of frequency-weighted acceleration as is required in the current standard for assessing the risk of vibration exposures. The estimated tool-specific vibration reductions of the gloves indicate that the VR gloves could slightly reduce (<5%) or marginally amplify (<10%) the vibrations generated from low-frequency (<25 Hz) tools or those vibrating primarily along the axis of the tool handle. With other tools, the VR gloves could reduce palm-transmitted vibrations in the range of 5%–58%, primarily depending on the specific tool and its vibration spectra in the three directions. The two AV gloves were not more effective than the other gloves with some of the tools considered in this study. The implications of the results are discussed. Relevance to industry Hand-transmitted vibration exposure may cause hand-arm vibration syndrome. Vibration-reducing gloves are considered as an alternative approach to reduce the vibration exposure. This study provides useful information

  3. Evaluation of a Hybrid Elastic EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korona, F. Adam; Akin, David

    2002-01-01

    The hybrid elastic design is based upon an American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) glove designed by at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) in 1985. This design uses an elastic restraint layer instead of convolute joints to achieve greater dexterity and mobility during EVA (extravehicular activity). Two pilot studies and a main study were conducted using the hybrid elastic glove and 4000-series EMU (extravehicular activity unit) glove. Data on dexterity performance, joint range of motion, grip strength and perceived exertion was assessed for the EMU and hybrid elastic gloves with correlations to a barehanded condition. During this study, 30 test subjects performed multiple test sessions using a hybrid elastic glove and a 4000- series shuttle glove in a 4.3psid pressure environment. Test results to date indicate that the hybrid elastic glove performance is approximately similar to the performance of the 4000-series glove.

  4. ISS Update: Robonaut Glove Test (Part 2)

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Brandi Dean interviews Chris Ihrke, General Motors Lead Engineer for the Robo-Glove Project, about the Robonaut glove test. Questions? Ask us on Twitter @NASA_Johnson an...

  5. 76 FR 28308 - Compliance Policy Guide: Surgeons' Gloves and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects-Criteria for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure AGENCY: Food and Drug... Gloves; Defects--Criteria for Direct Reference Seizure (the CPG). The CPG, which was originally issued in.... 335.700, Surgeons' Gloves and Patient Examination Gloves; Defects--Criteria for Direct...

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A NEW GLOVE FOR GLOVE BOXES WITH HIGH-LEVEL PERFORMANCES

    SciTech Connect

    Blancher, J.; Poirier, J.M.

    2003-02-27

    This paper describes the results of a joint technological program of COGEMA and MAPA to develop a new generation of glove for glove boxes. The mechanical strength of this glove is twice as high as the best characteristics of gloves available on the market. This new generation of product has both a higher level of performance and better ergonomics.

  7. Electrodichroism of Purple Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Papp, E.; Fricsovszky, G.; Meszéna, G.

    1986-01-01

    The dichroism of purple membrane suspension was measured in dc and ac electric fields. From these measurements three parameters can be obtained: the permanent dipole moment, μ, the electrical polarizability, α, and the retinal angle, δ, (relative to the membrane normal). The functional dependence of the dichroism on the electric field is analyzed. There is a small decrease (∼2°) in retinal angle going from dark adapted to the light adapted form. No measurable difference in μ, α, and δ was found under the photocycle. The dichroism was measured in two different salt solutions (KCl and CaCl2) in the range 0-10 mM. The retinal angle increases from 64° to 68° with increasing ionic strength going through a minimum. This is attributed to the changing (decreasing) inner electric field in the membrane. The polarizability, α, consists of two parts. One component is related to the polarization of the purple membrane and the second component to the ionic cloud. The second component decreases with ion concentration approximately as κ-3 (κ is the Debye parameter) in agreement with a model calculation for the polarization of the ionic cloud. The origin of the slightly ionic strength dependent permanent dipole moment is not well understood. PMID:19431673

  8. Surgical rubber gloves impervious to methylmethacrylate monomer.

    PubMed

    Darre, E; Vedel, P

    1984-06-01

    Conventional surgical rubber gloves are permeable to the methylmethacrylate monomer (MMM) of acrylic bone cement. An in vitro technique was used which proved butyl rubber gloves, 0.48 mm thick, to be impervious to MMM. to avoid sensitization, butyl rubber gloves may be recommended to persons who are in contact with MMM. Such gloves should be worn by persons with known contact sensitization to MMM. PMID:6741470

  9. Glove powder: implications for infection control.

    PubMed

    Dave, J; Wilcox, M H; Kellett, M

    1999-08-01

    Gloves are increasingly promoted for use by healthcare workers, but this use is not without risk. Data associating powdered gloves with an increased risk of latex allergy is available and there is circumstantial evidence that the powder used may increase bacterial environmental contamination. In animal models, corn starch, the material used as glove powder, promotes wound infection. Infection control teams need to be aware of this evidence and should support switching from use of powdered to powder free gloves. PMID:10467541

  10. Glove Perforations During Interventional Radiological Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Leena, R. V. Shyamkumar, N. K.

    2010-04-15

    Intact surgical gloves are essential to avoid contact with blood and other body fluids. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of glove perforations during interventional radiological procedures. In this study, a total of 758 gloves used in 94 interventional radiological procedures were examined for perforations. Eleven perforations were encountered, only one of which was of occult type. No significant difference in the frequency of glove perforation was found between the categories with varying time duration.

  11. A new glove for glovebox workers

    SciTech Connect

    Macdonald, J.M.; Nekimken, H.L.; Hermes, R.E.; Castro, J.M.; Evans, M.E.

    1996-10-01

    Lead-lined gloves used during the processing of nuclear materials within gloveboxes is an example of a barrier. To help prevent work contamination, current practice includes visual inspection and radiological monitoring of each glove on a regular basis. One administrative control requires radiological workers to monitor their hands upon removal form the glovebox gloves. In reality, either a catastrophic glove failure or the formation of pinholes can cause contamination which is detected after the fact. Real-time monitoring of glove integrity during use would help prevent the spread of contamination, minimize decontamination costs, and protect the glovebox worker. Another benefit of real-time monitoring is remotely alerting proper personnel of a glovebox glove breech. One of the most exciting aspects of this technology is the rapid detection of a breech in the glovebox glove. A puncture to a glove can be detected followed by an alert to a worker in less than a second. The benefits of a real-time monitoring system for glove integrity are immense. Examples of benefits using this new glove are: reducing work stoppage, personnel contamination, glovebox glove replacements, and the filing of costly reports. The primary application of this technology at Los Alamos National Laboratory would be protecting the worker with these newly designed lead-lined gloves.

  12. Latex medical gloves: time for a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Palosuo, Timo; Antoniadou, Irini; Gottrup, Finn; Phillips, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Many hospitals have implemented policies to restrict or ban the use of devices made of natural rubber latex (NRL) in healthcare as precautionary measures against the perceived risk of NRL allergy. Changes in glove technology, progress in measuring the specific allergenic potential of gloves and a dramatic decrease in the prevalence of NRL allergies after interventions and education prompted us to revisit the basis for justifiable glove selection policies. The published Anglophone literature from 1990 to 2010 was reviewed for original articles and reviews dealing with the barrier and performance properties of NRL and synthetic gloves and the role of glove powder. The review shows that NRL medical gloves, when compared with synthetic gloves, tend to be stronger, more flexible and better accepted by clinicians. The introduction of powder-free gloves has been associated with reductions in protein content and associated allergies. Recently, new methods to quantify clinically relevant NRL allergens have enabled the identification of gloves with low allergenic potential. The use of low-protein, low-allergenic, powder-free gloves is associated with a significant decrease in the prevalence of type I allergic reactions to NRL among healthcare workers. Given the excellent barrier properties and operating characteristics, dramatically reduced incidences of allergic reactions, availability of specific tests for selection of low-allergen gloves, competitive costs and low environmental impact, the use of NRL gloves within the hospital environment warrants reappraisal. PMID:21720169

  13. Glove box for water pit applications

    DOEpatents

    Mills, William C.; Rabe, Richard A.

    2005-01-18

    A glove box assembly that includes a glove box enclosure attached to a longitudinally extending hollow tube having an entranceway, wherein the portion of the tube is in a liquid environment. An elevator member is provided for raising an object that is introduced into the hollow tube from the liquid environment to a gas environment inside the glove box enclosure while maintaining total containment.

  14. Investigation of natural latex rubber gloves

    SciTech Connect

    Vessel, E.M.

    1993-03-19

    Seventy five percent of natural latex rubber gloves used in laboratories at the Savannah River Site are not reused. A cost analysis performed by the SRS Procurement Department determined that a net savings of $1,092,210 could be achieved annually by recycling latex rubber gloves. The Materials Technology Section, at the request of the Procurement Department, examined some mechanical and chemical properties of latex rubber gloves manufactured by Ansell Edmont, which had been purchased by the site specifications for protective clothing. It also examined mechanical properties of re-cycled gloves purchased by specifications and of {open_quotes}off the shelf{close_quotes} gloves manufactured by North Brothers Company. Finally, water vapor transmission studies, simulating tritium permeation, were performed on gloves from both manufacturers. These studies were performed to determine whether latex rubber gloves can be recycled or whether using only new, unwashed gloves is required in areas where tritium exposure is a possibility. The results of these studies indicate that the acceptable glove characteristics, required in the WSRC Manual 5Q1.11, Protective Clothing Specifications, are not adversely affected after washing and drying the gloves manufactured by Ansell Edmont for seven cycles. Results also indicate that natural latex rubber gloves manufactured by North Brothers comply with most of the acceptable glove characteristics specified in the WSRC Manual 5Q1.11. Statistical analysis of the water vapor permeation data show that there is no correlation between permeation rates and the manufacturer.

  15. Thermal and Mechanical Testing of Neoprene Gloves Used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingard, Charles Doug; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Neoprene gloves are used in a Space Shuttle Microgravity Glove Box (MGBX) experiment. In 1999, significant corrosion was observed in the work area and on the outer surface of the left glove ring. Analysis of the corrosion products showed that they contained chlorine. The Neoprene gloves used in this glove box were obtained in 1995, with a recommended shelf life of 3 years. After storage of these gloves in a cabinet drawer until 1999, significant signs of corrosion were also observed in the drawer. Mechanical and thermal properties were determined on samples cut from the finger and sleeve areas of the "good" and "bad" gloves. This data showed significant aging of the left-hand glove, particularly in the sleeve area. Thermal analysis data by DSC and TGA was complimentary to tensile data in showing this aging. However, this test data did not pinpoint the cause of the left-hand glove aging, or of the corrosion products.

  16. FY13 High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort - Training Data Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Charvat, Jacqueline; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    From the time hand-intensive tasks were first created for EVAs, discomforts and injuries have been noted.. There have been numerous versions of EVA gloves for US crew over the past 50 years, yet pain and injuries persist. The investigation team was tasked with assisting in a glove injury assessment for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) project.center dot To aid in this assessment, the team was asked to complete the following objectives: - First, to develop the best current understanding of what glove-related injuries have occurred to date, and when possible, identify the specific mechanisms that caused those injuries - Second, to create a standardized method for comparison of glove injury potential from one glove to another. center dot The overall goal of the gloved hand injury assessment is to utilize ergonomics in understanding how these glove injuries are occurring, and to propose mitigations to current designs or design changes in the next generation of EVA gloves.

  17. Glove material, reservoir formation, and dose affect glove permeation and subsequent skin penetration.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Jesper Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm

    2012-02-15

    Protective gloves are used to reduce dermal exposure when managing chemical exposures at the work place. Different glove materials may offer different degrees of protection. The present study combined the traditional ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) model with the Franz diffusion cell to evaluate overall penetration through glove and skin as well as the deposition in the different reservoirs. Benzoic acid was applied on latex or nitrile gloves placed on top of human skin. The amounts of chemical were quantified in the glove material, between glove and skin, within the skin, and in the receptor chamber. Both glove materials reduce total penetration of benzoic acid, but nitrile gloves offer a significantly better protection than latex gloves. This difference was less pronounced at the higher of the two concentrations of benzoic acid applied. Thus, glove types that offer relevant protection at low concentrations does not necessarily give appropriate protection at high concentrations. Significant amounts of benzoic acid could be extracted from the glove materials after exposure. If a chemical is accumulated in the glove material, reuse of single-use gloves should be cautioned. The reuse of gloves is generally not to be recommended without effective decontamination. PMID:22264917

  18. Thermodynamic properties of purple membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Marque, J; Eisenstein, L; Gratton, E; Sturtevant, J M; Hardy, C J

    1984-01-01

    We measured the density, expansivity, specific heat at constant pressure, and sound velocity of suspensions of purple membrane from Halobacterium halobium and their constituent buffers. From these quantities we calculated the apparent values for the density, expansivity, adiabatic compressibility, isothermal compressibility, specific heat at constant pressure, and specific heat at constant volume for the purple membrane. These results are discussed with respect to previously reported measurements on globular proteins and lipids. Our data suggest a simple additive model in which the protein and lipid molecules expand and compress independently of each other. However, this simple model seems to fail to describe the specific heat data. Our compressibility data suggest that bacteriorhodopsin in native purple membrane binds less water than many globular proteins in neutral aqueous solution, a finding consistent with the lipid surround of bacteriorhodopsin in purple membrane. PMID:6498271

  19. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benson, E.; England, S.; Charvat, J.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2015-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. Because of this high frequency usage, hand and arm related injuries are known to occur during EVA and EVA training in the NBL. The primary objectives of this investigation were to: 1) document all known EVA glove related injuries and circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend interventions where possible that could be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigation focused on the discomforts and injuries of U.S. crewmembers who had worn the pressurized Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit and experienced 4000 Series or Phase VI glove related incidents during 1981 to 2010 for either EVA ground training or in-orbit flight. We conducted an observational retrospective case-control investigation using 1) a literature review of known injuries, 2) data mining of crew injury, glove sizing, and hand anthropometry databases, 3) descriptive statistical analyses, and finally 4) statistical risk correlation and predictor analyses to better understand injury prevalence and potential causation. Specific predictor statistical analyses included use of principal component analyses (PCA), multiple logistic regression, and survival analyses (Cox proportional hazards regression). Results of these analyses were computed risk variables in the forms of odds ratios (likelihood of an injury occurring given the magnitude of a risk variable) and hazard ratios (likelihood of time to injury occurrence). Due to the exploratory nature of this investigation, we selected predictor variables significant at p=0.15. RESULTS: Through 2010, there have been a total of 330 NASA crewmembers, from which 96 crewmembers performed 322 EVAs during 1981-2010, resulting in 50 crewmembers being injured inflight and 44

  20. MCPA permeation through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Purdham, J T; Menard, B J; Bozek, P R; Sass-Kortsak, A M

    2001-10-01

    Permeation of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in commercial herbicide formulations through common protective glove types was evaluated to aid in the selection of appropriate skin protection. The ASTM test method F739-91 was used to measure the permeation of two undiluted formulations, one containing a salt, and the other an ester form of MCPA. The four glove types tested were natural rubber, neoprene 73, nitrile 37-145, and Viton-coated chloroprene. Triplicate tests of each combination of formulation and glove material were conducted. Permeation cells with a 0.01 M sodium hydroxide collection medium were used for the experiments. Aliquots of the collection medium were withdrawn at regular intervals and acidified, and quantification of the free acid was achieved using HPLC-UV (230 nm). There was no appreciable permeation of the salt formulation over a 24-hour test period. For the ester formulation, the following mean steady-state permeation rate (microg x cm(-2) min(-1)) and mean lag time (hours), respectively, were measured: Viton (0.06, 17.8), natural rubber (0.08, 15.4), neoprene 73 (0.21, 15.1), and nitrile (0.04, 24.2). Permeation was associated with significant swelling, averaging a nearly 30 percent increase from the pre-immersion thickness. All four glove types provide adequate protection against permeation by the salt formulation and at least eight-hour protection against the ester formulation. Given the greater permeation of the ester formulation, the salt formulation of MCPA herbicide should be used whenever possible. PMID:11599545

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    A task was undertaken to compare various properties of different glovebox gloves, having various compositions, for use in gloveboxes at the Savannah River Site (SRS). One aspect of this project was to determine the tensile strength (TS) of the gloves. Longitudinal tensile samples were cut from 15 different gloves and tensile tested. The stress, load, and elongation at failure were determined. All of the gloves that are approved for glovebox use and listed in the glovebox procurement specification met the tensile and elongation requirements. The Viton{reg_sign} compound gloves are not listed in the specification, but exhibited lower tensile strengths than permissible based on the Butyl rubber requirements. Piercan Polyurethane gloves were the thinnest samples and exhibited the highest tensile strength of the materials tested.

  2. EVA Glove Sensor Feasbility II Abstract

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melone, Kate

    2014-01-01

    The main objectives for the glove project include taking various measurements from human subjects during and after they perform different tasks in the glove box, acquiring data from these tests and determining the accuracy of these results, interpreting and analyzing this data, and using the data to better understand how hand injuries are caused during EVAs.1 Some of these measurements include force readings, temperature readings, and micro-circulatory blood flow.1 The three glove conditions tested were ungloved (a comfort glove was worn to house the sensors), Series 4000, and Phase VI. The general approach/procedure for the glove sensor feasibility project is as follows: 1. Prepare test subject for testing. This includes attaching numerous sensors (approximately 50) to the test subject, wiring, and weaving the sensors and wires in the glove which helps to keep everything together. This also includes recording baseline moisture data using the Vapometer and MoistSense. 2. Pressurizing the glove box. Once the glove box is pressurized to the desired pressure (4.3 psid), testing can begin. 3. Testing. The test subject will perform a series of tests, some of which include pinching a load cell, making a fist, pushing down on a force plate, and picking up metal pegs, rotating them 90 degrees, and placing them back in the peg board. 4. Post glove box testing data collection. After the data is collected from inside the glove box, the Vapometer and MoistSense device will be used to collect moisture data from the subject's hand. 5. Survey. At the conclusion of testing, he/she will complete a survey that asks questions pertaining to comfort/discomfort levels of the glove, glove sizing, as well as offering any additional feedback.

  3. Allergies associated with medical gloves. Manufacturing issues.

    PubMed

    Hamann, C P; Kick, S A

    1994-07-01

    The increase in glove usage that followed the advent of Universal Precautions has been associated with a concomitant increase in glove-related allergic reactions, many of which are potentially debilitating. Manufacturing issues that can affect the allergenicity of natural rubber latex, thermoplastic elastomer, and polyvinylchloride medical gloves are therefore examined. This information can enhance the ability of the occupational dermatologist to diagnose specific allergens and to recommend appropriate treatment based on knowledge of a product's allergenic ingredients. PMID:7923952

  4. THERMOGRAVIMETRIC CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    An experimental project was initiated to characterize mass loss when heating different polymer glovebox glove material samples to three elevated temperatures, 90, 120, and 150 C. Samples from ten different polymeric gloves that are being considered for use in the tritium gloveboxes were tested. The intent of the study was to determine the amount of material lost. These data will be used in a subsequent study to characterize the composition of the material lost. One goal of the study was to determine which glove composition would least affect the glovebox atmosphere stripper system. Samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The most mass loss was experienced by Jung butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} at 146 C with 12.9% mass loss followed by Piercan Hypalon{reg_sign} at 144 C with 11.4 % mass loss and Jung butyl-Viton{reg_sign} at 140 C with 5.2% mass loss. The least mass loss was experienced by the Jung Viton{reg_sign} and the Piercan polyurethane. Unlike the permeation testing (1) the vendor and fabrication route influences the amount of gaseous species that is evolved. Additional testing to characterize these products is recommended. Savannah River Site (SRS) has many gloveboxes deployed in the Tritium Facility. These gloveboxes are used to protect the workers and to ensure a suitable environment in which to handle tritium gas products. The gas atmosphere in the gloveboxes is purified using a stripper system. The process gas strippers collect molecules that may have hydrogen or its isotopes attached, e.g., waters of hydration, acids, etc. Recently, sulfur containing compounds were detected in the stripper system and the presence of these compounds accelerates the stripper system's aging process. This accelerated aging requires the strippers to be replaced more often which can impact the facility's schedule and

  5. PUNCTURE TEST CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.; Chapman, G.

    2012-02-29

    An experiment was conducted to determine the puncture resistance of 15 gloves that are used or proposed for use in the Tritium Facility at Savannah River Site (SRS). These data will serve as a baseline for characterization and may be incorporated into the glove procurement specification. The testing was conducted in agreement with ASTM D120 and all of the gloves met or exceeded the minimum requirements. Butyl gloves exhibited puncture resistance nearly 2.5 times the minimum requirements at SRS while Polyurethane was nearly 7.5x the minimum.

  6. Update on medical and surgical gloves.

    PubMed

    Cleenewerck, Marie-Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Occupational dermatitis to personal protective equipment (PPE), particularly to gloves, mainly occurs in healthcare workers. They are all irritant and/or allergic contact dermatitis (eczema and contact urticaria). Prolonged glove wearing by healthcare workers favours skin irritation of the hands and wrists. It is very important to consider characteristics and materials of gloves used in the medical field. Rubber additives are the main allergens in gloves. Latex or natural rubber remains by far the most frequent cause for occupational contact urticaria from gloves. The problem of prevention of infections risks in the health environment and the choice of medico-surgical gloves is described. In a surgical environment (in ORS), double gloving is recommended. Today, it appears as the best protection, even if in France it is far from being systematically used. Choosing the appropriate medical or surgical gloves requires having sufficient preliminary information on the assets, drawbacks and use limits of each of them. In cases of known contact allergic dermatitis, advice from dermatologists or allergologists is essential when it comes to suggesting substitution gloves. PMID:20522415

  7. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  8. Permeation of chemicals through glove-box glove materials

    SciTech Connect

    Vahdat, N,; Johnson, J.S.; Neidhardt, A.; Cheng, J.; Weitzman, D.

    1994-06-30

    The resistance of two commercial gloves to 20 chemicals commonly used in glove boxes was studied. The chemicals were inorganic acids/bases/salts, organic acids, alcohols, glycols, halogen compounds, sulfur compounds, and hydrocarbons. The ASTM cell was used to study permeation of volatile organic compounds through protective clothing materials using air, flame ionization detector/gas chromatography; a modified version of the cell was used with isopropanol for the nonvolatile organic compounds. Permeation of inorganic compounds through the elastomers was studied using the ASTM cell with water, conductivity meter. A Teflon cell was used with HF and ammonium hydrofluoride. Results: Hypalon protects against all chemicals except trichloroethylene (TCE) and CCl{sub 4}. Acetic acid and ethanol permeated through neoprene, which also did not protect against TCE and CCl{sub 4}. Sulfuric acid dissolved neoprene in 5 h. Kerosene permeated through neoprene in 5 h. Although neoprene showed good resistance to cutting oil, TCE in cutting oil broke through in 61 min. Neoprene showed good protection against all the other chemicals with no breakthrough before 6 h.

  9. Folpet permeation through nitrile gloves.

    PubMed

    Zainal, H; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether two different brands of unsupported and unlined nitrile gloves protected against aqueous emulsions of a Folpet wettable powder (50% Folpet) using an ASTM type-I-PTC 600 permeation cell at 30.0 +/- 0.1 degrees C held in a shaking water bath. An analytical method to determine Folpet using the internal standard method was first developed based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). A novel pyrolysis GC-ECD technique that quantified the thermal degradation product phthalimide had pg sensitivity suitable to detect the trace amounts of Folpet that permeated. The on-column conversion was (68.0 +/- 9.5) percent at 170 degrees C over the folpet injected mass range of 3 to 148 pg. The challenge solution in the permeation cell was 1.4 mg/mL aqueous emulsion of Folpet wettable powder, and 2-propanol was the collection solvent. After evaporation of the collection solvent, the time weighted average rate of permeation of Folpet through SafeSkin nitrile (an exams type of glove) after 8 hours was (42.1 +/- 2.9) ng/cm(2)/min compared with (2.04 +/- 0.69) ng/cm(2)/min for the Sol-Vex nitrile (industrial chemical resistant), the latter being about 21 times more protective and also near the limits of detection. The respective values after 4 hours of exposure were (28.4 +/- 1.2) and (0.65 +/- 0.36) ng/cm(2)/min. Diagnostic reflectance infrared minima of both challenge and collection sides of the gloves showed small changes in wave number and intensity values after 8 hours of exposure, with Folpet being detected in dried spots on the challenge side. GC-ECD-based permeation and IR reflectance data indicated high chemical resistance of the Sol-Vex gloves to an aqueous emulsion of Folpet. PMID:12909534

  10. Abrasion resistance of medical glove materials.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Donna L; Schwerin, Matthew R; Kisielewski, Richard W; Kotz, Richard M; Chaput, Maria P; Varney, George W; To, Theresa M

    2004-01-15

    Due to the increasing demand for nonlatex medical gloves in the health-care community, there is a need to assess the durability of alternative glove materials. This study examines durability characteristics of various glove materials by abrasion resistance testing. Natural rubber latex (latex), polyvinyl chloride (vinyl), acrylonitrile butadiene (nitrile), polychloroprene (neoprene), and a styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene block copolymer (SEBS) were tested. All test specimens, with the exception of the vinyl, were obtained from surgical gloves. Unaged out-of-the-box specimens as well as those subjected to various degrees of artificial aging were included in the study. After the abrasion sequence, the barrier integrity of the material was assessed through the use of a static leak test. Other traditional tests performed on these materials were viral penetration to validate the abrasion data and tear testing for comparative purposes. The results indicate that specific glove-material performance is dependent upon the particular test under consideration. Most notably, abrasion, even in controlled nonsevere conditions, may compromise to varying degrees the barrier integrity of latex, vinyl, SEBS, nitrile, and neoprene glove materials. However, as evidenced by the results of testing three brands of neoprene gloves, the abrasion resistance of any one glove material may be significantly affected by variations in production processes. PMID:14689500

  11. Rolling-Convolute Joint For Pressurized Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Bassick, John W.

    1994-01-01

    Rolling-convolute metacarpal/finger joint enhances mobility and flexibility of pressurized glove. Intended for use in space suit to increase dexterity and decrease wearer's fatigue. Also useful in diving suits and other pressurized protective garments. Two ring elements plus bladder constitute rolling-convolute joint balancing torques caused by internal pressurization of glove. Provides comfortable grasp of various pieces of equipment.

  12. Thermally Insulated Glove With Good Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balinskas, R.

    1982-01-01

    Thermally insulated glove contains short, closely-spaced elastomeric pins that insulate without impairing flexibility. By confining pins to the inter-joint areas of palm, fingers and back of the hand, joint mobility is retained. Glove thermal-insulation requirements dictate the relationships among pin length, pin diameter, and number of pins per unit surface length.

  13. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove....

  14. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove....

  15. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove....

  16. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove....

  17. 21 CFR 878.4460 - Surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's glove. 878.4460 Section 878.4460 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4460 Surgeon's glove....

  18. The Efficacy of Anti-vibration Gloves

    PubMed Central

    Hewitt, Sue; Dong, Ren; McDowell, Tom; Welcome, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Anyone seeking to control the risks from vibration transmitted to the hands and arms may contemplate the use of anti-vibration gloves. To make an informed decision about any type of personal protective equipment, it is necessary to have performance data that allow the degree of protection to be estimated. The information provided with an anti-vibration glove may not be easy to understand without some background knowledge of how gloves are tested and does not provide any clear route for estimating likely protection. Some of the factors that influence the potential efficacy of an anti-vibration glove include how risks from hand–arm vibration exposure are assessed, how the standard test for a glove is carried out, the frequency range and direction of the vibration for which protection is sought, how much hand contact force or pressure is applied and the physical limitations due to glove material and construction. This paper reviews some of the background issues that are useful for potential purchasers of anti-vibration gloves. Ultimately, anti-vibration gloves cannot be relied on to provide sufficient and consistent protection to the wearer and before their use is contemplated all other available means of vibration control ought first to be implemented.

  19. Remote tactile sensing glove-based system.

    PubMed

    Culjat, Martin O; Son, Ji; Fan, Richard E; Wottawa, Christopher; Bisley, James W; Grundfest, Warren S; Dutson, Erik P

    2010-01-01

    A complete glove-based master-slave tactile feedback system was developed to provide users with a remote sense of touch. The system features a force-sensing master glove with piezoresistive force sensors mounted at each finger tip, and a pressure-transmitting slave glove with silicone-based pneumatically controlled balloon actuators, mounted at each finger tip on another hand. A control system translates forces detected on the master glove, either worn by a user or mounted on a robotic hand, to discrete pressure levels at the fingers of another user. System tests demonstrated that users could accurately identify the correct finger and detect three simultaneous finger stimuli with 99.3% and 90.2% accuracy, respectively, when the subjects were located in separate rooms. The glove-based tactile feedback system may have application to virtual reality, rehabilitation, remote surgery, medical simulation, robotic assembly, and military robotics. PMID:21096379

  20. Modeling organic solvents permeation through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Wang, Ven-Shing; Lee, Pak-Hing

    2004-02-01

    Several researchers have studied the diffusion of organic solvents through chemical protective gloves and have estimated the diffusion coefficients by using various models. In this study, permeation experiments of benzene, toluene, and styrene through nitrile and Neoprene gloves were conducted using the ASTM F-739 standard test method. The diffusion coefficients were estimated using several models from the literature. Using a one-dimensional diffusion equation based on Fick's second law and the estimated diffusion coefficients, the permeation concentrations were simulated and compared with the experimental results. The modeling results indicated that the solubility of the solvent in the glove materials obtained by immersion tests was not an appropriate boundary condition for organic solvent permeation through the polymer gloves. The modeling work of this study will assist industrial hygienists to assess exposure of chemicals to workers through the chemical protective gloves. PMID:15204879

  1. Detection of purple sulfur bacteria in purple and non-purple dairy wastewaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) in livestock wastewaters use reduced sulfur compounds and simple volatile organics as growth factors. As a result, the presence of PSB in manure storage ponds or lagoons is often associated with reduced odors. In this study, our objectives were to use molecular- and cult...

  2. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    PubMed

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  3. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    PubMed Central

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  4. EVALUATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR EFFECTIVE PERMEATION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    A research and development task was undertaken to determine the permeabilities of hydrogen and dry air through different polymeric glove materials that are used to maintain the integrity of glovebox secondary containment. Fifteen different glove samples were obtained from four different manufacturers and samples cut from these gloves were tested. The gloves included baseline butyl rubber, Viton{reg_sign}, Dupont{reg_sign} Hypalon{reg_sign}, polyurethane, as well as composite gloves. The testing indicated that all of the vendor's butyl rubber gloves and the Jung Viton{reg_sign} gloves performed comparably in both gases.

  5. The WPI space glove design project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durgin, W. W.; Hoffman, A. H.; Ault, H. K.; Lutz, F. C.

    1985-01-01

    Worcester Polytechnic Institute (WPI) was one of four colleges and universities awarded NASA grants for student design and development of an improved glove for space suits. This paper traces the design, development and testing of the WPI prototype glove. Test results showed that the glove did not significantly limit hand and finger motion when pressurized at 8 psi, except in the spherical grip mode. This project demonstrated that problems originating from space technology provide excellent vehicles for student learning and can generate creative solutions.

  6. A review of the materials and allergens in protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Rose, Rebecca F; Lyons, Paul; Horne, Helen; Mark Wilkinson, S

    2009-09-01

    The ingredients previously reported to cause protective glove allergy are presented and evaluated for strength of evidence. Allergens that have caused both delayed hypersensitivity and contact urticaria are considered for rubber, plastic, leather, and textile gloves. The current guidelines regarding glove manufacture are described. A list of materials confirmed by the industry to be used in glove production is presented together with a suggested series for investigating patients with delayed type hypersensitivity and contact urticaria secondary to glove use. PMID:19780770

  7. RoboGlove: Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grip strength or endurance for a user. In applying this Robonaut 2 spinoff technology to the Phase VI Space Suit glove, the project is using robotic tendons and actuators to regain some of the hand performance that is lost when wearing a pressurized glove. An array of sensors embedded into the finger softgoods provides input to the control system which retracts the tendons, helping to close the user's hand. While active, this system provides augmentation, but is nonintrusive to glove usage when disabled.

  8. Evaluation of the flexibility of protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Harrabi, Lotfi; Dolez, Patricia I; Vu-Khanh, Toan; Lara, Jaime

    2008-01-01

    Two mechanical methods have been developed for the characterization of the flexibility of protective gloves, a key factor affecting their degree of usefulness for workers. The principle of the first method is similar to the ASTM D 4032 standard relative to fabric stiffness and simulates the deformations encountered by gloves that are not tight fitted to the hand. The second method characterizes the flexibility of gloves that are worn tight fitted. Its validity was theoretically verified for elastomer materials. Both methods should prove themselves as valuable tools for protective glove manufacturers, allowing for the characterization of their existing products in terms of flexibility and the development of new ones better fitting workers' needs. PMID:18394327

  9. Glove box on vehicular instrument panel

    DOEpatents

    Atarashi, Kazuya

    1985-01-01

    A glove box for the upper surface of an automobile dashboard whereby it may be positioned close to the driver. The glove box lid is pivotally supported by arms extending down either side to swing forwardly for opening. A hook is pivotally support adjacent an arm and weighted to swing into engagement with the arm to prevent opening of the lid during abrupt deceleration. A toggle spring assists in maintaining the lid in either the open or closed position.

  10. Gloves of Viton protect against hazardous chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    In a chemical plant where monomers and intermediates for neoprene synthetic rubber and Kelvar aramid fiber are made, gloves were needed to provide effective protection against permeation by chemicals encountered in certain operations in the manufacturing process. In performance tests commissioned by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, gloves of Viton fluorelastomer offered six times the protection of other materials against toxic substances.

  11. Get Acquainted With EU Safety Glove Standards.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Simon

    2016-02-01

    As with many of the standards developed as a result of the EU Directive on PPE, the classification of a glove in a particular test is usually defined as one of a series of performance levels (usually between 1 and 4 or 5). It is then left to the user, following a suitable risk assessment exercise, to select a glove with a suitable profile of performance levels in relevant tests. PMID:26983326

  12. Purple Pelisse: A specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and flesh and medium specific gravity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple Pelisse is a specialty fingerling potato with purple skin and dark purple flesh. It has medium maturity and sets a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers. The tubers have medium specific gravity and high levels of antioxidants. This potato variety is mainly intended for the f...

  13. [A case of Williams syndrome who exhibited fetishism].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Masayuki; Kato, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    Williams syndrome is a rare congenital disease in which the etiological locus is a micro-deletion in chromosome 7. Here, we describe the case of a 22-year-old male who was diagnosed with Williams syndrome at the age of 3 years. As a child, the patient exhibited patterns of behavior characteristic of this syndrome including hyperactivity, attention deficit, and over-friendliness. He also showed persistent interest in construction vehicles, playgrounds, and gloves. He became interested in gloves after watching a television program in which the heroine fought her enemies while wearing gloves. Watching pornographic movies allowed him to attach strong sexual significance to gloves when he was 19 years old. Since that time, he has assaulted women wearing gloves four times to rob them of the gloves. The current paper discusses both the role of the cognitive profile unique to Williams syndrome and that of environmental factors in the development of fetishism in this case. PMID:15669216

  14. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches: PART II.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Andrade, R.M.; Taylor, D. J.; Stimmel, J. J.; Zaelke, R. L.; Balkey, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    As a matter of good business practices, a team of glovebox experts from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been assembled to proactively investigate processes and procedures that minimize unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures. A major part of this effort involves the review of glovebox glove failures that have occurred at the Plutonium Facility and at the Chemical and Metallurgy Research Facility. Information dating back to 1993 has been compiled from formal records. This data has been combined with information obtained from a baseline inventory of about 9,000 glovebox gloves. The key attributes tracked include those related to location, the glovebox glove, type and location of breaches, the worker, and the consequences resulting from breaches. This glovebox glove failure analysis yielded results in the areas of the ease of collecting this type of data, the causes of most glove failures that have occurred, the effectiveness of current controls, and recommendations to improve hazard control systems. As expected, a significant number of breaches involve high-risk operations such as grinding, hammering, using sharps (especially screwdrivers), and assembling equipment. Surprisingly, tasks such as the movement of equipment and material between gloveboxes and the opening of cans are also major contributions of breaches. Almost half the gloves fail within a year of their install date. The greatest consequence for over 90% of glovebox glove failures is alpha contamination of protective clothing. Personnel self-monitoring at the gloveboxes continues to be the most effective way of detecting glovebox glove failures. Glove failures from these tasks can be reduced through changes in procedures and the design of remote-handling apparatus. The Nuclear Materials Technology Division management uses this information to improve hazard control systems to reduce the number of unplanned breaches in the glovebox further. As a result, excursions of contaminants

  15. A moving robotic hand system for whole-glove permeation and penetration: captan and nitrile gloves.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert; Hee, Shane Que

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a robotic hand to test the influence of hand movement on the permeation/penetration of captan through disposable nitrile rubber gloves. An available robotic hand was modified to within one standard deviation of the anthropometric 50th percentile male hand. Permeation tests used a nylon inspection glove interposed between medium-size outer and inner nitrile gloves, the latter protected the hand. Permeation of an aqueous emulsion (217 mg/mL) of captan was conducted at 35 degrees C +/- 0.7 degrees C. A new surface wipe technique facilitated collection of captan from the inner surface of the exposed nitrile gloves, a technique favored above rinse methods that extracted captan from within the glove. With hand movement, the permeated mass of captan collected after 8 hr ranged from 1.6 to 970 microg (Brand A) and 8.6 +/- 1.2 microg (Brand B). Without hand movement, the corresponding masses ranged from 1.4 to 8.4 microg (Brand A) and 11 +/- 3 mg (Brand B). These results were not significantly different at p < or = 0.05 using parametric and nonparametric statistical tests but indicated that hand movement could influence the precision of permeation (F-test p < or = 0.05). One glove exhibited failure after 2 hr with movement, in comparison with 0.5 to 9.9 microg captan with no movement. Hand movement did not appear to significantly affect the permeation of captan through nitrile gloves. However, hand movement did influence physical and/or chemical degradation, resulting in glove failures. The robotic hand simulated normal hand motions, was reliable, and could be used to assess the influence of hand movement on the permeation of nonvolatile components through gloves. Future research should continue to investigate the influence of hand movement and additional work factors on the permeation, penetration, and physical integrity of protective gloves. PMID:18286423

  16. Permeation of Comite through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

    2006-09-01

    The goal of the study was to assess how protective disposable (Safeskin) and chemical protective (Sol-Vex) nitrile gloves were against Comite emulsifiable concentrate formulation containing propargite (PROP) as active pesticidal ingredient, because there were no explicit recommendations for the gloves that should be worn for hand protection. The glove material was exposed in ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cells at 30.0+/-0.5 degrees C, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry used for PROP analysis. Aqueous solutions of Comite at 40.4 mg/mL permeated both Safeskin and Sol-Vex nitrile by 8h. Safeskin showed a mean PROP mass permeated of 176+/-27 microg after 8h compared with a mean mass permeated for Sol-Vex of 3.17+/-4.08 microg. Thus, Sol-Vex was about 56 times more protective than Safeskin for an 8-h exposure. However, the kinetics of the permeation revealed that Safeskin can be worn for at least 200 min before disposal. When undiluted Comite challenged both types of nitrile, much faster permeation was observed. Safeskin gloves showed two steady state periods. The first had lag times (t(l)) values of about 1h, although normalized breakthrough times (t(b)) were < 10 min. The second steady state rate (P(s)) was on average four times the rate of the first period, and the second steady state period t(l) was about three times as long as that of the first steady state period, and about the same t(l) as for the aqueous solution. Sol-Vex gloves exposed continuously to undiluted Comite permeated above the normalized breakthrough threshold beyond 2.7h. A risk assessment revealed that the PROP skin permeation rate of 7.1 ng cm(-2)h(-1) was much slower than the first steady state Safeskin glove P(s) of 62,000 ng cm(-2)h(-1). Infrared analysis showed that the glove surfaces were not degraded by the Comite challenge. The chemically protective Sol-Vex gloves protected adequately against undiluted formulation for about 2.7h, whereas they provided protection for nearly 8h when

  17. Health risk assessments of DEHP released from chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Huang, Chan-Sheng; Wei, Chung-Ying

    2015-01-01

    The substance di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is widely used as a plasticizer in chemical protective gloves to improve their flexibility and workability. However, it is possible that workers using protective gloves to handle various solvents may be exposed to DEHP leached by the solvents. Using an ASTM F739 permeation cell, it was found that BTEX solvents permeating through the glove samples dissolved DEHP from the gloves. Even without continuously contacting the permeant, DEHP was released from the contaminated glove samples during the desorption experiments. The DEHP leaching amounts were found to be inversely correlated to the permeability coefficients of BTEX in the glove samples. This result implied that the larger the amount of DEHP released from the glove samples, the higher the permeation resistance of gloves. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers, the dermal exposure model developed herein indicates that leaching of DEHP from the glove samples may pose a potential health risk to the workers who handle BTEX. This study suggests that the selection of protective gloves should not only be concerned with the chemical resistance of the gloves but also the health risk associated with leaching of chemicals, such as DEHP, used in the manufacturing of the gloves. PMID:25261760

  18. DYNAMIC MECHANICAL ANALYSIS CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2012-02-29

    As part of the characterization of various glovebox glove material from four vendors, the permeability of gas through each type as a function of temperature was determined and a discontinuity in the permeability with temperature was revealed. A series of tests to determine the viscoelastic properties of the glove materials as a function of temperature using Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) was initiated. The glass transition temperature and the elastic and viscoelastic properties as a function of temperature up to maximum use temperature were determined for each glove material. The glass transition temperatures of the gloves were -60 C for butyl, -30 C for polyurethane, -16 C Hypalon{reg_sign}, - 16 C for Viton{reg_sign}, and -24 C for polyurethane-Hypalon{reg_sign}. The glass transition was too complex for the butyl-Hypalon{reg_sign} and butyl-Viton{reg_sign} composite gloves to be characterized by a single glass transition temperature. All of the glass transition temperatures exceed the vendor projected use temperatures.

  19. [Migrants from disposable gloves and residual acrylonitrile].

    PubMed

    Wakui, C; Kawamura, Y; Maitani, T

    2001-10-01

    Disposable gloves made from polyvinyl chloride with and without di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (PVC-DEHP, PVC-NP), polyethylene (PE), natural rubber (NR) and nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) were investigated with respect to evaporation residue, migrated metals, migrants and residual acrylonitrile. The evaporation residue found in n-heptane was 870-1,300 ppm from PVC-DEHP and PVC-NP, which was due to the plasticizers. Most of the PE gloves had low evaporation residue levels and migrants, except for the glove designated as antibacterial, which released copper and zinc into 4% acetic acid. For the NR and NBR gloves, the evaporation residue found in 4% acetic acid was 29-180 ppm. They also released over 10 ppm of calcium and 6 ppm of zinc into 4% acetic acid, and 1.68-8.37 ppm of zinc di-ethyldithiocarbamate and zinc di-n-butyldithiocarbamate used as vulcanization accelerators into n-heptane. The acrylonitrile content was 0.40-0.94 ppm in NBR gloves. PMID:11775358

  20. Constructing Gloved wings for aerodynamic studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohn-Meyer, Marta R.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, two aircraft from the Dryden Flight Research Facility were used in the general study of natural laminar flow (NLF). The first, an F-14A aircraft on short-term loan from the Navy, was used to investigate transonic natural laminar flow. The second, an F-15A aircraft on long-term loan from the Air Force, was used to examine supersonic NLF. These tests were follow-on experiments to the NASA F-111 NLF experiment conducted in 1979. Both wings of the F-14A were gloved, in a two-phased experiment, with full-span(upper surface only) airfoil shapes constructed primarily of fiberglass, foam, and resin. A small section of the F-15A right wing was gloved in a similar manner. Each glove incorporated provisions for instrumentation to measure surface pressure distributions. The F-14A gloves also had provisions for instrumentation to measure boundary layer profiles, acoustic environments, and surface pitot pressures. Discussions of the techniques used to construct the gloves and to incorporate the required instrumentation are presented.

  1. A glove-likeability study of specially-treated gloves in the detonator manufacturing and packaging industry

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Cournoyer, Michael E.; Lawton, Cindy M.; Lounsbury, James B.; Armijo, Mark A.

    2016-03-22

    We use hand gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves) in the detonator manufacturing and packaging operations. As part of a process improvement program, new glove formulations have been considered that lower the overall risk of detonator operations by reducing ergonomic injury factors. Gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now commercially available and have been recommended for use in detonator operations. A Glove Likeability Study demonstrated that detonator manufacturing and packaging workers prefer gloves with a specially treated surface over currently approved gloves made from latex and nitrile formulations. Glove material compatibility tests indicate thatmore » the recommended gloves are as compatible if not more compatible as the currently approved gloves for working with secondary explosives. Thus, these gloves with a specially treated surface for extra grip and control are now available for tasks where sensitivity and fingertip control are crucial. Replacement of the current gloves with gloves with a specially treated surface improves the safety configuration of detonator manufacturing and packaging operations.« less

  2. Contaminated Gloves a No-No in Hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159550.html Contaminated Gloves a No-No in Hospitals Not changing ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Health care workers who wear contaminated gloves can transfer bacteria onto hospital surfaces, a ...

  3. Method for forming a glove attachment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawn, Frederic S. (Inventor); Guy, Walter W. (Inventor); Kosmo, Joseph (Inventor); Drennan, Arthur P. (Inventor); Tschirch, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An attachment principally for the palm of an astronaut glove to enhance the gripping area of the palm without detracting from the flexibility and utility of the glove is presented. The attachment is a composite construction formed from a layer of silicone rubber having an outer surface with a friction configuration and another layer of silicone rubber in which a Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded prior to curing. The method of construction involves the use of a mold with a friction configuration surface. A first layer of silicone rubber or sealant is disposed in the mold and allowed to set for an hour. A second layer of silicone rubber or sealant is layered over the first layer and leveled. A Nomex Aramid mesh fabric is embedded into the second layer and the composite is permitted to cure. When cured, a configured area of the composite construction is glued or stitched to the palm area of the glove.

