Science.gov

Sample records for purpose research complex

  1. Improving Education through Research? From Effectiveness, Causality and Technology to Purpose, Complexity and Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of research in the improvement of educational practice. I use the "10 Principles for Effective Pedagogy," which were formulated on the basis of research conducted in the UK's Teacher and Learning Research Programme as an example to highlight some common problems in the discussion about research and…

  2. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  3. [Accessing medical records for research purposes].

    PubMed

    Alcalde Bezhold, Guillermo; Alfonso Farnós, Iciar

    2013-01-01

    The Organic Law 15/1999 of 13 December on the Protection of Personal Data and the Law 41/2002 of 14 November regulating patient autonomy and rights and obligations of information and clinical documentation are the basic rules which govern the medical history in Spain. However, the lack of development of these laws regarding data protection in clinical research, particularly in terms of access to the medical history, repeatedly causes doubts about its construction by the Research Ethics Committees. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to analyze the rules which govern the access to the medical history for research purposes, with particular emphasis on the common problems that arise in the Committees for the ethical evaluation of these projects and finally setting a series of recommendations. The use for research purpose of genetic personal data contained in the medical history is also addressed in this paper. In this sense, a key contribution of the Law on Biomedical Research is relating to the specific regulation of the genetic personal data, both with respect to their production and access to the data as a support and regarding to its use for research purpose. PMID:24868961

  4. Pseudonymisation of radiology data for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noumeir, Rita; Lemay, Alain; Lina, Jean-Marc

    2005-04-01

    Medical image processing methods and algorithms, developed by researchers, need to be validated and tested. Test data should ideally be real clinical data especially when that clinical data is varied and exists in large volume. In nowadays, clinical data is accessible electronically and has important value for researchers. However, the usage of clinical data for research purposes should respect data confidentiality, patient right to privacy and the patient consent. In fact, clinical data is nominative given that it contains information about the patient such as name, age and identification number. Evidently, clinical data should be de-identified to be exported to research databases. However, the same patient is usually followed during a long period of time. The disease progression and the diagnostic evolution represent extremely valuable information for researchers, as well. Our objective is to build a research database from de-identified clinical data while enabling the database to be easily incremented by exporting new pseudonymous data, acquired over a long period of time. Pseudonymisation is data de-identification such that data belonging to the same individual in the clinical environment bear the same relation to each other in the de-identified research version. In this paper, we propose a software architecture that enables the implementation of a research database that can be incremented in time. We also evaluate its security and discuss its security pitfalls.

  5. Pseudonymization of radiology data for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Noumeir, Rita; Lemay, Alain; Lina, Jean-Marc

    2007-09-01

    Medical image processing methods and algorithms, developed by researchers, need to be validated and tested. Test data would ideally be real clinical data especially that clinical data is varied and exists in large volumes. Nowadays, clinical data is accessible electronically and has important value for researchers. However, the usage of clinical data for research purposes should respect data confidentiality, patient right to privacy, and patient consent. In fact, clinical data is nominative given that it contains information about the patient such as name, age, and identification number. Evidently, clinical data needs to be de-identified to be exported to research databases. However, the same patient is usually followed during a long period of time. The disease progression and the diagnostic evolution represent extremely valuable information for researchers as well. Our objective is to build a research database from de-identified clinical data while enabling the data set to be easily incremented by exporting new pseudonymous data, acquired over a long period of time. Pseudonymization is data de-identification, such that data belonging to an individual in the clinical environment still belong to the same individual in the de-identified research version. In this paper, we explore various software architectures to enable the implementation of an imaging research database that can be incremented in time. We also evaluate their security and discuss their security pitfalls. As most imaging data accessible electronically is available with the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) standard, we propose a de-identification scheme that closely follows DICOM recommendations. Our work can be used to enable electronic health record (EHR) secondary usage such as public surveillance and research, while maintaining patient confidentiality. PMID:17191099

  6. 5 CFR 470.201 - Purposes of research programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Purposes of research programs. 470.201... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to Research Programs § 470.201 Purposes of research programs. The purposes of research programs...

  7. 5 CFR 470.201 - Purposes of research programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Purposes of research programs. 470.201... PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to Research Programs § 470.201 Purposes of research programs. The purposes of research programs...

  8. Insect societies as divided organisms: The complexities of purpose and cross-purpose

    PubMed Central

    Strassmann, Joan E.; Queller, David C.

    2007-01-01

    Individual organisms are complex in a special way. The organization and function of their parts seem directed toward a purpose: the survival and reproduction of that individual. Groups of organisms are different. They may also be complex, but that is usually because their parts, the individual organisms, are working at cross-purposes. The most obvious exception to this rule is the social insects. Here, the individuals cooperate in complex ways toward the common goal of the success of the colony, even if it means that most of them do not reproduce. Kin selection theory explains how this can evolve. Nonreproductive individuals help in the reproduction of their kin, who share and transmit their genes. Such help is most favored when individuals can give more to their kin than they give up by not reproducing directly. For example, they can remain at their natal site and help defend a valuable resource (“fortress defenders”), or they can ensure that at least one adult survives to care for helpless young (“life insurers”). Although kin selection explains the extensive cooperation and common purpose of social insect colonies, it also predicts a certain amount of cross-purpose and conflict behavior. Kin selection has predicted how workers and queens disagree over sex ratios, how potential queens struggle to be the colony's head, how workers try to produce sons, and how other workers often prevent them. Kin selection analysis of cooperation and conflict in social insects is one of the outstanding achievements of evolutionary theory. PMID:17494750

  9. Building on Treacherous Ground: Sense-of-Purpose Research and Demarcating Problematic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddington, David I.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental psychologist Damon's (Damon, Menon, & Cotton Bronk, 2003) ongoing research program on youth purpose may have important practical implications for education. However, in the course of the development of this research, two fundamental conceptual questions have not yet been resolved satisfactorily: (a) How should "sense of purpose" be…

  10. 38 CFR 17.92 - Outpatient care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... research purposes. 17.92 Section 17.92 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Outpatient Treatment § 17.92 Outpatient care for research purposes. Subject to the... the treatment to be rendered is part of an approved Department of Veterans Affairs research...

  11. 38 CFR 17.92 - Outpatient care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... research purposes. 17.92 Section 17.92 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Outpatient Treatment § 17.92 Outpatient care for research purposes. Subject to the... the treatment to be rendered is part of an approved Department of Veterans Affairs research...

  12. The Social Purposes of Mass Communications Research: A Transatlantic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumler, Jay G.

    Purposes and alternative forms of mass communications research are explored in this four-part presentation. Part One examines the origins of, and the differences between, two conflicting types of research: administrative research, in which the mass media are perceived as neutral tools, capable of serving a wide range of purposes; and critical…

  13. Applying Research to Enhance Capacity: A Unifying Purpose for an Integrated Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Elizabeth King

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century the social work profession has had a dual purpose: to promote individual well-being and social justice, but the micro-macro divide is fragmenting the profession. This article suggests that the profession's aim might best be realized by adopting a unifying purpose, a just sense of well-being. Research on complex adaptive…

  14. Interdisciplinary research with complex plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Morfill, G. E.; Ivlev, A. V.; Brandt, P.; Loewen, H.

    2010-06-16

    In this topical review we combine results of research from the field of complex plasmas and colloidal dispersions. This research has opened the way to study strong coupling phenomena in real space and time at the most fundamental kinetic level. The physics of complex plasmas is dominated by the dynamics of slow moving and individually visible microparticles. In contrast to colloidal suspensions, where the fluid background medium results in huge overdamping, the neutral gas background medium in complex plasmas introduces only very little damping so that processes at all relevant time scales can be studied. This is of particular importance for some of the most outstanding questions in the self-organization of matter and critical phenomena.

  15. 38 CFR 17.45 - Hospital care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hospital care for research purposes. 17.45 Section 17.45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.45 Hospital care for research...

  16. 38 CFR 17.45 - Hospital care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hospital care for research purposes. 17.45 Section 17.45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.45 Hospital care for research...

  17. 38 CFR 17.45 - Hospital care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Hospital care for research purposes. 17.45 Section 17.45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.45 Hospital care for research...

  18. 38 CFR 17.45 - Hospital care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hospital care for research purposes. 17.45 Section 17.45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.45 Hospital care for research...

  19. 38 CFR 17.45 - Hospital care for research purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hospital care for research purposes. 17.45 Section 17.45 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Hospital, Domiciliary and Nursing Home Care § 17.45 Hospital care for research...

  20. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research.

    PubMed

    Pook, Michael L; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed. PMID:27136563

  1. A Small Acoustic Goniometer for General Purpose Research

    PubMed Central

    Pook, Michael L.; Loo, Sin Ming

    2016-01-01

    Understanding acoustic events and monitoring their occurrence is a useful aspect of many research projects. In particular, acoustic goniometry allows researchers to determine the source of an event based solely on the sound it produces. The vast majority of acoustic goniometry research projects used custom hardware targeted to the specific application under test. Unfortunately, due to the wide range of sensing applications, a flexible general purpose hardware/firmware system does not exist for this purpose. This article focuses on the development of such a system which encourages the continued exploration of general purpose hardware/firmware and lowers barriers to research in projects requiring the use of acoustic goniometry. Simulations have been employed to verify system feasibility, and a complete hardware implementation of the acoustic goniometer has been designed and field tested. The results are reported, and suggested areas for improvement and further exploration are discussed. PMID:27136563

  2. Teaching the Complexity of Purpose: Promoting Complete and Creative Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plung, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The successful communicator is expected to provide communications that are not only complete but also representative of effective thinking (i.e., original). Creating complete and creative communications begins with a disciplined process of discovery--identifying, assessing, prioritizing, and integrating the articulated and embedded purposes.…

  3. Action Research and Organisational Learning: A Norwegian Approach to Doing Action Research in Complex Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eikeland, Olav

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an overview nor a…

  4. Human Research and Complexity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, James

    2008-01-01

    The disavowal of positivist science by many educational researchers has resulted in a deepening polarization of research agendas and an epistemological divide that appears increasingly difficult to span. Despite a turning away from science altogether by some, and thus toward various forms of poststructuralist inquiry, this has not held back the…

  5. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  6. The Research Base in Languages for Specific Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    More than 200 publications regarding Languages for Specific Purposes (LSP) from the past 25 years, excluding work on English for Specific Purposes, are compiled in this literature review. In introductory comments that precede the bibliography, it is noted that most of the activity in this field has occurred in the last decade, with eight…

  7. 5 CFR 470.201 - Purposes of research programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 470.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to... under this subpart are to stimulate and conduct personnel management research which: (a) Develops...

  8. 5 CFR 470.201 - Purposes of research programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 470.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to... under this subpart are to stimulate and conduct personnel management research which: (a) Develops...

  9. 5 CFR 470.201 - Purposes of research programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 470.201 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT RESEARCH PROGRAMS AND DEMONSTRATIONS PROJECTS Regulatory Requirements Pertaining to... under this subpart are to stimulate and conduct personnel management research which: (a) Develops...

  10. Conclusion: Recommendations for How Practitioners, Researchers, and Policymakers Can Promote Youth Purpose

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariano, Jenni Menon

    2011-01-01

    Initially drawing from, yet then expanding on the research discussed in this volume, this article discusses specific measures that practitioners, researchers, and policymakers can take to support purpose among youth. Strategies for educators include utilizing practical purpose teaching tools, such as purpose interviews, purpose-related…

  11. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  12. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  13. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  14. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  15. 40 CFR 18.3 - Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Research Fellowships. 18.3 Section 18.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION RESEARCH FELLOWSHIPS AND SPECIAL RESEARCH CONSULTANTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION § 18.3 Purpose of Environmental Protection Research Fellowships. Environmental Protection...

  16. Magnetospheric Exploration: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    From the first in situ measurements of trapped radiation by J.A. Van Allen and coworkers with Explorer 1 to the latest modern satellite observations, magnetospheric research has been an exciting and compelling program of exploration. Evolving understanding of the Earth system and then the extension of this research to the magnetospheres of other planets such as Jupiter, Saturn, and Mercury has been a commingling of certain common themes as well as discovery of strikingly different properties from one system to the next. One key point is that much of the basic research performed concerning the near-Earth magnetospheric region also has profound societal relevance. The studies of magnetospheric properties - especially very high energy particles in the Van Allen belts - are absolutely central to space weather concerns that confront navigation, communications, remote sensing, and other operational human endeavors. It is a privilege as well as a challenge to continue to study magnetospheric problems that both illuminate remote astrophysical processes as well as affect our daily, technology-dependent lives.

  17. Safety management of complex research operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present many varied potential hazards which must be addressed in a disciplined independent safety review and approval process. The research and technology effort at the Lewis Research Center is divided into programmatic areas of aeronautics, space and energy. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described in this paper is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record at the Lewis Research Center.

  18. Complex Plasma Research Under Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Osamu

    2008-09-07

    Complex plasma research under extreme conditions is described. The extreme conditions include low-dimensionality for self-organized structures of dust particles, dust magnetization in high magnetic field, criticality in phase transition, and cryogenic environment for Coulomb crystals and dust dynamics.

  19. Custom Mentholation of Commercial Cigarettes for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    MacGregor, Ian C.; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Gordon, Sydney M.; Turner, Douglas J.; Butler, Jenny M.; Hanft, Elizabeth A.; Kim, Hyoshin; Kroeger, Robyn R.; Brinkman, Marielle C.; Tefft, Margaret E.; Clark, Pamela I.; Buehler, Stephanie S.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S. menthol remains the sole permitted characterizing cigarette flavor additive in part because efforts to link menthol cigarette use to increased tobacco-related disease risk have been inconclusive. To perform definitive studies, cigarettes that differ only in menthol content are required, yet these are not commercially available. We prepared research cigarettes differing only in menthol content by deposition of L-menthol vapor directly onto commercial nonmenthol cigarettes, and developed a method to measure a cigarette’s menthol and nicotine content. With our custom-mentholation technique we achieved the desired moderately high menthol content (as compared to commercial brands) of 6.7 ± 1.0 mg/g (n = 25) without perturbing the cigarettes’ nicotine content (17.7 ± 0.7 mg/g [n = 25]). We also characterized other pertinent attributes of our custom-mentholated cigarettes, including percent transmission of menthol and nicotine to mainstream smoke and the rate of loss of menthol over time during storage at room temperature. We are currently using this simple mentholation technique to investigate the differences in human exposure to selected chemicals in cigarette smoke due only to the presence of the added menthol. Our cigarettes will also aid in the elucidation of the effects of menthol on the toxicity of tobacco smoke. PMID:25621204

  20. PNNL researcher explores behavior of complex molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-11-19

    From cold winters in St. Petersburg, Russia, to sweltering summers in southeastern Washington State, Dr. Julia Laskin’s career in science has been an interesting journey. Her latest trip landed her on the steps of the White House for a photo-op with the President. Laskin received the Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers for her research on the fundamental aspects of the reaction kinetics and dynamics of activating and dissociating complex molecular ions. Her work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory provides a basis for the development of analytical techniques for improved characterization of synthetic and natural polymers, petroleum, biofuels and other complex samples using mass spectrometry.

  1. Complex plasmas: An interdisciplinary research field

    SciTech Connect

    Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2009-10-15

    Complex (dusty) plasmas are composed of a weakly ionized gas and charged microparticles and represent the plasma state of soft matter. Complex plasmas have several remarkable features: Dynamical time scales associated with microparticles are ''stretched'' to tens of milliseconds, yet the microparticles themselves can be easily visualized individually. Furthermore, since the background gas is dilute, the particle dynamics in strongly coupled complex plasmas is virtually undamped, which provides a direct analogy to regular liquids and solids in terms of the atomistic dynamics. Finally, complex plasmas can be easily manipulated in different ways--also at the level of individual particles. Altogether, this gives us a unique opportunity to go beyond the limits of continuous media and study--at the kinetic level--various generic processes occurring in liquids or solids, in regimes ranging from the onset of cooperative phenomena to large strongly coupled systems. In the first part of the review some of the basic and new physics are highlighted which complex plasmas enable us to study, and in the second (major) part strong coupling phenomena in an interdisciplinary context are examined. The connections with complex fluids are emphasized and a number of generic liquid and solid-state issues are addressed. In summary, application oriented research is discussed.

  2. Complex plasmas: An interdisciplinary research field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, Gregor E.; Ivlev, Alexei V.

    2009-10-01

    Complex (dusty) plasmas are composed of a weakly ionized gas and charged microparticles and represent the plasma state of soft matter. Complex plasmas have several remarkable features: Dynamical time scales associated with microparticles are “stretched” to tens of milliseconds, yet the microparticles themselves can be easily visualized individually. Furthermore, since the background gas is dilute, the particle dynamics in strongly coupled complex plasmas is virtually undamped, which provides a direct analogy to regular liquids and solids in terms of the atomistic dynamics. Finally, complex plasmas can be easily manipulated in different ways—also at the level of individual particles. Altogether, this gives us a unique opportunity to go beyond the limits of continuous media and study—at the kinetic level—various generic processes occurring in liquids or solids, in regimes ranging from the onset of cooperative phenomena to large strongly coupled systems. In the first part of the review some of the basic and new physics are highlighted which complex plasmas enable us to study, and in the second (major) part strong coupling phenomena in an interdisciplinary context are examined. The connections with complex fluids are emphasized and a number of generic liquid and solid-state issues are addressed. In summary, application oriented research is discussed.

  3. Safety management of complex research operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. J.

    1981-01-01

    Complex research and technology operations present varied potential hazards which are addressed in a disciplined, independent safety review and approval process. Potential hazards vary from high energy fuels to hydrocarbon fuels, high pressure systems to high voltage systems, toxic chemicals to radioactive materials and high speed rotating machinery to high powered lasers. A Safety Permit System presently covers about 600 potentially hazardous operations. The Safety Management Program described is believed to be a major factor in maintaining an excellent safety record.

  4. Quantifying complexity in translational research: an integrated approach

    PubMed Central

    Munoz, David A.; Nembhard, Harriet Black; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This article quantifies complexity in translational research. The impact of major operational steps and technical requirements (TR) is calculated with respect to their ability to accelerate moving new discoveries into clinical practice. Design/Methodology/Approach A three-phase integrated Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was used to quantify complexity in translational research. A case study in obesity was used to usability. Findings Generally, the evidence generated was valuable for understanding various components in translational research. Particularly, we found that collaboration networks, multidisciplinary team capacity and community engagement are crucial for translating new discoveries into practice. Research limitations/implications As the method is mainly based on subjective opinion, some argue that the results may be biased. However, a consistency ratio is calculated and used as a guide to subjectivity. Alternatively, a larger sample may be incorporated to reduce bias. Practical implications The integrated QFD-AHP framework provides evidence that could be helpful to generate agreement, develop guidelines, allocate resources wisely, identify benchmarks and enhance collaboration among similar projects. Originality/value Current conceptual models in translational research provide little or no clue to assess complexity. The proposed method aimed to fill this gap. Additionally, the literature review includes various features that have not been explored in translational research. PMID:25417380

  5. Building Consistency between Title, Problem Statement, Purpose, & Research Questions to Improve the Quality of Research Plans and Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Isadore; Covrig, Duane M.

    2013-01-01

    Consistency in the title, problem, purpose, and research question improve the logic and transparency of research. When these components of research are aligned research design and planning are more coherent and research reports are more readable. This article reviews the process for checking for and improving consistency. Numerous examples of…

  6. Fitness for purpose study of the Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT): a research protocol

    PubMed Central

    MacKinnon, Ralph James; Kennedy, Chris; Doherty, Catherine; Shepherd, Michael; Cole, Joanne; Stenfors-Hayes, Terese

    2015-01-01

    Introduction As part of a programme of research aiming to improve the outcomes of traumatically injured children, a multisource healthcare advocacy tool has been developed to allow trauma team members and hospital governance administrators to reflect and to act on complex trauma team-hospital systems interactions. We have termed this tool a Field Assessment Conditioning Tool (FACT). The FACT draws on quantitative data including clinical care points in addition to self-reflective qualitative data. The FACT is designed to provide feedback on this assessment data both horizontally across fellow potential team members and vertically to the hospital/organisation governance structure, enabling process gap identification and allowing an agenda of improvements to be realised. The aim of the study described in this paper is to explore the perceived fitness for purpose of the FACT to provide an opportunity for healthcare advocacy by healthcare professionals caring for traumatically injured children. Methods and analysis The FACT will be implemented and studied in three district hospitals, each around a major trauma centre in the UK, USA and New Zealand. Using a qualitative approach with standardised semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis we will explore the following question: Is the FACT fit for purpose in terms of providing a framework to evaluate, reflect and act on the individual hospital's own performance (trauma team—hospital interactions) in terms of readiness to receive traumatically injured children? Ethics and dissemination Ethics opinion was sought for each research host organisation participating and deemed not required. The results will be disseminated to participating sites, networks and published in high-impact journals. PMID:25869682

  7. Upscaling from research watersheds: an essential stage of trustworthy general-purpose hydrologic model building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, J. P.; Semenova, O.; Restrepo, P. J.

