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Sample records for pwr cold leg

  1. Evaluation of thermal mixing data from a model cold leg and downcomer. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Fanning, M.W.

    1982-12-01

    This report describes an evaluation of thermal mixing data obtained in a 1/5-scale, transparent model of the cold leg and downcomer of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The data are relevant to the phenomenon of fluid and thermal mixing following HPI (High Pressure Injection) of coolant water in a PWR loop. The data are reduced, correlated and compared with theoretically derived values and scaling approaches.

  2. Transient cooldown in a model cold leg and downcomer. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, M.W.; Rothe, P.H.

    1983-05-01

    This report describes an experimental program of fluid mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale, transparent model of a cold leg, downcomer, lower plenum, pump simulator and loop seal typical of Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering Pressurized Water Reactor (PWRs). The tests were transient cooldown tests in that they simulated an extreme condition of Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) during which cold High Pressure Injection (HPI) fluid is injected into stagnant, hot, primary fluid with complete loss of natural circulation in the loop. Cooldown in this new test series is much slower than in previous tests that did not model the pump simulator and loop seal volumes. For the stagnant loop condition, the dominant buoyancy force diverts cool HPI water to the additional volumes.

  3. Flow visualization during transient cooldown in a model PWR cold leg and downcomer

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Valenzuela, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    This report documents flow visualization studies performed in a 1/5 scale model of the cold leg and downcomer typical of Westinghouse or Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors which have a horizontal cold leg. Tests were performed with stagnant loop flow and prototypical HPI flow (Froude number F/sub CL/ = 0.04). In addition to photographs and movies illustrating phenomena and mechanistic descriptions of the behavior, the results include transient velocity profiles in the cold leg and downcomer, HPI buoyant jet entrainment rates and flow split ratios, and transient density profiles in the cold leg. This study will help to clarify the detailed mixing phenomena that are relevant to the thermal-hydraulic aspects of the Pressurized Thermal Shock concern.

  4. COMMIX-1A analysis of fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer of a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Cha, B.K.; Miao, C.C.; Sha, W.T.; Kim, J.H.; Sun, B.K.H.

    1983-01-01

    The issue of thermal shock of a PWR pressure vessel has been under considerable attention recently. A number of experimental as well as analytical studies have been performed to investigate the effect of the thermal transient on the pressure vessel due to the high pressure injection (HPI) of the cold fluid into the cold leg. This process has been called Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS). This paper is an analytical study of PTS by using COMMIX-1A. Experimental investigations were performed at CREARE and SAI. In the CREARE experiment, a 1/5 scale model was set up to simulate a cold leg and downcomer of a PWR. Tests with several different ratios of hot loop flow versus cold HPI flow were performed to study the effect of the flow ratio on the fluid and thermal mixing process in the system, especially in the downcomer region. Analytical investigations also proceeded in parallel with the experiments. Quite a few analytical investigations were performed with the COMMIX-1A code. However, in this version of COMMIX, the effect of the numerical diffusion was not addressed.

  5. COMMIX-1A analysis of fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer of a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, B.C.J.; Cha, B.K.; Sha, W.T.

    1984-06-01

    Fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer of a PWR was analyzed using COMMIX-1A. The present analysis differs from previous analyses reported in EPRI NP-3321 in three major aspects. First, extremely fine meshes were used to minimize numerical diffusion in the analysis. Second, one-equation (k) turbulence model was used to better model the turbulent flow. Third, curved surfaces were modeled by several slanted planes to better represent the geometries. By using these improvements, CREARE 1/5-scale test No. 51 was reanalyzed. Significant improvements were achieved in the comparisons between the COMMIX-1A calculations and the experimental data.

  6. Thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer at low flow rates. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Fanning, M.W.

    1983-03-01

    This report describes an experimental program of fluid-mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale, transparent model of a cold leg and downcomer typical of Combustion Engineering and Westinghouse Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The test program simulated steady-state conditions thought to be extreme for small break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LOCAs). Analysis of transient and steady-state temperature records indicates that the cold High-Pressure Injection (HPI) coolant water and the hot primary coolant water are well mixed prior to flowing over the reactor vessel wall.

  7. Three-dimensional analysis of thermal and fluid mixing in cold leg and downcomer of PWR geometries

    SciTech Connect

    Lyczkowski, R.W.; Miao, C.C.; Domanus, H.M.; Hull, J.R.; Sha, W.T.; Schmitt, R.C.

    1983-12-01

    This report describes the three-dimensional transient and steady-state computations using the COMMIX-1A computer code for the analysis of six (6) 1/5-scale thermal and fluid mixing experiments conducted at Creare, Inc. under EPRI sponsorship. The tests chosen for analyses emphasized the effects of vent valve flow, cold leg and high pressure injection (HPI) coolant flow rates, and HPI location and geometry. The COMMIX-1A computations will provide fluid temperatures and velocities in the belt-line region of the downcomer for assessment of boundary conditions for thermal stress analysis in the vessel walls. A realistic prediction for thermal and fluid mixing significantly helps establish what overcooling transients can lead to in pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events. Sample three-dimensional steady-state computations are presented for three (3) generic full-scale pressurized water reactors (PWR's) typical of Westinghouse (W), Combustion Engineering (CE), and Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) configurations as part of the code assessment.

  8. Fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer with vent-valve flow. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Marscher, W.D.; Block, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes an experimental program of fluid mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale transparent model of the cold leg and downcomer of typical Babcock and Wilcox pressurized water reactors with vent valves. The results include transient data from a grid of thermocouples and extensive flow visualization photographs. Substantial mixing of cold injected water with hot primary coolant occurred during many of the tests.

  9. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  10. Improvement of COBRA-TF for modeling of PWR cold- and hot-legs during reactor transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salko, Robert K.

    COBRA-TF is a two-phase, three-field (liquid, vapor, droplets) thermal-hydraulic modeling tool that has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory under sponsorship of the NRC. The code was developed for Light Water Reactor analysis starting in the 1980s; however, its development has continued to this current time. COBRA-TF still finds wide-spread use throughout the nuclear engineering field, including nuclear-power vendors, academia, and research institutions. It has been proposed that extension of the COBRA-TF code-modeling region from vessel-only components to Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) coolant-line regions can lead to improved Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) analysis. Improved modeling is anticipated due to COBRA-TF's capability to independently model the entrained-droplet flow-field behavior, which has been observed to impact delivery to the core region[1]. Because COBRA-TF was originally developed for vertically-dominated, in-vessel, sub-channel flow, extension of the COBRA-TF modeling region to the horizontal-pipe geometries of the coolant-lines required several code modifications, including: • Inclusion of the stratified flow regime into the COBRA-TF flow regime map, along with associated interfacial drag, wall drag and interfacial heat transfer correlations, • Inclusion of a horizontal-stratification force between adjacent mesh cells having unequal levels of stratified flow, and • Generation of a new code-input interface for the modeling of coolant-lines. The sheer number of COBRA-TF modifications that were required to complete this work turned this project into a code-development project as much as it was a study of thermal-hydraulics in reactor coolant-lines. The means for achieving these tasks shifted along the way, ultimately leading the development of a separate, nearly completely independent one-dimensional, two-phase-flow modeling code geared toward reactor coolant-line analysis. This developed code has been named CLAP, for

  11. RELAP5 Analyses of OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project Experiments on Intermediate-Break LOCAs at Hot Leg or Cold Leg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeda, Takeshi; Maruyama, Yu; Watanabe, Tadashi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Experiments simulating PWR intermediate-break loss-of-coolant accidents (IBLOCAs) with 17% break at hot leg or cold leg were conducted in OECD/NEA ROSA-2 Project using the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF). In the hot leg IBLOCA test, core uncovery started simultaneously with liquid level drop in crossover leg downflow-side before loop seal clearing (LSC) induced by steam condensation on accumulator coolant injected into cold leg. Water remained on upper core plate in upper plenum due to counter-current flow limiting (CCFL) because of significant upward steam flow from the core. In the cold leg IBLOCA test, core dryout took place due to rapid liquid level drop in the core before LSC. Liquid was accumulated in upper plenum, steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow-side and SG inlet plenum before the LSC due to CCFL by high velocity vapor flow, causing enhanced decrease in the core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD3.2.1.2 post-test analyses of the two LSTF experiments were performed employing critical flow model in the code with a discharge coefficient of 1.0. In the hot leg IBLOCA case, cladding surface temperature of simulated fuel rods was underpredicted due to overprediction of core liquid level after the core uncovery. In the cold leg IBLOCA case, the cladding surface temperature was underpredicted too due to later core uncovery than in the experiment. These may suggest that the code has remaining problems in proper prediction of primary coolant distribution.

  12. Boric acid precipitation following a cold-leg LOCA

    SciTech Connect

    Twogood, F.J. ); Strong, B.R. ); Lew, B.S. ); Kramer, C. )

    1993-01-01

    For a postulated cold-leg loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor, borated water from the safety injection and recirculation systems is predicted to flow preferentially around the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) downcomer and out the rupture, bypassing the core. Flow to the core may therefore be limited to just the flow that is required to make up for boil-off in the core and to maintain an equal static head between the downcomer and core regions. Lacking any mixing of dilute injection water in the core, this would result in the accumulation of boron in the core region until saturation concentrations are reached and boric acid begins to precipitate out of solution. Boric acid precipitation is undesirable because it may interfere with long-term core cooling. Without a reliable estimate of reflux condensation, this time to precipitation establishes the minimum time for the initiation of hot-leg recirculation to flush the core and terminate boric acid concentration. This analysis estimates the boric acid concentration over time for the postulated conditions of a cold-leg LOCA in San Onofre nuclear generating station unit 1, including the explicit incorporation of the stored heat release from the RPV and structures discussed in a companion paper. Earlier analyses assumed that the RPV stored energy was released during the safety injection phase immediately after the LOCA. Recent analyses showed that a significant portion of this stored energy is released into the coolant after core safety injection and needs to be explicitly addressed.

  13. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, D.E.; Corletti, M.M.

    1993-11-16

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet. 2 figures.

  14. Locating hot and cold-legs in a nuclear powered steam generation system

    DOEpatents

    Ekeroth, Douglas E.; Corletti, Michael M.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor steam generator includes a reactor vessel for heating water and a steam generator with a pump casing at the lowest point on the steam generator. A cold-leg pipe extends horizontally between the steam generator and the reactor vessel to return water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel. The bottom of the cold-leg pipe is at a first height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A hot-leg pipe with one end connected to the steam generator and a second end connected to the reactor vessel has a first pipe region extending downwardly from the steam generator to a location between the steam generator and the reactor vessel at which a bottom of the hot-leg pipe is at a second height above the bottom of the reactor vessel. A second region extends from that location in a horizontal direction at the second height to the point at which the hot-leg pipe connects to the reactor vessel. A pump is attached to the casing at a location below the first and second heights and returns water from the steam generator to the reactor vessel over the cold-leg. The first height is greater than the second height and the bottom of the steam generator is at a height above the bottom of the reactor vessel that is greater than the first and second heights. A residual heat recovery pump is below the hot-leg and has an inlet line from the hot-leg that slopes down continuously to the pump inlet.

  15. Fluid and thermal mixing in a model cold leg and downcomer with loop flow

    SciTech Connect

    Rothe, P.H.; Ackerson, M.F.

    1982-04-01

    This report describes an experimental program of fluid mixing experiments performed at atmospheric pressure in a 1/5-scale transparent model of the cold leg and downcomer of typical Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering pressurized water reactors. The results include transient data from a grid of thermocouples and exensive flow visualization photographs. Substantial mixing of cold injected water with hot primary coolant occurred during many of the tests.

  16. Design report for JAERI Slab Core hot leg spool piece. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Rahl, T.E.; Tatar, G.A.

    1980-08-01

    This document represents the Design Report for the JAERI Slab Core Hot Leg Spool Piece. This report, in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, has been prepared in sufficient detail to demonstrate that the stress and fatigue limits of the Code are satisfied when the spool piece is subjected to the Design and Service Conditions specified in the Design Specification.

  17. Assessment of RELAP/MOD3 using BETHSY 6.2TC 6-inch cold leg side break comparative test

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Young-Jong; Jeong, Jae-Jun; Chang, Won-Pyo; Kim, Dong-Su

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the results of the RELAP5/MOD3 Version 7j assessment on BETHSY 6.2TC. BETHSY 6.2TC test corresponding to a six inch cold leg break LOCA of the Pressurizer Water Reactor(PWR). The primary objective of the test was to provide reference data of two facilities of different scales (BETHSY and LSTF facility). On the other hand, the present calculation aims at analysis of RELAP5/N4OD3 capability on the small break LOCA simulation, The results of calculation have shown that the RELAP5/MOD3 reasonably predicts occurrences as well as trends of the major phenomena such as primary pressure, timing of loop seal clearing, liquid hold up, etc. However, some disagreements also have been found in the predictions of loop seal clearing, collapsed core water level after loop seal clearing, and accumulator injection behaviors. For better understanding of discrepancies in same predictions, several sensitivity calculations have been performed as well. These include the changes of two-phase discharge coefficient at the break junction and some corrections of the interphase drag term. As result, change of a single parameter has not improved the overall predictions and it has been found that the interphase drag model has still large uncertainties.

  18. SPACE code simulation of cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS integral test

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, B. J.; Kim, H. T.; Kim, J.; Kim, K. D.

    2012-07-01

    SPACE code is a system analysis code for pressurized water reactors. This code uses a two-fluid and three-field model. For a few years, intensive validations have been performed to secure the prediction accuracy of models and correlations for two-phase flow and heat transfer. Recently, the code version 1.0 was released. This study is to see how well SPACE code predicts thermal hydraulic phenomena of an integral effect test. The target experiment is a cold leg small break LOCA in the ATLAS facility, which has the same two-loop features as APR1400. Predicted parameters were compared with experimental observations. (authors)

  19. A mixing model for transient cooldown in a reactor cold leg and downcomer under stagnant loop flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, S.; Sun, B.K.M.; Sursock, J.P.

    1983-07-01

    The mixing of the high pressure coolant injected into a reactor cold leg pipe and the water in the reactor loop causes the temperature of water in the cold leg and the downcomer annulus to decrease. The transient cooldown of the water in the downcomer adjacent to the vessel wall is an important factor in determining thermal stress in the vessel. An analytical model has been developed to describe the phenomena of mixing between the coolant and the hot water in the cold leg and the downcomer for the condition of stagnant loop flow. The model divides the volume of the cold leg and the downcomer into several segments based on the understanding of the phenomenon and the governing physical mechanisms associated with them. In each segmented volume, a first-order ordinary differential equation is used along with appropriate mixing correlations to characterize the mass and energy balances. By satisfying the boundary conditions at the conjunctions of the volumes, the differential equations are solved simultaneously to yield the transient cooldown history of the water in each volume. The model predictions are in agreement with data obtained from the EPRI/CREARE 1/5 scale model facility and the EPRI/SAI rectangular geometry fullheight facility.

  20. Transit time of mixed high pressure injection water and primary loop water in pressurized water reactor cold legs

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, B.H.; Oh, S.; Rothe, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    During an overcooling transient in a pressurized water reactor, cold water from the high pressure injection (HPI) mixes with the hot primary coolant in the cold leg. The transit time is a gauge for the assessment of the time and the velocity of the mixed flow that passes through the cold leg to the downcomer. Existing data from mixing tests at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)/CREARE and EPRI/SAI facilities are analyzed. By means of models for HPI jet entrainment as well as the propagation of a gravity current, dimensionless correlations have been developed for the transit time and cold water front velocity at stagnant loop flow conditions. Based on this transit time correlation for stagnant loop flow and the limiting condition for large loop flow, a general correlation has been developed to account for the loop flow effect on transit time. These correlations unify a wide range of data obtained from five geometrically different test sections with two fluids (pure water and saline solution). In addition to the geometric factors, the governing dimensionless parameters for the transit time are the HPI jet Froude number, the Froude number for the cold-leg channel, and the ratio of loop flow to HPI flow.

  1. Linking Grain Boundary Microstructure to Stress Corrosion Cracking of Cold Rolled Alloy 690 in PWR Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Toloczko, Mychailo B.; Thomas, Larry E.

    2012-10-01

    Grain boundary microstructures and microchemistries are examined in cold-rolled alloy 690 tubing and plate materials and comparisons are made to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) behavior in PWR primary water. Chromium carbide precipitation is found to be a key aspect for materials in both the mill annealed and thermally treated conditions. Cold rolling to high levels of reduction was discovered to produce small IG voids and cracked carbides in alloys with a high density of grain boundary carbides. The degree of permanent grain boundary damage from cold rolling was found to depend directly on the initial IG carbide distribution. For the same degree of cold rolling, alloys with few IG precipitates exhibited much less permanent damage. Although this difference in grain boundary damage appears to correlate with measured SCC growth rates, crack tip examinations reveal that cracked carbides appeared to blunt propagation of IGSCC cracks in many cases. Preliminary results suggest that the localized grain boundary strains and stresses produced during cold rolling promote IGSCC susceptibility and not the cracked carbides and voids.

  2. Possible quantum phase manipulation of a two-leg ladder in mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen-Min; Irwin, Kyle; Tsai, Shan-Wen

    2013-03-01

    The recent realization of mixed-dimensional systems of cold atoms has attracted much attention from both experimentalists and theorists. In this article we investigate a two-species Fermi atom mixture: one species of atom exists in two hyperfine states and is confined to move in a two-leg ladder, interacting with an on-site interaction, and the other moves freely in a two-dimensional square lattice that contains the two-leg ladder. The two species of atoms interact via an on-site interaction on the ladder. In the limit of weak interspecies interactions, the two-dimensional gas can be integrated out, leading to an effective long-range mediated interaction in the ladder, generated by the on-site interspecies interaction. We show that the form of the mediated interaction can be controlled by the density of the two-dimensional gas and that it enhances the charge-density wave instability in the two-leg ladder after the renormalization-group transformation. Parametrizing the phase diagram with various experimentally controllable quantities, we discuss the possible tuning of the macroscopic quantum many-body phases of the two-leg ladder in this mixed-dimensional fermionic cold atom system.

  3. Blind-blind prediction by RELAP5/MOD1 for a 0. 1% very small cold-leg break experiment at ROSA-IV large-scale test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.; Kawaji, M.; Osakabe, M.; Schultz, R.R.; Tanaka, M.; Tasaka, K.

    1986-06-01

    The large-scale test facility (LSTF) of the Rig of Safety Assessment No. 4 (ROSA-IV) program is a volumetrically scaled (1/48) pressurized water reactor (PWR) system with an electrically heated core used for integral simulation of small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and operational transients. The 0.1% very small cold-leg break experiment was conducted as the first integral experiment at the LSTF. The test provided a good opportunity to truly assess the state-of-the-art predictability of the safety analysis code RELAP5/MODI CY18 through a blind-blind prediction of the experiment since there was no prior experience in analyzing the experimental data with the code; furthermore, detailed operational characteristics of LSTF were not yet known. The LOCA transient was mitigated by high-pressure charging pump injection to the primary system and bleed and feed operation of the secondary system. The simulated reactor system was safely placed in hot standby condition by engineered safety features similar to those on a PWR. Natural circulation flow was established to effectively remove the decay heat generated in the core. No cladding surface temperature excursion was observed. The RELAP5 code showed good capability to predict thermal-hydraulic phenomena during the very small break LOCA transient. Although all the information needed for the analysis by the RELAP5 code was obtained solely from the engineering drawings for fabrication and the operational specifications, the code predicted key phenomena satisfactorily.