  4. Ballast system for maintaining constant pressure in a glove box

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shlichta, Paul J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A ballast system for a glove box including a fixed platform on which is mounted an inflatable bag on top of which resides a cover and a weight. The variable gas volume of the inflatable bag communicates with that of the glove box via a valved tube. The weight and gas volume are selected to maintain a relatively constant pressure in the glove box despite variations in the glove box volume while avoiding the use of complicated valving apparatus.

  5. Protective glove material permeation by organic solids.

    PubMed

    Fricker, C; Hardy, J K

    1992-12-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of permeation characteristics of glove materials by organic solids. The system employs a stainless steel exposure cell and allows rapid and uniform contact of either solid disks or powders with minimal membrane bowing. A gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector was used for monitoring the permeation process, which provided detection limits of 0.9-1.2 ng for the organic solids evaluated. By using an automated system for instrument control and data collection, breakthrough times, steady-state times, and steady-state permeation rates have been determined for five common glove materials when exposed to nine organic solids. PMID:1471595

  6. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  7. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  8. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  9. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS, SURFACE COAL MINES AND SURFACE WORK AREAS OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves...

  10. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's... be used and tested in accordance with the provisions of §§ 77.704-6 through 77.704-8. (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is...

  12. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is...

  13. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is...

  14. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is...

  15. 21 CFR 880.6250 - Patient examination glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Patient examination glove. 880.6250 Section 880.6250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Devices § 880.6250 Patient examination glove. (a) Identification. A patient examination glove is...

  16. Glove permeation by shale oil and coal tar extract

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, G.O.; Carlson, G.J.; Buerer, A.L.

    1980-02-14

    The vapor penetration of shale oil and coal tar extract through protective gloves composed of either polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, vinyl, latex, neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile, natural rubber, or nitrile rubber was tested and measured. We used flame ionization techniques to determine the permeation characteristics of the gloves. Neoprene, Buna-N, acrylonitrile and nitrile gloves offered the best protection against the vapors tested.

  17. Durable Tactile Glove for Human or Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butzer, Melissa; Diftler, Myron A.; Huber, Eric

    2010-01-01

    A glove containing force sensors has been built as a prototype of tactile sensor arrays to be worn on human hands and anthropomorphic robot hands. The force sensors of this glove are mounted inside, in protective pockets; as a result of this and other design features, the present glove is more durable than earlier models.

  18. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  19. Latex glove use by food handlers: the case for nonlatex gloves.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Ameratunga, Shanthi; Crooks, Christine; Simmons, Greg

    2008-11-01

    There is increasing concern that continued exposure to latex products can predispose individuals, particularly those who are atopic (allergy prone), to latex allergy. Latex allergy as a serious hazard has been well documented in the health care industry. There are also well-documented cases of food handlers who have had allergic reactions after the use of latex gloves. The contamination of food with latex proteins by food handlers using latex gloves can also result in potentially severe allergic reactions in latex-allergic consumers. We review latex allergy and present the case for avoiding latex glove use by food handlers in the food and hospitality industries. Adopting the use of nonlatex gloves has benefits for workers, consumers, and the food industry. PMID:19044282

  20. A new glove port for single incision procedure

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yoon Song; Yoon, Sam Youl; Han, Hyung Joon; Yim, Tae Wan

    2015-01-01

    Single-incision laparoscopic surgery has gained increasing attention due to its potential to improve the benefits of laparoscopic surgery. However, inconvenience remains for inexperienced surgeons during surgery when instruments conflict with each other, and a glove port is used hesitantly for such diagnosis related groups (DRG) because of its high cost. Authors made a new glove port by an odd surgical gloves and one wound protectors. This glove port is ease to make besides being convenient to us, and inexpensive. This new glove port has the benefit of easy utilization and cost effectiveness for surgeons performing single-incision laparoscopic surgery. PMID:26576410

  1. Needle puncture resistance of surgical gloves, finger guards, and glove liners.

    PubMed

    Leslie, L F; Woods, J A; Thacker, J G; Morgan, R F; McGregor, W; Edlich, R F

    1996-01-01

    New puncture resistant materials are being developed for health professional use as protection against disease and needle stick injuries. The needle puncture resistance of protective gloves and glove liners from DePuy DuPont Orthopaedics and of finger guards from Zimmer was evaluated using a computerized needle penetration system to determine maximal penetration forces and the penetration work required for taper point and for cutting edge needles to penetrate these membranes. The Medak portion of the Life Liner glove liner and the Spectra portion of the FingGuard finger guard offered remarkable resistance against needle penetration as compared to the other glove liners and gloves tested. The cutting edge needles required considerably less penetration force and work to penetrate the FingGuard and Life Liner than that required with comparable size taper point needles. Because these unique protective materials had a limited distribution over the hand, the surgeon's hand remained susceptible to inadvertent needle puncture. While this protection against needle penetration in the Life Liner and the FingGuard represents an exciting advance in surgery, it is important to emphasize that this development is only one consideration in the selection of surgical gloves. PMID:8734073

  2. The rate of glove perforations in orthopaedic procedures: single versus double gloving. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Chan, K Y; Singh, V A; Oun, B H; To, B H Se

    2006-12-01

    Glove perforation during surgery has always been a matter of concern as it increases the infection rate and the risk of transmission of blood borne diseases. To determine the common causes, the site and the awareness of glove perforations in orthopaedic surgery, a prospective study was conducted to assess the rate of glove perforation during 130 consecutive orthopaedic operations. All gloves worn by the surgical team were assessed after the surgery using the water-loading test. A total of 1452 gloves were tested, and the rate of perforation was 3.58%. Most of these perforations (61.5%) were unnoticed. The main surgeons had the most perforations (76.9%), followed by first assistants (13.5%) and second assistants (9.6%). Most perforations occurred at the non-dominant hand. The commonest site of perforation was the index finger followed by the thumb. Shearing force with instruments accounted for 45% of the noticed perforations. Majority of these occurred during nailing procedures (33%) and internal fixation without the use of wires (19%). Our rate of glove perforation is similar to other series. Most of them went unnoticed and were mainly due to shearing injuries rather than perforation by sharps. Therefore, there is an increased risk of contamination and break in asepsis during surgery. PMID:17605178

  3. Permeation of captan through disposable nitrile glove.

    PubMed

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2003-06-27

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the permeation of an aqueous emulsion of the pesticide, captan, as a wettable powder (48.9% captan) through a disposable nitrile glove material using an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. The goal was to investigate the protective capability of the gloves against dermatitis. The analytical method was based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD). The least quantifiable limit (LQL) was 6 ng for GC-ECD and 30 ng for GC-MS. Testing was conducted using the ASTM F739 closed-loop permeation method and a worst-case aqueous concentration 217 mg/ml of captan 50-WP. The average permeation rates were low, with 12+/-5 ng/(cm(2)min) after 2h, 50+/-25 ng/(cm(2)min) after 4h, and 77+/-58 ng/(cm(2)min) after 8h. The calculated diffusion coefficient was (1.28+/-0.10) x 10(-5)cm(2)/h. No significant swelling or shrinkage occurred at Pglove surfaces confirmed no outer or inner surface degradation. The disposable nitrile glove showed excellent resistance to a highly concentrated aqueous emulsion of captan. Because the ASTM normalized breakthrough detection time of 250 ng/cm(2) was <2h, these gloves should not be reused once worn, and decontamination is not advised. Protection is also advised for agricultural reentry field workers, because captan has been shown to persist on crops with a half-life greater than the current reentry intervals of 1-4 days. PMID:12835015

  4. Permeation of Telone EC through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Zainal, Hanaa; Que Hee, Shane S

    2005-09-30

    Telone is a potent fumigant that is based on the chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbon, 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-DCP). It is often applied without dilution and so poses severe inhalation and air pollution threats. Urinary metabolites of 1,3-DCP have been detected after Telone skin exposure, so that preventing dermal exposure is also important. The objective of the study was to assess if nitrile and multi-layer ("laminated") gloves provide adequate protection against Telone EC formulation. To accomplish this, disposable (Safeskin) and chemically resistant (Sol-Vex) nitrile and laminated (Barrier mark and Silver Shield) glove materials were challenged by Telone EC with hexane liquid collection in an ASTM-type I-PTC-600 permeation cell. Analyses of cis- and trans-1,3-DCP in the collection fluid at specified times were performed on a moderately polar capillary column by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Telone EC caused microholes in both nitrile materials, though the chemically protective material was degraded slower than the disposable nitrile. The laminated gloves offered limited protection. Silver Shield protected best because 1.5-2.3 mg 1,3-DCP permeated by 8 h relative to 2.5-7.6 mg for Barrier, implying about 2.5 times more protection for 8 h. Even for Silver Shield, the extent of protection was inadequate as illustrated by a risk assessment of the skin exposure situation. The normalized breakthrough times for both types of laminated gloves varied between 27 and 60 min. It is recommended that Viton gloves still be worn for protection. PMID:15982807

  5. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  6. Spacesuit glove manufacturing enhancements through the use of advanced technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cadogan, David; Bradley, David; Kosmo, Joseph

    The sucess of astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) on orbit is highly dependent upon the performance of their spacesuit gloves.A study has recently been conducted to advance the development and manufacture of spacesuit gloves. The process replaces the manual techniques of spacesuit glove manufacture by utilizing emerging technologies such as laser scanning, Computer Aided Design (CAD), computer generated two-dimensional patterns from three-dimensionl surfaces, rapid prototyping technology, and laser cutting of materials, to manufacture the new gloves. Results of the program indicate that the baseline process will not increase the cost of the gloves as compared to the existing styles, and in production, may reduce the cost of the gloves. perhaps the most important outcome of the Laserscan process is that greater accuracy and design control can be realized. Greater accuracy was achieved in the baseline anthropometric measurement and CAD data measurement which subsequently improved the design feature. This effectively enhances glove performance through better fit and comfort.

  7. Thermal degradation of anthocyanins from purple potato (Cv. Purple Majesty) and their impact on antioxidant capacity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Degradation parameters of purified anthocyanins from purple-fleshed potato (Purple Majesty cv.) heated at high temperatures (100 - 150 °C) was determined. Purified anthocyanins, prepared by removing salts, sugars and colorless non-anthocyanin phenolics from the crude extract, were quantified using H...

  8. Minimizing Glovebox Glove Breaches, Part III: Deriving Service Lifetimes

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Wilson, K.V.; Maestas, M.M.; Schreiber, S.

    2006-07-01

    At the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are handled in a glove box environment. Weapons-grade plutonium consists mainly in Pu-239. Pu-238 is another isotope used for heat sources. The Pu-238 is more aggressive regarding gloves due to its higher alpha-emitting characteristic ({approx}300 times more active than Pu-239), which modifies the change-out intervals for gloves. Optimization of the change-out intervals for gloves is fundamental since Nuclear Materials Technology (NMT) Division generates approximately 4 m{sup 3}/yr of TRU waste from the disposal of glovebox gloves. To reduce the number of glovebox glove failures, the NMT Division pro-actively investigates processes and procedures that minimize glove failures. Aging studies have been conducted that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on mechanical data of thermally aged Hypalon{sup R}, and Butasol{sup R} glove samples. Information from this study represent an important baseline in gauging the acceptable standards for polymeric gloves used in a laboratory glovebox environment and will be used later to account for possible presence of dose-rate or synergistic effects in 'combined-environment'. In addition, excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone and excess exposure to the radiological sources associated with unplanned breaches in the glovebox are reduced. (authors)

  9. Methods for reducing energy dissipation in cosmetic gloves.

    PubMed

    Herder, J L; Cool, J C; Plettenburg, D H

    1998-06-01

    For cosmetic reasons, hand prostheses are provided with cosmetic gloves. Their pleasing appearance, however, is accompanied by poor mechanical behavior, resulting in a negative influence on prosthesis operation. Glove stiffness is high and nonlinear, and internal friction in the glove material causes energy dissipation (hysteresis). In this article, two methods for reducing hysteresis in cosmetic gloves are proposed, that may be applied independently or in combination. Glove modification. Altering the mechanical properties of the glove itself is the first method that is presented. It was found possible to reduce both stiffness and hysteresis about 50% by forming grooves into the inside of the glove. Together with the evaluation of this method, several properties of the cosmetic glove were determined. Motion optimization. Additionally, a second method for reducing hysteresis was developed. The amount of hysteresis is influenced by the way the glove is forced to deform. The prosthesis mechanism, determining this deformation, was designed for minimum hysteresis and maximum cosmesis. For the prosthesis-glove combination used in this study, thumb motion optimization reduced hysteresis by about 65%. PMID:9651892

  10. Initial Work Toward A Robotically Assisted Extravehicular Activity Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jonathan M.; Peters, Benjamin J.; Laske, Evans A.; McBryan, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove (SSRG) is a glove designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew member, since a pressurized space suit gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to improve space suit gloved hand performance by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices into the gloves. These past efforts were not completely successful and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided to develop a new glove based on the NASA/General Motors RoboGlove technology. The resulting SSRG used a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove that resulted in a space suit glove that provided grasp augmentation to the user while the augmentation is activated, and also functioned as a normal glove when the augmentation is disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and locating the actuators at a distance from the fingers. Conduits were used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The electromechanical design, softgoods integration, control system, and early test results of the first generation SSRG are presented in this paper. These early test results showed that this sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and that the actuators provided potential for increased grip strength and reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  11. The Purple Rose of Virgo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-03-01

    Until now NGC 5584 was just one galaxy among many others, located to the West of the Virgo Cluster. Known only as a number in galaxy surveys, its sheer beauty is now revealed in all its glory in a new VLT image. Since 1 March, this purple cosmic rose also holds the brightest stellar explosion of the year, known as SN 2007af. Located about 75 million light years away towards the constellation Virgo ('the Virgin'), NGC 5584 is a galaxy slightly smaller than the Milky Way. It belongs, however, to the same category: both are barred spirals. ESO PR Photo 16/07 ESO PR Photo 16/07 The Purple Rose of Virgo Spiral galaxies are composed of a 'bulge' and a flat disc. The bulge hosts old stars and usually a central supermassive black hole. Younger stars reside in the disc, forming the characteristic spiral structures from which the galaxies get their name. Barred spirals are crossed by a bright band of stars. In 2000, using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers discovered the smallest, faintest, and most massive spirals (see ESO PR 12/00 and 25/00). In this amazing new image of NGC 5584 two dominant spiral arms are clearly visible, while the others are deformed, probably due to interactions with other galaxies. Luminous patches are spread all over the disc, indicating that stars are being formed in this gigantic rose at a frantic pace. Something even brighter, however, catches the eye in this picture. Any image taken before the end of February would not have shown the luminous spot located at the lower right of the galaxy's centre. As can be seen, the newly found object is much brighter than the centre of the galaxy itself. Its name? SN 2007af, the 32nd supernova discovered this year. Its presence signals the dramatic death of a star with a mass comparable to that of the Sun. SN 2007af, the brightest supernova of the year (so far), was discovered on 1 March by the Japanese supernova hunter Koichi Itagaki. He pointed his 60-centimetre telescope towards the Virgo constellation

  12. Dexterity testing of chemical-defense gloves. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, K.M.; Ervin; Zehner, G.F.

    1986-05-01

    Chemical-defense gloves (12.5-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, 14-mil Epichlorohydron/Butyl, and 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overgloves) were subjected to four dexterity tests (O'Connor Finger Dexterity Test, Pennsylvania Bi-Manual Worksample-Assembly, Minnesota Rate of Manipulation Turning, and the Crawford Small Test). Results indicated that subjects performances were most impaired by the 7-mil Butyl with Nomex overglove. Though differences between the other three gloved conditions were not always statistically significant, subjects performed silghtly better while wearing the Epichlorohydron/Butyl gloves, no matter which thickness, than they did while wearing the 15-mil butyl gloves. High negative correlation between anthropometry and gloved tests scores of subjects suggested that poor glove fit may also have affected subjects performances.

  13. Dangers of cornstarch powder on medical gloves: seeking a solution.

    PubMed

    Edlich, Richard F; Long, William B; Gubler, Dean K; Rodeheaver, George T; Thacker, John G; Borel, Lise; Chase, Margot E; Fisher, Allyson L; Mason, Shelley S; Lin, Kant Y; Cox, Mary J; Zura, Robert D

    2009-07-01

    This article reviews information on the hazards of cornstarch powder on medical gloves. Dusting powders were first applied to latex gloves to facilitate donning. After 1980, manufacturers devised innovative techniques without dusting powder. It has been well documented that these powders on gloves present a health hazard to patients and health care workers by 5 different mechanisms. First, the glove cornstarch has documented detrimental effects on wound closure techniques. Second, this powder potentiates wound infection. Third, cornstarch induces peritoneal adhesion formation and granulomatous peritonitis. Finally, these powders serve as carriers as latex allergen and they precipitate a life-threatening allergic reaction in sensitized patients. These well-documented hazards of glove powder have caused the United Kingdom and Germany to ban cornstarch powder on medical gloves over 10 years ago. PMID:19546685

  14. Smart glove: hand master using magnetorheological fluid actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Y. J.; Park, M. K.; Yamane, R.

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a hand master using five miniature magneto-rheological (MR) actuators, which is called 'the smart glove', is introduced. This hand master is intended to display haptic feedback to the fingertip of the human user interacting with any virtual objects in virtual environment. For the smart glove, two effective approaches are proposed: (i) by using the MR actuator which can be considered as a passive actuator, the smart glove is made simple in structure, high in power, low in inertia, safe in interface and stable in haptic feedback, and (ii) with a novel flexible link mechanism designed for the position-force transmission between the fingertips and the actuators, the number of the actuator and the weight of the smart glove can be reduced. These features lead to the improvement in the manipulability and portability of the smart glove. The feasibility of the constructed smart glove is verified through basic performance evaluation.

  15. Development of Wireless RFID Glove for Various Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Changwon; Kim, Minchul; Park, Jinwoo; Oh, Jeonghoon; Eom, Kihwan

    Radio Frequency Identification is increasingly popular technology with many applications. The majority of applications of RFID are supply-chain management. In this paper, we proposed the development of wireless RFID Glove for various applications in real life. Proposed wireless RFID glove is composed of RFID reader of 13.56 MHz and RF wireless module. Proposed Gloves were applied to two applications. First is the interactive leaning and second is Meal aid system for blind people. The experimental results confirmed good performances.

  16. Fire and nitrogen effects on purple threeawn invaded plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea) is a native grass capable of rapidly increasing on rangelands, where it forms near monocultures, and alters succession. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reducing over...

  17. Fire and nitrogen effects on purple threeawn invaded plant communities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea) is a native grass capable of rapidly increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and arresting ecological succession. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, leadin...

  18. Allergen profiles of natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins on gloves and glove powders.

    PubMed

    Tomazic-Jezic, Vesna J; Sanchez, B A

    2005-01-01

    The contributing role of glove powder in sensitization to natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins has been well documented in laboratory studies and through clinical evaluations. However, the quantitative relationship of the respiratory and topical exposures in the sensitization process remains unknown because the relative levels of protein on the glove powders in relation to the total levels of protein on NRL gloves have not been determined. In NRL allergens--Hev b 1, Hev b 3, Hev b 5, and Hev b 6.02--on randomly selected surgical and examination NRL gloves. We also examined the binding pattern of the four allergens to several glove powders that showed a different affinity to NRL proteins. The level of powder-bound protein was determined by the ELISA Inhibition Assay (ASTM D6499 standard method). Two cross-linked corn starch powders, one sample of cooking corn starch and one oat starch sample, were exposed to ammoniated (AL) or nonammoniated (NAL) raw NRL protein extracts. The levels of individual allergens were determined using the NRL allergen kit. In the NRL glove extracts we observed a wide range in the total allergen levels and a great diversity in the proportion of the four allergens. On the other hand, the evaluated starches had similar ratios of four individual allergens, regardless of the differences in their total allergen levels. The exposure of starches to NRL proteins with different allergen profiles did not affect the allergen ratio. All samples demonstrated a selective affinity for binding Hev b 1 and Hev b 5 allergens and a lesser affinity for the Hev b 6.02 allergen. Allergen Hev b 6.02 made up about 60% of the total allergen in the NAL extract, but only 12-30% of Hev b 6.02 was bound to starches. In contrast, there was only 3-7% of Hev b 1 allergen in the NAL extract, but powders had 35-45% of Hev b 1. These findings indicate that allergenic properties of NRL gloves and respective glove powders may be different. PMID:15777165

  19. Permeability of latex and polyvinyl chloride gloves to 20 antineoplastic drugs.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, J L; Connor, T H; Theiss, J C; Anderson, R W; Matney, T S

    1984-12-01

    Permeability of latex and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) gloves to 20 injectable antineoplastic drugs was studied. Four types of gloves were evaluated: latex surgical gloves, latex examination gloves, and PVC gloves in two thicknesses. Each glove material was exposed to each drug for 90 minutes, and permeation was tested using a mutagenicity assay. Individual fingertips of thin PVC gloves and latex surgical gloves were tested for permeability at five time points (2-30 minutes) using a doxorubicin coloration assay. All drugs permeated the thin PVC gloves. Latex surgical gloves were definitely permeable to two drugs (carmustine and thiotepa) and exhibited borderline permeability to mechlorethamine hydrochloride. The thick PVC gloves were definitely permeable to four drugs (carmustine, thiotepa, mechlorethamine hydrochloride, and daunorubicin hydrochloride) and exhibited borderline permeability to two drugs (doxorubicin and mercaptopurine). The latex examination gloves were permeable to carmustine, thiotepa, mechlorethamine hydrochloride, and cyclophosphamide. Doxorubicin permeation of individual fingertips of thin PVC gloves varied in time and amount. Doxorubicin did not permeate the latex surgical glove material, but testing with thiotepa showed that individual fingertips of this material also varied in permeability. Glove thickness was a major determinant of permeability; latex surgical gloves were the least permeable and thin PVC gloves the most permeable to the antineoplastic drugs tested. Within individual gloves and glove types, time and amount of permeation were not uniform. PMID:6440436

  20. Initial Work Toward a Robotically Assisted EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J.; Peters, B.; McBryan, E.; Laske, E.

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit RoboGlove is a device designed to provide additional grasp strength or endurance for an EVA crew member since gloved hand performance is a fraction of what the unencumbered human hand can achieve. There have been past efforts to approach this problem by employing novel materials and construction techniques to the glove design, as well as integrating powered assistance devices. This application of the NASA/GM RoboGlove technology uses a unique approach to integrate the robotic actuators and sensors into a Phase VI EVA glove. This design provides grasp augmentation to the glove user while active, but can also function as a normal glove when disabled. Care was taken to avoid adding excessive bulk to the glove or affecting tactility by choosing low-profile sensors and extrinsically locating the actuators. Conduits are used to guide robotic tendons from linear actuators, across the wrist, and to the fingers. The second generation of the SSRG includes updated electronics, sensors, and actuators to improve performance. The following discusses the electromechanical design, softgoods integration, and control system of the SSRG. It also presents test results from the first integration of a powered mobility element onto a space suit, the NASA Mark III. Early results show that sensor integration did not impact tactile feedback in the glove and the actuators show potential for reduction in grasp fatigue over time.

  1. Guidelines for the selection of gloves for the workplace. NIOSH.

    PubMed

    Mansdorf, S Z

    1994-07-01

    The selection of gloves for the workplace can be accomplished using a seven step process including consideration of alternatives to protective clothing, evaluating the nature and extent of the hazard, determining material and human performance requirements for the gloves, and cost. The primary determinant is protection of the worker. Gloves selected for protection against chemical hazards should be chosen based on permeation resistance. No single glove is available that can provide all desirable chemical and physical properties, hence, compromise is usually necessary. PMID:7923958

  2. Handling chemotherapy drugs-Do medical gloves really protect?

    PubMed

    Landeck, Lilla; Gonzalez, Ernesto; Koch, Olaf Manfred

    2015-10-15

    Due to their potential mutagenic, carcinogenic and teratogenic effects occupational exposure to chemotherapy drugs should be kept to a minimum. Utilization of personnel protective devices, especially the use of protective medical gloves, is a mainstay to avoid skin contact. The choice of appropriate gloves is of outstanding importance. For optimal protection in the oncology setting it is essential to establish general guidelines evaluating appropriate materials and defining quality standards. Establishing these guidelines can facilitate better handling and avoid potential hazards and late sequelae. In Europe there are no specific requirements or test methodologies for medical gloves used in the oncology environment. The implementation of uniform standards for gloves used while handling chemotherapy drugs would be desirable. In contrast, in the US medical gloves used to handle chemotherapy drugs have to fulfill requirements according to the ASTM International (American Society of Testing and Materials) standard D 6978-05. Nitrile or natural rubber latex is a preferred basic glove material, while vinyl is considered inappropriate because of its generally increased permeability. For extended exposure to chemotherapy drugs, double gloving, the use of thicker gloves and the frequent change of gloves increases their protective power. PMID:24978061

  3. The use of latex gloves in the school setting.

    PubMed

    Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

    2006-08-01

    In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves-natural rubber latex-also changed, in order to expedite production. These changes resulted in an increase in latex allergies, because excessive residual proteins that cause allergies remained on the gloves and became airborne with the gloves' high level of powder. This allergy concern is especially relevant in the school setting where school nurses are not only concerned about their own well-being, but the well-being of the children in their care. Today, latex gloves are still the most widely used of any medical gloves, but they have much lower levels of protein and are available in low- or no-powder. This article examines whether the current latex gloves indeed reduce the allergenicity of the gloves and how allergy and barrier protection data can assist school nurses in making informed glove choices. PMID:16856774

  4. Ease of donning commercially available latex examination gloves.

    PubMed

    Cóté, S J; Fisher, M D; Kheir, J N; Paull, R B; Neal, J G; Jackson, E M; Suber, F; Thacker, J G; O'Keefe, J S; Edlich, R F

    1998-01-01

    There are a wide variety of latex examination gloves now available for use by health care providers. A prospective randomized trial was completed to quantify the forces required to don a sample of seven cornstarch-lubricated gloves and 13 powder-free latex examination gloves. The data collected was analyzed by a 20 x 2 general factorial ANOVA, as well as two 1-way ANOVAs using a least significance difference post hoc test. Some powder-free gloves can be easily donned with dry or wet hands without tearing with forces comparable to those encountered with powdered gloves. With the advent of these powder-free examination gloves, powdered gloves can now be abandoned, protecting health professionals and patients from the dangers of absorbable dusting powders. Despite the dangers of the absorbable dusting powders and the Food and Drug Administration's requirement for labeling examination glove boxes, some manufacturers of powdered examination gloves do not appropriately label their boxes with a warning to the health professional and patient of the presence of powder. PMID:9730072

  5. Computational Optimization of a Natural Laminar Flow Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshom, Fletcher

    2012-01-01

    Computational optimization of a natural laminar flow experimental wing glove that is mounted on a business jet is presented and discussed. The process of designing a laminar flow wing glove starts with creating a two-dimensional optimized airfoil and then lofting it into a three-dimensional wing glove section. The airfoil design process does not consider the three dimensional flow effects such as cross flow due wing sweep as well as engine and body interference. Therefore, once an initial glove geometry is created from the airfoil, the three dimensional wing glove has to be optimized to ensure that the desired extent of laminar flow is maintained over the entire glove. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver with a coupled boundary layer code was used as the main tool in the design and optimization process of the three-dimensional glove shape. The optimization process uses the Class-Shape-Transformation method to perturb the geometry with geometric constraints that allow for a 2-in clearance from the main wing. The three-dimensional glove shape was optimized with the objective of having a spanwise uniform pressure distribution that matches the optimized two-dimensional pressure distribution as closely as possible. Results show that with the appropriate inputs, the optimizer is able to match the two dimensional pressure distributions practically across the entire span of the wing glove. This allows for the experiment to have a much higher probability of having a large extent of natural laminar flow in flight.

  6. Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove evaluation test protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman-Sweeney, E. M.

    1994-01-01

    One of the most critical components of a space suit is the gloves, yet gloves have traditionally presented significant design challenges. With continued efforts at glove development, a method for evaluating glove performance is needed. This paper presents a pressure-glove evaluation protocol. A description of this evaluation protocol, and its development is provided. The protocol allows comparison of one glove design to another, or any one design to bare-handed performance. Gloves for higher pressure suits may be evaluated at current and future design pressures to drive out differences in performance due to pressure effects. Using this protocol, gloves may be evaluated during design to drive out design problems and determine areas for improvement, or fully mature designs may be evaluated with respect to mission requirements. Several different test configurations are presented to handle these cases. This protocol was run on a prototype glove. The prototype was evaluated at two operating pressures and in the unpressurized state, with results compared to bare-handed performance. Results and analysis from this test series are provided, as is a description of the configuration used for this test.

  7. The effect of pressure suit gloves on hand performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of pressure gloves on human hand capabilities is a major concern in the performance of extravehicular activity (EVA) for space maintenance and construction missions. The effects of EVA gloves on six hand performance domains was investigated in this NASA sponsored research. They were range of motion, strength, tactile perception, dexterity, fatigue, and comfort. All tests were designed to be performed in a glove box using the barehand as well as the glove at 0 and 4.3 pressure differentials. Ten subjects participated in the test in a repeated measures design. The results of the experiments are summarized in this paper.

  8. Halosulfuron reduces purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple nutsedge is one of the most troublesome weeds of fresh-market vegetable crops in the Southern U.S. A perennial weed, purple nutsedge reproduces vegetatively by producing chains of tubers. Halosulfuron is an effective means of controlling purple nutsedge foliage and is registered for use in ...

  9. Integrity of Disposable Nitrile Exam Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2011-01-01

    Every year, millions of health care, first responder, and industry workers are exposed to chemical and biological hazards. Disposable nitrile gloves are a common choice as both a chemical and physical barrier to these hazards, especially as an alternative to natural latex gloves. However, glove selection is complicated by the availability of several types or formulations of nitrile gloves, such as low-modulus, medical-grade, low-filler, and cleanroom products. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on the physical integrity (i.e., holes) of different nitrile exam glove brands and types. Thirty glove products were evaluated out-of-box and after exposure to simulated whole-glove movement for 2 hr. In lieu of the traditional 1-L water-leak test, a modified water-leak test, standardized to detect a 0.15 ± 0.05 mm hole in different regions of the glove, was developed. A specialized air inflation method simulated bidirectional stretching and whole-glove movement. A worst-case scenario with maximum stretching was evaluated. On average, movement did not have a significant effect on glove integrity (chi-square; p=0.068). The average effect was less than 1% between no movement (1.5%) and movement (2.1%) exposures. However, there was significant variability in glove integrity between different glove types (p ≤ 0.05). Cleanroom gloves, on average, had the highest percentage of leaks, and 50% failed the water-leak test. Low-modulus and medical-grade gloves had the lowest percentages of leaks, and no products failed the water-leak test. Variability in polymer formulation was suspected to account for the observed discrepancies, as well as the inability of the traditional 1-L water-leak test to detect holes in finger/thumb regions. Unexpectedly, greater than 80% of the glove defects were observed in the finger and thumb regions. It is recommended that existing water-leak tests be re-evaluated and standardized to account for product variability. PMID:21476169

  10. Determining the Radiation Damage Effect on Glovebox Glove Material.

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M. E.; Balkey, J. J.; Andrade, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Material Technology (NMT) Division has the largest inventory of glove box gloves at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The minimization of unplanned breaches in the glovebox, e.g., glove failures, is a primary concern in the daily operations in NMT Division facilities, including the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at TA-55 and Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Facility. Glovebox gloves in these facilities are exposed to elevated temperatures and exceptionally aggressive radiation environments (particulate {sup 239}Pu and {sup 238}Pu). Predictive models are needed to estimate glovebox glove service lifetimes, i.e. change-out intervals. Towards this aim aging studies have been initiated that correlate changes in mechanical (physical) properties with degradation chemistry. This present work derives glovebox glove change intervals based on previously reported mechanical data of thermally aged hypalon glove samples. Specifications for 30 mil tri-layered hypalon/lead glovebox gloves (TLH) and 15 mil hypalon gloves (HYP) have already been established. The relevant mechanical properties are shown on Table 1. Tensile strength is defined as the maximum load applied in breaking a tensile test piece divided by the original cross-sectional area of the test piece (Also termed maximum stress and ultimate tensile stress). Ultimate elongation is the elongation at time of rupture (Also termed maximum strain). The specification for the tensile test and ultimate elongation are the minimum acceptable values. In addition, the ultimate elongation must not vary 20% from the original value. In order to establish a service lifetimes for glovebox gloves in a thermal environment, the mechanical properties of glovebox glove materials were studied.

  11. Firefighter Hand Anthropometry and Structural Glove Sizing: A New Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Hongwei; Whitestone, Jennifer; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Hildreth, Brooke

    2015-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the current use and fit of structural firefighting gloves and developed an improved sizing scheme that better accommodates the U.S. firefighter population. Background Among surveys, 24% to 30% of men and 31% to 62% of women reported experiencing problems with the fit or bulkiness of their structural firefighting gloves. Method An age-, race/ethnicity-, and gender-stratified sample of 863 male and 88 female firefighters across the United States participated in the study. Fourteen hand dimensions relevant to glove design were measured. A cluster analysis of the hand dimensions was performed to explore options for an improved sizing scheme. Results The current national standard structural firefighting glove-sizing scheme underrepresents firefighter hand size range and shape variation. In addition, mismatch between existing sizing specifications and hand characteristics, such as hand dimensions, user selection of glove size, and the existing glove sizing specifications, is significant. An improved glove-sizing plan based on clusters of overall hand size and hand/finger breadth-to-length contrast has been developed. Conclusion This study presents the most up-to-date firefighter hand anthropometry and a new perspective on glove accommodation. The new seven-size system contains narrower variations (standard deviations) for almost all dimensions for each glove size than the current sizing practices. Application The proposed science-based sizing plan for structural firefighting gloves provides a step-forward perspective (i.e., including two women hand model–based sizes and two wide-palm sizes for men) for glove manufacturers to advance firefighter hand protection. PMID:26169309

  12. Permeation and destructive effects of disinfectants on protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Mellström, G A; Lindberg, M; Boman, A

    1992-03-01

    In working situations where there is a possibility of acquiring blood-borne infections, the use of disinfectants is important. It is also important to use protective gloves, both to protect the skin against disinfectants and to protect against infections. Changes in the structure of the glove material may, however, interfere with the protective capability of the gloves. The influence of 4 disinfectants on the material structure and protective effect of 6 different brands of protective gloves was studied. The proposed International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard method for determining the liquid chemical resistance of air-impermeable materials was used for permeation testing. Pieces of latex and vinyl glove were also exposed to isopropanol and ethanol for 10, 30 and 60 min and then viewed in a scanning electron microscope. Isopropanol permeated through latex and vinyl gloves in less than 10 min. The polyethylene (PE) gloves were of quite variable quality, and the breakthrough time ranged from 4 to greater than 240 min. The latex and vinyl gloves were also permeated by ethanol, but at a much lower rate. The disinfectants Blifacid, based on p-chloro-m-cresol, and Cidex, based on glutaraldehyde, did not permeate any of the gloves tested within 60 min. Isopropanol had a destructive effect on the material, which became opaque, stiff and brittle. This change in structure was verified with the scanning electron microscope. The tested gloves of latex, vinyl and PE, gave acceptable protection from contact with Blifacid and Cidex for at least 60 min. The same gloves do not give any total protection from contact with isopropanol and ethanol. PMID:1505181

  13. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  14. The One in the Purple Suit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargeant, Hope

    2003-01-01

    In this article, a parent of a gifted child muses on the challenges of raising her daughter, coping with her daughter's frustrations, her decision to stay home, and her brief envy of a doppelganger, a professional in a purple suit. (CR)

  15. 9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW, LOOKING WEST, OF GLOVE BOXES ASSOCIATED WITH THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS IN ROOM 149. THE GLOVE BOXES ON THE LEFT CONTAIN MIXER STIRRERS THAT AID IN THE DISSOLUTION PROCESS THAT OCCURRED PRIOR TO ANION EXCHANGE. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. Haptic Glove Technology: Skill Development through Video Game Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bargerhuff, Mary Ellen; Cowan, Heidi; Oliveira, Francisco; Quek, Francis; Fang, Bing

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces a recently developed haptic glove system and describes how the participants used a video game that was purposely designed to train them in skills that are needed for the efficient use of the haptic glove. Assessed skills included speed, efficiency, embodied skill, and engagement. The findings and implications for future…

  17. 12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF THE INSPECTION MODULE (MODULE D). THE GLOVE BOX IN THE FOREFRONT OF THE PHOTOGRAPH CONTAINS A DRILL PRESS; OTHER GLOVE BOXES ARE USED FOR PARTS INSPECTION. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. The Use of Latex Gloves in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Cathy Koeppen

    2006-01-01

    In 1987, when the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommended the use of universal precautions in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic, the demand for medical gloves dramatically increased. Unfortunately, the manufacturing techniques for the most widely-used gloves--natural rubber latex--also changed, in order to expedite production.…

  19. A System for Cooling inside a Glove Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanz, Martial

    2010-01-01

    An easy, efficient, reliable, and low-cost method of constructing a cooling system using a simple circulating pump is described. The system is employed in conjunction with an inert atmosphere glove box to achieve the synthesis of air- and moisture-sensitive compounds inside the glove box at controlled, low temperatures without contaminating the…

  20. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  1. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  2. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  3. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  4. 21 CFR 878.4470 - Surgeon's gloving cream.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Surgeon's gloving cream. 878.4470 Section 878.4470 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 878.4470 Surgeon's gloving...

  5. Light transmission and air used for inspection of glovebox gloves.

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, J. M.; Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Macdonald, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Various materials used for manufacturing the glovebox gloves are translucent material such as hypalon, rubbers, and neoprene. This means that visible light can be transmitted through the inside of the material. Performing this test can help to increase visualization of the integrity of the glove. Certain flaws such as pockmarks, foreign material, pinholes, and scratches could be detected with increased accuracy. An analysis was conducted of the glovebox gloves obscure polymer material using a inspection light table. The fixture is equipped with a central light supply and small air pump to inflate the glove and test for leak and stability. A glove is affixed to the fixture for 360-degree inspection. Certain inspection processes can be performed: (1) Inspection for pockmarks and thin areas within the gloves; (2) Observation of foreign material within the polymer matrix; and (3) Measurements could be taken for gloves thickness using light measurements. This process could help reduce eyestrain when examining gloves and making a judgment call on the size of material thickness in some critical areas. Critical areas are fingertips and crotch of fingers.

  6. 3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF CHAINVEYOR. AN ENCLOSED CHAIN CONVEYOR CONNECTED GLOVE BOXES WITHIN AND BETWEEN MODULAR WORK AREAS. LEADED GLOVES WERE AFFIXED TO PORTS ALONG THE CHAINVEYOR PATHWAY TO ALLOW OPERATOR ACCESS. (1/25/93) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  7. Permeation of cytotoxic formulations through swatches from selected medical gloves.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael; Lambov, Nikolai; Samev, Nikola; Carstens, Gerhard

    2003-05-15

    The permeability of selected medical glove materials to various cytotoxic agents is described. Fifteen cytotoxic agents were prepared at the highest concentrations normally encountered by hospital personnel. Four single-layer and two double-layer glove systems made of two materials--latex and neoprene--were exposed to the drugs for 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, and 180 minutes. Circular sections of the glove material were cut from the cuff and evaluated without any pretreatment. Permeability tests were conducted in an apparatus consisting of a donor chamber containing the cytotoxic solution and a collection chamber filled with water (the acceptor medium). The two sections were separated by the glove material. Permeating portions, collected in water as the acceptor medium, were analyzed by either ultraviolet-visible light spectrophotometry or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Permeation rates were calculated on the basis of the concentration of the cytotoxic agent in the acceptor medium. Spectrophotometric measurements were taken every 30 minutes, and HPLC analysis was performed at the end of the three-hour period. Average permeation rates for 14 drugs were low (< 0.2 nmol/[min.cm2]) or no permeation was detected in all glove materials. All glove materials tested were impermeable to most of the cytotoxic agents over a period of three hours. Carmustine was the only agent that substantially permeated single-layer latex glove materials. Permeation of most tested cytotoxic formulations was low through swatches of material from various medical gloves. PMID:12789871

  8. Construct-a-Glove. Science by Design Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulis, Lee

    This book is one of four books in the Science-by-Design Series created by TERC and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). It offers high school students a challenging, hands-on opportunity to compare the function and design of many types of handwear from a hockey mitt to a surgical glove, and design and test a glove to their own…

  9. 5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX FIREWALL DETAIL. THE FIREWALL WAS A SAFETY FEATURE TO PREVENT THE SPREAD OF FIRE BETWEEN INTERCONNECTED GLOVE BOXES. PLUTONIUM IS PYROPHORIC, AND MAY IGNITE IN THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. (5/8/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  10. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits.

    PubMed

    Millard, Claire E; Vaughan, Nicholas P

    2015-10-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects' hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  11. Assessment of Protective Gloves for Use with Airfed Suits

    PubMed Central

    Millard, Claire E.

    2015-01-01

    Gloves are often needed for hand protection at work, but they can impair manual dexterity, especially if they are multilayered or ill-fitting. This article describes two studies of gloves to be worn with airfed suits (AFS) for nuclear decommissioning or containment level 4 (CL4) microbiological work. Both sets of workers wear multiple layers of gloves for protection and to accommodate decontamination procedures. Nuclear workers are also often required to wear cut-resistant gloves as an extra layer of protection. A total of 15 subjects volunteered to take part in manual dexterity testing of the different gloving systems. The subjects’ hands were measured to ensure that the appropriate sized gloves were used. The gloves were tested with the subjects wearing the complete clothing ensembles appropriate to the work, using a combination of standard dexterity tests: the nine-hole peg test; a pin test adapted from the European Standard for protective gloves, the Purdue Pegboard test, and the Minnesota turning test. Specialized tests such as a hand tool test were used to test nuclear gloves, and laboratory-type manipulation tasks were used to test CL4 gloves. Subjective assessments of temperature sensation and skin wettedness were made before and after the dexterity tests of the nuclear gloves only. During all assessments, we made observations and questioned the subjects about ergonomic issues related to the clothing ensembles. Overall, the results show that the greater the thickness of the gloves and the number of layers the more the levels of manual dexterity performance are degraded. The nuclear cut-resistant gloves with the worst level of dexterity were stiff and inflexible and the subjects experienced problems picking up small items and bending their hands. The work also highlighted other factors that affect manual dexterity performance, including proper sizing, interactions with the other garments worn at the time, and the work equipment in use. In conclusion, when

  12. RoboGlove - A Robonaut Derived Multipurpose Assistive Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, Myron; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. The technology holds great promise for use with space suit gloves to reduce fatigue during space walks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove.

  13. Glove-box shielding analysis for sampling radioactive precipitate

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1997-12-01

    This paper addresses a radiation transport analysis for as-built dose rates near a nitrite analyzer glove box. The glove box will be utilized in a laboratory serving the Late Wash Facility (LWF) at Savannah River site (SRS). The LWF will reduce the concentration of nitrite in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) radioactive aqueous precipitate feed stream to levels acceptable for the DWPF process. A laboratory serving the LWF incorporates nitrite and benzene analyzer glove boxes. The glove boxes will handle radioactive filtrate from the LWF filter and incorporate shielding for the protection of laboratory technicians. The analysis objective is to predict dose rates around the nitrite glove box subsequent to introduction of filtrate.

  14. Development of a test protocol for evaluating EVA glove performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinman, Elaine M.

    1992-01-01

    Testing gloved hand performance involves work from several disciplines. Evaluations performed in the course of reenabling a disabled hand, designing a robotic end effector or master controller, or hard-suit design have all yielded relevant information, and, in most cases, produced performance test methods. Most times, these test methods have been primarily oriented toward their parent discipline. For space operations, a comparative test which would provide a way to quantify pressure glove and end effector performance would be useful in dividing tasks between humans and robots. Such a test would have to rely heavily on sensored measurement, as opposed to questionnaires, to produce relevant data. However, at some point human preference would have to be taken into account. This paper presents a methodology for evaluating gloved hand performance which attempts to respond to these issues. Glove testing of a prototype glove design using this method is described.

  15. The 757 NLF glove flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. Jim; Bielak, G. W.; Behbehani, R. A.; Chen, A. W.; Rozendaal, Roger A.

    1987-01-01

    A major concern in the application of a laminar flow wing design to commercial transports is whether laminar flow can be sustained in the presence of the noise environment due to wing mounted turbofan engines. To investigate this issue, a flight test program was conducted using the Boeing 757 flight research airplane with a portion of the wing modified to obtain natural laminar flow. The flight test had two primary objectives. The first was to measure the noise levels on the upper and lower surface of the wing for a range of flight conditions. The second was to investigate the effect of engine noise on laminar boundary layer transition. The noise field on the wing and transition location on the glove were then measured as a function of the engine power setting at a given flight condition. The transition and noise measurement on the glove show that there is no apparent effect of engine noise on the upper surface transition location. On the lower surface, the transition location moved forward 2 to 3 percent chord. A boundary layer stability analysis to the flight data showed that cross flow disturbances were the dominant cause of transition at most flight conditions.

  16. Indications and the requirements for single-use medical gloves

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Assadian, Ojan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: While the requirements for single-use gloves for staff protection are clearly defined, the conventional medical differentiation between “sterile surgical gloves” used during surgical procedures and “single-use medical gloves” used in non-sterile medical areas does not adequately define the different requirements in these two areas of use. Sterilization of single-use medical gloves is not performed if sterility is not required; thus, another terminology must be found to identify the safety quality of non-sterile single-use medical gloves. Therefore, the labeling of such gloves should reflect this situation, by introducing the term “pathogen-free” single-use glove. The hygienic safety of such a glove would be attainable by ensuring aseptic manufacturing conditions during manufacturing and control of pathogen load of batch controls after fabrication. Proposed recommendation: Because single-use gloves employed in non-sterile areas come into contact not only with intact skin but also with mucous membranes, no potential pathogens should be detectable in 100 mL of rinse sample. In order to declare such gloves as pathogen-free we suggest absence of the indicator species S. aureus and E. coli. In addition, the total CFU count should be evaluated, since a high load indicates lack of optimal hygiene during the manufacturing process. Based on the requirements for potable water and findings obtained from investigations of the bacterial load of such gloves after manufacturing, the here suggested limit for the total bacterial count of <102 CFU/mL of rinse sample per glove seems realistic. PMID:26816673

  17. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  18. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  19. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD... Requirements for Specific Medical Devices § 800.20 Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample... from the test method and sample plans in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section. (2) For a...