    2011-12-01

    Highly instrumented research watersheds provide excellent opportunities for investigating hydrologic processes. A danger, however, is that the processes observed at a particular research watershed are too specific to the watershed and not representative even of the larger scale watershed that contains that particular research watershed. Thus, models developed based on those partial observations may not be suitable for general hydrologic use. Therefore demonstrating the upscaling of hydrologic process from research watersheds to larger watersheds is essential to validate concepts and test model structure. The Hydrograph model has been developed as a general-purpose process-based hydrologic distributed system. In its applications and further development we evaluate the scaling of model concepts and parameters in a wide range of hydrologic landscapes. All models, either lumped or distributed, are based on a discretization concept. It is common practice that watersheds are discretized into so called hydrologic units or hydrologic landscapes possessing assumed homogeneous hydrologic functioning. If a model structure is fixed, the difference in hydrologic functioning (difference in hydrologic landscapes) should be reflected by a specific set of model parameters. Research watersheds provide the possibility for reasonable detailed combining of processes into some typical hydrologic concept such as hydrologic units, hydrologic forms, and runoff formation complexes in the Hydrograph model. And here by upscaling we imply not the upscaling of a single process but upscaling of such unified hydrologic functioning. The simulation of runoff processes for the Dry Creek research watershed, Idaho, USA (27 km2) was undertaken using the Hydrograph model. The information on the watershed was provided by Boise State University and included a GIS database of watershed characteristics and a detailed hydrometeorological observational dataset. The model provided good simulation results in

  8. A Comparative Analysis of the Legal and Bioethical Frameworks Governing the Secondary Use of Data for Research Purposes.

    PubMed

    Tassé, Anne-Marie

    2016-06-01

    The secondary use of research and health data for purposes that differ from the original purpose of the collection is becoming a major trend in research, since it allows for the optimal use of already available resources, and reduces the costs of research activities. However, the consent provided at the time of the initial data collection might not have foreseen these new uses of the data. This is especially true for biobanks having collected data under a restricted or a disease-specific consent, and for data linkage, which allows researchers to combine research data with information from the medical record of participants. To protect the participants' privacy, confidentiality, and autonomy, the use of identifiable research and clinical data for secondary research purposes is governed by a rather complex legal and ethical framework. This article aims to: (1) provide a comprehensive analysis of the legal and bioethical framework governing the secondary use of data at the international level, and; (2) identify points of convergence and divergence with regard to the secondary use of data for research purposes, in five countries (Australia, Canada, France, United Kingdom, and United States). While the secondary use of already collected data carries benefits and drawbacks, the international and national legal framework provide guidance to promote a wider (although limited) secondary use of data, while protecting research participants' rights and interests. Despite some differences, the similarities between international and national regulations and norms reveal the emergence of a common set of criteria for the secondary use of data in international research. PMID:27192126

  9. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  10. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  11. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  12. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  13. 9 CFR 314.9 - Specimens for educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimens for educational, research... educational, research, and other nonfood purposes; permits for, required. (a) Specimens of condemned or other inedible materials, including embryos and specimens of animal parasites, may be released for...

  14. Some Thoughts on English for Research Publication Purposes (ERPP) and Related Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flowerdew, John

    2015-01-01

    Academic writing for research publication takes place around the globe, involving, according to a recent account, 5.5 million scholars, 2,000 publishers and 17,500 research/higher education institutions (Lillis & Curry 2010: 1). Because so many scholars whose first language is not English are now using English for publication purposes and…

  15. The Purpose of Mess in Action Research: Building Rigour though a Messy Turn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Tina

    2009-01-01

    Mess and rigour might appear to be strange bedfellows. This paper argues that the purpose of mess is to facilitate a turn towards new constructions of knowing that lead to transformation in practice (an action turn). Engaging in action research--research that can disturb both individual and communally held notions of knowledge for practice--will…

  16. The Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutmann, Ethan; Clark, Martyn; Rasmussen, Roy; Arnold, Jeffrey; Brekke, Levi

    2015-04-01

    The high-resolution, non-hydrostatic atmospheric models often used for dynamical downscaling are extremely computationally expensive, and, for a certain class of problems, their complexity hinders our ability to ask key scientific questions, particularly those related to hydrology and climate change. For changes in precipitation in particular, an atmospheric model grid spacing capable of resolving the structure of mountain ranges is of critical importance, yet such simulations can not currently be performed with an advanced regional climate model for long time periods, over large areas, and forced by many climate models. Here we present the newly developed Intermediate Complexity Atmospheric Research model (ICAR) capable of simulating critical atmospheric processes two to three orders of magnitude faster than a state of the art regional climate model. ICAR uses a simplified dynamical formulation based off of linear theory, combined with the circulation field from a low-resolution climate model. The resulting three-dimensional wind field is used to advect heat and moisture within the domain, while sub-grid physics (e.g. microphysics) are processed by standard and simplified physics schemes from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. ICAR is tested in comparison to WRF by downscaling a climate change scenario over the Colorado Rockies. Both atmospheric models predict increases in precipitation across the domain with a greater increase on the western half. In contrast, statistically downscaled precipitation using multiple common statistical methods predict decreases in precipitation over the western half of the domain. Finally, we apply ICAR to multiple CMIP5 climate models and scenarios with multiple parameterization options to investigate the importance of uncertainty in sub-grid physics as compared to the uncertainty in the large scale climate scenario. ICAR is a useful tool for climate change and weather forecast downscaling, particularly for orographic

  17. Academics' Perceptions of the Purpose of Undergraduate Research Experiences in a Research-Intensive Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Anna; Howitt, Susan; Wilson, Kate; Roberts, Pam

    2012-01-01

    The inclusion of research experiences as core components of undergraduate curricula implies that students will be exposed to and situated within the research activities of their university. Such experiences thus provide a new prism through which to view the relations between teaching, research and learning. The intentions and actions of academics…

  18. Outlining Purposes, Stating the Nature of the Present Research, and Listing Research Questions or Hypotheses in Academic Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shehzad, Wasima

    2011-01-01

    Driving research questions from the prevailing issues and interests and developing from them new theories, formulas, algorithms, methods, and designs, and linking them to the interests of the larger audience is a vital component of scientific research papers. The present article discusses outlining purposes or stating the nature of the present…

  19. Human tissues for research purposes: a conference in the House of Lords.

    PubMed

    Clotworthy, Margaret

    2011-11-01

    The challenges to using human tissues in research are many and varied. However, there is little consensus on how concerns raised by researchers should be addressed, and who should be responsible for ensuring that patients continue to benefit from medical research carried out using human tissues which have been ethically donated or collected after surgery, or where organs donated for transplant are unsuitable for this purpose. A conference in the House of Lords sought to bring together stakeholders from all areas of human tissue research to discuss the problems experienced, share solutions, and form a Working Party to carry the conference momentum forward into action in the near future. PMID:20012896

  20. Copyright Law in Australia--Fair Dealing for Research or Study Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Anwar (Andy); Hancock, Philip

    2001-01-01

    Explores several issues involving provisions of the Australian copyright law that allow for "fair dealing for the purpose of research and study" in the use of copyrighted materials. Discusses liability of libraries for improper oversight of illegal photocopying of books and other copyrighted materials. Reviews recent efforts to improve protection…

  1. Recruiting Gamblers from the General Population for Research Purposes: Outcomes from Two Contrasting Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jeremy D.; Pulford, Justin; Bellringer, Maria; Abbott, Max

    2010-01-01

    Multiple means exist by which gamblers including problem gamblers may be recruited from the general population for research survey purposes. However, there appears to be limited discussion in the published literature about the relative merits of one or other approach. This paper addresses this gap, in part, by reporting the experiences of…

  2. Replication Research in Comparative Genre Analysis in English for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basturkmen, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In recent years a number of comparative studies based on an established approach to genre analysis have been published in the English for Academic Purposes (EAP) literature. Studies in this emerging strand of research typically aim to identify how the rhetorical structure of a particular genre (a text type) or part of a genre may vary across…

  3. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section 151.3000... Definition of Marine Debris for the Purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act § 151.3000 Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention,...

  4. American Indian/Alaska Native Willingness to Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes

    PubMed Central

    Young, Kristin L.; Nazir, Niaman; Williams, Chandler; Brown, Travis; Choi, Won S.; Greiner, K. A.; Daley, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the willingness of American Indian/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) to provide biological samples for research purposes. Prior cases of abuse and misuse of individuals, materials, and data highlight ethical research concerns. Investigators may be hesitant to engage AI/ANs in research projects. We conducted a survey of AI/ANs in the central plains region of the US over 1 year. This convenience sample completed a series of questions on biological samples and research. Survey results (N = 998) indicate that 70.15% of AI/ANs would be willing to provide saliva/spit for a specific study with the proper consent and control of samples. In conclusion, researchers should find ways to work with and for AI/ANs, assuring participant input in the research process. PMID:22057422

  5. Not fit for purpose: the ethical guidelines of the Indian Council of Medical Research.

    PubMed

    Satalkar, Priya; Shaw, David

    2015-04-01

    In 2006, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) published its 'Ethical guidelines for Biomedical Research on human participants'. The intention was to translate international ethical standards into locally and culturally appropriate norms and values to help biomedical researchers in India to conduct ethical research and thereby safeguard the interest of human subjects. Unfortunately, it is apparent that the guideline is not fit for purpose. In addition to problems with the structure and clarity of the guidelines, there are several serious omissions and contradictions in the recommendations. In this paper, we take a close look at the two key chapters and highlight some of the striking flaws in this important document. We conclude that ethics committees and national authorities should not lose sight of international ethical standards while incorporating local reality and cultural and social values, as focusing too much on the local context could compromise the safety of human subjects in biomedical research, particularly in India. PMID:25897444

  6. Complexity and Truth in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Mike

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of complexity theory on the way in which we see propositions corresponding to the reality that they describe, and our concept of truth in that context. A contingently associated idea is the atomistic expectation that we can reduce language to primitive units of meaning, and tie those in with agreed units of…

  7. Complexity and Educational Research: A Critical Reflection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Lesley

    2008-01-01

    Judgements concerning proper or appropriate educational endeavour, methods of investigation and philosophising about education necessarily implicate perspectives, values, assumptions and beliefs. In recent years ideas from the complexity sciences have been utilised in many domains including psychology, economics, architecture, social science and…

  8. Intelligent systems installed in building of research centre for research purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matusov, Jozef; Mokry, Marian; Kolkova, Zuzana; Sedivy, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    The attractiveness of intelligent buildings is nowadays directly connected with higher level of comfort and also the economic mode of consumption energy for heating, cooling and the total consumption of electricity for electric devices. The technologies of intelligent buildings compared with conventional solutions allow dynamic optimization in real time and make it easy for operational message. The basic division of functionality in horizontal direction is possible divide in to two areas such as Economical sophisticated residential care about the comfort of people in the building and Security features. The paper deals with description of intelligent systems which has a building of Research Centre. The building has installed the latest technology for utilization of renewable energy and also latest systems of controlling and driving all devices which contribute for economy operation by achieving the highest thermal comfort and overall safety.

  9. The Complexities of Conducting Ethnographic Race Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaas, Jongi

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the challenges and dilemmas of conducting ethnographic race research in the context of the South African situation, forming part of my ethnographic race research PhD project, conducted in two historically white, single-sex schools in South Africa. First, it critically examines the theoretical dilemmas on crucial issues of…

  10. Complex systems thinking and current impasses in health disparities research.

    PubMed

    Diez Roux, Ana V

    2011-09-01

    Complex systems approaches have received increasing attention in public health because reductionist approaches yield limited insights in the context of dynamic systems. Most discussions have been highly abstract. There is a need to consider the application of complex systems approaches to specific research questions. I review the features of population health problems for which complex systems approaches are most likely to yield new insights, and discuss possible applications of complex systems to health disparities research. I provide illustrative examples of how complex systems approaches may help address unanswered and persistent questions regarding genetic factors, life course processes, place effects, and the impact of upstream policies. The concepts and methods of complex systems may help researchers move beyond current impasse points in health disparities research. PMID:21778505

  11. Complexity, Methodology and Method: Crafting a Critical Process of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhadeff-Jones, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper defines a theoretical framework aiming to support the actions and reflections of researchers looking for a "method" in order to critically conceive the complexity of a scientific process of research. First, it starts with a brief overview of the core assumptions framing Morin's "paradigm of complexity" and Le…

  12. Visual Complexity and Pictorial Memory: A Fifteen Year Research Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Louis H.

    For 15 years an ongoing research project at the University of Pittsburgh has focused on the effects of variations in visual complexity and color on the storage and retrieval of visual information by learners. Research has shown that visual materials facilitate instruction, but has not fully delineated the interactions of visual complexity and…

  13. Complex research of molybdenum ore tailings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volokitin, G.; Skripnikova, N.; Volokitin, O.; Iuriev, I.; Shekhovtsov, V.

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers the processes of plasma chemical synthesis of silicate melts produced from quartz-feldspar raw materials with a view to obtain new construction materials having the advanced functional performance. Presented results illustrate physicochemical research findings (X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis) related to quartz-feldspar raw materials and melts produced there from.

  14. Complex researches aboard the international space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhyl, Yu. A.

    Special Research and Development Bureau SRDB is a general organizer on Ukrainian part of three Ukrainian- Russian joint experiments to be implemented aboard the Russian segment of International Space Station RS-ISS Experiment Material- Friction It is proposed to carry out a series of comparative tribological research under conditions of orbital flight aboard the ISS versus those in on- ground laboratory conditions To meet these objectives there will be employed a special onboard 6-module Space- borne tribometer- facility The on- ground research will be implemented under conditions of laboratory simulation of Space environmental factors Results thus obtained would enable one to forecast a behavior of friction pairs as well as functional safety and lifetime of the space- vehicle This experiment will also enable us determine an adequacy of tribological results obtained under conditions of outer Space and on- ground simulation Experiment Penta- Fatigue It is proposed to develop fabricate and deliver aboard the RS-ISS a facility intended for studies of SEF- influence on characteristics of metallic and polymeric materials resistance to fatigue destruction Such a project to be implemented in outer Space for the first ever time would enable us to estimate the parameter of cosmic lifetime for constructional materials due to such mechanical characteristic as fatigue strength so as to enable selection of specific sorts of constructional materials appropriate to service in Space technologies At the same time

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN... Letter—Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes Date: OSD...

  16. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN... Letter—Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes Date: OSD...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN... Letter—Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes Date: OSD...

  18. Semantic Support for Complex Ecosystem Research Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klawonn, M.; McGuinness, D. L.; Pinheiro, P.; Santos, H. O.; Chastain, K.

    2015-12-01

    As ecosystems come under increasing stresses from diverse sources, there is growing interest in research efforts aimed at monitoring, modeling, and improving understanding of ecosystems and protection options. We aimed to provide a semantic infrastructure capable of representing data initially related to one large aquatic ecosystem research effort - the Jefferson project at Lake George. This effort includes significant historical observational data, extensive sensor-based monitoring data, experimental data, as well as model and simulation data covering topics including lake circulation, watershed runoff, lake biome food webs, etc. The initial measurement representation has been centered on monitoring data and related provenance. We developed a human-aware sensor network ontology (HASNetO) that leverages existing ontologies (PROV-O, OBOE, VSTO*) in support of measurement annotations. We explicitly support the human-aware aspects of human sensor deployment and collection activity to help capture key provenance that often is lacking. Our foundational ontology has since been generalized into a family of ontologies and used to create our human-aware data collection infrastructure that now supports the integration of measurement data along with simulation data. Interestingly, we have also utilized the same infrastructure to work with partners who have some more specific needs for specifying the environmental conditions where measurements occur, for example, knowing that an air temperature is not an external air temperature, but of the air temperature when windows are shut and curtains are open. We have also leveraged the same infrastructure to work with partners more interested in modeling smart cities with data feeds more related to people, mobility, environment, and living. We will introduce our human-aware data collection infrastructure, and demonstrate how it uses HASNetO and its supporting SOLR-based search platform to support data integration and semantic browsing

  19. Atmospheric performance of the special-purpose Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) thin-airfoil family

    SciTech Connect

    Tangler, J; Smith, B; Jager, D; Olsen, T

    1990-09-01

    The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI), in cooperation with SeaWest Energy Group, has completed extensive atmospheric testing of the special-purpose SERI thin-airfoil family during the 1990 wind season. The purpose of this test program was to experimentally verify the predicted performance characteristics of the thin-airfoil family on a geometrically optimized blade, and to compare it to original-equipment blades under atmospheric wind conditions. The tests were run on two identical Micon 65/13 horizontal-axis wind turbines installed side-by-side in a wind farm. The thin-airfoil family 7.96 m blades were installed on one turbine, and AeroStar 7.41 m blades were installed on the other. This paper presents final performance results of the side-by-side comparative field test for both clean and dirty blade conditions. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Addressing Underrepresentation in Sex Work Research: Reflections on Designing a Purposeful Sampling Strategy.

    PubMed

    Bungay, Vicky; Oliffe, John; Atchison, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Men, transgender people, and those working in off-street locales have historically been underrepresented in sex work health research. Failure to include all sections of sex worker populations precludes comprehensive understandings about a range of population health issues, including potential variations in the manifestation of such issues within and between population subgroups, which in turn can impede the development of effective services and interventions. In this article, we describe our attempts to define, determine, and recruit a purposeful sample for a qualitative study examining the interrelationships between sex workers' health and the working conditions in the Vancouver off-street sex industry. Detailed is our application of ethnographic mapping approaches to generate information about population diversity and work settings within distinct geographical boundaries. Bearing in mind the challenges and the overwhelming discrimination sex workers experience, we scope recommendations for safe and effective purposeful sampling inclusive of sex workers' heterogeneity. PMID:26589337

  1. Medical Education: A Particularly Complex Intervention to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattick, Karen; Barnes, Rebecca; Dieppe, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Previous debate has explored whether medical education research should become more like health services research in terms of frameworks, collaborations and methodologies. Notable recent changes in health services research include an increasing emphasis on complex interventions, defined as interventions that involve more than one component. The…

  2. A portable shield for a neutron howitzer used for instructional and research purposes.

    PubMed

    Ali, S; Laherty, M; Laprade, J W; Cala, P M; Lipschultz, F P; Neuhauser, B

    2015-09-01

    Neutron howitzers are routinely used in universities to activate samples for instructional laboratory experiments on radioactivity. They are also a convenient source of neutrons and gammas for research purposes, but they must be used with caution. This paper describes the modeling, design, construction, and testing of a portable, economical shield for a 1.0 Curie neutron howitzer. The Monte Carlo N Particle Transport Code (MCNP5) has been used to model the (239)PuBe source and the howitzer and to design the external neutron and gamma shield. PMID:26048323

  3. Biobanks collected for routine healthcare purposes: build-up and use for epidemiologic research.

    PubMed

    Dillner, Joakim; Andersson, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    The routine health services collect large amount of samples for biobanking, particularly in clinical laboratory medicine, mainly for clinical diagnostic purposes. These samples provide a large-scale and clinically relevant biobanking infrastructure that can be used for research if these conditions apply. There must be a system for database management that can obtain data on clinical endpoints, vital status, and additional required information via registry linkages. There must be an appropriate ethical system for handling consent for research use. There should be an active effort to optimize the usefulness of clinical biobanks also for research use. Major steps in this direction include measures to stop the ongoing discarding of old samples, reformatting to minimize pick-up times, external quality assurance and formal accreditation of biobanks, building of a dedicated high-quality database that is regularly used for registry linkages, and considerations on whether usefulness and accessibility for research can be optimized by extended saving or pre-treatment of samples. Systematic clinical biobanking could become a major asset for clinical research and public health if biobanking is considered as a routine part of everyday clinical practice, and the science of biobanking is considered an essential part of the science of laboratory medicine. PMID:20949385

  4. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  5. Complexity and interdisciplinary approaches to environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    2013-03-01