  4. SCC crack growth rate of cold worked 316L stainless steel in PWR environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Donghai; Chen, Kai; Yu, Lun; lu, Hui; Zhang, Lefu; Shi, Xiuqiang; Xu, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Many component failures in nuclear power plants were found to be caused by stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of cold worked austenitic steels. Some of the pressure boundary component materials are even cold worked up to 35% plastic deformation, leaving high residual stress and inducing high growth rate of corrosion crack. Controlling water chemistry is one of the best counter measure to mitigate this problem. In this work, the effects of temperature (200 up to 325 °C) and dissolved oxygen (0 up to 2000 μg/L) on SCC crack growth rates of cold worked austenitic stainless steel type 316L have been tested by using direct current potential drop (DCPD) method. The results showed that temperature affected SCC crack growth rates more significantly in oxygenated water than in deaerated water. In argon deaerated water, the crack growth rate exhibited a peak at about 250 °C, which needs further verification. At 325 °C, the SCC crack growth rate increased rapidly with the increase of dissolved oxygen concentration within the range from 0 up to 200 μg/L, while when dissolved oxygen was above 200 μg/L, the crack growth rate followed a shallower dependence on dissolved oxygen concentration.

  5. The effects of cold rolling orientation and water chemistry on stress corrosion cracking behavior of 316L stainless steel in simulated PWR water environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Junjie; Lu, Zhanpeng; Xiao, Qian; Ru, Xiangkun; Han, Guangdong; Chen, Zhen; Zhou, Bangxin; Shoji, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Stress corrosion cracking behaviors of one-directionally cold rolled 316L stainless steel specimens in T-L and L-T orientations were investigated in hydrogenated and deaerated PWR primary water environments at 310 °C. Transgranular cracking was observed during the in situ pre-cracking procedure and the crack growth rate was almost not affected by the specimen orientation. Locally intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in the hydrogenated PWR water. Extensive intergranular stress corrosion cracks were found on the fracture surfaces of specimens in deaerated PWR water. More extensive cracks were found in specimen T-L orientation with a higher crack growth rate than that in the specimen L-T orientation with a lower crack growth rate. Crack branching phenomenon found in specimen L-T orientation in deaerated PWR water was synergistically affected by the applied stress direction as well as the preferential oxidation path along the elongated grain boundaries, and the latter was dominant.

  6. Pressurized thermal shock: TEMPEST computer code simulation of thermal mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a pressurized water reactor. [Creare 61 and 64

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.; Trent, D.S.

    1984-04-01

    The TEMPEST computer program was used to simulate fluid and thermal mixing in the cold leg and downcomer of a pressurized water reactor under emergency core cooling high-pressure injection (HPI), which is of concern to the pressurized thermal shock (PTS) problem. Application of the code was made in performing an analysis simulation of a full-scale Westinghouse three-loop plant design cold leg and downcomer. Verification/assessment of the code was performed and analysis procedures developed using data from Creare 1/5-scale experimental tests. Results of three simulations are presented. The first is a no-loop-flow case with high-velocity, low-negative-buoyancy HPI in a 1/5-scale model of a cold leg and downcomer. The second is a no-loop-flow case with low-velocity, high-negative density (modeled with salt water) injection in a 1/5-scale model. Comparison of TEMPEST code predictions with experimental data for these two cases show good agreement. The third simulation is a three-dimensional model of one loop of a full size Westinghouse three-loop plant design. Included in this latter simulation are loop components extending from the steam generator to the reactor vessel and a one-third sector of the vessel downcomer and lower plenum. No data were available for this case. For the Westinghouse plant simulation, thermally coupled conduction heat transfer in structural materials is included. The cold leg pipe and fluid mixing volumes of the primary pump, the stillwell, and the riser to the steam generator are included in the model. In the reactor vessel, the thermal shield, pressure vessel cladding, and pressure vessel wall are thermally coupled to the fluid and thermal mixing in the downcomer. The inlet plenum mixing volume is included in the model. A 10-min (real time) transient beginning at the initiation of HPI is computed to determine temperatures at the beltline of the pressure vessel wall.

  7. Survey of the literature applicable to two-phase natural circulation flows in the hot leg of a PWR: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Valenzuela, J.A.; Crowley, C.J.; Wallis, G.B.

    1986-10-01

    This report reviews the two-phase flow literature relevant to the natural circulation flow in the hot leg of a pressurized water nuclear reactor during a small break loss of coolant accident. The phenomena of interest in two-phase naural circulation flows are numerous and complex. Three technical areas were identified for individual review in this report: gas-liquid flows in straight pipes; gas-liquid flows in bends; and two-phase natural circulation in reactor geometries. The literature has been surveyed, findings summarized, and suggestions have been made as to where the findings may influence thinking and model development for the reactor situation.

  8. A study of thermal stratification in the cold legs during the subcooled blowdown phase of a loss of coolant accident in the OSU APEX thermal hydraulic testing facility.

    SciTech Connect

    Wachs, D. M.

    1998-11-04

    Thermal stratification, which has been linked to the occurrence of pressurized thermal shock (PTS), is observed to occur during the early stages of simulated loss of coolant accidents (LOCAS) in the Oregon State University Advanced Plant Experiment (OSU APEX) Thermal Hydraulic Test Facility. The OSU APEX Test Facility is a scaled model of the Westinghouse AP600 nuclear power plant. Analysis of the OSU APEX facility data has allowed the determination of an onset criteria for thermal stratification and has provided support for the postulated mechanisms leading to thermal stratification. CFX 4.1, a computational fluid dynamics code, was used to generate a model of the cold legs and the downcomer that described the phenomena occurring within them. Some mixing phenomena were predicted that lead to non-uniformity between the two cold legs attached to the steam generator on the side of the facility containing the Passive Residual Heat Removal (PRHR) injection system. The stratification was found to be two phase and unlikely to be a factor in PTS.

  9. Using an IIST 1% Cold-Leg SBLOCA Experiment with Passive Safety Injection to Assess the RELAP5/MOD3.2 Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, C.-H.; Huang, I-M.; Chang, C.-J

    2001-08-15

    The thermal-hydraulic behavior of a postulated 1% cold-leg break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor system was investigated experimentally by the three-loop Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) Integral System Test (IIST) facility with the passive core cooling system (PCCS) and numerically by the RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code. The PCCS of the IIST facility includes three core makeup tanks (CMTs), three accumulators, and a four-stage automatic depressurization system. The aim of this research is to study the performance of the CMTs with the actuation of the ADS during a small-break LOCA. The experimental results show that the IIST PCCS has the capability to maintain long-term cooling under a postulated 1% cold-leg break LOCA. The comparison of the RELAP5/MOD3.2 simulation against the experimental data shows good agreement in major thermal-hydraulic phenomena in the reactor coolant system, but the prediction of the asymmetric behavior for the three CMTs during a gravity drain period is inadequate.

  10. Restless Legs

    MedlinePlus

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) causes a powerful urge to move your legs. Your legs become uncomfortable when you are lying down or sitting. ... your legs feel better, but not for long. RLS can make it hard to fall asleep and ...

  11. A Study on the Conceptual Design of a 1,500 MWe Passive PWR with Annular Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Kwi Lim Lee; Soon Heung Chang

    2004-07-01

    In this study, the preliminary conceptual design of a 1500 MWe pressurized water reactor (PWR) with annular fuel has been performed. This design is derived from the AP1000 which is a 1000 MWe PWR with two-loop. However, the present design is a 1500 MWe PWR with three-loop, passive safety features and extensive plant simplifications to enhance the construction, operation, and maintenance. The preliminary design parameters of this reactor have been determined through simple relation to those of AP1000 for reactor, reactor coolant system, and passive safety injection system. Using the MATRA code, we analyze the core designs for two alternatives on fuel assembly types: solid fuel and annular fuel. The performance of reactor cooling systems is evaluated through the accident of the cold leg break in the core makeup tank loop by using MARS2.1 code. This study presents the developmental strategy, preliminary design parameters and safety analysis results. (authors)

  12. COBRA/TRAC analysis of the PKL reflood test K9. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkins, C.A.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1982-08-01

    Experiments at the Primaerkreislaeufe (PKL) test facility in Erlangen, Germany, simulated the refill and reflood procedure after a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the primary coolant system of a 1300-MW pressurized water reactor (PWR). COBRA/TRAC, a thermal-hydraulics analysis code developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory, was used to model experiment K9 of the PKL test series (completed December 1979). The COBRA/TRAC code, which utilizes COBRA-TF as the vessel module and TRAC-P1A for the remaining components, was designed to analyze LOCAs in PWRs. PKL-K9 was characterized by a double-ended guillotine break in the cold leg with emergency core cooling water injected into the cold legs. COBRA/TRAC was able to successfully predict lower-core temperature profiles and quench times, upper-core temperature profiles until the quench, upper plenum and break pressures, and correct trends in collapsed water levels.

  13. Simulation of cold leg manifold break and station blackout revised sequences for reduced ECCS (emergency core cooling system) in the N Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Bolander, M.A.; Chapman, J.C.; Fletcher, C.D.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents analyses of two loss-of-coolant-accident sequences of the N Reactor using the RELAPS/MOD2 computer code. RELAP5/MOD2 is a best estimate, two phase, nonhomogeneous, nonequilibrium, thermal-hydraulic, computer code designed for light water pressurized reactor transient. The N Reactor is a graphite- moderated, pressurized water reactor. The primary coolant is channeled through 1003 horizontal pressure tubes which contain two concentric tubular metallic fuel elements. The two accident sequences simulated were a double-ended guillotine break in the cold leg manifold and a station blackout. Both simulations cover the period beginning with the initiating event, either the break or the loss of ac power, to the stabilization of the core fuel element temperatures. (The station blackout calculation was carried out until the core was quenched.) The discussion presented in this report includes brief descriptions of the N Reactor, of the computer code and specific code modifications for horizontal reflood, and the computer code model used for the simulation. This discussion also presents the results and the analyses of the two calculations.

  14. High Cycle Thermal Fatigue in French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blondet, Eric; Faidy, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Different fatigue-related incidents which occurred in the world on the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system (SIS, RHR, CVC) have led EDF to search solutions in order to avoid or to limit consequences of thermodynamic phenomenal (Farley-Tihange, free convection loop and stratification, independent thermal cycling). Studies are performed on mock-up and compared with instrumentation on nuclear power stations. At the present time, studies allow EDF to carry out pipe modifications and to prepare specifications and recommendations for next generation of nuclear power plants. In 1998, a new phenomenal appeared on RHR system in Civaux. A crack was discovered in an area where hot and cold fluids (temperature difference of 140 deg. C) were mixed. Metallurgic studies concluded that this crack was caused by high cycle thermal fatigue. Since 1998, EDF is making an inventory of all mixing areas in French PWR on basis of criteria. For all identified areas, a method was developed to improve the first classifying and to keep back only potential damage pipes. Presently, studies are performing on the charging line nozzle connected to the reactor pressure vessel. In order to evaluate the load history, a mock-up has been developed and mechanical calculations are realised on this nozzle. The paper will make an overview of EDF conclusions on these different points: - dead legs and vortex in a no flow connected line; - stratification; - mixing tees with high {delta}T. (authors)

  15. Probabilistic assessment of the primary-coolant-loop pipe-fracture due to fatigue crack growth for a PWR plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, C.K.

    1981-06-01

    The work reported herein assesses the probability of a double-ended guillotine break of the hot leg, cold leg and cross-over line (for the purpose of this paper we defined it as a large LOCA) of a PWR plant subjected to the loads caused by plant transients and earthquakes. The work employs a fracture mechanics based fatigue model to propagate cracks from an initial flaw distribution. Flaw size and aspect ratio, material properties, operating transient and seismic stress histories, pre-service and in-service inspections as well as leak defections are considered random variables to be input into the fatigue crack growth fracture mechanics model. A brief description of the model and interrelationship between various steps are discussed.

  16. Evaluation of the thermal-hydraulic response and fuel rod thermal and mechanical deformation behavior during the power burst facility test LOC-3. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Yackle, T.R.; MacDonald, P.E.; Broughton, J.M.

    1980-01-01

    An evaluation of the results from the LOC-3 nuclear blowdown test conducted in the Power Burst Facility is presented. The test objective was to examine fuel and cladding behavior during a postulated cold leg break accident in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Separate effects of rod internal pressure and the degree of irradiation were investigated in the four-rod test. Extensive cladding deformation (ballooning) and failure occurred during blowdown. The deformation of the low and high pressure rods was similar; however, the previously irradiated test rod deformed to a greater extent than a similar fresh rod exposed to identical system conditions.

  17. Venogram - leg

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg. X-rays are a form of electromagnetic radiation like light, but of higher energy, so ... provider if you are pregnant, if you have allergies to any medication, which medications you are taking ( ...

  18. [Leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Wollina, U; Unger, L; Stelzner, C; Machetanz, J; Schellong, S

    2013-11-01

    The lower leg is in particular prone to the development of ulceration. Many different causes may lead to ulceration. Thus, a thorough diagnosis is mandatory, and a biopsy is often required. By far the most common type is the classical venous ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency, located at the medial ankle. A more complicated-and more difficult to treat-type of venous ulcer is arthrogenic congestion syndrome with its extreme variant of a "legging" ulcer. In cases with severe peripheral arterial disease, an arterial ulcer may develop. The hypertensive ulcer Martorell is associated with arterial hypertension and diabetes; the underlying pathology is occlusion of arteriolar vessels. A typical diabetic ulceration is the necrobiosis lipoidica. Important differential diagnoses of leg ulceration include pyoderma gangrenosum and the calciphylactic ulcer. Due to a long-standing course, an ulceration may turn malignant. Vice versa, ulceration may occur as sign of a primary malignant lesion. PMID:24005788

  19. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    This report discusses research conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PF1/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design burnup. Using peaking factors commensurate with actual burnups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document provides appendices K and L of this report which provide plots for the timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures for Oconee and Seabrook respectively.

  20. Reactor coolant pump startup under degraded conditions in a scaled OTSG lowered loop PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Tafreshi, A.M.; Marzo, M. di

    1996-12-31

    After a SB-LOCA or improper maintenance activities, the potential exists for a non-uniform distribution of boric acid in a PWR coolant system. This in turn presents the possibility of a reactivity excursion if sufficient volumes of boron-dilute water are transported into the core region without having first undergone substantial mixing. A research program is being conducted at the University of Maryland College Park (UMCP) 2 x 4 thermal-hydraulic test facility to assess the generation, transport and mixing of boron-dilute volumes. Start up of a pump and flow of a boron free slug of water in the cold leg and subsequent transport to the core downcomer in the facility is investigated here.

  1. Leg CT scan

    MedlinePlus

    CAT scan - leg; Computed axial tomography scan - leg; Computed tomography scan - leg; CT scan - leg ... Saunders; 2012:chap 11. Shaw AS, Prokop M. Computed tomography. In: Adam A, Dixon AK, Gillard JH, Schaefer- ...

  2. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... can damage your legs. Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg ...

  3. Parameterization of Buoyancy Effects in Generic PWR Boron Dilution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Galindo-Garcia, Ivan F.; Cotton, Mark A.; Axcell, Brian P.

    2006-07-01

    A computational investigation is undertaken into the role of buoyancy in a PWR boron dilution transient following a postulated Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SB-LOCA). In the scenario envisaged there is flow of de-borated and relatively high temperature water from a single cold leg into the downcomer; flow rates are typical of natural circulation conditions. The study focuses upon the development of boron concentration distributions in the downcomer and adopts a 3D-unsteady formulation of the mean flow equations in combination with the standard high-Reynolds-number k-{epsilon} turbulence model. It is found that the Richardson number (Ri = Gr/Re{sup 2}) is the most important group parameterizing the course of a concentration transient. At Ri values characterizing a 'baseline' scenario the results indicate that there is a stable, circumferentially-uniform, descent through the downcomer of a stratified region of low-borated fluid. Qualitatively the same behaviour is found at higher Richardson number, although at Ri values of approximately one-fifth the baseline level there is evidence of large-scale mixing and a consequent absence of concentration stratification. (authors)

  4. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  5. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... imaging - leg; Magnetic resonance imaging - lower extremity; MRI - ankle; Magnetic resonance imaging - ankle; MRI - femur; MRI - leg ... or bone scan Birth defects of the leg, ankle, or foot Bone pain and fever Broken bone ...

  6. Leg Injuries and Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common leg injuries include sprains and strains, joint dislocations, and fractures. These injuries can affect the entire leg, or just the foot, ankle, knee, or hip. Certain diseases also lead to leg problems. For ...

  7. Leg lengthening.

    PubMed

    Bridgman, S A; Bennet, G C; Evans, G A; Stirling, J

    1993-04-01

    The combined experience of the Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Glasgow and the Robert Jones and Agnes Hunt Orthopaedic Hospital, Oswestry in lengthening 52 lower limb segments with the Orthofix device is reviewed. Forty-eight segments were lengthened by callotasis, 24 in patients with achondroplasia. Attempted lengthening with chondrodiatasis was performed in 4 patients with leg length discrepancy. With callotasis, planned lengthening was achieved in 43/48 (90%) of segments. There was a small number of significant complications. Angulation or buckling of the new bone was the commonest major complication, and was seen in 10% of segments. Pin tract infection was the predominant minor complication. Premature union was noted commonly in the femurs of achondroplastics, but could usually be overcome with manipulation under anaesthesia. We confirm that callotasis achieves its objectives with fewer complications and operations than the commonly used Wagner method which it should supersede. By contrast, we had major complications in all cases with chondrodiatasis and have abandoned this method. PMID:8478826

  8. Current drag in two leg quantum ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-03-01

    A two-leg ladder of either interacting bosons or tightly bound cooper pairs is investigated when a supercurrent is forced in one of the legs of the ladder. The two legs of the ladder are connected by a tunneling term. Using a bosonization representation of such an interacting ladder we show that up to a certain critical current the current in the first wire induces an identical supercurrent in the second wire. When this threshold is exceeded vortices are formed in the system and the current in the second wire reduces even if the driving current increases. Potential applications to condensed matter or cold atomic systems are discussed.

  9. Restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a nervous system problem that causes you to feel an unstoppable urge to get ... DA, Bista SR, et al. The treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an ...

  10. Leg MRI scan

    MedlinePlus

    ... resonance imaging) scan of the leg uses strong magnets to create pictures of the leg. This may ... in your eyes) Because the MRI contains strong magnets, metal objects are not allowed into the room ...

  11. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    Swelling of the ankles - feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... Foot, leg, and ankle swelling is common when the person also: Is overweight Has a blood clot in the leg Is older Has ...

  12. Large Break LOCA Safety Injection Sensitivity for a CE/ABB System 80+ PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Pottorf, J.; Bajorek, S.M.