  20. A Novel, Sporicidal Formulation of Ethanol for Glove Decontamination to Prevent Clostridium difficile Hand Contamination During Glove Removal.

    PubMed

    Tomas, Myreen E; Nerandzic, Michelle M; Cadnum, Jennifer L; Mana, Thriveen S C; Jencson, Annette; Sunskesula, Venkata; Kundrapu, Sirisha; Wilson, Brigid M; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-03-01

    Decontamination of gloves before removal could reduce the risk for contamination of hands of personnel caring for patients with Clostridium difficile infection. We demonstrated that a novel sporicidal formulation of ethanol rapidly reduced C. difficile spores on gloved hands without adverse odor, respiratory irritation, or staining of clothing. PMID:26679745

  1. 21 CFR 800.20 - Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Patient examination gloves and surgeons' gloves; sample plans and test method for leakage defects; adulteration. 800.20 Section 800.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL Requirements for Specific Medical Devices...

  2. Next Generation Life Support: High Performance EVA Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah K.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the High Performance EVA Glove task are to develop advanced EVA gloves for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. New technologies and manufacturing techniques will be incorporated into the new gloves to address finger and hand mobility, injury reduction and durability in nonpristine environments. Three prototypes will be developed, each focusing on different technological advances. A robotic assist glove will integrate a powered grasping system into the current EVA glove design to reduce astronaut hand fatigue and hand injuries. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) glove will be developed to further explore the potential of MCP technology and assess its capability for countering the effects of vacuum or low pressure environments on the body by using compression fabrics or materials to apply the necessary pressure. A gas pressurized glove, incorporating new technologies, will be the most flight-like of the three prototypes. Advancements include the development and integration of aerogel insulation, damage sensing components, dust-repellant coatings, and dust tolerant bearings.

  3. A human factors evaluation of Extravehicular Activity gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1989-01-01

    One of the major problems faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human-hand capabilities. NASA has sponsored a program to develop a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six performance domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each performance domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand, an EVA glove without pressure, an EVA glove at operation pressure. Thus, the differential effect on performance of the glove with and without pressure was tested. Bare hand performance was used to 'calibrate' the effects. Ten subjects participated in the test setup as a repeated-measures experimental design. The paper will report the results of the test program.

  4. 76 FR 6683 - Information Related to Risks and Benefits of Powdered Gloves; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... Gloves That Use Powder; Notices #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 25 / Monday, February 7, 2011... examination gloves (medical gloves) that contain or use donning or dusting powder. FDA is interested in the potential health effects from the use of powder on medical gloves and is soliciting comments regarding...

  5. Prevention of occupational skin disease through use of chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Berardinelli, S P

    1988-01-01

    Selection of chemical protective gloves for use against industrial liquids in the controlled workplace is accomplished by risk analysis, in which the appropriate physical and chemical glove properties needed by the worker to perform the job are determined. Candidate protective gloves are then subjected to chemical permeation testing. Three representative case studies illustrate risk analysis and glove selection. PMID:2968209

  6. Preparation and Antioxidant Activity of Purple Potato Wine

    PubMed Central

    Zhong-hua, Liu; Jie, Guo

    2015-01-01

    Purple potatoes were used as raw material to study the purple potato wine production process and antioxidant activity. This paper analyzed different fermentation time, fermentation temperature, yeast inoculum, initial pH, the initial sugar content on alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine by single factor experiments and response surface methodology(RSM). The results showed that the optimum fermentation conditions of purple potato wine were as follows: fermentation temperature was 26oC, yeast inoculum was 0.15%, fermentation time was 7 d, initial pH was 3.0 and initial sugar content was 11 %. Under these conditions the alcohol and anthocyanin contents of purple potato wine could reach 10.55%/Vol and 6.42 μg/mL, respectively. The purple potato wine was purple, bright in colour, pleasant fragrance and pure taste. Prepared purple potato wine had the ability of reducing Fe3+ and scavenging superoxide anion radicals, which meant that purple potato wine had certain antioxidant activity. PMID:26998173

  7. EVA space suit Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coss, F. A.

    1976-01-01

    A new astronaut glove, the Evaporative Cooling/Heating Glove System (ECHGS), was designed and developed to allow the handling of objects between -200 F and +200 F. Active heating elements, positioned at each finger pad, provide additional heat to the finger pads from the rest of the finger. A water evaporative cooling system provides cooling by the injection of water to the finger areas and the subsequent direct evaporation to space. Thin, flexible insulation has been developed for the finger areas to limit thermal conductivity. Component and full glove tests have shown that the glove meets and exceeds the requirements to hold a 11/2 inch diameter bar at + or - 200 F for three minutes within comfort limits. The ECHGS is flexible, lightweight and comfortable. Tactility is reasonable and small objects can be identified especially by the fingertips beyond the one half width active elements.

  8. Glove-based approach to online signature verification.

    PubMed

    Kamel, Nidal S; Sayeed, Shohel; Ellis, Grant A

    2008-06-01

    Utilizing the multiple degrees of freedom offered by the data glove for each finger and the hand, a novel on-line signature verification system using the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) numerical tool for signature classification and verification is presented. The proposed technique is based on the Singular Value Decomposition in finding r singular vectors sensing the maximal energy of glove data matrix A, called principal subspace, so the effective dimensionality of A can be reduced. Having modeled the data glove signature through its r-principal subspace, signature authentication is performed by finding the angles between the different subspaces. A demonstration of the data glove is presented as an effective high-bandwidth data entry device for signature verification. This SVD-based signature verification technique is tested and its performance is shown to be able to recognize forgery signatures with a false acceptance rate of less than 1.2%. PMID:18421114

  9. 8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Front (east) side of incinerator and glove boxes. Ash canning hood to the left, combustion chamber in the middle, incinerator hood to the right. Looking west. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  10. Glove Changing When Handling Money: Observational and Microbiological Analysis.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Wahrman, Miryam Z; Shah, Jay; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of glove changing by mobile food vendors after monetary transactions, and the presence of bacterial contamination on a sample of dollar bills obtained from 25 food vendors near five hospitals in Manhattan, New York City. During 495 monetary transactions observed there were only seven glove changes performed by the workers. Eleven of 34 food workers wore no gloves at all while handling money and food. Nineteen of 25 one-dollar bills collected (76 %) had 400 to 42,000 total bacterial colony-forming units. Colonies were of varied morphology and size. Of these 19 samples, 13 were selected (based on level of growth), and tested for the presence of coliform bacteria, which was found in 10 of the 13 samples. Effective strategies to monitor and increase glove wearing and changing habits of mobile food vendors are needed to reduce risk of foodborne illness. PMID:26463082

  11. Control of a Glove-Based Grasp Assist Device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergelin, Bryan J (Inventor); Ihrke, Chris A. (Inventor); Davis, Donald R. (Inventor); Linn, Douglas Martin (Inventor); Sanders, Adam M (Inventor); Askew, R. Scott (Inventor); Laske, Evan (Inventor); Ensley, Kody (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A grasp assist system includes a glove and sleeve. The glove includes a digit, i.e., a finger or thumb, and a force sensor. The sensor measures a grasping force applied to an object by an operator wearing the glove. The glove contains a tendon connected at a first end to the digit. The sleeve has an actuator assembly connected to a second end of the tendon and a controller in communication with the sensor. The controller includes a configuration module having selectable operating modes and a processor that calculates a tensile force to apply to the tendon for each of the selectable operating modes to assist the grasping force in a manner that differs for each of the operating modes. A method includes measuring the grasping force, selecting the mode, calculating the tensile force, and applying the tensile force to the tendon using the actuator assembly.

  12. 16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. VIEW OF GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS WITHIN THE PLUTONIUM BUTTON BREAKOUT ROOM. (9/82) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery Facility, Northwest portion of Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  13. Glove accumulation of pesticide residues for strawberry harvester exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanhong; Chen, Li; Chen, Zhenshan; Coehlo, Joe; Cui, Li; Liu, Yu; Lopez, Terry; Sankaran, Gayatri; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert

    2011-06-01

    We investigated the accumulation of pesticide residues on rubber latex gloves that are used by strawberry harvesters to protect their skin, reduce pesticide exposure and promote food safety. Gloves accumulated residues of 16 active ingredients including azoxystrobin, bifenthrin, boscalid, captan, cyprodinil, fenhexamid, fenpropathrin, fludioxonil, hexythiazox, malathion, methomyl, naled, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, quinoline, and quinoxyfen at different times. Glove residue accumulation (t(½) 2.8-3.7 d) was very similar to the dissipation of DFRs (t(½) 2.1-3.0 d) during the first 3 weeks after malathion applications. Dermal malathion dose was 0.2 mg/kg at the preharvest interval and declined to trace levels during the following 3 months. Glove accumulation of malathion indicated trace surface residue availability and was used to assess the relationship between dislodgable foliar residues and potential hand exposure. PMID:21503692

  14. PERMEATION OF MULTIFUNCTIONAL ACRYLATES THROUGH SELECTED PROTECTIVE GLOVE MATERIALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research ...

  15. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  16. Permeation of aromatic solvent mixtures through nitrile protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Hsu, Ya-Ping; Chen, Su-Yi

    2008-05-30

    The permeation of binary and ternary mixtures of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and p-xylene through nitrile gloves were investigated using the ASTM F739 test cell. The more slowly permeating component of a mixture was accelerated to have a shorter breakthrough time than its pure form. The larger differences in solubility parameter between a solvent mixture and glove resulted in a lower permeation rate. Solubility parameter theory provides a potential approach to interpret the changes of permeation properties for BTEX mixtures through nitrile gloves. Using a one-dimensional diffusion model based on Fick's law, the permeation concentrations of ASTM F739 experiments were appropriately simulated by the estimated diffusion coefficient and solubility. This study will be a fundamental work for the risk assessment of the potential dermal exposure of workers wearing protective gloves. PMID:17977655

  17. 21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. NBS SUIT LAB. THREE GLOVES, HELMET, AND SCREW DRIVER TORQUE WRENCH FOR ASSEMBLY AND REPAIR OF BOTH. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Neutral Buoyancy Simulator Facility, Rideout Road, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  18. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2015-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  19. An Approach for Performance Based Glove Mobility Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott

    2016-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for exploration missions. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate's Game-Changing Development Program provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Element as part of the Next Generation Life Support (NGLS) Project in the fall of 2013. The overarching goal of the HPEG Element is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability in on-pristine environments, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Element focused initial efforts on developing quantifiable and repeatable methodologies for assessing glove performance with respect to mobility, injury potential, thermal conductivity, and abrasion resistance. The team used these methodologies to establish requirements against which emerging technologies and glove designs can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The mobility performance testing methodology was an early focus for the HPEG team as it stems from collaborations between the SSA Development team and the JSC Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) that began investigating new methods for suited mobility and fit early in the Constellation Program. The combined HPEG and ABF team used lessons learned from the previous efforts as well as additional reviews of methodologies in physical and

  20. An Approach for Performance Assessments of Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; Benosn, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of two sets of prototype EVA gloves developed ILC Dover and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. Both companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test subjects representing the design-to hand

  1. Benchmarking Evaluation Results for Prototype Extravehicular Activity Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aitchison, Lindsay; McFarland, Shane

    2012-01-01

    The Space Suit Assembly (SSA) Development Team at NASA Johnson Space Center has invested heavily in the advancement of rear-entry planetary exploration suit design but largely deferred development of extravehicular activity (EVA) glove designs, and accepted the risk of using the current flight gloves, Phase VI, for unique mission scenarios outside the Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS) Program realm of experience. However, as design reference missions mature, the risks of using heritage hardware have highlighted the need for developing robust new glove technologies. To address the technology gap, the NASA Game-Changing Technology group provided start-up funding for the High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Project in the spring of 2012. The overarching goal of the HPEG Project is to develop a robust glove design that increases human performance during EVA and creates pathway for future implementation of emergent technologies, with specific aims of increasing pressurized mobility to 60% of barehanded capability, increasing the durability by 100%, and decreasing the potential of gloves to cause injury during use. The HPEG Project focused initial efforts on identifying potential new technologies and benchmarking the performance of current state of the art gloves to identify trends in design and fit leading to establish standards and metrics against which emerging technologies can be assessed at both the component and assembly levels. The first of the benchmarking tests evaluated the quantitative mobility performance and subjective fit of four prototype gloves developed by Flagsuit LLC, Final Frontier Designs, LLC Dover, and David Clark Company as compared to the Phase VI. All of the companies were asked to design and fabricate gloves to the same set of NASA provided hand measurements (which corresponded to a single size of Phase Vi glove) and focus their efforts on improving mobility in the metacarpal phalangeal and carpometacarpal joints. Four test

  2. Mapping From an Instrumented Glove to a Robot Hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, Michael

    2005-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed to solve the problem of mapping from (1) a glove instrumented with joint-angle sensors to (2) an anthropomorphic robot hand. Such a mapping is needed to generate control signals to make the robot hand mimic the configuration of the hand of a human attempting to control the robot. The mapping problem is complicated by uncertainties in sensor locations caused by variations in sizes and shapes of hands and variations in the fit of the glove. The present mapping algorithm is robust in the face of these uncertainties, largely because it includes a calibration sub-algorithm that inherently adapts the mapping to the specific hand and glove, without need for measuring the hand and without regard for goodness of fit. The algorithm utilizes a forward-kinematics model of the glove derived from documentation provided by the manufacturer of the glove. In this case, forward-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the glove fingertip positions as functions of the sensor readings. More specifically, given the sensor readings, the forward-kinematics model calculates the glove fingertip positions in a Cartesian reference frame nominally attached to the palm. The algorithm also utilizes an inverse-kinematics model of the robot hand. In this case, inverse-kinematics model signifies a mathematical model of the robot finger-joint angles as functions of the robot fingertip positions. Again, more specifically, the inverse-kinematics model calculates the finger-joint commands needed to place the fingertips at specified positions in a Cartesian reference frame that is attached to the palm of the robot hand and that nominally corresponds to the Cartesian reference frame attached to the palm of the glove. Initially, because of the aforementioned uncertainties, the glove fingertip positions calculated by the forwardkinematics model in the glove Cartesian reference frame cannot be expected to match the robot fingertip positions in the robot

  3. Swelling of four glove materials challenged by six metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2008-01-01

    The performance of protective gloves against metalworking fluids (MWFs) has rarely been studied because of the difficult chemical analysis associated with complex MWFs. In the present study, glove swelling was used as a screening parameter of glove compatibility after challenge of the outer surfaces of chloroprene, latex, nitrile, and vinyl disposable gloves by six MWF concentrates for 2 hours in an ASTM F-739-type permeation cell without collection medium. Swelling relative to original thickness was up to 39% for latex, 7.6% for chloroprene, and 3.5% for nitrile. Shrinking up to 9.3% occurred for vinyl. Chloroprene and latex did not swell significantly for the semisynthetic and synthetic MWFs. Vinyl, previously not tested, was a good candidate for MWFs other than the soluble oil type. Although nitrile was recommended by the National Institute for the Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) for all types of MWFs, its swelling after 2-hour challenge was significant with Student t-tests for the soluble oil, synthetic, and semisynthetic MWFs. Glove swelling can be used as a screening chemical degradation method for mixtures such as MWFs with difficult chemical analysis. Further studies need to be conducted on the relationship between permeation and glove swelling. PMID:17680173

  4. Assessment of skin exposure to N,N-dimethylformamide and methyl ethylketone through chemical protective gloves and decontamination of gloves for reuse purposes.

    PubMed

    Chao, Keh-Ping; Wang, Ping; Chen, Chen-Peng; Tang, Ping-Yu

    2011-02-15

    N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and methyl ethylketone (MEK) are the hazardous chemicals commonly used in the synthetic leather industries. Although chemical protective gloves provide adequate skin exposure protection to workers in these industries, there is currently no clear guideline or understanding with regard to the use duration of these gloves. In this study, the permeation of DMF/MEK mixture through neoprene gloves and the desorption of chemicals from contaminated gloves were conducted using the ASTM F739 cell. The acceptable use duration time of the gloves against DMF/MEK permeation was estimated by assuming a critical body burden of chemical exposure as a result of dermal absorption. In a re-exposure cycle of 5 days, decontamination of the gloves by aeration at 25°C was found to be inadequate in a reduction of breakthrough time as compared to a new unexposed glove. However, decontamination of the gloves by heating at 70 or 100°C showed that the protective coefficient of the exposed gloves had similar levels of resistance to DMF/MEK as that of new gloves. Implications of this study include an understanding of the use duration of neoprene gloves and proper decontamination of chemical protective gloves for reuse. PMID:21194731

  5. A critique of assumptions about selecting chemical-resistant gloves: a case for workplace evaluation of glove efficacy.

    PubMed

    Klingner, Thomas D; Boeniger, Mark F

    2002-05-01

    Wearing chemical-resistant gloves and clothing is the primary method used to prevent skin exposure to toxic chemicals in the workplace. The process for selecting gloves is usually based on manufacturers' laboratory-generated chemical permeation data. However, such data may not reflect conditions in the workplace where many variables are encountered (e.g., elevated temperature, flexing, pressure, and product variation between suppliers). Thus, the reliance on this selection process is questionable. Variables that may influence the performance of chemical-resistant gloves are identified and discussed. Passive dermal monitoring is recommended to evaluate glove performance under actual-use conditions and can bridge the gap between laboratory data and real-world performance. PMID:12018400

  6. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants' mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99% in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text "chat" communications, manipulation of procedures/checklists, cataloguing/annotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit and/or other EVA systems.

  7. Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO): Design and Testing of an Extravehicular Activity Glove Adapted for Human-Computer Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Richard J.; Olowin, Aaron; Krepkovich, Eileen; Hannaford, Blake; Lindsay, Jack I. C.; Homer, Peter; Patrie, James T.; Sands, O. Scott

    2013-01-01

    The Glove-Enabled Computer Operations (GECO) system enables an extravehicular activity (EVA) glove to be dual-purposed as a human-computer interface device. This paper describes the design and human participant testing of a right-handed GECO glove in a pressurized glove box. As part of an investigation into the usability of the GECO system for EVA data entry, twenty participants were asked to complete activities including (1) a Simon Says Games in which they attempted to duplicate random sequences of targeted finger strikes and (2) a Text Entry activity in which they used the GECO glove to enter target phrases in two different virtual keyboard modes. In a within-subjects design, both activities were performed both with and without vibrotactile feedback. Participants mean accuracies in correctly generating finger strikes with the pressurized glove were surprisingly high, both with and without the benefit of tactile feedback. Five of the subjects achieved mean accuracies exceeding 99 in both conditions. In Text Entry, tactile feedback provided a statistically significant performance benefit, quantified by characters entered per minute, as well as reduction in error rate. Secondary analyses of responses to a NASA Task Loader Index (TLX) subjective workload assessments reveal a benefit for tactile feedback in GECO glove use for data entry. This first-ever investigation of employment of a pressurized EVA glove for human-computer interface opens up a wide range of future applications, including text chat communications, manipulation of procedureschecklists, cataloguingannotating images, scientific note taking, human-robot interaction, and control of suit andor other EVA systems.

  8. Contamination of Critical Surfaces from NVR Glove Residues Via Dry Handling and Solvent Cleaning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovinski, Marjorie F.

    2004-01-01

    Gloves are often used to prevent the contamination of critical surfaces during handling. The type of glove chosen for use should be the glove that produces the least amount of non-volatile residue (NVR). This paper covers the analysis of polyethylene, nitrile, latex, vinyl, and polyurethane gloves using the contact transfer and gravimetric determination methods covered in the NASA GSFC work instruction Gravimetric Determination and Contact Transfer of Non-volatile Residue (NVR) in Cleanroom Glove Samples, 541-WI-5330.1.21 and in the ASTM Standard E-1731M-95, Standard Test Method for Gravimetric Determination of Non-Volatile Residue from Cleanroom Gloves. The tests performed focus on contamination of critical surfaces at the molecular level. The study found that for the most part, all of the gloves performed equally well in the contact transfer testing. However, the polyethylene gloves performed the best in the gravimetric determination testing, and therefore should be used whenever solvent contact is a possibility. The nitrile gloves may be used as a substitute for latex gloves when latex sensitivity is an issue. The use of vinyl gloves should be avoided, especially if solvent contact is a possibility. A glove database will be established by Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Code 541 to compile the results from future testing of new gloves and different glove lots.

  9. 50 CFR 21.53 - Control order for purple swamphens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... purple swamphens (Porphyrio porphyrio) or their nests or eggs at any time when they find them anywhere in... their nests or eggs if doing so is contrary to any State, territorial, tribal, or local laws or regulations. (2) You may not remove or destroy purple swamphens or their nests or eggs if doing so...

  10. 50 CFR 21.53 - Control order for purple swamphens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... purple swamphens (Porphyrio porphyrio) or their nests or eggs at any time when they find them anywhere in... their nests or eggs if doing so is contrary to any State, territorial, tribal, or local laws or regulations. (2) You may not remove or destroy purple swamphens or their nests or eggs if doing so...

  11. 50 CFR 21.53 - Control order for purple swamphens.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... purple swamphens (Porphyrio porphyrio) or their nests or eggs at any time when they find them anywhere in... their nests or eggs if doing so is contrary to any State, territorial, tribal, or local laws or regulations. (2) You may not remove or destroy purple swamphens or their nests or eggs if doing so...

  12. Changes in chemical permeation of disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time (BT) was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. Glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  13. Changes in Chemical Permeation of Disposable Latex, Nitrile and Vinyl Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Le, Thi; Wong, Weng Kee

    2014-01-01

    Glove movement can affect chemical permeation of organic compounds through polymer glove products. However, conflicting reports make it difficult to compare the effects of movement on chemical permeation through commonly available glove types. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of movement on chemical permeation of an organic solvent through disposable latex, nitrile, and vinyl gloves. Simulated whole-glove permeation testing was conducted using ethyl alcohol and a previously designed permeation test system. With exposure to movement, a significant decrease (p ≤ 0.001) in breakthrough time was observed for the latex (-23%) and nitrile gloves (-31%). With exposure to movement, only the nitrile glove exhibited a significant increase (p ≤ 0.001) in steady-state permeation rate (+47%) and cumulative permeation at 30 min (+111%). Even though the nitrile glove provided optimum chemical resistance against ethyl alcohol, it was most affected by movement. With exposure to movement, the latex glove was an equivalent option for overall worker protection, because it was less affected by movement and the permeation rate was lower than that of the nitrile glove. In contrast, the vinyl glove was the least affected by movement, but did not provide adequate chemical resistance to ethyl alcohol in comparison with the nitrile and latex gloves. In conclusion, glove selection should take movement and polymer type into account. Some glove polymer types are less affected by movement, most notably the latex glove in this test. With nitrile gloves, at least a factor of three should be used when attempting to assign a protection factor when repetitive hand motions are anticipated. Ultimately, the latex gloves outperformed nitrile and vinyl in these tests, which evaluated the effect of movement on chemical permeation. Future research should aim to resolve some of the observed discrepancies in test results with latex and vinyl gloves. PMID:24689368

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLOVEBOX GLOVES FOR THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect

    Korinko, P.

    2013-01-24

    A task was undertaken to characterize glovebox gloves that are currently used in the facilities at Savannah River Site (SRS) as well as some experimental and advanced compound gloves that have been proposed for use. Gloves from four manufacturers were tested for permeation in hydrogen and air, thermal stability, tensile properties, puncture resistance and dynamic mechanical response. The gloves were compared to each other within the type and also to the butyl rubber glove that is widely used at the SRS. The permeation testing demonstrated that the butyl compounds from three of the vendors behaved similarly and exhibited hydrogen permeabilities of .52‐.84 x10{sup ‐7} cc H{sub 2}*cm / (cm{sup 2}*atm). The Viton glove performed at the lower edge of this bound, while the more advanced composite gloves exhibited permeabilities greater than a factor of two compared to butyl. Thermogravimetric analysis was used to determine the amount of material lost under slightly aggressive conditions. Glove losses are important since they can affect the life of glovebox stripper systems. During testing at 90, 120, and 150°C, the samples lost most of the mass in the initial 60 minutes of thermal exposure and as expected increasing the temperature increased the mass loss and shortened the time to achieve a steady state loss. The ranking from worst to best was Jung butyl‐Hypalon with 12.9 %, Piercan Hypalon with 11.4 %, and Jung butyl‐Viton with 5.2% mass loss all at approximately 140°C. The smallest mass losses were experienced by the Jung Viton and the Piercan polyurethane. Tensile properties were measured using a standard dog bone style test. The butyl rubber exhibited tensile strengths of 11‐15 MPa and elongations or 660‐843%. Gloves made from other compounds exhibited lower tensile strengths (5 MPa Viton) to much higher tensile strengths (49 MPa Urethane) with a comparable range of elongation. The puncture resistance of the gloves was measured

  15. Aircraft energy efficiency laminar flow control glove flight conceptual design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    A laminar flow control glove applied to the wing of a short to medium range jet transport with aft mounted engines was designed. A slotted aluminum glove concept and a woven stainless steel mesh porous glove concept suction surfaces were studied. The laminar flow control glove and a dummy glove with a modified supercritical airfoil, ducting, modified wing leading and trailing edges, modified flaps, and an LFC trim tab were applied to the wing after slot spacing suction parameters, and compression power were determined. The results show that a laminar flow control glove can be applied to the wing of a jet transport with an appropriate suction system installed.

  16. On permeability of methyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate through protective gloves in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Andreasson, Harriet; Boman, Anders; Johnsson, Stina; Karlsson, Stig; Barregård, Lars

    2003-12-01

    Continuous glove use is more common in dentistry than in most other occupations, and the glove should offer protection against blood-borne infections, skin irritants and contact allergens. Methacrylate monomers are potent contact allergens, and it is known that these substances may penetrate the glove materials commonly used. The aim of this study was to assess the permeability of various types of gloves to methyl methacrylate (MMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) with special reference to combinations with ethanol or acetone. The permeation rate and time lag breakthrough (lag-BT) for MMA (neat, or diluted to 30% in ethanol or acetone), HEMA (30% in water, ethanol, or acetone) and TEGDMA (30% in ethanol or acetone) were investigated for different protective gloves. Nine different types of gloves were tested for one or several of these methacrylates. The lag-BT for neat MMA was gloves. For 30% MMA in ethanol or acetone, the latex gloves and the polyethene-copolymer glove showed the best protection, but the lag-BTs were short for all gloves. For HEMA and TEGDMA, the lag-BTs were generally longer than for MMA. A neoprene glove seemed to be the best choice for protection against penetration of HEMA and TEGDMA. The decision on which types of gloves to use should also take into account the risks of latex allergy and contact allergy to rubber chemicals and the convenience of the gloves for fine manual work. PMID:14632691

  17. Wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jaewook; Voyles, Richard M.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we present preliminary work on a novel wearable joystick for gloves-on human/computer interaction in hazardous environments. Interacting with traditional input devices can be clumsy and inconvenient for the operator in hazardous environments due to the bulkiness of multiple system components and troublesome wires. During a collapsed structure search, for example, protective clothing, uneven footing, and "snag" points in the environment can render traditional input devices impractical. Wearable computing has been studied by various researchers to increase the portability of devices and to improve the proprioceptive sense of the wearer's intentions. Specifically, glove-like input devices to recognize hand gestures have been developed for general-purpose applications. But, regardless of their performance, prior gloves have been fragile and cumbersome to use in rough environments. In this paper, we present a new wearable joystick to remove the wires from a simple, two-degree of freedom glove interface. Thus, we develop a wearable joystick that is low cost, durable and robust, and wire-free at the glove. In order to evaluate the wearable joystick, we take into consideration two metrics during operator tests of a commercial robot: task completion time and path tortuosity. We employ fractal analysis to measure path tortuosity. Preliminary user test results are presented that compare the performance of both a wearable joystick and a traditional joystick.

  18. Shielding analysis of glove boxes for handling of plutonium materials

    SciTech Connect

    Rainisch, R.

    1996-12-31

    The end of the Cold War has led the U.S. Department of Energy to adopt new programs for the management of excess plutonium materials. The programs center on placing plutonium is safe, long-term storage (50 yr) prior to final disposition. Before the plutonium can be placed in storage, materials will have to be stabilized and repackaged. Savannah River site (SRS) is pursuing the design of facilities for the stabilization of plutonium materials. Plutonium handling is to be performed in airtight glove boxes or similar enclosures. Glove boxes will incorporate radiation shielding for the protection of operators. This paper addresses the shielding configuration of the glove boxes and protection of operating personnel from external radiation. Shielding analysis of the glove boxes included (a) identification of plutonium source terms; (b) analysis of extremity exposures, which pertains to workers hands and forearms exposure; (c) shielding analysis, which includes shielding windows (transparent shielding) and glove-box walls; and (d) measures to enhance the radiological design of the enclosures.

  19. Exogrip: assisted hand strength glove - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Best, Jade E; Bostick, Nehemiah F; Connelly, John R; Dunn, Michael G; Gelles, Richard A; Norvell, Elizabeth K; Waugaman, William B; Mims, Capt Willie H

    2011-01-01

    A large number of American troops fighting in Afghanistan and Iraq have received wounds in their upper extremities leading to significant nerve damage and loss of strength. These injuries impair their ability to perform day-to-day tasks such as lifting a cup of coffee or opening a door. Although the cause of some injuries in service-people is often unique to their employment, civilian employees in other industries are also plagued with similar physical damage due to other kinds of injuries. Our goal is to develop a device to augment the strength of injured troops and civilian workers so they can perform everyday tasks despite their physical limitations. The ExoGrip is a glove designed to provide this necessary strength augmentation. The ExoGrip consists primarily of pressure sensors, linear actuators, and a microcontroller to provide a force multiplier based on a person’s strength. The goal of the first phase of the project was to conduct research and also produce a working prototype of one finger. This goal was achieved by a group of classmates who started the project a year before. Their research and feasibility analysis ended in the mechanical movement of a single finger when the sensors were activated. The next phase of this project is to design and integrate a working prototype that manipulates all four fingers, while keeping the thumb in a fixed position. This paper describes the integration of new microcontrollers, linear actuators utilizing pulse width modulation technology, and improved pressure sensors needed to manipulate the fingers, as well as laying the foundation for future testing and development of a final product. PMID:21525608

  20. Role of protective gloves in the causation and treatment of occupational irritant contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soonyou; Campbell, Lauren S; Zirwas, Matthew J

    2006-11-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis of the hands is a significant occupational problem. Management primarily involves cessation of exposure to hazardous substances. Protective gloves can reduce or eliminate exposure of the hands to hazardous substances if used correctly, but if not selected and used correctly, protective gloves can actually cause or worsen irritant contact dermatitis of the hands by increasing exposure of the hands to hazardous chemicals. We present two cases of occupational irritant contact dermatitis of the hands caused by incorrect use of protective gloves. Glove failure can occur by penetration, permeation, or contamination, and all 3 mechanisms were operative in these cases. These cases demonstrate that correct use of gloves is at least as important as selection of gloves made of the appropriate material. By understanding mechanisms of glove failure, clinicians can make more appropriate recommendations for the selection and use of protective gloves in the workplace. PMID:17052501

  1. Anthropomorphic teleoperation: Controlling remote manipulators with the DataGlove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, J. P., II

    1992-01-01

    A two phase effort was conducted to assess the capabilities and limitations of the DataGlove, a lightweight glove input device that can output signals in real-time based on hand shape, orientation, and movement. The first phase was a period for system integration, checkout, and familiarization in a virtual environment. The second phase was a formal experiment using the DataGlove as input device to control the protoflight manipulator arm (PFMA) - a large telerobotic arm with an 8-ft reach. The first phase was used to explore and understand how the DataGlove functions in a virtual environment, build a virtual PFMA, and consider and select a reasonable teleoperation control methodology. Twelve volunteers (six males and six females) participated in a 2 x 3 (x 2) full-factorial formal experiment using the DataGlove to control the PFMA in a simple retraction, slewing, and insertion task. Two within-subjects variables, time delay (0, 1, and 2 seconds) and PFMA wrist flexibility (rigid/flexible), were manipulated. Gender served as a blocking variable. A main effect of time delay was found for slewing and total task times. Correlations among questionnaire responses, and between questionnaire responses and session mean scores and gender were computed. The experimental data were also compared with data collected in another study that used a six degree-of-freedom handcontroller to control the PFMA in the same task. It was concluded that the DataGlove is a legitimate teleoperations input device that provides a natural, intuitive user interface. From an operational point of view, it compares favorably with other 'standard' telerobotic input devices and should be considered in future trades in teleoperation systems' designs.

  2. Mechanisms to improve the mechanical performance of surgical gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Michelle Hoyt

    1997-11-01

    The use of gloves as a barrier to cross infection in the medical industry has increased substantially due to the heightened awareness of viral transmission, especially the human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B virus. The glove must allow for tactile sensation, comfort and long use times, while providing equally critical mechanical performance. The majority of surgical gloves are made of natural rubber latex which do not give a critical level of cut-resistance or puncture-resistance. Natural rubber latex gloves are also known to cause latex allergy with hypersensitivity reactions ranging from mild skin rashes to more severe bronchial asthma, anaphylactic reactions, and even death. It has been postulated natural rubber latex (NRL) proteins cause these allergic reactions. The research that has been conducted comprises two approaches that have been explored for improving the cut-resistance of surgical gloves. The first method involves an integral fiber-latex structure that possesses the combination of high reversible extensibility, barrier performance and retention of tactile sense. Improvement in mechanical properties in excess of 85% has been achieved as well as an improvement in cut-resistance. The second method involves the incorporation of a low concentration of ultra high molecular weight (UHMW) polyacrylamide. Although the initial premise for using a UHMW polymer was that it would bridge the latex compound particulates to improve strength, an entirely different mechanism for the enhancement of strength was explored through a parallel investigation of the release of proteins from cured natural rubber. However, no mechanism was conclusively identified. To address the allergy aspects of NRL, a thorough examination of the release of naturally-occurring latex proteins from cured natural rubber latex glove material was conducted in order to identify mechanisms for eliminating and/or reducing the potential allergens. The initial study examined the release of

  3. A novel method of assessing the effectiveness of protective gloves--results from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Creely, K S; Cherrie, J W

    2001-03-01

    We have devised a novel method for evaluating the effectiveness of protective gloves and have undertaken a small study to assess this approach. Three types of glove were tested in a standardised simulation test with a permethrin-based pesticide. Prewashed cotton gloves were used to collect the samples. One was worn over the protective glove on one hand to measure the potential deposition of pesticide on the hands had the gloves not been worn. A second was placed under the protective glove on the opposite hand to measure the actual deposition of permethrin on the hands when the gloves were worn. This regime was reversed half way through each test in an attempt to prevent bias. Measurable inner glove contamination occurred on 25 out of 30 occasions. Geometric mean protection factors were calculated from the ratio of outer and inner sampling glove contamination, with average protection factors of 470, 200 and 96 being obtained for the two nitrile and PVC gloves, respectively. The PVC gloves were the least effective in preventing inner glove contamination, probably because the glove was thick and fairly inflexible, causing more pesticide to enter the glove around the cuff. Although the tasks were standardised, variability occurred due to worker behaviour and equipment failure. The spray pump failed on five occasions, resulting in higher levels of inner glove contamination and a geometric mean protection factor of 32. On the occasions when the pump worked correctly, the level of protection provided by the gloves rose dramatically with mean protection factors of 220 and 450 being obtained for workers categorised as "messy" and "tidy", respectively. PMID:11182427

  4. Incoming editorial: bigger, purple, pragmatic, and parsimony.

    PubMed

    Hilsenroth, Mark J

    2011-03-01

    It is with great excitement and enthusiasm that I write to you regarding several updates, new initiatives and changes with our journal. As you may have already noticed, this includes the change to a larger format, and a return to the color purple that helped define this journal from the early 1980s through the turn of the century, as well as to the original title "Psychotherapy." The change in format will allow us to benefit from the standard American Psychological Association (APA) journal design and layout, leading to more efficient processing and arrangement within their electronic journal system. I have found this first year as the Incoming Editor of Psychotherapy to be as challenging, rewarding, and intellectually stimulating as I imagined it would be, and I remain quite excited and enthusiastic about the work ahead. PMID:21401267

  5. Major anthocyanins from purple asparagus (Asparagus officinalis).

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yumi; Ozaki, Yukio; Miyajima, Ikuo; Yamaguchi, Masaatsu; Fukui, Yuko; Iwasa, Keiko; Motoki, Satoru; Suzuki, Takashi; Okubo, Hiroshi

    2008-05-01

    Two major anthocyanins (A1 and A2) were isolated from peels of the spears of Asparagus officinalis cv. Purple Passion. They were purified by column, paper and high-performance liquid chromatographic separations, and their structures were elucidated by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (HR-FT-ICR MS), 1H, 13C and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic analyses and either acid or alkaline hydrolysis, respectively. A1 was identified as cyanidin 3-[3''-(O-beta-d-glucopyranosyl)-6''-(O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl)-O-beta-d-glucopyranoside], whereas A2 was cyanidin 3-rutinoside, which is widely distributed in higher plants. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays proved their high antioxidant activities. PMID:18406435

  6. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil.

    PubMed

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Sit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants. PMID:22613128

  7. Antioxidant properties of various solvent extracts from purple basil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeşiloğlu, Yeşim; Şit, Latifşah

    2012-09-01

    Water, ethanol and acetone extracts from leaves and flowers of purple basil, one of the most popular spices consumed in the Thrace region of Turkey, were tested in vitro for their ability to inhibit peroxidation of lipids, to scavenge DPPH, hydrogen peroxide, superoxide anion, to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II) and to chelate Fe(II) ions. The results showed that purple basil contained naturally occurring antioxidant components and possessed antioxidant activity which may be attributed to its lipid peroxidation inhibitory, radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. It was concluded that purple basil might be a potential source of antioxidants.

  8. Telepresence Master Glove Controller For Dexterous Robotic End-Effectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fowler, A. M.; Joyce, R. R.; Britt, J. P.

    1987-03-01

    This paper describes recent research in the Aerospace Human Factors Research Division at NASA's Ames Research Center to develop a glove-like, control and data-recording device (DataGlove) that records and transmits to a host computerin real time, and at appropriate resolution, a numeric data-record of a user's hand/finger shape and dynamics. System configuration and performance specifications are detailed, and current research is discussed investigating its applications in operator control of dexterous robotic end-effectors and for use as a human factors research tool in evaluation of operator hand function requirements and performance in other specialized task environments.

  9. Nine-size system for chemical defense gloves. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, K.M.; Annis, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this effort was to meet the need for improved sizing of chemical defense gloves for Air Force men and women. A nine-size system was developed from available hand data. The development process and size values are presented in this report. Some summary statistics and regression equations are provided to aid investigators who may wish to make modifications. Although the anthropometric sizing system outlined in this report is statistically sound, it is experimental. The authors recommend that anthropometric fit-testing be conducted prior to full-scale glove production.

  10. Dexterity test data contribute to proper glovebox over-glove use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Apel, D M; Neal, G E; Castro, J M; Michelotti, R A

    2010-01-21

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox, coupled with an adequate negative pressure gradient, provides primary confinement). The glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. The Glovebox Glove Integrity Program, which controls glovebox gloves from procurement to disposal at TA-55, manages this vulnerability. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Proper selection of over-gloves is one of these measures. Line management owning glovebox processes have the responsibility to approve the appropriate personal protective equipment/glovebox glove/over-glove combination. As low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) considerations to prevent unplanned glovebox glove openings must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk to the worker. In this study, the causes of unplanned glovebox glove openings, the benefits of over-glove features, the effect of over-gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the pollution prevention benefits, and the recommended over-gloves for a task are presented.

  11. A Glove for Tapping and Discrete 1D/2D Input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sam A.; Smith, Andy; Bahram, Sina; SaintAmant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a glove with which users enter input by tapping fingertips with the thumb or by rubbing the thumb over the palmar surfaces of the middle and index fingers. The glove has been informally tested as the controller for two semi-autonomous robots in a a 3D simulation environment. A preliminary evaluation of the glove s performance is presented.

  12. New acylated anthocyanins from purple yam and their antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Chiemi; Hosoya, Takahiro; Agawa, Sayuri; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Kozone, Ikuko; Shin-Ya, Kazuo; Terahara, Norihiko; Kumazawa, Shigenori

    2015-01-01

    Purple yam (Dioscorea alata L.), which is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, is characterized by its color and viscosity. Previous studies have shown that purple yams contain a variety of acylated anthocyanins that exhibit higher levels of antioxidant activity than the corresponding nonacylated compounds. In this study, the pigments found in purple yams from the Philippines (D. alata) were isolated and evaluated in terms of antioxidant activity. Four new acylated anthocyanins, alanins (1-4) were isolated from the MeOH extracts of purple yam, which were subsequently determined to be cyanidin (1, 2, and 4) and peonidin (3) type compounds, along with four known anthocyanins (5-8). The structures of 1-4 were determined by spectroscopic methods, including NMR and MS analyses. The antioxidant activities of anthocyanins 1-8 were investigated using oxygen radical absorbing capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. PMID:25848974

  13. View of Flume Tunnel #3 through Purple Mountain, showing flume ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Flume Tunnel #3 through Purple Mountain, showing flume entering into the tunnel. Looking south - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Tunnel No. 3, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. 8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF GLOVE BOXES USED IN THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS. THE ANION EXCHANGE PROCESS PURIFIED AND CONCENTRATED PLUTONIUM-BEARING NITRIC ACID SOLUTIONS TO MAKE THEM ACCEPTABLE AS FEED FOR CONVERSION TO METAL. (6/20/60) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  15. 2. VIEW OF THE GLOVE BOX WHERE, ON SEPTEMBER 11, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF THE GLOVE BOX WHERE, ON SEPTEMBER 11, 1957, A FIRE STARTED. THE FIRE SPREAD TO THE REST OF THE BUILDING, RESULTING IN THE TRANSFER OF PLUTONIUM FOUNDRY, FABRICATION, AND ASSEMBLY OPERATIONS TO BUILDING 776/777. (9/16/57) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  16. [Identification of migrants from nitrile-butadiene rubber gloves].

    PubMed

    Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Wakui, Chiseko; Maitani, Tamio

    2003-04-01

    Polyvinyl chloride gloves containing di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are restricted for food contact use. In their place, disposable gloves made from nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) are used in contact with foodstuffs. Some unknown substances were found to migrate into n-heptane from NBR gloves. By GC/MS, HR-MS and NMR, their chemical structures were confirmed to be 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate (used as a plasticizer), 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol), a mixture of styrenated phenols consisting of 2-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 4-(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,6-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol, 2,4-di(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol and 2,4,6-tri(alpha-methylbenzyl)phenol (used as antioxidants), and 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, which seems to a degradation product of antioxidant. Migration levels of these compounds were 1.68 micrograms/cm2 of 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, 2.80 micrograms/cm2 of 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol diisobutyrate, 46.08 micrograms/cm2 of styrenated phenols and 4.22 micrograms/cm2 of 4,4'-butylidenedi(6-tert-butyl-m-cresol) into n-heptane, respectively. The content of total styrenated phenols was 6,900 micrograms/g in NBR gloves. PMID:12846157

  17. Effect of glove occlusion on the skin barrier.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe; Angelova-Fischer, Irena; Kezic, Sanja; Agner, Tove

    2016-01-01

    Wet work tasks are the most common exposures leading to occupational irritant contact dermatitis. Use of liquid-proof gloves is recommended when performing wet work, however, gloves may also contribute to impairment of the skin barrier and development of irritant contact dermatitis. The aim of this study is to review the literature on the effects of glove occlusion on skin barrier function. The PubMed database was searched up to 1 February 2015 for articles on the association between glove occlusion and skin barrier function, including human studies only and in English. Only experimental studies including assessment of the skin barrier function were included in the data analysis. Thirteen articles were identified, 8 with focus on occlusion alone, 7 with focus on occlusion in combination with irritant exposure (some overlapping), and 2 field studies. In conclusion, data from the literature showed that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused by detergents/soaps in a dose-response fashion. PMID:26364588

  18. Exploiting wearable goniometer technology for motion sensing gloves.

    PubMed

    Carbonaro, Nicola; Dalle Mura, Gabriele; Lorussi, Federico; Paradiso, Rita; De Rossi, Danilo; Tognetti, Alessandro

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative wearable kinesthetic glove realized with knitted piezoresistive fabric (KPF) sensor technology. The glove is conceived to capture hand movement and gesture by using KPF in a double-layer configuration working as angular sensors (electrogoniometers). The sensing glove prototype is endowed by three KPF goniometers, used to track flexion and extension movement of metacarpophalangeal joint of thumb, index, and middle fingers. The glove is devoted to the continuous monitoring of patients during their daily-life activities, in particular for stroke survivors during their rehabilitation. The prototype performances have been evaluated in comparison with an optical tracking system considered as a gold standard both for relieving static and dynamic posture and gesture of the hand. The introduced prototype has shown very interesting figures of merit. The angular error, evaluated through the standard Bland Altman analysis, has been estimated in ±3° which is slightly less accurate than commercial electrogoniometers. Moreover, a new conceptual prototype design, preliminary evaluated within this study, is presented and discussed in order to solve actual limitations in terms of number and type of sensor connections, avoiding mechanical constraints given by metallic inextensible wires and improving user comfort. PMID:24835230

  19. 17. VIEW OF STEAM CONDENSATE COLLECTION TANKS. THE GLOVE BOX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW OF STEAM CONDENSATE COLLECTION TANKS. THE GLOVE BOX IN THE BACKGROUND IS AT THE END OF THE AMERICIUM RECOVERY LINE. (5/27/71) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Recovery & Fabrication Facility, North-central section of plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  20. 2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION, SHIPLOADER SIDE. WEST WALL. MARINE LEG ADDED SOME TIME BETWEEN 1907-1919. METAL PASSENGER ELEVATOR SHAFT ADDED IN EARLY 1970S. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  1. GloVe C++ v. 1.0

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2015-12-02

    This code implements the GloVe algorithm for learning word vectors from a text corpus. It uses a modern C++ approach. This algorithm is described in the open literature in the referenced paper by Pennington, Jeffrey, Richard Socher, and Christopher D. Manning.