    The launch of volume 8 of Environmental Research Letters (ERL) comes at a critical time in terms of innovations and exciting areas of science, but particularly in the areas linking environmental research and action. The most recent climate change Conference of the Parties meeting (COP), in Doha in December 2012, has now come and gone. As has been dissected in the press, very little was accomplished. Some will see this as a failure, as I do, and others will reasonably enough note that this meeting, the 18th such COP was1 never intended to be a milestone moment. The current plan, in fact, is for a 'post-Kyoto' international climate agreement to be adopted only at the COP20 summit in December 2015. As we lead up to COP20, and potentially other regional or national approaches to climate protection, innovations in science, innovations in policy tools, and political commitment must come together. The science of climate change only continues to get clearer and clearer, and bleaker [1]. Later this year the IPCC will release its Fifth Assessment Report, AR5. The draft versions are out for review now. ERL has published a number of papers on climate change science, mitigation and adaptation, but one area where the world needs a particular focus is on the nexus of science and action. A summary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's findings from the first assessment report (FAR; 1990) to the latest report is presented in figure 1. This graphic is specifically not about the scientific record alone. What is most important about this figure is the juxtaposition of the language of science and the language of ... language. Figure 1. Figure 1. A superposition of the state of climate science in three key data sets, and the dates of the first, second, third and fourth assessment reports (FAR, SAR, TAR, and AR4, respectively) plotted as vertical lines. On the right are the key statements from each of these reports, along with the conclusion of the Special Report on

  6. Tool for evaluating research implementation challenges: A sense-making protocol for addressing implementation challenges in complex research settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many challenges arise in complex organizational interventions that threaten research integrity. This article describes a Tool for Evaluating Research Implementation Challenges (TECH), developed using a complexity science framework to assist research teams in assessing and managing these challenges. Methods During the implementation of a multi-site, randomized controlled trial (RCT) of organizational interventions to reduce resident falls in eight nursing homes, we inductively developed, and later codified the TECH. The TECH was developed through processes that emerged from interactions among research team members and nursing home staff participants, including a purposive use of complexity science principles. Results The TECH provided a structure to assess challenges systematically, consider their potential impact on intervention feasibility and fidelity, and determine actions to take. We codified the process into an algorithm that can be adopted or adapted for other research projects. We present selected examples of the use of the TECH that are relevant to many complex interventions. Conclusions Complexity theory provides a useful lens through which research procedures can be developed to address implementation challenges that emerge from complex organizations and research designs. Sense-making is a group process in which diverse members interpret challenges when available information is ambiguous; the groups’ interpretations provide cues for taking action. Sense-making facilitates the creation of safe environments for generating innovative solutions that balance research integrity and practical issues. The challenges encountered during implementation of complex interventions are often unpredictable; however, adoption of a systematic process will allow investigators to address them in a consistent yet flexible manner, protecting fidelity. Research integrity is also protected by allowing for appropriate adaptations to intervention protocols that

  7. Research Methodology on Language Development from a Complex Systems Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane; Cameron, Lynne

    2008-01-01

    Changes to research methodology motivated by the adoption of a complexity theory perspective on language development are considered. The dynamic, nonlinear, and open nature of complex systems, together with their tendency toward self-organization and interaction across levels and timescales, requires changes in traditional views of the functions…

  8. Rotorcraft research testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warmbrodt, W.; Smith, C. A.; Johnson, W.

    1985-01-01

    The unique capabilities of the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) for testing rotorcraft systems are described. The test facilities include the 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel, the 80- by 120-Foot Wind Tunnel, and the Outdoor Aerodynamic Research Facility. The Ames 7- by 10-Foot Subsonic Wind Tunnel is also used in support of the rotor research programs conducted in the NFAC. Detailed descriptions of each of the facilities, with an emphasis on helicopter rotor test capability, are presented. The special purpose rotor test equipment used in conducting helicopter research is reviewed. Test rigs to operate full-scale helicopter main rotors, helicopter tail rotors, and tilting prop-rotors are available, as well as full-scale and small-scale rotor systems for use in various research programs. The test procedures used in conducting rotor experiments are discussed together with representative data obtained from previous test programs. Specific examples are given for rotor performance, loads, acoustics, system interactions, dynamic and aeroelastic stability, and advanced technology and prototype demonstration models.

  9. A green-emitting Cu complex for oxygen-sensing purpose: synthesis, characterization and photophysical features.

    PubMed

    Hui, Han; Wei, Li; Zhentao, Liu; Xiangen, Han

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a green-emitting Cu(I) complex [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was synthesized and fully characterized, where BT-Et=4-(1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole, POP=bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. An ethyl group was connected onto the diamine ligand to breach π-π attraction within solid [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4, favoring O2 molecule attack and sensitivity improvement. Its molecular identity was confirmed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 emitted long-lived green emission peaking at 521nm upon photoexcitation which was vulnerable towards O2 molecule, making itself a potential oxygen sensing material. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was then doped into a silica supporting matrix MCM-41. The resulting composite samples showed sensing behavior towards O2 molecule, with short response time of 10s and sensitivity of 5.56. PMID:25706596

  10. A green-emitting Cu complex for oxygen-sensing purpose: Synthesis, characterization and photophysical features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, Han; Wei, Li; Zhentao, Liu; Xiangen, Han

    2015-05-01

    In the present work, a green-emitting Cu(I) complex [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was synthesized and fully characterized, where BT-Et = 4-(1-ethyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)thiazole, POP = bis(2-(diphenylphosphanyl)phenyl) ether, respectively. An ethyl group was connected onto the diamine ligand to breach π-π attraction within solid [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4, favoring O2 molecule attack and sensitivity improvement. Its molecular identity was confirmed by single crystal analysis and theoretical calculation. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 emitted long-lived green emission peaking at 521 nm upon photoexcitation which was vulnerable towards O2 molecule, making itself a potential oxygen sensing material. [Cu(BT-Et)(POP)]BF4 was then doped into a silica supporting matrix MCM-41. The resulting composite samples showed sensing behavior towards O2 molecule, with short response time of 10 s and sensitivity of 5.56.

  11. Design of a multi-purpose fragment screening library using molecular complexity and orthogonal diversity metrics.

    PubMed

    Lau, Wan F; Withka, Jane M; Hepworth, David; Magee, Thomas V; Du, Yuhua J; Bakken, Gregory A; Miller, Michael D; Hendsch, Zachary S; Thanabal, Venkataraman; Kolodziej, Steve A; Xing, Li; Hu, Qiyue; Narasimhan, Lakshmi S; Love, Robert; Charlton, Maura E; Hughes, Samantha; van Hoorn, Willem P; Mills, James E

    2011-07-01

    Fragment Based Drug Discovery (FBDD) continues to advance as an efficient and alternative screening paradigm for the identification and optimization of novel chemical matter. To enable FBDD across a wide range of pharmaceutical targets, a fragment screening library is required to be chemically diverse and synthetically expandable to enable critical decision making for chemical follow-up and assessing new target druggability. In this manuscript, the Pfizer fragment library design strategy which utilized multiple and orthogonal metrics to incorporate structure, pharmacophore and pharmacological space diversity is described. Appropriate measures of molecular complexity were also employed to maximize the probability of detection of fragment hits using a variety of biophysical and biochemical screening methods. In addition, structural integrity, purity, solubility, fragment and analog availability as well as cost were important considerations in the selection process. Preliminary analysis of primary screening results for 13 targets using NMR Saturation Transfer Difference (STD) indicates the identification of uM-mM hits and the uniqueness of hits at weak binding affinities for these targets. PMID:21604056

  12. Offering Parents Individualized Feedback on the Results of Psychological Testing Conducted for Research Purposes with Children: Ethical Issues and Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefaivre, Marie-josee; Chambers, Christine T.; Fernandez, Conrad V.

    2007-01-01

    Research protocols involving children often include psychological testing as part of an assessment battery. Inclusion of such testing raises the question of whether parents (or others) should be offered the individualized results of their children's psychological testing conducted for research purposes. The purpose of this article is to provide a…

  13. Qualitative Teacher Research and the Complexity of Classroom Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klehr, Mary

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses how the underlying assumptions and practices of teacher research position it as a distinct form of educational inquiry, and identifies qualitative methodology as a central influence on the work. A discussion of some of the common conceptualizations and processes of PK-12 teacher research, the complex yet continually changing…

  14. Challenging Images of Knowing: Complexity Science and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent; Sumara, Dennis J.

    2005-01-01

    This article represents an attempt to reconcile discussions of aspects of educational research with recent developments in complexity science. It is argued that current characterizations of and distinctions among research methodologies in education are potentially counterproductive, in large part because they tend to be defined against or in terms…

  15. Using data collected for production or economic purposes to research production animal welfare: an epidemiological approach.

    PubMed

    Dewey, Cate; Haley, Charles; Widowski, Tina; Friendship, Robert; Sunstrum, Janet; Richardson, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiologists use the analyses of large data sets collected for production or economic purposes to research production nonhuman animal welfare issues in the commercial setting. This approach is particularly useful if the welfare issue is rare or hard to reproduce. However, to ensure the information is accurate, it is essential to carefully validate these data. The study used economic data to research in-transit deaths of finishing pigs. The most appropriate model to fit the distribution of the outcome must be selected. A negative binomial model fit these data because the prevalence was low and most lots of pigs had no deaths. The study used hierarchical dummy variables to identify thresholds of temperature and humidity above which in-transit losses increased. Multiple variable modeling provides the foundation for the strength of epidemiological research. The model identifies the association between each factor and the outcome after controlling for the other factors in the model. The study evaluated confounding and interaction. Bias may be introduced when data are limited to one farm system, one abattoir, or one season. Census data enable us to understand the entire industry. PMID:19319713

  16. Characterization of the general purpose research furnace for low-G directional solidification experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Clark, I. O.; Zweiner, J. W.; Carlson, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary tests have shown that it is possible to control the temperature settings in NASA's General Purpose Research Furnace in such a manner as to obtain a constant rate of movement of a high temperature isotherm down the length of the furnace. These tests also showed that a temperature gradient on the order of 40 deg cm could be obtained in the furnace while moving the particular isotherm of interest, i.e., 900 C. This provides the possibility of performing directional solidification experiments in the furnace on a MEA flight in the low gravity environment provided by the Shuttle. A functional dependency of growth rate on perturbations during the the growth has been derived and shows the importance of avoiding non-steady growth rates and changing temperature gradients.

  17. Immortalized human hepatic cell lines for in vitro testing and research purposes

    PubMed Central

    Ramboer, Eva; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    Summary The ubiquitous shortage of primary human hepatocytes has urged the scientific community to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. Over the years, several human hepatic cell lines have been produced, whether or not using a combination of viral oncogenes and human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Conditional approaches for hepatocyte immortalization have also been established and allow generation of growth-controlled cell lines. A variety of immortalized human hepatocytes have already proven useful as tools for liver-based in vitro testing and fundamental research purposes. The present chapter describes currently applied immortalization strategies and provides an overview of the actually available immortalized human hepatic cell lines and their in vitro applications. PMID:26272134

  18. Standardized Minnesota coding of electrocardiographic findings for purposes of cooperative research on ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed

    Misjavicene, I S; Glazunov, I S; Balavadze, M B; Reklaitene, R A

    1981-01-01

    For purposes of cooperative research on multifactorial prevention of ischaemic heart disease, a standardization system was elaborated in the USSR for classification of ECG findings according to the Minnesota code. The system includes instruction about the coding rules, experimental coding, analysis of faulty codings, and finally a control test consisting in encoding several series of 200 ECG findings each. For assessing the encoder's qualification the criterion was accepted of less than 20% cases of discordance with the standard code of "ischaemic" ECG changes. It was found that after the initial instructive course it was necessary to gain experience with encoding at least 1 000 ECG to qualify the candidate for the specified expert level. The necessity is emphasized of continual surveillance of the quality of ECG classification by the encoders in different centres, and the possibility of reaching a satisfactory level of unification is declared. PMID:7261597

  19. Complexity Thinking and Methodology: The Potential of "Complex Case Study" for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    Complexity theories have in common perspectives that challenge linear methodologies and views of causality. In educational research, relatively little has been written explicitly exploring their implications for educational research methodology in general and case study in particular. In this paper, I offer a rationale for case study as a research…

  20. An Examination of Qualitative Empirical Studies at the AHRD from 1999-2003: Research Purpose, Research Questions, and Inquiry Literature Cited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakhotnik, Maria S.; Rocco, Tonette S.; McCarley, Howard; Ianinska, Silvana; Bernier, Judith D.

    2006-01-01

    The paper examines the nature of qualitative empirical studies published in the AHRD proceedings from 1999-2003 and discusses findings on research purpose, research question(s), and inquiry literature cited. (Contains 4 tables.)

  1. Factors that Affect Willingness to Donate Blood for the Purpose of Biospecimen Research in the Korean American Community

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Glorian P.; Davey, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Biorepositories have been key resources in examining genetically-linked diseases, particularly cancer. Asian Americans contribute to biorepositories at lower rates than other racial groups, but the reasons for this are unclear. We hypothesized that attitudes toward biospecimen research mediate the relationship between demographic and healthcare access factors, and willingness to donate blood for research purposes among individuals of Korean heritage. Methods: Descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were utilized to characterize the sample with respect to demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral variables. Structural equation modeling with 5000 re-sample bootstrapping was used to assess each component of the proposed simple mediation models. Results: Attitudes towards biospecimen research fully mediate associations between age, income, number of years lived in the United States, and having a regular physician and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research. Conclusion: Participants were willing to donate blood for the purpose of research despite having neutral feelings towards biospecimen research as a whole. Participants reported higher willingness to donate blood for research purposes when they were older, had lived in the United States longer, had higher income, and had a regular doctor that they visited. Many of the significant relationships between demographic and health care access factors, attitudes towards biospecimen research, and willingness to donate blood for the purpose of research may be explained by the extent of acculturation of the participants in the United States. PMID:25853387

  2. FoCa: a modular treatment planning system for proton radiotherapy with research and educational purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D.; Kondrla, M.; Shaindlin, A.; Carabe, A.

    2014-12-01

    FoCa is an in-house modular treatment planning system, developed entirely in MATLAB, which includes forward dose calculation of proton radiotherapy plans in both active and passive modalities as well as a generic optimization suite for inverse treatment planning. The software has a dual education and research purpose. From the educational point of view, it can be an invaluable teaching tool for educating medical physicists, showing the insights of a treatment planning system from a well-known and widely accessible software platform. From the research point of view, its current and potential uses range from the fast calculation of any physical, radiobiological or clinical quantity in a patient CT geometry, to the development of new treatment modalities not yet available in commercial treatment planning systems. The physical models in FoCa were compared with the commissioning data from our institution and show an excellent agreement in depth dose distributions and longitudinal and transversal fluence profiles for both passive scattering and active scanning modalities. 3D dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries were compared with a commercial treatment planning system, yielding a gamma-index pass rate of above 94% (using FoCa’s most accurate algorithm) for all cases considered. Finally, the inverse treatment planning suite was used to produce the first prototype of intensity-modulated, passive-scattered proton therapy, using 13 passive scattering proton fields and multi-leaf modulation to produce a concave dose distribution on a cylindrical solid water phantom without any field-specific compensator.

  3. FoCa: a modular treatment planning system for proton radiotherapy with research and educational purposes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Parcerisa, D; Kondrla, M; Shaindlin, A; Carabe, A

    2014-12-01

    FoCa is an in-house modular treatment planning system, developed entirely in MATLAB, which includes forward dose calculation of proton radiotherapy plans in both active and passive modalities as well as a generic optimization suite for inverse treatment planning. The software has a dual education and research purpose. From the educational point of view, it can be an invaluable teaching tool for educating medical physicists, showing the insights of a treatment planning system from a well-known and widely accessible software platform. From the research point of view, its current and potential uses range from the fast calculation of any physical, radiobiological or clinical quantity in a patient CT geometry, to the development of new treatment modalities not yet available in commercial treatment planning systems. The physical models in FoCa were compared with the commissioning data from our institution and show an excellent agreement in depth dose distributions and longitudinal and transversal fluence profiles for both passive scattering and active scanning modalities. 3D dose distributions in phantom and patient geometries were compared with a commercial treatment planning system, yielding a gamma-index pass rate of above 94% (using FoCa's most accurate algorithm) for all cases considered. Finally, the inverse treatment planning suite was used to produce the first prototype of intensity-modulated, passive-scattered proton therapy, using 13 passive scattering proton fields and multi-leaf modulation to produce a concave dose distribution on a cylindrical solid water phantom without any field-specific compensator. PMID:25387249

  4. Intelligent mobility research for robotic locomotion in complex terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trentini, Michael; Beckman, Blake; Digney, Bruce; Vincent, Isabelle; Ricard, Benoit

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section of Defence R&D Canada - Suffield is best described by its mission statement, which is "to augment soldiers and combat systems by developing and demonstrating practical, cost effective, autonomous intelligent systems capable of completing military missions in complex operating environments." The mobility requirement for ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings must increase significantly if robotic technology is to augment human efforts in these roles and environments. The intelligence required for autonomous systems to operate in complex environments demands advances in many fields of robotics. This has resulted in large bodies of research in areas of perception, world representation, and navigation, but the problem of locomotion in complex terrain has largely been ignored. In order to achieve its objective, the Autonomous Intelligent Systems Section is pursuing research that explores the use of intelligent mobility algorithms designed to improve robot mobility. Intelligent mobility uses sensing, control, and learning algorithms to extract measured variables from the world, control vehicle dynamics, and learn by experience. These algorithms seek to exploit available world representations of the environment and the inherent dexterity of the robot to allow the vehicle to interact with its surroundings and produce locomotion in complex terrain. The primary focus of the paper is to present the intelligent mobility research within the framework of the research methodology, plan and direction defined at Defence R&D Canada - Suffield. It discusses the progress and future direction of intelligent mobility research and presents the research tools, topics, and plans to address this critical research gap. This research will create effective intelligence to improve the mobility of ground-based mobile systems operating in urban settings to assist the Canadian Forces in their future urban operations.

  5. MYRRHA a multi-purpose hybrid research reactor for high-tech applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abderrahim, H. A.; Baeten, P.

    2012-07-01

    MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is the flexible experimental accelerator driven system (ADS) in development at SCK-CEN. MYRRHA is able to work both in subcritical (ADS) as in critical mode. In this way, MYRRHA will allow fuel developments for innovative reactor systems, material developments for generation IV (GEN IV) systems, material developments for fusion reactors, radioisotope production and industrial applications, such as Si-doping. MYRRHA will also demonstrate the ADS full concept by coupling the three components (accelerator, spallation target and subcritical reactor) at reasonable power level to allow operation feedback, scalable to an industrial demonstrator and allow the study of efficient transmutation of high-level nuclear waste. MYRRHA is based on the heavy liquid metal technology and so it will contribute to the development of lead fast reactor (LFR) technology and in critical mode, MYRRHA will play the role of European technology pilot plant in the roadmap for LFR. In this paper the historical evolution of MYRRHA and the rationale behind the design choices is presented and the latest configuration of the reactor core and primary system is described. (authors)

  6. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation.

    PubMed

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Kiran, Raphael; Jolly, Claude; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL's FLEX(28), FLEX(24), and FLEX(20) electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes. PMID:26247024

  7. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation

    PubMed Central

    Kobler, Jan-Philipp; Dhanasingh, Anandhan; Kiran, Raphael; Jolly, Claude; Ortmaier, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL's FLEX28, FLEX24, and FLEX20 electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT) images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes. PMID:26247024

  8. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Roadmap for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigators from the NINDS and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in March 2015, which joined basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in various aspects of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), in order to assess the current state of TSC research and to set future goals. PMID:27617567

  9. Change Management and Complexity: The Case for Narrative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth

    2007-01-01

    Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…

  10. Producing Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Information for Climate Research Purposes - ESA DUE Globsnow Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, Kari; Pulliainen, Jouni; Rott, Helmut; Nagler, Thomas; Solberg, Rune; Wiesmann, Andreas; Derksen, Chris; Metsämäki, Sari; Malnes, Eirik; Bojkov, Bojan

    2010-05-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project aims at creating a global database of snow parameters for climate research purposes. The main objective is to create a long term dataset on two essential snow parameters. The project will provide information concerning the areal extent of snow (SE) on a global scale and snow water equivalent (SWE) for the Northern Hemisphere. Both products will include the end product derived from the satellite data along with accuracy information for each snow parameter. The temporal span of the SE product will be 15 years and the span for the SWE product will be 30 years. A key improvement of the snow products, when compared with the currently available data sets, will be the inclusion of a statistically derived accuracy estimate accompanying each SE or SWE estimate (on a pixel level). In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service will be implemented. The service will provide daily snow maps for hydrological, meteorological, and climate research purposes. The snow products will be based on data acquired from optical and passive microwave-based spaceborne sensors combined with ground-based weather station observations. The work was initiated in November 2008, and is being coordinated by the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). Other project partners involved are NR (Norwegian Computing Centre), ENVEO IT GmbH, GAMMA Remote Sensing AG, Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Environment Canada (EC) and Northern Research Institute (Norut). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms during 2009 using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results have enabled the selection of the algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow SE and SWE products. The SWE product is derived using the FMI Algorithm and the SE product is a combination of NR and

  11. Research on the complex network of the UNSPSC ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yingying; Zou, Shengrong; Gu, Aihua; Wei, Li; Zhou, Ta

    The UNSPSC ontology mainly applies to the classification system of the e-business and governments buying the worldwide products and services, and supports the logic structure of classification of the products and services. In this paper, the related technologies of the complex network were applied to analyzing the structure of the ontology. The concept of the ontology was corresponding to the node of the complex network, and the relationship of the ontology concept was corresponding to the edge of the complex network. With existing methods of analysis and performance indicators in the complex network, analyzing the degree distribution and community of the ontology, and the research will help evaluate the concept of the ontology, classify the concept of the ontology and improve the efficiency of semantic matching.