    2002-07-01

    A WCOBRA/TRAC model of an evolutionary pressurized water reactor with direct vessel injection was constructed using publicly available information and a hypothetical double-ended guillotine break of a cold leg pipe was simulated. The model is an approximation of a ABB/Combustion Engineering System 80+ pressurized water reactor (PWR). WCOBRA/TRAC is the thermal-hydraulics code approved by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission for use in realistic large break LOCA analyses of Westinghouse 3- and 4-loop PWRs and the AP600 passive design. The AP600 design uses direct vessel injection, and the applicability of WCOBRA/TRAC to such designs is supported by comparisons to appropriate test data. This study extends the application of WCOBRA/TRAC to the investigation of the predicted behavior of direct vessel injection in an evolutionary design. A series of large break LOCA simulations were performed assuming a core power of 3914 MWt, and Technical Specification limits of 2.5 on total peaking factor and 1.7 on hot channel enthalpy rise factor. Two cladding temperature peaks were predicted during reflood, one following bottom of core recovery and a second caused by saturated boiling of water in the downcomer. This behavior is consistent with prior WCOBRA/TRAC calculations for some Westinghouse PWRs. The simulation results are described, and the sensitivity to failure assumptions for the safety injection system is presented. (authors)

  13. Analysis of PWR RCS Injection Strategy During Severe Accident

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.-J.; Chiang, K.-S.; Chiang, S.-C.

    2004-05-15

    Reactor coolant system (RCS) injection is an important strategy for severe accident management of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system. Maanshan is a typical Westinghouse PWR nuclear power plant (NPP) with large, dry containment. The severe accident management guideline (SAMG) of Maanshan NPP is developed based on the Westinghouse Owners Group (WOG) SAMG.The purpose of this work is to analyze the RCS injection strategy of PWR system in an overheated core condition. Power is assumed recovered as the vessel water level drops to the bottom of active fuel. The Modular Accident Analysis Program version 4.0.4 (MAAP4) code is chosen as a tool for analysis. A postulated station blackout sequence for Maanshan NPP is cited as a reference case for this analysis. The hot leg creep rupture occurs during the mitigation action with immediate injection after power recovery according to WOG SAMG, which is not desired. This phenomenon is not considered while developing the WOG SAMG. Two other RCS injection methods are analyzed by using MAAP4. The RCS injection strategy is modified in the Maanshan SAMG. These results can be applied for typical PWR NPPs.

  14. Probability of pipe fracture in the primary coolant loop of a PWR plant. Volume 1. Summary, Load Combination Program. Project I final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, S.; Streit, R.D.; Chou, C.K.

    1981-06-01

    This report summarizes work performed to establish a technical basis for the NRC to use in reassessing its requirement that earthquake and large loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) loads be combined in the design of nuclear power plants. A systematic probabilistic approach is used to treat the random nature of earthquake and transient loading and to estimate the probability of large LOCAs that are directly and indirectly induced by earthquakes. A large LOCA is defined in this report as a double-ended guillotine break of the primary reactor coolant loop piping (the hot leg, cold leg, and crossover) of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Unit 1 of the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, a four-loop PWR, is the demonstration plant used in this study. To estimate the probability of a large LOCA directly induced by earthquakes, only fatigue crack growth resulting from the combined effects of thermal, pressure, seismic, and other cyclic loads is considered. Fatigue crack growth is simulated by a deterministic fracture mechanics model with stochastic inputs of initial crack size distribution, material properties, stress histories, and leak detection probability. Results of the simulation indicate that the probability of a double-ended guillotine break, either with or without earthquake, is very small (on the order of 10/sup -12/). The probability of a leak was found to be several orders of magnitude greater than that of a large LOCA, complete pipe rupture. A limited investigation involving engineering judgment of a double-ended guillotine break indirectly induced by an earthquake is also reported.

  15. ORNL rod-bundle heat-transfer test data. Volume 6. Thermal-hydraulic test facility experimental data report for test 3. 05. 5B - double-ended cold-leg break simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, C.B.; Felde, D.K.; Sutton, A.G.; Gould, S.S.; Morris, D.G.; Robinson, J.J.; Schwinkendorf, K.N.

    1982-05-18

    Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF) Test 3.05.5B was conducted by members of the ORNL PWR Blowdown Heat Transfer Separate-Effects Program on July 3, 1980. The objective of the program is to investigate heat transfer phenomena believed to occur in PWRs during accidents, including small and large break loss-of-coolant accidents. Test 3.05.5B was designed to provide transient thermal-hydraulics data in rod bundle geometry under reactor accident-type conditions. Reduced instrument responses are presented. Also included are uncertainties in the instrument responses, calculated mass flows, and calculated rod powers.

  16. Restless legs syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... they sleep. This condition is called periodic limb movement disorder. All of these symptoms make it hard to ... treatment of restless legs syndrome and periodic limb movement disorder in adults-an update for 2012: practice parameters ...

  17. Leg lengthening and shortening

    MedlinePlus

    ... to very unequal leg lengths. They include: Poliomyelitis Cerebral palsy Small, weak muscles or short, tight (spastic) muscles, ... Mosby; 2012:chap 29. Read More Broken bone Cerebral palsy Legg-Calve-Perthes disease Long bones Polio Update ...

  18. Restless Legs Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Restless Legs Syndrome ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  19. Reprint of : Current drag in two leg quantum ladders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giamarchi, Thierry

    2016-08-01

    A two-leg ladder of either interacting bosons or tightly bound cooper pairs is investigated when a supercurrent is forced in one of the legs of the ladder. The two legs of the ladder are connected by a tunneling term. Using a bosonization representation of such an interacting ladder we show that up to a certain critical current the current in the first wire induces an identical supercurrent in the second wire. When this threshold is exceeded vortices are formed in the system and the current in the second wire reduces even if the driving current increases. Potential applications to condensed matter or cold atomic systems are discussed.

  20. Human responses to cold.

    PubMed

    Rintamäki, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    The thermoneutral ambient temperature for naked and resting humans is ca. 27 degrees C. Exposure to cold stimulates cold receptors of the skin which causes cold thermal sensations and stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. Sympathetic stimulation causes vasoconstriction in skin, arms and legs. Diminished skin and extremity blood flow increases the thermal insulation of superficial tissues more than 300% corresponding to 0.9 clo (0.13 degrees C x m(-2) x W(-1)). With thermoregulatory vasoconstriction/ vasodilatation the body heat balance can be maintained within a range of ca. 4 degrees C, the middle of the range being at ca. 21 degrees C when light clothing is used. Below the thermoneutral zone metabolic heat production (shivering) is stimulated and above the zone starts heat loss by evaporation (sweating). Cold induced vasoconstriction increases blood pressure and viscosity and decreases plasma volume consequently increasing cardiac work. Cold induced hypertensive response can be counteracted by light exercise, while starting heavy work in cold markedly increases blood pressure. Under very cold conditions the sympathetic stimulation opens the anastomoses between arterioles and venules which increases skin temperatures markedly but temporarily, especially in finger tips. Adaptation to cold takes ca. 2 weeks, whereafter the physiological responses to cold are attenuated and cold exposure is subjectively considered less stressful. PMID:17929604

  1. Actuator device for artificial leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burch, J. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    An actuator device is described for moving an artificial leg of a person having a prosthesis replacing an entire leg and hip joint. The device includes a first articulated hip joint assembly carried by the natural leg and a second articulated hip joint assembly carried by the prosthesis whereby energy from the movement of the natural leg is transferred by a compressible fluid from the first hip joint assembly to the second hip joint assembly for moving the artificial leg.

  2. Venous leg ulcers

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Leg ulcers usually occur secondary to venous reflux or obstruction, but 20% of people with leg ulcers have arterial disease, with or without venous disorders. Between 1.5 and 3.0/1000 people have active leg ulcers. Prevalence increases with age to about 20/1000 in people aged over 80 years. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of standard treatments, adjuvant treatments, and organisational interventions for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of advice about self-help interventions in people receiving usual care for venous leg ulcers? What are the effects of interventions to prevent recurrence of venous leg ulcers? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to June 2011 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 101 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: compression bandages and stockings, cultured allogenic (single or bilayer) skin replacement, debriding agents, dressings (cellulose, collagen, film, foam, hyaluronic acid-derived, semi-occlusive alginate), hydrocolloid (occlusive) dressings in the presence of compression, intermittent pneumatic compression, intravenous prostaglandin E1, larval therapy, laser treatment (low-level), leg ulcer clinics, multilayer elastic system, multilayer elastomeric (or non-elastomeric) high-compression regimens or bandages, oral treatments (aspirin, flavonoids

  3. [Sonographic leg length measurement].

    PubMed

    Holst, A; Thomas, W

    1989-03-01

    After brief presentation of the clinical and radiological methods to measure the leg length and the leg length difference the authors outline the new diagnostic method for measuring the leg length and the leg length difference by means of real time sonography. Postmortem tests and clinical examples show that ultrasound is ideal to determine exactly the length of femur and tibia. The joint gaps on the hip, knee and upper ankle joint can be demonstrated by means of a 5 MHz linear scanner. A 1 mm strong metal bar on the skin and under the scanner is placed at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the body so that the bar can be seen in the centre. A measuring device gives the distances of the joint gaps in cm so that the difference correspond to the real length of femur and tibia. This standardised measuring is done by a particularly developed bearing and measuring device. The results of the sonographical measurements on 20 corpses and checking after consecutive dissections showed in 75% of cases a 100% sonographic measuring accuracy of the total leg length. The separately considered results for femur (85%) and tibia (90) were even better. The maximum sonographic measuring fault was 1.0 cm for the femur (in one case) and 0.5 cm for the tibia, respectively. All sonographic measurements were performed with the Sonoline SL-1 of the Siemens Company (Erlangen, W-Germany). Thus, sonographical measuring of the leg length offers a reliable, non-invasive method that can be repeated as often as necessary and is simply executed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2652268

  4. 20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL, TYPICAL LEG CONNECTION, CROSS BRACING AT LEG, WITH CROSSED BRACE BLOCK, GROUND WIRES AND GUIDE WIRE. - Hat Point Fire Lookout Tower, Forest Service Road #4340, 24 miles from Imnaha, Imnaha, Wallowa County, OR

  5. [List of diagnostic tests and procedures in leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Spoljar, Sanja

    2013-10-01

    Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcer. Most patients have venous leg ulcer due to chronic venous insufficiency. Less often, patients have arterial leg ulcer resulting from peripheral arterial occlusive disease, the most common cause of which is arteriosclerosis. Leg ulcer may be of a mixed arteriovenous origin. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of diabetic leg ulcer. Other causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infectious diseases, primary skin diseases, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is based on medical history, inspection, palpation of skin temperature, palpation of arteries, fascia holes, presence and degree of edema, firm painful cords, and functional testing to assess peripheral occlusive arterial disease or identify superficial and deep venous reflux of the legs. Knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in patients with leg ulcer. There are many possible etiologic factors of leg ulcers and sometimes, clinical findings are similar. Additional testing should be performed, e.g., serologic testing such as blood count, C-reactive protein, HBA1c, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, differential blood count, total proteins, electrolytes, coagulation parameters, circulating immune complex, cryoglobulins, homocysteins, AT, PAI-1, APC resistance, proteins C and S, paraproteins, ANA, ENA, ANCA, dsDNA, antiphospholipid antibodies, urea, creatinine, blood lipids, vitamins and trace elements. Also, biopsy of the lesion for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology should be included. Other tests are Raynaud (cold stimulation) test and pathergy test. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for future

  6. Foot, leg, and ankle swelling

    MedlinePlus

    ... feet - legs; Ankle swelling; Foot swelling; Leg swelling; Edema - peripheral; Peripheral edema ... 51. Trayes KP, Studdiford JS, Pickle S, Tully AS. Edema: Diagnosis and management. Am Fam Phys . 2013;88( ...

  7. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Special Section Other Causes of Leg Pain Past Issues / Summer 2008 Table of Contents For ... a crowd of people walking. Photo: iStock Leg pain can come from a variety of causes. Your ...

  8. Restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Bhattacharya, Kalyan; Reichmann, Heinz

    2016-08-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease (WED), is a common movement disorder characterised by an uncontrollable urge to move because of uncomfortable, sometimes painful sensations in the legs with a diurnal variation and a release with movement. The pathophysiology is only partially known and a genetic component together with dopaminergic and brain iron dysregulation plays an important role. Secondary causes for RLS need to be excluded. Treatment depends on the severity and frequency of RLS symptoms, comprises non-pharmacological (eg lifestyle changes) and pharmacological interventions (eg dopaminergic medication, alpha-2-delta calcium channel ligands, opioids) and relieves symptoms only. Augmentation is the main complication of long-term dopaminergic treatment of RLS. This article will provide a clinically useful overview of RLS with provision of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, possible investigations and different treatment strategies with their associated complications. PMID:27481386

  9. ORTHOPEDIC LEG BRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neil (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Knee braces generally have been rigid in both the knee bending direction and in the knee straightening direction unless a manually operated release is incorporated in them to allow the knee to bend. Desirably a braced knee joint should effectively duplicate the compound, complex, actions of a normal knee. The key to knee braces is the knee joint housing. The housing herein carries a number of cam action pawls. with teeth adapted to engage the internal teeth of a ratchet ring mounted in the housing. Cam action return springs and the shape of the cam action pawl teeth allow rotation of the ratchet ring in a leg straightening direction while still supporting a load. The leg can then be extended during walking while at the same time being prevented by the cam action pawls from buckling in the knee bending direction.

  10. Venous Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Vivas, Alejandra; Lev-Tov, Hadar; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-08-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of venous leg ulcers, focusing on prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:27479227

  11. PWR AXIAL BURNUP PROFILE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    J.M. Acaglione

    2003-09-17

    The purpose of this activity is to develop a representative ''limiting'' axial burnup profile for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), which would encompass the isotopic axial variations caused by different assembly irradiation histories, and produce conservative isotopics with respect to criticality. The effect that the low burnup regions near the ends of spent fuel have on system reactivity is termed the ''end-effect''. This calculation will quantify the end-effects associated with Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel assemblies emplaced in a hypothetical 21 PWR waste package. The scope of this calculation covers an initial enrichment range of 3.0 through 5.0 wt% U-235 and a burnup range of 10 through 50 GWd/MTU. This activity supports the validation of the process for ensuring conservative generation of spent fuel isotopics with respect to criticality safety applications, and the use of burnup credit for commercial spent nuclear fuel. The intended use of these results will be in the development of PWR waste package loading curves, and applications involving burnup credit. Limitations of this evaluation are that the limiting profiles are only confirmed for use with the B&W 15 x 15 fuel assembly design. However, this assembly design is considered bounding of all other typical commercial PWR fuel assembly designs. This calculation is subject to the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) because this activity supports investigations of items or barriers on the Q-list (YMP 2001).

  12. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Are Cold Sores? Article Chapters What Are Cold Sores? Cold ... January 2012 Previous Next Related Articles: Canker and Cold Sores Aloe Vera May Help Relieve Mouth Sores ...

  13. Leg size and muscle functions associated with leg compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Flores, Jose F.; Hoffler, G. Wyckliffe; Buchanan, Paul

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between the leg compliance and factors related to the size of leg muscle and to physical fitness was investigated in ten healthy subjects. Vascular compliance of the leg, as determined by a mercury strain gauge, was found to be not significantly correlated with any variables associated with physical fitness per se (e.g., peak O2 uptake, calf strength, age, body weight, or body composition. On the other hand, leg compliance correlated with the calf cross-sectional area (CSA) and the calculated calf volume, with the CSA of calf muscle being the most dominant contributing factor (while fat and bone were poor predicators). It is suggested that leg compliance can be lowered by increasing calf muscle mass, thus providing structural support to limit the expansion of leg veins.

  14. Differential diagnosis of leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Pannier, F; Rabe, E

    2013-03-01

    Leg and foot ulcers are symptoms of very different diseases. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the differential diagnosis of leg ulcers. The majority of leg ulcers occur in the lower leg or foot. In non-venous ulcers the localization in the foot area is more frequent. The most frequent underlying disease is chronic venous disease. In 354 leg ulcers, Koerber found 75.25% venous leg ulcers, 3.66% arterial leg ulcers, 14.66% ulcers of mixed venous and arterial origin and 13.5% vasculitic ulcers. In the Swedish population of Skaraborg, Nelzen found a venous origin in 54% of the ulcer patients. Each leg ulcer needs a clinical and anamnestic evaluation. Duplex ultrasound is the basic diagnostic tool to exclude vascular anomalies especially chronic venous and arterial occlusive disease. Skin biopsies help to find a correct diagnosis in unclear or non-healing cases. In conclusion, chronic venous disease is the most frequent cause of leg ulcerations. Because 25% of the population have varicose veins or other chronic venous disease the coincidence of pathological venous findings and ulceration is very frequent even in non-venous ulcerations. Leg ulcers without the symptoms of chronic venous disease should be considered as non-venous. PMID:23482536

  15. Leg cramps and restless legs syndrome during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Jennifer G

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbance during pregnancy can result in excessive daytime sleepiness, diminished daytime performance, inability to concentrate, irritability, and the potential for an increased length of labor and increased risk of operative birth. Sleep disturbance may be the result of a sleep disorder, such as leg cramps, a common yet benign disorder, or restless legs syndrome, a sensorimotor disorder. Both disrupt sleep, are distressing to the pregnant woman, and mimic one another and other serious disorders. During pregnancy, up to 30% of women can be affected by leg cramps, and up to 26% can be affected by restless legs syndrome. PMID:19410213

  16. PWR fuel behavior: lessons learned from LOFT. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the experience with the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) fuel during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), operational and overpower transient tests and steady-state operation is presented. LOFT provides unique capabilities for obtaining pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel behavior information because it features the representative thermal-hydraulic conditions which control fuel behavior during transient conditions and an elaborate measurement system to record the history of the fuel behavior.

  17. Exertional Leg Pain.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2016-02-01

    Exertional leg pain is a common condition seen in runners and the general population. Given the broad differential diagnosis of this complaint, this article focuses on the incidence, anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and management of common causes that include medial tibial stress syndrome, tibial bone stress injury, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, arterial endofibrosis, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, and entrapment of the common peroneal, superficial peroneal, and saphenous nerves. Successful diagnosis of these conditions hinges on performing a thorough history and physical examination followed by proper diagnostic testing and appropriate management. PMID:26616179

  18. Tension leg platform system

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, R.B.

    1983-12-20

    A tension leg platform system for use in drilling wellbores into the floor of an offshore body of water. Includes in the system is a buoyancy control vessel having a plurality of pull down cables attached thereto which extend to the ocean floor. A plurality of spaced apart anchors disposed at the ocean floor are positioned to receive the lower ends of the respective pull down cables. A submergible hull slidably engages the respective hold down cables such that the hull can be controllably lowered to the ocean floor whereby a canopy carried on the hull will cover an uncontrollably flowing well to conduct the effluent to the water's surface.