  2. Semiautomatic machine for turning inside out industrial leather gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragón-Gonzalez, G.; Cano-Blanco, M.; León-Galicia, A.; Medrano-Sierra, L. F.; Morales-Gómez, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The last step in the industrial leather gloves manufacturing is to turn the inside out so that the sewing be in the inside of the glove. This work presents the design and testing of a machine for that purpose. In order to quantify the relevant variables, testing was performed with a prototype glove. The employed devices and the testing proceeding were developed experimentally. The obtained information was used to build the turning inside out machine. This machine works with pneumatic power to carry the inside out turning by means of double effect lineal actuators. It has two independent work stations that could be operated simultaneously by two persons, one in each station or in single mode operating one station by one person. The turning inside out cycle is started by means of directional control valves operated with pedals. The velocity and developed force by the actuators is controlled with typical pneumatic resources. The geometrical dimensions of the machine are: 1.15 m length; 0.71 m width and 2.15 m high. Its approximated weight is 120 kg. The air consumption is 5.4 fps by each working station with 60 psig work pressure. The turning inside out operation is 40 s for each industrial leather glove.

  3. 9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAILED VIEW OF BRIQUETTING PRESS HOUSED IN A GLOVE BOX. THE PRESS FORMED SCRAP PLUTONIUM METAL FROM FOUNDRY AND FABRICATION PROCESSES INTO SMALL BRIQUETTES. THESE BRIQUETTES BECAME PART OF THE FEED MATERIALS FOR THE FOUNDRY. (5/6/59) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. 14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW OF THE OUTSIDE OF A GLOVE BOX THAT CONTAINS ELECTROREFINING EQUIPMENT. ELECTROREFINING WAS ONE OF THE PROCESSES USED TO PURIFY PLUTONIUM THAT DID NOT MEET PURITY SPECIFICATIONS. (10/25/66) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  5. Effects of EVA spacesuit glove on grasping and pinching tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Chen Chen, Fai; Favetto, Alain; Mousavi, Mehdi; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-03-01

    The human hand has a wide range of degrees of freedom, allowing a great variety of movements, and is also one of the most sensitive parts of the human body. Due to these characteristics, it is the most important tool for astronauts to perform extravehicular activities (EVA). However, astronauts must wear mandatory EVA equipment to be protected from the harsh conditions in space and this strongly reduces hand performance, in particular as regards dexterity, tactile perception, mobility and fatigue. Several studies have been conducted to determine the influence of the EVA glove on manual capabilities, both in the past and more recently. This study presents experimental data regarding the performance decline occurring in terms of force and fatigue in the execution of grasping and pinching tasks when wearing an EVA glove, in pressurized and unpressurized conditions, compared with barehanded potential. Results show that wearing the unpressurized EVA glove hinders grip and lateral pinch performances, dropping exerted forces to about 50-70%, while it barely affects two- and three-finger pinch performances. On the other hand, wearing the pressurized glove worsens performances in all cases, reducing forces to about 10-30% of barehanded potential. The results are presented and compared with the previous literature.

  6. Modeling of RTF Glove-Box and Stripper System

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, R.H.

    2001-03-28

    The glove box-stripper system for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) has been modeled to determine its steady-state performance. To permit comparison, simulations of modified cases were compared with a standard or base case. This paper discusses tests conducted, results obtained and makes recommendations.

  7. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Tactility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Shelby; Miranda, Mesloh; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to quantify finger tactility, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Subjects were fully suited in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Data was collected under three conditions: bare-handed, gloved at 0 psi, and gloved at 4.3 psi. In order to test tactility, a series of 30 tactile stimuli (bumps) were created that varied in both height and width. With the hand obscured, subjects applied pressure to each bump until detected tactilely. The amount of force needed to detect each bump was recorded using load cells located under a force-plate. The amount of force needed to detect a bump was positively related to width, but inversely related to height. In addition, as the psi of the glove increased, more force was needed to detect the bump. In terms of application, it was possible to determine the optimal width and height a bump needs to be for a specific amount of force applied for tactility.

  8. 6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. VIEW OF BUILDING 707 INTERIOR. GLOVE BOX WORKSTATIONS ARE BEING CONSTRUCTED FOR FOUNDRY PROCESSES IN MODULE A. (10/6/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  9. Permeation resistance of glove materials to agricultural pesticides.

    PubMed

    Schwope, A D; Goydan, R; Ehntholt, D; Frank, U; Nielsen, A

    1992-06-01

    The toxicities of many agricultural pesticides require that hand protection be used by persons who mix, load, and apply these products, as specified on the label and material safety data sheet. Selection of gloves for formulations that contain organic solvents is particularly problematic because a solvent that permeates the glove can carry with it the active ingredient of the pesticide formulation. With a test method that measures the simultaneous permeation of the carrier solvent(s) and active ingredient(s), in particular those active ingredients that have low solubility in water and low volatility, over 100 permeation tests (in triplicate) with approximately 20 pesticide formulations were conducted with 13 different glove materials. These results are summarized and generalizations are presented within the perspective of the large base of permeation data for neat chemicals and another large permeation study with pesticides. Key among the findings is that the carrier solvent generally permeates first and at a much higher rate than the active ingredient. Furthermore, the permeation behavior of formulations containing solvents generally mirrored that of neat carrier solvents alone. Thus, insight into the selection of the most appropriate glove material for a given pesticide formulation can be gained from permeation data for neat chemicals. For the types of solvents that may be present in pesticide formulations, preferred materials include nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, and plastic film laminates. Natural rubber and polyvinyl chloride materials generally are not recommended. PMID:1605107

  10. 18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAILED VIEW OF A GLOVE BOX DAMAGED IN A FIRE THAT OCCURRED ON MAY 11, 1969. THE FIRE OCCURRED FROM THE SPONTANEOUS IGNITION OF A BRIQUETTE OF SCRAP PLUTONIUM ALLOY METAL. (5/18/69) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Fabrication, Central section of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  11. Tactile Gloves for Autonomous Grasping With the NASA/DARPA Robonaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, T. B.; Ambrose, R. O.; Diftler, M. A.; Platt, R., Jr.; Butzer, M. J.

    2004-01-01

    Tactile data from rugged gloves are providing the foundation for developing autonomous grasping skills for the NASA/DARPA Robonaut, a dexterous humanoid robot. These custom gloves compliment the human like dexterity available in the Robonaut hands. Multiple versions of the gloves are discussed, showing a progression in using advanced materials and construction techniques to enhance sensitivity and overall sensor coverage. The force data provided by the gloves can be used to improve dexterous, tool and power grasping primitives. Experiments with the latest gloves focus on the use of tools, specifically a power drill used to approximate an astronaut's torque tool.

  12. The measurement of water vapor permeability of glove materials using dilute tritiated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, D. H.

    As fusion technology progresses, there will be an increasing need to handle tritium and tritiated compounds. Protective clothing, especially drybox gloves, must be an effective barrier to minimize worker exposure. The water vapor permeability of glove materials and finished glove constructions is a crucial property of drybox gloves and is not sufficiently well characterized. We have built an apparatus that measures water vapor permeability of elastomers using dilute tritiated water. The technique is more sensitive than other methods currently available and allows us to make measurements on materials and under conditions previously inaccessible. In particular, we present results on laminated drybox gloves for which data is not currently available.

  13. Latex Rubber Gloves as a Sampling Dosimeter Using a Novel Surrogate Sampling Device.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Gayatri; Lopez, Terry; Ries, Steve; Ross, John; Vega, Helen; Eastmond, David A; Krieger, Robert I

    2015-01-01

    Pesticide exposure during harvesting of crops occurs primarily to the workers' hands. When harvesters wear latex rubber gloves for personal safety and hygiene harvesting reasons, gloves accumulate pesticide residues. Hence, characterization of the gloves' properties may be useful for pesticide exposure assessments. Controlled field studies were conducted using latex rubber gloves to define the factors that influence the transfer of pesticides to the glove and that would affect their use as a residue monitoring device. A novel sampling device called the Brinkman Contact Transfer Unit (BCTU) was constructed to study the glove characteristics and residue transfer and accumulation under controlled conditions on turf. The effectiveness of latex rubber gloves as sampling dosimeters was evaluated by measuring the transferable pesticide residues as a function of time. The validation of latex rubber gloves as a residue sampling dosimeter was performed by comparing pesticide transfer and dissipation from the gloves, with the turf transferable residues sampled using the validated California (CA) Roller, a standard measure of residue transfer. The observed correlation (Pearson's correlation coefficient R(2)) between the two methods was .84 for malathion and .96 for fenpropathrin, indicating that the BCTU is a useful, reliable surrogate tool for studying available residue transfer to latex rubber gloves under experimental conditions. Perhaps more importantly, these data demonstrate that latex gloves worn by workers may be useful quantifiable matrices for measuring pesticide exposure. PMID:26302432

  14. Permeability of protective gloves by HEMA and TEGDMA in the presence of solvents.

    PubMed

    Munksgaard, E C

    2000-04-01

    The breakthrough times and permeation rates of two commonly used allergenic components in dentin bonding agents or resins, HEMA and TEGDMA, were measured for 5 types of latex gloves and 5 types of nitrile gloves. In addition, the breakthrough times and permeation rates for the gloves were measured for HEMA and TEGDMA when diluted with either ethanol or acetone-solvents often appearing in dentin bonding agents. The mean breakthrough times for the 5 latex gloves for HEMA and TEGDMA, concentrated, diluted in ethanol, or diluted in acetone, were 4.9, 4.8, and 2.8 min, respectively. For the 5 nitrile gloves the equivalent breakthrough times were 15.7, 9.9, and 2.8 min, respectively. There were great variations between the various gloves, and 1 nitrile glove showed a breakthrough time of 28-30 min when tested with concentrated HEMA and TEGDMA. Compared to latex gloves, nitrile gloves have a longer-lasting protection against skin contamination with methacrylates in the absence of solvents. The longer protection was reduced or not present for methacrylates diluted in organic solvents, especially acetone. In addition, the nitrile gloves showed fairly high permeation rates in the presence of this solvent. The results indicate that latex and nitrile gloves only give a limited protection against allergenic methacrylates in dentin bonding agents when they contain acetone. PMID:10894426

  15. Gloves and dermal exposure to chemicals: proposals for evaluating workplace effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Cherrie, John W; Semple, Sean; Brouwer, Derk

    2004-10-01

    There are standardized laboratory tests for chemical protective gloves that provide estimates of breakthrough time and steady-state permeation flux. However, there is evidence to suggest that these tests may not be completely relevant to glove usage in the workplace. There is no consensus about how glove workplace effectiveness should be assessed, although a few studies have attempted to measure the effectiveness of chemical protective gloves. We have used a conceptual model of dermal exposure to help analyse how workers' skin may become exposed while wearing gloves, and propose a new glove workplace protection factor (PFgloves), which is based on the ratio of the estimated uptake of chemicals through the hands without gloves to the uptake through the hands while wearing protective gloves. Mathematical simulations demonstrate that glove protection factor is unlikely to be constant for a glove type, but will be strongly influenced by the work situation and the duration of the exposure. This has important consequences for the selection of protective gloves. PMID:15388512

  16. Compression under a mechanical counter pressure space suit glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldie, James M A.; Tanaka, Kunihiko; Tourbier, Dietmar; Webb, Paul; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Current gas-pressurized space suits are bulky stiff shells severely limiting astronaut function and capability. A mechanical counter pressure (MCP) space suit in the form of a tight elastic garment could dramatically improve extravehicular activity (EVA) dexterity, but also be advantageous in safety, cost, mass and volume. The purpose of this study was to verify that a prototype MCP glove exerts the design compression of 200 mmHg, a pressure similar to the current NASA EVA suit. Methods: Seven male subjects donned a pressure measurement array and MCP glove on the right hand, which was placed into a partial vacuum chamber. Average compression was recorded on the palm, the bottom of the middle finger, the top of the middle finger and the dorsum of the hand at pressures of 760 (ambient), 660 and 580 mmHg. The vacuum chamber was used to simulate the pressure difference between the low breathing pressure of the current NASA space suits (approximately 200 mmHg) and an unprotected hand in space. Results: At ambient conditions, the MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand at 203.5 +/- 22.7 mmHg, the bottom of the middle finger at 179.4 +/- 16.0 mmHg, and the top of the middle finger at 183.8 +/- 22.6 mmHg. The palm compression was significantly lower (59.6 +/- 18.8 mmHg, p<0.001). There was no significant change in glove compression with the chamber pressure reductions. Conclusions: The MCP glove compressed the dorsum of the hand and middle finger at the design pressure.

  17. Investigation of the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn

    1993-01-01

    The objective was to assess the effects of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities. A factorial experiment was performed in which three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. The independent variables tested in this experiment were gender, glove type, pressure differential, and glove make. Six subjects participated in an experiment where a number of dexterity measures, namely time to tie a rope, and the time to assemble a nut and bolt were recorded. Tactility was measured through a two point discrimination test. The results indicate that with EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, there is a considerable reduction in dexterity, performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, and some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the extent (or lack of) fit of the glove to the hand. The implications for the designer are discussed.

  18. An MCNP model of glove boxes in a plutonium processing facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, D.E.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1998-12-31

    Nuclear material processing usually occurs simultaneously in several glove boxes whose primary purpose is to contain radioactive materials and prevent inhalation or ingestion of radioactive materials by workers. A room in the plutonium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been slated for installation of a glove box for storing plutonium metal in various shapes during processing. This storage glove box will be located in a room containing other glove boxes used daily by workers processing plutonium parts. An MCNP model of the room and glove boxes has been constructed to estimate the neutron flux at various locations in the room for two different locations of the storage glove box and to determine the effect of placing polyethylene shielding around the storage glove box. A neutron dose survey of the room with sources dispersed as during normal production operations was used as a benchmark to compare the neutron dose equivalent rates calculated by the MCNP model.

  19. A new method of measuring the stiffness of astronauts' EVA gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Mehdi; Appendino, Silvia; Battezzato, Alessandro; Bonanno, Alberto; Chen Chen, Fai; Crepaldi, Marco; Demarchi, Danilo; Favetto, Alain; Pescarmona, Francesco

    2014-04-01

    Hand fatigue is one of the most important problems of astronauts during their missions to space. This fatigue is due to the stiffness of the astronauts' gloves known as Extravehicular Activity (EVA) gloves. The EVA glove has a multilayered, bulky structure and is pressurized against the vacuum of space. In order to evaluate the stiffness of EVA gloves, different methods have been proposed in the past. In particular, the effects of wearing an EVA glove on the performance of the hands have been published by many researchers to represent the stiffness of the EVA glove. In this paper, a new method for measuring the stiffness of EVA gloves is proposed. A tendon-actuated finger probe is designed and used as an alternative to the human index finger in order to be placed inside an EVA glove and measure its stiffness. The finger probe is equipped with accelerometers, which work as tilt sensors, to measure the angles of its phalanges. The phalanges are actuated by applying different amount of torque using the tendons of the finger probe. Moreover, a hypobaric glove box is designed and realized to simulate the actual operating pressure of the EVA glove and to measure its stiffness in both pressurized and non-pressurized conditions. In order to prove the right performance of the proposed finger probe, an Orlam-DM EVA glove is used to perform a number of tests. The equation of stiffness for the PIP joint of this glove is extracted from the results acquired from the tests. This equation presents the torque required to flex the middle phalanx of the glove. Then, the effect of pressurization on the stiffness is highlighted in the last section. This setup can be used to measure the stiffness of different kinds of EVA gloves and allows direct, numerical comparison of their stiffness.

  20. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Undergoes Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove rests after load-tests at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and instrumentation systems for the glove. Other participating NASA centers included Ames Research

  1. Transport of a solvent mixture across two glove materials when applied in a paint matrix.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jackelin Q; Ceballos, Diana M; Dills, Russell L; Yost, Michael G; Morgan, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    The transport of mixed paint solvents through natural rubber latex (4 mil) and nitrile rubber (5 mil) gloves was evaluated after spray application of the paint formulation directly on the glove surface. Glove materials and thicknesses were those selected by the majority of spray painters in the local automobile repair industry. A flat panel containing glove specimens mounted in multiple permeation cells permitted evaporation of solvents from the applied paint and incorporated a solid sorbent receiving medium for measuring glove membrane transport. The panel was sprayed in a paint booth to simulate use conditions. Charcoal cloth under the glove adsorbed transported solvents, which were quantified by gas chromatography. For each solvent component, results were expressed as mass transported through the glove relative to the mass applied, per unit area, during 30 min after spray application. The paint formulation contained ketones, acetates, and aromatics. Natural rubber latex allowed 6-10 times the transport of solvents relative to nitrile rubber for all eight solvent components: methyl ethyl ketone, toluene, styrene, ethyl benzene, xylene isomers, and 2-heptanone. m-Xylene showed the largest difference in transport between the two glove materials. This solvent also had the highest transport for each material. The results indicate that nitrile rubber gloves offer somewhat greater chemical resistance to all eight solvents studied compared with natural rubber latex gloves, regardless of the chemical properties of the individual solvent components. However, it must be emphasized that neither of the glove materials, in the thicknesses used in this study, provide adequate protection when exposed by direct spray painting. Simulation of realistic spray conditions may offer a source of useful information on the performance of chemical protective gloves because it accounts for solvent evaporation and the effect of paint polymerization after application on glove transport. PMID

  2. Report on New Capabilities for the Purple Development Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Futral, W S; Chambreau, C M; Gyllenhaal, J C; Wolfe, M E

    2006-12-12

    As part of the deliverables for the Development Environment for Purple, additional capabilities to improve the tools offerings and to address unique Purple system requirements, such as increased processor count, were expected. This report details some of the new capabilities that have been incorporated into the development environment tools for Purple. The shift on Purple to 64-bit applications (from 32-bit on White) initially broke many debugging and memory tools. Most tools were updated to support 64 bit well before Purple was delivered to LLNL, but the company that provided the popular heavy-weight 32-bit AIX memory tool, ZeroFault, was reluctant to port to 64 bit due to perceived lack of market. LLNL tried offering financial incentives to the ZeroFault developers, which were turned down, but eventually they did give vague promises to try to port to AIX 64-bit mode when they got time. The ZeroFault developers have been making intermittent and very slow progress over the last two plus years, but despite getting close, have not released a version of ZeroFault that yet meets our needs for 64-bit applications. However, given the critical need for memory tools and the uncertainty of ZeroFault development, other memory tool options were actively pursued and delivered.

  3. Sensory substitution for space gloves and for space robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bach-Y-rita, P.; Webster, J. G.; Tompkins, W. J.; Crabb, T.

    1987-01-01

    Sensory substitution systems for space applications are described. Physical sensors replace missing human receptors and feed information to the interpretive centers of a different sense. The brain is plastic enough so that, with training, the subject localizes the input as if it were received through the missing receptors. Astronauts have difficulty feeling objects through space suit gloves because of their thickness and because of the 4.3 psi pressure difference. Miniature force sensors on the glove palm drive an electrotactile belt around the waist, thus augmenting the missing tactile sensation. A proposed teleoperator system with telepresence for a space robot would incorporate teleproprioception and a force sensor/electrotactile belt sensory substitution system for teletouch.

  4. Application of glove box robotics to hazardous waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, D.K.; Hurd, R.L.; Merrill, R.D.; Reitz, T.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is developing a semi-automated system for handling, characterizing, processing, sorting, and repackaging hazardous wastes containing tritium. The system combines an IBM developed gantry robot with a special glove box enclosure designed to protect the operators and minimize the potential release of tritium to the atmosphere. All hazardous waste handling and processing will be performed remotely using the robot in a telerobotic mode for one-of-a-kind functions and in an autonomous mode for repetitive type operations. The system will initially be used in conjunction with a portable gas system designed to capture any gaseous phase tritium released into the glove box. This paper presents the objectives of this program, provides background related to LLNL`s robotics and waste handling program, describes the major system components, outlines system operation, and discusses current status and plans.

  5. Design of a Power-Assisted Spacesuit Glove Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Russell D.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the details of the design and implementation of an electromechanical power-assisted spacesuit glove actuator. The project was a joint effort by the University of Maryland's Space Systems Laboratory and ILC Dover, Inc., and involved innovative approaches to power augmentation and compact actuator packaging. The first actuator built validated several basic design concepts, and the second demonstrated improved performance and met many of the goals for flight qualification of the technology.

  6. Chemical resistance of disposable nitrile gloves exposed to simulated movement.

    PubMed

    Phalen, Robert N; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-01-01

    Large discrepancies between laboratory permeation testing and field exposures have been reported, with indications that hand movement could account for a portion of these differences. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on chemical permeation of 30 different disposable nitrile glove products. Products were investigated out-of-box and with exposure to simulated whole-glove movement. Permeation testing was conducted using ethanol as a surrogate test chemical. A previously designed pneumatic system was used to simulate hand movement. No movement and movement tests were matched-paired to control for environmental conditions, as were statistical analyses. Permeation data were collected for a 30-min exposure period or until a breakthrough time (BT) and steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) could be determined. A third parameter, area under the curve at 30 min (AUC-30), was used to estimate potential worker exposure. With movement, a significant decrease in BT (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 6-33%, was observed for 28 products. The average decrease in BT was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). With movement, a significant increase in SSPR (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 1-78%, was observed with 25 products. The average increase in SSPR was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). Significant increases in AUC-30 (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 23-277%, were also observed for all products where it could be calculated. On average, there was a 58% increase (p ≤ 0.001). The overall effect of movement on permeation through disposable nitrile gloves was significant. Simulated movement significantly shortened the BT, increased the SSPR, and increased the cumulative 30-min exposure up to three times. Product variability also accounted for large differences, up to 40 times, in permeation and cumulative exposure. Glove selection must take these factors into account. It cannot be assumed that all products will perform in a similar manner. PMID:23009187

  7. Removal of lithium antimonide from a radioactive glove box.

    SciTech Connect

    Leibowitz, L.; McDeavitt, S. M.; Graczyk, D. G.; Smith, F. P.

    2000-10-01

    A sample of lithium antimonide (L{sub 3}3Sb) was prepared in a radioactive helium-atmosphere glove box, some of which spread throughout the box. Because of the potential for stibine generation should the Li{sub 3}Sb contact water, some effort was devoted to assessing the extent of possible stibine formation and methods for removing the Li{sub 3}Sb from the box. This note summarizes our findings and the waste disposal procedures used.

  8. Chemical Resistance of Disposable Nitrile Gloves Exposed to Simulated Movement

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng Kee

    2012-01-01

    Large discrepancies between laboratory permeation testing and field exposures have been reported, with indications that hand movement could account for a portion of these differences. This study evaluated the influence of simulated movement on chemical permeation of 30 different disposable nitrile glove products. Products were investigated out-of-box and with exposure to simulated whole-glove movement. Permeation testing was conducted using ethanol as a surrogate test chemical. A previously designed pneumatic system was used to simulate hand movement. No movement and movement tests were matched-paired to control for environmental conditions, as were statistical analyses. Permeation data were collected for a 30-min exposure period or until a breakthrough time (BT) and steady-state permeation rate (SSPR) could be determined. A third parameter, area under the curve at 30 min (AUC-30), was used to estimate potential worker exposure. With movement, a significant decrease in BT (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 6–33%, was observed for 28 products. The average decrease in BT was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). With movement, a significant increase in SSPR (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 1–78%, was observed with 25 products. The average increase in SSPR was 18% (p ≤ 0.001). Significant increases in AUC-30 (p ≤ 0.05), ranging from 23–277%, were also observed for all products where it could be calculated. On average, there was a 58% increase (p ≤ 0.001). The overall effect of movement on permeation through disposable nitrile gloves was significant. Simulated movement significantly shortened the BT, increased the SSPR, and increased the cumulative 30-min exposure up to three times. Product variability also accounted for large differences, up to 40 times, in permeation and cumulative exposure. Glove selection must take these factors into account. It cannot be assumed that all products will perform in a similar manner. PMID:23009187

  9. Minimizing glovebox glove breaches, Part 4: control charts

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, M.E.; Lee, M.B.; Schreiber, S.

    2007-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebox gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, e.g., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation determine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. (authors)

  10. MINIMIZING GLOVEBOX GLOVE BREACHES, PART IV: CONTROL CHARTS

    SciTech Connect

    COURNOYER, MICHAEL E.; LEE, MICHELLE B.; SCHREIBER, STEPHEN B.

    2007-02-05

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Plutonium Facility, plutonium. isotopes and other actinides are handled in a glovebox environment. The spread of radiological contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the worker's breathing zone, are minimized and/or prevented through the use of glovebox technology. Evaluating the glovebox configuration, the glovebo gloves are the most vulnerable part of this engineering control. Recognizing this vulnerability, the Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGIP) was developed to minimize and/or prevent unplanned openings in the glovebox environment, i.e., glove failures and breaches. In addition, LANL implement the 'Lean Six Sigma (LSS)' program that incorporates the practices of Lean Manufacturing and Six Sigma technologies and tools to effectively improve administrative and engineering controls and work processes. One tool used in LSS is the use of control charts, which is an effective way to characterize data collected from unplanned openings in the glovebox environment. The benefit management receives from using this tool is two-fold. First, control charts signal the absence or presence of systematic variations that result in process instability, in relation to glovebox glove breaches and failures. Second, these graphical representations of process variation detennine whether an improved process is under control. Further, control charts are used to identify statistically significant variations (trends) that can be used in decision making to improve processes. This paper discusses performance indicators assessed by the use control charts, provides examples of control charts, and shows how managers use the results to make decisions. This effort contributes to LANL Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations.

  11. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  12. Puncture evaluation of radiological gloves to assess use performance

    SciTech Connect

    Steckle, W. P. , Jr.; Mittelstet, R. P.; Castro, J. M.; Smith, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Tensile testing of gloves is an accepted method for the qualification of a new glove material or the qualification of a production run. Most often these tests are performed in accordance to ASTM standards, i.e. - D412-98a Standard Test Methods (STM) for Vulcanized Rubber and Thermoplastic Rubbers and Thermoplastic Elastomers-Tension, Unfortunately for elastomers such protocols do not exist for puncture testing. There are however several test methods for the puncture resistance of Protective Clothing [F1342-91(1996)e2], Barrier FiIms and Laminates[F1306-90(1998)], and Coated Fabrics [D751-001]. Each of these standards uses different probe geometries and testing rates. Initial testing of the gloves has been performed using the standard one inch ball burst fixture as supplied by Instron. Samples tested using this fixture usually did not burst within the travel of the test fixture, except for lead lined hypalon. Three fixtures were fabricated in accordance to the aforementioned ASTM standards. Results for these fixtures for several materials will be reported along with the observed rate dependence.

  13. [Single port laparoscopic colostomy using the glove technique].

    PubMed

    Rodicio Miravalles, José L; Rodríguez García, José I; Llaneza Folgueras, Ana; Avilés García, Paulino; González González, Juan J

    2014-01-01

    The single port surgery with glove technique is a novel process, suitable to the present day economic and technological moment. Colostomies are surgical interventions suitable to its application. We describe the surgical method and outcome of patients who underwent colostomy by single port glove technique within the years 2011 and 2012, in two hospitals in Asturias, Spain. We carried out six sigmoid colostomies. Four patients had tumoral pathology, another a perineal necrotizing fasciitis, and the sixth, a patient with Crohn's disease and complex perianal fistulas. The average age of the patients, four men and two women, was 54 years (range 42-67 years). The average intervention time was 42 minutes (range 30-65 minutes). There were no complications during the surgery or in the postoperative period. In our facilities material expenditure was reduced to half as regards other conventional single port devices. The glove technique represents the most economic and least invasive approach for the surgical procedure of stomas, in our experience considered a simple, safe and easily reproducible technique. PMID:24918667

  14. A modular dexterous robot for glove box applications

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, E.W. Jr.; Igou, R.E.; Karlen, J.P.; Kowalski, K.A.; Eismann, P.H.

    1994-11-01

    Many industrial processes today require the use of {open_quotes}glove boxes{close_quotes} {emdash} environmentally sealed chambers designed to allow access by human workers through ports fitted with protective gloves. A new technology for the automation of complex material-handling functions is described in this paper. The advantages of an agile robotic manipulator system being used in this application are discussed, including reduced life-cycle cost of automation, enhanced ability to respond to changes in process requirements, and improved reliability and maintainability. This paper also reviews lessons learned in applying an highly dexterous modular robot to a glove box environment, such as the evaluation of arm kinematics to achieve the required work envelope, system payload capacity, methods for automated tooling changes, tolerance of the arm mechanism and electronics to exposure to industrial chemicals and an argon atmosphere, the benefits of arm modularity for system maintenance, safety concerns, the integration of high-level control technology and off-line development of process motion sequences.

  15. Extravehicular activities limitations study. Volume 2: Establishment of physiological and performance criteria for EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, John M.; Briganti, Michael; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    One of the major probelms faced in Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove development has been the absence of concise and reliable methods to measure the effects of EVA gloves on human hand capabilities. This report describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: Range of Motion, Strength, Tactile Perception, Dexterity, Fatigue, and Comfort. Based on an assessment of general human hand functioning and EVA task requirements several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure. A test program was conducted to evaluate the tests using a representative EVA glove. Eleven test subjects participated in a repeated-measures design. The report presents the results of the tests in each capability domain.

  16. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198{trademark}

    SciTech Connect

    Klien, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198{trademark} getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198{trademark} stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful.

  17. Tritium stripping in a nitrogen glove box using palladium/zeolite and SAES St 198

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J.E.; Wermer, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Glove box clean-up experiments were conducted in a nitrogen glove box using palladium deposited on zeolite (Pd/z) and a SAES St 198 getter as tritium stripping materials. Protium/deuterium samples spiked with tritium were released into a 620 liter glove box to simulate tritium releases in a 10,500 liter glove box. The Pd/z and the SAES St 198 stripper beds produced a reduction in tritium activity of approximately two to three orders of magnitude and glove box clean-up was limited by a persistent background tritium activity level. Attempts to significantly reduce the glove box activity to lower levels without purging were unsuccessful. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Decontamination and reconditioning of the Argonne National Laboratory-West Casting Laboratory alpha glove box

    SciTech Connect

    Poston, J.W. Jr.; Burke, L.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Casting Laboratory (CL) alpha glove box was used to melt and cast metallic uranium and plutonium fuels as part of the Department of Energy`s Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor Program. This highly contaminated alpha glove box was decontaminated and reconditioned to allow a change in mission. The goal of reconditioning was to install experimental apparatus and to improve contamination control prior to introducing plutonium-238 into the CL glove box. Construction of a glove box containment structure and an increase in room ventilation were required. A temporary breathing air station was provided for personnel protection as well as personnel comfort. The historical contamination levels, the decontamination techniques, and the results of decontamination also are presented. The health physics aspects of the CL alpha glove box project may be applicable to other glove box refurbishment or decommissioning projects.

  19. Permeability testing of glove materials for use with cancer chemotherapy drugs.

    PubMed

    Connor, T H

    1995-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of several types of hospital gloves that are recommended by the manufacturers for handling chemotherapy drugs. Gloves were examined for permeability against five cancer chemotherapy drugs (doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, carmustine, and cisplatin) at several time points up to 2 h using a bacterial mutation assay as the measure of permeation. Of the 5 types of gloves tested at a single thickness, 4 were completely impermeable to all drugs and the remaining 1 demonstrated only limited permeability. A latex examination glove used for comparison was permeable to carmustine. One glove material that was tested as a double thickness was impermeable to the 5 drugs. Results indicate that various types of gloves may offer protection against exposure to chemotherapy drugs for healthcare workers. PMID:7715911

  20. Calibrating a VPL DataGlove for teleoperating the Utah/MIT hand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Jiawei; Tan, Xiaonan

    1989-01-01

    A system able to control the Utah/MIT hand with the VPL DataGlove has been developed. To get the actual joint angles from the DataGlove sensor values, a least-squares fit is used to find the best-fit exponential curve for each sensor, and then the correlation between the sensors is reduced by the iterative correlation elimination procedure. The calibration depends both on the wearer and the particular DataGlove being used. The first-level calibration is simple and can be done under 15 min with experience. The second level is fixed and requires no adjustments. To control the hand, a mapping from the DataGlove angles to the hand angles is applied, making the hand fingertips follow the DataGlove fingertips. The hand can successfully implement various high-level tasks under the DataGlove wearer's control.

  1. Dye-sensitized solar cells based on purple corn sensitizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phinjaturus, Kawin; Maiaugree, Wasan; Suriharn, Bhalang; Pimanpaeng, Samuk; Amornkitbamrung, Vittaya; Swatsitang, Ekaphan

    2016-09-01

    Natural dye extracted from husk, cob and silk of purple corn, were used for the first time as photosensitizers in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The dye sensitized solar cells fabrication process has been optimized in terms of solvent extraction. The resulting maximal efficiency of 1.06% was obtained from purple corn husk extracted by acetone. The ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and incident photon-to-current efficiency (IPCE) were employed to characterize the natural dye and the DSSCs.

  2. Colored Indicator Undergloves Increase the Detection of Glove Perforations by Surgeons During Small Animal Orthopedic Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Oliver P.; Parsons, Kevin J.; Burton, Neil J.; Langley‐Hobbs, Sorrel J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether use of colored indicator gloves affects perforation detection rate and to identify risk factors for glove perforation during veterinary orthopedic surgery. Study Design Prospective randomized controlled trial. Sample Population 574 double pairs of gloves worn during 300 orthopedic surgical procedures (2,296 gloves). Methods Primary and assistant surgeons double‐gloved for all orthopedic surgical procedures. Type of inner glove (standard or colored indicator) was randomized for the first 360 double pairs of gloves worn by surgeons during 180 procedures. Perforations detected by surgeons were recorded and gloves changed if requested. For a further 120 procedures, indicator gloves were used exclusively. All gloves were leak‐tested after surgery to identify perforations. Association between potential risk factors and perforation was explored using multivariate logistical regression analysis. Results Glove perforations occurred during 43% of surgeries with a mean of 2.3 holes/surgery. Inner gloves were intact in 63% of glove pairs where an outer perforation occurred. Intraoperative perforation detection was improved when colored indicator gloves were worn (83% sensitivity) vs. standard gloves (34% sensitivity; P<.001). Independent risk factors for perforation were placement of plates and/or screws (P=.001; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.4–4.0), placement of an external skeletal fixator (P=.002; OR=7.0; 95% CI, 2.1–23.8), use of orthopedic wire (P=.011; OR=2.4; 95% CI, 1.2–4.7), and primary surgeon being board‐certified (P=.016; OR=1.9; 95% CI, 1.1–3.1). Conclusion Increased surgeon recognition of glove perforations through use of colored indicator gloves enables prompt change of gloves if perforation occurs and may reduce potential contamination of the surgical site. PMID:27412490

  3. Dexterity test data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M; Costigan, Stephen A; Schreiber, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (T A-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alpha-emitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces, airborne contamination, and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Using an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program. A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management who own glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (hereafter referred to as gloves), the weakest component of this safety-significant system, would perform best in these aggressive environments. As Low as Reasonably Achievable considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) were the primary glove for programmatic operations at TA55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduce the amount of mixed transuranic waste. This effort contributes to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost-effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In this report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and the pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  4. Testing of gloves for permeability to UV-curable acrylate coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Huggins, R.; Levy, N.; Pruitt, P.M.

    1987-07-01

    The handling of UV-curable acrylate formulations used in the coating of optical fiber requires protective measures to prevent contact dermatitis and/or allergic dermatitis. To characterize the permeability of various glove materials to a UV-curable acrylate coating, a study was undertaken using a modification of a standard ASTM permeability test, which demonstrated that nitrile rubber gloves provided the best protection of those glove materials tested.

  5. A comparative analysis of glove permeation resistance to paint stripping formulations.

    PubMed

    Stull, Jeffrey O; Thomas, Richard W; James, Lawrence E

    2002-01-01

    Although there is a wide variety of work gloves available to users of commercial paint stripping products, there are no published studies examining which type of gloves provide the best protection. To address this need, a multiphase study was undertaken to evaluate how several types of gloves resist multichemical-based paint stripping formulations. Due to the wide range of commercial paint stripping formulations available, seven categories of surrogate paint stripper formulations were created to evaluate glove performance initially. Twenty different glove types were identified for initial evaluation. Degradation resistance screening was carried out for each glove style and paint stripping formulation. Screening results were used to identify those glove styles least affected by the surrogate paint strippers. Those gloves were then evaluated for their resistance to permeation using continuous contact testing based on ASTM Test Method F 739. Glove styles showing extensive permeation with early breakthrough were then evaluated to see how they performed with only intermittent contact with the surrogate paint strippers using a modified form of ASTM Test Method F 1383. These results were used to select glove styles to be tested using commercially available paint stripping products. Gloves made of plastic laminate and butyl rubber were the most effective against the majority of paint strippers. More glove styles resisted permeation by N-methylpyrrolidone and dibasic ester-based paint strippers than conventional solvent products such as methylene chloride, methanol, isopropanol, acetone, and toluene. The study also found that decreased contact time caused relatively little change in permeation resistance and that the surrogate paint stripper data did not always accurately predict resistance to the commercial paint stripper formulations. PMID:11843429

  6. Washing of gloved hands in antiseptic solution prior to central venous line insertion reduces contamination.

    PubMed

    Kocent, H; Corke, C; Alajeel, A; Graves, S

    2002-06-01

    Glove contamination at the time a central venous catheter is handled is highly undesirable and likely to increase the risk of subsequent line infection. This study was designed to determine how frequently gloves become contaminated during central venous line insertion and to demonstrate the value of glove decontamination immediately prior to handling of the central venous catheter During twenty routine internal jugular catheter insertions the sterility of the operator's gloved fingertips (just prior to handling the intravenous catheter) was assessed by touching the fingertips onto blood agar plates. The gloved hands were then rinsed in chlorhexidine/alcohol and after drying were placed onto a further plate. Contamination was detected in 55% of the prewash plates but in none of the postwash plates. Procedures performed by less experienced resident staff had a higher contamination rate despite there being no evident breach of sterile technique. It is likely that glove contamination results from the persistance of bacteria within the deeper layers of the skin, despite surface disinfection. These bacteria may be released by manipulation of the skin when identifying landmarks. This hypothesis was supported by a subsequent observation that gloves were more highly contaminated after firm touching of the skin rather than light touching. Glove contamination during central line insertion is frequent. Catheter contamination rates could be reduced (without risk or additional cost) by rinsing gloved hands in a solution of chlorhexidine (0.5%) in alcohol (70%) prior to handling the catheter. PMID:12075642

  7. A preliminary evaluation of the effect of glove use by food handlers in fast food restaurants.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Robert A; Phillips, Margaret L; Elledge, Brenda L; Hanumanthaiah, Sridhar; Boatright, Daniel T

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether the levels of selected microorganisms differed on foods handled by gloved and bare hands at fast food restaurants. Three hundred seventy-one plain flour tortillas were purchased from fast food restaurants and analyzed for Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., coliform bacteria, and heterotrophic plate count bacteria. Approximately 46% of the samples were handled by workers wearing gloves compared with 52% of samples with bare hand contact. Coliform bacteria were found in 9.6% of samples handled by gloved workers and 4.4% of samples handled by bare hands, although this difference was not statistically significant. The distribution of heterotrophic plate count bacteria, a general measure of hygiene, was also higher in samples handled by gloved workers in one restaurant chain. The presence of E. coli, Klebsiella sp., and S. aureus was detected in one, two, and eight samples, respectively, and there were no significant differences between samples handled by gloved or bare hands. Neither direct contact of the tortilla with the food preparation surface nor gender of the worker affected the level of any organism tested. The observed tendency of food workers to wear the same pair of gloves for extended periods and complacency might account for the apparent failure of gloves to reduce or prevent bacterial contamination. The results further suggest that glove use might be counterproductive because workers might wash their hands less frequently when gloved. PMID:15690825

  8. Alpha contamination assessment for D&D activities: Monitoring inside glove boxes and vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Rawool-Sullivan, M.W.; Bolton, R.D.; Conaway, J.G.; MacArthur, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    We have developed a new approach to glove box monitoring that involves drawing air out of one glove port through a detection grid that collects ions created in the air inside the glove box by ionizing radiation, especially alpha radiation. The charge deposited on the detection grid by the ions is measured with a sensitive electrometer. The air can be circulated back to the glove box through the other glove port, preventing contamination from leaving the glove box and detector system. Initial experiments using a mock-up constructed of sheet metal indicate that this technology provides the measurement technique needed to perform a defensible, non-invasive measurement of alpha contamination inside glove boxes destined for waste disposal. This can result in an enormous cost savings if a given glove box can be shown to fall into the catagory of Low-Level Waste rather than Trans-Uranic Waste. Considering that hundreds of glove boxes contaminated with plutonium will be taken out of service at various nuclear facilities over the next few years, the potential cost savings associated with disposal as LLW rather than TRU waste are substantial.

  9. Permeation of hair dye ingredients, p-phenylenediamine and aminophenol isomers, through protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiao-Shu; Lin, Yu-Wen

    2009-04-01

    Skin irritation and contact allergies are skin disorders common to hairdressers. The predominant oxidative hair dye components, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and aminophenol isomers, can cause contact dermatitis. Use of protective gloves can prevent dermal contact with skin irritants. This study investigates the permeation behaviors of p-aminophenol (PAP), m-aminophenol (MAP), o-aminophenol (OAP) and PPD in single and mixed challenge solutions with disposable natural rubber latex (NRL) gloves, disposable polyvinylchloride (PVC) gloves and neoprene (NP) gloves. The challenge solutions were 4% PPD (w/v), 3% OAP (w/v), 2% PAP (w/v) and 2% MAP (w/v) in ethanol or 12% hydrogen peroxide solutions. The cocktail solutions of the four chemicals were also tested. An American Society for Testing and Materials type permeation cell, ethanol liquid collection and gas chromatography-flame ionization detection of samples taken from the collection medium every 10 min facilitated determination of breakthrough times (BTs), cumulative permeated masses and steady-state permeation rates (SSPRs). Experiments were 4 h long for the NRL and PVC gloves and 8 h for NP gloves. No chemicals tested broke through the NP gloves when exposed for 8 h. In the ethanol solution, PPD and OAP started breaking through the PVC gloves at 40 min. The SSPRs of PVC gloves were higher than those for NRL gloves in all challenge conditions for both single chemicals and mixtures. No tested chemicals in hydrogen peroxide solutions permeated the gloves during the 4-h tests. The chemical composition of the challenge solution was a main effecter of BTs and SSPRs for the NRL glove. For disposable PVC gloves, the main factors of BTs were molecular size [molar volume (MV)] and polarity (logK(ow)), and the primary factors of SSPRs were concentration, MV and logK(ow). In conclusion, disposable NRL gloves and disposable PVC gloves should not be used repeatedly for handling the hair dye products. Hydrogen peroxide did not

  10. Tensile Properties and Integrity of Clean Room and Low-Modulus Disposable Nitrile Gloves: A Comparison of Two Dissimilar Glove Types

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, Robert N.; Wong, Weng kee

    2012-01-01

    Background: The selection of disposable nitrile exam gloves is complicated by (i) the availability of several types or formulations, (ii) product variability, and (iii) an inability of common quality control tests to detect small holes in the fingers. Differences in polymer formulation (e.g. filler and plasticizer/oil content) and tensile properties are expected to account for much of the observed variability in performance. Objectives: This study evaluated the tensile properties and integrity (leak failure rates) of two glove choices assumed to contain different amounts of plasticizers/oils. The primary aims were to determine if the tensile properties and integrity differed and if associations existed among these factors. Additional physical and chemical properties were evaluated. Methods: Six clean room and five low-modulus products were evaluated using the American Society for Testing and Materials Method D412 and a modified water-leak test to detect holes capable of passing a virus or chemical agent. Results: Significant differences in the leak failure rates and tensile properties existed between the two glove types (P ≤ 0.05). The clean room gloves were about three times more likely to have leak failures (chi-square; P = 0.001). No correlation was observed between leak failures and tensile properties. Solvent extract, an indication of added plasticizer/oil, was not associated with leak failures. However, gloves with a maximum modulus <4 MPa or area density (AD) <11 g cm−2 were about four times less likely to leak. Conclusions: On average, the low-modulus gloves were a better choice for protection against aqueous chemical or biological penetration. The observed variability between glove products indicated that glove selection cannot rely solely on glove type or manufacturer labeling. Measures of modulus and AD may aid in the selection process, in contrast with common measures of tensile strength and elongation at break. PMID:22201179

  11. Halosulfuron reduced purple netsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  12. Halosulfuron reduced purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) tuber production and viability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weeds persist and cause economic losses in agricultural systems because they exploit an underutilized portion of that system. Reducing the impact of weeds on agroecosystems begins with minimizing the number of propagules (e.g, seeds and tubers) that are produced and returned to the soil. Purple nu...