  12. The JINR Tier1 Site Simulation for Research and Development Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenkov, V.; Nechaevskiy, A.; Ososkov, G.; Pryahina, D.; Trofimov, V.; Uzhinskiy, A.; Voytishin, N.

    2016-02-01

    Distributed complex computing systems for data storage and processing are in common use in the majority of modern scientific centers. The design of such systems is usually based on recommendations obtained via a preliminary simulated model used and executed only once. However big experiments last for years and decades, and the development of their computing system is going on, not only quantitatively but also qualitatively. Even with the substantial efforts invested in the design phase to understand the systems configuration, it would be hard enough to develop a system without additional research of its future evolution. The developers and operators face the problem of the system behaviour predicting after the planned modifications. A system for grid and cloud services simulation is developed at LIT (JINR, Dubna). This simulation system is focused on improving the effciency of the grid/cloud structures development by using the work quality indicators of some real system. The development of such kind of software is very important for making a new grid/cloud infrastructure for such big scientific experiments like the JINR Tier1 site for WLCG. The simulation of some processes of the Tier1 site is considered as an example of our application approach.

  13. Complex plasma research on ISS past, present, and future facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Morfill, G.; Fortov, V.; Hofmann, P.

    2007-11-01

    The research in dusty plasma, also known as complex plasma, under prolonged microgravity condition took its first steps in 1998 onboard the Russian Space Station MIR: cosmonauts Vladimir Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov conducted the first experiments to obtain plasma-dust crystals in the 'Plazmennyi Kristall 1'(PK-1) device using the sun as a 'natural' ionization source. This experiment was followed afterwards by the PK-2 already utilizing its own DC plasma generator. A major step came only three years later with the PKE-Nefedov facility (formerly called PKE-3). Launched in February 2001 and operated in over 13 missions for five consecutive years in the Russian Segment of the International Space Station ISS, this bilateral German-Russian research facility has already shown some surprising, new behavior of radio-frequency induced complex plasmas. An advanced model of PKE-Nefedov, the PK-3 Plus experiment apparatus, is getting readied to be launched to ISS on Progress Cargo spacecraft 20P. Additional developments are in progress to continue this exciting growing research field with: (a) PK-4 utilizing high voltage DC controlled plasma, and (b) IMPACT Laboratory, the European Space Agency's next generation premier research laboratory for plasma and dust physics on the ISS. The paper will provide background information of each of the complex plasma research facilities.

  14. Application of Complex Systems Research To Efforts of International Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Hans-Peter

    Fundamental research on complex systems has shown relevance to efforts of international development. This paper canvasses some practitioner friendly approaches to international development. Development is about interventions in a highly complex system, the society. Complex systems research tells us that development interventions should not be overly planned, rather the fundamental uncertainty of a changing social system requires a diversity of interventions, and rapid learning from development success and failure. Developing economies are functioning at a low level of effectiveness and resource use. Complex systems are change resistant, and intervention requires understanding the autocatalytic nature of a process of change. International development is about the stimulation of a society's innate autocatalytic / self-organizing processes through interventions that stimulate enough to overcome change resistance, but which do not overwhelm the system. Since the size of financial interventions may in some cases be a substantial fraction of the existing economic activity, disruption is a likely outcome. Crucially, one must avoid having the socio-economic activity organized around the intervention itself, since then an undesirable dependency of the economy on the intervention arises. Stimulation of the innate modes of activity results in the development of socio-economic organization around energy, material and financial flows. The primary generator of effectiveness is an appropriate network structure of interactions and relationships. This paper summarizes traditional development efforts and their outcomes as well as a plausible description of the process of complex systems motivated interventions. Examples are given of recent approaches which aim to appropriately stimulate international development.

  15. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 197 - Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Form Letter-Conditions Governing Access to Official Records for Historical Research Purposes E Appendix E to Part 197 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS HISTORICAL RESEARCH IN THE FILES OF THE OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY...

  16. Robotic Delivery of Complex Radiation Volumes for Small Animal Research

    PubMed Central

    Matinfar, Mohammad; Iordachita, Iulian; Wong, John; Kazanzides, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The Small Animal Radiation Research Platform (SARRP) is a novel and complete system capable of delivering multidirectional (focal), kilo-voltage radiation fields to targets in small animals under robotic control using cone-beam CT (CBCT) image guidance. The capability of the SARRP to deliver highly focused beams to multiple animal models provides new research opportunities that more realistically bridge laboratory research and clinical translation. This paper describes the design and operation of the SARRP for precise radiation delivery. Different delivery procedures are presented which enable the system to radiate through a series of points, representative of a complex shape. A particularly interesting case is shell dose irradiation, where the goal is to deliver a high dose of radiation to the shape surface, with minimal dose to the shape interior. The ability to deliver a dose shell allows mechanistic research of how a tumor interacts with its microenvironment to sustain its growth and lead to its resistance or recurrence. PMID:21643448

  17. Complex plasma research on ISS: PK-3 Plus, PK-4 and impact/plasmalab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, P.; Seurig, R.; Stettner, A.; Burfeindt, J.; Morfill, G.; Thomas, H.; Thoma, M.; Höfner, H.; Fortov, W.; Molotkov, W.; Petrov, O.; Lipaev, A.

    2008-07-01

    Complex plasma research under microgravity conditions is one of the present key research topics in fundamental physics and material science on the International Space Station, ISS. In 2001 the so-called PKE-Nefedov facility performed its first experiments in radiofrequency induced complex plasmas. This bilateral German-Russian research facility operated successfully in over 13 missions nearly five years until its internal resources were consumed-resulting so far in over 30 peer-reviewed scientific publications. The next generation experiment apparatus PK-3 Plus with refined and more powerful instruments and diagnostics had its on-orbit commissioning in January 2006. It is performing flawlessly since then and has already been successfully employed during various ISS increments including Russian cosmonauts and ESA astronaut Thomas Reiter. The next generation of plasma research facilities on the ISS is the European-German-Russian PK-4 facility presently under development to investigate direct current induced complex plasmas. PK-4 is planned to be launched at the end of 2009 with the C/D development phase starting in 2007. Plans and studies to continue these research topics after PK-4 are already ongoing. Scientific next generation complex plasma research inserts may be either a part of the IMPACT (International Multi-User Plasma, Atmospheric and Cosmic Dust Twin) research laboratory in the ESA Columbus Module or more likely, part of a multi-purpose accommodation site titled "Plasma Laboratory" in the new Russian research module "MLM" scheduled for launch in 2009. The paper first presents some key results from the PK-3 Plus sessions on the ISS in 2006 and 2007. Second, the paper summarizes the status of PK-4 and highlights future potential research fields/inserts for "Plasma Lab".

  18. "The Purpose of This Study Is to": Connecting Lexical Bundles and Moves in Research Article Introductions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Viviana

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a group of lexical bundles identified in a corpus of research article introductions as the first step in the analysis of these expressions in the different sections of the research article. A one-million word corpus of research article introductions from various disciplines was compiled and the lexical bundles identified in…

  19. The Mission and Purpose of TRUCEN (The Research University Civic Engagement Network)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The mission of The Research University Civic Engagement Network (TRUCEN) is to advance civic engagement and engaged scholarship among research universities. TRUCEN has adopted the following goals for advancing civic engagement and engaged scholarship as part of the core mission of all research universities: (1) Encourage community-engaged…

  20. ESA Globsnow - Hemispherical Snow Extent and Snow Water Equivalent Records for Climate Research Purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luojus, K.; Pulliainen, J. T.; Takala, M.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Derksen, C.; Bojkov, B. R.

    2011-12-01

    The efforts of the European Space Agency (ESA) Data User Element (DUE) funded GlobSnow project has resulted in two new global records of snow parameters intended for climate research purposes. The datasets contains satellite-retrieved information on snow extent (SE) and snow water equivalent (SWE) extending 15 and 30 years respectively. The dataset on snow extent is based on optical data of Envisat AATSR and ERS-2 ATSR-2 sensors covering Northern Hemisphere between years 1995 to 2010. The record on snow water equivalent is based on satellite-based radiometer measurements (SMMR, SSM/I and AMSR-E) combined with ground-based weather station data, starting from 1979 and extending to present day. The GlobSnow SWE product is the first satellite-based dataset of snow water equivalent information on a daily basis at a hemispherical scale for 30+ years. In addition to the SE and SWE time-series, an operational near-real time (NRT) snow information service has been implemented. The current data, including the prototype products and the used validation data are available for all interested parties through the GlobSnow www-pages (http://www.globsnow.info). Extensive algorithm evaluation efforts were carried out for the candidate SWE and SE algorithms using ground truth data gathered from Canada, Scandinavia, Russia and the Alps. The acquired evaluation results enabled the selection of the final algorithms to be utilized for the GlobSnow products. The SWE product is derived using an assimilation algorithm by FMI and the SE product is a combination of NR and SYKE developed algorithms utilizing optical data. Both algorithms showed enhanced estimation characteristics when compared with currently available existing products. Prototype SE and SWE products were released for user evaluation during November 2009 covering the years 2003-2008 for SWE and 2004-2006 for SE. The final SWE product covers the Northern Hemisphere, spanning 1979 - 2010. The SE product covers the Northern

  1. Research on Automatic Classification, Indexing and Extracting: A General-Purpose Frequency Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, F. T.; Williams, John H., Jr.

    To support studies in automatic indexing, classification and extracting, a general purpose frequency program was developed to further theoretical and practical understanding of text word distributions. While the program is primarily designed for counting strings of character-oriented data, it can be used without change for counting any items which…

  2. Fundamental Complex Plasma Research on Ground and under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus; Fortov, Vladimir; Thoma, Markus; Pustylnik, Mikhail; Lipaev, Andrey; Morfill, Gregor; Molotkov, Vladimir; Usachev, Alexander; Nosenko, Vladimir; Fink, Martin; Petrov, Oleg; Rubin-Zuzic, Milenko

    2016-07-01

    Complex (dusty) plasma is plasma containing small solid particles in the sub-mm range. Those "dust" particles are highly charged due to the collection of electrons and ions and they interact electrostatically. Depending on the charge, density, and kinetic temperature of the particles, the interaction may be strong leading to collective effects and the emergence of liquid or solid behavior. In that sense complex plasmas are perfect model systems for the investigation of fundamental processes in classical condensed matter physics since their constituent mesoscopic particles are individually observable and can be regarded as classically interacting "proxy atoms". The term "complex plasmas" is widely used in the literature to distinguish dusty plasmas composed of a weakly ionized gas and charged microparticles specially "designed" for investigations in classical condensed matter, from naturally occurring systems. Gravity influences the complex plasma, the microparticles sediment and stable systems can only be achieved through counteracting gravity with other volume forces, e.g. electric or thermophoretic force. This allows producing two-dimensional - monolayer - systems, or three-dimensional systems under stress. Only under weightlessness conditions, large and homogeneous 3D systems can be formed. Although phenomena in classical condensed matter physics are in the forefront of complex plasma research the basic know-how gained from experiments, theory and numerical simulations can be of importance for the understanding of naturally occurring dusty plasmas in space. Thus, in this presentation I will show recent work on complex plasmas from the ground and first results from the PK-4 facility onboard the International Space Station ISS. Acknowledgements: We would like to acknowledge the joint ESA-ROSCOSMOS Experiment «Plasma Kristall-4» onboard the International Space Station ISS. This work is partly supported by DLR grant 50WM1441/ 50WM1442 and by the Russian Science

  3. Does the Military Child Care System Serve Its Purpose? Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zellman, Gail L.; Gates, Susan M.; Cho, Michelle; Shaw Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    This research brief summarizes research suggesting that the U.S. Department of Defense may wish to consider expanding its child care benefits to cover more military families and a broader set of child care needs. [For "Options for Improving the Military Child Care System. Occasional Paper Summary", see ED502782. For the full paper, see ED502783.

  4. Which Technology for What Purpose? The State of the Argument about Research on Learning from Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Richard E.

    In the first of four symposium papers, Clark reviews the research on learning from media and uses his argument that media comparison studies show no differences in learning attributable to any one medium over another to dispute recent research on computer-assisted instruction. He also takes the position that the media attribute argument (i.e.,…

  5. The University-Academic Connection in Research: Corporate Purposes and Social Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, E. E., Jr.

    An increase in industry-supported academic research is economically and socially desirable. This refers not to industrial philanthropy but to research consistent with a commercial "mission." This increased coupling is advocated because there is fine science and technique created in academia which is not effectively coupled to the nation's…

  6. The University-Academic Connection in Research: Corporate Purposes and Social Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Edward E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The growth of industry-supported research in universities is described, and ethical issues and the role of universities in commercial activities are debated. Industrial objectives, a comparison of some specific agreements, and desirable directions for industry support of university research are discussed. (MLW)

  7. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  8. AR-601 anthropomorphic robot modeling and virtualization toolset for research and education purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirazetdinov, R.; Kamalov, A.; Nikitina, D.; Katsevman, E.

    2016-06-01

    A program toolset for modeling and visualization of anthropomorphic robot AR-601 produced by “NPO Androidnaya technika” was implemented, allowing one to test the components of the control system and to debug control algorithms on a virtual model of the robot. The toolset might be used for both scientific and educational purposes. The work is performed according to the Russian Government Program of Competitive Growth of the Kazan Federal University (KFU).

  9. 15 CFR 909.1 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 909.1 Section 909.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  10. 15 CFR 909.1 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 909.1 Section 909.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  11. From the Bronx to Bengifunda (and Other Lines of Flight): Deterritorializing Purposes and Methods in Science Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Noel

    2011-01-01

    In this essay I explore a number of questions about purposes and methods in science education research prompted by my reading of Wesley Pitts' ethnographic study of interactions among four students and their teacher in a chemistry classroom in the Bronx, New York City. I commence three "lines of flight" (small acts of Deleuzo-Guattarian…

  12. 34 CFR 350.2 - What is the purpose of the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project and Centers Program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true What is the purpose of the Disability and Rehabilitation Research Project and Centers Program? 350.2 Section 350.2 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DISABILITY AND...

  13. 33 CFR 151.3000 - Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... jointly promulgated the definition of marine debris in this part. NOAA's regulation may be found in 15 CFR... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Definition of marine debris for the purposes of the Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act. 151.3000 Section...

  14. Liquid Methane Conditioning Capabilities Developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center's Small Multi- Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) for Accelerated Lunar Surface Storage Thermal Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bamberger, Helmut H.; Robinson, R. Craig; Jurns, John M.; Grasl, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Glenn Research Center s Creek Road Cryogenic Complex, Small Multi-Purpose Research Facility (SMiRF) recently completed validation / checkout testing of a new liquid methane delivery system and liquid methane (LCH4) conditioning system. Facility checkout validation was conducted in preparation for a series of passive thermal control technology tests planned at SMiRF in FY10 using a flight-like propellant tank at simulated thermal environments from 140 to 350K. These tests will validate models and provide high quality data to support consideration of LCH4/LO2 propellant combination option for a lunar or planetary ascent stage.An infrastructure has been put in place which will support testing of large amounts of liquid methane at SMiRF. Extensive modifications were made to the test facility s existing liquid hydrogen system for compatibility with liquid methane. Also, a new liquid methane fluid conditioning system will enable liquid methane to be quickly densified (sub-cooled below normal boiling point) and to be quickly reheated to saturation conditions between 92 and 140 K. Fluid temperatures can be quickly adjusted to compress the overall test duration. A detailed trade study was conducted to determine an appropriate technique to liquid conditioning with regard to the SMiRF facility s existing infrastructure. In addition, a completely new roadable dewar has been procured for transportation and temporary storage of liquid methane. A new spherical, flight-representative tank has also been fabricated for integration into the vacuum chamber at SMiRF. The addition of this system to SMiRF marks the first time a large-scale liquid methane propellant test capability has been realized at Glenn.This work supports the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project being conducted under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, providing focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts to support NASA s future robotic or human exploration missions.

  15. Research Strategy for Modeling the Complexities of Turbine Heat Transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneau, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a NASA research program, known as the Coolant Flow Management Program, which focuses on the interaction between the internal coolant channel and the external film cooling of a turbine blade and/or vane in an aircraft gas turbine engine. The turbine gas path is really a very complex flow field. The combination of strong pressure gradients, abrupt geometry changes and intersecting surfaces, viscous forces, rotation, and unsteady blade/vane interactions all combine to offer a formidable challenge. To this, in the high pressure turbine, we add the necessity of film cooling. The ultimate goal of the turbine designer is to maintain or increase the high level of turbine performance and at the same time reduce the amount of coolant flow needed to achieve this end. Simply stated, coolant flow is a penalty on the cycle and reduces engine thermal efficiency. Accordingly, understanding the flow field and heat transfer associated with the coolant flow is a priority goal. It is important to understand both the film cooling and the internal coolant flow, particularly their interaction. Thus, the motivation for the Coolant Flow Management Program. The paper will begin with a brief discussion of the management and research strategy, will then proceed to discuss the current attack from the internal coolant side, and will conclude by looking at the film cooling effort - at all times keeping sight of the primary goal the interaction between the two. One of the themes of this paper is that complex heat transfer problems of this nature cannot be attacked by single researchers or even groups of researchers, each working alone. It truly needs the combined efforts of a well-coordinated team to make an impact. It is important to note that this is a government/industry/university team effort.

  16. Veterinary biobank facility: development and management for diagnostic and research purposes.

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Tina; Dotti, Silvia; Villa, Riccardo; Cinotti, Stefano; Ferrari, Maura

    2015-01-01

    Biobanking is an essential tool for ensuring easy availability of high-quality biomaterial collections that combine essential samples and epidemiological, clinical, and research data for the scientific community. Specimen collection is an integral part of clinical research. Indeed, every year throughout the world, millions of biological samples are stored for diagnostics and research, but in many fields the lack of biological material and models is a major hindrance for ongoing research. A biobank facility provides suitable samples for large-scale screening studies and database repositories. Software dedicated to biological banks simplify sample registration and identification, the cataloging of sample properties (type of sample/specimen, associated diseases and/or therapeutic protocols, environmental information, etc.), sample tracking, quality assurance, and specimen availability characterized by well-defined features. Biobank facilities must adopt good laboratory practices (GLPs) and a stringent quality control system and also comply with ethical issues, when required. The creation of a veterinary network can be useful under different aspects: the first one is related to the importance of animal sciences itself to improve research and strategies in the different branches of the veterinary area, and the second aspect is related to the possibility of data management harmonization to improve scientific cooperation. PMID:25399087

  17. Designing a Qualitative Research for Evaluation of English for Academic Purposes Activity in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zascerinska, Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Competence-based teacher education provides new knowledge within the knowledge triangle of education, research and innovation. Communicative competence is of the greatest importance which individuals need for personal fulfilment and development, active citizenship, social inclusion and employment (European Commission, 2004). The successful…

  18. Purposeful Design of Formal Laboratory Instruction as a Springboard to Research Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Miller, Matthew L.