  19. Performance of Core Exit Thermocouple for PWR Accident Management Action in Vessel Top Break LOCA Simulation Experiment at OECD/NEA ROSA Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Nakamura, Hideo

    Presented are experiment results of the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) conducted at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) with a focus on core exit thermocouple (CET) performance to detect core overheat during a vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) simulation experiment. The CET temperatures are used to start accident management (AM) action to quickly depressurize steam generator (SG) secondary side in case of core temperature excursion. Test 6-1 is the first test of the OECD/NEA ROSA Project started in 2005, simulating withdraw of a control rod drive mechanism penetration nozzle at the vessel top head. The break size is equivalent to 1.9% cold leg break. The AM action was initiated when CET temperature rose up to 623K. There was no reflux water fallback onto the CETs during the core heat-up period. The core overheat, however, was detected with a time delay of about 230s. In addition, a large temperature discrepancy was observed between the CETs and the hottest core region. This paper clarifies the reasons of time delay and temperature discrepancy between the CETs and heated core during boil-off including three-dimensional steam flows in the core and core exit. The paper discusses applicability of the LSTF CET performance to pressurized water reactor (PWR) conditions and a possibility of alternative indicators for earlier AM action than in Test 6-1 is studied by using symptom-based plant parameters such as a reactor vessel water level detection.

  20. On the Application of CFD Modeling for the Prediction of the Degree of Mixing in a PWR During a Boron Dilution Transient

    SciTech Connect

    Lycklama, Jan-Aiso; Hoehne, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    In a Pressurized Water Reactor, negative reactivity is present in the core by means of Boric acid as a soluble neutron absorber in the coolant water. During a so-called Boron Dilution Transient (BDT), a de-borated slug of coolant water is transported from the cold leg into the reactor vessel, and the borated coolant water is diluted by mixing with this un-borated water. The resulting decrease in the boron concentration leads to an insertion of positive reactivity in the core, which may lead to a reactivity excursion. The associated power peak may damage the fuel rods. The mixing of borated and un-borated water in downcomer and lower plenum is an important process, because it mitigates the degree of reactivity insertion. In the present study the application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for the prediction of this mixing of un-borated with borated water in the RPV has been assessed. The analyses have been compared with the measurement data from the Rossendorf coolant mixing model (ROCOM) experiment. The ROCOM test facility represents the primary cooling system of a KONVOI type of PWR (1300 MW{sub el}). In spite of the complicated spatial, temporal, and geometrical aspects of the flow in the RPV, the agreement between the calculated and the experimental data is good. The CFD model tends to slightly under predict the degree of mixing in the RPV resulting in a slight under-prediction of the boron concentration at the core. (authors)

  1. Maneuvers during legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindrich, Devin L.; Qiao, Mu

    2009-06-01

    Maneuverability is essential for locomotion. For animals in the environment, maneuverability is directly related to survival. For humans, maneuvers such as turning are associated with increased risk for injury, either directly through tissue loading or indirectly through destabilization. Consequently, understanding the mechanics and motor control of maneuverability is a critical part of locomotion research. We briefly review the literature on maneuvering during locomotion with a focus on turning in bipeds. Walking turns can use one of several different strategies. Anticipation can be important to adjust kinematics and dynamics for smooth and stable maneuvers. During running, turns may be substantially constrained by the requirement for body orientation to match movement direction at the end of a turn. A simple mathematical model based on the requirement for rotation to match direction can describe leg forces used by bipeds (humans and ostriches). During running turns, both humans and ostriches control body rotation by generating fore-aft forces. However, whereas humans must generate large braking forces to prevent body over-rotation, ostriches do not. For ostriches, generating the lateral forces necessary to change movement direction results in appropriate body rotation. Although ostriches required smaller braking forces due in part to increased rotational inertia relative to body mass, other movement parameters also played a role. Turning performance resulted from the coordinated behavior of an integrated biomechanical system. Results from preliminary experiments on horizontal-plane stabilization support the hypothesis that controlling body rotation is an important aspect of stable maneuvers. In humans, body orientation relative to movement direction is rapidly stabilized during running turns within the minimum of two steps theoretically required to complete analogous maneuvers. During straight running and cutting turns, humans exhibit spring-mass behavior in the

  2. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... are the most common reason that children miss school and parents miss work. Parents often get colds ... other children. A cold can spread quickly through schools or daycares. Colds can occur at any time ...

  3. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... coughing - everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In ... people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds. You can get a cold by touching your ...

  4. Cold Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... be at risk of cold stress. Extreme cold weather is a dangerous situation that can bring on ... the country. In regions relatively unaccustomed to winter weather, near freezing temperatures are considered factors for cold ...

  5. Cold intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... intolerance is an abnormal sensitivity to a cold environment or cold temperatures. ... can be a symptom of a problem with metabolism. Some people (often very thin women) do not tolerate cold environments because they have very little body fat and ...

  6. Leg or foot amputation - dressing change

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000018.htm Leg or foot amputation - dressing change To use the sharing features ... chap 16. Read More Compartment syndrome Leg or foot amputation Peripheral artery disease - legs Type 1 diabetes ...

  7. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-01

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow. PMID:25933893

  8. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  9. Pressurized water nuclear reactor system with hot leg vortex mitigator

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, L.K.S.

    1990-09-18

    This patent describes an improvement in a pressurized water nuclear reactor system having a reactor pressure vessel, at least one steam generator, a hot leg conduit for charging of hot fluid from the reactor pressure vessel to the steam generator, and at least one cold leg conduit for return of cool fluid from the steam generator back to the reactor pressure vessel. The improvement comprises a residual heat removal device wherein: the hot leg has an inside diameter D{sub 1}; a first section of residual heat removal conduit is provided, having an inside diameter D{sub 2}, a first end for receipt of fluid from the hot leg, and a second end; a second section of residual heat removal conduit is provided connected to the reactor pressure vessel; a pump interconnects the second end of the first section of residual heat removal conduit with the second section of residual heat removal conduit; and a step nozzle of an inside diameter D{sub 3} and a length L interconnects the hot leg to the first end of the first section of residual heat removal conduit, with D{sub 3}/D{sub 1} {ge} 0.55, with D{sub 3}/D{sub 2}1.9 and L/D{sub 3} {ge} 1.44.

  10. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  11. Exercise training using arms and legs versus legs along.

    PubMed

    Mostardi, R A; Gandee, R N; Norris, W A

    1981-07-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether levels of conditioning associated with conventional leg work are comparable to those associated with both arm and leg work. Six healthy men conditioned for 6 weeks using both arms and legs while a similar group of 5 men conditioned using legs alone. The subjects trained 3 times per week on a bicycle ergometer, and covered a distance of 3 miles (4.83 km) per session using interval training techniques. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and heart rate (HR) were the primary comparative measures. There were no differences in improvement of maximal aerobic power between the 2 groups. However, the arm and leg subjects were able to do more work at a lower HR during the conditioning program. This implies considerably less physical stress on the heart and skeletal muscle, and indicates that the feeling of stress is related to metabolic rate per square area of working muscle rather than to total metabolism. Since this type of conditioning provides high levels of improvement in aerobic power wit less demands on the myocardium, it is suggested that arm and leg exercise be incorporated in the rehabilitation of cardiac patients. PMID:7247660

  12. Restless leg syndrome in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Grover, Aarti; Clark-Bilodeau, Courtney; D'Ambrosio, Carolyn M

    2015-09-01

    Restless leg syndrome, more recently renamed Willis-Ekbom disease, is a condition that disrupts sleep and occurs more frequently in the pregnant population. We present a 39-year-old woman with restless legs syndrome in the third trimester and discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology and therapeutic options in the pregnant population while highlighting the challenges posed by the lack of safety data of approved drugs. PMID:27512466

  13. Restless Legs Syndrome and Leg Motor Restlessness in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Keisuke; Miyamoto, Masayuki; Miyamoto, Tomoyuki; Hirata, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are important nonmotor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) that are associated with a negative impact on quality of life. Restless legs syndrome (RLS), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by abnormal leg sensations, can coexist with PD, although the pathophysiology of these disorders appears to be different. RLS and PD both respond favorably to dopaminergic treatment, and several investigators have reported a significant relationship between RLS and PD. Sensory symptoms, pain, motor restlessness, akathisia, and the wearing-off phenomenon observed in PD should be differentiated from RLS. RLS in PD may be confounded by chronic dopaminergic treatment; thus, more studies are needed to investigate RLS in drug-naïve patients with PD. Recently, leg motor restlessness (LMR), which is characterized by an urge to move the legs that does not fulfill the diagnostic criteria for RLS, has been reported to be observed more frequently in de novo patients with PD than in age-matched healthy controls, suggesting that LMR may be a part of sensorimotor symptoms intrinsic to PD. In this paper, we provide an overview of RLS, LMR, and PD and of the relationships among these disorders. PMID:26504610

  14. Common Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... News & Events Volunteer NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Common Cold Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page ... Help people who are suffering from the common cold by volunteering for NIAID clinical studies on ClinicalTrials. ...

  15. Effect of dissolved oxygen content on stress corrosion cracking of a cold worked 316L stainless steel in simulated pressurized water reactor primary water environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Litao; Wang, Jianqiu

    2014-03-01

    Stress corrosion crack growth tests of a cold worked nuclear grade 316L stainless steel were conducted in simulated pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary water environment containing various dissolved oxygen (DO) contents but no dissolved hydrogen. The crack growth rate (CGR) increased with increasing DO content in the simulated PWR primary water. The fracture surface exhibited typical intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) characteristics.

  16. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: a common cause of a rare clinical entity--critical leg ischemia in the young.

    PubMed

    Tsilogianni, Zoi; Grapatsas, Konstantinos; Papanikolaou, Zisis; Kokkini-Paschou, Aggeliki; Tsantilas, Apostolos; Tsiligiris, Vasileios; Vourliotakis, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare but important cause of leg ischemia and even disability in young athletes. Entrapment occurs because of an abnormal relationship between the popliteal artery and the surrounding muscular structures in the popliteal fossa. These anomalies lead to decreased blood flow to the affected leg with signs of claudication, coldness, and symptoms of exercise-induced leg pain. In this article, we present a case of a young soldier who presented with the above signs and symptoms in his left foot after exercise. On questioning, he admitted to having chronic lower leg pain. He was diagnosed with PAES in both legs and he was emergently treated with an arterial bypass procedure in the left one. He had no postoperative complications. PAES should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chronic or acute lower leg pain in any young patient. Early diagnosis and treatment can prevent limb loss and lead to a good operative outcome. PMID:24402998

  17. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler.

  18. Pipe crawler with extendable legs

    DOEpatents

    Zollinger, W.T.

    1992-06-16

    A pipe crawler for moving through a pipe in inchworm fashion having front and rear leg assemblies separated by air cylinders to increase and decrease the spacing between assemblies. Each leg of the four legs of an assembly is moved between a wall-engaging, extended position and a retracted position by a separate air cylinder. The air cylinders of the leg assemblies are preferably arranged in pairs of oppositely directed cylinders with no pair lying in the same axial plane as another pair. Therefore, the cylinders can be as long as a leg assembly is wide and the crawler can crawl through sections of pipes where the diameter is twice that of other sections. The crawler carries a valving system, a manifold to distribute air supplied by a single umbilical air hose to the various air cylinders in a sequence controlled electrically by a controller. The crawler also utilizes a rolling mechanism, casters in this case, to reduce friction between the crawler and pipe wall thereby further extending the range of the pipe crawler. 8 figs.

  19. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-24

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  20. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    SciTech Connect

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  1. Prometheus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribik, Anastasia M.; DiLorenzo, Peter A.

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept.

  2. Intramuscular pressures beneath elastic and inelastic leggings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Ballard, R. E.; Breit, G. A.; Watenpaugh, D. E.; Hargens, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    Leg compression devices have been used extensively by patients to combat chronic venous insufficiency and by astronauts to counteract orthostatic intolerance following spaceflight. However, the effects of elastic and inelastic leggings on the calf muscle pump have not been compared. The purpose of this study was to compare in normal subjects the effects of elastic and inelastic compression on leg intramuscular pressure (IMP), an objective index of calf muscle pump function. IMP in soleus and tibialis anterior muscles was measured with transducer-tipped catheters. Surface compression between each legging and the skin was recorded with an air bladder. Subjects were studied under three conditions: (1) control (no legging), (2) elastic legging, and (3) inelastic legging. Pressure data were recorded for each condition during recumbency, sitting, standing, walking, and running. Elastic leggings applied significantly greater surface compression during recumbency (20 +/- 1 mm Hg, mean +/- SE) than inelastic leggings (13 +/- 2 mm Hg). During recumbency, elastic leggings produced significantly higher soleus IMP of 25 +/- 1 mm Hg and tibialis anterior IMP of 28 +/- 1 mm Hg compared to 17 +/- 1 mm Hg and 20 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, generated by inelastic leggings and 8 +/- 1 mm Hg and 11 +/- 1 mm Hg, respectively, without leggings. During sitting, walking, and running, however, peak IMPs generated in the muscular compartments by elastic and inelastic leggings were similar. Our results suggest that elastic leg compression applied over a long period in the recumbent posture may impede microcirculation and jeopardize tissue viability.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  3. HYPERTENSIVE-ISCHEMIC LEG ULCERS

    PubMed Central

    Farber, Eugene M.; Schmidt, Otto E. L.

    1950-01-01

    Ischemic ulcers of the leg having characteristics different from those of ordinary leg ulcers have been observed in a small number of hypertensive patients, mostly women, during the past few years. Such ulcers are usually located above the ankle. They begin with a small area of purplish discoloration at the site of slight trauma, and progress to acutely tender ulceration. In studies of tissue removed from the margin and the base of an ulcer of this kind, obliterative arteriolar sclerotic changes, ischemic-appearing connective tissue and inflammatory changes were noted. Two additional cases are reported. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:15398887

  4. Other Causes of Leg Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the same position for a long time Injuries caused by: A torn or overstretched muscle (strain) Hairline crack in the bone (stress fracture) Inflamed tendon (tendinitis) Shin splints—pain in the front of your leg related to overuse or repetitive pounding Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) , which occurs when ...

  5. Rotational joint for prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. C.; Owens, L. J.

    1977-01-01

    Device is installed in standard 30 millimeter tubing used for lower leg prosthetics. Unit allows proper rotation (about 3 degrees) of foot relative to the hip, during normal walking or running. Limited rotational movement with restoring force results in a more natural gait.

  6. Psychiatric Comorbidities in Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kallweit, Ulf; Werth, Esther; Seiz, Angela; Sefidan, Sandra; Dahmen, Norbert; Manconi, Mauro; Ehlert, Ulrike; Bassetti, Claudio L A

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological sleep disorder with frequent (39%) coexisting psychiatric comorbidities. Patients with any psychiatric comorbidity had fewer periodic leg movements in sleep. Psychiatric disorders should be taken into account in patients with RLS. PMID:27019065

  7. Timing analysis of PWR fuel pin failures

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, K.R.; Wade, N.L.; Katsma, K.R.; Siefken, L.J. ); Straka, M. )

    1992-09-01

    Research has been conducted to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs). Demonstration calculations were performed for a Babcock and Wilcox (B W) design (Oconee) and a Westinghouse (W) four-loop design (Seabrook). Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin bumup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system availability, and main coolant pump trip on these times. The analysis was performed using the following codes: FRAPCON-2, for the calculation of steady-state fuel behavior; SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRACPF1/MOD1, for the calculation of the transient thermal-hydraulic conditions in the reactor system; and FRAP-T6, for the calculation of transient fuel behavior. In addition to the calculation of fuel pin failure timing, this analysis provides a comparison of the predicted results of SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 and TRAC-PFL/MOD1 for large-break LOCA analysis. Using SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3 thermal-hydraulic data, the shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure are 10.4 seconds and 19.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. Using data generated by TRAC-PF1/MOD1, the shortest intervals are 10.3 seconds and 29.1 seconds for the B W and W plants, respectively. These intervals are for a double-ended, offset-shear, cold leg break, using the technical specification maximum peaking factor and applied to fuel with maximum design bumup. Using peaking factors commensurate widi actual bumups would result in longer intervals for both reactor designs. This document also contains appendices A through J of this report.

  8. Targinact for restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    2016-04-01

    Idiopathic restless legs syndrome (RLS)--also known as Willis-Ekbom disease--is a neurological condition characterised by an overwhelming urge to move the legs, occurring during rest or inactivity, especially at night. Symptoms are highly variable in frequency and severity, and can affect sleep and quality of life. First-line management includes addressing precipitating or aggravating factors and providing explanation, reassurance and advice on self-help strategies. Drug therapy (e.g. a dopamine agonist) is used for patients with more severe symptoms. In December 2014, the marketing authorisation for a modified-release preparation containing oxycodone and naloxone (Targinact-Napp Pharmaceuticals) was expanded to include use in the treatment of severe to very severe RLS after failure of dopaminergic therapy.(10)Here we review the management of adults with RLS, including the place of oxycodone/naloxone. PMID:27079737

  9. Treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2009-12-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common condition characterized by an urge to move the legs, accompanied by uncomfortable or unpleasant sensations. Symptoms predominantly occur at rest in the evening or at night, and they are alleviated by moving the affected extremity or by walking. Recent European epidemiological studies reported an overall prevalence of RLS up to 10%, with a female preponderance. The prevalence rates reported in south-eastern Europe are lower, as are those in Asiatic populations. Although the aetiopathogenesis of RLS is still unknown, the rapid and dramatic improvement of RLS with dopaminergic compounds suggests a dopaminergic system dysfunction as the basic mechanism. Extensive data are available for l-dopa and dopamine receptor agonists, especially for pramipexole and ropinirole. Pharmacological treatment should be limited to those patients who suffer from clinically relevant RLS with impaired sleep quality or quality of life. Treatment on demand is a clinical need in RLS cases that present intermittent symptoms. PMID:20123560

  10. Leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Wahbi, Abdullah M; Elmoukaied, Shaza

    2016-01-01

    Varicocelectomy is the most commonly performed operation for the treatment of male infertility. Many surgical approaches are used as each of them has advantages over the other and is preferred by surgeons. Vascular injury has never been reported as a complication of varicocelectomy apart from testicular artery injury. We present a 36-year-old male who developed leg ischemia post-varicocelectomy due to common femoral artery injury. He was successfully treated by using a vein graft. PMID:27022305

  11. Common cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... often causes a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing. You may also have a sore throat, cough, ... symptoms are: Nasal congestion Runny nose Scratchy throat Sneezing Adults and older children with colds generally have ...

  12. Cold Intolerance

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Cold Intolerance Many polio ... index of Handbook on the Late Effects of Poliomyelitis for Physicians and Survivors © Back to top Contact ...