  13. Computer-Supported Study Strategies for Purple People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenny, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Describes how the computer can support the study process of students variously described as "multivariate, nonlinear thinkers,""dyslexic,""learning disabled," and "purple people." Describes features of a Macintosh program called "Inspiration" that enables easy test entry and manipulation in a graphic mode, placing emphasis on the considerable…

  14. [Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics of Endosulfan in Purple Soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Zheng, Guo-can; Zhu, Heng; Zhang, Jin-zhong; Zhu, Xiu-ying; Hu, Shu-chun; Wu, Ya-lin

    2015-09-01

    In order to reveal the residual process of endosulfan in purple soil and protect soil ecological environment, the adsorption and desorption characteristics of endosulfan in purple soil were investigated, and effects of temperature, adsorbent amount, and initial pH of adsorption solution on the adsorption capacity were also examined by static adsorption and desorption experiments. The results showed that the adsorption kinetic process could be well described by the second-order kinetic equation with the initial rate constants of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 157 and 0. 115 mg.(g.min)-1, respectively. The adsorption thermodynamic process could be well described by the Langmuir isotherm with the maximum adsorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan as 0. 257 mg . g -1 and 0. 155 mg . g -1, respectively. The adsorption process of endosulfan in purple soil may be an exothermic physicochemical process, and is dominated by physical adsorption. Under the experimental conditions examined in this study, the initial pH of adsorption solution had a relative great influence on the adsorption capacity, whereas the temperature and adsorbent amount had no significant influence. The desorption experiments found that the maximum desorption capacities of α-, β-endosulfan adsorbed in purple soil were 0. 029 mg . g -1 and 0. 017 mg . g -1 at 6 and 4 h, and accounted for 10. 5% and 16. 1% in the maximum adsorption capacities, respectively. PMID:26717711

  15. Alice Walker's Politics or the Politics of "The Color Purple."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Cynthia

    1988-01-01

    Alice Walker's "The Color Purple" portrays Black women's oppression as the result of patriarchy, and proposes the acceptance of middle-class values--home ownership and entrepreneurship--as the solution to exploitation. She relies on stereotypes to characterize Black men and women, and depicts an ideology of submission. (BJV)

  16. Susceptibility of Different Potato Cultivars to Purple Top Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, Columbia Basin potato growers in Washington and Oregon began to experience serious outbreaks of potato purple top disease that have caused significant yield losses and reductions in tuber quality. It was determined that the beet leafhopper-transmitted virescence agent (BLTVA) phytoplasma is...

  17. Permeability of different types of medical protective gloves to acrylic monomers.

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Wellendorf, Hanne; Ruyter, Eystein

    2003-10-01

    Dental personnel and orthopedic surgeons are at risk when manually handling products containing methyl methacrylate (MMA). Dental products may also contain cross-linking agents such as ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) or 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA). Skin contact with monomers can cause hand eczema, and the protection given by gloves manufactured from different types of material is not well known. The aim of this study was to determine the breakthrough time (BTT, min) as a measure of protection (according to the EU standard EN-374-3) for a mixture consisting of MMA, EGDMA and 1,4-BDMA. Fifteen different gloves representing natural rubber latex material, synthetic rubber material (e.g. nitrile rubbers), and synthetic polymer material were tested. The smallest monomer MMA permeated within 3 min through all glove materials. A polyethylene examination glove provided the longest protection period to EGDMA and 1, 4-BDMA (> 120 min and 25.0 min), followed by the surgical glove Tactylon (6.0 min and 8.7 min) and the nitrile glove Nitra Touch (5.0 min and 8.7 min). This study showed that the breakthrough time (based on permeation rate) cannot be regarded as a 'safe limit'. When the permeation rate is low, monomers may have permeated before BTT can be determined. Using double gloves with a synthetic rubber inner glove and a natural rubber outer glove provided longer protection when the inner glove was rinsed in water before placing the outer glove on top. PMID:12974690

  18. Surface pH controls purple-to-blue transition of bacteriorhodopsin. A theoretical model of purple membrane surface.

    PubMed Central

    Szundi, I; Stoeckenius, W

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a surface model of purple membrane and applied it in an analysis of the purple-to-blue color change of bacteriorhodopsin which is induced by acidification or deionization. The model is based on dissociation and double layer theory and the known membrane structure. We calculated surface pH, ion concentrations, charge density, and potential as a function of bulk pH and concentration of mono- and divalent cations. At low salt concentrations, the surface pH is significantly lower than the bulk pH and it becomes independent of bulk pH in the deionized membrane suspension. Using an experimental acid titration curve for neutral, lipid-depleted membrane, we converted surface pH into absorption values. The calculated bacteriohodopsin color changes for acidification of purple, and titrations of deionized blue membrane with cations or base agree well with experimental results. No chemical binding is required to reproduce the experimental curves. Surface charge and potential changes in acid, base and cation titrations are calculated and their relation to the color change is discussed. Consistent with structural data, 10 primary phosphate and two basic surface groups per bacteriorhodopsin are sufficient to obtain good agreement between all calculated and experimental curves. The results provide a theoretical basis for our earlier conclusion that the purple-to-blue transition must be attributed to surface phenomena and not to cation binding at specific sites in the protein. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:2775832

  19. Selection and testing of a glove combination for use with the U. S. Coast Guard's chemical response suit

    SciTech Connect

    Stull, J.O.; Herring, B. )

    1990-07-01

    A study was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard to select a glove system for its chemical response suit that could meet or exceed the chemical resistance performance of the suit's base material. Three different protective glove combinations were evaluated for their permeation resistance to 28 chemicals. The glove combinations were based on three materials--Viton, butyl rubber, and Silvershield. The test chemicals were selected for one of two reasons. First, no single glove material could be identified to be resistant against the chemical of interest, or second, no permeation test data were available for judging glove material performance for the specific chemical. As can be expected, the permeation resistance of the glove combinations greatly exceeded that of the single glove material components. The butyl rubber/Silvershield glove combination was found to provide permeation resistance greater than 1 hr for all but one of the chemicals tested.

  20. Selection and testing of a glove combination for use with the U.S. Coast Guard's chemical response suit.

    PubMed

    Stull, J O; Herring, B

    1990-07-01

    A study was sponsored by the U.S. Coast Guard to select a glove system for its chemical response suit that could meet or exceed the chemical resistance performance of the suit's base material. Three different protective glove combinations were evaluated for their permeation resistance to 28 chemicals. The glove combinations were based on three materials--Viton, butyl rubber, and Silvershield. The test chemicals were selected for one of two reasons. First, no single glove material could be identified to be resistant against the chemical of interest, or second, no permeation test data were available for judging glove material performance for the specific chemical. As can be expected, the permeation resistance of the glove combinations greatly exceeded that of the single glove material components. The butyl rubber/Silvershield glove combination was found to provide permeation resistance greater than 1 hr for all but one of the chemicals tested. PMID:2382640

  1. Innovative Technology For Testing Of Protective Gloves Specific Performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Păun, Florin Adrian; Părăian, Mihaela; Jurca, Adrian; Lupu, Leonard; Berzan, Muntean Florina

    2015-07-01

    Presence of hazards along carrying on the work tasks by operators require making use of personal protective equipment, adequate from ensuring protection standpoint. Protecting workers against hazards implies the personal protective equipment to fulfill certain constructional and safety requirements which are very important for the level of protection that should be ensured. This paperwork aims at identifying the constructional and safety requirements for hand protection equipment, as well as the applicable test methods whose results would allow their farther characterization regarding the protection ensured. Innovative solutions are presented, regarding the test stand for determining the blade cut resistance of protective gloves.

  2. Use of Magnetorheological fluid in a force feedback glove.

    PubMed

    Winter, Scott H; Bouzit, Mourad

    2007-03-01

    Magnetorheological fluid (MRF) is a smart material that has the property of changing its viscosity when exposed to a magnetic field. By placing this fluid into a sealed cylinder with an electromagnet piston as a core, a controllable resistance motion dampener can be created. A novel exoskeleton mechanical power transmission system was designed, utilizing rapid prototype parts, to transmit these resistive forces to the user's fingertips. A first iteration force feedback glove was developed and tested on human subjects for overall usability. The eventual goal of the system is to provide an alternative force producing system for exercises and rehabilitation. The entire system is lightweight, low power, and easily portable. PMID:17436869

  3. COMPUTER MODEL AND SIMULATION OF A GLOVE BOX PROCESS

    SciTech Connect

    C. FOSTER; ET AL

    2001-01-01

    The development of facilities to deal with the disposition of nuclear materials at an acceptable level of Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) is a significant issue facing the nuclear community. One solution is to minimize the worker's exposure though the use of automated systems. However, the adoption of automated systems for these tasks is hampered by the challenging requirements that these systems must meet in order to be cost effective solutions in the hazardous nuclear materials processing environment. Retrofitting current glove box technologies with automation systems represents potential near-term technology that can be applied to reduce worker ORE associated with work in nuclear materials processing facilities. Successful deployment of automation systems for these applications requires the development of testing and deployment strategies to ensure the highest level of safety and effectiveness. Historically, safety tests are conducted with glove box mock-ups around the finished design. This late detection of problems leads to expensive redesigns and costly deployment delays. With wide spread availability of computers and cost effective simulation software it is possible to discover and fix problems early in the design stages. Computer simulators can easily create a complete model of the system allowing a safe medium for testing potential failures and design shortcomings. The majority of design specification is now done on computer and moving that information to a model is relatively straightforward. With a complete model and results from a Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA), redesigns can be worked early. Additional issues such as user accessibility, component replacement, and alignment problems can be tackled early in the virtual environment provided by computer simulation. In this case, a commercial simulation package is used to simulate a lathe process operation at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The Lathe process operation is indicative of

  4. Identifying Virtual 3D Geometric Shapes with a Vibrotactile Glove.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Jonatan; García, Arturo; Oliver, Miguel; Molina, José Pascual; González, Pascual

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of off-screen interaction devices is bringing the field of virtual reality to a broad range of applications where virtual objects can be manipulated without the use of traditional peripherals. However, to facilitate object interaction, other stimuli such as haptic feedback are necessary to improve the user experience. To enable the identification of virtual 3D objects without visual feedback, a haptic display based on a vibrotactile glove and multiple points of contact gives users an enhanced sensation of touching a virtual object with their hands. Experimental results demonstrate the capacity of this technology in practical applications. PMID:25137722

  5. Thermal Analysis of a Metallic Wing Glove for a Mach-8 Boundary-Layer Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gong, Leslie; Richards, W. Lance

    1998-01-01

    A metallic 'glove' structure has been built and attached to the wing of the Pegasus(trademark) space booster. An experiment on the upper surface of the glove has been designed to help validate boundary-layer stability codes in a free-flight environment. Three-dimensional thermal analyses have been performed to ensure that the glove structure design would be within allowable temperature limits in the experiment test section of the upper skin of the glove. Temperature results obtained from the design-case analysis show a peak temperature at the leading edge of 490 F. For the upper surface of the glove, approximately 3 in. back from the leading edge, temperature calculations indicate transition occurs at approximately 45 sec into the flight profile. A worst-case heating analysis has also been performed to ensure that the glove structure would not have any detrimental effects on the primary objective of the Pegasus a launch. A peak temperature of 805 F has been calculated on the leading edge of the glove structure. The temperatures predicted from the design case are well within the temperature limits of the glove structure, and the worst-case heating analysis temperature results are acceptable for the mission objectives.

  6. Material selection for highly mobile space suit gloves based on fabric mechanical properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Peterson, Steven W.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses the factors that control the flexibility of fabric space suit elements by examining a bending model of a pressurized fabric tube. Results from the model are used to evaluate the current direction in highly mobile EVA glove research and suggest that changes are necessary in the glove fabric selection methodology.

  7. 21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's....4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove is a powder made from corn starch that meets the specifications for...

  8. 21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's....4480 Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. (a) Identification. Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove is a powder made from corn starch that meets the specifications for...

  9. The Influence of Glove Type on Simulated Wheelchair Racing Propulsion: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Rice, I; Dysterheft, J; Bleakney, A W; Cooper, R A

    2016-01-01

    Our purpose was to examine the influence of glove type on kinetic and spatiotemporal parameters at the handrim in elite wheelchair racers. Elite wheelchair racers (n=9) propelled on a dynamometer in their own racing chairs with a force and moment sensing wheel attached. Racers propelled at 3 steady state speeds (5.36, 6.26 & 7.60 m/s) and performed one maximal effort sprint with 2 different glove types (soft & solid). Peak resultant force, peak torque, impulse, contact angle, braking torque, push time, velocity, and stroke frequency were recorded for steady state and sprint conditions. Multiple nonparametric Wilcoxon matched pair's tests were used to detect differences between glove types, while effect sizes were calculated based on Cohen's d. During steady state trials, racers propelled faster, using more strokes and larger contact angle, while applying less impulse with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. During the sprint condition, racers achieved greater top end velocities, applying larger peak force, with less braking torque with solid gloves compared to soft gloves. Use of solid gloves may provide some performance benefits to wheelchair racers during steady state and top end velocity conditions. PMID:26509373

  10. The NASA Glove: A Hands-on Design Experience for Engineering Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, F. X., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the American Society of Engineering Education (ASEE) launched a team competition to design a space glove. Discusses space glove specifications, the competition and competitors, team characteristics/membership, the judging process (with Kansas State University the winner), and lessons for…

  11. Safety in the Chemical Laboratory: Selecting Chemical Protective Gloves Properly in the Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the selection of gloves for the chemistry laboratory. Provides checklists for the purposes of the gloves, and the factors including permeation rate, breakthrough time, friction, and cost. Lists eight rules for preventing skin exposure and minimizing area contamination. Lists six references. (YP)

  12. Dismantling of alpha contaminated obsolete installations and glove boxes on the IRMM site in Geel (Belgium)

    SciTech Connect

    Cretskens, Pieter; Lenie, Koen; Melis, Gustaaf

    2007-07-01

    At the Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (European commission, Joint Research Centre, IRMM) a dismantling campaign of obsolete installations and glove boxes has been carried out in 2005. There were various reasons for their removal. Some large installations did not meet modern safety standards, other installations were worn out and expected to cause a radioactive contamination risk in the future. The main goal was to create as less waste as possible by extensive contamination checks and by decontamination if necessary. For the glove boxes, decontamination was not possible. A controlled area was set up around the installation to be dismantled in order to prevent spreading of contamination from dust and dirt. This was only possible for the 'minor' contaminated installations. The dismantling campaign of the glove boxes was carried out by using tents of two types depending the contamination inside the glove boxes. The most common glove boxes were dismantled in a tent constructed with hard surfaced polycarbonate plates (ventilated cell). For glove boxes with higher contamination, the same principle was used but with a second 'glove box tent' inside (ventilated glove tent). The purpose of this project was to learn from the experience of this campaign which gave the ability to make estimates of future radioactive waste or classic waste that could be expected from dismantled installations. (authors)

  13. Permeation of herbicidal dichlobenil from a Casoron formulation through nitrile gloves.

    PubMed

    Que Hee, Shane S; Zainal, Hanaa

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure permeation of the herbicide dichlobenil in Casoron 4G through disposable and chemically protective nitrile gloves using an American Society for Testing and Materials-type permeation cell and a closed-loop system employing two different solvents (hexane and water) and two different challenge situations (aqueous emulsion and solid formulation). Capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for quantification purposes. The chemically protective glove did not allow any permeation up to 8 h for the solid-formulation and water-collection challenges, but permeation was detected in all other challenges. The disposable glove allowed the most permeation, and the solid-formulation challenge with water collection necessitated that a dichlobenil equivalent be calculated because of the presence of its hydrolysis degradation product 2,6-dichlorobenzamide. Permeation from the solid formulation was detectable by hexane collection for both the disposable and chemically protective gloves and by water collection for the disposable glove. It was concluded that hexane-solvent collection was not valid for the disposable glove at 4 and 8 h of permeation in the solid Casoron challenge or for the aqueous emulsion challenge at 8 h relative to the water-collection solvent data. The hexane-solvent collection for the chemically protective glove was valid for the 8-h solid-formulation challenge but not for the 8-h aqueous-solution challenge. All water-solvent collections were valid; however, dichlobenil usually permeated the gloves. PMID:19855916

  14. The effect of glove contamination on the bond strength of resin to enamel.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Brian J; Pollock, Adam; Weddell, James A; Moore, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Over the past twenty years infection control protocol has evolved and use of gloves is now mandatory. Practitioners have become aware of potential interactions between the latex gloves and many of the dental material used as well as the potential for contamination from the gloves. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength of bonded restorations to enamel of uncontaminated and contaminated resin adhesive with powder free and powdered latex gloves. The results of the study demonstrated that the resin bonding agent that was in contact with either powdered or non- powdered latex gloves did not have a significant effect on the shear bond strength of the bonded restoration. PMID:15366624

  15. Preliminary Assessment of Ergonomic Injury Risk Factors in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Spacesuit Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amick, Ryan Z.; Reid, Christopher R.; Vu, Linh Q.; Nguyen, Dan; Sweet, Robert; McFarland, Shane; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to the hands and fingers are commonly reported among astronauts who perform and train for Extravehicular Activities in the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Spacesuit. In an effort to better understand the physical and environmental ergonomic injury risk factors associated with spacesuit glove use, a custom built carrier glove with multiple integrated sensors was developed to be worn within the spacesuit glove with the purpose of measuring the physical and environmental variables acting on the fingers and hand, and the physiological response, within two pressurized glove conditions in a 1G laboratory setting. One male subject performed multiple dynamic and functional tasks in a pressurized EMU. Results indicate that the sensor glove is capable of measuring multiple physical and environmental variables associated with the development of finger and hand injuries observed in astronauts.

  16. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis

  17. The Potential of Wearable Sensor Technology for EVA Glove Ergonomic Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.; Norcross, Jason R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2014-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). Many of these injuries refer to the gloves worn during EVA as the root cause. While pressurized, the bladder and outer material of these gloves restrict movement and create pressure points while performing tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally a more severe injury, onycholysis (fingernail delamination). The most common injury causes are glove contact (pressure point/rubbing), ill-fitting gloves, and/or performing EVA tasks in pressurized gloves. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals over 57% of the total injuries to the upper extremities during EVA training occurred either to the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint, fingernail, or the fingertip. Twenty-five of these injuries resulted in a diagnosis of onycholysis.

  18. Application of Spacesuit Glove Requirements Tools to Athletic and Personal Protective Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Melsoh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    Despite decades of ongoing improvement, astronauts must still struggle with inhibited dexterity and accelerated fatigue due to the requirement of wearing a pressurized Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) glove. Recent research in the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility at NASA's Johnson Space Center has focused on developing requirements for improvements in the design of the next generation of EVA glove. In the course of this research, it was decided to expand the scope of the testing to include a variety of commercially available athletic and consumer gloves to help provide a more recognizable comparison for investigators and designers to evaluate the current state of EVA glove mobility and strength. This comparison is being provided with the hope that innovative methods may help commercial development of gloves for various athletic and personal protective endeavors.

  19. Decontamination, Dismantling and Refurbishing of the PETRA Glove Box at the Tritium Laboratory, Karlsruhe

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.; Glugla, M.; Doerr, L.; Berndt, U.

    2005-07-15

    The PETRA facility at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) has finished its useful life and the glove box and auxiliary systems are being refurbished. During the lifetime of PETRA the glove box became contaminated with a small amount of tritium but the source has not been positively identified. Removing large redundant components would be hazardous as this would require removing the glove box panels and thus exposing the inner surfaces to moist air which would release tritium. Over several months defined amounts of water have been introduced into the glove box daily which has liberated significant quantities of tritium which has subsequently been absorbed by the in-built tritium retention system. This technique has slowly reduced the tritium liberated at each step. The large components, such as a getter bed, catalyst bed and a permeator, have been detritiated as far as possible in-situ in readiness for disposal once it is safe to remove them from the glove box.

  20. In vivo testing of the protective efficacy of gloves against allergen-containing products using an open chamber system.

    PubMed

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M

    1999-11-01

    In vitro degradation and permeation testing of glove materials is important in the assessment of the protective efficacy against chemicals. In vivo factors, such as skin-glove contact, skin temperature and humidity may, however, influence the protective effect of the glove. These factors must thus be considered in the overall assessment of a protective glove. An in vivo glove test should as far as possible imitate the practical use of the glove, as well as the exposure to the product/chemical against which the glove should protect. An open chamber system for human in vivo glove testing is presented. This system enables simultaneous testing of 6-8 gloves with 3 provocation times for each glove. Positive controls (no glove) can be included. As a control of the subject's present reactivity to the chemical of interest, conventional patch testing with a dilution series can be performed in parallel. The method is easy to use and convenient for the patient. It promises to be a useful clinical tool in individual preventive measures against contact allergy. The method can be used in glove testing against many hazardous chemicals, both contact allergens and toxic/irritant compounds in workplaces such as the plastics industry and the chemical industry. PMID:10554059

  1. Computational Analysis of the G-III Laminar Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malik, Mujeeb R.; Liao, Wei; Lee-Rausch, Elizabeth M.; Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Chang, Chau-Lyan

    2011-01-01

    Under NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project, flight experiments are planned with the primary objective of demonstrating the Discrete Roughness Elements (DRE) technology for passive laminar flow control at chord Reynolds numbers relevant to transport aircraft. In this paper, we present a preliminary computational assessment of the Gulfstream-III (G-III) aircraft wing-glove designed to attain natural laminar flow for the leading-edge sweep angle of 34.6deg. Analysis for a flight Mach number of 0.75 shows that it should be possible to achieve natural laminar flow for twice the transition Reynolds number ever achieved at this sweep angle. However, the wing-glove needs to be redesigned to effectively demonstrate passive laminar flow control using DREs. As a by-product of the computational assessment, effect of surface curvature on stationary crossflow disturbances is found to be strongly stabilizing for the current design, and it is suggested that convex surface curvature could be used as a control parameter for natural laminar flow design, provided transition occurs via stationary crossflow disturbances.

  2. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charvat, Chacqueline M.; Norcross, Jason; Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only. The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA glove middle finger length.

  3. Dexterity tests data contribute to reduction in leaded glovebox gloves use

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Lawton, Cindy M; Castro, Amanda M

    2008-01-01

    Programmatic operations at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility (TA-55) involve working with various amounts of plutonium and other highly toxic, alphaemitting materials. The spread of radiological contamination on surfaces and airborne contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes. Through an integrated approach, controls have been developed and implemented through an efficient Glovebox Glove Integrity Program (GGJP). A key element of this program is to consider measures that lower the overall risk of glovebox operations. Line management owning glovebox processes through this program make decisions on which type of glovebox gloves (the weakest component of this safety significant system) would perform in these aggressive environments. As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) considerations must be balanced with glove durability and worker dexterity, both of which affect the final overall risk of the operation. In the past, lead-loaded (leaded) glovebox gloves made from Hypalon(reg.) had been the workhorse of programmatic operations at TA-55. Replacing leaded gloves with unleaded gloves for certain operations would lower the overall risk as well as reduced the amount of mixed TRU waste. This effort contributes to Los Alamos National Laboratory Continuous Improvement Program by improving the efficiency, cost effectiveness, and formality of glovebox operations. In the following report, the pros and cons of wearing leaded glovebox gloves, the effect of leaded gloves versus unleaded gloves on task performance using standard dexterity tests, the justification for switching from leaded to unleaded gloves, and pollution prevention benefits of this dramatic change in the glovebox system are presented.

  4. Spacesuit Glove-Induced Hand Trauma and Analysis of Potentially Related Risk Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFarland, Shane M.; Reid, Christopher R.; Norcross, Jason; Charvat, Jacqueline M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. Glove injuries, both anecdotal and recorded, have been reported during EVA training and flight persistently through NASA's history regardless of mission or glove model. Theories as to causation such as glove-hand fit are common but often lacking in supporting evidence. Previous statistical analysis has evaluated onycholysis in the context of crew anthropometry only (Opperman et al 2010). The purpose of this study was to analyze all injuries (as documented in the medical records) and available risk factor variables with the goal to determine engineering and operational controls that may reduce hand injuries due to the EVA glove in the future. A literature review and data mining study were conducted between 2012 and 2014. This study included 179 US NASA crew who trained or completed an EVA between 1981 and 2010 (crossing both Shuttle and ISS eras) and wore either the 4000 Series or Phase VI glove during Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) spacesuit EVA training and flight. All injuries recorded in medical records were analyzed in their association to candidate risk factor variables. Those risk factor variables included demographic characteristics, hand anthropometry, glove fit characteristics, and training/EVA characteristics. Utilizing literature, medical records and anecdotal causation comments recorded in crewmember injury data, investigators were able to identify several risk factors associated with increased risk of glove related injuries. Prime among them were smaller hand anthropometry, duration of individual suited exposures, and improper glove-hand fit as calculated by the difference in the anthropometry middle finger length compared to the baseline EVA

  5. Understanding factors that influence protective glove use among automotive spray painters.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Diana; Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Glazer, Patricia; Murphy-Robinson, Helen; Yost, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Dermal contact with isocyanate-based coatings may lead to systemic respiratory sensitization. The most common isocyanates found in sprayed automotive coatings are monomeric and oligomeric 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI). Most spray painters use thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves that are not effective at preventing dermal exposures when spraying isocyanate paints. Personal interviews with collision repair industry personnel and focus groups with spray painters were held to characterize risk awareness, to examine perceptions and challenges concerning protective glove use and selection, and to generate ideas for protective glove use interventions. The most popular gloves among spray painters were thin (4-5 mil) and thick (14 mil) latex. We found that medium to thick (6-8 mil) nitrile were not always perceived as comfortable and were expected to be more expensive than thin (4-5 mil) latex gloves. Of concern is the user's difficulty in distinguishing between nitrile and latex gloves; latex gloves are now sold in different colors including blue, which has traditionally been associated with nitrile gloves. Even though spray painters were familiar with the health hazards related to working with isocyanate paints, most were not always aware that dermal exposure to isocyanates could contribute to the development of occupational asthma. There is a need for more research to identify dermal materials that are protective against sprayed automotive coatings. Automotive spray painters and their employers need to be educated in the selection and use of protective gloves, specifically on attributes such as glove material, color, and thickness. PMID:24215135

  6. Using the Space Glove to Teach Spatial Thinking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The challenge of extending students' skills in spatial thinking to astronomical scales was the central focus of our K-8 curriculum development. When the project's lead teacher requested a curriculum that cumulatively built on each prior year's learning in a spiral fashion, I knew exactly what the school was asking for. Second and third graders began by noticing the cyclical patters that the sun, moon, and stars make in the sky. Fourth graders explored the phases of the moon by taking turns modeling and sketching them in their classroom and then comparing them to the real sky. Sixth !graders used real telescopes to observe a moving model of our solar system and walked a scale model of the planets' orbits. The curriculum is designed to expand students' capacity to visualize space in a hierarchical fashion that asks them to imagine themselves from a broader number of spatial perspectives through hands-on activities. The "situational awareness" Peter's story describes is a hallmark of high-performance engineering and innovation. Keeping in mind the potential outcomes of multiple paths of pursuit from multiple perspectives while keeping track of their relative merits and performance requirements is a demanding spatial task. What made it possible for Peter to transform the failure of his first glove into triumph was the mental space in which that failure provided exactly the information needed for a new breakthrough. In at least two cases, Peter could immediately "see" the full implications of what his hands were telling him. He tells the story of how putting his hands in a Phase VI astronaut glove instantly transformed his understanding of the glove challenge. Six months into his development, the failure of circumferentially wrapped cords to produce a sufficiently flexible glove again forced him to abandon his assumptions. His situational awareness was so clear and compelling it became a gut-level response. Peter's finely developed spatial skills enabled him to almost

  7. Use of Traditional and Novel Methods to Evaluate the Influence of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, Elizabeth A.; England, Scott A.; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; ajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The gloved hand is one of an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, and any restrictions imposed by the glove can strongly affect performance during extravehicular activity (EVA). Glove restrictions have been the subject of study for decades, yet previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Past studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength, and functional performance of the gloved hand; this provides only a circumspect analysis of the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The aim of this study was to develop novel capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed to compare unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) gloved conditions with the ungloved condition. A second series of evaluations were performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This series of tests provided interesting insight into how much of an effect the TMG has on gloved mobility - in some cases, the presence of the TMG restricted glove mobility as much as pressurization did. Previous hypotheses had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, but these results suggest that an improvement in the design of the TMG could have a significant impact on glove performance. Tactility testing illustrated the effect of glove pressurization, provided insight into the design of hardware that interfaces with the glove, and highlighted areas of concern. The metrics developed in this study served to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next-generation glove for the Constellation program.

  8. A Combination of Traditional and Novel Methods Used to Evaluate the Impact of an EVA Glove on Hand Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Benson, Elizabeth; England, Scott; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby

    2009-01-01

    The gloved hand is an astronaut s primary means of interacting with the environment, so performance on an EVA is strongly impacted by any restrictions imposed by the glove. As a result, these restrictions have been the subject of study for decades. However, previous studies have generally been unsuccessful in quantifying glove mobility and tactility. Instead, studies have tended to focus on the dexterity, strength and functional performance of the gloved hand. Therefore, it has been difficult to judge the impact of each type of restriction on the glove s overall capability. The lack of basic information on glove mobility in particular, is related to the difficulty in instrumenting a gloved hand to allow an accurate evaluation. However, the current study aims at developing novel technological capabilities to provide metrics for mobility and tactility that can be used to assess the performance of a glove in a way that could enable designers and engineers to improve upon their current designs. A series of evaluations were performed in ungloved, unpressurized and pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions, to allow a comparison across pressures and to the baseline barehanded condition. In addition, a subset of the testing was also performed with the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) removed. This test case in particular provided some interesting insight into how much of an impact the TMG has on gloved mobility -- in some cases, as much as pressurization of the glove. Previous rule-of-thumb estimates had assumed that the TMG would have a much lower impact on mobility, while these results suggest that an improvement in the TMG could actually have a significant impact on glove performance. Similarly, tactility testing illustrated the impact of glove pressurization on tactility and provided insight on the design of interfaces to the glove. The metrics described in this paper have been used to benchmark the Phase VI EVA glove and to develop requirements for the next generation

  9. [Consensus Document. Update on latex exposure and use of gloves in Italian health care settings].

    PubMed

    Crippa, Michela; Balbiani, Lara; Baruffini, Adriana; Belleri, L; Draicchio, F; Feltrin, G; Larese, Francesca; Maggio, G M; Marcer, G; Micheloni, G P; Montomoli, Loretta; Moscato, Gianna; Previdi, M; Sartorelli, P; Sossai, D; Spatari, Giovanna; Zanetti, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This consensus document was prepared by an Italian working group including occupational health professionals involved for many years in the management of glove- and latex-related problems in health care settings. The aim of this document was to address the most significant technical, epidemiological, clinical, environmental and prevention problems related to the use of gloves and latex. The group's recommendations are based on scientific evidence and practical experience but they cannot be considered as final. These topics need to be periodically revised. The following points should be taken into account: glove quality seems to have improved considerably but the information on glove features provided by the manufacturers is often still inaccurate or incomplete; the regulations in force provide that the manufacturers perform tests to supply evidence for the quality of the products but they do not indicate which analytical method should be used and they do not require that the results be reported in the technical data sheets. Thus the manufacturers have only to declare that their products are "in accordance with the rules"; therefore, purchasers should require the manufacturing companies to supply detailed information and verify their reliability. Moreover, the rules should be adapted to higher quality standards; occupational physicians must be involved for the correct choice and purchase of protective gloves; the use of gloves (in particular latex gloves) and latex devices in health care settings should be based on specific criteria: procedures must be available stating which kind of gloves are suitable for specific tasks. When exposure to latex cannot be avoided it is necessary to choose products that have good biocompatibility (e.g., powder free-gloves with low allergen content); once and for all latex powdered gloves should no longer be commercially available! labels for latex devices (including gloves) should report the extractable latex allergen content. Limit

  10. Suppression of Surgeons' Bacterial Hand Flora during Surgical Procedures with a New Antimicrobial Surgical Glove

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Axel; Ouriel, Kenneth; Suchomel, Miranda; McLaws, Mary-Louise; Rottman, Martin; Leaper, David; Assadian, Afshin

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Perforations of surgical gloves are common and increase with the duration of glove wear. Skin flora, re-grown after pre-operative disinfection of the hands, may contaminate a surgical site. An antimicrobial surgical glove with chlorhexidine on its inner surface has been developed. We hypothesized that by suppressing the re-growth of skin flora during the complete course of a surgical procedure, antimicrobial gloves may reduce the risk of surgical site contamination in the event of an intra-operative glove breach. Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, single-center trial, to measure any differences in the bacterial skin populations of surgeons' hands during surgical procedures done with antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial surgical gloves [ISRCTN71391952]. In this study, 25 pairs of gloves were retrieved from 14 surgeons who donned them randomly on their dominant or non-dominant hand. The number of bacteria retrieved from glove fluid was measured and expressed as colony forming units (CFU)/mL. Results: The median cfu/mL of antimicrobial gloves was 0.00 (LQ: 0.00 CFU/mL; UQ: 0.00 cfu/mL), with a mean log10 cfu/mL=0.02 (range: 0.00–0.30). The median CFU/mL of non-antimicrobial gloves was 54.00 (LQ: 3.00 cfu/mL; UQ: 100.00 cfu/mL) with a mean log10 CFU/mL=1.32 (range: 0.00–2.39). After a mean operating time of 112 min, the difference in the log10 CFU/mL was 1.30 (p<0.001). Conclusions: A new antimicrobial surgical glove suppressed surgeons' hand flora during operative procedures. In the event of a glove breach, the use of such a glove may have the potential to prevent bacterial contamination of a sterile surgical site, thereby decreasing the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) and increasing patient safety. Further clinical studies are needed to confirm this concept. PMID:24116857

  11. Effect of puncture resistant surgical gloves, finger guards, and glove liners on cutaneous sensibility and surgical psychomotor skills.

    PubMed

    Woods, J A; Leslie, L F; Drake, D B; Edlich, R F

    1996-01-01

    New puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems have been developed to enhance the barrier to cuts and needle puncture injuries during surgical procedures. It is important, however, that these new hand protection systems do not reduce tactile sensitivity or dexterity during surgery. Consequently, it was the purpose of this report to compare the cutaneous sensibility and dexterity of physicians' hands covered by these new puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems to that of the standard surgical latex glove. The hide (Medak) portion of the Life Liner and the polyethylene (Spectra) portion of the FingGuard, which offered the greatest resistance to needle puncture, were associated with the greatest reduction in cutaneous sensibility, as determined by moving and static two-point discrimination, aesthesiometer pressure sensation, and discrimination of suture size and configuration. In addition, the physicians believed that the puncture and cut resistant Life Liner glove liner markedly interfered with their handling of surgical instruments. The ultimate benefit of these puncture and cut resistant hand protection systems must be determined in well-controlled clinical trials. PMID:8734074

  12. Anticlastogenicity and Anticarcinogenicity of Purple Rice Extract in Rats.

    PubMed

    Punvittayagul, Charatda; Sankam, Paweena; Taya, Sirinya; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan

    2016-01-01

    Oryza sativa L. var. indica cv. Kum Doi Saket is a pigmented rice variety grown in northern Thailand. Our previous study found that the methanol extract of purple rice seed had the highest level of antimutagenicity in a Salmonella mutation assay. The present study was designed to evaluate its in vivo anticlastogenic and anticarcinogenic potentials. The purple rice extract had no acute toxicity on rats. The oral administration of 1,000 mg/kg body weight (bw) of the extract for 28 days did not increase the number of micronucleated hepatocytes. Interestingly, it significantly reduced the amount of micronucleus formation in the liver of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-treated rats. The inhibitory mechanism involved the induction of hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. In addition, oral administration of 500 mg/kg bw extract for 10 weeks significantly decreased the number of hepatic GST placental form positive foci, but did not modulate the number of colonic aberrant crypt foci in DEN- and dimethylhydrazine-initiated rats. In conclusion, the methanol extract of purple rice seed showed no toxicity, clastogenicity, or carcinogenicity in laboratory rats. It did display chemopreventive activity against the early stages of rat hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:27115481

  13. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic analysis on a business jet with a wing glove attached to one wing is presented and discussed. If a wing glove is placed over a portion of one wing, there will be asymmetries in the aircraft as well as overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to make sure the wing glove does not have a drastic effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR, a non-linear full potential solver was used to analyze a full aircraft, with and without a glove, at a variety of flight conditions and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag and side force, along with roll, pitch and yawing moment are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove and its fairing are discussed. Results show that the glove used here does not present a drastic change in forces and moments on the aircraft, but an added torsional moment around the quarter-chord of the wing may be a cause for some structural concerns.

  14. Analysis of Asymmetric Aircraft Aerodynamics Due to an Experimental Wing Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartshorn, Fletcher

    2011-01-01

    Aerodynamic computational fluid dynamics analysis of a wing glove attached to one wing of a business jet is presented and discussed. A wing glove placed on only one wing will produce asymmetric aerodynamic effects that will result in overall changes in the forces and moments acting on the aircraft. These changes, referred to as deltas, need to be determined and quantified to ensure that the wing glove does not have a significant effect on the aircraft flight characteristics. TRANAIR (Calmar Research Corporation, Cato, New York), a nonlinear full potential solver, and Star-CCM+ (CD-adapco, Melville, New York), a finite volume full Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics solver, are used to analyze a full aircraft with and without the glove at a variety of flight conditions, aircraft configurations, and angles of attack and sideslip. Changes in the aircraft lift, drag, and side force along with roll, pitch, and yaw are presented. Span lift and moment distributions are also presented for a more detailed look at the effects of the glove on the aircraft. Aerodynamic flow phenomena due to the addition of the glove are discussed. Results show that the glove produces only small changes in the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the aircraft, most of which are insignificant.

  15. Delayed contact hypersensitivity and surgical glove penetration with acrylic bone cements.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J S; Trap, B; Skydsgaard, K

    1991-02-01

    Skin hypersensitivity was investigated in guinea-pig maximization tests with extracts from pellets of conventional polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements (Palacos R, Simplex RO) and a new methylmethacrylate/n-decylmethacrylate/isobornylmethacrylate (MMA/DMA/IBMA) mixture (Boneloc), but none of the three cements produced evidence of delayed contact hypersensitivity. Testings of the pure monomer compounds showed MMA to be an extreme sensitizer, whereas DMA and IBMA were only mild sensitizers. Fingers from three brands of surgical rubber gloves and a polystyrene-butadiene glove were immersed in water and filled with conventional MMA monomer, MMA/DMA/IBMA monomer or bone cements in the dough state, allowing cure inside the glove. In the surrounding water, no DMA or IBMA could be detected. The MMA concentrations were lower with MMA/DMA/IBMA monomer and curing Boneloc cement. The most resistant to conventional PMMA cement was one of the rubber gloves, whereas the polystyrene-butadiene glove allowed the highest penetration, and even dissolved in MMA monomer. The potential occupational hazard of skin sensitization is reduced with MMA/DMA/IBMA bone cement, preferably in combination with rubber gloves; but also polystyrene-butadiene gloves provide adequate protection. PMID:2003382

  16. In-use testing and interpretation of chemical-resistant glove performance.

    PubMed

    Boeniger, Mark F; Klingner, Thomas D

    2002-05-01

    Issuing gloves to workers is the most common approach to protecting against skin contact with hazardous chemicals. Typically, glove materials are selected and duration of wear is estimated based on comparisons of laboratory test data. Those who select the glove materials often fail to verify their selections by testing the glove during actual use. This failure poses a common but potentially serious hazard to workers. Although methods are available for assessing permeation rates during actual use, such testing is unlikely without acceptable exposure guidance criteria for decision making. This document reviews methods for testing glove performance during actual use and suggests an approach for estimating acceptable exposure guidance criteria for evaluation of chemicals that are systemically absorbed. It is the authors' opinion that as of now an approach to estimating exposure criteria for chemical irritants and sensitizers may not be feasible. With available data resources, acceptable glove exposure criteria could be generated for use in assessing the risk of using specific gloves for handling many compounds in occupational settings. PMID:12018401

  17. Comparison of positive pressure gloves on hand function in adults with burns.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly A; Weinstock-Zlotnick, Gwen; Hunter, Hope; Yurt, Roger W

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the impact of a standard, custom-made pressure glove vs The NewYork-Presbyterian Dexterity Glove (NYPDG) with silon application on the palmer surface on functional hand use of burn survivors. A standard, custom-made pressure glove and NYPDG were given to 18 participants in a randomized order. Subjects wore each glove for 7 to 10 days during all activities of daily living (ADL). Variables such as hand function, difficulty of fine and gross motor ADL, and participant glove preference were assessed with each glove condition. Data collection of the second glove took place 7 to 10 days later incorporating a quasiexperimental, repeated measure design. A crossover design was used to analyze the data. The NYPDG demonstrated significantly better results in all of the four outcome categories measured: time to complete the Jebsen, the Jebsen Likert scale, fine motor ADL, and gross motor ADL. This study demonstrated that functional tasks took less time to complete and were more easily performed when using the NYPDG. PMID:16679904

  18. Development of a test method for protective gloves against nanoparticles in conditions simulating occupational use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolez, Patricia; Vinches, Ludwig; Wilkinson, Kevin; Plamondon, Philippe; Vu-Khanh, Toan

    2011-07-01

    Nanoparticle manufacture and use are in full expansion. The associated risks of occupational exposure raise large concerns due to their potential toxicity. Even if they stand as a last resort in the traditional occupational Health & Safety (H&S) risk management strategy, personal protective equipment (PPE) against nanoparticles are an absolute need in the context of precautionary principle advocated by H&S organizations worldwide. However no standard test method is currently available for evaluating the efficiency of PPE against nanoparticles, in particular in the case of gloves. A project is thus underway to develop a test method for measuring nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves in conditions simulating glove-nanoparticle occupational interaction. The test setup includes an exposure and a sampling chamber separated by a circular glove sample. A system of cylinders is used to deform the sample while it is exposed to nanoparticles. The whole system is enclosed in a glove box to ensure the operator safety during assembly, dismounting and clean-up operations as well as during the tests. Appropriate nanoparticle detection techniques were also identified. Results are reported here for commercial 15nm TiO2 nanoparticles - powder and colloidal solutions in 1,2-propanediol, ethylene glycol and water - and four types of protective gloves: disposable nitrile and latex as well as unsupported neoprene and butyl rubber gloves. They show that mechanical deformations and contact with colloidal solution liquid carriers may affect glove materials. Preliminary results obtained with TiO2 powder indicate a possible penetration of nanoparticles through gloves following mechanical deformations.

  19. In-Situ Leak Testing And Replacement Of Glovebox Isolator, Or Containment Unit Gloves

    DOEpatents

    Castro, Julio M.; Macdonald, John M.; Steckle, Jr., Warren P.

    2004-11-02

    A test plug for in-situ testing a glove installed in a glovebox is provided that uses a top plate and a base plate, and a diametrically expandable sealing mechanism fitting between the two plates. The sealing mechanism engages the base plate to diametrically expand when the variable distance between the top plate and the bottom plate is reduced. An inlet valve included on the top plate is used to introducing a pressurized gas to the interior of the glove, and a pressure gauge located on the top plate is used to monitor the interior glove pressure.

  20. The development of a test methodology for the evaluation of EVA gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, John M.; Cleland, John; Winfield, Dan

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a standardized set of tests designed to assess EVA-gloved hand capabilities in six measurement domains: range of motion, strength, tactile perception, dexterity, fatigue, and comfort. Based upon an assessment of general human-hand functioning and EVA task requirements, several tests within each measurement domain were developed to provide a comprehensive evaluation. All tests were designed to be conducted in a glove box with the bare hand as a baseline and the EVA glove at operating pressure.

  1. Permeation of multifunctional acrylates through selected protective glove materials.

    PubMed

    Renard, E P; Goydan, R; Stolki, T

    1992-02-01

    In support of the Premanufacture Notification (PMN) program of the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Toxic Substances, the resistance of three glove materials to permeation by multifunctional acrylate compounds was evaluated through a program for the Office of Research and Development. Several recent PMN submissions relate to multifunctional acrylates and essentially no permeation data are available for this class of compounds. To better understand permeation behavior, tests were conducted with trimethylolpropane triacrylate (TMPTA), 1,6-hexanediol diacrylate (HDDA), and two mixtures of HDDA with 2-ethylhexyl acrylate (EHA). Because of the low vapor pressure and low water solubility of these compounds, the tests were conducted by using ASTM Method F739-85 with a silicone rubber sheeting material as the collection medium. Tests were performed at 20 degrees C with butyl, natural, and nitrile rubber glove materials. None of the acrylate compounds nor mixtures was found to permeate the butyl or nitrile rubber under the test conditions. Permeation through the natural rubber was observed in tests with pure HDDA, a 50% HDDA/50% EHA mixture, and a 25% HDDA/75% EHA mixture. TMPTA permeation through the natural rubber was also detected, but only in one of the triplicate tests after the 360-480 min sampling interval. For pure HDDA, the breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min and the steady-state permeation rate was 0.92 micrograms/cm2-min. For the HDDA/EHA mixtures, permeation of both mixture components was detected during the same sampling interval in each test. The breakthrough detection time was 30-60 min for the 50/50 mixture and from 15-30 to 30-60 min for the 25/75 mixture.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1543127

  2. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  3. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  4. Effect of the Purple carbon black on the properties of NR/BR blend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanfang, Zhao; Dan, Liu; Shengbo, Lin; Binjian; Yinmei, Zhao; Shuangquan, Liao

    2014-08-01

    Purple black is light colored mineral filler mining in recent years in Hainan. The effect of the dosage of the purple carbon black and purple carbon black modificated by Si69 on the vulcanization characteristics, mechanical properties, thermal stability, the damping performance of NR/BR blend rubber were studied, and the blending adhesive tensile sections were analyzed by SEM. Research showed that, with the increasing dosage of the purple carbon black, vulcanization characteristics of NR/BR blend had a little change. Adding the purple carbon black into blending had a reinforcing effect. when the dosage of the purple carbon black was 20, the mechanical properties of blending adhesive was good; Coupling agent Si69 had a modification effect on the purple carbon black. With increasing dosage of Si69, performance of the rubber was improved initially and then decreased; when the mass fraction of Si69 was 8% of the dosage of the purple carbon black, rubber performance was optimal. Purple carbon black had no obvious effect on thermal stability of the rubber, but it improved the damping rubber temperature and damping factor.