    2013-01-01

    An innovative first- and second-year laboratory course sequence is described. The goal of the instructional model is to introduce chemistry and biochemistry majors to the process of research participation earlier in their academic training. To achieve that goal, the instructional model incorporates significant hands-on experiences with chemical…

  19. The ESPAT tool: a general-purpose DSS shell for solving stochastic optimization problems in complex river-aquifer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macian-Sorribes, Hector; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Tilmant, Amaury

    2015-04-01

    Stochastic programming methods are better suited to deal with the inherent uncertainty of inflow time series in water resource management. However, one of the most important hurdles in their use in practical implementations is the lack of generalized Decision Support System (DSS) shells, usually based on a deterministic approach. The purpose of this contribution is to present a general-purpose DSS shell, named Explicit Stochastic Programming Advanced Tool (ESPAT), able to build and solve stochastic programming problems for most water resource systems. It implements a hydro-economic approach, optimizing the total system benefits as the sum of the benefits obtained by each user. It has been coded using GAMS, and implements a Microsoft Excel interface with a GAMS-Excel link that allows the user to introduce the required data and recover the results. Therefore, no GAMS skills are required to run the program. The tool is divided into four modules according to its capabilities: 1) the ESPATR module, which performs stochastic optimization procedures in surface water systems using a Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming (SDDP) approach; 2) the ESPAT_RA module, which optimizes coupled surface-groundwater systems using a modified SDDP approach; 3) the ESPAT_SDP module, capable of performing stochastic optimization procedures in small-size surface systems using a standard SDP approach; and 4) the ESPAT_DET module, which implements a deterministic programming procedure using non-linear programming, able to solve deterministic optimization problems in complex surface-groundwater river basins. The case study of the Mijares river basin (Spain) is used to illustrate the method. It consists in two reservoirs in series, one aquifer and four agricultural demand sites currently managed using historical (XIV century) rights, which give priority to the most traditional irrigation district over the XX century agricultural developments. Its size makes it possible to use either the SDP or

  20. Synergies between plant research conducted for terrestrial and for space purposes.

    PubMed

    Andre, M; Chagvardieff, P

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the main part of CELSS studies has concerned the exploration of limits of plant productivity. Very high yields were obtained in continuous and high lighting, without reaching any limit. Concepts of mineral nutrition were renewed. CELSS activities now induce a development in the techniques of image processing applied to plants in order to follow the growth, to detect stresses or diseases or to pilot harvesting robots. Notable efforts concern the development of sensors, the study of trace contaminants and the micro-organisms monitoring. In parallel, several instruments for plant culture in closed Systems were developed. The advantages of closure are emphasised in comparison with open flow systems. The concept of Artificial Ecosystems developed for space research is more and more taken into account by the scientific community. It is considered as a new tool to study basic and applied problems related to ecology and not especially concerned with space research. PMID:11542533

  1. Synergies between plant research conducted for terrestrial and for space purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, M.; Chagvardieff, P.

    1999-01-01

    During the past 10 years, the main part of CELSS studies has concerned the exploration of limits of plant productivity. Very high yields were obtained in continuous and high lighting, without reaching any limit. Concepts of mineral nutrition were renewed. CELSS activities now induce a development in the techniques of image processing applied to plants in order to follow the growth, to detect stresses or diseases or to pilot harvesting robots. Notable efforts concern the development of sensors, the study of trace contaminants and the micro-organisms monitoring. In parallel, several instruments for plant culture in closed systems were developed. The advantages of closure are emphasised in comparison with open flow systems. The concept of Artificial Ecosystems developed for space research is more and more taken into account by the scientific community. It is considered as a new tool to study basic and applied problems related to ecology and not especially concerned with space research.

  2. Purpose, structure, and function of the United States National Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H.; Williams, O. Dale; Korelitz, James J.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Makhija, Sonia K.; Meyerowitz, Cyril; Oates, Thomas W.; Rindal, D. Brad; Benjamin, Paul L.; Foy, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Following a successful2005–2012 phase with three regional practice-based research networks (PBRNs), a single, unified national network called “The National Dental PBRN” was created in 2012 in the United States to improve oral health by conducting practice-based research and serving dental professionals through education and collegiality. Methods Central administration is based in Alabama. Regional centres are based in Alabama, Florida, Minnesota, Oregon, New York and Texas, with a Coordinating Centre in Maryland. Ideas for studies are prioritized by the Executive Committee, comprised mostly of full-time clinicians. Results To date, 2736 persons have enrolled, from all six network regions; enrollment continues to expand. They represent a broad range of practitioners, practice types, and patient populations. Practitioners are actively improving every step of the research process, from idea generation, to study development, field testing, data collection, and presentation and publication. Conclusions Practitioners from diverse settings are partnering with fellow practitioners and academics to improve clinical practice and meet the needs of clinicians and their patients. Clinical significance This “nation’s network” aims to serve as a precious national resource to improve the scientific basis for clinical decision-making and foster movement of the latest evidence into routine practice. PMID:23597500

  3. International Space Science Programs: Basic Research with a High Public Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. N.

    2009-04-01

    The exploration of outer space, and the use of platforms in space to monitor the Earth, are increasingly international enterprises. The spacefaring nations of the world have programs to study the moon, the Sun, the other planets of the solar system, and the universe beyond. Space is also the domain from which navigation, communication, reconnaissance, and resource management functions are carried out by civilian and military agencies. Recent decades of experience have shown the immense benefits of international cooperation to pursue scientific research goals. In turn, the products of such basic research have immense potential to improve space situational awareness and to mitigate the effects of ''space weather'' on human technology. A key to future success of space exploration is to minimize the impacts of laws and regulations such as ITAR (International Traffic in Arms Regulations) that have already had a devastating effect on space commerce and basic space research. In this presentation I discuss the conduct of forefront science in the context of sensible, prudent international space policy and evolving governmental regulations.

  4. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaking Deep-Sea Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lembke-Jene, L.; Biebow, N.; Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.; Azzolini, R.

    2009-04-01

    Future breakthroughs in scientific deep-sea drilling critically depend on our ability to perform field expeditions with state-of-the-art technologies and modern infrastructures. This will require major investments, both in terms of generating new, as well as maintaining and renovating existing infrastructure. Diverse models for science operations are presently projected, also within the context of scientific needs after the current phase of the IODP will come to an end. In spite of its critical role in global climate and tectonic evolution, the Arctic Ocean is one of the most unexplored ocean basins of the world, its geologic and paleo-environmental history remaining largely unknown. Restricted by circulating sea ice, scientific drilling has been slow to arrive in the Arctic Ocean. This lack of data remains and represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. We here report on the finalised technical planning of a new European research icebreaker and deep-sea drilling vessel, the AURORA BOREALIS, designed with an all-season capability of endurance in permanently ice-covered waters. The icebreaker will be able to carry out deep-sea drilling in ice-covered deep-sea basins primarily during the more favorable summer seasons in order to fulfill the needs of the IODP or its eventual successor as a Mission-Specific Platform. AURORA BOREALIS will be the most advanced polar research vessel in the world with a multi-functional role of drilling in deep ocean basins and supporting climate and environmental research and decision support for stakeholder governments within the next 35-40 years. It will feature the highest attainable icebreaker classification, considerably surpassing in performance all currently operating research icebreakers. New technological features to be implemented include a novel hull design and specialized dynamic positioning systems for operations under closed sea-ice cover conditions with up to 2.5 m ice thickness, combined with

  5. Eco-efficiency analysis of an agricultural research complex.

    PubMed

    Reith, Charles C; Guidry, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The Model Sustainable Agricultural Complex (MSAC) is a 600-acre experimental farm in south-central Louisiana, in the very southern reaches of the United States, approximately 40 km north of the Gulf of Mexico. The MSAC consists of many land uses and facilities, including a dairy, crawfish center, beef herd, sugarcane crop, and equestrian center, as well as numerous features and programs for research, education, and residence. The mission of the MSAC, which is operated by the Department of Renewable Resources at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, has been to accommodate research and education in production agriculture, while generating revenues through the delivery of food products into the local economy. In recent years, environmental conservation has been increasingly important at the MSAC. Best management practices (BMPs) were implemented to reduce soil loss and mitigate nonpoint source pollution. Research was initiated to quantify the effectiveness of these BMPs, and workshops were conducted to explain preliminary results to local farmers. However, environmental improvements at the MSAC had until 2000 been piecemeal, which may be said as well for agriculture overall. What is needed is a comprehensive integrated approach to analyzing and improving environmental performance, as is possible when implementing an environmental management system (EMS). This manuscript describes our efforts to integrate piecemeal environmental improvements into a farm-wide program of systematic improvement. This process began with a qualitative ranking of the MSAC's inputs and outputs, followed by a quantification of certain key parameters related to the consumption of resources and provision of services at the Complex. Certain measures related to the Complex's eco-efficiency were combined into a ratio that provides a useful target for management and continuous improvement. Eco-efficiency, which is defined as 'the efficiency with which receivables are converted into deliverables

  6. General-Purpose Heat Source: Research and development program: Cold-Process Verification Test Series

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; George, T.G.

    1996-06-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements. Because any space mission could experience a launch abort or return from orbit, the heat source must be designed and constructed to survive credible accident environments. Previous testing conducted in support of the Galileo and Ulysses missions documented the response of GPHSs and individual GPHS capsules fueled with {sup 238}UO{sub 2} ({sup 235}U-depleted) to a variety of explosive overpressure and impact events. In the early 1990s, Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) resumed fabrication of {sup 238}UO{sub 2} GPHS pellets. The Cold-Process Verification (CPV) Test Series was designed to compare the response of GPHS heat sources loaded with recently fabricated hot- and cold-pressed {sup 238}UO{sub 2} pellets to the response of urania pellets used in the Galileo and Ulysses performance tests. This report documents eleven bare-capsule impacts and one impact of a fully loaded GPHS module. All of the failures observed in the bare-clad impact tests were similar to failures observed in previous safety tests. No failures occurred in the module impact test.

  7. AILA Africa Research Network Launch 2007: Research into the Use of the African Languages for Academic Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wildsmith-Cromarty, Rosemary

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the one-day symposium was to bring together scholars in applied linguistics with an interest in the African languages for the launch of the new AILA Africa regional network. Contributions were in the form of invited research papers from several African countries. This report focuses on the South African contribution, which highlighted…

  8. AURORA BOREALIS - Icebreaker, Drilling Platform and Multi-Purpose Research Vessel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunz-Pirrung, M.; Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Thiede, J.; Egerton, P.

    2007-12-01

    In spite of the critical role of the Arctic Ocean in climate evolution, it is the only sub-basin of the world's oceans that has essentially not been sampled by the drill ships of the Deep-Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) or the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP), and its long-term environmental history and tectonic structure is therefore poorly known. Exceptions are the ODP Leg 151 and the more recent very successful ACEX-expedition of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). This lack of data represents one of the largest gaps of information in modern Earth Science. Therefore, the new research icebreaker AURORA BOREALIS will be equipped with drilling facilities to fulfil the needs of the IODP for a -Mission-Specific Platform- to drill in deep, permanently ice-covered ocean basins. This icebreaker must be also powerful enough to maintain station against the drifting sea-ice cover and will have to be equipped with a dynamic positioning system. This new icebreaker would be conceived as an optimized science platform from the keel up and will allow conducting long, international and interdisciplinary expeditions into the central Arctic Ocean during all seasons of the year. In a long-term perspective the AURORA BOREALIS will also be used to address Antarctic research targets, both in its mode as a regular research vessel as well as a polar drill ship. The construction of AURORA BOREALIS requires several new technical implementations, such as advanced dynamic positioning and deep-sea drilling under a closed sea-ice cover and two moon pools (7 x 7 m), and will provide an extended technical potential and knowledge for marine technology. The scientific and technical details will be presented.

  9. A flexible and inexpensive high-performance auditory evoked response recording system appropriate for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Valderrama, Joaquin T; de la Torre, Angel; Alvarez, Isaac; Segura, Jose Carlos; Sainz, Manuel; Vargas, Jose Luis

    2014-10-01

    Recording auditory evoked responses (AER) is done not only in hospitals and clinics worldwide to detect hearing impairments and estimate hearing thresholds, but also in research centers to understand and model the mechanisms involved in the process of hearing. This paper describes a high-performance, flexible, and inexpensive AER recording system. A full description of the hardware and software modules that compose the AER recording system is provided. The performance of this system was evaluated by conducting five experiments with both real and artificially synthesized auditory brainstem response and middle latency response signals at different intensity levels and stimulation rates. The results indicate that the flexibility of the described system is appropriate to record AER signals under several recording conditions. The AER recording system described in this article is a flexible and inexpensive high-performance AER recording system. This recording system also incorporates a platform through which users are allowed to implement advanced signal processing methods. Moreover, its manufacturing cost is significantly lower than that of other commercially available alternatives. These advantages may prove useful in many research applications in audiology. PMID:24870606

  10. Will Women Diagnosed with Breast Cancer Provide Biological Samples for Research Purposes?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Shelley A.; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Cotterchio, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about the response rates for biological sample donation and attitudes towards control recruitment, especially in younger women. The goals of this pilot study were to determine in women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the proportion of cases willing to provide biological samples and for purposes of control recruitment, contact information for friends or colleagues. Methods A population-based sample of breast cancer cases (n = 417, 25-74 years) was recruited from the Ontario Cancer Registry in 2010 and self-administered questionnaires were completed to determine willingness to provide samples (spot or 24-hr urine, saliva, blood) and contact information for friends/colleagues for control recruitment. Using Χ2 analyses of contingency tables we evaluated if these proportions varied by age group (<45 and 45+) and other factors such as ethnicity, education, income, body mass index (BMI), smoking status and alcohol consumption. Results Cases were willing to provide blood samples, by visiting a clinic (62%) or by having a nurse visit the home (61%). Moreover, they would provide saliva (73%), and morning or 24-hr urine samples (66% and 52%). Younger cases (≤45) were 3 times (OR) more likely more than older cases to agree to collect morning urine (95% CI: 1.15-8.35). Only 26% of cases indicated they would provide contact information of friends or work colleagues to act as controls. Educated cases were more likely to agree to provide samples, and cases who consumed alcohol were more willing to provide contact information. Ethnicity, income, BMI and smoking had little effect on response rates. Conclusions Reasonable response rates for biological sample collection should be expected in future case controls studies in younger women, but other methods of control selection must be devised. PMID:26061089

  11. From the Bronx to Bengifunda (and other lines of flight): deterritorializing purposes and methods in science education research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gough, Noel

    2011-03-01

    In this essay I explore a number of questions about purposes and methods in science education research prompted by my reading of Wesley Pitts' ethnographic study of interactions among four students and their teacher in a chemistry classroom in the Bronx, New York City. I commence three `lines of flight' (small acts of Deleuzo-Guattarian deterritorialization) that depart from the conceptual territory regulated by science education's dominant systems of signification and make new connections within and beyond that territory. I offer neither a comprehensive review nor a thorough critique of Wesley's paper but, rather, suggest some alternative directions for science education research in the genre he exemplifies.

  12. DC Motor Drive for Small Autonomous Robots with Educational and Research Purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krklješ, Damir; Babković, Kalman; Nagy, László; Borovac, Branislav; Nikolić, Milan

    Many student robot competitions have been established during the last decade. One of them, and the most popular in Europe, is the European competition EUROBOT. The basic aim of this competition is to promote the robotics among young people, mostly students and high school pupils. The additional outcome of the competition is the development of faculty curriculums that are based on this competition. Such curriculum has been developed at the Faculty of Technical Science in Novi Sad. The curriculum duration is two semesters. During the first semester the theoretical basis is presented to the students. During the second semester the students, divided into teams of three to five students, develop the robots which will take part in the incoming EUROBOT competition. Since the time for the robot development is short, the basic electronic kit is provided for the students. The basic parts of the kit are two DC motor drives dedicated to the robot locomotion. The drives will also be used in the research concerning the multi segment robot foot. This paper presents the DC motor drive and its features. The experimental results concerning speed and position regulations and also the current limiting is presented too.

  13. Space Propulsion Research Facility (B-2): An Innovative, Multi-Purpose Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Gerald M.; Weaver, Harold F.; Kudlac, Maureen T.; Maloney, Christian T.; Evans, Richard K.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Propulsion Research Facility, commonly referred to as B-2, is designed to hot fire rocket engines or upper stage launch vehicles with up to 890,000 N force (200,000 lb force), after environmental conditioning of the test article in simulated thermal vacuum space environment. As NASA s third largest thermal vacuum facility, and the largest designed to store and transfer large quantities of propellant, it is uniquely suited to support developmental testing associated with large lightweight structures and Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) systems, as well as non-traditional propulsion test programs such as Electric and In-Space propulsion. B-2 has undergone refurbishment of key subsystems to support the NASA s future test needs, including data acquisition and controls, vacuum, and propellant systems. This paper details the modernization efforts at B-2 to support the Nation s thermal vacuum/propellant test capabilities, the unique design considerations implemented for efficient operations and maintenance, and ultimately to reduce test costs.

  14. Applications of complex systems theory in nursing education, research, and practice.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Thomas R; Effken, Judith A; Pesut, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The clinical and administrative processes in today's healthcare environment are becoming increasingly complex. Multiple providers, new technology, competition, and the growing ubiquity of information all contribute to the notion of health care as a complex system. A complex system (CS) is characterized by a highly connected network of entities (e.g., physical objects, people or groups of people) from which higher order behavior emerges. Research in the transdisciplinary field of CS has focused on the use of computational modeling and simulation as a methodology for analyzing CS behavior. The creation of virtual worlds through computer simulation allows researchers to analyze multiple variables simultaneously and begin to understand behaviors that are common regardless of the discipline. The application of CS principles, mediated through computer simulation, informs nursing practice of the benefits and drawbacks of new procedures, protocols and practices before having to actually implement them. The inclusion of new computational tools and their applications in nursing education is also gaining attention. For example, education in CSs and applied computational applications has been endorsed by The Institute of Medicine, the American Organization of Nurse Executives and the American Association of Colleges of Nursing as essential training of nurse leaders. The purpose of this article is to review current research literature regarding CS science within the context of expert practice and implications for the education of nurse leadership roles. The article focuses on 3 broad areas: CS defined, literature review and exemplars from CS research and applications of CS theory in nursing leadership education. The article also highlights the key role nursing informaticists play in integrating emerging computational tools in the analysis of complex nursing systems. PMID:18922279

  15. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: a meta-analysis exemplar.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sharon A; Martin, Ellen E; Garcia, Theresa J; Winter, Mary A; García, Alexandra A; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E; Sumlin, Lisa L

    2013-06-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, for example, EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this article is to describe the electronic processes designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive, quantitative model-testing meta-analysis. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be used, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  16. Managing complex research datasets using electronic tools: A meta-analysis exemplar

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sharon A.; Martin, Ellen E.; Garcia, Theresa J.; Winter, Mary A.; García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Adama; Cuevas, Heather E.; Sumlin, Lisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Meta-analyses of broad scope and complexity require investigators to organize many study documents and manage communication among several research staff. Commercially available electronic tools, e.g., EndNote, Adobe Acrobat Pro, Blackboard, Excel, and IBM SPSS Statistics (SPSS), are useful for organizing and tracking the meta-analytic process, as well as enhancing communication among research team members. The purpose of this paper is to describe the electronic processes we designed, using commercially available software, for an extensive quantitative model-testing meta-analysis we are conducting. Specific electronic tools improved the efficiency of (a) locating and screening studies, (b) screening and organizing studies and other project documents, (c) extracting data from primary studies, (d) checking data accuracy and analyses, and (e) communication among team members. The major limitation in designing and implementing a fully electronic system for meta-analysis was the requisite upfront time to: decide on which electronic tools to use, determine how these tools would be employed, develop clear guidelines for their use, and train members of the research team. The electronic process described here has been useful in streamlining the process of conducting this complex meta-analysis and enhancing communication and sharing documents among research team members. PMID:23681256

  17. Recommended Ethical Safeguards on Fertilization of Human Germ Cells Derived from Pluripotent Stem Cells Solely for Research Purposes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hiroshi

    2016-08-01

    Production of human fertilized embryos by using germ cells derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) entails ethical issues that differ fundamentally depending on the aim. If the aim is solely to conduct research, then embryo generation, utilization and destruction must respect for the human embryo as having the innate potential to develop into a human being. If the aim is human reproduction, this technology must never be used to manipulate human life, confuse social order, or negatively affect future generations. Researchers should distinguish the aims and then accordingly establish a consensus on the safeguards needed to proceed with scientifically significant and socially accepted research, or otherwise set a moratorium. Currently, in Japan, germ cell production from human PSCs is permitted, whereas fertilization of these germ cells is not. The Japanese Expert Panel on Bioethics in the Cabinet Office has proposed that all of the following conditions must be met to approve fertilization for research purposes: (1) the research is significant for the life sciences and medicine; (2) the benefits or anticipated benefits are socially accepted; (3) human safety is assured; and (4) safeguards are put in place. If fertilization is ethically approved, I recommend the following safeguards: limitation of the purpose to improving conventional ART as an initial step; permitted culture of human embryos until the appearance of the primitive streak; restriction of the number of embryos produced to the minimum necessary; prohibition of transplantation into a human or animal uterus; and provision of human-derived ova that are not required for ART treatment. PMID:27276914

  18. The 2014 Gordon Research Conference: Physics Research & Education: The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabella, Mel; Lang, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    The field of biological physics and the physics education of biology and medically oriented students have experienced tremendous growth in recent years. New findings, applications, and technologies in biological and medical physics are having far reaching consequences that affect and influence the science community, the education of future scientists and health-care workers, and the general population. As a result leaders in Physics Education Research have begun to focus their attention on the specific needs of students in the biological sciences, the different ways physicists and biologists view the nature of science and the interactions of scientists in these disciplines. In this poster we highlight some of these findings and pose questions for discussion. The Complex Intersection of Biology and Physics will be the topic of the next Gordon Research Conference on Physics Research and Education to be held in June 2014. The exact date and location are still to be determined.