  13. Characterization of running with compliant curved legs.

    PubMed

    Jun, Jae-Yun; Clark, Jonathan E

    2015-08-01

    Running with compliant curved legs involves the progression of the center of pressure, the changes of both the leg's stiffness and effective rest length, and the shift of the location of the maximum stress point along the leg. These phenomena are product of the geometric and material properties of these legs, and the rolling motion produced during stance. We examine these aspects with several reduced-order dynamical models to relate the leg's design parameters (such as normalized foot radius, leg's effective stiffness, location of the maximum stress point and leg shape) to running performance (such as robustness and efficiency). By using these models, we show that running with compliant curved legs can be more efficient, robust with fast recovery behavior from perturbations than running with compliant straight legs. Moreover, the running performance can be further improved by tuning these design parameters in the context of running with rolling. The results shown in this work may serve as potential guidance for future compliant curved leg designs that may further improve the running performance. PMID:26151098

  14. Bed inventory overturn in a circulating fluid bed riser with pant-leg structure

    SciTech Connect

    Jinjing Li; Wei Wang; Hairui Yang; Junfu Lv; Guangxi Yue

    2009-05-15

    The special phenomenon, nominated as bed inventory overturn, in circulating fluid bed (CFB) riser with pant-leg structure was studied with model calculation and experimental work. A compounded pressure drop mathematic model was developed and validated with the experimental data in a cold experimental test rig. The model calculation results agree well with the measured data. In addition, the intensity of bed inventory overturn is directly proportional to the fluidizing velocity and is inversely proportional to the branch point height. The results in the present study provide significant information for the design and operation of a CFB boiler with pant-leg structure. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Chronic leg pain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Burrus, M Tyrrell; Werner, Brian C; Starman, Jim S; Gwathmey, F Winston; Carson, Eric W; Wilder, Robert P; Diduch, David R

    2015-06-01

    Chronic leg pain is commonly treated by orthopaedic surgeons who take care of athletes. The sources are varied and include the more commonly encountered medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, stress fracture, popliteal artery entrapment syndrome, nerve entrapment, Achilles tightness, deep vein thrombosis, and complex regional pain syndrome. Owing to overlapping physical examination findings, an assortment of imaging and other diagnostic modalities are employed to distinguish among the diagnoses to guide the appropriate management. Although most of these chronic problems are treated nonsurgically, some patients require operative intervention. For each condition listed above, the pathophysiology, diagnosis, management option, and outcomes are discussed in turn. PMID:25157051

  16. A fundamental mechanism of legged locomotion with hip torque and leg damping.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z H; Seipel, J E

    2012-12-01

    New models and theories of legged locomotion are needed to better explain and predict the robustly stable legged locomotion of animals and some bio-inspired robots. In this paper we observe that a hip-torque and leg-damping mechanism is fundamental to many legged robots and some animals and determine its affect on locomotion dynamics. We discuss why this hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism is not so easily understood. We investigate how hip-torque and leg-damping affect the stability and robustness of locomotion using a mathematical model: First, we extend the canonical spring-loaded-inverted-pendulum model to include constant hip torque and leg damping proportional to leg length speed. Then, we calculate the stability and robustness of locomotion as a function of increasing levels of torque and damping, starting from zero-the energy conserving and marginally stable special case-to high levels of torque and damping. We find that the stabilizing effects of hip-torque and leg-damping occur in the context of the piecewise-continuous dynamics of legged locomotion, and so linear intuition does not apply. We discover that adding hip torque and leg damping changes the stability of legged locomotion in an unexpected way. When a small amount of torque and damping are added, legged locomotion is initially destabilized. As more torque and damping are added, legged locomotion turns stable and becomes increasingly more stable and more robust the more torque and damping are added. Also, stable locomotion becomes more probable over the biologically-relevant region of the parameter space, indicating greater prediction and explanatory capabilities of the model. These results provide a more clear understanding of the hip-torque-and-leg-damping mechanism of legged locomotion, and extend existing theory of legged locomotion towards a greater understanding of robustly stable locomotion. PMID:22989956

  17. Multisystemic Sarcoidosis Presenting as Pretibial Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Baunacke, Anja; Hansel, Gesina

    2016-09-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystemic disease of unknown etiology. Up to 30% of patients develop cutaneous manifestations, either specific or nonspecific. Ulcerating sarcoidosis leading to leg ulcers is a rare observation that may lead to confusions with other, more common types of chronic leg ulcers. We report the case of a 45-year-old female patient with chronic multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with pretibial leg ulcers. Other etiology could be excluded. Histology revealed nonspecific findings. Therefore, the diagnosis of nonspecific leg ulcers in sarcoidosis was confirmed. Treatment consisted of oral prednisolone and good ulcer care. Complete healing was achieved within 6 months. Sarcoidosis is a rare cause of leg ulcers and usually sarcoid granulomas can be found. Our patient illustrates that even in the absence of sarcoid granulomas, leg ulcers can be due to sarcoidosis. PMID:27272316

  18. Tool Blunts Cotter Pin Legs for Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, J. A.; Helble, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    Jaws on new insertion tool contain upset point and anvil. Point forces cotter-pin legs into loop as it engages anvil. Cotter pin before insertion consists of loop and straight shaft composed of two legs welded together as tips. After insertion, welded legs have been shaped into loop. Tool used to prevent bent loose ends of cotter pins from scratching workers' fingers or cutting and entangling wires.

  19. The Legs Problem--For All Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Way, Jenni

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an example of a versatile multi-solution problem that can be used right across the primary years. The basic problem is: "Noah saw 16 legs go past him into the Ark. How many creatures did he see?" Any even number can be used, although, 2 legs allows only one answer and with 16 legs there are already 14 different solutions, so…

  20. Simulation of 1% hot leg SBLOCA with TRACE5

    SciTech Connect

    Gallardo, S.; Querol, A.; Veru, G.

    2012-07-01

    During a Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) transient, depressurization can be slow enough to delay the Accumulators (ACC) entry for a long time. Actuation of High Pressure Injection (HPI) system is then necessary in order to maintain the core temperature low enough to avoid core boil off, and consequently avoiding the core level to fall below fuel rods level, thus producing a temperature trip in the fuel cladding. In this frame, the OECD/NEA ROSA Project Test 1.2 (SB-HL-17 in Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA)) has been simulated using the thermal-hydraulic code TRACES. Test 1.2 was performed in the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) reproducing a 1% hot leg SBLOCA in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). A comparison between experimental and the main simulated variables was performed to study the effect of important parameters (liquid stratification, geometry and size) to model the break. Finally, in an Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) failure scenario, loss of coolant is large enough to produce core boil-off and a Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) excursion. With this purpose a sensitivity analysis varying the HPI mass flow rate has been performed covering the range between HPI actuation and failure. (authors)

  1. Cold injuries.

    PubMed

    Long, William B; Edlich, Richard F; Winters, Kathryne L; Britt, L D

    2005-01-01

    Exposure to cold can produce a variety of injuries that occur as a result of man's inability to adapt to cold. These injuries can be divided into localized injury to a body part, systemic hypothermia, or a combination of both. Body temperature may fall as a result of heat loss by radiation, evaporation, conduction, and convection. Hypothermia or systemic cold injury occurs when the core body temperature has decreased to 35 degrees C (95 degrees F) or less. The causes of hypothermia are either primary or secondary. Primary, or accidental, hypothermia occurs in healthy individuals inadequately clothed and exposed to severe cooling. In secondary hypothermia, another illness predisposes the individual to accidental hypothermia. Hypothermia affects multiple organs with symptoms of hypothermia that vary according to the severity of cold injury. The diagnosis of hypothermia is easy if the patient is a mountaineer who is stranded in cold weather. However, it may be more difficult in an elderly patient who has been exposed to a cold environment. In either case, the rectal temperature should be checked with a low-reading thermometer. The general principals of prehospital management are to (1) prevent further heat loss, (2) rewarm the body core temperature in advance of the shell, and (3) avoid precipitating ventricular fibrillation. There are two general techniques of rewarming--passive and active. The mechanisms of peripheral cold injury can be divided into phenomena that affect cells and extracellular fluids (direct effects) and those that disrupt the function of the organized tissue and the integrity of the circulation (indirect effects). Generally, no serious damage is seen until tissue freezing occurs. The mildest form of peripheral cold injury is frostnip. Chilblains represent a more severe form of cold injury than frostnip and occur after exposure to nonfreezing temperatures and damp conditions. Immersion (trench) foot, a disease of the sympathetic nerves and blood

  2. Space Elevator Base Leg Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swan, C.; Swan, P. A.

    While the Space Elevator stretches for 104,000 kilometers, the region of most concern, from the survival perspective, is 2,500 kms and below. The threats inside this dangerous arena include debris, spacecraft, meteorites, lightening, winds, rogue waves, aircraft, and intentional human acts. Two major questions will be addressed that will influence the overall systems architecture of a Space Elevator. While the deployment phase of the development of the Space Elevator will only have a single ribbon from the surface of the Earth to well beyond the Geosynchronous altitude, a mature Space Elevator must never allow a complete sever of the system. Design approaches, materials selections, international policy development and assembly must ensure that the integrity of the Space Elevator be maintained. The trade space analysis will address the probability of an individual ribbon being severed, the length of time to repair, and the potential for a catastrophic Space Elevator cut. The architecture proposed for the base leg portion will address two questions: Shall there be multiple base legs to 2,500 kms altitude? And Should the anchor be based on land or at sea?

  3. COLD TRAP

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1963-03-12

    An improved linear-flow cold trap is designed for highvacuum applications such as mitigating back migration of diffusion pump oil moiecules. A central pot of liquid nitrogen is nested within and supported by a surrounding, vertical, helical coil of metai sheet, all enveloped by a larger, upright, cylindrical, vacuum vessel. The vertical interstices between successive turns of the coil afford lineal, axial, high-vacuum passages between open mouths at top and bottom of said vessel, while the coil, being cold by virtue of thermal contact of its innermost turn with the nitrogen pot, affords expansive proximate condensation surfaces. (AEC)

  4. The Relationship among Leg Strength, Leg Power and Alpine Skiing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Larry R.; Huckel, Jack R.

    The purpose of this study was to relate leg strength and power to alpine skiing success as measured by FIS points. Isometric leg strength was represented by the knee extension test described by Clarke. Leg power was measured by the vertical jump test and the Margaria-Kalamen stair run. Results in the strength and power tests were correlated with…

  5. Prediction of lamb carcass leg and loin weights using leg score and width measures.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lamb carcass leg score (LS; 1 = low cull to 15 = high prime) is a subjective indicator of carcass muscling. Our objective for this study was to compare LS, live leg width (LL), and carcass leg width (LW) as single predictors, and in combination with live (LWT) or carcass weight (CWT), of harvested ...

  6. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  7. Project COLD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazanjian, Wendy C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Project COLD (Climate, Ocean, Land, Discovery) a scientific study of the Polar Regions, a collection of 35 modules used within the framework of existing subjects: oceanography, biology, geology, meterology, geography, social science. Includes a partial list of topics and one activity (geodesic dome) from a module. (Author/SK)

  8. Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes oral herpes, or cold sores. Type 1 herpes virus infects more than half of the U.S. population by the time they reach their 20s. Type 2 usually affects the genital area Some people have no symptoms from the ...

  9. Update in restless legs syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Rachel E.; Gamaldo, Charlene E.; Allen, Richard P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review Although restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder recognized in the medical literature since the 17th century, there have only recently been significant clinical and scientific advances in diagnosis, epidemiology and understanding the disorder, mainly due to the advent of dopaminergic treatment. Recent findings Recent discoveries have uncovered the iron–dopamine connection in RLS and the basic dopaminergic pathology related to the RLS symptoms. These have led to new understanding of the morbidity of RLS and the many conditions associated with RLS, which have also supported new approaches to treatment. These developments are each briefly described here. Summary Although there has been progress in understanding, diagnosing and treating RLS, it remains an underdiagnosed and undertreated condition severely impairing functioning of patients with moderate-to-severe disease. Much work is needed to improve on current, as well as other novel therapies. PMID:20581683

  10. Diagnosis and treatment of restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sales, Samantha; Sanghera, Manjit K; Klocko, David J; Stewart, R Malcolm

    2016-07-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a disorder characterized by an irresistible urge to move the legs during rest, usually accompanied by uncomfortable sensations in the affected extremity or extremities. RLS can manifest at any age but prevalence increases with advancing age. This article describes the symptoms of RLS, associated comorbidities, and how to diagnose and manage RLS. PMID:27306327

  11. Exertional leg pain in the athlete.

    PubMed

    Rajasekaran, Sathish; Kvinlaug, Kylie; Finnoff, Jonathan T

    2012-12-01

    Exertional leg pain is a common condition seen in athletes and the general population. Although the differential diagnosis of exertional leg pain is broad, this article focuses on the incidence, anatomy, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, management, and return-to-play guidelines of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and vascular and nerve entrapment etiologies. PMID:23245661

  12. PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines: Revision 3. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lurie, S.; Bucci, G.; Johnson, L.; King, M.; Lamanna, L.; Morgan, E.; Bates, J.; Burns, R.; Eaker, R.; Ward, G.; Linnenbom, V.; Millet, P.; Paine, J.P.; Wood, C.J.; Gatten, T.; Meatheany, D.; Seager, J.; Thompson, R.; Brobst, G.; Connor, W.; Lewis, G.; Shirmer, R.; Gillen, J.; Kerns, M.; Jones, V.; Lappegaard, S.; Sawochka, S.; Smith, F.; Spires, D.; Pagan, S.; Gardner, J.; Polidoroff, T.; Lambert, S.; Dahl, B.; Hundley, F.; Miller, B.; Andersson, P.; Briden, D.; Fellers, B.; Harvey, S.; Polchow, J.; Rootham, M.; Fredrichs, T.; Flint, W.

    1993-05-01

    An effective, state-of-the art secondary water chemistry control program is essential to maximize the availability and operating life of major PWR components. Furthermore, the costs related to maintaining secondary water chemistry will likely be less than the repair or replacement of steam generators or large turbine rotors, with resulting outages taken into account. The revised PWR secondary water chemistry guidelines in this report represent the latest field and laboratory data on steam generator corrosion phenomena. This document supersedes Interim PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Recommendations for IGA/SCC Control (EPRI report TR-101230) as well as PWR Secondary Water Chemistry Guidelines--Revision 2 (NP-6239).

  13. Hot, Cold, and Really Cold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a physics experiment investigating temperature prediction and the relationship between the physical properties of heat units, melting, dissolving, states of matter, and energy loss. Details the experimental setup, which requires hot and cold water, a thermometer, and ice. Notes that the experiment employs a deliberate counter-intuitive…

  14. Steerable Hopping Six-Legged Robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Younse, Paulo; Aghazarian, Hrand

    2010-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-legged robot that moves by hopping and that can be steered in the sense that it can be launched into a hop in a controllable direction. This is a prototype of hopping robots being developed for use in scientific exploration of rough terrain on remote planets that have surface gravitation less than that of Earth. Hopping robots could also be used on Earth, albeit at diminished hopping distances associated with the greater Earth gravitation. The upper end of each leg is connected through two universal joints to an upper and a lower hexagonal frame, such that the tilt of the leg depends on the relative position of the two frames. Two non-back-driveable worm-gear motor drives are used to control the relative position of the two frames along two axes 120 apart, thereby controlling the common tilt of all six legs and thereby, further, controlling the direction of hopping. Each leg includes an upper and a lower aluminum frame segment with a joint between them. A fiberglass spring, connected via hinges to both segments, is used to store hopping energy prior to launch into a hop and to cushion the landing at the end of the hop. A cable for loading the spring is run into each leg through the center of the universal joints and then down along the center lines of the segments to the lower end of the leg. A central spool actuated by a motor with a harmonic drive and an electromagnetic clutch winds in all six cables to compress all six springs (thereby also flexing all six legs) simultaneously. To ensure that all the legs push off and land in the same direction, timing- belt pulley drives are attached to the leg segments, restricting the flexing and extension of all six legs to a common linear motion. In preparation for a hop, the spool can be driven to load the spring legs by an amount corresponding to a desired hop distance within range. The amount of compression can be computed from the reading of a shaft-angle encoder that

  15. Nano-cavities observed in a 316SS PWR Flux Thimble Tube Irradiated to 33 and 70 dpa

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, Danny J.; Garner, Francis A.; Bruemmer, Stephen M.; Efsing, Pal G.

    2009-02-28

    The radiation-induced microstructure of a cold-worked 316SS flux thimble tube from an operating pressurized water reactor (PWR) was examined. Two irradiated conditions, 33 dpa at 290ºC and 70 dpa at 315ºC were examined by transmission electron microscopy. The original dislocation network had completely disappeared and was replaced by fine dispersions of Frank loops and small nano-cavities at high densities. The latter appear to be bubbles containing high levels of helium and hydrogen. An enhanced distribution of these nano-cavities was found at grain boundaries and may play a role in the increased susceptibility of the irradiated 316SS to intergranular failure of specimens from this tube during post-irradiation slow strain rate testing in PWR water conditions.

  16. Chilling Out with Colds

    MedlinePlus

    ... most common cold virus, but more than 200 viruses can cause colds. Because there are so many, ... to help you feel better. Take that, cold viruses! continue How Kids Catch Colds Mucus (say: MYOO- ...

  17. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  18. Expansion Compression Contacts for Thermoelectric Legs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sakamoto, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    In a proposed alternative to previous approaches to making hot-shoe contacts to the legs of thermoelectric devices, one relies on differential thermal expansion to increase contact pressures for the purpose of reducing the electrical resistances of contacts as temperatures increase. The proposed approach is particularly applicable to thermoelectric devices containing p-type (positive-charge-carrier) legs made of a Zintl compound (specifically, Yb14MnSb11) and n-type (negative charge-carrier) legs made of SiGe. This combination of thermoelectric materials has been selected for further development, primarily on the basis of projected thermoelectric performance. However, it is problematic to integrate, into a practical thermoelectric device, legs made of these materials along with a metal or semiconductor hot shoe that is required to be in thermal and electrical contact with the legs. This is partly because of the thermal-expansion mismatch of these materials: The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of SiGe is 4.5 x 10(exp -6) C (exp -1), while the CTE of Yb14MnSb11 is 20 x 10(exp -6) C(exp -1). Simply joining a Yb14MnSb11 and a SiGe leg to a common hot shoe could be expected to result in significant thermal stresses in either or both legs during operation. Heretofore, such thermal stresses have been regarded as disadvantageous. In the proposed approach, stresses resulting from the CTE mismatch would be turned to advantage.

  19. Does a crouched leg posture enhance running stability and robustness?

    PubMed

    Blum, Yvonne; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra; Daley, Monica A; Seyfarth, Andre

    2011-07-21

    Humans and birds both walk and run bipedally on compliant legs. However, differences in leg architecture may result in species-specific leg control strategies as indicated by the observed gait patterns. In this work, control strategies for stable running are derived based on a conceptual model and compared with experimental data on running humans and pheasants (Phasianus colchicus). From a model perspective, running with compliant legs can be represented by the planar spring mass model and stabilized by applying swing leg control. Here, linear adaptations of the three leg parameters, leg angle, leg length and leg stiffness during late swing phase are assumed. Experimentally observed kinematic control parameters (leg rotation and leg length change) of human and avian running are compared, and interpreted within the context of this model, with specific focus on stability and robustness characteristics. The results suggest differences in stability characteristics and applied control strategies of human and avian running, which may relate to differences in leg posture (straight leg posture in humans, and crouched leg posture in birds). It has been suggested that crouched leg postures may improve stability. However, as the system of control strategies is overdetermined, our model findings suggest that a crouched leg posture does not necessarily enhance running stability. The model also predicts different leg stiffness adaptation rates for human and avian running, and suggests that a crouched avian leg posture, which is capable of both leg shortening and lengthening, allows for stable running without adjusting leg stiffness. In contrast, in straight-legged human running, the preparation of the ground contact seems to be more critical, requiring leg stiffness adjustment to remain stable. Finally, analysis of a simple robustness measure, the normalized maximum drop, suggests that the crouched leg posture may provide greater robustness to changes in terrain height. PMID

  20. Hemodynamic studies of the legs under weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1977-01-01

    Significant among the medical findings following prolonged space flight are reduced orthostatic tolerance and ergometric work capacity. Changes in hemodynamics of the legs with increased blood pooling and reduction in cardiac output must be considered one of the most probable causes of these effects. Concern for the above plus the observed marked tissue changes occurring in the legs during flight prompted the addition of several procedures to evaluate hemodynamic changes in the leg; resting arterial blood flow, venous compliance and muscle pumping were investigated. In so far as possible, the initial reaction to pressure in the smallest possible vein segment was examined.