  5. Test of the Fishbein and Ajzen models as predictors of health care workers' glove use.

    PubMed

    Levin, P F

    1999-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify predictors of health care workers' glove use when there is a potential for blood exposure. The study hypothesis was that an extension of the theory of planned behavior would explain more of the variance in glove use behavior than the theory of reasoned action or theory of planned behavior. A random sample of nurses and laboratory workers (N = 527) completed a 26-item questionnaire with acceptable content validity and reliability estimates. Using structural equation modeling techniques, intention, attitude, and perceived risk were significant predictors of behavior. Perceived control and attitude were the significant determinants of intention. The theory of reasoned action was the most parsimonious model, explaining 70% of the variance in glove use behavior. The theory of planned behavior extension was a viable model to study behavior related to glove use and reducing workers' risks to bloodborne diseases. PMID:10435547

  6. Glove Changing Habits in Mobile Food Vendors in New York City.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Guerra, Laura A; MacDonald, Zerlina; Marte, Myladys; Basch, Charles E

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how often mobile food cart vendors in New York City (NYC) changed gloves after exchanging money, which is required by the current NYC health code as one of various measures to prevent foodborne illness. A total of 100 carts (10 carts in 10 zones) throughout Manhattan were observed. In the majority (56.9%, n = 1,026) of the 1,804 money exchanges, food cart vendors did not change their gloves. Not changing gloves after exchanging money was widespread regardless of food type served (46.6% for breakfast to 63.7% for lunch), and across all 10 zones. Not changing gloves after touching money may result in indirect transmission of agents of disease and pose health risks for consumers. PMID:25559110

  7. Chemical-defense flight-glove ensemble evaluation. Final report, June 1986-February 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, J.; Ervin, C.

    1987-06-01

    Four chemical-defense flight-glove ensembles were evaluated for their effect on manual dexterity. Two- and three-layer combinations included in the study were: cotton liner/7-mil butyl/Nomex; cotton liner/12.5-mil epichlorohydron butyl/Nomex; Nomex/7-mil butyl (no liner); and, Nomex/12.5-mil epichlorohydron butyl (no liner). Fifteen male and 15 female subjects performed five dexterity tests bare-handed and while wearing each of the glove ensembles. Results indicated that, as expected, all gloved conditions produced significantly poorer performances that did the bare-handed condition, and two-layer combinations resulted in consistently better performances that did the three-layer combinations. Although subjects' performance were least impaired by the Nomex/butyl 7 combination, the butyl 7 gloves tended to tear. For this reason, the two-layer combinations of Nomex/epichlorohydron butyl 12.5 appears to be the most practical ensemble.

  8. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation related to the paper of the same name describing Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis of low speed stall aerodynamics of a swept wing with a laminar flow wing glove.

  9. Pollution prevention benefits of non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves - 11000

    SciTech Connect

    Cournoyer, Michael E; Dodge, Robert L

    2011-01-11

    Radiation shielding is commonly used to protect the glovebox worker from unintentional direct and secondary radiation exposure, while working with plutonium-238 and plutonium-239. Shielding glovebox gloves are traditionally composed of lead-based materials, i.e., hazardous waste. This has prompted the development of new, non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. No studies, however, have investigated the pollution prevention benefits of these new glovebox gloves. We examined both leaded and non-hazardous shielding glovebox gloves. The nonhazardous substitutes are higher in cost, but this is offset by eliminating the costs associated with onsite waste handling of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) items. In the end, replacing lead with non-hazardous substitutes eliminates waste generation and future liability.

  10. Transfer efficiency of Staphylococcus aureus between nitrile exam gloves and nonporous fomites.

    PubMed

    Koenig, David W; Korir-Morrison, Cindy; Hoffman, Douglas R

    2016-02-01

    This report describes fomite transmission of Staphylococcus aureus amongst various surfaces. A contact transfer protocol was completed to evaluate the movement of S aureus between a person wearing nitrile gloves and either: handshaking with another person with gloved hands, touching a plastic cellular telephone back, or touching a stainless steel rod. The data in this preliminary study imply that the highest bacterial transfer is with metal surfaces followed by plastic. Interestingly, glove-to-glove transfer occurred but transfered less bacteria than a plastic or metal surface. The observations from this study point to the need to clearly define hygiene behaviors to reduce the potential of hand- and surface-mediated transmission. PMID:26549663

  11. Permeation of multi-component liquids through new and pre-exposed glove materials

    SciTech Connect

    Forsberg, K.; Faniadis, S.

    1986-03-01

    Relative to the preponderance of multi-component solutions in industry, the availability of data on the barrier effectiveness of protective clothing to such solutions is minimal. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to measure the breakthrough times and permeation rates of 13 different multi-component liquids through 13 glove compositions. The solutions were selected to be representative of those in segments of the chemical and aircraft industries. The glove materials were tested as received and after one exposure to the liquids. The latter tests were designed to investigate factors associated with the reuse of gloves. Of the 8 basic glove materials, the butyl rubber and polyvinyl alcohol specimens exhibited the longest breakthrough times over the widest range of chemicals and chemical combinations.

  12. The permeation by liquefied coal of gloves used in coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.

    1983-06-01

    The protective capabilities of PVC, natural rubber and milled nitrile rubber gloves currently used in coal liquefaction pilot plants were assessed, and the effectiveness of a laundering method was evaluated. The breakthrough times and cumulative permeation for exposure to toluene and to liquefied coal were determined by measurement of radiolabelled phenol tracer in the aqueous receiving medium. Breakthrough times agreed with the findings of other studies on exposure to liquefied coal, the nitrile laboratory glove resisted breakthrough the longest (12-14 h), although it was the thinnest material tested. Breakthrough times for the other gloves ranged from 2.75 to 6.5 h. Normalised for thickness, both PVC materials tested were more resistant to breakthrough than rubber. The laundering method did not completely decontaminate samples of PVC glove material pre-exposed to liquefied coal for 24 h under laboratory conditions.

  13. Determination of alkylamine permeation through protective gloves using aliphatic amine pads.

    PubMed

    Vo, E; Berardinelli, S P

    1999-12-01

    A quantitative study of alkylamine permeation through a glove material using Permea-Tec aliphatic amine pads, used for the detection of chemical breakthrough of protective clothing, was performed for triethylamine following a microwave-extraction process and gas chromatographic analysis. Triethylamine exhibited > 99% adsorption on the pads at a spiking level of 729 ng (1.0 ml). Triethylamine showed recoveries from 63 to 90% (RSD < or = 5%) over the range 0.2-1.0 ml (146-729 ng) applied to pads. The ASTM F739 standard and direct permeability testing procedures were used to determine breakthrough times for five protective glove materials using triethylamine as a challenge chemical. Breakthrough times for six protective gloves were determined ranging from 40 s to > 4 h. The quantitative concentration of triethylamine on the pads following permeation through the gloves was also determined, ranging from 101 to 103 ng cm-2 (382-386 ng per pad). PMID:11529186

  14. Gem-quality Turkish purple jade: Geological and mineralogical characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatipoğlu, Murat; Başevirgen, Yasemin; Chamberlain, Steven C.

    2012-02-01

    In the Harmancık-Bursa region of the western Anatolia (Turkey), an extensive contact metamorphic aureole at the border between the Late Mesozoic coherent metaclastic rocks of blueschist facies and the Early Senozoic intrusive granodiorite stock hosts an interesting and unique gem material with a mineral assemblage consisting mainly of jadeite, quartz, orthoclase, epidote, chloritoid, and phlogopite as identified by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy and polarized-light microscopy. In addition, chemical analyses performed with X-ray fluorescence and inductive-coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy show that the mass of the metamorphic aureole has a silica-rich, calc-alkaline chemical content. Therefore, some rock building elements (such as Al, Ca, Na, K, P, Sr, and B of which characterize an acidic-neutral rock formation) and trace elements (such as Fe, Cr, Mn, Be, Cu, Ga, La, Ni, Pb, and Zn) are remarkable high ratios. Pale purple-colored gem material of this composition appears to be unique to Turkey, also is only found in one narrow provenance in Turkey. Therefore, it is specially called "Turkish (and/or Anatolian) purple jade" on the worldwide gem market. Even though the mineral jadeite is the principal constituent, 40% by volume as determined with petrographic thin-section examination under a polarized-light microscope, the material cannot be considered pure jadeite. Specific gravity measurements of the jade using a hydrostatic balance confirm that it has a heterogeneous structure. The measured average specific gravity of 3.04, is significantly lower than the normal range for characterized jadeites of 3.24-3.43. Turkish purple jade samples were examined in detail using dispersive confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy (DCμRS) as well as other well-known analytical methods. The resulting strong micro-Raman bands that peaked at 1038, 984, 697, 571, 521, 464, 430, 372, 326, 307, 264, and 201 cm -1 are characteristics of the Turkish purple jade. The first most

  15. Norovirus Transmission between Hands, Gloves, Utensils, and Fresh Produce during Simulated Food Handling

    PubMed Central

    Aho, E.; Mikkelä, A.; Ranta, J.; Tuominen, P.; Rättö, M.; Maunula, L.

    2014-01-01

    Human noroviruses (HuNoVs), a leading cause of food-borne gastroenteritis worldwide, are easily transferred via ready-to-eat (RTE) foods, often prepared by infected food handlers. In this study, the transmission of HuNoV and murine norovirus (MuNoV) from virus-contaminated hands to latex gloves during gloving, as well as from virus-contaminated donor surfaces to recipient surfaces after simulated preparation of cucumber sandwiches, was inspected. Virus transfer was investigated by swabbing with polyester swabs, followed by nucleic acid extraction from the swabs with a commercial kit and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. During gloving, transfer of MuNoV dried on the hand was observed 10/12 times. HuNoV, dried on latex gloves, was disseminated to clean pairs of gloves 10/12 times, whereas HuNoV without drying was disseminated 11/12 times. In the sandwich-preparing simulation, both viruses were transferred repeatedly to the first recipient surface (left hand, cucumber, and knife) during the preparation. Both MuNoV and HuNoV were transferred more efficiently from latex gloves to cucumbers (1.2% ± 0.6% and 1.5% ± 1.9%) than vice versa (0.7% ± 0.5% and 0.5% ± 0.4%). We estimated that transfer of at least one infective HuNoV from contaminated hands to the sandwich prepared was likely to occur if the hands of the food handler contained 3 log10 or more HuNoVs before gloving. Virus-contaminated gloves were estimated to transfer HuNoV to the food servings more efficiently than a single contaminated cucumber during handling. Our results indicate that virus-free food ingredients and good hand hygiene are needed to prevent HuNoV contamination of RTE foods. PMID:24951789

  16. Transmission of MRSA to Healthcare Personnel Gowns and Gloves during Care of Nursing Home Residents

    PubMed Central

    Roghmann, Mary-Claire; Johnson, J. Kristie; Sorkin, John D.; Langenberg, Patricia; Lydecker, Alison; Sorace, Brian; Levy, Lauren; Mody, Lona

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate the frequency of MRSA transmission to gowns and gloves worn by healthcare personnel (HCP) interacting with nursing home residents in order to inform infection prevention policies in this setting Design Observational study Setting and Participants Residents and HCP from 13 community-based nursing homes in Maryland and Michigan Methods Residents were cultured for MRSA at the anterior nares and perianal or perineal skin. HCP wore gowns and gloves during usual care activities. At the end of each activity, a research coordinator swabbed the HCP’s gown and gloves. Results 403 residents were enrolled; 113 were MRSA colonized. Glove contamination was higher than gown contamination (24% vs. 14% of 954 interactions, p<0.01). Transmission varied greatly by type of care from 0% to 24% for gowns and 8% to 37% for gloves. We identified high risk activities (OR >1.0, p< 0.05) including: dressing, transferring, providing hygiene, changing linens and toileting the resident. We identified low risk activities (OR <1.0, p< 0.05) including: giving medications and performing glucose monitoring. Residents with chronic skin breakdown had significantly higher rates of gown and glove contamination. Conclusions MRSA transmission from MRSA positive residents to HCP gown and gloves is substantial with high contact activities of daily living conferring the highest risk. These activities do not involve overt contact with body fluids, skin breakdown or mucous membranes suggesting the need to modify current standards of care involving the use of gowns and gloves in this setting. PMID:26008727

  17. [Latex exposure and gloves' use in health settings: old and new issues].

    PubMed

    Crippa, Michela

    2008-01-01

    The diffusion of the "universal precautions", promoted in 1987 by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, dramatically increased the use of latex glove in health care settings for protection against the HIV and HBV. The increased demand caused an increased production of gloves, a reduction in processing time and a different chemical treatment of rubber trees which lowered the glove quality, that means high levels of antigens and high powder content. This situation caused an increase of frequency of allergic (type I and type IV) and irritant reactions to latex gloves in health care workers. Recommendations and guidelines for the prevention of latex allergy in health care settings were available from 1995 both in Italy and in other countries. When properly applied, the preventive effectiveness of these suggestions has been demonstrated, but unfortunately the guidelines are not widely adopted as we could think and the frequency of latex allergy and sensitization in health care workers is not as reduced as it could be expect. This could be due also to the fact that some practical issues are still open, for example: the possibility of assessing the real glove quality and the reliability of information provided by manufacturers that often are inaccurate and incomplete; the necessity to update the regulations in force to higher quality standards; the availability of procedures for the selection, purchase and use of gloves in relation to specific tasks within health care setting; the involvement of occupational physicians in the management of these procedures; clear indications of limit values for extractable latex allergens in medical and common latex devices; the assessment of the real protective efficacy against chemicals and biological agents of new synthetic rubber gloves. An Italian working group of occupational health professionals, involved for a long time in the management of glove and latex related problems in health care settings,finalized a consensus

  18. Numerical simulation of pressure therapy glove by using Finite Element Method.

    PubMed

    Yu, Annie; Yick, Kit Lun; Ng, Sun Pui; Yip, Joanne; Chan, Ying Fan

    2016-02-01

    Pressure therapy garments apply pressure to suppress the growth and flatten hypertrophic scars caused by serious burns. The amount of pressure given by the pressure garments is critical to the treatment adherence and outcomes. In the present study, a biomechanical model for simulating the pressure magnitudes and distribution over hand dorsum given by a pressure glove was developed by using finite element method. In this model, the shape geometry of the hand, the mechanical properties of the glove and human body tissues were incorporated in the numerical stress analyses. The geometry of the hand was obtained by a 3D laser scanner. The material properties of two warp knitted fabrics were considered in the glove fabric model that developed from the glove production pattern with 10% size reduction in circumferential dimensions. The glove was regarded an isotropic elastic shell and the hand was assumed to be a homogeneous, isotropic and linearly elastic body. A glove wearing process was carried in the finite element analysis and the surface-to-surface contact pressure between hand and glove fabric was hence obtained. Through validation, the simulated contact pressure showed a good agreement with the experimental interface pressure measurement. The simulation model can be used to predict and visualise the pressure distribution exerted by a pressure therapy glove onto hand dorsum. It can provide information for optimising the material mechanical properties in pressure garment design and development, give a clue to understand the mechanisms of pressure action on hypertrophic scars and ultimately improve the medical functions of pressure garment. PMID:26520450

  19. Permeation of a metalworking fluid through a latex glove under field use conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2010-01-01

    Whole glove testing for a metalworking fluid (MWF) in the field was performed for the first time. Green latex gloves used in a machine shop were exposed for 20 min to MWF. The permeated amount (1.0 +/- 0.5 microg/cm(2)) was higher than the threshold (0.25 microg/cm(2)) for the ASTM F739-99a closed-loop normalized breakthrough time. PMID:19784533

  20. Next Generation Life Support (NGLS): High Performance EVA Glove (HPEG) Technology Development Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Sarah; Barta, Daniel; Stephan, Ryan; Gaddis, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The overall objective is to develop advanced gloves for extra vehicular activity (EVA) for future human space exploration missions and generate corresponding standards by which progress may be quantitatively assessed. The glove prototypes that result from the successful completion of this technology development activity will be delivered to NASA's Human Exploration Operations Mission Directorate (HEOMD) and ultimately to be included in an integrated test with the next generation spacesuit currently under development.

  1. Tactility as a function of grasp force: Effects of glove, orientation, pressure, load, and handle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Bronkema, Lisa A.; Garcia, Dishayne; Klute, Glenn; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    1994-01-01

    One of the reasons for reduction in performance when gloves are donned is the lack of tactile sensitivity. It was argued that grasping force for a weight to be grasped will be a function of the weight to be lifted and the hand conditions. It was further reasoned that the differences in grasping force for various hand conditions will be a correlate of the tactile sensitivity of the corresponding hand conditions. The objective of this experiment, therefore, was to determine the effects of glove type, pressure, and weight of load on the initial grasping force and stable grasping force. It was hypothesized that when a person grasps an object, he/she grasps very firmly initially and then releases the grasp slightly after realizing what force is needed to maintain a steady grasp. This would seem to be particularly true when a person is wearing a glove and has lost some tactile sensitivity and force feedback during the grasp. Therefore, the ratio of initial force and stable force and the stable force itself would represent the amount of tactile adjustment that is made when picking up an object, and this adjustment should vary with the use of gloves. A dynamometer was fabricated to measure the grasping force; the tests were performed inside a glove box. Four female and four male subjects participated in the study, which measured the effects of four variables: load effect, gender effect, glove type, and pressure variance. The only significant effects on the peak and stable force were caused by gender and the weight of the load lifted. Neither gloves nor pressure altered these forces when compared to a bare-handed condition, as was suspected before the test. It is possible that gloves facilitate in holding due to coefficient of friction while they deter in peak grasp strength.

  2. Menaquinone as pool quinone in a purple bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Schoepp-Cothenet, Barbara; Lieutaud, Clément; Baymann, Frauke; Verméglio, André; Friedrich, Thorsten; Kramer, David M.; Nitschke, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Purple bacteria have thus far been considered to operate light-driven cyclic electron transfer chains containing ubiquinone (UQ) as liposoluble electron and proton carrier. We show that in the purple γ-proteobacterium Halorhodospira halophila, menaquinone-8 (MK-8) is the dominant quinone component and that it operates in the QB-site of the photosynthetic reaction center (RC). The redox potentials of the photooxidized pigment in the RC and of the Rieske center of the bc1 complex are significantly lower (Em = +270 mV and +110 mV, respectively) than those determined in other purple bacteria but resemble those determined for species containing MK as pool quinone. These results demonstrate that the photosynthetic cycle in H. halophila is based on MK and not on UQ. This finding together with the unusual organization of genes coding for the bc1 complex in H. halophila suggests a specific scenario for the evolutionary transition of bioenergetic chains from the low-potential menaquinones to higher-potential UQ in the proteobacterial phylum, most probably induced by rising levels of dioxygen 2.5 billion years ago. This transition appears to necessarily proceed through bioenergetic ambivalence of the respective organisms, that is, to work both on MK- and on UQ-pools. The establishment of the corresponding low- and high-potential chains was accompanied by duplication and redox optimization of the bc1 complex or at least of its crucial subunit oxidizing quinols from the pool, the Rieske protein. Evolutionary driving forces rationalizing the empirically observed redox tuning of the chain to the quinone pool are discussed. PMID:19429705

  3. Fire and nitrogen effects on Purple Threeawn (Aristida purpurea)abundance in northern mixed-grass prairie old fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple threeawn (Aristida purpurea Nutt. varieties) is a native grass capable of increasing on rangelands, forming near monocultures, and creating a stable state. Productive rangelands throughout the Great Plains and Intermountain West have experienced increases in purple threeawn abundance, reduci...

  4. Towards understanding the mechanisms and the kinetics of nanoparticle penetration through protective gloves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinches, L.; Peyrot, C.; Lemarchand, L.; Boutrigue, N.; Zemzem, M.; Wilkinson, K. J.; Hallé, S.; Tufenkji, N.

    2015-05-01

    Parallel to the increased use of engineered nanoparticles (ENP) in the formulation of commercial products or in medicine, numerous health & safety agencies have recommended the application of the precautionary principle to handle ENP; namely, the recommendation to use protective gloves against chemicals. However, recent studies reveal the penetration of titanium dioxide nanoparticles through nitrile rubber protective gloves in conditions simulating occupational use. This project is designed to understand the links between the penetration of gold nanoparticles (nAu) through nitrile rubber protective gloves and the mechanical and physical behaviour of the elastomer material subjected to conditions simulating occupational use (i.e., mechanical deformations (MD) and sweat). Preliminary analyses show that nAu suspensions penetrate selected glove materials after exposure to prolonged (3 hours) dynamic deformations. Significant morphological changes are observed on the outer surface of the glove sample; namely, the number and the surface of the micropores on the surface increase. Moreover, nitrile rubber protective gloves are also shown to be sensitive to the action of nAu suspension and to the action of the saline solution used to simulate sweat (swelling).

  5. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong

    2013-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft s swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First AIAA CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  6. RoboGlove-A Grasp Assist Device for Earth and Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diftler, M. A.; Ihrke, C. A.; Bridgwater, L. B.; Rogers, J. M.; Davis, D. R.; Linn, D. M.; Laske, E. A.; Ensley, K. G.; Lee, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The RoboGlove is an assistive device that can augment human strength, endurance or provide directed motion for use in rehabilitation. RoboGlove is a spinoff of the highly successful Robonaut 2 (R2) system developed as part of a partnership between General Motors and NASA. This extremely lightweight device employs an actuator system based on the R2 finger drive system to transfer part or the entire grasp load from human tendons to artificial ones contained in the glove. Steady state loads ranging from 15 to 20 lbs. and peaks approaching 50 lbs. are achievable. Work is underway to integrate the RoboGlove system with a space suit glove to add strength or reduce fatigue during spacewalks. Tactile sensing, miniaturized electronics, and on-board processing provide sufficient flexibility for applications in many industries. The following describes the design, mechanical/electrical integration, and control features of the glove in an assembly-line configuration and discusses work toward the space suit application.

  7. Comparison of positive pressure gloves on hand use in uninjured persons.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kimberly A; Weinstock-Zlotnick, Gwen; Sanchez, Juan; Gorga, Delia; Yurt, Roger Y W

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine functional hand use in uninjured adults when wearing a standard, custom-made pressure glove (SPG) as compared with a glove with select placement of suede, The New York-Presbyterian Dexterity Glove (NYPDG) (patent pending). Thirty-four participants received a custom SPG and NYPDG in a randomized order. Gloves were worn for one day during all activities of daily living (ADL). Hand function, difficulty of fine and gross motor ADL, and participant glove preference were assessed. The process was repeated approximately 1 week later with the remaining glove incorporating a quasi-experimental, repeated measure design. Data were analyzed using a crossover design. Results were significant in favor of the NYPDG in all of the four outcome categories: time to complete the Jebsen, the Jebsen Likert scale, fine motor ADL, and gross motor ADL. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that functional tasks were faster and easier to perform when using the NYPDG. PMID:16006847

  8. Analysis of Low Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  9. Analysis of Low-Speed Stall Aerodynamics of a Swept Wing with Laminar-Flow Glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bui, Trong T.

    2014-01-01

    Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was conducted to study the low-speed stall aerodynamics of a GIII aircraft's swept wing modified with a laminar-flow wing glove. The stall aerodynamics of the gloved wing were analyzed and compared with the unmodified wing for the flight speed of 120 knots and altitude of 2300 ft above mean sea level (MSL). The Star-CCM+ polyhedral unstructured CFD code was first validated for wing stall predictions using the wing-body geometry from the First American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) CFD High-Lift Prediction Workshop. It was found that the Star-CCM+ CFD code can produce results that are within the scattering of other CFD codes considered at the workshop. In particular, the Star-CCM+ CFD code was able to predict wing stall for the AIAA wing-body geometry to within 1 degree of angle of attack as compared to benchmark wind-tunnel test data. Current results show that the addition of the laminar-flow wing glove causes the gloved wing to stall much earlier than the unmodified wing. Furthermore, the gloved wing has a different stall characteristic than the clean wing, with no sharp lift drop-off at stall for the gloved wing.

  10. Mitigation of EMU Cut Glove Hazard from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Impacts on ISS Handrails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, Shannon; Christiansen, Eric L.; Davis, Bruce A.; Ordonez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Recent cut damages sustained on crewmember gloves during extravehicular activity (ISS) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been caused by contact with sharp edges or a pinch point according to analysis of the damages. One potential source are protruding sharp edged crater lips from micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts on metallic handrails along EVA translation paths. A number of hypervelocity impact tests were performed on ISS handrails, and found that mm-sized projectiles were capable of inducing crater lip heights two orders of magnitude above the minimum value for glove abrasion concerns. Two techniques were evaluated for mitigating the cut glove hazard of MMOD impacts on ISS handrails: flexible overwraps which act to limit contact between crewmember gloves and impact sites, and; alternate materials which form less hazardous impact crater profiles. In parallel with redesign efforts to increase the cut resilience of EMU gloves, the modifications to ISS handrails evaluated in this study provide the means to significantly reduce cut glove risk from MMOD impact craters

  11. Permeation of a straight oil metalworking fluid through a disposable and a chemically protective nitrile glove.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2006-09-21

    The aim of the present study was to quantify the permeation parameters of a complex water-insoluble straight oil metalworking fluid (MWF) of low volatility through nitrile gloves. The permeation through a chemically protective and a disposable glove was investigated using the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739-99a method with hexane as the collection medium. Analysis of collection side samples involved gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. The detection breakthrough time for the chemically protective glove was >10 h. For the disposable glove, the detection breakthrough time was 0.7+/-0.3 h, the lag time was 1.6+/-0.1 h, the diffusion coefficient was (3.7+/-0.3)x10(-9) cm2/min, and the steady state permeation rate was 3.5+/-2.2 microg/cm2/min. The disposable nitrile glove can be worn for about 30 min for incidental contact with straight oil MWFs without known carcinogens. The chemically protective nitrile glove should be worn otherwise. The chromatogram for the permeate differed from that of the original MWF, resulting from the faster permeation of lower molecular weight congeners. The combination of chromatography and gravimetry allowed quantifying the permeation parameters of complex water-insoluble non-volatile mixtures. PMID:16650529

  12. Method of testing the penetration of acid solutions through safety gloves.

    PubMed

    Liwkowicz, J; Kowalska, J

    2000-01-01

    Because they cause burns that are difficult to heal, acids are dangerous, and steps should be taken to ensure that the human skin does not come into contact with them. For this purpose safety gloves are generally used by workers who have to handle acids. Such gloves need to be tested to ensure that they are acid resistant. Standard EN 374 (European Committee for Standardization [CEN], 1993c) specifies a method of testing the permeation of liquid chemicals, on a molecular level, through glove material, but it may be difficult to ensure the fitness of the joints of a two-compartment cell, when gloves are lined with jersey. To deal with this a simple pH-meter method to test the permeation of acid and alkali solutions through safety gloves has been developed. The permeation of H&inf2;SO&inf4;, HCl, HNO&inf3;, and CH&inf3;COOH through gloves made from neoprene, nitrile, and PVC was tested. This method seems to be simple and economical. PMID:10773891

  13. Permeation by liquefied coal of gloves used in coal liquefaction pilot plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, R.D.; Feigley, C.E.; Oswald, E.O.; Hill, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The protective capabilities of PVC, natural rubber and milled nitrile rubber gloves currently used in coal liquefaction pilot plants were assessed and the effectiveness of a laundering method was evaluated. The breakthrough times and cumulative permeation for exposure to toluene and to liquefied coal were determined by measurement of radiolabeled phenol tracer in the aqueous receiving medium. Breakthrough times, normalized by division by the square of the material thickness, agreed with the findings of other studies. On exposure to liquefied coal, the nitrile laboratory glove resisted breakthrough the longest (between 12 and 24 hours), although it was the thinnest material tested. Breakthrough times for the other gloves ranged from 2.75 to 6.5 hours with the times for the natural rubber glove materials intermediate to the two PVC glove materials tested. However, when normalized for thickness, both PVC materials were more resistant to breakthrough than rubber. It was found that the laundering method did not completely decontaminate samples of PVC glove material pre-exposed to liquefied coal for 24 hours under laboratory conditions.

  14. Permeation of substituted silanes and siloxanes through selected gloves and protective clothing.

    PubMed

    Nelson, G O; Priante, S J; Strong, M; Anderson, D; Fallon-Carine, J

    2000-01-01

    Testing of the permeation resistance of eight glove and suit barriers against commercially available substituted silanes and siloxanes was performed using the ASTM F739-96 standard test method. In addition to barrier performance to the pure organosilanes, the permeation rates of the hydrolysis product (usually ethanol or methanol) were investigated. The silanes and siloxanes used as the challenge agents were N-2-(aminoethyl)-3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane; 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane; 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane; ethyltriacetoxysilane; 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane; 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexamethyldisilazane; hexamethyldisiloxane; 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane; methyltriacetoxysilane (50%)/ethyltriacetoxysilane (50%); methyltrimethoxysilane; methyltris(methylethylketoxime)silane; phenyltrimethoxysilane; polydimethyl siloxanes (PS 340); octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4); tetraethoxysilane; tetramethoxysilane; 1,1,3,3-tetramethyl disiloxane; triethoxysilane; trimethoxysilane; vinyltrimethoxysilane; and vinyltris(methylethylketoxime)silane. Protective gloves tested were nitrile rubber, neoprene rubber, butyl rubber, 4H laminate, and polyvinyl chloride. Garments tested included Tyvek/Saranex 23P, CPF 2, and Responder, all made by Kappler Safety Group. In all cases the protective suit materials lasted 8 hours or more. The only glove that lasted 8 hours against all chemicals was the 4H laminate. The polyvinyl chloride glove lasted 10 min to 8 hours or more depending on the chemical. The nitrile, neoprene, and butyl rubber gloves lasted from 53 min to 8 hours or more depending on the chemical. The alcohol permeation was similar to the organosilicon compounds. The suit materials and the butyl glove all lasted more than 8 hours for both methanol and ethanol. PMID:11071423

  15. Permeation of a straight oil metalworking fluid through disposable nitrile, chloroprene, vinyl, and latex gloves.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenhai; Que Hee, Shane S

    2007-08-25

    The aim was to investigate the permeation of a straight oil metalworking fluid (MWF) through four types of glove materials using the gravimetric method and the modified American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) F739-99a method with perfluorohexane and hexane as collection solvents. The residual masses on the collection side were determined after solvent evaporation for both MWF and blank (air) challenges. With perfluorohexane, the permeated MWF through gloves after 8h was around the lower quantifiable limit for nitrile, 0.7+/-0.2mg/cm(2) for vinyl, 10.0+/-1.2mg/cm(2) for chloroprene, and 33.0+/-0.7mg/cm(2) for latex. Hexane increased the amounts and rates of MWF permeating all gloves 39-73 times, except for vinyl where extractable mass was so high that the residues for MWF challenges and for hexane blanks were indistinguishable. Hexane as a collection solvent also extracted more glove components than did perfluorohexane, and back-permeated gloves in much larger amounts. Perfluorohexane allows better estimates of the real permeation rates and breakthrough times than does hexane. Recommendations based on breakthrough times and permeation rates with hexane collection are thus too conservative, although the relative ranking of these four types of gloves was the same with either collection solvent. PMID:17324502

  16. Survey of sulfur-containing rubber accelerator levels in latex and nitrile exam gloves.

    PubMed

    Depree, G J; Bledsoe, T A; Siegel, P D

    2005-08-01

    2-Mercaptobenzothiazole and zinc dialkyldithiocarbamates are commonly used sulfur-containing rubber vulcanization accelerators known to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to these agents occurs through clothing such as undergarments and shoes, latex medical devices and latex and nitrile gloves. A simple, inexpensive screening method for total sulfur accelerator and a high performance liquid chromatographic speciation method were developed in the present study. These methods were applied to screen and quantify the sulfur accelerator content from 38 brands of 'off-the-shelf' latex and nitrile gloves obtained from commercial vendors. It was found that accelerator levels ranged from not detectable to 7.35 mg/g in the gloves analysed. Brands were found to contain single and multiple accelerator species within the glove. Powdered gloves had significantly higher accelerator levels than powder-free gloves from the same manufacturer; however, these chemical accelerators do not preferentially partition to the powder. The present analytical methodology is suitable for both manufacturing quality validation purposes, as well as for accelerator allergy research. PMID:16033405

  17. The effects of different materials of protective gloves on thermoregulatory responses.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, C; Tokura, H

    1999-01-01

    The effects of two kinds of protecting gloves for pesticide spraying made of different materials on thermoregulatory responses during exercise were studied at ambient temperature of 28 degrees C and relative humidity of 60% in six healthy females, aged 19. One kind of gloves was made of polyurethane (A) and the other of Goretex (B) with cotton lining in each glove. Both kinds of gloves had almost the same volume. Main results of the experiment were summarised as follows: (1) during the exercise an increase of rectal temperature was inhibited more effectively in B than in A; (2) skin temperature of hand was significantly lower in B than in A; (3) absolute humidity and temperature inside the gloves were significantly lower during the period from the gripping bar exercise to the end of the experiment; (4) the number of contractions by the handgrip exercise performed immediately after the second turning of the screw was significantly smaller in A than in B. The findings presented suggest that the gloves made of Goretex material could reduce thermal strain during intermittent work in warm environmental conditions. PMID:10581866

  18. Report on Challenges and Resolutions for the Purple Development Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Futral, W S; Gyllenhaal, J C; Wolfe, M E; Chambreau, C M

    2006-12-12

    Previous AIX development environment experience with ASC White and Early Delivery systems UV and UM was leveraged to provide a smooth and robust transition to the Purple development environment. Still, there were three major changes that initially caused serious problems for Purple users. The first was making 64-bit builds of executables the default instead of 32-bit. The second was requiring all executables to use large page memory. The third was the phase-out of the popular, but now defunct, third-party C++ compiler KCC, which required the migration of many codes to IBM's xlC C++ compiler. On Purple, the default build environment changed from 32-bit builds to 64-bit builds in order to enable executables to use the 4GB per processor (32GB per node) memory available, and in order for the MPI library to do collective optimizations that required the larger 64-bit address space. The 64-bit build environment was made default by setting the IBM environment variable OBJECT{_}MODE to 64 and wrapping third-party software (mainly the gnu compilers) in order to make them handle OBJECT{_}MODE properly. Because not all applications could port to 64-bit right away, (usually due to third-party constraints, such as python not supporting 64-bit AIX builds until very recently), 32-bit builds of the major common third-party libraries also had be supported. This combined 32/64 bit build support was accomplished fairly seamlessly using the AIX feature that allows both 32-bit and 64-bit versions of the code to appear in the same library file, and documentation with clear examples helped our library developers generate the required combined 32-bit and 64-bit libraries for Purple. In general, the port to 64-bit AIX executables went smoothly. The most common problem encountered with 64-bit was that many C codes didn't prototype malloc everywhere, via ''include '', which caused invalid pointers to be returned by unprototyped malloc calls. This was usually seen in old crusty C

  19. Research on purple seed stain of soybean: germplasm screening and genetic resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean purple seed stain (PSS) causes seed decay and purple seed discoloration, resulting in overall poor seed quality and reduced market grade and value. It is a prevalent disease that also affects seed vigor and stand establishment. PSS is caused by the fungus Cercospora kikuchii and other Cercos...

  20. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon Intake house from the south showing the flume existing. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  1. View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Sally May/Purple Mountain Siphon. FS road #502 is in the bottom foreground. Looking west-southwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Sally May-Purple Mountain Siphon, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  2. The purple cauliflower arises from activation of a MYB transcription factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. An interesting and unique Purple (Pr) gene mutation in cauliflower confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving the striking mutant phenotype of intense purple color in curds and a few other tissue...

  3. The purple cauliflower arises from activation of a myb transcription factor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anthocyanins are responsible for the color of many flowers, fruits, and vegetables. An interesting and unique Purple (Pr) gene mutation in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var botrytis) confers an abnormal pattern of anthocyanin accumulation, giving the striking mutant phenotype of intense purple colo...

  4. Impact of the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma on potato tuber processing quality.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, the Columbia Basin potato purple top phytoplasma has been identified as the causal agent of the recent potato purple top disease outbreaks that occurred in the Columbia Basin of Washington and Oregon. It has also been determined that the beet leafhopper is the major vector of this plant pa...

  5. Bioavailability of Anthocyanins from Purple Carrot Juice: Effects of Acylation and Plant Matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioavailability of anthocyanins from juiced purple carrots was investigated through a human feeding study. Ten healthy adults consumed three doses of purple carrot juice, and bioavailability was assessed by appearance of anthocyanins in plasma for 8 hours after the dose. Doses were 50 mL, 150 mL, ...

  6. Screening a diverse soybean germplasm collection for reaction to purple seed stain caused by Cercospora kikuchii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purple seed stain (PSS), caused by Cercospora kikuchii, is a prevalent soybean disease that causes latent seed infection, seed decay, purple seed discoloration, and overall quality deterioration. The objective of this research was to screen soybean accessions from the USDA germplasm collection for r...

  7. Anthocyanins and flavonols are responsible for purple color of Lablab purpureus (L.) sweet pods.

    PubMed

    Cui, Baolu; Hu, Zongli; Zhang, Yanjie; Hu, Jingtao; Yin, Wencheng; Feng, Ye; Xie, Qiaoli; Chen, Guoping

    2016-06-01

    Lablab pods, as dietary vegetable, have high nutritional values similar to most of edible legumes. Moreover, our studies confirmed that purple lablab pods contain the natural pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols. Compared to green pods, five kinds of anthocyanins (malvidin, delphinidin and petunidin derivatives) were found in purple pods by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major contents were delphinidin derivatives. Besides, nine kinds of polyphenol derivatives (quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol and apigenin derivatives) were detected by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and the major components were quercetin and myricetin derivatives. In order to discover their molecular mechanism, expression patterns of biosynthesis and regulatory gens of anthocyanins and flavonols were investigated. Experimental results showed that LpPAL, LpF3H, LpF3'H, LpDFR, LpANS and LpPAP1 expressions were significantly induced in purple pods compared to green ones. Meanwhile, transcripts of LpFLS were more abundant in purple pods than green or yellow ones, suggestind that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols are accumulated in purple pods. Under continuously dark condition, no anthocyanin accumulation was detected in purple pods and transcripts of LpCHS, LpANS, LpFLS and LpPAP1 were remarkably repressed, indicating that anthocyanins and flavonols biosynthesis in purple pods was regulated in light-dependent manner. These results indicate that co-pigments of anthocyanins and flavonols contribute to purple pigmentations of pods. PMID:26995313

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction and quantification of anthocyanins in purple-fleshed sweetpotato genotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of anthocyanins responsible for the purple flesh color is important for breeding programs and development of value-added products. This study aimed to optimize the conditions for anthocyanin extraction from purple-fleshed sweet potatoes (PFSP) using pressurized-liquid extraction (PLE) metho...

  9. The Short-term Protective Effects of 'Non-PPE' Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers.

    PubMed

    Roff, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin 'splash-resistant single-use' (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These 'non-personal protective equipment (PPE)' gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of 'non-PPE' gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments.One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as 'non-PPE' gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject 'challenge' in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38-87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25-41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5-8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the absorbent cotton gloves it

  10. The Short-term Protective Effects of ‘Non-PPE’ Gloves Used by Greenhouse Workers

    PubMed Central

    Roff, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Task-based worker exposure assessments are used in regulatory product approval for pesticides. Some agricultural workers may be exposed to pesticide residues predominantly via transfer to the hands during plant tending or crop harvesting. They may use thin ‘splash-resistant single-use’ (SRSU) gloves or cotton gloves as good industry practice, for example, to protect a delicate crop from bruising, rather than specifically for chemical protection. These ‘non-personal protective equipment (PPE)’ gloves may or may not have been tested for chemical resistance, but can nevertheless give limited protection from chemicals. This paper reports experiments to assess the protection factors (PFs) of ‘non-PPE’ gloves against chemicals, to better inform the regulatory exposure assessments. One type of lightweight cotton and three types of 0.1 mm SRSU gloves 25cm long (latex, nitrile, and vinyl) that might be used as ‘non-PPE’ gloves and one type of 0.4 mm PPE nitrile gauntlet 33cm long were worn by 36 volunteers in greenhouses at four nurseries, handling plants sprayed with transferable but non-permeating strontium acetate in four consecutive 1-h sessions, including one session in which no gloves were worn. Dislodgeable foliar residues were measured by rinsing leaves in bags. Each subject carried out their task such as weeding or trimming, for their four sessions on their set of plants. Handwashes followed each session, and the washings were sampled and analysed for strontium. Unprotected hand contamination was taken to be the within-subject ‘challenge’ in the absence of gloves. It ranged from 166 to 4091 µg equivalent of strontium acetate on the hands and increased with increasing foliar residues. Geometric mean PFs were 60 (95% CI 38–87, n = 22) for PPE gauntlets, 32 (25–41, n = 65) for SRSU gloves and 5.3 (3.5–8, n = 21) for lightweight cotton. The PFs offered by the waterproof gloves (gauntlets and SRSU) increased with challenge, but for the

  11. Purple drank prevalence and characteristics of misusers of codeine cough syrup mixtures.

    PubMed

    Agnich, Laura E; Stogner, John M; Miller, Bryan Lee; Marcum, Catherine D

    2013-09-01

    A mixture of codeine cough syrup with alcohol and/or a soft drink known as "purple drank" has gained media attention in recent years as a drug associated with professional athletes and southern rap music. The existing research on purple drank consumption has primarily utilized samples of African Americans residing in the Houston, Texas area. This is the first scholarly study of purple drank use outside of the Houston, Texas area among a general population of young adults, and indicates that purple drank use is not limited to African American males. The findings depict higher odds of the use of purple drank among other racial and ethnic groups, males, and homosexual, bisexual, and transgender college students from urban areas. PMID:23688907

  12. Glove permeation by semiconductor processing mixtures containing glycol-ether derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zellers, E T; Ke, H Q; Smigiel, D; Sulewski, R; Patrash, S J; Han, M W; Zhang, G Z

    1992-02-01

    Results of permeation tests of several glove materials challenged with semiconductor processing formulations containing glycolether derivatives are described. Commercial glove samples of nitrile rubber (Edmont), natural rubber (Edmont and Baxter), butyl rubber (North), PVC Baxter), a natural rubber/neoprene/nitrile blend (Pioneer), and a natural rubber/neoprene blend (Playtex) were tested according to the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method (open-loop configuration). The liquid formulations examined included a positive photoresist thinner containing 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (2-EEA), n-butyl acetate, and xylene; a positive photoresist containing 2-EEA, n-butyl acetate, xylene, polymer resins, and photoactive compounds; a negative photoresist containing 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME), xylene, and cyclized poly(isoprene); and pure 2-methoxyethyl acetate (2-MEA), which is the solvent used in a commercial electron-beam resist. With the exception of the negative photoresist, butyl rubber provided the highest level of protection against the solvent mixtures tested, with no breakthrough observed after 4 hr of continuous exposure at 25 degrees C. Nitrile rubber provided the highest level of protection against the negative photoresist and reasonably good protection against initial exposure to the other solvent mixtures. Gloves consisting of natural rubber or natural rubber blends provided less protection against the mixtures than either nitrile or butyl rubber. For most of the glove samples, permeation of the glycol-ether derivatives contained in the mixtures was faster than that predicted from the permeation of the pure solvents. Increasing the exposure temperature from 25 to 37 degrees C did not significantly affect the performance of the butyl rubber glove. For the other gloves, however, exposures at 37 degrees C resulted in decreases in breakthrough times of 25-75% and increases in steady-state permeation rates of 80-457% relative to values obtained at 25 degrees C. Repeated

  13. Light-induced reorientation in the purple membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Wan, C; Qian, J; Johnson, C K

    1993-01-01

    Reorientation of bacteriorhodopsin in the native purple membrane was studied by time-resolved linear dichroism spectroscopy (TRLD) over the millisecond time regime. The time responses observed in TRLD are distinctly different from the isotropic transient absorption (TA) at wavelengths in the range 550-590 nm, where the bacteriorhodopsin ground state absorbs. In contrast, the TA and TRLD responses have nearly identical time dependence at 410 and 690 nm, where the intermediates M and O, respectively, principally contribute. These results demonstrate ground-state bacteriorhodopsin reorientation triggered by the photocycle. The TRLD and TA data are analyzed to test models for reorientational motion. Rotational diffusion of ground-state bacteriorhodopsin cannot account for the details of the data. Rather, the results are shown to be consistent with a reversible reorientation of "spectator" (nonexcited) members of the bacteriorhodopsin trimer in the purple membrane in response to the photocycling member of the trimer. This response may be associated with cooperativity in the trimer. PMID:8218916

  14. F-111 TACT natural laminar flow glove flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montoya, L. C.; Steers, L. L.; Trujillo, B.

    1981-01-01

    Improvements in cruise efficiency on the order of 15 to 40% are obtained by increasing the extent of laminar flow over lifting surfaces. Two methods of achieving laminar flow are being considered, natural laminar flow and laminar flow control. Natural laminar flow (NLF) relies primarily on airfoil shape while laminar flow control involves boundary layer suction or blowing with mechanical devices. The extent of natural laminar flow that could be achieved with consistency in a real flight environment at chord Reynolds numbers in the range of 30 x 10(6) power was evaluated. Nineteen flights were conducted on the F-111 TACT airplane having a NLF airfoil glove section. The section consists of a supercritical airfoil providing favorable pressure gradients over extensive portions of the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. Boundary layer measurements were obtained over a range of wing leading edge sweep angles at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 0.85. Data were obtained for natural transition and for a range of forced transition locations over the test airfoil.

  15. Hazard Analysis for Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meginnis, Ian

    2014-01-01

    One of the characteristics of an effective safety program is the recognition and control of hazards before mishaps or failures occur. Conducting potentially hazardous tests necessitates a thorough hazard analysis in order to prevent injury to personnel, and to prevent damage to facilities and equipment. The primary purpose of this hazard analysis is to define and address the potential hazards and controls associated with the Building 34 Vacuum Glove Box Assembly, and to provide the applicable team of personnel with the documented results. It is imperative that each member of the team be familiar with the hazards and controls associated with his/her particular tasks, assignments and activities while interfacing with facility test systems, equipment and hardware. In fulfillment of the stated purposes, the goal of this hazard analysis is to identify all hazards that have the potential to harm personnel, damage the facility or its test systems or equipment, test articles, Government or personal property, or the environment. This analysis may also assess the significance and risk, when applicable, of lost test objectives when substantial monetary value is involved. The hazards, causes, controls, verifications, and risk assessment codes have been documented on the hazard analysis work sheets in Appendix A of this document. The preparation and development of this report is in accordance with JPR 1700.1, "JSC Safety and Health Handbook" and JSC 17773 Rev D "Instructions for Preparation of Hazard Analysis for JSC Ground Operations".

  16. Permeability of hair dye compounds p-phenylenediamine, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate and resorcinol through protective gloves in hairdressing.