  19. Adapting Practice-Based Intervention Research to Electronic Environments: Opportunities and Complexities at Two Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Stille, Christopher J.; Lockhart, Steven A.; Maertens, Julie A.; Madden, Christi A.; Darden, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Primary care practice-based research has become more complex with increased use of electronic health records (EHRs). Little has been reported about changes in study planning and execution that are required as practices change from paper-based to electronic-based environments. We describe the evolution of a pediatric practice-based intervention study as it was adapted for use in the electronic environment, to enable other practice-based researchers to plan efficient, effective studies. Methods: We adapted a paper-based pediatric office-level intervention to enhance parent-provider communication about subspecialty referrals for use in two practice-based research networks (PBRNs) with partially and fully electronic environments. We documented the process of adaptation and its effect on study feasibility and efficiency, resource use, and administrative and regulatory complexities, as the study was implemented in the two networks. Results: Considerable time and money was required to adapt the paper-based study to the electronic environment, requiring extra meetings with institutional EHR-, regulatory-, and administrative teams, and increased practice training. Institutional unfamiliarity with using EHRs in practice-based research, and the consequent need to develop new policies, were major contributors to delays. Adapting intervention tools to the EHR and minimizing practice disruptions was challenging, but resulted in several efficiencies as compared with a paper-based project. In particular, recruitment and tracking of subjects and data collection were easier and more efficient. Conclusions: Practice-based intervention research in an electronic environment adds considerable cost and time at the outset of a study, especially for centers unfamiliar with such research. Efficiencies generated have the potential of easing the work of study enrollment, subject tracking, and data collection. PMID:25848633

  20. Complexity Science and Educational Action Research: Toward a Pragmatics of Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Brent; Sumara, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors extend Phelps & Hase's (2002) explorations of the theoretical and methodological connections of complexity theory and action research by emphasizing complexity science as the study of learning systems. By emphasizing the importance of "complexity thinking", an argument is made for conceptualizing action research as a…

  1. Mobile hyper spectral optical complex for under satellite ocean research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagorniy, Ivan G.; Mayor, Alexander Y.; Salyuk, Pavel A.; Krikun, Vladimir A.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the mobile complex to perform continuous measurements of chlorophyll-A concentrations and dissolved organic matter by the laser induced fluorescence method. The obtained data allow evaluating the state of the photosynthetic system of phytoplankton cells. In addition, the complex allows recording the CO2 gas analyzer data, the sea water saltiness sensors, pH, temperature, and solar illumination meter. The mobility this complex ensures a possibility working on different ships and under stationary conditions. The configuration of the complex can be promptly changed for solving the current problem by promptly adding or replacing various devices and sensors. The developed software integrates all devices into the complex. The enclosure of system allows use of conventional laboratory equipment, which is resistant to vibration, but not protected from the effects of the marine environment. Results of in situ measurements performed in Sea of Japan (Peter the Great Bay) by experimental setup are given.

  2. CASE STUDY RESEARCH: THE VIEW FROM COMPLEXITY SCIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ruth; Crabtree, Benjamin F.; Steele, David J.; McDaniel, Reuben R.

    2005-01-01

    Many wonder why there has been so little change in care quality, despite substantial quality improvement efforts. Questioning why current approaches are not making true changes draws attention to the organization as a source of answers. We bring together the case study method and complexity science to suggest new ways to study health care organizations. The case study provides a method for studying systems. Complexity theory suggests that keys to understanding the system are contained in patterns of relationships and interactions among the system’s agents. We propose some of the “objects” of study that are implicated by complexity theory and discuss how studying these using case methods may provide useful maps of the system. We offer complexity theory, partnered with case study method, as a place to begin the daunting task of studying a system as an integrated whole. PMID:15802542

  3. The Complex Experience of Learning to Do Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emo, Kenneth; Emo, Wendy; Kimn, Jung-Han; Gent, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how student learning is a product of the experiential interaction between person and environment. We draw from the theoretical perspective of complexity to shed light on the emergent, adaptive, and unpredictable nature of students' learning experiences. To understand the relationship between the environment and the student…

  4. Structure, Agency, Complexity Theory and Interdisciplinary Research in Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John A.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that Education Studies needs to develop its existing interdisciplinarity understanding of structures and agencies by giving greater attention to the modern process theories of self-organisation in the physical, biological, psychological and social sciences, sometimes given the umbrella term "complexity theory". The…

  5. Governing Education in a Complex World. Educational Research and Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Tracey, Ed.; Köster, Florian, Ed.

    2016-01-01

    What models of governance are effective in complex education systems? In all systems an increasing number of stakeholders are involved in designing, delivering, and monitoring education. Like our societies, education systems are increasingly diverse regarding students, teachers, and communities, as well as the values and identities we expect…

  6. Ethical and Methodological Complexities in Research Involving Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettinger, Thomas V.

    2010-01-01

    While there is growing attention to sexual minorities in adult education (AE) and human resource development (HRD) literature, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) people have received very little attention in AE or in HRD research. This article captures methodological issues and concerns from LBGTQ-related research from…

  7. The Challenge of Researching Violent Societies: Navigating Complexities in Ethnography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabangu, Icarbord

    2009-01-01

    Through use of a recent study researching democratic education and citizenship in Zimbabwe, this paper examines the methodological dilemmas and challenges faced by an ethnographer, particularly by a research student in a violent context. The article posits a bricolage strategy to navigate some of the dangers and methodological dilemmas inherent so…

  8. Challenges to ITE Research in Conditions of Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Donald S.; Colucci-Gray, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Research into initial teacher education has come to prominence in recent years, with governments and international organisations advocating reforms in teacher education to serve the needs of a "knowledge economy". In this context, educational research plays a central, albeit controversial, role. On the one hand governmental focus on increasing…

  9. Connecting Complex Processes: A Decade of Research on Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Jennifer E.

    2010-01-01

    This review examines research on immigrant families in the United States from the past decade from multiple disciplinary perspectives. This work has used variations on assimilation and acculturation perspectives. In the case of the assimilation perspectives, the focus has largely been on family formation, whereas research using acculturation…

  10. Adopting the Transformational Leadership Perspective in a Complex Research Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Timothy N.; Pilgreen, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Transformational Leadership is a popular topic among leadership scholars, but for research administrators, Transformational Leadership might seem like an enigmatic approach given its various contexts. Research administrators might think the transformational approach is only for executives, or that they do not have enough staff to call themselves…

  11. Data Mining: A Hybrid Methodology for Complex and Dynamic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Susan; Baehr, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the ways in which data and text mining have potential as research methodologies in composition studies. It introduces data mining in the context of the field of composition studies and discusses ways in which this methodology can complement and extend our existing research practices by blending the best of what…

  12. Research on recognition methods of aphid objects in complex backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Ji-Hong

    2009-07-01

    In order to improve the recognition accuracy among the kinds of aphids in the complex backgrounds, the recognition method among kinds of aphids based on Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT) and Support Vector Machine (Libsvm) is proposed. Firstly the image is pretreated; secondly the aphid images' texture feature of three crops are extracted by DT-CWT in order to get the training parameters of training model; finally the training model could recognize aphids among the three kinds of crops. By contrasting to Gabor wavelet transform and the traditional extracting texture's methods based on Gray-Level Co-Occurrence Matrix (GLCM), the experiment result shows that the method has a certain practicality and feasibility and provides basic for aphids' recognition between the identification among same kind aphid.

  13. Research on seismic survey design for doubly complex areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hu; Yin, Cheng; Wu, Ming-Sheng; Wu, Xiao-Hua; Pan, Shu-Lin

    2012-06-01

    The complex geological conditions in doubly complex areas tend to result in difficult surface survey operations and poor target layer imaging in the subsurface which has a great impact on seismic data quality. In this paper, we propose an optimal crooked line survey method for decreasing the surface survey operational difficulties and improving the sub-layer event continuity. The method concentrates on the surface shooting conditions, first, selecting the proper shot positions based on the specific surface topographic features to reduce the shot difficulties and then optimizing the receiver positioning to meet the prerequisite that the subsurface reflection points remain in a straight line. Using this method cannot only lower the shooting difficulty of rough surface condition areas but also overcome the subsurface reflection point bending problem appearing in the traditional crooked line survey method. On the other hand, we use local infill shooting rather than conventional overall infill shooting to improve sublayer event continuity and uniformity with lower survey operation cost. A model has been calculated and processed with the proposed optimal crooked line survey and local infill shooting design method workflow and the results show that this new method can work for seismic surveys in double complex areas.

  14. Extending the Theoretical Framing for Physics Education Research: An Illustrative Application of Complexity Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsman, Jonas; Moll, Rachel; Linder, Cedric

    2014-01-01

    The viability of using complexity science in physics education research (PER) is exemplified by (1) situating central tenets of student persistence research in complexity science and (2) drawing on the methods that become available from this to illustrate analyzing the structural aspects of students' networked interactions as an important…

  15. Educational Research in the United States: A Survey of Pre-K-12 Teachers' Perceptions Regarding the Purpose, Conceptions, Use, Impact, and Dissemination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this survey study was to collect data from pre-K-12 educators in the U.S. regarding their perceptions of the purpose, conceptions, use, impact, and results of educational research. The survey tool was based on existing questionnaires and case studies in the literature, as well as newly developed items. 3,908 educators in a database…

  16. 42 CFR 68a.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for Individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUALS FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS (CR-LRP) § 68a.1 What is the scope and purpose of the NIH...

  17. 42 CFR 68a.1 - What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical Research Loan Repayment Program for Individuals...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What is the scope and purpose of the NIH Clinical..., INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (NIH) CLINICAL RESEARCH LOAN REPAYMENT PROGRAM FOR INDIVIDUALS FROM DISADVANTAGED BACKGROUNDS (CR-LRP) § 68a.1 What is the scope and purpose of the NIH...

  18. Next Generation Safeguards Initiative research to determine the Pu mass in spent fuel assemblies: Purpose, approach, constraints, implementation, and calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, S. J.; Menlove, H. O.; Swinhoe, M. T.; Schear, M. A.

    2011-10-01

    The Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) of the U.S. Department of Energy has funded a multi-lab/multi-university collaboration to quantify the plutonium mass in spent nuclear fuel assemblies and to detect the diversion of pins from them. The goal of this research effort is to quantify the capability of various non-destructive assay (NDA) technologies as well as to train a future generation of safeguards practitioners. This research is "technology driven" in the sense that we will quantify the capabilities of a wide range of safeguards technologies of interest to regulators and policy makers; a key benefit to this approach is that the techniques are being tested in a unified manner. When the results of the Monte Carlo modeling are evaluated and integrated, practical constraints are part of defining the potential context in which a given technology might be applied. This paper organizes the commercial spent fuel safeguard needs into four facility types in order to identify any constraints on the NDA system design. These four facility types are the following: future reprocessing plants, current reprocessing plants, once-through spent fuel repositories, and any other sites that store individual spent fuel assemblies (reactor sites are the most common facility type in this category). Dry storage is not of interest since individual assemblies are not accessible. This paper will overview the purpose and approach of the NGSI spent fuel effort and describe the constraints inherent in commercial fuel facilities. It will conclude by discussing implementation and calibration of measurement systems. This report will also provide some motivation for considering a couple of other safeguards concepts (base measurement and fingerprinting) that might meet the safeguards need but not require the determination of plutonium mass.

  19. What Research Says about Text Complexity and Learning to Read

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allington, Richard L.; McCuiston, Kimberly; Billen, Monica

    2015-01-01

    The CCSS framework indicates more difficult texts are to be used with students. However, the rationale for increasing text difficulty, decreasing text difficulty, is unsupported by the research that shows texts have been increasing in difficulty for at least 50 years. Oral reading accuracy is a traditional method of estimating text difficulty. For…

  20. The Wide and Complex Field of NAFLD Biomarker Research: Trends

    PubMed Central

    Macheiner, Tanja; Kavsek, Barbara; Sargsyan, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is now acknowledged as a complex public health issue linked to sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and related disorders like type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Aims. We aimed to retrieve its trends out of the huge amount of published data. Therefore, we conducted an extensive literature search to identify possible biomarker and/or biomarker combinations by retrospectively assessing and evaluating common and novel biomarkers to predict progression and prognosis of obesity related liver diseases. Methodology. We analyzed finally 62 articles accounting for 157 cohorts and 45,288 subjects. Results. Despite the various approaches, most cohorts were considerably small and rarely comparable. Also, we found that the same standard parameters were measured rather than novel biomarkers. Diagnostics approaches appeared incomparable. Conclusions. Further collaborative investigations on harmonizing ways of data acquisition and identifying such biomarkers for clinical use are necessary to yield sufficient significant results of potential biomarkers. PMID:27335843

  1. The Ethics of Good Communication in a Complex Research Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Sodeke, Stephen; Turner, Timothy; Tarver, Will

    2013-01-01

    The tripartite partnership among Morehouse School of Medicine, Tuskegee University, and University of Alabama at Birmingham is complex. In 2005, the three schools—with different institutional cultures, characters, and resources—agreed to collaborate in efforts to eliminate racial/ethnic disparities in cancer burdens. Pursuing this laudable aim predictably involved some miscommunication. The Bioethics Shared Resource (BSR) group foresaw such challenges and monitored interactions to prevent harm, noting that while effective communication is critical to the achievement of mutual goals, an understanding and prudent use of proven communication principles is a sine qua non for success. In this commentary, we share the undergirding moral concepts, communication approaches, and lessons learned. This experience has led us to propose an ethics of good communication for others to consider. PMID:20675944

  2. The 1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute's book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems - the focus of work at SFI - involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, and the Gross National Product (GNP) of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

  3. 1992 annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    In 1992 the Santa Fe Institute hosted more than 100 short- and long-term research visitors who conducted a total of 212 person-months of residential research in complex systems. To date this 1992 work has resulted in more than 50 SFI Working Papers and nearly 150 publications in the scientific literature. The Institute`s book series in the sciences of complexity continues to grow, now numbering more than 20 volumes. The fifth annual complex systems summer school brought nearly 60 graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to Santa Fe for an intensive introduction to the field. Research on complex systems-the focus of work at SFI-involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex adaptive behavior range upwards from DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complex behavior include spin glasses, cellular automata, and genetic algorithms. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simple components; (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy); and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions.

  4. Self-Contained Training Materials for Teacher Education: A Derivation from Research on the Learning of Complex Skills. Acquiring Teaching Competencies. Reports and Studies. Report No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudgins, Bryce B.

    The purpose of this paper is to select from among the bodies of research on complex skill learning those generalizations that seem to have some applicability to issues in designing training materials for teacher education. That selection entails a review of the principal points and findings within the domain and of the implications of the findings…

  5. A multiscale modelling methodology applicable for regulatory purposes taking into account effects of complex terrain and buildings on pollutant dispersion: a case study for an inner Alpine basin.

    PubMed

    Oettl, D

    2015-11-01

    Dispersion modelling in complex terrain always has been challenging for modellers. Although a large number of publications are dedicated to that field, candidate methods and models for usage in regulatory applications are scarce. This is all the more true when the combined effect of topography and obstacles on pollutant dispersion has to be taken into account. In Austria, largely situated in Alpine regions, such complex situations are quite frequent. This work deals with an approach, which is in principle capable of considering both buildings and topography in simulations by combining state-of-the-art wind field models at the micro- (<1 km) and mesoscale γ (2-20 km) with a Lagrangian particle model. In order to make such complex numerical models applicable for regulatory purposes, meteorological input data for the models need to be readily derived from routine observations. Here, use was made of the traditional way to bin meteorological data based on wind direction, speed, and stability class, formerly mainly used in conjunction with Gaussian-type models. It is demonstrated that this approach leads to reasonable agreements (fractional bias < 0.1) between observed and modelled annual average concentrations in an Alpine basin with frequent low-wind-speed conditions, temperature inversions, and quite complex flow patterns, while keeping the simulation times within the frame of possibility with regard to applications in licencing procedures. However, due to the simplifications in the derivation of meteorological input data as well as several ad hoc assumptions regarding the boundary conditions of the mesoscale wind field model, the methodology is not suited for computing detailed time and space variations of pollutant concentrations. PMID:26162440

  6. Challenging the Research Base of the Common Core State Standards: A Historical Reanalysis of Text Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamson, David A.; Lu, Xiaofei; Eckert, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    The widely adopted Common Core State Standards (CCSS) call for raising the level of text complexity in textbooks and reading materials used by students across all grade levels in the United States; the authors of the English Language Arts component of the CCSS build their case for higher complexity in part upon a research base they say shows a…

  7. Conceptualizing Debates in Learning and Educational Research: Toward a Complex Systems Conceptual Framework of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Michael J.; Kapur, Manu; Reimann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This article proposes a conceptual framework of learning based on perspectives and methodologies being employed in the study of complex physical and social systems to inform educational research. We argue that the contexts in which learning occurs are complex systems with elements or agents at different levels--including neuronal, cognitive,…

  8. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  9. 1991 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    1991 was continued rapid growth for the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) as it broadened its interdisciplinary research into the organization, evolution and operation of complex systems and sought deeply the principles underlying their dynamic behavior. Research on complex systems--the focus of work at SFI--involves an extraordinary range of topics normally studied in seemingly disparate fields. Natural systems displaying complex behavior range upwards from proteins and DNA through cells and evolutionary systems to human societies. Research models exhibiting complexity include nonlinear equations, spin glasses, cellular automata, genetic algorithms, classifier systems, and an array of other computational models. Some of the major questions facing complex systems researchers are: (1) explaining how complexity arises from the nonlinear interaction of simples components, (2) describing the mechanisms underlying high-level aggregate behavior of complex systems (such as the overt behavior of an organism, the flow of energy in an ecology, the GNP of an economy), and (3) creating a theoretical framework to enable predictions about the likely behavior of such systems in various conditions. The importance of understanding such systems in enormous: many of the most serious challenges facing humanity--e.g., environmental sustainability, economic stability, the control of disease--as well as many of the hardest scientific questions--e.g., protein folding, the distinction between self and non-self in the immune system, the nature of intelligence, the origin of life--require deep understanding of complex systems.

  10. Advances and Future Directions for Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research: Recommendations From the 2015 Strategic Planning Conference.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Mustafa; Henske, Elizabeth P; Manning, Brendan D; Ess, Kevin C; Bissler, John J; Klann, Eric; Kwiatkowski, David J; Roberds, Steven L; Silva, Alcino J; Hillaire-Clarke, Coryse St; Young, Lisa R; Zervas, Mark; Mamounas, Laura A

    2016-07-01

    On March 10 to March 12, 2015, the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in Bethesda, Maryland, to assess progress and new opportunities for research in tuberous sclerosis complex with the goal of updating the 2003 Research Plan for Tuberous Sclerosis (http://www.ninds.nih.gov/about_ninds/plans/tscler_research_plan.htm). In addition to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance, participants in the strategic planning effort and workshop included representatives from six other Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, the Department of Defense Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Research Program, and a broad cross-section of basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in tuberous sclerosis complex along with representatives from the pharmaceutical industry. Here we summarize the outcomes from the extensive premeeting deliberations and final workshop recommendations, including (1) progress in the field since publication of the initial 2003 research plan for tuberous sclerosis complex, (2) the key gaps, needs, and challenges that hinder progress in tuberous sclerosis complex research, and (3) a new set of research priorities along with specific recommendations for addressing the major challenges in each priority area. The new research plan is organized around both short-term and long-term goals with the expectation that progress toward specific objectives can be achieved within a five to ten year time frame. PMID:27267556

  11. Data quality and fitness for purpose of routinely collected data--a general practice case study from an electronic practice-based research network (ePBRN).