  1. Hot Leg Piping Materials Issues

    SciTech Connect

    V. Munne

    2006-07-19

    With Naval Reactors (NR) approval of the Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommendation to develop a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton power conversion system as the space nuclear power plant (SNPP) for Project Prometheus (References a and b) the reactor outlet piping was recognized to require a design that utilizes internal insulation (Reference c). The initial pipe design suggested ceramic fiber blanket as the insulation material based on requirements associated with service temperature capability within the expected range, very low thermal conductivity, and low density. Nevertheless, it was not considered to be well suited for internal insulation use because its very high surface area and proclivity for holding adsorbed gases, especially water, would make outgassing a source of contaminant gases in the He-Xe working fluid. Additionally, ceramic fiber blanket insulating materials become very friable after relatively short service periods at working temperatures and small pieces of fiber could be dislodged and contaminate the system. Consequently, alternative insulation materials were sought that would have comparable thermal properties and density but superior structural integrity and greatly reduced outgassing. This letter provides technical information regarding insulation and materials issues for the Hot Leg Piping preconceptual design developed for the Project Prometheus space nuclear power plant (SNPP).

  2. Leg venous hemodynamics and leg volumes during a 42-day-6 ° head-down bedrest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louisy, F.; Schroiff, P.; Guezennec, C.-Y.; Güell, A.

    Seven healthy subjects were submitted to a 42-day head down bedrest, where leg venous compliance (venous distensibity index VDI) and leg volumes were assessed by mercury strain gauge plethysmography with venous occlusion and optoelectronic plethysmography, respectively. Plethysmographic and volometric measurements were made, before, during (at days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, 26, 34 and 41), and after bedrest (days 1, 4, 7, 11 and 30 of the recovery period). Results showed a continuous decrease in leg volumes throughout bedrest, when VDI increased until day 26 of bedrest, and then decreased afterwards. The recovery period was characterized by a rapid return of VDI to prebedrest levels while leg volumes progressively normalised. These results showed that leg venous compliance changes are not always dependant upon skeletal muscle changes, and that factors other than size of muscle compartment are able to determine increases in leg venous compliance during long-term bedrest.

  3. COLD TRAPS

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, W.I.

    1958-09-30

    A cold trap is presented for removing a condensable component from a gas mixture by cooling. It consists of a shell, the exterior surface of which is chilled by a refrigerant, and conductive fins welded inside the shell to condense the gas, and distribute the condensate evenly throughout the length of the trap, so that the trap may function until it becomes completely filled with the condensed solid. The contents may then be removed as either a gas or as a liquid by heating the trap. This device has particuinr use as a means for removing uranium hexafluoride from the gaseous diffusion separation process during equipment breakdown and repair periods.

  4. Managing leg ulceration in intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Geraghty, Jemell

    2015-09-01

    Chronic venous leg ulceration is a long-term condition commonly associated with lower-limb injecting and chronic venous hypertension caused by collapsed veins, incompetent valves, deep vein thrombosis and reflux. It is not usually a medical emergency, but intravenous (IV) drug users with leg ulcers can attend emergency departments (EDs) with a different primary complaint such as pain or because they cannot access local primary care or voluntary services. Leg ulceration might then be identified during history taking, so it is important that ED nurses know how to assess and manage these wounds. This article explains how to assess and manage chronic venous leg ulcers in patients with a history of IV drug use, and highlights the importance of referral to specialist services when required, and to local primary care or voluntary services, before discharge to prevent admission and re-attendance. PMID:26344539

  5. Restless Legs Syndrome -- Causes and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... health issues or medication. This may include: Low iron levels This can cause problems with brain cell ... you have restless legs syndrome caused by low iron, talk with your physician and do not attempt ...

  6. Case 3: chronic venous leg ulcer.

    PubMed

    Hämmerle, Gilbert

    2016-03-01

    A non-healing, sloughy venous leg ulcer quickly responded to topical treatment including octenilin Wound Gel and octenilin Wound Irrigation Solution. Full healing occurred within 6 weeks. PMID:26949848

  7. Passive zero-gravity leg restraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A passive zero or microgravity leg restraint is described which includes a central support post with a top and a bottom. Extending from the central support post are a calf pad tab, to which calf pad is attached, and a foot pad tab, to which foot tab is attached. Also extending from central support post are knee pads. When the restraint is in use the user's legs are forced between pads by a user imposed scissors action of the legs. The user's body is then supported in a zero or microgravity neutral body posture by the leg restraint. The calf pad has semi-ridig elastic padding material covering structural stiffener. The foot pad has padding material and a structural stiffener. Knee pads have s structural tube stiffener at their core.

  8. Microgravity, Mesh-Crawling Legged Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behar, Alberto; Marzwell, Neville; Matthews, Jaret; Richardson, Krandalyn; Wall, Jonathan; Poole, Michael; Foor, David; Rodgers, Damian

    2008-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and microgravity flight-testing are part of a continuing development of palm-sized mobile robots that resemble spiders (except that they have six legs apiece, whereas a spider has eight legs). Denoted SpiderBots (see figure), they are prototypes of proposed product line of relatively inexpensive walking robots that could be deployed in large numbers to function cooperatively in construction, repair, exploration, search, and rescue activities in connection with exploration of outer space and remote planets.

  9. Rotational joint assembly for the prosthetic leg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owens, L. J.; Jones, W. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A rotational joint assembly for a prosthetic leg has been devised, which enables an artificial foot to rotate slightly when a person is walking, running or turning. The prosthetic leg includes upper and lower tubular members with the rotational joint assembly interposed between them. The assembly includes a restrainer mechanism which consists of a pivotably mounted paddle element. This device applies limiting force to control the rotation of the foot and also restores torque to return the foot back to its initial position.

  10. Laser leg vein treatment: a brief overview.

    PubMed

    Ross, Victor; Domankevitz, Yacov

    2003-12-01

    Laser treatment of leg veins has been associated with a number of disadvantages, but the introduction of new devices has increased the role of lasers in the treatment of leg veins. This paper reviews the role of laser devices applied from the surface in the treatment of reticular and spider veins. Success is determined by the proper selection of wavelength, fluence, pulse duration, spot size, and number and frequency of treatments. PMID:14741827

  11. Three cross leg flaps for lower leg reconstruction of Gustilo type III C open fracture

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Kazufumi; Ozeki, Satoru; Sugimoto, Ichiro; Ogawa, Masato

    2016-01-01

    A 60 year old male had Gustilo type III C open fracture of the right lower leg. After radical debridement, the large open defect including certain loss of the bone tissue was successfully augmented and covered, by consecutive three cross-leg flaps, which consisted of the free rectus abdominis musculocutaneous flap, the fibula osteocutaneous flap and the conventional sural flap. Although indication for amputation or preservation is decided with multiple factors in each case, a strategic combination of cross-leg flap, free flap, external fixation and vascular delay could increase the potential of preservation of the lower leg with even disastrous Gustilo type III C. PMID:27293297

  12. Passive legged, multi-segmented, robotic vehicle.

    SciTech Connect

    Hayward, David R.

    2003-11-01

    The Passive-legged, Multi-segmented, Robotic Vehicle concept is a simple legged vehicle that is modular and scaleable, and can be sized to fit through confined areas that are slightly larger than the size of the vehicle. A specific goal of this project was to be able to fit through the opening in the fabric of a chain link fence. This terrain agile robotic platform will be composed of multiple segments that are each equipped with appendages (legs) that resemble oars extending from a boat. Motion is achieved by pushing with these legs that can also flex to fold next to the body when passing through a constricted area. Each segment is attached to another segment using an actuated joint. This joint represents the only actuation required for mobility. The major feature of this type of mobility is that the terrain agility advantage of legs can be attained without the complexity of the multiple-actuation normally required for the many joints of an active leg. The minimum number of segments is two, but some concepts require three or more segments. This report discusses several concepts for achieving this type of mobility, their design, and the results obtained for each.

  13. Contrast Therapy and Intramuscular Temperature in the Human Leg

    PubMed Central

    Myrer, J. William; Draper, David O.; Durrant, Earlene

    1994-01-01

    Contrast therapy, although having a long history of use in sports medicine and physical therapy, remains insufficiently researched. We investigated the thermal effects of contrast therapy on intramuscular temperature. We randomly assigned 28 college students to either a control or a contrast group, eight women and six men per group. We shaved and cleansed a 4- × 4-cm area of skin over the right medial calf and inserted a microprobe to a depth of 1 cm below the skin and subcutaneous fat in the center of the gastrocnemius. Each control subject immersed the treatment leg in a hot whirlpool (40.6°C) for 20 minutes. Each contrast subject first immersed the treatment leg in a hot whirlpool (40.6°C) for 4 minutes then into a cold whirlpool (15.6°C) for 1 minute. Contrast subjects repeated this sequence three additional times. We recorded intramuscular temperatures every 30 seconds over the entire treatment time for both groups. The control group had a temperature increase of 2.83 ± 1.14°C over the 20-minute treatment. The contrast group temperature increased 0.39 ± 0.46°C from baseline to the end of the treatment. The largest temperature change from the end of one contrast immersion to the end of the next was only 0.15 ± 0.10°C. None of the differences between the end of one immersion to the end of the next were significant. Conversely, all differences between the same time periods in the control group had significant temperature increases. Apparently contrast therapy, as studied, is incapable of producing any significant physiological effect on the intramuscular tissue temperature 1 cm below the skin and subcutaneous tissue. We recommend that further research be done to examine the effects of longer periods in both the hot and cold environments on the intramuscular temperature of the human leg. Further investigation of intra-articular or peri-articular temperature change produced by contrast therapy should also be undertaken. ImagesFig 1. PMID:16558294

  14. Ankle Joint Angle and Lower Leg Musculotendinous Unit Responses to Cryotherapy.

    PubMed

    Akehi, Kazuma; Long, Blaine C; Warren, Aric J; Goad, Carla L

    2016-09-01

    Akehi, K, Long, BC, Warren, AJ, and Goad, CL. Ankle joint angle and lower leg musculotendinous unit responses to cryotherapy. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2482-2492, 2016-The use of cold application has been debated for its influence on joint range of motion (ROM) and stiffness. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a 30-minute ice bag application to the plantarflexor muscles or ankle influences passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM and lower leg musculotendinous stiffness (MTS). Thirty-five recreationally active college-aged individuals with no history of lower leg injury 6 months before data collection volunteered. On each testing day, we measured maximum passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM (°) and plantarflexor torque (N·m) on an isokinetic dynamometer to calculate the passive plantarflexor MTS (N·m per degree) at 4 joint angles before, during, and after a treatment. Surface electromyography amplitudes (μV), and skin surface and ambient air temperature (°C) were also measured. Subjects received an ice bag to the posterior lower leg, ankle joint, or nothing for 30 minutes in different days. Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle did not influence passive ROM (F(12,396) = 0.67, p = 0.78). Passive torque increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.21, p = 0.011). Passive MTS at the initial joint angle increased after ice bag application to the lower leg (F(12,396) = 2.14, p = 0.014) but not at the other joint angles (p > 0.05). Surface electromyography amplitudes for gastrocnemius and soleus muscles increased after ice application to the lower leg (F(2,66) = 5.61, p = 0.006; F(12,396) = 3.60, p < 0.001). Ice bag application to the lower leg and ankle joint does not alter passive dorsiflexion ROM but increases passive ankle plantarflexor torque in addition to passive ankle plantarflexor MTS at the initial joint angle. PMID:26863585

  15. Changes in leg volume during microgravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, William E.; Hedge, Vickie; Coleman, Eugene; Uri, John J.; Moore, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    Little published information exists regarding the magnitude and time course of cephalad fluid shift resulting from microgravity simulations. Six subjects were exposed to 150 min each at horizontal bed rest, 6-deg head-down tilt, and horizontal water immersion. Fluid shift was estimated by calculating leg volumes from eight serial girth measurements from groin to ankle before, during, and after exposure. Results were compared with data from the first 3 h of spacecraft. By the end of exposure, total leg volume for the six subjects decreased by 2.6 +/- 0.8 percent, 1.7 +/- 1.2 percent, and 4.0 +/- 1.6 percent for horizontal, head-down, and immersion, respectively. Changes had plateaued for horizontal and head-down and had slowed for immersion. Relatively more fluid was lost from the lower leg than the thigh for all three conditions, particularly head-down. During the first 3 h of spaceflight, total leg volume decreased by 8.6 percent, and relatively more fluid was lost from the thigh than the lower leg. The difference in volume changes in microgravity and simulated microgravity may be caused by the small transverse pressures still present in ground-based simulations and the extremely nonlinear compliance of tissue.

  16. Cold symptoms (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Colds are caused by a virus and can occur year-round. The common cold generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and ... symptoms include sore throat, cough, and headache. A cold usually lasts about 7 days, with perhaps a ...

  17. Colds and flus - antibiotics

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotics - colds and flu ... treat infections that are caused by a virus. Colds and flu are caused by viruses. If you ... Hamilton A. Treatments for symptoms of the common cold. Am Fam Physician. 2013;88(12):Online. PMID: ...

  18. Vitamin C and colds

    MedlinePlus

    Colds and vitamin C ... belief that vitamin C can cure the common cold , research about this claim is conflicting. Large doses ... vitamin C may help reduce how long a cold lasts, but they do not appear to protect ...

  19. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse ... DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ingredient in many ...

  20. Zebra: An advanced PWR lattice code

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, L.; Wu, H.; Zheng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of an advanced PWR lattice code ZEBRA developed at NECP laboratory in Xi'an Jiaotong Univ.. The multi-group cross-section library is generated from the ENDF/B-VII library by NJOY and the 361-group SHEM structure is employed. The resonance calculation module is developed based on sub-group method. The transport solver is Auto-MOC code, which is a self-developed code based on the Method of Characteristic and the customization of AutoCAD software. The whole code is well organized in a modular software structure. Some numerical results during the validation of the code demonstrate that this code has a good precision and a high efficiency. (authors)

  1. The effect of leg length on jumping performance of short- and long-legged leafhopper insects.

    PubMed

    Burrows, M; Sutton, G P

    2008-04-01

    To assess the effect of leg length on jumping ability in small insects, the jumping movements and performance of a sub-family of leafhopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Ulopinae) with short hind legs were analysed and compared with other long-legged cicadellids (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae). Two species with the same jumping characteristics but distinctively different body shapes were analysed: Ulopa, which had an average body length of 3 mm and was squat, and Cephalelus, which had an average body length of 13 mm with an elongated body and head. In both, the hind legs were only 1.4 times longer than the front legs compared with 1.9-2.3 times in other cicadellid leafhoppers. When the length of the hind legs was normalised relative to the cube root of their body mass, their hind legs had a value of 1-1.1 compared with 1.6-2.3 in other cicadellids. The hind legs of Cephalelus were only 20% of the body length. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid and synchronous rotation of the hind legs about their coxo-trochanteral joints in a three-phase movement, as revealed by high-speed sequences of images captured at rates of 5000 s(-1). The hind tarsi were initially placed outside the lateral margins of the body and not apposed to each other beneath the body as in long-legged leafhoppers. The hind legs were accelerated in 1.5 ms (Ulopa) and 2 ms (Cephalelus) and thus more quickly than in the long-legged cicadellids. In their best jumps these movements propelled Ulopa to a take-off velocity of 2.3 m s(-1) and Cephalelus to 2 m s(-1), which matches that of the long-legged cicadellids. Both short-legged species had the same mean take-off angle of 56 degrees but Cephalelus adopted a lower angle of the body relative to the ground (mean 15 degrees) than Ulopa (mean 56 degrees). Once airborne, Cephalelus pitched slowly and rolled quickly about its long axis and Ulopa rotated quickly about both axes. To achieve their best performances

  2. Cold Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    This chapter and the following one address collective effects of quantum particles, that is, the effects which are observed when we put together a large number of identical particles, for example, electrons, helium-4 or rubidium-85 atoms. We shall see that quantum particles can be classified into two categories, bosons and fermions, whose collective behavior is radically different. Bosons have a tendency to pile up in the same quantum state, while fermions have a tendency to avoid each other. We say that bosons and fermions obey two different quantum statistics, the Bose-Einstein and the Fermi-Dirac statistics, respectively. Temperature is a collective effect, and in Section 5.1 we shall explain the concept of absolute temperature and its relation to the average kinetic energy of molecules. We shall describe in Section 5.2 how we can cool atoms down thanks to the Doppler effect, and explain how cold atoms can be used to improve the accuracy of atomic clocks by a factor of about 100. The effects of quantum statistics are prominent at low temperatures, and atom cooling will be used to obtain Bose-Einstein condensates at low enough temperatures, when the atoms are bosons.

  3. A comparison of the CHF between tubes and annuli under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Herer, C.

    1995-09-01

    Critical Heat Flux (CHF) tests were carried out in three tubes with inside diameters of 8, 13, and 19.2 mm and in two annuli with an inner tube of 9.5 mm and an outer tube of 13 or 19.2 mm. All axial heat flux distributions in the test sections were uniform. The coolant fluid was Refrigerant 12 (Freon-12) under PWR thermal-hydraulic conditions (equivalent water conditions - Pressure: 7 to 20 MPa, Mass Velocity: 1000 to 6000 kg/m2/s, Local Quality: -75% to +45%). The effect of tube diameter is correlated for qualities under 15%. The change from the tube to the annulus configuration is correctly taken into account by the equivalent hydraulic diameter. Useful information is also provided concerning the effect of a cold wall in an annulus.

  4. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  5. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. A.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training.