    PubMed

    Lind, Marie-Louise; Johnsson, Stina; Meding, Birgitta; Boman, Anders

    2007-07-01

    Dermal exposure to skin irritants and contact allergens is frequent in hairdressing. Hair dyeing is popular today and involves exposure to highly potent contact allergens, such as p-phenylenediamine (PPD). Use of protective gloves to prevent contact with skin-damaging substances is essential. The aim of the present study was to determine the resistance to permeation by PPD, toluene-2,5-diaminesulfate (TDS) and resorcinol (RES) through protective gloves used in hairdressing in Sweden. The permeation of PPD, TDS and RES through four types of protective gloves made of natural rubber latex (NRL), polyvinylchloride (PVC), nitrile rubber (NR) and polyethene (PE) was tested using the American Society for Testing and Materials (1-inch) test cell. Exposure solutions were 5% PPD (w/v), 0.75% TDS and 10% RES in borate buffer with 0.2 M ascorbic acid. The cumulative breakthrough, the so-called 'time-lag breakthrough' (Lag-BT), and permeation rate were determined for each substance and glove. For the NRL glove, the permeated amounts were below the analytical detection levels for all the tested substances. The NR glove was permeated only by RES, with a Lag-BT of 183 min. The PE glove was the thinnest glove and had a Lag-BT of 32 min for PPD; however, the steady-state permeation rate was only 0.031 nmol cm(-2) min(-1). The PVC glove gave the lowest protection against PPD and RES. TDS did not permeate any of the tested gloves. All the tested gloves were disposable, and all need to be changed often and disposed of after use. In conclusion, if properly used, all the tested gloves give considerable protection against permeation of PPD, TDS and RES. PMID:17595170

  17. Adequate Hand Washing and Glove Use Are Necessary To Reduce Cross-Contamination from Hands with High Bacterial Loads.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Andrew L; Lee, Hyun Jung; Kwon, Junehee; Todd, Ewen; Rodriguez, Fernando Perez; Ryu, Dojin

    2016-02-01

    Hand washing and glove use are the main methods for reducing bacterial cross-contamination from hands to ready-to-eat food in a food service setting. However, bacterial transfer from hands to gloves is poorly understood, as is the effect of different durations of soap rubbing on bacterial reduction. To assess bacterial transfer from hands to gloves and to compare bacterial transfer rates to food after different soap washing times and glove use, participants' hands were artificially contaminated with Enterobacter aerogenes B199A at ∼9 log CFU. Different soap rubbing times (0, 3, and 20 s), glove use, and tomato dicing activities followed. The bacterial counts in diced tomatoes and on participants' hands and gloves were then analyzed. Different soap rubbing times did not significantly change the amount of bacteria recovered from participants' hands. Dicing tomatoes with bare hands after 20 s of soap rubbing transferred significantly less bacteria (P < 0.01) to tomatoes than did dicing with bare hands after 0 s of soap rubbing. Wearing gloves while dicing greatly reduced the incidence of contaminated tomato samples compared with dicing with bare hands. Increasing soap washing time decreased the incidence of bacteria recovered from outside glove surfaces (P < 0.05). These results highlight that both glove use and adequate hand washing are necessary to reduce bacterial cross-contamination in food service environments. PMID:26818993

  18. Factors influencing the end of the service life of protective gloves used in car repair shops: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Emilia, Irzmańska; Agnieszka, Stefko; Katarzyna, Dyńska-Kukulska

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an end-of-service-life study on 2 kinds of protective gloves designed for workplaces in which workers are exposed to mineral oils and mechanical factors. The authors developed their own end-of-service-life study method that takes into account factors occurring during real-life use of protective gloves. The examined gloves were subjected to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors. The objective of the study was to compare the protective in new gloves subjected to a laboratory simulation test and in gloves used at workplaces in car repair shops. A further goal was to design a glove assessment procedure that would ensure comprehensive analysis of the actual level of performance provided by gloves exposed to selected chemical and mechanical factors as well as subjected to the influence of temperature and humidity, mechanical damage, and chemical degradation of material. The results lead to the conclusion that simultaneous exposure of protective gloves to mechanical, chemical, and physical factors significantly decreases their performance levels. Furthermore, similar performance levels were obtained for gloves subjected to laboratory simulation tests and for those used in the workplace. PMID:24965322

  19. Effects of wearing knitted or rubber gloves on the transfer of Escherichia cohi between hands and meat.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Jones, T

    2002-06-01

    On eight occasions, five volunteers each handled five pieces of meat with bare hands or while wearing dry or wet knitted gloves or rubber gloves after hands had been inoculated with Escherichia coli or after handling a piece of meat inoculated with E. coli. On each occasion, after all meat was handled, each piece of meat, glove, and hand were sampled to recover E. coli. When hands were inoculated, E. coli was recovered from all meat handled with bare hands, in lesser numbers from some pieces handled with knitted gloves, and from only one piece handled with rubber gloves. When pieces of inoculated meat were handled, the numbers of E. coli transferred to uninoculated meat from bare hands or rubber gloves decreased substantially with each successive piece of uninoculated meat, but decreases were small with knitted gloves. The findings indicate that, compared with bare hands, the use of knitted gloves could reduce the transfer of bacteria from hands to meat but could increase the transfer of bacteria between meat pieces, whereas the use of rubber gloves could largely prevent the first and greatly reduce the second type of bacteria transfer. PMID:12092720

  20. Use of Protective Gloves in Nail Salons in Manhattan, New York City

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Nail salon owners in New York City (NYC) are required to provide their workers with gloves and it is their responsibility to maintain healthy, safe working spaces for their employees. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency with which nail salon workers wear protective gloves. Methods: A Freedom of Information Law request was submitted to New York Department of State’s Division of Licensing Services for a full list of nail salons in Manhattan, NYC. A sample population of 800 nail salons was identified and a simple random sample (without replacement) of 30% (n=240) was selected using a random number generator. Researchers visited each nail salon from October to December of 2015, posing as a potential customer to determine if nail salon workers were wearing gloves. Results: Among the 169 salons in which one or more workers was observed providing services, a total of 562 workers were observed. For 149 salons, in which one or more worker was observed providing services, none of the workers were wearing gloves. In contrast, in six of the salons observed, in which one or more workers was providing services, all of the workers (1 in 2 sites, 2 in 1 site, 3 in 2 sites, and 4 in 1 site) were wearing gloves. Almost three-quarters of the total number of workers observed (n=415, 73.8%) were not wearing gloves. Conclusions: The findings of this study indicate that, despite recent media attention and legislation, the majority of nail salon workers we observed were not wearing protective gloves when providing services. PMID:27499167

  1. Diversity of extremophilic purple phototrophic bacteria in Soap Lake, a Central Washington (USA) Soda Lake.

    PubMed

    Asao, Marie; Pinkart, Holly C; Madigan, Michael T

    2011-08-01

    Culture-based and culture-independent methods were used to explore the diversity of phototrophic purple bacteria in Soap Lake, a small meromictic soda lake in the western USA. Among soda lakes, Soap Lake is unusual because it consists of distinct upper and lower water bodies of vastly different salinities, and its deep waters contain up to 175 mM sulfide. From Soap Lake water new alkaliphilic purple sulfur bacteria of the families Chromatiaceae and Ectothiorhodospiraceae were cultured, and one purple non-sulfur bacterium was isolated. Comparative sequence analysis of pufM, a gene that encodes a key photosynthetic reaction centre protein universally found in purple bacteria, was used to measure the diversity of purple bacteria in Soap Lake. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and subsequent phylogenetic analyses of pufMs amplified from Soap Lake water revealed that a significant diversity of purple bacteria inhabit this soda lake. Although close relatives of several of the pufM phylotypes obtained from cultured species could also be detected in Soap Lake water, several other more divergent pufM phylotypes were also detected. It is possible that Soap Lake purple bacteria are major contributors of organic matter into the ecosystem of this lake, especially in its extensive anoxic and sulfidic deep waters. PMID:21410624

  2. Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Dengcai; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait. PMID:27171148

  3. In vivo testing of the protection of gloves against acrylates in dentin-bonding systems on patients with known contact allergy to acrylates.

    PubMed

    Andersson, T; Bruze, M; Björkner, B

    1999-11-01

    Occupational contact allergies to dental acrylates are increasing. Commonly used gloves protect poorly against acrylates. The protective efficacy in vivo of other, newer glove materials is not fully known. In this study, an open chamber system was used for testing the protection in vivo of 6 different gloves (1 vinyl glove, 2 latex gloves, 2 nitrile gloves and the 4H glove) against a commonly used dental adhesive, Scotchbond 1, containing 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA) and triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA). 8 patients with known contact allergy to 2-HEMA participated. Provocation with 50 microl of the adhesive for 7.5, 15 and 30 min was performed for each glove. The test demonstrated clear differences in the protective efficacy between the gloves. The 4H glove gave by far the best protection, followed by one of the nitrile gloves. One of the latex gloves and the vinyl glove gave a very poor protection against the adhesive. A dose-response relationship was observed between different application times of the acrylate product. The test model promises to be a useful clinical complement to in vitro methods in individual preventive measures against contact sensitization to acrylates. PMID:10554058

  4. Retrofit of an Engineered Glove-port to a Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Rael, P.E.D.; Cournoyer, M.E.Ph.D.; Chunglo, S.D.; Vigil, T.J.; Schreiber, P.E.S.

    2008-07-01

    At the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility (TA-55), various isotopes of plutonium along with other actinides are routinely handled such that the spread of radiological contamination and excursions of contaminants into the operator's breathing zone are prevented through the use of a variety of gloveboxes (the glovebox coupled with adequate negativity providing primary confinement). The current technique for changing glovebox gloves are the weakest part of this engineering control. 1300 pairs of gloves are replaced each year at TA-55, generating approximately 500 m{sup 3}/yr of transuranic (TRU) waste and Low Level Waste (LLW) waste that represents an annual disposal cost of about 4 million dollars. By retrofitting the LANL 8'' glove-port ring, a modern 'Push-Through' technology is utilized. This 'Push-Through' technology allows relatively fast glove changes to be done by operators with much less training and experience and without breaching containment. A dramatic reduction in waste is realized; exposure of the worker to residual contamination reduced, and the number of breaches due to installation issues is eliminated. In the following presentation, the evolution of the 'Push- Through' technology, the features of the glove-port retrofit, and waste savings are discussed. (author)

  5. Permeation of chlorothalonil through nitrile gloves: collection solvent effects in the closed-loop permeation method.

    PubMed

    Que Hee, Shane S; Zainal, Hanaa

    2010-07-15

    The aim was to measure the permeation of the fungicide chlorothalonil from Bravo Ultrex through disposable (Safeskin) and chemically protective (Solvex) nitrile glove materials in a closed-loop ASTM type permeation cell system employing different collection side solvents. The permeated fungicide was measured in the collection medium by the internal standard method through capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and selective ion monitoring using m/z 222 (internal standard 4,4'-dichlorobiphenyl), and 224 and 226 (chlorothalonil). The permeated glove materials did not show swelling or shrinkage and infrared reflectance changes. Different permeated masses for the same glove material for aqueous emulsion challenges of 2.2 mg/mL Bravo Ultrex for 8 h were observed for different solvents with isopropanol>hexane>water for Safeskin, and isopropanol=hexane>water for Solvex. Solvex gloves always permeated less than Safeskin gloves for the same challenge time. When challenges with solid Bravo Ultrex occurred, chlorothalonil was still found in the collection side in the same solvent order as for the aqueous emulsion challenges, with Solvex always less than Safeskin for the same collection solvent and same challenge time. Kinetic experiments showed isopropanol was not a suitable collection solvent for Safeskin for 4 and 8 h. Hexane was not a valid collection solvent for Solvex and Safeskin for 8 h, but was better than isopropanol. PMID:20334969

  6. Occurrence of Purple Sulfur Bacteria in a Sewage Treatment Lagoon 1

    PubMed Central

    Holm, H. W.; Vennes, J. W.

    1970-01-01

    The ecology of purple sulfur bacteria in a sewage oxidation lagoon was investigated. Chemical changes in the lagoon were investigated by monitoring biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), sulfide, sulfate, phosphate, total carbohydrates, volatile acids, alkalinity, and pH. Lagoon water temperatures were observed daily. Microbial ecological relationships were deduced by enumerating coliforms, total bacteria other than anaerobes [Tryptone Glucose Extract (TGE) agar], methane formers such as Methanobacterium formicicum, sulfate reducers, purple sulfur bacteria, and algae. Finally, two strains of purple sulfur bacteria were characterized. Two populations, purple sulfur bacteria and total bacteria (TGE agar), reached maximal concentrations in the warmest part of the 1967 summer. Purple sulfur bacteria reached maximal numbers as concentrations of sulfide and volatile acids were depleted, whereas carbohydrates and alkalinity remained unchanged. Low sulfate levels, which were not limiting for sulfate reducers, may be attributable to storage of sulfur within purple sulfur bacteria. No biological, chemical, or physical agent was linked to the removal of coliforms. The increase of algae in the late summer of 1967 may have been related to the low organic content of the lagoon during this period. Although lagoon pH (7.7 to 8.2) was favorable for purple sulfur bacterial growth, temperatures and sulfides were not optimal in the lagoon for these organisms. Chromatium vinosum and Thiocapsa floridana (the predominant lagoon purple sulfur organism in 1967 and 1968) utilized certain carbohydrates, amino acids, volatile acids, and Krebs cycle intermediates. Also purple sulfur bacteria lowered BOD levels as demonstrated by the growth of T. floridana in sterilized sewage. PMID:4917194

  7. Investigation of the effects of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) and Launch and Entry (LES) gloves on performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.

    1992-01-01

    Human capabilities such as dexterity, manipulability, and tactile perception are unique and render the hand as a very versatile, effective and a multipurpose tool. This is especially true for unknown environments such as the EVA environment. In the microgravity environment interfaces, procedures, and activities are too complex, diverse, and defy advance definition. Under these conditions the hand becomes the primary means of locomotion, restraint, and material handling. Facilitation of these activities, with simultaneous protection from the cruel EVA environment are the two, often conflicting, objectives of glove design. The objectives of this study was (1) to assess the effects of EVA gloves at different pressures on human hand capabilities, (2) to devise a protocol for evaluating EVA gloves, (3) to develop force time relations for a number of EVA glove pressure combinations, and (4) to evaluate two types of launch and entry suit gloves. The objectives were achieved through three experiments. The experiments for achieving objectives 1, 2, and 3 were performed in the glove box in building 34. In experiment 1 three types of EVA gloves were tested at five pressure differentials. A number of performance measures were recorded. In experiment 2 the same gloves as in experiment 1 were evaluated in a reduced number of pressure conditions. The performance measure was endurance time. Six subjects participated in both the experiments. In experiment 3 two types of launch and entry suit gloves were evaluated using a paradigm similar to experiment 1. Currently the data is being analyzed. However for this report some summary analyses have been performed. The results indicate that a) With EVA gloves strength is reduced by nearly 50 percent, b) performance decrements increase with increasing pressure differential, c) TMG effects are not consistent across the three gloves tested, d) some interesting gender glove interactions were observed, some of which may have been due to the

  8. Is the surgical knot tying technique associated with a risk for unnoticed glove perforation? An experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The issue of safety in the surgical procedure has recently been widely and openly discussed at the World Health Organization. The use of latex gloves is the current standard of protection during surgery, as they remain intact throughout the procedure. The present study was designed to evaluate the rate of glove perforation during a two-hand technique using polyester sutures in a controlled experimental study. Methods Hypothesis was that the gloves used during a two-hand technique using polyester suture suffer punctures. We used 150 pairs of gloves during the experiment. Each investigator performed 30 tests always using double gloving. They made five surgical knots on each test over a custom-made table specifically developed for the experiment. Ten tests were done at a time with a week- interval. The Control Group (CG) has 30 pairs of intact surgical gloves. The gloves were tested to impermeability by water filling and leaking was observed at three different times. Statistics relating to the perforation rate were analyzed using the chi-square test. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results During the experiment there was no loss of gloves by drilling or inadvertent error in performing the impermeability test. No perforations were detected at any time during the impermeability test with the gloves used for sutures. Also, the CG presented no leakage of the liquid used for the test. There was no statistical difference between the groups underwent suture nor between them and the GC. Conclusion Under the studied conditions, the authors’ hypotheses could not be proved. There was no damage to the surgical gloves during the entire experiment. The authors believe that the skin abrasions observed in the ulnar side of the little finger, constant throughout the experiment, must be caused by friction. We feel there is no risk of perforation of surgical gloves during a two-hand technique using polyester suture. PMID:24991234

  9. Characterization of the quinones in purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuuka; Kawakami, Tomoaki; Yu, Long-Jiang; Yoshimura, Miku; Kobayashi, Masayuki; Wang-Otomo, Zheng-Yu

    2015-07-01

    Quinone distributions in the thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum have been investigated at different levels of the photosynthetic apparatus. Here we show that, on average, the intracytoplasmic membrane contains 18 ubiquinones (UQ) and 4 menaquinones (MQ) per reaction center (RC). About one-third of the quinones are retained in the light-harvesting-reaction center core complex (LH1-RC) with a similar ratio of UQ to MQ. The numbers of quinones essentially remains unchanged during crystallization of the LH1-RC. There are 1-2 UQ and 1 MQ associated with the RC-only complex in the purified solution sample. Our results suggest that a large proportion of the quinones are confined to the core complex and at least five UQs remain invisible in the current LH1-RC crystal structure. PMID:26048701

  10. Unique structural features of red kidney bean purple acid phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Cashikar, A G; Rao, M N

    1995-06-01

    Purple acid phosphatase from red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been purified to homogeneity and characterized. The enzyme is a homodimer of 60 kDa subunits each containing one atom of zinc and iron in the active site. Circular dichroism spectral studies on the purified enzyme reveals that a large portion of the peptide backbone is in the unordered and beta-turn conformation. A unique feature of the red kidney bean acid phosphatase, which we have found, is that one of the two cysteines of each subunit is involved in the formation of an inter-subunit disulphide. The thiol group of the other cysteine is not necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Western blot analysis with antibodies raised against kidney bean acid phosphatase could not recognize acid phosphatases from other sources except from potato. This paper emphasizes the fact that acid phosphatases are functionally, but not structurally, conserved enzymes. PMID:7590853

  11. Powered glove with electro-pneumatic actuation unit for the disabled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Kosuke; Kumano, Shinichi; Moromugi, Shunji; Ishimatsu, Takakazu

    2007-12-01

    Authors have been developing a powered glove for people suffering from paralysis on their fingers to support their daily activity. Small air cylinders are used as actuators for this glove. Pneumatically-driven system has high advantages in case soft actuation is preferable. However, there are some problems to be solved in the pneumatically-driven system if the system is supposed to be used in our daily life. Huge air compressor is needed and solenoid valves emit loud sound for example. These problems are hurdles to commercialize the powered glove. To solve these problems authors have developed a new actuation unit by integrating an electric cylinder and an air cylinder. This actuation unit has advantages of both the electric actuation and the pneumatic actuation. Its advanced grip control ability has demonstrated through several experiments. The experimental results are reported in this paper.

  12. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber latex

    PubMed Central

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M.; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  13. Gloves against mineral oils and mechanical hazards: composites of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber latex.

    PubMed

    Krzemińska, Sylwia; Rzymski, Władysław M; Malesa, Monika; Borkowska, Urszula; Oleksy, Mariusz

    2016-09-01

    Resistance to permeation of noxious chemical substances should be accompanied by resistance to mechanical factors because the glove material may be torn, cut or punctured in the workplace. This study reports on glove materials, protecting against mineral oils and mechanical hazards, made of carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) latex. The obtained materials were characterized by a very high resistance of the produced materials to oil permeation (breakthrough time > 480 min). The mechanical properties, and especially tear resistance, of the studied materials were improved after the addition of modified bentonite (nanofiller) to the XNBR latex mixture. The nanocomposite meets the requirements in terms of parameters characterizing tear, abrasion, cut and puncture resistance. Therefore, the developed material may be used for the production of multifunctional protective gloves. PMID:26757889

  14. Force-endurance capabilities of extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves at different pressure levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishu, Ram R.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1993-01-01

    The human hand is a very useful multipurpose tool in all environments. However, performance capabilities are compromised considerably when gloves are donned. This is especially true to extravehicular activity (EVA) gloves. The primary intent was to answer the question of how long a person can perform tasks requiring certain levels of exertion. The objective was to develop grip force-endurance relations. Six subjects participated in a factorial experiment involving three hand conditions, three pressure differentials, and four levels of force exertion. The results indicate that, while the force that could be exerted depended on the glove, pressure differential, and the level of exertion, the endurance time at any exertion level depended just on the level of exertion expressed as a percentage of maximum exertion possible at that condition. The impact of these findings for practitioners as well as theoreticians is discussed.

  15. Skin microvascular flow during hypobaric exposure with and without a mechanical counter-pressure space suit glove

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kunihiko; Waldie, James; Steinbach, Gregory C.; Webb, Paul; Tourbier, Dietmar; Knudsen, Jeffrey; Jarvis, Christine W.; Hargens, Alan R.

    2002-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Current space suits are rigid, gas-pressurized shells that protect astronauts from the vacuum of space. A tight elastic garment or mechanical-counter-pressure (MCP) suit generates pressure by compression and may have several advantages over current space suit technology. In this study, we investigated local microcirculatory effects produced with and without a prototype MCP glove. METHODS: The right hand of eight normal volunteers was studied at normal ambient pressure and during exposure to -50, -100 and -150 mm Hg with and without the MCP glove. Measurements included the pressure against the hand, skin microvascular flow, temperature on the dorsum of the hand, and middle finger girth. RESULTS: Without the glove, skin microvascular flow and finger girth significantly increased with negative pressure, and the skin temperature decreased compared with the control condition. The MCP glove generated approximately 200 mm Hg at the skin surface; all measured values remained at control levels during exposure to negative pressure. DISCUSSION: Without the glove, skin microvascular flow and finger girth increased with negative pressure, probably due to a blood shift toward the hand. The elastic compression of the material of the MCP glove generated pressure on the hand similar to that in current gas-pressurized space suit gloves. The MCP glove prevented the apparent blood shift and thus maintained baseline values of the measured variables despite exposure of the hand to negative pressure.

  16. Effects of Gloves, Temperature and Their Interaction on Finger, Hand, and Arm Blood Flow and Skin Temperature: A Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallbech, M. Susan

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of cold only, commercially available gloves only, and the combination of gloves and cold on the blood flow and surface (skin) temperature of the medial and proximal phalanxes of digit 3, the metacarpal region of the hand, and the forearm.

  17. Assessing the influence of antivibration glove on digital vascular responses to acute hand-arm vibration.

    PubMed

    Mahbub, Md H; Yokoyama, Kenjiro; Laskar, Md S; Inoue, Masaiwa; Takahashi, Yukio; Yamamoto, Shinji; Harada, Noriaki

    2007-05-01

    This study was designed to assess the influence of an antivibration glove on digital vascular responses in healthy subjects exposed to short-term grasping of a vibrating handle. To measure finger blood flow (FBF) and finger skin temperature (FST) once at the end of every min, a blood flowmeter sensor was attached to the dorsum and a thermistor sensor was attached to the medial surface of the subject's middle phalanx of the third finger of the right hand. After 5 min of baseline measurements without or with an antivibration glove meeting ISO standard 10819, worn on the right hand, subjects gripped a vibrating handle with the same hand for a period of 5 min. Vibration was generated at two frequencies of 31.5 Hz and 250 Hz with a frequency weighted rms acceleration of 5.5 m/s(2). FBF and FST continued to be recorded for a further 5 min after release of the vibrating handle. Statistical analysis showed no significant change after vibration exposure in either FST or FBF at 250 Hz, compared to baseline (control) measurements while using the antivibration glove. At 31.5 Hz, FBF data exhibited a significant difference between before and after grasping of vibrating handle, which was less under the condition of wearing the antivibration glove than under the condition of bare hand. The results provide evidence that the antivibration glove considerably influenced finger vascular changes in healthy subjects induced by vibration exposure, especially against high frequency vibration. Further studies are required to assess finger vascular responses to hand-transmitted vibration with antivibration gloves of different manufacturers. PMID:17575396

  18. The effectiveness of cut-proof glove liners: cut and puncture resistance, dexterity, and sensibility.

    PubMed

    Salkin, J A; Stuchin, S A; Kummer, F J; Reininger, R

    1995-11-01

    Five types of commercial glove liners (within double latex gloves) were compared to single and double latex gloves for cut and puncture resistance and for relative manual dexterity and degree of sensibility. An apparatus was constructed to test glove-pseudofinger constructs in either a cutting or puncture mode. Cutting forces, cutting speed, and type of blade (serrated or scalpel blade) were varied and the time to cut-through measured by an electrical conductivity circuit. Penetration forces were similarly determined with a scalpel blade and a suture needle using a spring scale loading apparatus. Dexterity was measured with an object placement task among a group of orthopedic surgeons. Sensibility was assessed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, two-point discrimination, and vibrametry using standard techniques and rating scales. A subjective evaluation was performed at the end of testing. Time to cut-through for the liners ranged from 2 to 30 seconds for a rapid oscillating scalpel and 4 to 40 seconds for a rapid oscillating serrated knife under minimal loads. When a 1 kg load was added, times to cut-through ranged from 0.4 to 1.0 second. In most cases, the liners were superior to double latex. On average, 100% more force was required to penetrate the liners with a scalpel and 50% more force was required to penetrate the liners with a suture needle compared to double latex. Object placement task times were not significantly liners compared to double latex gloves. Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments, two-point discrimination, and vibrametry showed no difference in sensibility among the various liners and double latex gloves. Subjects felt that the liners were minimally to moderately impairing. An acclimation period may be required for their effective use. PMID:8559691

  19. Thermal comfort range of a military cold protection glove: database by thermophysiological simulation.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Carsten; Uedelhoven, Wolfgang H; Kurz, Bernhard; Glitz, Karl Jochen

    2008-09-01

    The thermal insulation properties of a military wet/cold protection glove of the German Bundeswehr were investigated using the thermophysiological simulation device CYBOR with a heated full-scale hand model. The aim of this study was the physiology related and more reliable estimation of a database for the thermal comfort range of the glove in terms of environmental limit temperatures and maximum safe wearing times (limit times). For that purpose the simulation device CYBOR is equipped with a control feature allowing the simulation of the physiological effect that the blood flow into the hands as the dominant heat source is reduced with decreasing skin temperature (vasoconstriction effect). In the simulation test, the criterion defining the thermal comfort range of the glove was the maintenance of a minimum hand phantom skin temperature of 15 degrees C. For various assumed metabolic rates between 50 and 175 W m(-2) and environmental temperatures down to -22 degrees C, the maximum safe wearing times within the thermal comfort range of the military glove were estimated between only 20 min and almost 1 h. The used simulation scenario for the prediction of environmental limit temperatures, however, tends to deliver too low values in correlation to the estimated limit times and needs further critical consideration. The estimated data concerning the thermal comfort range of the wet/cold protection glove of the German Bundeswehr leads to the recommendation for a use of this model in mild cold climatic regions. The presented thermophysiological simulation procedure for the evaluation of the cold protection properties of gloves in terms of maximum safe wearing times within the thermal comfort range can be a useful tool to establish practical operating instructions for soldiers or civilians acting in cold environments. PMID:18172670

  20. Calculating and Mitigating the Risk of a Cut Glove to a Space Walking Astronaut

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castillo, Theresa; Haught, Megan

    2013-01-01

    One of the high risk operations on the International Space Station (ISS) is conducting a space walk, or an Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Threats to the space walking crew include airlock failures, space suit failures, and strikes from micro ]meteoroids and orbital debris (MM/OD). There are risks of becoming untethered from the space station, being pinched between the robotic arm and a piece of equipment, tearing your suit on a sharp edge, and other human errors that can be catastrophic. For decades NASA identified and tried to control sharp edges on external structure and equipment by design; however a new and unexpected source of sharp edges has since become apparent. Until recently, one of the underappreciated environmental risks was damage to EVA gloves during a spacewalk. The ISS has some elements which have been flying in the environment of space for over 14 years. It has and continues to be bombarded with MM/OD strikes that have created small, sharp craters all over the structure, including the dedicated EVA handrails and surrounding structure. These craters are capable of cutting through several layers of the EVA gloves. Starting in 2006, five EVA crewmembers reported cuts in their gloves so large they rendered the gloves unusable and in some cases cut the spacewalk short for the safety of the crew. This new hazard took engineers and managers by surprise. NASA has set out to mitigate this risk to safety and operations by redesigning the spacesuit gloves to be more resilient and designing a clamp to isolate MM/OD strikes on handrails, and is considering the necessity of an additional tool to repair strikes on non ]handrail surfaces (such as a file). This paper will address how the ISS Risk Team quantified an estimate of the MM/OD damage to the ISS, and the resulting likelihood of sustaining a cut glove in order to measure the effectiveness of the solutions being investigated to mitigate this risk to the mission and crew.

  1. Investigations on permeation of mitomycin C through double layers of natural rubber gloves.

    PubMed

    Korinth, Gintautas; Schmid, Klaus; Midasch, Oliver; Boettcher, Melanie I; Angerer, Jürgen; Drexler, Hans

    2007-10-01

    Treating peritoneal carcinomatosis by the aggressive cytoreductive surgery with the hyperthermic intraoperative intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) surgeons expose their gloved hands for up to 90 min to a peritoneal dialysis solution (PDS) containing mitomycin C (MMC). We investigated the permeation of MMC through the material of three different natural rubber gloves under conditions similar to the in-use during HIPEC as well as under worst-case exposure scenario. Two different methods, a two-chamber diffusion cell and a single-chamber glass chamber method, were used to demonstrate the permeation capability. The permeation of MMC dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution and PDS through double natural rubber glove material was tested over 2 h using four concentrations (c = 0.004, 0.008, 0.016 and 0.4 mg ml(-1)) and three receptor fluids (0.9% NaCl solution, PDS and a novel artificial sweat). In none of four glass chamber experiments and in only one of 40 diffusion cell experiments was permeation through glove material detected. The permeation occurred between 15 and 30 min under worst-case exposure scenario at a approximately 100-fold higher MMC concentration than under in-use conditions during HIPEC. The double-layer natural rubber gloves tested were effective to prevent a permeation of MMC in vitro under HIPEC-similar exposure. Our results support the glove wearing procedure in our university hospital. However, occupational exposure to antineoplastic drugs should be minimized, since there is insufficient knowledge regarding harmful effects from a long-term exposure to low doses. PMID:17921240

  2. Development of a Pre-Prototype Power Assisted Glove End Effector for Extravehicular Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this program was to develop an EVA power tool which is capable of performing a variety of functions while at the same time increasing the EVA crewmember's effectiveness by reducing hand fatigue associated with gripping tools through a pressurized EMU glove. The Power Assisted Glove End Effector (PAGE) preprototype hardware met or exceeded all of its technical requirements and has incorporated acoustic feedback to allow the EVA crewmember to monitor motor loading and speed. If this tool is to be developed for flight use, several issues need to be addressed. These issues are listed.

  3. Data glove embedded with 9-axis IMU and force sensing sensors for evaluation of hand function.

    PubMed

    Pei-Chi Hsiao; Shu-Yu Yang; Bor-Shing Lin; I-Jung Lee; Chou, Willy

    2015-08-01

    A hand injury can greatly affect a person's daily life. Physicians must evaluate the state of recovery of a patient's injured hand. However, current manual evaluations of hand functions are imprecise and inconvenient. In this paper, a data glove embedded with 9-axis inertial sensors and force sensitive resistors is proposed. The proposed data glove system enables hand movement to be tracked in real-time. In addition, the system can be used to obtain useful parameters for physicians, is an efficient tool for evaluating the hand function of patients, and can improve the quality of hand rehabilitation. PMID:26737326

  4. A new penetration test method: protection efficiency of glove and clothing materials against diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI).

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja

    2015-03-01

    Reported cases of allergic contact dermatitis caused by methylenediphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) have increased and thereby increased the need for adequate skin protection. Current standardized permeation and penetration test methods give information about efficacy of protective materials against individual components of the polyurethane systems. They do not give information of what kind of clothing materials workers should wear against splashes when handling mixed MDI-polyurethane formulations, which contain MDI, its oligomers, and polyols. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive penetration test method that can be used to select clothing that is protective enough against uncured splashes of MDI-polyurethane, still easy to use, and also, to find affordable glove materials that provide adequate protection during a short contact. The penetration of MDI through eight representative glove or clothing materials was studied with the developed test procedure. One MDI hardener and two polymeric MDI (PMDI)-polyol formulations representing different curing times were used as test substances. The materials tested included work clothing (woven) fabric, arm shields (nonwoven fabric), old T-shirt, winter gloves, and gloves of nitrile rubber, leather, vinyl (PVC), and natural rubber. A drop (50 µl) of test substance was added to the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had Tape Fixomull attached to the inner surface as a collection medium. After penetration times of 5 or 20min, the collecting material was removed and immediately immersed into acetonitrile containing 1-(2-methoxyphenyl)-piperazine for derivatization. The formed urea derivatives of 2,4'-MDI and 4,4'-MDI were analysed using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric and UV detection. The precision of the test method was good for the material with high penetration (work clothing fabric) of MDI, as the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 14 and 20%. For the arm shield with a low

  5. How Effective Are Radiation Reducing Gloves in C-arm Fluoroscopy-guided Pain Interventions?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ah Na; Chang, Young Jae; Cheon, Bo Kyung

    2014-01-01

    Background The physician's hands are close to the X-ray field in C-arm fluoroscopy-guided pain interventions. We prospectively investigated the radiation attenuation of Proguard RR-2 gloves. Methods In 100 cases, the effective doses (EDs) of two dosimeters without a radiation-reducing glove were collected. EDs from the two dosimeters-one dosimeter wrapped with a glove and the other dosimeter without a glove- were also measured at the side of the table (Group 1, 140 cases) and at a location 20 cm away from the side of the table (Group 2, 120 cases). Mean differences such as age, height, weight, radiation absorbed dose (RAD), exposure time, ED, and ratio of EDs were analyzed. Results In the EDs of two dosimeters without gloves, there were no significant differences (39.0 ± 36.3 µSv vs. 38.8 ± 36.4 µSv) (P = 0.578). The RAD (192.0 ± 182.0 radcm2) in Group 2 was higher than that (132.3 ± 103.5 radcm2) in Group 1 (P = 0.002). The ED (33.3 ± 30.9 µSv) of the dosimeter without a glove in Group 1 was higher than that (12.3 ± 8.8 µSv) in Group 2 (P < 0.001). The ED (24.4 ± 22.4 µSv) of the dosimeter wrapped with a glove in Group 1 was higher than that (9.2 ± 6.8 µSv) in Group 2 (P < 0.001). No significant differences were noted in the ratio of EDs (73.5 ± 6.7% vs. 74.2 ± 9.3%, P = 0.469) between Group 1 and Group 2. Conclusions Proguard RR-2 gloves have a radiation attenuation effect of 25.8-26.5%. The radiation attenuation is not significantly different by intensity of scatter radiation or the different RADs of C-arm fluoroscopy. PMID:24748943

  6. Testing Penetration of Epoxy Resin and Diamine Hardeners through Protective Glove and Clothing Materials.

    PubMed

    Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Mäkelä, Erja A; Suuronen, Katri

    2015-10-01

    Efficient, comfortable, yet affordable personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed to decrease the high incidence of allergic contact dermatitis arising from epoxy resin systems (ERSs) in industrial countries. The aim of this study was to find affordable, user-friendly glove and clothing materials that provide adequate skin protection against splashes and during the short contact with ERS that often occurs before full cure. We studied the penetration of epoxy resin and diamine hardeners through 12 glove or clothing materials using a newly developed test method. The tests were carried out with two ERS test mixtures that had a high content of epoxy resin and frequently used diamine hardeners of different molar masses. A drop (50 µl) of test mixture was placed on the outer surface of the glove/clothing material, which had a piece of Fixomull tape or Harmony protection sheet attached to the inner surface as the collection medium. The test times were 10 and 30 min. The collecting material was removed after the test was finished and immersed into acetone. The amounts of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA), isophorone diamine (IPDA), and m-xylylenediamine (XDA) in the acetone solution were determined by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. The limit for acceptable penetration of XDA, IPDA, and DGEBA through glove materials was set at 2 µg cm(-2). Penetration through the glove materials was 1.4 µg cm(-2) or less. The three tested chemical protective gloves showed no detectable penetration (<0.5 µg cm(-2)). Several affordable glove and clothing materials were found to provide adequate protection during short contact with ERS, in the form of, for example, disposable gloves or clothing materials suitable for aprons and as additional protective layers on the most exposed parts of clothing, such as the front of the legs and thighs and under the forearms. Every ERS combination in use should be tested separately to find the best skin protection material

  7. Protective gloves of polymeric materials. Experimental permeation testing and clinical study of side effects.

    PubMed

    Mellström, G

    1991-01-01

    In the occupational use and handling of hazardous chemicals and infectious materials, exposure must be minimized. To diminish the risk of direct skin contact and percutaneous toxicity, the use of protective gloves is one of the most important measures to consider. For effective protection, the selection process must include evaluation of permeation test data as well as the risk of side effects possibly caused by the glove materials. In permeation testing (in vitro), breakthrough time and permeation rate are key values measured. Test conditions such as size and design of the permeation test cell, flow rate of the collecting medium through the test cell, measurement systems, testing procedures and analytical equipment can vary and can have crucial influence on the test results. In the present investigation, five permeation test cells of different sizes and design were used, the collecting gas flow rate was varied between 60 and 120 ml/min and 120 to 500 ml/min, the ASTM F 739 and ISO/DIS standard test procedures were performed using two different measurement systems, and in vitro versus in vivo testing techniques were studied. Gloves and glove materials of neoprene were exposed to four organic solvents. The breakthrough times (in vitro) for the test chemicals were slightly influenced by variations in cell size and design, flow rate and test procedure. The only significant influence on the breakthrough time values was between the two measurement systems, direct flow and automatic sampling. On the other hand, the permeation rate values were affected to a much greater extent, in most cases significantly. The test conditions in the in vitro and in vivo procedures differed in many ways and the test results were therefore compared on a relative basis. The breakthrough time values for the solvents through gloves of vinyl, natural rubber and butyl rubber were in the same rank order in both in vitro and in vivo testing. There was no evident correlation between the relative

  8. Modeling the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone permeation through butyl- and natural-rubber gloves.

    PubMed

    Zellers, E T; Sulewski, R

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes the temperature dependence of N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) permeation through gloves used in microelectronics fabrication facilities. One type of butyl-rubber glove (North B161), two types of natural-rubber gloves (Edmont Puretek and Ansell Pacific White), and a natural rubber/nitrile/neoprene-blend glove (Pioneer Trionic) were tested at four temperatures from 25-50 degrees C using the ASTM F739-85 permeation test method. The butyl-rubber glove showed no breakthrough after four hours of exposure at any temperature. The variations with temperature of measured breakthrough times (BT) and steady-state permeation rates (SSPR) for the other gloves were described well by Arrhenius relationships, with BT values decreasing by factors of 7-10 and SSPR values increasing by factors of 4-6 over the temperature range studied. Extrapolation to 70 and 93 degrees C, the temperatures at which degreasing is often performed, yielded BT values of < 2 min and < 0.5 min, respectively, in all cases. With the exception of the butyl-rubber glove, following an initial exposure at 25 degrees C and air drying overnight, low levels of NMP vapor were detected off-gassing from the inner surfaces of the gloves. Experimental results were then compared to those expected from several permeation models. Estimates of the equilibrium solvent solubility, S, were calculated using a model based on three-dimensional solubility parameters. Estimates of the solvent diffusion coefficient, D, were obtained from correlations with either the solvent kinematic viscosity or the product of the Flory interaction parameter, chi, and the solvent molar volume. Combining these values of D and S in Fickian diffusion equations gave modeled BT estimates that were within 23% of experimental values over the temperature range examined. Modeled SSPR values were within 50% (typically within 25%) of experimental values. Another model based on a generalized Arrhenius relationship also provided useful but

  9. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  10. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodhead, Andrea L.; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S.

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant.

  11. The purple coloration of four late 19th century silk dresses: A spectroscopic investigation.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Andrea L; Cosgrove, Bronwyn; Church, Jeffrey S

    2016-02-01

    Prior to the 19th century the use of purple dyes for textile coloration was expensive and usually limited to royalty. The discovery of several synthetic purple dyes during the 19th century made the production of purple textiles more affordable and thus more readily available. The identification of the source of the purple coloration is of historical interest. Small yarn samples from four late 19th century silk dresses were analyzed using a combination of thin layer chromatography and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. This combination of techniques enabled the analysis of the complex extraction products. While three of the dresses were found to be dyed using methyl violet, the fourth dress was found to be constructed from a warp yarn dyed with methyl violet in the presence of a tannic acid mordant, and a weft yarn dyed with mauve and a tin mordant. PMID:26523685

  12. Protective glove use and hygiene habits modify the associations of specific pesticides with Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Furlong, Melissa; Tanner, Caroline M; Goldman, Samuel M; Bhudhikanok, Grace S.; Blair, Aaron; Chade, Anabel; Comyns, Kathleen; Hoppin, Jane A.; Kasten, Meike; Korell, Monica; Langston, J William; Marras, Connie; Meng, Cheryl; Richards, Marie; Ross, G Webster; Umbach, David M; Sandler, Dale P; Kamel, Freya

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD), and protective gloves and workplace hygiene can reduce pesticide exposure. We assessed whether use of gloves and workplace hygiene modified associations between pesticides and PD. The Farming and Movement Evaluation (FAME) Study is a nested case-control study within the Agricultural Health Study. Use of protective gloves, other PPE, and hygiene practices were determined by questionnaire (69 cases and 237 controls were included). We considered interactions of gloves and hygiene with ever-use of pesticides for all pesticides with ≥ 5 exposed and unexposed cases and controls in each glove-use stratum (paraquat, permethrin, rotenone, and trifluralin). 61% of respondents consistently used protective gloves and 87% consistently used ≥ 2 hygiene practices. Protective glove use modified the associations of paraquat and permethrin with PD: neither pesticide was associated with PD among protective glove users, while both pesticides were associated with PD among non-users (paraquat OR 3.9 [95% CI 1.3, 11.7], interaction p=0.15; permethrin OR 4.3 [95% CI 1.2, 15.6] interaction p=0.05). Rotenone was associated with PD regardless of glove use. Trifluralin was associated with PD among people who used <2 hygiene practices (OR 5.5 [95% CI 1.1, 27.1]) but was not associated with PD among people who used 2 or more practices (interaction p=0.02). Although sample size was limited in the FAME study, protective glove use and hygiene practices appeared to be important modifiers of the association between pesticides and PD and may reduce risk of PD associated with certain pesticides. PMID:25461423

  13. Determination of total proton release in purple membrane suspension by umbelliferone fluorescence quenching technique.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S; Singh, A K

    1992-06-01

    A technique for determining total proton release from purple membrane suspension under steady illumination has been described. Illuminated purple membrane is found to quench the fluorescence life-time of umbelliferone indicating the release of protons in the medium. Besides the "stoichiometric" release of protons from bacteriorhodopsin, there seems to be release of protons from sources other than protonated retinylidene Schiff base moiety also. PMID:1324883

  14. Close-up of Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This close-up view of the stainless-steel Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Projects experimental 'glove' shows a highly reflective surface, underneath which are hundreds of temperature and pressure sensors that will send hypersonic flight data to ground tracking facilities during the experiment's flight. The glove and the Pegasus rocket wing it is attached to were load-tested at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. The Pegasus wing with attached PHYSX glove was placed in a wooden triangular test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. Technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing, applying the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was

  15. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy.

    PubMed

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil. PMID:23981412

  16. Non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex from Brescia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aceto, Maurizio; Idone, Ambra; Agostino, Angelo; Fenoglio, Gaia; Gulmini, Monica; Baraldi, Pietro; Crivello, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Purple codices are among the most relevant and prestigious book productions of Late Antique and Medieval age. They usually contained texts from Holy Writings written with golden or silver inks on parchment dyed in a purple hue. According to the tradition, the colour of parchment was obtained by the well renowned Tyrian purple dye. From the material point of view, however, very little is known about the compounds actually used in the manufacture of these manuscripts. Presently, the information available is limited to the ancient art treatises, with very few diagnostic evidences supporting them and, moreover, none confirming the presence of Tyrian purple. It is more than apparent, then, the need to have at disposal larger and more complete information at the concern, in order to verify what came to us from the literary tradition only. In this study, preliminary results are presented from non-invasive investigation on a VI century purple codex, the so-called CodexBrixianus, held in the Biblioteca Civica Queriniana at Brescia (Italy). Analyses were carried out with XRF spectrometry, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry, molecular spectrofluorimetry and optical microscopy. The results suggest the hypothesis that Tyrian purple had been used as a minor component mixed with other less precious dyes such as folium or orchil.