    PubMed

    Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Taggart, Jane; Dennis, Sarah; Yeo, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    The practice-based research network (PBRN) is a resource to recruit research participants; conduct developmental and pilot studies; and coordinate multicentre research, teaching, clinical care and quality assurance programs. It is a community-based laboratory for translational, clinical and health services research. The mining of clinical information systems of PBRNs can be used to monitor performance at the service unit level. However, are the routinely collected data of ePBRNs fit for the abovementioned purposes? We describe the establishment and governance of an ePBRN which included general practice and community health and hospital units, The general practice data quality was examined, using diabetes as the context, for completeness, correctness and consistency and assessed on its fitness for research, audit and quality assurance purposes. The quality of social determinants data was generally good while risk factors data were variable. Issues and strategies for improving data quality are discussed. PMID:22195136

  12. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at The University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center (CCRC)

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1990-06-01

    The Complex Carbohydrate research Center (CCRC) has about 90 faculty, staff, postdoctoral research associates, and graduate students. The center grant funds are used to support training of graduate students, collaborative carbohydrate research projects with other institutions, service, and equipment maintenance. The subjects extend from oligosaccharides that protect plants against viruses to oligosaccharides that induce explants to flower, from receptors for oligosaccharides that elicit phytoalexins to oligosaccharides that regulate cation transport across plasma membranes, from the structures of pectic and hemicellulosic polysaccharides to the ability of pathogenesis-related enzymes to release phytoalexin elicitors from fungal cell walls, from the cloning of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes to the cloning of glycanase inhibitors, from the identification of oligosaccharides that kill plant cells to the cloning of receptors that perceive those oligosaccharides that inhibit root formation and stimulate flower formation, from characterization of bacterial polysaccharides that have useful physical characteristics to characterization of complex carbohydrates involved in Rhizobium symbioses, and from developing analytical methods to purify and characterize carbohydrates to the development of computer methods to reduce the need to structurally characterize carbohydrates. The CCRC's progress in collaborative research, training, and service is summarized in the appendices accompanying this report.

  13. [Research on nursing in light of Edgar Morin's concept of complexity].

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana Sidney Costa

    2003-01-01

    This paper aims at introducing Complexity by showing its importance through research carried out in the Nursing area. It consists of a reflection divided into two parts: the Complexity's principles, by Edgar Morin; and research on Nursing originating from Complexity. By taking into account the Complexity involving the objects of study in Nursing, it is desirable to choose a methodological path which is more appropriate to its comprehension, that is, to choose only one method which is more likely to portray a real picture of the subject. By understanding such method as a path to investigation combined with and originating from theory and not as a support to scientific practice, the concept of Complexity, by Edgar Morin, when used as a theoretical choice, ends up as a guide to a methodological path. PMID:15320624

  14. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  15. What We Learned about Mentoring Research Assistants Employed in a Complex, Mixed-Methods Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Lori E.; Villeneuve, Michelle A.; Hutchinson, Susan; Roger, Kerstin; Versnel, Joan; Packer, Tanya

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the experiences of research assistants in their dual role as both employees and trainees, when they were employed in a complex, mixed-methods, Canadian study on the everyday experience of living with and managing a chronic condition. A total of 13 research assistants participated in one or more components of this study: a survey (n…

  16. The Complex Learning Difficulties and Disabilities Research Project: Developing Meaningful Pathways to Personalised Learning. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schools Network, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Specialist Schools and Academies Trust (SSAT) was commissioned by the Department for Education (DfE) to research ways to improve outcomes for children and young people with the most complex educational needs and disabilities through the development of evidence-based teaching and learning strategies. The programme of research brought together a…

  17. Quantitative Research Methods in Chaos and Complexity: From Probability to Post Hoc Regression Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    In addition to qualitative methods presented in chaos and complexity theories in educational research, this article addresses quantitative methods that may show potential for future research studies. Although much in the social and behavioral sciences literature has focused on computer simulations, this article explores current chaos and…

  18. Plenary Speech: Researching Complex Dynamic Systems--"Retrodictive Qualitative Modelling" in the Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dörnyei, Zoltán

    2014-01-01

    While approaching second language acquisition from a complex dynamic systems perspective makes a lot of intuitive sense, it is difficult for a number of reasons to operationalise such a dynamic approach in research terms. For example, the most common research paradigms in the social sciences tend to examine variables in relative isolation rather…

  19. 1993 Annual report on scientific programs: A broad research program on the sciences of complexity

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This report provides a summary of many of the research projects completed by the Santa Fe Institute (SFI) during 1993. These research efforts continue to focus on two general areas: the study of, and search for, underlying scientific principles governing complex adaptive systems, and the exploration of new theories of computation that incorporate natural mechanisms of adaptation (mutation, genetics, evolution).

  20. Bifurcation and Hysteresis Effects in Student Performance: The Signature of Complexity and Chaos in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamovlasis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses some methodological issues concerning traditional linear approaches and shows the need for a paradigm shift in education research towards the Complexity and Nonlinear Dynamical Systems (NDS) framework. It presents a quantitative piece of research aiming to test the nonlinear dynamical hypothesis in education. It applies…

  1. How to Successfully Incorporate Undergraduate Researchers Into a Complex Research Program at a Large Institution.

    PubMed

    Weldon, Rebecca B; Reyna, Valerie F

    2015-01-01

    One feature of the Laboratory for Rational Decision Making at Cornell University is the integration of a large number of undergraduate students into a relatively elaborate research program. We describe our thorough screening process, laboratory structure, and our expectations for undergraduate researchers in our lab. We have a structure in place that helps maintain organization and enhance productivity, including scheduled weekly and monthly meetings, and selecting undergraduate and graduate team leaders to lead each research project. We discuss how it is important to encourage students to aim high and have a good attitude toward learning and problem solving. We emphasize that both initiative and teamwork are important in a large research laboratory. We also discuss the importance of giving students responsibility in connection with research projects-our undergraduate researchers engage in data analysis, interpretation of results, and have a high-level understanding of theory. PMID:26240529

  2. How to Successfully Incorporate Undergraduate Researchers Into a Complex Research Program at a Large Institution

    PubMed Central

    Weldon, Rebecca B.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2015-01-01

    One feature of the Laboratory for Rational Decision Making at Cornell University is the integration of a large number of undergraduate students into a relatively elaborate research program. We describe our thorough screening process, laboratory structure, and our expectations for undergraduate researchers in our lab. We have a structure in place that helps maintain organization and enhance productivity, including scheduled weekly and monthly meetings, and selecting undergraduate and graduate team leaders to lead each research project. We discuss how it is important to encourage students to aim high and have a good attitude toward learning and problem solving. We emphasize that both initiative and teamwork are important in a large research laboratory. We also discuss the importance of giving students responsibility in connection with research projects—our undergraduate researchers engage in data analysis, interpretation of results, and have a high-level understanding of theory. PMID:26240529

  3. Ethical aspects of informed consent for the collection, preservation and use of cells and tissues in biological banks for research purposes.

    PubMed

    Petrini, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the current and proposed requirements for informed consent for research with biological samples. The establishment of biobanks and the capabilities of collecting, storing, and using cells and tissues for research purposes have noticeably grown. With new abilities come new challenges to ethical questions of consent, specifically concerning genetic information, and unanticipated usage. This paper summarizes these issues in the context of levels of informed consent, subject risk, individual vs. societal benefits, anonymity, legal consensus. PMID:23115828

  4. Neonatal survival in complex humanitarian emergencies: setting an evidence-based research agenda

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Over 40% of all deaths among children under 5 are neonatal deaths (0–28 days), and this proportion is increasing. In 2012, 2.9 million newborns died, with 99% occurring in low- and middle-income countries. Many of the countries with the highest neonatal mortality rates globally are currently or have recently been affected by complex humanitarian emergencies. Despite the global burden of neonatal morbidity and mortality and risks inherent in complex emergency situations, research investments are not commensurate to burden and little is known about the epidemiology or best practices for neonatal survival in these settings. Methods We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology to prioritize research questions on neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. Experts evaluated 35 questions using four criteria (answerability, feasibility, relevance, equity) with three subcomponents per criterion. Using SAS 9.2, a research prioritization score (RPS) and average expert agreement score (AEA) were calculated for each question. Results Twenty-eight experts evaluated all 35 questions. RPS ranged from 0.846 to 0.679 and the AEA ranged from 0.667 to 0.411. The top ten research priorities covered a range of issues but generally fell into two categories– epidemiologic and programmatic components of neonatal health. The highest ranked question in this survey was “What strategies are effective in increasing demand for, and use of skilled attendance?” Conclusions In this study, a diverse group of experts used the CHRNI methodology to systematically identify and determine research priorities for neonatal health and survival in complex humanitarian emergencies. The priorities included the need to better understand the magnitude of the disease burden and interventions to improve neonatal health in complex humanitarian emergencies. The findings from this study will provide guidance to researchers and program implementers in

  5. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-2 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Section 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Disclosure of... rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to...

  6. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-2 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Section 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Disclosure of... rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-2 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Section 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Disclosure of... rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-2 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Section 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Disclosure of... rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6103(l)(2)-2 - Disclosure of returns and return information to Department of Labor for purposes of research and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Department of Labor for purposes of research and studies. 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Section 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Internal... PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Information and Returns Returns and Records § 301.6103(l)(2)-2 Disclosure of... rule. Pursuant to the provisions of section 6103(l)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code and subject to...

  10. Community-based participatory research in complex settings: clean mind–dirty hands

    PubMed Central

    Makhoul, Jihad; Nakkash, Rima; Harpham, Trudy; Qutteina, Yara

    2014-01-01

    Despite the abundance of the literature which discusses factors supporting or inhibiting effective participation of community members in community-based research, there is a paucity of publications analysing challenges to participation in complex settings. This manuscript describes an intervention built on researcher–community partnership amid complex social conditions which challenged participation of community members at different stages of the research process. The research took place in a Palestinian refugee camp in Beirut, Lebanon and 1 of 12 in Lebanon which suffer from deteriorating social, economic and physical conditions perpetuated by state-imposed restrictions. The research team developed a community coalition which was involved in all stages of planning, designing, implementation and dissemination. In all those stages the aim was to maintain rigorous research, to follow a ‘clean mind’ approach to research, but maintain principles of community participation which necessitate ‘a dirty hand’. Despite commitment to the principles of community-based participatory research, participation of community members (including youth, parents and teachers) was affected to a great extent by the social, physical and structural conditions of the community context. Characteristics of the context where research is conducted and how it affects community members should not be overlooked since multiple factors beyond the researchers' control could interfere with the rigour of scientific research. Researchers need to develop a plan for participation with the community from the beginning with an understanding of the community forces that affect meaningful participation and address possible deterrence. PMID:23872385

  11. Tackling complexities in understanding the social determinants of health: the contribution of ethnographic research

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective The complexities inherent in understanding the social determinants of health are often not well-served by quantitative approaches. My aim is to show that well-designed and well-conducted ethnographic studies have an important contribution to make in this regard. Ethnographic research designs are a difficult but rigorous approach to research questions that require us to understand the complexity of people’s social and cultural lives. Approach I draw on an ethnographic study to describe the complexities of studying maternal health in a rural area in India. I then show how the lessons learnt in that setting and context can be applied to studies done in very different settings. Results I show how ethnographic research depends for rigour on a theoretical framework for sample selection; why immersion in the community under study, and rapport building with research participants, is important to ensure rich and meaningful data; and how flexible approaches to data collection lead to the gradual emergence of an analysis based on intense cross-referencing with community views and thus a conclusion that explains the similarities and differences observed. Conclusion When using ethnographic research design it can be difficult to specify in advance the exact details of the study design. Researchers can encounter issues in the field that require them to change what they planned on doing. In rigorous ethnographic studies, the researcher in the field is the research instrument and needs to be well trained in the method. Implication Ethnographic research is challenging, but nevertheless provides a rewarding way of researching complex health problems that require an understanding of the social and cultural determinants of health. PMID:22168509

  12. New Directions of Research in Complex Plasmas on the International Space Station

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Ivlev, A. V.; Hagl, T.; Rothermel, H.; Khrapak, S. A.; Suetterlin, K. R.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Schwabe, M.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Raeth, C.; Fortov, V. E.; Molotkov, V. I.; Lipaev, A. M.; Petrov, O. F.; Tokarev, V. I.; Malenchenko, Y. I.; Turin, M. V.; Vinogradov, P. V.; Yurchikhin, F. N.

    2008-09-07

    PK-3 Plus is the second generation laboratory for investigations of complex plasmas under microgravity conditions on the International Space Station. Compared to its pre-cursor PKE-Nefedov, operational 2001-2005, it has an advanced hardware and software. Improved diagnostics and especially a much better homogeneity of the complex plasma allow more detailed investigations, helping to understand the fundamentals of complex plasmas. Typical investigations are performed to observe the structure of homogeneous and isotropic complex plasmas and instabilities occurring at high particle densities. In addition, the new setup allows the tuning of the interaction potential between the microparticles by using external ac electric fields. Thus, we are able to initiate electrorheological phenomena in complex plasma fluids in the PK-3 Plus laboratory, and observe the phase transition from a normal fluid to a string fluid state at the individual particle level for the first time. Such new possibilities open up new directions of research under microgravity conditions.

  13. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

    1996-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  14. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  15. Model-Based Assessments to Support Learning and Accountability: The Evolution of CRESST's Research on Multiple-Purpose Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Eva L.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the history, evidence warrants, and evolution of the Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing's (CRESST) model-based assessments. It considers alternative interpretations of scientific or practical models and illustrates how model-based assessment addresses both definitions. The components of the…

  16. Bio-Pedagogical Self-Reflection in PETE: Reawakening the Ethical Conscience and Purpose in Pedagogy and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Balboa, Juan-Miguel

    2009-01-01

    What guides, in ethical terms, our teaching and research in physical education teacher education (PETE)? This is hard to say, because, by and large, the literature in this field has not addressed this question. To shed some light on this matter, in this paper (a) I analyze some reasons for this lack of analysis; (b) I draw from well-known…

  17. Translating the Theoretical into Practical: A Logical Framework of Functional Analytic Psychotherapy Interactions for Research, Training, and Clinical Purposes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Cristal E.; Kanter, Jonathan W.; Bonow, Jordan T.; Landes, Sara J.; Busch, Andrew M.

    2012-01-01

    Functional analytic psychotherapy (FAP) provides a behavioral analysis of the psychotherapy relationship that directly applies basic research findings to outpatient psychotherapy settings. Specifically, FAP suggests that a therapist's in vivo (i.e., in-session) contingent responding to targeted client behaviors, particularly positive reinforcement…

  18. The New Engineering Research Centers: Purposes, Goals, and Expectations. Symposium (District of Columbia, April 29-30, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems.

    The sympoisum was held to describe the roots and future plans of the Engineering Research Center's (ERC's) concept and program. The first section of this symposium compilation describes the national goals that the ERCs represent. The second section presents the point of view of the National Science Foundation on the ERCs--the concept behind them,…

  19. "Why Are You Doing This?" Questions on Purpose, Structure, and Outcomes in Participatory Action Research Engaging Youth and Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galletta, Anne; Jones, Vanessa

    2010-01-01

    Our article is based on a study of our integration of social foundations coursework with filmmaking and participatory action research, bringing teacher candidates and middle and high school students together. The project was carried out in partnership between an urban university and two nearby public schools within a Midwestern city known for high…

  20. Being scientifical: Popularity, purpose and promotion of amateur research and investigation groups in the U.S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Sharon A.

    21st century television and the Internet are awash in content regarding amateur paranormal investigators and research groups. These groups proliferated after reality investigation programs appeared on television. Exactly how many groups are active in the U.S. at any time is not known. The Internet provides an ideal means for people with niche interests to find each other and organize activities. This study collected information from 1000 websites of amateur research and investigation groups (ARIGs) to determine their location, area of inquiry, methodology and, particularly, to determine if they state that they use science as part of their mission, methods or goals. 57.3% of the ARIGs examined specifically noted or suggested use of science as part of the groups' approach to investigation and research. Even when not explicit, ARIGs often used science-like language, symbols and methods to describe their groups' views or activities. Yet, non-scientific and subjective methods were described as employed in conjunction with objective methods. Furthermore, what were considered scientific processes by ARIGs did not match with established methods and the ethos of the scientific research community or scientific processes of investigation. ARIGs failed to display fundamental understanding regarding objectivity, methodological naturalism, peer review, critical thought and theoretical plausibility. The processes of science appear to be mimicked to present a serious and credible reputation to the non-scientific public. These processes are also actively promoted in the media and directly to the local public as "scientific". These results highlight the gap between the scientific community and the lay public regarding the understanding of what it means to do science and what criteria are necessary to establish reliable knowledge about the world.

  1. A qualitative inquiry into the challenges and complexities of research supervision: viewpoints of postgraduate students and faculty members

    PubMed Central

    YOUSEFI, ALIREZA; BAZRAFKAN, LEILA; YAMANI, NIKOO

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The supervision of academic theses at the Universities of Medical Sciences is one of the most important issues with several challenges. The aim of the present study is to discover the nature of problems and challenges of thesis supervision in Iranian universities of medical sciences. Methods The study was conducted with a qualitative method using conventional content analysis approach. Nineteen faculty members, using purposive sampling, and 11 postgraduate medical sciences students (Ph.D students and residents) were selected on the basis of theoretical sampling. The data were gathered through semi-structured interviews and field observations in Shiraz and Isfahan universities of medical sciences from September 2012 to December 2014. The qualitative content analysis was used with a conventional approach to analyze the data. Results While experiencing the nature of research supervision process, faculties and the students faced some complexities and challenges in the research supervision process. The obtained codes were categorized under 4 themes Based on the characteristics; included “contextual problem”, “role ambiguity in thesis supervision”, “poor reflection in supervision” and “ethical problems”. Conclusion The result of this study revealed that there is a need for more attention to planning and defining the supervisory, and research supervision. Also, improvement of the quality of supervisor and students relationship must be considered behind the research context improvement in research supervisory area. PMID:26269785

  2. Taking ethical photos of children for medical and research purposes in low-resource settings: an exploratory qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Photographs are commonly taken of children in medical and research contexts. With the increased availability of photographs through the internet, it is increasingly important to consider their potential for negative consequences and the nature of any consent obtained. In this research we explore the issues around photography in low-resource settings, in particular concentrating on the challenges in gaining informed consent. Methods Exploratory qualitative study using focus group discussions involving medical doctors and researchers who are currently working or have recently worked in low-resource settings with children. Results Photographs are a valuable resource but photographers need to be mindful of how they are taken and used. Informed consent is needed when taking photographs but there were a number of problems in doing this, such as different concepts of consent, language and literacy barriers and the ability to understand the information. There was no consensus as to the form that the consent should take. Participants thought that while written consent was preferable, the mode of consent should depend on the situation. Conclusions Photographs are a valuable but potentially harmful resource, thus informed consent is required but its form may vary by context. We suggest applying a hierarchy of dissemination to gauge how detailed the informed consent should be. Care should be taken not to cause harm, with the rights of the child being the paramount consideration. PMID:23835013

  3. Complex Geodetic Research in Ukrainian Antarctic Station "Academician Vernadsky" (Years 2002 - 2005, 2013-2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tretyak, Kornyliy; Hlotov, Volodymyr; Holubinka, Yuriy; Marusazh, Khrystyna

    2016-06-01

    In this paper is given an information about complex geodetic research in Ukrainian Antarctic station "Academician Vernadsky". Research were carried by Lviv polytechnic scientists, during Antarctic expeditions in years 2002 - 2005, 2013, 2014. Main objectives of the studies were: (a) study of the islands glaciers surface volumes changes in Antarctic archipelago and Antarctic Peninsula using terestrial laser scaning and digital terrestrial stereophotogrammetry survey; (b) investigation of Penola strain tectonic fault, using the results of precise GNSS observations.

  4. A broad research program on the sciences of complexity: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-20

    1988 was the first full year of operation on the Santa Fe Institute, under multiyear grants from the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation, with additional major grants from Citicorp, Russell Sage Foundation, and MacArthur Foundation. The research, educational, and publishing program of the Institute developed rapidly, especially in the last half of 1988. All of the seemingly disparate subjects in the program represent examples of complex systems with certain common properties that help define the content of an emerging general science of complexity. Major elements of progress in the SFI program were as follows: Economy; Theoretical Immunology; Global Security; Other Research; Summer School; Publishing Program; and Computer Support. This report describes proposed extensions of the 1988 programs into 1989 as well as proposed new workshops and research programs on complex adaptive systems; complexity, entropy, and the physics of information; 1989 complex systems summer school; evolution of human language; organization and evolution of prehistoric southwestern society; public policy studies; modeling human cognition and emotion; proteins, glasses, and spin glasses; theoretical ecology; and computational learning systems.

  5. When Complexity Theory Meets Critical Realism: A Platform for Research on Initial Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn; Ell, Fiona; Grudnoff, Lexie; Ludlow, Larry; Haigh, Mavis; Hill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Many scholars have concluded that teacher education research needs to take a complex view, resist simplification, and account more fully for teacher education's contexts and processes as well as its impact on teacher candidates' and school students' learning (Cochran-Smith & Zeichner, 2005; Grossman & McDonald, 2008; Opfer & Pedder,…

  6. "No Backpacks" versus "Drugs and Murder": The Promise and Complexity of Youth Civic Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Beth C.; Hayes, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    Although young people have diverse experiences with civic life, most civic education practices in classrooms fail to recognize this complexity. In this article, Beth C. Rubin and Brian F. Hayes describe the results of a year-long research project that incorporated a new approach to civic learning into public high school social studies classrooms.…

  7. Use of Movement Imagery in Neurorehabilitation: Researching Effects of a Complex Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Susy M.; Wade, Derick T.; Beurskens, Anna J. H. M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, the use of mental practice and movement imagery within several medical professions in rehabilitation and therapy has received an increased attention. Before this introduction in healthcare, the use of movement imagery was mainly researched in sports science. Mental practice is a complex intervention. When…

  8. Challenges in Integrating a Complex Systems Computer Simulation in Class: An Educational Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loke, Swee-Kin; Al-Sallami, Hesham S.; Wright, Daniel F. B.; McDonald, Jenny; Jadhav, Sheetal; Duffull, Stephen B.