  6. Sympathetic adaptations to one-legged training.

    PubMed

    Ray, C A

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the effect of leg exercise training on sympathetic nerve responses at rest and during dynamic exercise. Six men were trained by using high-intensity interval and prolonged continuous one-legged cycling 4 day/wk, 40 min/day, for 6 wk. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; peroneal nerve) were measured during 3 min of upright dynamic one-legged knee extensions at 40 W before and after training. After training, peak oxygen uptake in the trained leg increased 19 +/- 2% (P < 0.01). At rest, heart rate decreased from 77 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 6 beats/min (P < 0.01) with no significant changes in MAP (91 +/- 7 to 91 +/- 11 mmHg) and MSNA (29 +/- 3 to 28 +/- 1 bursts/min). During exercise, both heart rate and MAP were lower after training (108 +/- 5 to 96 +/- 5 beats/min and 132 +/- 8 to 119 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively, during the third minute of exercise; P < 0.01). MSNA decreased similarly from rest during the first 2 min of exercise both before and after training. However, MSNA was significantly less during the third minute of exercise after training (32 +/- 2 to 22 +/- 3 bursts/min; P < 0.01). This training effect on MSNA remained when MSNA was expressed as bursts per 100 heartbeats. Responses to exercise in five untrained control subjects were not different at 0 and 6 wk. These results demonstrate that exercise training prolongs the decrease in MSNA during upright leg exercise and indicates that attenuation of MSNA to exercise reported with forearm training also occurs with leg training. PMID:10233121

  7. Leg Spasticity and Ambulation in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Balantrapu, Swathi; Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Pula, John H.; Sandroff, Brian M.; Motl, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Spasticity of the legs is common in multiple sclerosis (MS), but there has been limited research examining its association with ambulatory outcomes. Objective. This study examined spasticity of the legs and its association with multiple measures of ambulation in persons with MS. Methods. The sample included 84 patients with MS. Spasticity of the legs was measured using a 5-point rating scale ranging between 0 (normal) and 4 (contracted). Patients completed the 6-minute walk (6 MW), timed 25 foot walk (T25FW), and timed up-and-go (TUG), and O2 cost of walking was measured during the 6 MW. The patients undertook two walking trials on a GAITRite (CIR systems, Inc.) for measuring spatial and temporal parameters of gait. The patients completed the Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12) and wore an accelerometer over a seven-day period. Results. 52% (n = 44) of the sample presented with spasticity of the legs. Those with leg spasticity had significantly worse ambulation as measured by 6 MW (P = 0.0001, d = −0.86), T25FW (P = 0.003, d = 0.72), TUG (P = 0.001, d = 0.84), MSWS-12 (P = 0.0001, d = 1.09), O2 cost of walking (P = 0.001, d = 0.75), average steps/day (P < 0.05, d = −0.45), and walking velocity (P < 0.05, d = −0.53) and cadence (P < 0.05, d = −0.46). Conclusion. Leg spasticity was associated with impairments in ambulation, including alterations in spatiotemporal parameters and free-living walking. PMID:24999434

  8. Cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-01

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  9. Cold energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, John P.

    2015-12-04

    Deviations in Q for resonant superconducting radio frequency niobium accelerator cavities are generally correlated with resistivity loss mechanisms. Field dependent Qs are not well modeled by these classical loss mechanisms, but rather can represent a form of precision cavity surface thermometry. When the field dependent Q variation shows improvement with increasing B field level the classical treatment of this problem is inadequate. To justify this behavior hydrogen as a ubiquitous impurity in niobium, which creates measurable property changes, even at very low concentrations is typically considered the cause of such anomalous behavior. This maybe the case in some instances, but more importantly any system operating with a highly coherent field with a significant time dependent magnetic component at near 2° K will have the ability to organize the remaining free spins within the London penetration depth to form a coupled energy reservoir in the form of low mass spin waves. The niobium resonant cavities are composed of a single isotope with a large nuclear spin. When the other loss mechanisms are stripped away this may be the gain medium activated by the low level residual magnetic fields. It was found that one resonant cavity heat treatment produced optimum surface properties and then functioned as a MASER extracting energy from the 2° K thermal bath while cooling the cavity walls. The cavity operating in this mode is a simulator of what can take place in the wider but not colder universe using the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a thermal source. The low mass, long lifetimes, and the scale of the magnetic spin waves on the weakly magnetized interstellar medium allows energy to be stored that is many orders of magnitude colder than the cosmic microwave background. A linear accelerator cavity becomes a tool to explore the properties of the long wave length magnetic spin waves that populate this cold low energy regime.

  10. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Treating venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Venous leg ulcers account for approximately 70% of all leg ulcers and affect 2.2 million Americans annually. After a comprehensive patient and wound assessment, compression therapy remains the cornerstone of standard care. Adjuvant care with topical or systemic agents is used for wounds that do not heal within 4 weeks. Once healed, long-term compression therapy with stockings or surgical intervention will reduce the incidence of recurrence. This continuing medical education article aims to outline optimal management for patients with venous leg ulcers, highlighting the role of a multidisciplinary team in delivering high quality care. PMID:26979355

  11. Chronic Expanding Organized Hematoma of the Lower Leg: A Rare Cause for Nonhealing Leg Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Wollina, Uwe; Heinig, Birgit; Langner, Dana

    2015-09-01

    Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare entity on the leg. A 55-year-old women presented with 2 small nonhealing leg ulcers. On examination we observed a painless bulky tumor-like mass that developed slowly after deep soft tissue infection almost 2 years ago. Vascular computed tomography suggested an organized hematoma. Important differential diagnoses include sarcoma and lymphoma. Treatment of choice is surgery. Histology confirmed the diagnosis of an organized hematoma. Chronic expanding hematoma is a rare cause of nonhealing leg ulcers. PMID:25691320

  12. Functional scoliosis caused by leg length discrepancy

    PubMed Central

    Daniszewska, Barbara; Zolynski, Krystian

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Leg length discrepancy (LLD) causes pelvic obliquity in the frontal plane and lumbar scoliosis with convexity towards the shorter extremity. Leg length discrepancy is observed in 3-15% of the population. Unequalized lower limb length discrepancy leads to posture deformation, gait asymmetry, low back pain and discopathy. Material and methods In the years 1998-2006, 369 children, aged 5 to 17 years (209 girls, 160 boys) with LLD-related functional scoliosis were treated. An external or internal shoe lift was applied. Results Among 369 children the discrepancy of 0.5 cm was observed in 27, 1 cm in 329, 1.5 cm in 9 and 2 cm in 4 children. During the first follow-up examination, within 2 weeks, the adjustment of the spine to new static conditions was noted and correction of the curve in 316 examined children (83.7%). In 53 children (14.7%) the correction was observed later and was accompanied by slight low back pain. The time needed for real equalization of limbs was 3 to 24 months. The time needed for real equalization of the discrepancy was 11.3 months. Conclusions Leg length discrepancy equalization results in elimination of scoliosis. Leg length discrepancy < 2 cm is a static disorder; that is why measurements should be performed in a standing position using blocks of adequate thickness and the position of the posterior superior iliac spine should be estimated. PMID:22371777

  13. [Guided growth in children and adolescents. Correction of leg length discrepancies and leg axis deformities].

    PubMed

    Vogt, B; Schiedel, F; Rödl, R

    2014-03-01

    The treatment of crooked legs and unequal leg length is one of the key tasks of orthopedic surgery. While mature patients usually require complex and invasive surgical interventions, the growth potential of the physes can be used to advantage for correction of these leg length discrepancies and axis deformities of the legs in growing children and adolescents. This guided growth is induced by temporary or permanent and partial or complete arrest of the growth plate, depending on the indications. This technique is called epiphysiodesis. Although these procedures are principally less invasive with few complications, accurate preoperative indications and planning, precise surgical techniques and careful postoperative follow-up examinations are mandatory prerequisites to achieve the desired therapeutic target. PMID:24627039

  14. Statins Might Protect People with Narrowed Leg Arteries

    MedlinePlus

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158707.html Statins Might Protect People With Narrowed Leg Arteries Study ... FRIDAY, May 6, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Cholesterol-lowering statins may spare people with narrowed leg arteries from ...

  15. A colored leg banding technique for Amazona parrots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meyers, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A technique for individual identification of Amazona was developed using plastic leg bands. Bands were made from 5- and 7-mm-wide strips of laminated PVC coiled 2.5 times with an inside diameter 4-5 mm gt the maximum diameter of the parrot's leg. Seventeen parrots were captured in Puerto Rico, marked with individual plastic leg bands, and observed for 204-658 d with only one lost or damaged plastic band. Plastic leg bands did not cause injury to or calluses on parrots' legs. The plastic material used for making leg bands was available in 18 colors in 1994, which would allow unique marking of 306 individuals using one plastic leg band on each leg.

  16. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  17. ODP Leg 148 barely misses deepest layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ODP Leg 148 Shipboard Scientific Party

    The deepest scientific oceanic borehole to date, Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Hole 504B, has penetrated 2111 m below the sea-floor (mbsf) and over 1800 m subbasement, bringing it near the bottom layer of the oceanic crust. The site is located in 5.9-m.y.-old crust 200 km south of the Costa Rica Rift in the eastern Pacific (Figure 1). To continue testing the accuracy of seismic and pertrologic models for the layered structure of oceanic crust, the ODP scientific party returned to Hole 504 in January 1993, commencing Leg 148 of the project to retrieve samples from the borehole beyond the depths reached by previous drilling legs. Earlier drilling in Hole 504 confirmed models for the structure of the uppermost 2 km of oceanic crust, and the site became a reference section for upper crustal petrology, geochemistry, hydrothermal alteration, and magnetic and physical properties [Becker et al., 1989] Results obtained during Leg 140, along with seismic evidence, had suggested that the next drilling leg could penetrate into the top of the deepest layer of crust [Dick et al., 1992]. Leg 148 drilling results indicate that Hole 504B has now penetrated into the seismic transition to layer 3—the deepest layer of crust; however, actual penetration into the gabbros, coarse-grained basaltic rocks that crystallized from the slowly cooled magma, and determination of how the lithologic and seismic transitions are related were prevented when the drill bit hit a fault and was left at the bottom of the hole.

  18. Venous Leg Ulcer in a Sarcoidosis Patient: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ohn, Jungyoon; Byun, Sang Young; Kim, In Su

    2015-01-01

    Venous leg ulcers, the most common form of leg ulcers, are relevant to the pathogenicity of pericapillary fibrin cuff. Sarcoidosis, a multiorgan granulomatous disease, causes fibrin deposition in tissues. We report a case of a 50-year-old man with venous leg ulcers coexisting with sarcoidosis. On the basis of the histologic findings, we propose the hypothesis that sarcoidosis patients are prone to the development of venous leg ulcers. PMID:26719645

  19. Spider diffraction: a comparison of curved and straight legs

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, J.L.

    1984-06-15

    It has been known for some time that, if curved legs rather than the usual straight ones are used in the spider that supports the secondary optics in certain telescopes, the visible diffraction effect is reduced. Fraunhofer theory is used to calculate the diffraction effects due to the curved leg spider. Calculated and photographic diffraction patterns are compared for straight and curved leg spiders.

  20. Influence Of Low Boron Core Design On PWR Transient Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Aleksandrov Papukchiev, Angel; Yubo Liu; Schaefer, Anselm

    2006-07-01

    In conventional pressurized water reactor (PWR) designs, the concentration of boron in primary coolant is limited by the requirement of having a negative moderator density coefficient. As high boron concentrations have significant impact on reactivity feedback properties, design changes to reduce boron concentration in the reactor coolant are of general interest in view of improving PWR inherent safety. In the framework of an investigation into the feasibility of low boron design, a PWR core configuration based on fuel with higher gadolinium (Gd) content has been developed which permits to reduce the natural boron concentration at begin of cycle (BOC) by approx. 50% compared to current German PWR technology. For the assessment of the potential safety advantages, a Loss-of-Feedwater Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS LOFW) has been simulated with the system code ATHLET for two PWR core designs: a low boron design and a standard core design. The most significant difference in the transient performance of both designs is the total primary fluid mass released through the pressurizer (PRZ) valves. It is reduced by a factor of four for the low boron reactor, indicating its improved density reactivity feedback. (authors)

  1. [Measuring leg length and leg length difference with the method of real time sonography].

    PubMed

    Holst, A; Thomas, W

    1988-06-01

    A brief presentation of the clinical and radiological methods to measure the leg length and the leg length difference is followed by an outline of the new diagnostic method for measuring the leg length and the leg length difference by means of real-time sonography. Tests conducted on corpses, as well as clinical examples, show that sonography is an ideal method for determining the exact lengths of the femur and tibia. The joint gaps on the hip joint, knee joint and upper ankle joint can be visualised by means of a 5 MHz linear scanner. A 1 mm strong metal bar on the skin and under the scanner are positioned at a right angle to the longitudinal axis of the body so that the bar can be seen in the centre of each joint gap by means of real-time sonography. A measuring device gives the distances of the joint gaps in cm so that the differences correspond to the real length of femur and tibia. This standardised measuring procedure is done by a specially developed bearing and measuring device. The results of the sonographical measurings on 20 corpses and checking after consecutive dissections showed in 75% of the cases a 100% sonographic measuring accuracy of the total leg length. The separately considered results for femur (85%) and tibia (90%) were even better. The maximum sonographic measuring fault was 1.0 cm for the femur (in one case) and 0.5 cm for the tibia, respectively. Thus, sonographic measuring of the leg length offers a reliable, non-invasive and easily performed new method that can be repeated any number of times. It is ideal for the development control of therapeutically influenced as well as spontaneous transformations of leg length differences. PMID:3071879

  2. [Cerebral fat embolism after closed leg injury].

    PubMed

    Wiel, E; Fleyfel, M; Onimus, J; Godefroy, O; Leclerc, X; Adnet, P

    1997-01-01

    A 21-year-old man sustained a closed fracture of the leg from an industrial accident, without associated head trauma. The orthopaedic treatment consisted of immediate immobilization by setting leg in plaster. Two hours after admission, the Glasgow coma scale score was 10. Four hours after admission he developed a coma (Glasgow coma scale score = 7) with repetitive seizures. No lesion was visible on cerebral CT scan. Chest X-ray was unremarkable. Petechiae on the anterior chest wall and abdomen with bilateral mydriasis occurred. Thrombocytopenia with prothrombine time increase were observed. Magnetic resonance imaging, 27 hours after admission, showed high-intensity areas on T2 weighted views due to fat embolism. Retinal haemorrhages were observed. The bronchoalveolar lavage showing fat staining of tracheal aspirates confirmed the diagnosis of fat embolism. This case report emphasizes the possibility of predominant neurologic manifestations of a fat embolism and the diagnostic help of cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:9750647

  3. Scattering of polarized photons at LEGS

    SciTech Connect

    Sandorfi, A.M.; Blanpied, G.; Blecher, M.; Giordano, G.; Kistner, O.C.; Matone, G.; Preedom, B.M.; Schaerf, C.; Sealock, R.M.; Thorn, C.E.

    1988-01-01

    The Laser-Electron-Gamma-Source (LEGS) facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory is now coming into operation. This facility delivers intense, monochromatic beams of medium-energy gamma rays that are almost completely polarized (linear or circular), and this degree of freedom has altered the status of a number of important experiments from being impossible to now being merely difficult. In this lecture we will describe the key features of the LEGS facility, and discuss two elastic scattering experiments on the nucleon, one in the region of the first resonance which is sensitive to the E2/M1 mixing ratio in the delta, and the other below pion threshold which is sensitive to the nucleon polarizabilities. These will illustrate the unique potential of the polarization degree of freedom. 36 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hemodynamic studies of the legs under weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornton, W. E.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1974-01-01

    Following exposure to weightlessness, alterations in the return of blood from the legs play a crucial role in orthostatic tolerance and may be an important factor in work tolerance. To investigate some of the hemodynamic mechansism involved, an experiment was performed on the Skylab 3 and Skylab 4 missions to study arterial blood flow, venous compliance, and muscle pumping of blood. Skylab 4 results indicated that the most likely cause of increased blood flow was an increase in cardiac output secondary to increased central venous pressure caused by blood redistribution. Changes in venous compliance are thought to be primarily changes in somatic musculature which is postulated to primarily determine venous compliance of the legs. This was also thought to be demonstrated by the changes in muscle pumping. It is thought that these compliance changes, when taken with the decreased blood volume; provide a basis for the changes seen in orthostatic tolerance, work capacity and lower body negative pressure response.

  5. Two-leg longwall shield mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Barczak, T.M.; Schwemmer, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    This report investigates shield mechanics by describing the elastic response and interaction of shield components to applied vertical and horizontal displacements for various canopy and base contact configurations. This research provides information on generalized shield mechanics, which is applicable in describing the behavior of all two-leg shield supports. Utilizing mechanics of materials concepts and known kinematic relationships for two-leg shield supports, free-body diagrams are constructed for each shield component illustrating internal axial, shear, and bending moment responses required to maintain equilibrium for each load case evaluated. Predicted shield (component) responses are verified by controlled displacements of instrumented longwall shields in a mine roof simulator. Conclusions drawn from these analyses indicate shield structural responses are significantly dependent upon canopy and base contact configurations. Applications of shield mechanics to in situ support monitoring are discussed. An objective of this research program is to establish unique shield responses to identify in situ load conditions.

  6. Dynamic legged locomotion in robots and animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raibert, Marc; Playter, Robert; Ringrose, Robert; Bailey, Dave; Leeser, Karl

    1995-01-01

    This report documents our study of active legged systems that balance actively and move dynamically. The purpose of this research is to build a foundation of knowledge that can lead both to the construction of useful legged vehicles and to a better understanding of how animal locomotion works. In this report we provide an update on progress during the past year. Here are the topics covered in this report: (1) Is cockroach locomotion dynamic? To address this question we created three models of cockroaches, each abstracted at a different level. We provided each model with a control system and computer simulation. One set of results suggests that 'Groucho Running,' a type of dynamic walking, seems feasible at cockroach scale. (2) How do bipeds shift weight between the legs? We built a simple planar biped robot specifically to explore this question. It shifts its weight from one curved foot to the other, using a toe-off and toe-on strategy, in conjunction with dynamic tipping. (3) 3D biped gymnastics: The 3D biped robot has done front somersaults in the laboratory. The robot changes its leg length in flight to control rotation rate. This in turn provides a mechanism for controlling the landing attitude of the robot once airborne. (4) Passively stabilized layout somersault: We have found that the passive structure of a gymnast, the configuration of masses and compliances, can stabilize inherently unstable maneuvers. This means that body biomechanics could play a larger role in controlling behavior than is generally thought. We used a physical 'doll' model and computer simulation to illustrate the point. (5) Twisting: Some gymnastic maneuvers require twisting. We are studying how to couple the biomechanics of the system to its control to produce efficient, stable twisting maneuvers.

  7. In the Clinic. Restless Legs Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bertisch, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of restless legs syndrome, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers. PMID:26524584

  8. Energy Efficient Legged Robotics at Sandia Labs

    SciTech Connect

    Buerger, Steve

    2014-12-16

    Sandia is developing energy efficient actuation and drive train technologies to dramatically improve the charge life of legged robots. The work is supported by DARPA, and Sandia will demonstrate an energy efficient bipedal robot at the technology exposition section of the DARPA Robotics Challenge Finals in June, 2015. This video, the first in a series, describes early development and initial integration of the Sandia Transmission Efficient Prototype Promoting Research (STEPPR) robot.

  9. Cold Stress and the Cold Pressor Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverthorn, Dee U.; Michael, Joel

    2013-01-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This…

  10. The stress corrosion cracking behavior of alloys 690 and 152 WELD in a PWR environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandreanu, B.; Chopra, O. K.; Shack, W. J.