  17. Purple: A Modular System for Developing and Deploying Behavioral Intervention Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Schueller, Stephen M; Begale, Mark; Penedo, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The creation, deployment, and evaluation of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health, mental health, and wellness within research settings has tended to be siloed, with each research group developing their own systems and features. This has led to technological features and products that are not sharable across research teams, thereby limiting collaboration, reducing the speed of dissemination, and raising the bar for entry into this area of research. This paper provides an overview of Purple, an extensible, modular, and repurposable system created for the development of Web-based and mobile-based applications for health behavior change. Purple contains features required to construct applications and to manage and evaluate research trials using these applications. Core functionality of Purple includes elements that support user management, content authorship, content delivery, and data management. We discuss the history and development of the Purple system guided by the rationale of producing a system that allows greater collaboration and understanding across research teams interested in investigating similar questions and using similar methods. Purple provides a useful tool to meet the needs of stakeholders involved in the creation, provision, and usage of eHealth and mHealth applications. Housed in a non-profit, academic institution, Purple also offers the potential to facilitate the diffusion of knowledge across the research community and improve our capacity to deliver useful and usable applications that support the behavior change of end users. PMID:25079298

  18. Reversal of the surface charge asymmetry in purple membrane due to single amino acid substitutions.

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, K C; Rayfield, G W; Needleman, R

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-seven mutant bacteriorhodopsin's were screened to determine the PKa for reversal of the permanent electric dipole moment. The photoelectric response of an aqueous purple-membrane suspension was used to determine the direction of the purple-membrane dipole moment as a function of pH. The pK(a) for the dipole reversal of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin is 4.5. Six of the 27 mutant bacteriorhodopsin's were found to have a pK(a) for dipole reversal larger than that of wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. Two of these mutants, L93T and L93W, involve a neutral amino acid substitution in the interior of the protein. The direction of the purple-membrane permanent electric dipole moment is determined by the purple-membrane surface charge asymmetry. We conclude that these two substitutions, which do not involve charge replacement, alter the pK(a) for the reversal of the purple-membrane surface charge asymmetry. We suggest that these changes to the pK(a) are due to altered protein folding at the surface of the purple-membrane induced by single-site substitutions in the protein interior. PMID:9172760

  19. Proliferation of Purple Sulphur Bacteria at the Sediment Surface Affects Intertidal Mat Diversity and Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Hubas, Cédric; Jesus, Bruno; Ruivo, Mickael; Meziane, Tarik; Thiney, Najet; Davoult, Dominique; Spilmont, Nicolas; Paterson, David M.; Jeanthon, Christian

    2013-01-01

    There is a relative absence of studies dealing with mats of purple sulphur bacteria in the intertidal zone. These bacteria display an array of metabolic pathways that allow them to disperse and develop under a wide variety of conditions, making these mats important in terms of ecosystem processes and functions. Mass blooms of purple sulphur bacteria develop during summer on sediments in the intertidal zone especially on macroalgal deposits. The microbial composition of different types of mats differentially affected by the development of purple sulphur bacteria was examined, at low tide, using a set of biochemical markers (fatty acids, pigments) and composition was assessed against their influence on ecosystem functions (sediment cohesiveness, CO2 fixation). We demonstrated that proliferation of purple sulphur bacteria has a major impact on intertidal mats diversity and functions. Indeed, assemblages dominated by purple sulphur bacteria (Chromatiaceae) were efficient exopolymer producers and their biostabilisation potential was significant. In addition, the massive growth of purple sulphur bacteria resulted in a net CO2 degassing whereas diatom dominated biofilms represented a net CO2 sink. PMID:24340018

  20. Resonance Raman Spectroscopy of Purple Membrane from Halobacterium Halobium.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argade, Pramod Vasant

    Purple membrane from the halophilic bacteria, Halobacterium halobium, contains the protein, bacteriorhodopsin, which functions as a light transducing proton pump. Understanding the molecular mechanism underlying the functioning of bacteriorhodopsin is a key problem in membrane biophysics. After absorbing a photon, this protein cycles through a series of characteristic intermeidate states and pumps H('+) ions across the membrane. In this way, the energy of the absorbed photon is stored in the electrochemical potential gradient formed across the membrane. This energy is subsequently available for metabolism by the bacterium. Bacteriorhodopsin consists of a retinal chromophore (which is responsible for the purple color) bound to the protein, bacterioopsin, whose sequence is known and consists of 248 amino acid residues. There is evidence that conformational changes in the chromophore may contribute to the proton pumping action. Resonance Raman light scattering provides a selective tool to monitor the conformational changes in the chromophore during the proton pumping cycle. This dissertation consists of applying resonance Raman light scattering in conjunction with a variety of newly developed experimental techniques to gain information about the mode of action of bacteriorhodopsin. By selective isotopic labelling of (epsilon)-amino nitrogen of the lysine residues of the protein, the site of attachment of the chromophore with the protein was verified by in situ measurements. Also, a model proposing a secondary interaction of the chromophore with a lysine residue other than the binding site of the chromophore was tested using this method. Furthermore, by selective isotopic labelling of only a part of the protein the location of the lysine on the protein to which the chromophore is bound, was found by in situ measurements to be the fragment consisting of amino acid residues 72 through 248 of the protein. This is inconsistent with the previously reported binding site at

  1. A Haptic Glove as a Tactile-Vision Sensory Substitution for Wayfinding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelek, John S.; Bromley, Sam; Asmar, Daniel; Thompson, David

    2003-01-01

    A device that relays navigational information using a portable tactile glove and a wearable computer and camera system was tested with nine adults with visual impairments. Paths traversed by subjects negotiating an obstacle course were not qualitatively different from paths produced with existing wayfinding devices and hitting probabilities were…

  2. Efficacy of three surface disinfectants for dental radiographic films and gloves.

    PubMed

    Coogan, M M; Patel, M; Mladenova, D

    2004-07-01

    Contaminated radiographic films and gloves may transmit infectious diseases. Objective. To determine whether Pre Sept (NaDC), a sodium dichloroisocyanurate based disinfectant; Bronocide SP (AIP) an alcohol-phenol-iodine disinfectant and polyvinyl pyrrolidine iodine (PVPI) can be used to disinfect radiographic films and gloves. Study design. Radiographic films were contaminated with Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacilli or saliva and placed in either 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 NaDC for 1, 2 or 5 min; PVPI for 5 min or sprayed with AIP. Gloves contaminated with C. albicans, S. mutans or Lactobacilli were sprayed with AIP. After treatment the films and gloves were tested for viable microorganisms. Results. A 0.5% solution of NaDC killed all microorganisms after one-minute exposure. PVPI killed 99.8% and AIP spray between 95.8 and 99% of microorganisms. Conclusions. NaDC was the most successful disinfectant in the laboratory and clinical setting followed by PVPI and AIP. PMID:15193787

  3. Feasibility Assessment of an EVA Glove Sensing Platform to Evaluate Potential Hand Injury Risk Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Christopher R.; McFarland, Shane M.

    2015-01-01

    Injuries to the hands are common among astronauts who train for extravehicular activity (EVA). When the gloves are pressurized, they restrict movement and create pressure points during tasks, sometimes resulting in pain, muscle fatigue, abrasions, and occasionally more severe injuries such as onycholysis. A brief review of the Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health's injury database reveals that 58% of total astronaut hand and arm injuries from NBL training between 1993 and 2010 occurred either to the fingernail, MCP, or fingertip. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of using small sensors to measure force acting on the fingers and hand within pressurized gloves and other variables such as blood perfusion, skin temperature, humidity, fingernail strain, skin moisture, among others. Tasks were performed gloved and ungloved in a pressurizable glove box. The test demonstrated that fingernails saw greater transverse strain levels for tension or compression than for longitudinal strain, even during axial fingertip loading. Blood perfusion peaked and dropped as the finger deformed during finger presses, indicating an initial dispersion and decrease of blood perfusion levels. Force sensitive resistors to force plate comparisons showed similar force curve patterns as fingers were depressed, indicating suitable functionality for future testing. Strategies for proper placement and protection of these sensors for ideal data collection and longevity through the test session were developed and will be implemented going forward for future testing.

  4. Single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy using homemade glove port at low cost

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Myoung; Hwang, Go Sung; Lee, Do Sang

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report homemade glove port technique for single-incision laparoscopic appendectomy (SILA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our homemade glove port was composed of a size 6 latex sterile surgical glove, a sterilized plastic bangle, and three pieces of silicon tube (5 cm in length) that were used as the suction tube. Clinical data were retrospectively collected from those patients who underwent SILA at Bucheon St. Mary's Hospital, Bucheon, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea between February 2014 and June 2014, including patient demographics, and operative and postoperative outcomes. To compare the outcomes, a retrospective review was performed for those patients who underwent conventional laparoscopic appendectomy (CLA) between October 2013 and January 2014. Both SILA and CLA were performed by the same surgical team. RESULTS: The SILA and CLA groups included 37 and 57 patients, respectively. The mean age, weight, body mass index (BMI), operation time, and pathologic diagnosis of gangrenous appendicitis were not significantly different between the two groups. However, the mean hospital stay in the CLA group was significantly (P = 0.018) longer than that in the SILA group (4.2 days vs 3.5 days). There was no conversion to open surgery in both the groups. Of the cases who underwent SILA, 10 (27.0%) needed insertion of additional port and drain. There was one (3.2%) complication of umbilical surgical site infection. CONCLUSION: In this study, SILA, with homemade glove port, was technically feasible and safe at low cost. PMID:27073303

  5. 21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. 878.4480 Section 878.4480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  6. 21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. 878.4480 Section 878.4480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  7. 21 CFR 878.4480 - Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Absorbable powder for lubricating a surgeon's glove. 878.4480 Section 878.4480 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GENERAL AND PLASTIC SURGERY DEVICES Surgical Devices §...

  8. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mesloh, Miranda; England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Thompson, Shelby; Rajulu, Sudhakar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize hand strength, while wearing a Phase VI Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove in an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit. Three types of data were collected: hand grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch, wider three different conditions: bare-handed, gloved with no Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG), and glove with TMG. In addition, during the gloved conditions, subjects were tested when unpressurized and pressurized (43 psi). As a percentage of bare-hand strength, the TMG condition showed reduction in grip strength to 55% unpressurized and 46% pressurized. Without the TMG, grip strength increased to 66% unpressurized and 58% pressurized of bare-hand strength. For lateral pinch strength, the reduction in strength was the same for both pressure conditions and with and without the TMG, about 8.5% of bare-hand Pulp-2 pinch strength with no TMG showed an increase to 122% unpressurized and 115% pressurized of bare-hand strength. While wearing the TMG, pulp-2 pinch strength was 115% of bare-hand strength for both pressure conditions.

  9. Astronaut Joseph Tanner checks gloves during during launch/entry training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph R. Tanner, mission specialist, checks his gloves during a rehearsal for the launch and entry phases of the scheduled November 1994 flight of STS-66. This rehearsal, held in the crew compartment trainer (CCT) of JSC's Shuttle mockup and integration laboratory, was followed by a training session on emergency egress procedures.

  10. Student Perceptions and Effectiveness of an Innovative Learning Tool: Anatomy Glove Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisk, Kristina; McKee, Pat; Baskwill, Amanda; Agur, Anne M. R.

    2015-01-01

    A trend in anatomical education is the development of alternative pedagogical approaches to replace or complement experiences in a cadaver laboratory; however, empirical evidence on their effectiveness is often not reported. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Anatomy Glove Learning System (AGLS), which enables students to learn the…

  11. The magic glove: a gesture-based remote controller for intelligent mobile robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Chaomin; Chen, Yue; Krishnan, Mohan; Paulik, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a gesture-based Human Robot Interface (HRI) for an autonomous mobile robot entered in the 2010 Intelligent Ground Vehicle Competition (IGVC). While the robot is meant to operate autonomously in the various Challenges of the competition, an HRI is useful in moving the robot to the starting position and after run termination. In this paper, a user-friendly gesture-based embedded system called the Magic Glove is developed for remote control of a robot. The system consists of a microcontroller and sensors that is worn by the operator as a glove and is capable of recognizing hand signals. These are then transmitted through wireless communication to the robot. The design of the Magic Glove included contributions on two fronts: hardware configuration and algorithm development. A triple axis accelerometer used to detect hand orientation passes the information to a microcontroller, which interprets the corresponding vehicle control command. A Bluetooth device interfaced to the microcontroller then transmits the information to the vehicle, which acts accordingly. The user-friendly Magic Glove was successfully demonstrated first in a Player/Stage simulation environment. The gesture-based functionality was then also successfully verified on an actual robot and demonstrated to judges at the 2010 IGVC.

  12. The "White Glove Pulpit": A History of Policy Influence by First Ladies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Robert P.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the public policy influence exerted by the early first ladies, whose endeavors comprise a "White Glove Pulpit," a feminine means of asserting power in the realm of strict gender confines. Discusses four roles (spouse and partner, hostess, advocate, and public figure and campaigner) through which the First Ladies influenced public…

  13. Object-oriented process dose modeling for glove-box operations

    SciTech Connect

    Boerigter, S.T.; Fasel, J.H.; Kornreich, D.E.

    1999-07-01

    The Plutonium Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) supports several defense- and non-defense-related missions for the country by performing fabrication, surveillance, and research and development for materials and components that contain plutonium. Most operations occur in rooms with one or more arrays of glove boxes connected to each other via trolley glove boxes. Each room may contain glove boxes dedicated to several different operations or functions. Minimizing the effective dose equivalent (EDE) is a growing concern as a result of steadily allowable dose limits being imposed and a growing general awareness of safety in the workplace. In general, the authors discriminate three components of a worker's total EDE: the primary EDE, the secondary EDE, and background EDE. The immediate sources to which a worker is exposed provide the primary EDE. The secondary EDE results from operations and sources in the same vicinity or room as the worker. The background EDE results from all other sources of radiation, such as natural sources and sources outside of the room. A particular background source of interest is the nuclear materials vault. The distinction between sources inside and outside of a particular room is arbitrary with the underlying assumption that building walls and floors provide significant shielding to justify including sources in other rooms in the background category. An associated paper details the tool that they use to determine the primary and secondary EDEs for all processes of interest in a room containing glove boxes.

  14. The use of aldehyde indicators to determine glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde contamination in chemical protective gloves.

    PubMed

    Vo, Evanly; Zhuang, Zhenzhen

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the use of aldehyde indicator pads for detection of glutaraldehyde and alkaline glutaraldehyde permeation through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. The quantitative analysis of glutaraldehyde permeation through a glove material was determined for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde following a solvent-desorption process and gas chromatographic analysis. All glutaraldehyde solutions exhibited >99% adsorption (including both the glutaraldehyde oligomers of the reaction product and the excess glutaraldehyde) on the pads over the spiking range 0.05-5.0 microL. Breakthrough times for protective gloves were determined using the Thermo-Hand test method, and found to range from 76 to 150, from 170 to 230, and from 232 to 300 min for Metricide, Wavicide, and 50% glutaraldehyde, respectively. Glutaraldehyde recovery was calculated and ranged from 61 to 80% for all glutaraldehyde solutions. The mass of glutaraldehyde in these solutions at the time of breakthrough detection ranged from 17 to 18, from 18 to 19, and from 19 to 20 microg/cm(2) for Wavicide, 50% glutaraldehyde solution, and Metricide, respectively. Aldehyde indicator pads and the Thermo-Hand test method together should find utility in detecting, collecting, and quantitatively analyzing glutaraldehyde permeation samples through chemical protective gloves under simulated in-use conditions. PMID:19330475

  15. A quantitative study of aromatic amine permeation through protective gloves using amine adsorptive pads.

    PubMed

    Vo, E; Berardinelli, S P; Hall, R C; El Ayouby, N

    2000-01-01

    A quantitative study of aromatic amine permeation through a glove material using Permea-Tec aromatic amine pads, used for the detection of chemical breakthrough of protective clothing, was performed for aniline following the microwave extraction process and gas chromatographic analysis. Aniline exhibited >99% adsorption on the pads at a spiking level of 1.94 mg (1.9 microL). Aniline showed recoveries from 65 to 89% (RSD < or =5.6%) over the range 1.1-1.9 microL (1.12-1.94 mg) of aniline applied to pads. The modified ASTM F739 and direct permeability testing procedures were used to determine breakthrough times for five protective glove materials using aniline as a challenge chemical. Breakthrough times for six protective gloves were determined, ranging from 182 sec to 82 min. The quantitative concentration of aniline on the pads following permeation through the gloves also was determined, ranging from 0.53 to 0.55 mg/cm2 (1.79-1.88 mg/pad). PMID:11192217

  16. A data glove with tactile feedback for FMRI of virtual reality experiments.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jeonghun; Mraz, Richard; Baker, Nicole; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Lee, Jang Han; Kim, In Y; Kim, Sun I; Graham, Simon J

    2003-10-01

    Virtual reality (VR) technology is increasingly recognized as a useful tool for the assessment and rehabilitation of neurologic and psychiatric disorders. The hope that VR can accurately mimic real-life events is also of great interest in basic neuroscience, to identify the brain activity that underlies complex behavior by combining VR with techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Toward these applications, in this study we designed and validated an fMRI-compatible data glove with a built-in vibratory stimulus device for tactile feedback during VR experiments. A simple VR-fMRI experiment was performed at 3.0 Tesla on four young healthy adults involving touching a virtual object with and without tactile feedback. The usefulness of the data glove was subsequently assessed using a series of questionnaires, behavioral performance, and the resulting activation images. Questionnaire scores indicated positive opinions with respect to the data glove, the tactile feedback, and the experimental paradigm. All subjects felt comfortable in the scanner during the VR experiment and were able to perform all aspects of the tasks successfully and with reasonable accuracy. In addition, activation maps showed the anticipated modulations in motor, somatosensory, and parietal cortex. These results support that tactile feedback enhances the realism of virtual hand-object interactions, and that the tactile data glove is suitable for use in other VR-fMRI research applications (e.g., VR physical therapy for stroke recovery). PMID:14583125

  17. The Effects of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Glove Pressure on Hand Strength

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Mesloh, Miranda; Thompson, Shelby; England, Scott; Benson, Liz

    2009-01-01

    With the new vision of space travel aimed at traveling back to the Moon and eventually to Mars, NASA is designing a new spacesuit glove. The purpose of this study was to baseline hand strength while wearing the current Extravehicular Activity (EVA) glove, the Phase VI. By varying the pressure in the glove, hand strength could be characterized as a function of spacesuit pressure. This finding is of extreme importance when evaluating missions that require varying suit pressures associated with different operations within NASA's current human spaceflight program, Constellation. This characterization fed directly into the derivation of requirements for the next EVA glove. This study captured three types of maximum hand strength: grip, lateral pinch, and pulp-2 pinch. All three strengths were measured under varying pressures and compared to a bare-hand condition. The resulting standardized data was reported as a percentage of the bare-hand strength. The first wave of tests was performed while the subjects, four female and four male, were wearing an Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) suit supported by a suit stand. This portion of the test collected data from the barehand, suited unpressurized, and suited pressurized (4.3 psi) conditions. In addition, the effects of the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) on hand strength were examined, with the suited unpressurized and pressurized cases tested with and without a TMG. It was found that, when pressurized and with the TMG, the Phase VI glove reduced applied grip strength to a little more than half of the subject s bare-hand strength. The lateral pinch strength remained relatively constant while the pulp-2 pinch strength actually increased with pressure. The TMG was found to decrease maximum applied grip strength by an additional 10% for both pressurized and unpressurized cases, while the pinch strengths saw little to no change. In developing requirements based on human subjects, it is important to attempt to derive

  18. Purple L1 Milestone Review Panel GPFS Functionality and Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Loewe, W E

    2006-12-01

    The GPFS deliverable for the Purple system requires the functionality and performance necessary for ASC I/O needs. The functionality includes POSIX and MPIIO compatibility, and multi-TB file capability across the entire machine. The bandwidth performance required is 122.15 GB/s, as necessary for productive and defensive I/O requirements, and the metadata performance requirement is 5,000 file stats per second. To determine success for this deliverable, several tools are employed. For functionality testing of POSIX, 10TB-files, and high-node-count capability, the parallel file system bandwidth performance test IOR is used. IOR is an MPI-coordinated application that can write and then read to a single shared file or to an individual file per process and check the data integrity of the file(s). The MPIIO functionality is tested with the MPIIO test suite from the MPICH library. Bandwidth performance is tested using IOR for the required 122.15 GB/s sustained write. All IOR tests are performanced with data checking enabled. Metadata performance is tested after ''aging'' the file system with 80% data block usage and 20% inode usage. The fdtree metadata test is expected to create/remove a large directory/file structure in under 20 minutes time, akin to interactive metadata usage. Multiple (10) instances of ''ls -lR'', each performing over 100K stats, are run concurrently in different large directories to demonstrate 5,000 stats/sec.

  19. Oriented adsorption of purple membrane to cationic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Fisher, K A; Yanagimoto, K; Stoeckenius, W

    1978-05-01

    We have investigated the orientation of isolated fragments of Halobacterium halobium purple membrane (PM) adsorbed to poly-L-lysine-treated glass (PL-glass), by quanitative electron microscopy. Three lines of evidence support the conclusion that the cytoplasmic side of the membrane is preferentially absorbed. First, monolayer freeze-fracture reveals nonrandom orientation; more fracture faces (89%) are particulate than smooth. Second, the amount of each membrane surface present can be assayed using polycationic ferritin; 90% of all adsorbed membrane fragments are labeled. Third, it is possible to distinguish two surfaces, "cracked" (the extracellular surface) and "pitted" (the cytoplasmic surface) , in slowly air-dried, platinum-carbon-shadowed membranes. When applied under standard conditions, more than 80% appear cracked. Selection for the cytoplasmic by the cationic substrate suggests that the isolated PM, buffered at pH 7.4 and in the light, has a higher negative charge on its cytoplasmic surface than on its extracellular surface. Nevertheless, cationic ferritin (CF) preferentially adsorbs to the extracellular surface. Orientation provides a striking example of biomembrane surface asymmetry as well as the means to examine the chemical reactivity and physical properties of surfaces of a purified, nonvesicular membrane fragment. PMID:649662

  20. Spin-Controlled Photoluminescence in Hybrid Nanoparticles Purple Membrane System

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Spin-dependent photoluminescence (PL) quenching of CdSe nanoparticles (NPs) has been explored in the hybrid system of CdSe NP purple membrane, wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (bR) thin film on a ferromagnetic (Ni-alloy) substrate. A significant change in the PL intensity from the CdSe NPs has been observed when spin-specific charge transfer occurs between the retinal and the magnetic substrate. This feature completely disappears in a bR apo membrane (wild-type bacteriorhodopsin in which the retinal protein covalent bond was cleaved), a bacteriorhodopsin mutant (D96N), and a bacteriorhodopsin bearing a locked retinal chromophore (isomerization of the crucial C13=C14 retinal double bond was prevented by inserting a ring spanning this bond). The extent of spin-dependent PL quenching of the CdSe NPs depends on the absorption of the retinal, embedded in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin. Our result suggests that spin-dependent charge transfer between the retinal and the substrate controls the PL intensity from the NPs. PMID:27018195

  1. Purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria monitor environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Kis, Mariann; Sipka, Gábor; Asztalos, Emese; Rázga, Zsolt; Maróti, Péter

    2015-10-01

    Heavy metal ion pollution and oxygen deficiency are major environmental risks for microorganisms in aqueous habitat. The potential of purple non-sulfur photosynthetic bacteria for biomonitoring and bioremediation was assessed by investigating the photosynthetic capacity in heavy metal contaminated environments. Cultures of bacterial strains Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rubrivivax gelatinosus were treated with heavy metal ions in micromolar (Hg(2+)), submillimolar (Cr(6+)) and millimolar (Pb(2+)) concentration ranges. Functional assays (flash-induced absorption changes and bacteriochlorophyll fluorescence induction) and electron micrographs were taken to specify the harmful effects of pollution and to correlate to morphological changes of the membrane. The bacterial strains and functional tests showed differentiated responses to environmental stresses, revealing that diverse mechanisms of tolerance and/or resistance are involved. The microorganisms were vulnerable to the prompt effect of Pb(2+), showed weak tolerance to Hg(2+) and proved to be tolerant to Cr(6+). The reaction center controlled electron transfer in Rvx. gelatinosus demonstrated the highest degree of resistance against heavy metal exposure. PMID:26232748

  2. Magnetic birefringence studies of dilute purple membrane suspensions.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, B A; Rosenblatt, C; Griffin, R G; Courtemanche, J; Herzfeld, J

    1985-01-01

    We have observed the magnetically induced orientation of purple membrane suspensions by measuring the birefringence as a function of concentration and temperature at fields up to 10.5 Tesla (T). At these fields, the orientation approaches saturation even in dilute solutions; therefore, the birefringence data, together with an estimate of the membrane size distribution obtained from electron microscopy, permits one to determine the diamagnetic susceptibility anisotropy. We find delta chi mole = 1.2 +/- 0.3 X 10(-3) erg G-2mol-1 of bacteriorhodopsin. If delta chi were due only to the oriented peptide bonds of the transmembrane alpha helices, this experimental value would indicate that delta K, the anisotropy per mole of peptide bonds, is considerably larger than previously suggested. On the other hand, the large value for delta chi mole of bacteriorhodopsin can also be explained by a net orientation of the aromatic amino acid side chains of bacteriorhodopsin with their planes perpendicular to the membrane surface. In addition, the present data analysis demonstrates the critical dependence of the calculated delta chi value on the values for the membrane size distribution. PMID:3978196

  3. Photooxidation Tolerance Characters of a New Purple Pepper

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Li-jun; Zhang, Zhu-qing; Dai, Xiong-ze; Zou, Xue-xiao

    2013-01-01

    Huai Zi (HZ) is a new purple mutant of green pepper (PI 631133) that is obtained from the United States Department of Agriculture. The net photosynthetic rate (PN), chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, antioxidant substances, antioxidant enzymes, photosystem 1 (PS1) and PS2 activities were studied through methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The results showed that the PN, actual photochemical efficiency of PS2 (ΦPS2), photochemical quenching coefficient (qP), PS1 and PS2 activities in HZ were lower than those in green pepper. HZ had a stronger ability to eliminate reactive oxygen species(O2•−) and accumulated less malondialdehyde (MDA) (a membrane lipid peroxidation product) than did green pepper, and had a higher content of antioxidants and antioxidant enzyme activity. This suggests that the lower light energy absorption and higher thermal dissipation and antioxidant activity of HZ contributed to a more stable PS2 photosynthetic capacity, which resulted in photooxidation tolerance. Hence, our study strongly suggests that pepper hybrids can achieve a modest ratio of chlorophyll and anthocyanin content, high PN and resistance to photooxidation, improving yield and resistance to adverse environments. PMID:23704924

  4. Red, purple and pink: the colors of diffusion on pinterest.

    PubMed

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work-e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  5. Characteristics of purple nonsulfur bacteria grown under Stevia residue extractions.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Feng, Y; Wang, Y; Lin, X

    2013-11-01

    As a consequence of the large-scale cultivation of Stevia plants, releases of plant residues, the byproduct after sweetener extraction, to the environment are inevitable. Stevia residue and its effluent after batching up contain large amounts of organic matters with small molecular weight, which therefore are a potential pollution source. Meanwhile, they are favourite substrates for micro-organism growths. This investigation was aimed to utilize the simulated effluent of Stevia residue to enrich the representative purple nonsulfur bacterium (PNSB), Rhodopseudomonas palustris (Rps. palustris), which has important economic values. The growth profile and quality of Rps. palustris were characterized by spectrophotometry, compared to those grown in common PNSB mineral synthetic medium. Our results revealed that the simulated effluent of Stevia residue not only stimulated Rps. palustris growth to a greater extent, but also increased its physiologically active cytochrome concentrations and excreted indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) content. This variation in phenotype of Rps. palustris could result from the shift in its genotype, further revealed by the repetitive sequence-based PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting analysis. Our results showed that the effluent of Stevia residue was a promising substrate for microbial growth. PMID:23837648

  6. Calibration of Solar Radio Spectrometer of the Purple Mountain Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, LU; Si-ming, LIU; Qi-wu, SONG; Zong-jun, NING

    2015-10-01

    Calibration is a basic and important job in solar radio spectral observations. It not only deduces the solar radio flux as an important physical quantity for solar observations, but also deducts the flat field of the radio spectrometer to display the radio spectrogram clearly. In this paper, we first introduce the basic method of calibration based on the data of the solar radio spectrometer of Purple Mountain Observatory. We then analyze the variation of the calibration coefficients, and give the calibrated results for a few flares. These results are compared with those of the Nobeyama solar radio polarimeter and the hard X-ray observations of the RHESSI (Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager) satellite, it is shown that these results are consistent with the characteristics of typical solar flare light curves. In particular, the analysis on the correlation between the variation of radio flux and the variation of hard X-ray flux in the pulsing phase of a flare indicates that these observations can be used to study the relevant radiation mechanism, as well as the related energy release and particle acceleration processes.

  7. Red, Purple and Pink: The Colors of Diffusion on Pinterest

    PubMed Central

    Bakhshi, Saeideh; Gilbert, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Many lab studies have shown that colors can evoke powerful emotions and impact human behavior. Might these phenomena drive how we act online? A key research challenge for image-sharing communities is uncovering the mechanisms by which content spreads through the community. In this paper, we investigate whether there is link between color and diffusion. Drawing on a corpus of one million images crawled from Pinterest, we find that color significantly impacts the diffusion of images and adoption of content on image sharing communities such as Pinterest, even after partially controlling for network structure and activity. Specifically, Red, Purple and pink seem to promote diffusion, while Green, Blue, Black and Yellow suppress it. To our knowledge, our study is the first to investigate how colors relate to online user behavior. In addition to contributing to the research conversation surrounding diffusion, these findings suggest future work using sophisticated computer vision techniques. We conclude with a discussion on the theoretical, practical and design implications suggested by this work—e.g. design of engaging image filters. PMID:25658423

  8. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins in transgenic purple tomato.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoyu; Xu, Jianteng; Rhodes, Davina; Shen, Yanting; Song, Weixing; Katz, Benjamin; Tomich, John; Wang, Weiqun

    2016-07-01

    Anthocyanins are natural pigments derived from the phenylpropanoid pathway. Most tomatoes produce little anthocyanins, but the transgenic purple tomato biosynthesizes a high level of anthocyanins due to expression of two transcription factors (Del and Ros1). This study was to identify and quantify anthocyanins in this transgenic tomato line. Seven anthocyanins, including two new anthocyanins [malvidin-3-(p-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and malvidin-3-(feruloyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside], were identified by LC-MS/MS. Petunidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside and delphinidin-3-(trans-coumaroyl)-rutinoside-5-glucoside were the most abundant anthocyanins, making up 86% of the total anthocyanins. Compared to undetectable anthocyanins in the wild type, the contents of anthocyanins in the whole fruit, peel, and flesh of the Del/Ros1-transgenic tomato were 5.2±0.5, 5.1±0.5, and 5.8±0.3g/kg dry matter, respectively. Anthocyanins were undetectable in the seeds of both wide-type and transgenic tomato lines. Such novel and high levels of anthocyanins obtained in this transgenic tomato may provide unique functional products with potential health benefits. PMID:26920283

  9. Interfacial electric polarizability of purple membranes in solution.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, G; Sokerov, S; Stoylov, S P

    1982-01-01

    An investigation of the scattered light (lambda = 632.8 nm) from purple membrane suspensions with different concentrations subjected to external AC and DC electric fields has been carried out. The electric pulses used were in the field strength range 0-3.2 X 10(4) Vm-1 and the frequency range 10 Hz-1 MHz, the pulse duration being less than or equal to 0.5 s. A concentration dependence of the relative changes in the scattered light intensity was obtained, the effect being positive on orienting the suspensions by an AC field at 1 and 10 kHz, and negative in the case of a DC field. The negative effects in the diluted samples decrease and turn positive as the strength of the field increases. The positive effects show the existence of an interfacial polarizability along the plane of the membrane, and the negative ones suggest the presence of a permanent dipole moment (p), perpendicular to the plane of the membrane. The values of gamma (induced polarizability) and p were found to be on the order of 10(-28)-10(-29) Fm2 and 10(-24) Cm, respectively. An explanation in terms of membrane aggregation for the observed dependence on concentration is given. PMID:7139031

  10. Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE)-Parametric Pressure Distribution Boundary Layer Stability Study and Wing Glove Design Task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rozendaal, Rodger A.

    1986-01-01

    The Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment (VSTFE) was initiated to establish a boundary-layer transition data base for laminar flow wing design. For this experiment, full-span upper-surface gloves will be fitted to a variable sweep F-14 aircraft. The results of two initial tasks are documented: a parametric pressure distribution/boundary-layer stability study and the design of an upper-surface glove for Mach 0.8. The first task was conducted to provide a data base from which wing-glove pressure distributions could be selected for glove designs. Boundary-layer stability analyses were conducted on a set of pressure distributions for various wing sweep angles, Mach numbers, and Reynolds number in the range of those anticipated for the flight-test program. The design procedure for the Mach 0.8 glove is described, and boundary-layer stability calculations and pressure distributions are presented both at design and off-design conditions. Also included is the analysis of the clean-up glove (smoothed basic wing) that will be flight-tested initially and the analysis of a Mach 0.7 glove designed at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  11. Analysis of captan on nitrile glove surfaces using a portable attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Phalen, R N; Que Hee, Shane S

    2005-06-01

    This study developed a method to produce uniform captan surface films on a disposable nitrile glove for quantitation with a portable attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometer. A permeation test was performed using aqueous captan formulation. Uniform captan surface films were produced using solvent casting with 2-propanol and a 25 mm filter holder connected to a vacuum manifold to control solvent evaporation. The coefficient of variation of the reflectance at 1735 +/- 5 cm(-1) was minimized by selection of the optimum solvent volume, airflow rate, and evaporation time. At room temperature, the lower to upper quantifiable limits were 0.31-20.7 microg/cm2 (r = 0.9967; p < or = 0.05) for the outer glove surface and 0.55-17.5 microg/cm2 (r = 0.9409; p < or = 0.05) for the inner surface. Relative humidity and temperature did not affect the uncoated gloves at the wavelength of captan analysis. Glove screening using ATR-FTIR was necessary as a control for between-glove variation. Captan permeation, after 8 hours exposure to an aqueous concentration of 217 mg/mL of Captan 50-WP, was detected at 0.8 +/- 0.3 microg/cm2 on the inner glove surface. ATR-FTIR can detect captan permeation and can determine the protectiveness of this glove in the field. PMID:16053538

  12. Evaluation of the quality of surgical gloves among four different manufactures.

    PubMed

    Hwang, K L; Kou, S J; Lu, Y M; Yang, N C

    1999-05-01

    A randomized trial was conducted to evaluate the quality of four different brands of surgical gloves in terms of the perforation rate, ventilation, fitness, allergic reaction, elasticity, thickness, powder, and satisfaction. Gloves of four different manufactures which were used by various medical centres were distributed to participants according to a computer-generated randomization table. A structured questionnaire was self-administered by volunteers immediately after the surgical procedure to gather the information from participants, including the demographic data, allergy history, length of use, and variables of quality measures. Two brands, A and D, were significantly inferior to the best manufacture among the four, B, in terms of the ventilation, elasticity, and thickness, odds ratios ranging from 6 to 24, p < 0.05. For the amount of corn starch powder and satisfaction, all three other brands were inferior to brand B, odds ratios ranging from 6 to 44, p < 0.05. Gloves worn longer than 2 hours had a slightly higher perforation rate post procedures (11.5% vs. 2.1%, p = 0.048). The rate of latex allergic reaction was not significantly different between surgeons (8.3%) and the others (6.7%). No difference of the allergic reaction rate was found between subjects with allergy history (7.7%) and those without the history (7.5%). The quality of surgical gloves differs from brand to brand. The government and institutions should take the responsibility of monitoring the quality of surgical gloves in order to provide a safer and more comfortable environment for the surgical personnel and patients. PMID:10432871

  13. Monitoring Human Performance During Suited Operations: A Technology Feasibility Study Using EMU Gloves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bekdash, Omar; Norcross, Jason; McFarland, Shane

    2015-01-01

    Mobility tracking of human subjects while conducting suited operations still remains focused on the external movement of the suit and little is known about the human movement within it. For this study, accelerometers and bend sensitive resistors were integrated into a custom carrier glove to quantify range of motion and dexterity from within the pressurized glove environment as a first stage feasibility study of sensor hardware, integration, and reporting capabilities. Sensors were also placed on the exterior of the pressurized glove to determine if it was possible to compare a glove joint angle to the anatomical joint angle of the subject during tasks. Quantifying human movement within the suit was feasible, with accelerometers clearly detecting movements in the wrist and reporting expected joint angles at maximum flexion or extension postures with repeatability of plus or minus 5 degrees between trials. Bend sensors placed on the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints performed less well. It was not possible to accurately determine the actual joint angle using these bend sensors, but these sensors could be used to determine when the joint was flexed to its maximum and provide a general range of mobility needed to complete a task. Further work includes additional testing with accelerometers and the possible inclusion of hardware such as magnetometers or gyroscopes to more precisely locate the joint in 3D space. We hope to eventually expand beyond the hand and glove and develop a more comprehensive suit sensor suite to characterize motion across more joints (knee, elbow, shoulder, etc.) and fully monitor the human body operating within the suit environment.

  14. A test method for the evaluation of protective glove materials used in agricultural pesticide operations.

    PubMed

    Ehntholt, D J; Cerundolo, D L; Bodek, I; Schwope, A D; Royer, M D; Nielsen, A P

    1990-09-01

    The ASTM Standard Test Method for Resistance of Protective Clothing Materials to Permeation by Liquids and Gases (F 739-85) and the recommended permeation cell have been modified to permit the testing of protective clothing materials for permeation by the low volatility, low water solubility active ingredients present in many pesticide formulations. The modification makes use of solid collection medium, a thin (0.02-in. thick) sheet of silicone rubber, to collect permeants. Those compounds permeating the protective material can then be desorbed into an appropriate solvent and analyzed using conventional methods and instruments. A series of permeation tests have been conducted using samples of 10 common, commercially available protective glove materials and the modified cell. Permeation of the active ingredient as well as carrier solvent components of several concentrated pesticide formulations containing low volatility, low water solubility active ingredients and aromatic hydrocarbon carrier solvents has been monitored. The relative breakthrough and the total mass of material permeating the glove materials appears to be strongly related to the concentration of the aromatic carrier solvent present in the formulations studied to date. The collection method was found to be less useful for monitoring the permeation of active ingredients, which have reasonably high water solubilities. The results obtained by using this method with samples of protective glove materials challenged by several concentrated pesticide formulations are described. For these formulations containing xylene boiling range aromatic solvents, gloves made of nitrile rubber, butyl rubber, and Silver Shield were most resistant to permeation; natural rubber and polyethylene glove materials were least resistant. PMID:1699398

  15. Resistance of medical gloves to permeation by methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA).

    PubMed

    Lönnroth, Emma-Christin; Eystein Ruyter, I

    2003-01-01

    Gloves afford hand protection by minimizing skin contact. The effectiveness of medical gloves to protect against permeation of the monomers, methyl methacrylate (MMA), ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA), and 1,4-butanediol dimethacrylate (1,4-BDMA), was assessed focusing on permeation rates and degradation of glove materials caused by monomer contact. Fifteen different brands of gloves were tested using a European Standard procedure. Surface images of glove materials before and after exposure to the monomer mixture were obtained using a scanning electron microscope. The standard is not applicable as the only method for estimating the safety of gloves, but it is useful as guideline together with the cumulative permeation of acrylic monomers. Monomer contact on the outside resulted in substantial swelling of most glove materials, and structure changes of the inside surface. PMID:14577946

  16. Effect of a light-induced pH gradient on purple-to-blue and purple-to-red transitions of bacteriorhodopsin

    SciTech Connect

    Nasuda-Kouyama, A.; Fukuda, K.; Iio, T.; Kouyama, T. )

    1990-07-24

    Bacteriorhodopsin-containing vesicles that were able to alkalize the extravesicular medium by greater than 1.5 pH units under illumination, i.e., inside-out vesicles, were reconstituted by reverse-phase evaporation with Halobacterium halobium polar lipids or exogenous phospholipids. Acid titration of a dark-adapted sample was accompanied by a color change from purple to blue (pKa = 2.5-4.5 in 0.15 M K2SO4), and alkali titration resulted in the formation of a red species absorbing maximally at 480 nm (pKa = 7 to greater than 9), the pKa values and the extents of these color changes being dependent on the nature of lipid. When a vesicle suspension at neutral or weakly acidic pH was irradiated by continuous light so that a large pH gradient was generated across the membrane, either a purple-to-blue or a purple-to-red transition took place. The light-induced purple-to-red transition was significant in an unbuffered vesicle suspension and correlated with the pH change in the extravesicular medium. The result suggests that the purple-to-red transition is driven from the extravesicular side, i.e., from the C-terminal membrane surface. In the presence of buffer molecules outside, the dominant color change induced in the light was the purple-to-blue transition, which seemed to be due to a large decrease in the intravesicular pH. But an apparently inconsistent result was obtained when the extravesicular medium was acidified by a HCl pulse, which was accompanied by a rapid color change to blue. We arrived at the following explanation: The two bR isomers, one containing all-trans-retinal and the other 13-cis-retinal, respond differently to pH changes in the extravesicular and the intravesicular medium. In this relation, full light adaptation was not achieved when the light-induced purple-to-blue transition was significant.

  17. Pegasus Rocket Wing and PHYSX Glove Being Prepared for Stress Loads Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A technician adjusts the Pegasus Hypersonic Experiment (PHYSX) Project's Pegasus rocket wing with attached PHYSX glove before a loads-test at Scaled Composites, Inc., in Mojave, California, in January 1997. For the test, technicians slowly filled water bags beneath the wing to create the pressure, or 'wing-loading,' required to determine whether the wing could withstand its design limit for stress. The wing sits in a wooden triangular frame which serves as the test-rig, mounted to the floor atop the waterbags. PHYSX was launched aboard a Pegasus rocket on October 22, 1998. Pegasus is an air-launched space booster produced by Orbital Sciences Corporation and Hercules Aerospace Company (initially; later, Alliant Tech Systems) to provide small satellite users with a cost-effective, flexible, and reliable method for placing payloads into low earth orbit. Pegasus has been used to launch a number of satellites and the PHYSX experiment. That experiment consisted of a smooth glove installed on the first-stage delta wing of the Pegasus. The glove was used to gather data at speeds of up to Mach 8 and at altitudes approaching 200,000 feet. The flight took place on October 22, 1998. The PHYSX experiment focused on determining where boundary-layer transition occurs on the glove and on identifying the flow mechanism causing transition over the glove. Data from this flight-research effort included temperature, heat transfer, pressure measurements, airflow, and trajectory reconstruction. Hypersonic flight-research programs are an approach to validate design methods for hypersonic vehicles (those that fly more than five times the speed of sound, or Mach 5). Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, provided overall management of the glove experiment, glove design, and buildup. Dryden also was responsible for conducting the flight tests. Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, was responsible for the design of the aerodynamic glove as well as development of sensor and

  18. Comparison of loess and purple rill erosions measured with volume replacement method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2015-11-01

    Rills are commonly found on sloping farm fields in both the loess and the purple soil regions of China. A comparative study on rill erosion between the two soils is important to increase research knowledge and exchange application experiences. Rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils were determined through laboratory experiments with the volume replacement method. Water was used to refill the eroded rill segments to compute eroded volume before sediment concentration distribution along the rill was computed using the soil bulk density, flow rate, and water flow duration. The experimental loess soil materials were from the Loess Plateau and purple soil from the southwestern part of China, Chongqing City. A laboratory experimental platform was used to construct flumes to simulate rills with 12.0 m length, 0.1 m width, and 0.3 m depth. Soil materials were filled into the flumes at a bulk density of 1.2 g cm-3 to a depth of 20 cm to form rills for experiments on five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) and three flow rates (2, 4, and 8 L/min). After each experimental run under the given slope gradient and flow rate, the rill segments from the upper slope between 0-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, …, 7-8, 8-10, and 10-12 m were lined with plastic sheets before be re-filled with water to determine sediment concentration after the eroded volumes was measured. Rill erosion differed between the two soils. As purple soil started to erode at a higher erosive force than loess soil, it possibly exhibits higher resistance to water erosion. The subsequent erosion process in the eroding purple rill was similar to that in the loess rill. However, the total erosion in the eroding loess rill was more than that in the eroding purple rill. The maximum sediment concentration transported by the eroding purple rills was significantly lower, approximately 55% of those transported by the loess rills under the same flow rate and slope gradient. Hence, less purple sediments can

  19. A new banding technique for nesting adult purple martins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klimkiewicz, M.K.; Jung, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    Mery (1966) showed an almost equal sex ratio, males returned more frequently than females, over 50% of returns paired with other returns, an adult return rate of 20%, and no pair bonds maintained for more than one season. Her study lasted 13 years. Our study has shown that the return rate of locals to parent colonies is 4.1%, sex ratios are nearly equal (combination of banding and observation), return rate of locals to nearby colonies is 0.9,one pair maintained the pair bond for two years, SY females lay fewer eggs than ASY's, SY adults occasionally do not feed frequently enough to maintain the normal growth pattern of the young, SY adults often build poorly constructed nests with little or no mud, overall nest success is lower in SY adults, adults do indeed return to the same colony (19.6%) box and/or compartment, sexes are balanced in a stable colony, males or females are sometimes in excess in a new colony, SY adults are predominate in a new colony, the limiting factor in colony size is most likely the number of boxes and/or compartments available for nesting and,finally, adults and young do indeed use the boxes for roosting after nesting and fledging is complete (even boxes not their own). All of our results are tentative and subject to change after f rther study. Much additional study will be required before we can come up with conclusive answers to many of these questions about the Purple Martin.

  20. Origin of optical activity in the purple bacterial photoreaction center

    SciTech Connect

    Mar, T.; Gingras, G.

    1995-07-18

    The photoreaction center (RC) of purple bacteria contains four bacteriochlorophyll (Bph) and two bacteriopheophytin (Bph) molecules as prosthetic groups. Their optical activity, as measured by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, is largely increased in situ as compared to organic solutions. The all-exciton hypothesis posits that this enhanced optical activity is entirely due to excitonic interactions between the electronic transitions of all six bacteriochlorin molecules. Using the simple exciton theory, this model predicts that the near-infrared CD spectra should be conservative. The fact that they are not, whether the special pair of Bch (SP) that constitutes the primary electron donor is reduced or oxidized, has been explained by hyperchromic effects. The present work tests this hypothesis by successively eliminating the absorption and, therefore, the optical activity of the Bphs and of the non-special-pair (non-SP) Bchs. This was accomplished by trapping these pigments in their reduced state. RC preparations with the four non-SP bacteriochlorins trapped in their reduced state and, therefore, with an intact SP displayed conservative CD spectra. RC preparations with only the electronic transitions of SP and of one non-SP Bch also showed conservative CD spectra. These conservative CD spectra and their corresponding absorption spectra were simulated using simple exciton theory without assuming hyperchromic effects. Bleaching half of the 755-nm absorption band by phototrapping one of the two Bph molecules led to the complete disappearance of the corresponding CD band. This cannot be explained by the all-exciton hypothesis. These results suggest that the optical activity of the SP alone, or with one non-SP Bch, is due to excitonic interactions. They also suggest that the optical activity of the other three bacteriochlorins is due to other factors, such as pigment-protein interaction. 32 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.