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems are typically difficult for students to understand and computer simulations offer a promising way forward. However, integrating such simulations into conventional classes presents numerous challenges. Framed within an educational design research, we studied the use of an in-house built simulation of the coagulation network in four…

  9. Exploring the Use of Complexity Theory and Action Research as Frameworks for Curriculum Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Phil; Butt, Graham

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers the impact of a small-scale action research project which focused on the development of an emergent approach to curriculum making in a general certificate in secondary education course in geography. In this context, we argue that complexity thinking offers a useful theoretical foundation from which to understand the nature of…

  10. A Complex Systems Framework for Research on Leadership and Organizational Dynamics in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a historiographical analysis of major leadership and organizational development theories that have shaped our thinking about how we lead and administrate academic libraries. Drawing from behavioral, cognitive, systems, and complexity theories, this article discusses major theorists and research studies appearing over the past…

  11. Multi-Linear Strategies for (Re)Presenting the Complexity of Young People in Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Mary Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Within the current climate of unpredictability and constant change, young people at school are faced with a multitude of choices and contradictory influences. In this article, I argue that (re)presentations of young people in youth research need to reflect the complexity and multiplicity of their lives and changing priorities, and I attempt to…

  12. Diseases of complex etiology in small populations: Ethnic differences and research approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, R.; Szathmary, E.J.E.

    1985-01-01

    These proceedings discuss the papers presented at the conference on the subject of complex diseases and genetics. Some of the papers discussed were on ethnic differences of epidemiology of diseases and research programs on genetics. Role of environment in diseases, genetic variability, diseases of unknown etiology like - multiple sclerosis and population dynamics are briefly discussed.

  13. Becoming a Bricoleur: Constructing Sculptures to Explore Complex and Troublesome Dimensions in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkrig, Mark Andrew

    2014-01-01

    During a recent research project, it became apparent that the conventional taxonomic, textual and linguistic devices used to develop the narrative of a manuscript would not allow me to make sense, or tell the complex story, of my inquiry. I needed to employ multimodal approaches to grapple with the project related to artists who work in…

  14. The NIE-NMSU Project on Minorities and Women's Research. A Multi-Purpose Model to Increase Equal Participation in Educational Research. Final Performance Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Lily

    The final report for two years (1978-1980) of the National Institute of Education-New Mexico State University Project on Minorities and Women's Research, whose goal was to increase representation of women and minorities in educational research, consists of descriptions of project activities and eight appendices. The descriptive section details…

  15. Challenges in researching violence affecting health service delivery in complex security environments.

    PubMed

    Foghammar, Ludvig; Jang, Suyoun; Kyzy, Gulzhan Asylbek; Weiss, Nerina; Sullivan, Katherine A; Gibson-Fall, Fawzia; Irwin, Rachel

    2016-08-01

    Complex security environments are characterized by violence (including, but not limited to "armed conflict" in the legal sense), poverty, environmental disasters and poor governance. Violence directly affecting health service delivery in complex security environments includes attacks on individuals (e.g. doctors, nurses, administrators, security guards, ambulance drivers and translators), obstructions (e.g. ambulances being stopped at checkpoints), discrimination (e.g. staff being pressured to treat one patient instead of another), attacks on and misappropriation of health facilities and property (e.g. vandalism, theft and ambulance theft by armed groups), and the criminalization of health workers. This paper examines the challenges associated with researching the context, scope and nature of violence directly affecting health service delivery in these environments. With a focus on data collection, it considers how these challenges affect researchers' ability to analyze the drivers of violence and impact of violence. This paper presents key findings from two research workshops organized in 2014 and 2015 which convened researchers and practitioners in the fields of health and humanitarian aid delivery and policy, and draws upon an analysis of organizational efforts to address violence affecting healthcare delivery and eleven in-depth interviews with representatives of organizations working in complex security environments. Despite the urgency and impact of violence affecting healthcare delivery, there is an overall lack of research that is of health-specific, publically accessible and comparable, as well as a lack of gender-disaggregated data, data on perpetrator motives and an assessment of the 'knock-on' effects of violence. These gaps limit analysis and, by extension, the ability of organizations operating in complex security environments to effectively manage the security of their staff and facilities and to deliver health services. Increased research

  16. High-Performance, Low-Complexity Codes Researched for Communication Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwatra, Subhash C.; Jones, Robert E.

    1999-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center s Communications Technology Division has an ongoing program in the development of efficient channel coding schemes for satellite communications applications. Through a university grant, as a part of this research, the University of Toledo is investigating the performance of turbocodes, which use parallel concatenation of non-systematic convolutional encoders with an interleaver. The error correcting capacity of these codes is close to the Shannon limit. The research emphasis is on the development of low-complexity, but higher rate (greater than one half), turbocodes and on the iterative decoding of block codes.

  17. The center for plant and microbial complex carbohydrates at the University of Georgia Complex Carbohydrate Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Albersheim, P.; Darvill, A.

    1991-08-01

    Research from the Complex Carbohydrates Research Center at the University of Georgia is presented. Topics include: Structural determination of soybean isoflavones which specifically induce Bradyrhizobium japonicum nodD1 but not the nodYABCSUIJ operon; structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from symbiotic mutants of Bradyrhizobium japonicum; structural characterization of lipooligosaccharides from Bradyrhizobium japonicum that are required for the specific nodulation of soybean; structural characterization of the LPSs from R. Leguminosarum biovar phaseoli, the symbiont of bean; characterization of bacteroid-specific LPS epitopes in R. leguminosarum biovar viciae; analysis of the surface polysaccharides of Rhizobium meliloti mutants whose lipopolysaccharides and extracellular polysaccharides can have the same function in symbiosis; characterization of a polysaccharide produced by certain Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains within soybean nodules; structural analysis of a streptococcal adhesin polysaccharide receptor; conformational studies of xyloglucan, the role of the fucosylated side chain in surface-specific cellulose-xyloglucan interactions; the structure of an acylated glucosamine oligosaccharide signal molecule (nod factor) involved in the symbiosis of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae with its host Vicia sativa; investigating membrane responses induced by oligogalacturonides in cultured cells; the polygalacturonase inhibitor protein; characterization of the self-incompatability glycoproteins from Petunia hybrida; investigation of the cell wall polysaccharide structures of Arabidopsis thaliana; and the glucan inhibition of virus infection of tabacco.

  18. A cross-sectional pilot study to investigate patient attitudes and perception regarding the use of real time digital recording of urological procedures for research and teaching purposes

    PubMed Central

    Sharp, Gary; Mazzon, Giorgio; Thilagarajah, Ranjan

    2015-01-01

    Little conclusive evidence exists regarding the best way to educate and evaluate skill acquisition of advanced surgical trainees, despite it being recognised as one of the most important aspects of training. Many laparoscopic trainers have been produced with complex engineering at great cost, but, there seems to be a reluctance to use the most precious entity available to us; the patient. We thus propose the use of real time digital recording of urological procedures for research and teaching purposes. This study was prompted by the lack of literature regarding such issues. A 19 question questionnaire was circulated at a single urology out-patient department (Essex, England) over a 6 month period to evaluate attitudes and perceptions of urological patients on potentially having their procedure digitally recorded for educational and research purposes. 11 patients declined, 187 questionnaires were included in the final analysis. Male patients are more willing to consent than female patients. Older patients resulted to have a higher propensity in being recorded for medical teaching. Greater than 50% believe being recorded is intrusive but the majority do not think privacy is an issue. Lastly, the vast majority require a formal debrief post operatively. Our results show that a percentage of the public are potentially willing to be digitally recorded but many financial and social barriers exist. We have also highlighted areas of possible future research, namely the reluctance behind young urology patients to consent and questions regarding how best to educate possible study participants to ensure proper informed consent is gained. PMID:26005568

  19. Extending the theoretical framing for physics education research: An illustrative application of complexity science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forsman, Jonas; Moll, Rachel; Linder, Cedric

    2014-12-01

    The viability of using complexity science in physics education research (PER) is exemplified by (1) situating central tenets of student persistence research in complexity science and (2) drawing on the methods that become available from this to illustrate analyzing the structural aspects of students' networked interactions as an important dynamic in student persistence. By drawing on the most cited characterizations of student persistence, we theorize that university environments are made up of social and academic systems, which PER work on student persistence has largely ignored. These systems are interpreted as being constituted from rules of interaction that affect the structural aspects of students' social and academic network interactions from a complexity science perspective. To illustrate this empirically, an exploration of the nature of the social and academic networks of university-level physics students is undertaken. This is done by combining complexity science with social network analysis to characterize structural similarities and differences of the social and academic networks of students in two courses. It is posited that framing a social network analysis within a complexity science perspective offers a new and powerful applicability across a broad range of PER topics.

  20. Towards Advancing Knowledge Translation of AAC Outcomes Research for Children and Youth with Complex Communication Needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Stephen E; Shepherd, Tracy; Renzoni, Anne Marie; Anderson, Colleen; Barber, Mary; Kingsnorth, Shauna; Ward, Karen

    2015-06-01

    The production of new knowledge in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) requires effective processes to leverage the different perspectives of researchers and knowledge users and improve prospects for utilization in clinical settings. This article describes the motivation, planning, process, and outcomes for a novel knowledge translation workshop designed to influence future directions for AAC outcomes research for children with complex communication needs. Invited knowledge users from 20 pediatric AAC clinics and researchers engaged in the collaborative development of research questions using a framework designed for the AAC field. The event yielded recommendations for research and development priorities that extend from the early development of language, communication, and literacy skills in very young children, to novel but unproven strategies that may advance outcomes in transitioning to adulthood. PMID:25860836

  1. Research on the laser transmission characteristics simulation and comprehensive test in complex channel environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qiang; Liu, Jianhua; Wang, Xiaoman; Jiang, Huilin; Liu, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    The laser transmission characteristics affected in the complex channel environment, which limits the performance of laser equipment and engineering application severely. The article aim at the influence of laser transmission in atmospheric and seawater channels, summarizes the foreign researching work of the simulation and comprehensive test regarding to the laser transmission characteristics in complex environment. And researched the theory of atmospheric turbulence effect, water attenuation features, and put forward the corresponding theoretical model. And researched the simulate technology of atmospheric channel and sea water channel, put forward the analog device plan, adopt the similar theory of flowing to simulate the atmosphere turbulence .When the flowing has the same condition of geometric limits including the same Reynolds, they must be similar to each other in the motivation despite of the difference in the size, speed, and intrinsic quality. On this basis, set up a device for complex channel simulation and comprehensive testing, the overall design of the structure of the device, Hot and Cold Air Convection Simulation of Atmospheric Turbulence, mainly consists of cell body, heating systems, cooling systems, automatic control system. he simulator provides platform and method for the basic research of laser transmission characteristics in the domestic.

  2. Research design issues for evaluating complex multicomponent interventions in neighborhoods and communities.

    PubMed

    Komro, Kelli A; Flay, Brian R; Biglan, Anthony; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-03-01

    Major advances in population health will not occur unless we translate existing knowledge into effective multicomponent interventions, implement and maintain these in communities, and develop rigorous translational research and evaluation methods to ensure continual improvement and sustainability. We discuss challenges and offer approaches to evaluation that are key for translational research stages 3 to 5 to advance optimized adoption, implementation, and maintenance of effective and replicable multicomponent strategies. The major challenges we discuss concern (a) multiple contexts of evaluation/research, (b) complexity of packages of interventions, and (c) phases of evaluation/research questions. We suggest multiple alternative research designs that maintain rigor but accommodate these challenges and highlight the need for measurement systems. Longitudinal data collection and a standardized continuous measurement system are fundamental to the evaluation and refinement of complex multicomponent interventions. To be useful to T3-T5 translational research efforts in neighborhoods and communities, such a system would include assessments of the reach, implementation, effects on immediate outcomes, and effects of the comprehensive intervention package on more distal health outcomes. PMID:27012263

  3. Sustainability, Complexity and Learning: Insights from Complex Systems Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espinosa, A.; Porter, T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore core contributions from two different approaches to complexity management in organisations aiming to improve their sustainability,: the Viable Systems Model (VSM), and the Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS). It is proposed to perform this by summarising the main insights each approach offers to…

  4. An open debate about the object and purpose of global health knowledge in the context of an interdisciplinary research partnership on HIV/STI prevention priorities in Peru

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background With the failure of the latest vaccine trial, HVTN-505, HIV prevention efforts remain critical. Social and structural factors contributing to HIV and STI transmission include stigma regarding sexual violence, HIV infection and sexual orientation. For instance, HIV prevention and overall sexual health programs in Peru have been implemented yet key populations of youth (sex workers, male and transgender youth) continue to be overrepresented in new cases of HIV and STI. This suggests that interventions must take new directions and highlights the need for additional research. Discussion While interdisciplinary, international research collaborations often are indicated as best practice in developing new knowledge in global health and an important component of the leadership in health systems, this does not mean they are free of challenges. In this debate we document our reflections on some of the challenges in developing an interdisciplinary and international research team to understand HIV and STI prevention priorities among youth in two culturally diverse cities in Peru: Lima, the capital city, and Ayacucho, in the Andean region. Summary Rather than offering solutions we aim to contribute to the debate about the object and purpose of global health research in the context of developing international research partnerships that genuinely promote a reciprocal and bidirectional flow of knowledge between the Global South and the Global North, and researchers at intersections of these locations. PMID:24886493

  5. A Complex, Nonlinear Dynamic Systems Perspective on Ayurveda and Ayurvedic Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The fields of complexity theory and nonlinear dynamic systems (NDS) are relevant for analyzing the theory and practice of Ayurvedic medicine from a Western scientific perspective. Ayurvedic definitions of health map clearly onto the tenets of both systems and complexity theory and focus primarily on the preservation of organismic equanimity. Health care research informed by NDS and complexity theory would prioritize (1) ascertaining patterns reflected in whole systems as opposed to isolating components; (2) relationships and dynamic interaction rather than static end-points; (3) transitions, change and cumulative effects, consistent with delivery of therapeutic packages in the reality of the clinical setting; and (4) simultaneously exploring both local and global levels of healing phenomena. NDS and complexity theory are useful in examining nonlinear transitions between states of health and illness; the qualitative nature of shifts in health status; and looking at emergent properties and behaviors stemming from interactions between organismic and environmental systems. Complexity and NDS theory also demonstrate promise for enhancing the suitability of research strategies applied to Ayurvedic medicine through utilizing core concepts such as initial conditions, emergent properties, fractal patterns, and critical fluctuations. In the Ayurvedic paradigm, multiple scales and their interactions are addressed simultaneously, necessitating data collection on change patterns that occur on continuums of both time and space, and are viewed as complementary rather than isolated and discrete. Serious consideration of Ayurvedic clinical understandings will necessitate new measurement options that can account for the relevance of both context and environmental factors, in terms of local biology and the processual features of the clinical encounter. Relevant research design issues will need to address clinical tailoring strategies and provide mechanisms for mapping

  6. DNA methylation in complex disease: applications in nursing research, practice, and policy.

    PubMed

    Wright, Michelle L; Ralph, Jody L; Ohm, Joyce E; Anderson, Cindy M

    2013-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenomic modification that is essential to normal human development and biological processes. DNA methylation patterns are heritable and dynamic throughout the life span. Environmental exposures can alter DNA methylation patterns, contributing to the development of complex disease. Identification and modulation of environmental factors influencing disease susceptibility through alterations in DNA methylation are amenable to nursing intervention and form the basis for individualized patient care. Here we describe the evidence supporting the translation of DNA methylation analyses as a tool for screening, diagnosis, and treatment of complex disease in nursing research and practice. The ethical, legal, social, and economic considerations of advances in genomics are considered as a model for epigenomic policy. We conclude that contemporary and informed nurse scientists and clinicians are uniquely poised to apply innovations in epigenomic research to clinical populations and develop appropriate policies that guide equitable and ethical use of new strategies to improve patient care. PMID:23849553

  7. HIV prevention responsibilities in HIV vaccine trials: complexities facing South African researchers.

    PubMed

    Essack, Zaynab; Slack, Catherine; Koen, Jennifer; Gray, Glenda

    2010-01-01

    Researchers should protect the welfare of research participants through providing methods to reduce their risk of acquiring HIV. This is especially important given that late-phase HIV vaccine trials enrol HIV-uninfected trial volunteers from high-risk populations. Current ethical guidelines may be difficult for stakeholders to implement, and we know very little about what prevention services researchers are currently providing to participants or their successes, best practices and challenges. We recommend that current normative guidance be systematically reviewed and actual practice at vaccine sites be documented. Adding new tools to the current package of prevention services will involve complex decision making with few set standards, and regulatory and scientific challenges. We recommend that stakeholders (including regulators) convene to consider standards of evidence for new tools, and that decision-making processes be explicitly documented and researched. A further critical ethical task is exploring the threshold at which adding new tools will compromise the validity of trial results. PMID:20429488

  8. Applications of Complex Systems Science in Obesity and Noncommunicable Chronic Disease Research1234

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Youfa; Xue, Hong; Esposito, Layla; Joyner, Michael J.; Bar-Yam, Yaneer; Huang, Terry T.-K.

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the application of systems science (SS) to obesity and noncommunicable chronic disease (NCD) research has been growing rapidly over the past decade as the epidemic of obesity and NCDs continues to grow globally. This article summarizes the key messages of the presentations made in the special symposium “Applications of Complex Systems Science in Obesity and Noncommunicable Chronic Disease Research,” held during the ASN Scientific Sessions and Annual Meeting at Experimental Biology 2014. Invited leaders from various fields presented cutting-edge aspects of the applications of SS in public health research, with a focus on obesity and NCDs. In addition, the symposium was capped with a discussion on funding opportunities from the NIH. The speakers described the nature of SS, how it could be applied to biomedical and public health research, lessons from SS to inform obesity and NCD interventions, and the promises, challenges, and recommendations going forward. PMID:25469401

  9. Developing a framework for qualitative engineering: Research in design and analysis of complex structural systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franck, Bruno M.

    1990-01-01

    The research is focused on automating the evaluation of complex structural systems, whether for the design of a new system or the analysis of an existing one, by developing new structural analysis techniques based on qualitative reasoning. The problem is to identify and better understand: (1) the requirements for the automation of design, and (2) the qualitative reasoning associated with the conceptual development of a complex system. The long-term objective is to develop an integrated design-risk assessment environment for the evaluation of complex structural systems. The scope of this short presentation is to describe the design and cognition components of the research. Design has received special attention in cognitive science because it is now identified as a problem solving activity that is different from other information processing tasks (1). Before an attempt can be made to automate design, a thorough understanding of the underlying design theory and methodology is needed, since the design process is, in many cases, multi-disciplinary, complex in size and motivation, and uses various reasoning processes involving different kinds of knowledge in ways which vary from one context to another. The objective is to unify all the various types of knowledge under one framework of cognition. This presentation focuses on the cognitive science framework that we are using to represent the knowledge aspects associated with the human mind's abstraction abilities and how we apply it to the engineering knowledge and engineering reasoning in design.

  10. Final report: A Broad Research Project in the Sciences of Complexity

    SciTech Connect

    2000-02-01

    Previous DOE support for ''A Broad Research Program in the Sciences of Complexity'' permitted the Santa Fe Institute to initiate new collaborative research within its Integrative Core activities as well as to host visitors to participate in research on specific topics that serve as motivation and testing-ground for the study of general principles of complex systems. The critical aspect of this support is its effectiveness in seeding new areas of research. Indeed, this Integrative Core has been the birthplace of dozens of projects that later became more specifically focused and then won direct grant support independent of the core grants. But at early stages most of this multidisciplinary research was unable to win grant support as individual projects--both because it did not match well with existing grant program guidelines, and because the amount of handing needed was often too modest to justify a formal proposal to an agency. In fact, one of the attributes of core support has been that it permitted SFI to encourage high-risk activities because the cost was quite low. What is significant is how many of those initial efforts have been productive in the SFI environment. Many of SFI'S current research foci began with a short visit from a researcher new to the SFI community, or as small working groups that brought together carefully selected experts from a variety of fields. As mentioned above, many of the ensuing research projects are now being supported by other funding agencies or private foundations. Some of these successes are described.