    2009-01-01

    Alloys 690 and 152 are the replacement materials of choice for Alloys 600 and 182, respectively. The latter two alloys are used as structural materials in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and have been found to undergo stress corrosion cracking (SCC). The objective of this work is to determine the crack growth rates (CGRs) in a simulated PWR water environment for the replacement alloys. The study involved Alloy 690 cold-rolled by 26% and a laboratory-prepared Alloy 152 double-J weld in the as-welded condition. The experimental approach involved pre-cracking in a primary water environment and monitoring the cyclic CGRs to determine the optimum conditions for transitioning from the fatigue transgranular to intergranular SCC fracture mode. The cyclic CGRs of cold-rolled Alloy 690 showed significant environmental enhancement, while those for Alloy 152 were minimal. Both materials exhibited SCC of 10{sup -11} m/s under constant loading at moderate stress intensity factors. The paper also presents tensile property data for Alloy 690TT and Alloy 152 weld in the temperature range 25--870 C.

  11. Legged-locomotion on inclined granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieser, Jennifer; Qian, Feifei; Goldman, Daniel

    Animals traverse a wide variety of complex environments, including situations in which the ground beneath them can yield (e.g. dry granular media in desert dunes). Locomotion strategies that are effective on level granular media can fail when traversing a granular slope. Taking inspiration from successful legged-locomotors in sandy, uneven settings, we explore the ability of a small (15 cm long, 100 g), six-c-shaped legged robot to run uphill in a bed of 1-mm-diameter poppy seeds, using an alternating tripod gait. Our fully automated experiments reveal that locomotor performance can depend sensitively on both environmental parameters such as the inclination angle and volume fraction of the substrate, and robot morphology and control parameters like leg shape, step frequency, and the friction between the feet of the robot and the substrate. We assess performance by measuring the average speed of the robot, and we find that the robot tends to perform better at higher step frequency and lower inclination angles, and that average speed decreases more rapidly with increasing angle for higher step frequency.

  12. Proprioceptive Actuation Design for Dynamic Legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sangbae; Wensing, Patrick; Biomimetic Robotics Lab Team

    Designing an actuator system for highly-dynamic legged locomotion exhibited by animals has been one of the grand challenges in robotics research. Conventional actuators designed for manufacturing applications have difficulty satisfying challenging requirements for high-speed locomotion, such as the need for high torque density and the ability to manage dynamic physical interactions. It is critical to introduce a new actuator design paradigm and provide guidelines for its incorporation in future mobile robots for research and industry. To this end, we suggest a paradigm called proprioceptive actuation, which enables highly- dynamic operation in legged machines. Proprioceptive actuation uses collocated force control at the joints to effectively control contact interactions at the feet under dynamic conditions. In the realm of legged machines, this paradigm provides a unique combination of high torque density, high-bandwidth force control, and the ability to mitigate impacts through backdrivability. Results show that the proposed design provides an impact mitigation factor that is comparable to other quadruped designs with series springs to handle impact. The paradigm is shown to enable the MIT Cheetah to manage the application of contact forces during dynamic bounding, with results given down to contact times of 85ms and peak forces over 450N. As a result, the MIT Cheetah achieves high-speed 3D running up to 13mph and jumping over an 18-inch high obstacle. The project is sponsored by DARPA M3 program.

  13. What's new: Management of venous leg ulcers: Approach to venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Phillips, Tania J; Miller, O Fred; Margolis, David J; Marston, William; Woo, Kevin; Romanelli, Marco; Kirsner, Robert S

    2016-04-01

    Leg ulcerations are a common problem, with an estimated prevalence of 1% to 2% in the adult population. Venous leg ulcers are primarily treated in outpatient settings and often are managed by dermatologists. Recent advances in the diagnosis and treatment of leg ulcers combined with available evidence-based data will provide an update on this topic. A systematized approach and the judicious use of expensive advanced therapeutics are critical. Specialized arterial and venous studies are most commonly noninvasive. The ankle brachial pressure index can be performed with a handheld Doppler unit at the bedside by most clinicians. The vascular laboratory results and duplex Doppler findings are used to identify segmental defects and potential operative candidates. Studies of the venous system can also predict a subset of patients who may benefit from surgery. Successful leg ulcer management requires an interdisciplinary team to make the correct diagnosis, assess the vascular supply, and identify other modifiable factors to optimize healing. The aim of this continuing medical education article is to provide an update on the management of venous leg ulcers. Part I is focused on the approach to venous ulcer diagnostic testing. PMID:26979354

  14. Effectiveness of leg movement in reducing leg swelling and discomfort in lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Chen, Chih-Yong; Cho, Min-Hsien

    2012-11-01

    Various occupations required that workers stand for long periods, causing discomfort and pain. This study considered the effectiveness of three leg movements in relieving discomfort of the lower extremities during long periods of standing at work. Ten paid male subjects with no history of problems of the lower extremities were enrolled in this study. They performed three leg movements on a hard floor while standing for 4 h in a laboratory setting. Each 1 h experimental test had two phases - 50 min of standing, followed by 10 min of rest. During the period of standing, one the following leg movements was made. No movement (no change in posture), ankle movement (twice, for 2 min each time), and hip movement (twice, for 2 min each time). Observations revealed that the three leg movements yielded different degrees of lower limb swelling. The percentage changes in thigh (1.22%) and shank (1.32%) circumferences were largest during prolonged standing without any movement and lowest during prolonged standing with ankle movement (0.61%) and hip movement (0.80%). The relationship between perceived discomfort and standing time was determined. The subjects perceived the most shank discomfort (5.8) during the 4 h test without any movement. Leg movement greatly influenced perceived discomfort of the shank. The results of this study suggested that workers should move their ankles and hips for a short period following prolonged standing for 30 min to reduce lower extremity discomfort. PMID:22472344

  15. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove a sample of abnormal tissue from the cervix. The ... Cold knife cone biopsy is done to detect cervical cancer or early changes that lead to cancer. ...

  16. Cold wave lotion poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002693.htm Cold wave lotion poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Cold wave lotion is a hair care product used ...

  17. Cold knife cone biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003910.htm Cold knife cone biopsy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A cold knife cone biopsy (conization) is surgery to remove ...

  18. Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes)

    MedlinePlus

    ... rash and rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Cold Sores (Orofacial Herpes) Information for adults A A ... face, known as orofacial herpes simplex, herpes labialis, cold sores, or fever blisters, is a common, recurrent ...

  19. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking lots of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  20. Cold and Cough Medicines

    MedlinePlus

    ... What can you do for your cold or cough symptoms? Besides drinking plenty of fluids and getting ... medicines. There are lots of different cold and cough medicines, and they do different things. Nasal decongestants - ...

  1. How Is Restless Legs Syndrome Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Intramural Research Research Resources Research Meeting Summaries Technology Transfer Clinical Trials What Are Clinical Trials? Children & Clinical ... or cold bath Massaging the affected limb(s) Using heat or ice packs on the affected limb(s) Doing ...

  2. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  3. Sensitivity of risk parameters to human errors for a PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Samanta, P.; Hall, R. E.; Kerr, W.

    1980-01-01

    Sensitivities of the risk parameters, emergency safety system unavailabilities, accident sequence probabilities, release category probabilities and core melt probability were investigated for changes in the human error rates within the general methodological framework of the Reactor Safety Study for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). Impact of individual human errors were assessed both in terms of their structural importance to core melt and reliability importance on core melt probability. The Human Error Sensitivity Assessment of a PWR (HESAP) computer code was written for the purpose of this study.

  4. Electrical, Thermal, and Mechanical Characterization of Novel Segmented-Leg Thermoelectric Modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Angelo, Jonathan; Case, Eldon D.; Matchanov, Nuraddin; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Barnard, James; Cauchy, Charles; Hendricks, Terry; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we report on the electrical, thermal, and mechanical characterization of segmented-leg PbTe-based thermoelectric modules. This work featured a thermoelectric module measurement system that was constructed and used to measure 47-couple segmented thermoelectric power generation modules fabricated by Tellurex Corporation using n-type Bi2Te3- x Se x to Ag0.86Pb19+ x SbTe20 legs and p-type Bi x Sb2- x Te3 to Ag0.9Pb9Sn9Sb0.6Te20 legs. The modules were measured under vacuum with hot-side and cold-side temperatures of approximately 670 K and 312 K, respectively. In addition, the measurements on the PbTe-based materials are compared with measurements performed on Bi2Te3 reference modules. Efficiency values as high as 6.56% were measured on these modules. In addition to the measurement system description and the measurement results on these modules, infrared images of the modules that were used to help identify nonuniformities are also presented.

  5. Exercising in Cold Weather

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Exercising in Cold Weather Exercise has benefits all year, even during winter. ... activities when it’s cold outside: l Check the weather forecast. If it’s very windy or cold, exercise ...

  6. Enriched boric acid for PWR application: Cost evaluation study for a twin-unit PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, J.A.; Waters, R.M.; von Hollen, J.M.; Lamatia, L.A.; Bergmann, C.A.; Ditommaso, S.M. . Nuclear and Advanced Technology Div.)

    1989-09-01

    In the nuclear industry boric acid dissolved in the reactor coolant is used as a soluble reactivity control agent. Reactivity control in nuclear plants is also provided by neutron absorbing control rods. This neutron absorbing duty is distributed between the control rods and soluble boric acid in such a way as to provide the most economical split. Typically, the control rods take care of rapid reactivity changes and the boric acid handles the slower long term control of reactivity by varying the boric acid concentrations within the reactor coolant. In PWR reactor plants the dissolved boric acid is referred to as a soluble poison or chemical shim due to the high capacity for thermal neutron capture exhibited by the boron-10 isotope contained in the boric acid molecule. This slow reactivity change or chemical shim control would otherwise have to be performed using control rods, a much more expensive proposition. Reactivity changes are controlled by the B-10 isotope by virtue of its very high cross section (3837 barns) for thermal neutron absorption. However, natural boron contains only 20 atom percent of the B-10 isotope and essentially all the remaining 80 percent as the B-11 isotope. The B-11 isotope of cross section .005 barns is essentially of no use as a neutron absorber. Since B-11 makes up the bulk of the total boron present and contributes little to the nuclear operation it would seem logical to eliminate this isotope of boron from the boric acid molecule. In so doing boric acid concentration in operating PWR plants need only be a fraction of that existing to accomplish identical nuclear operations. However, to achieve the elimination of B-11 from NBA (Natural Boric Acid) an isotope separation must be performed. 4 refs., 25 figs., 17 tabs.

  7. Locomotion via paralyzed leg muscles: feasibility study for a leg-propelled vehicle.

    PubMed

    Glaser, R M; Gruner, J A; Feinberg, S D; Collins, S R

    1983-07-01

    Functional electrical stimulation has been used to restore some degree of controllable movement to paralyzed muscle. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using electrically stimulated paralyzed leg muscles to propel a wheelchair-type vehicle. For this, a conventional manual wheelchair was modified by the addition of a drive system which permits forward propulsion by reciprocating movements of the legs. A battery-powered electrical stimulator using surface electrodes over the quadriceps muscles controls locomotive characteristics. This vehicle has been successfully operated by paraplegic and quadriplegic test subjects. Advantages of using paralyzed leg muscles for locomotion may include improvement in locomotive capability, circulation in the lower extremities, cardiovascular and respiratory fitness, strength and size of the exercised muscles and bones, and self-image. PMID:6101225

  8. Cold Fronts in Cold Dark Matter Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagai, Daisuke; Kravtsov, Andrey V.

    2003-04-01

    Recently, high-resolution Chandra observations revealed the existence of very sharp features in the X-ray surface brightness and temperature maps of several clusters. These features, called cold fronts, are characterized by an increase in surface brightness by a factor >~2 over 10-50 kpc accompanied by a drop in temperature of a similar magnitude. The existence of such sharp gradients can be used to put interesting constraints on the physics of the intracluster medium (ICM) if their mechanism and longevity are well understood. Here, we present results of a search for cold fronts in high-resolution simulations of galaxy clusters in cold dark matter models. We show that sharp gradients with properties similar to those of observed cold fronts naturally arise in cluster mergers when the shocks heat gas surrounding the merging subcluster, while its dense core remains relatively cold. The compression induced by supersonic motions and shock heating during the merger enhance the amplitude of gas density and temperature gradients across the front. Our results indicate that cold fronts are nonequilibrium transient phenomena and can be observed for a period of less than a billion years. We show that the velocity and density fields of gas surrounding the cold front can be very irregular, which would complicate analyses aiming to put constraints on the physical conditions of the ICM in the vicinity of the front.

  9. Leg stiffness of sprinters using running-specific prostheses

    PubMed Central

    McGowan, Craig P.; Grabowski, Alena M.; McDermott, William J.; Herr, Hugh M.; Kram, Rodger

    2012-01-01

    Running-specific prostheses (RSF) are designed to replicate the spring-like nature of biological legs (bioL) during running. However, it is not clear how these devices affect whole leg stiffness characteristics or running dynamics over a range of speeds. We used a simple spring–mass model to examine running mechanics across a range of speeds, in unilateral and bilateral transtibial amputees and performance-matched controls. We found significant differences between the affected leg (AL) of unilateral amputees and both ALs of bilateral amputees compared with the bioL of non-amputees for nearly every variable measured. Leg stiffness remained constant or increased with speed in bioL, but decreased with speed in legs with RSPs. The decrease in leg stiffness in legs with RSPs was mainly owing to a combination of lower peak ground reaction forces and increased leg compression with increasing speeds. Leg stiffness is an important parameter affecting contact time and the force exerted on the ground. It is likely that the fixed stiffness of the prosthesis coupled with differences in the limb posture required to run with the prosthesis limits the ability to modulate whole leg stiffness and the ability to apply high vertical ground reaction forces during sprinting. PMID:22337629

  10. On the Biomimetic Design of Agile-Robot Legs

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Elena; Arevalo, Juan Carlos; Muñoz, Gustavo; Gonzalez-de-Santos, Pablo

    2011-01-01

    The development of functional legged robots has encountered its limits in human-made actuation technology. This paper describes research on the biomimetic design of legs for agile quadrupeds. A biomimetic leg concept that extracts key principles from horse legs which are responsible for the agile and powerful locomotion of these animals is presented. The proposed biomimetic leg model defines the effective leg length, leg kinematics, limb mass distribution, actuator power, and elastic energy recovery as determinants of agile locomotion, and values for these five key elements are given. The transfer of the extracted principles to technological instantiations is analyzed in detail, considering the availability of current materials, structures and actuators. A real leg prototype has been developed following the biomimetic leg concept proposed. The actuation system is based on the hybrid use of series elasticity and magneto-rheological dampers which provides variable compliance for natural motion. From the experimental evaluation of this prototype, conclusions on the current technological barriers to achieve real functional legged robots to walk dynamically in agile locomotion are presented. PMID:22247667

  11. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nicolas H; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L; Newton, Robert U

    2016-06-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key pointsAccurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance.Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower quantities

  12. Relationship between Leg Mass, Leg Composition and Foot Velocity on Kicking Accuracy in Australian Football

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Nicolas H.; Nimphius, Sophia; Spiteri, Tania; Cochrane, Jodie L.; Newton, Robert U.

    2016-01-01

    Kicking a ball accurately over a desired distance to an intended target is arguably the most important skill to acquire in Australian Football. Therefore, understanding the potential mechanisms which underpin kicking accuracy is warranted. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between leg mass, leg composition and foot velocity on kicking accuracy in Australian Football. Thirty-one Australian Footballers (n = 31; age: 22.1 ± 2.8 years; height: 1.81 ± 0.07 m; weight: 85.1 ± 13.0 kg; BMI: 25.9 ± 3.2) each performed ten drop punt kicks over twenty metres to a player target. Athletes were separated into accurate (n = 15) and inaccurate (n = 16) kicking groups. Leg mass characteristics were assessed using whole body DXA scans. Foot velocity was determined using a ten-camera optoelectronic, three-dimensional motion capture system. Interactions between leg mass and foot velocity evident within accurate kickers only (r = -0.670 to -0.701). Relative lean mass was positively correlated with kicking accuracy (r = 0.631), while no relationship between foot velocity and kicking accuracy was evident in isolation (r = -0.047 to -0.083). Given the evident importance of lean mass, and its interaction with foot velocity for accurate kickers; future research should explore speed-accuracy, impulse-variability, limb co-ordination and foot-ball interaction constructs in kicking using controlled with-in subject studies to examine the effects of resistance training and skill acquisition programs on the development of kicking accuracy. Key points Accurate kickers expressed a very strong inverse relationship between leg mass and foot velocity. Inaccurate kickers were unable to replicate this, with greater volatility in their performance, indicating an ability of accurate kickers to mediate foot velocity to compensate for leg mass in order to deliver the ball over the required distance. Accurate kickers exhibited larger quantities of relative lean mass and lower

  13. Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts: Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Email Facebook Twitter Revised May 2014 Some ... diverted for abuse. How Are Cough and Cold Medicines Abused? Cough and cold medicines are usually consumed ...

  14. Why Being Cold Might Foster a Cold

    MedlinePlus

    ... These cells produce essential immune system proteins called interferons that respond to a cold virus. The cells ... several degrees below core body temperature, virus-fighting interferons were less able to do their job. The ...

  15. Method of characteristics - Based sensitivity calculations for international PWR benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    Suslov, I. R.; Tormyshev, I. V.; Komlev, O. G.

    2013-07-01

    Method to calculate sensitivity of fractional-linear neutron flux functionals to transport equation coefficients is proposed. Implementation of the method on the basis of MOC code MCCG3D is developed. Sensitivity calculations for fission intensity for international PWR benchmark are performed. (authors)

  16. Comparison of Removed Fuel Compositions of CANDLE, PWR, and FBR

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Akito; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2007-07-01

    A new reactor burnup strategy CANDLE was proposed, where shapes of neutron flux, nuclide densities and power density distributions remain constant but move to an axial direction. Application of this burnup strategy to neutron rich fast reactors makes excellent performances. Only natural or depleted uranium is required for the replaced fresh fuels. About 40% of natural or depleted uranium undergoes fission. In this paper, spent fuels of PWR, FBR and CANDLE reactor are compared. Fresh fuels of PWR, FBR and CANDLE reactor are 4.1% enriched uranium (UO{sub 2}), MOX with 18.5% plutonium enrichment and natural uranium nitride (natural-UN), respectively. In once-through fuel cycle point of view, low disposal amount for high energy is better and CANDLE reactor can decrease this amount more than other reactors, especially it is only one-tenth of PWR fuel. Also, it can decrease MA and this amount is 0.4 times of PWR. Total FP amount of each reactor is nearly same. However, LLFP amount of CANDLE reactor is the largest. (authors)

  17. Transcutaneous laser treatment of leg veins.

    PubMed

    Meesters, Arne A; Pitassi, Luiza H U; Campos, Valeria; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Dierickx, Christine C

    2014-03-01

    Leg telangiectasias and reticular veins are a common complaint affecting more than 80% of the population to some extent. To date, the gold standard remains sclerotherapy for most patients. However, there may be some specific situations, where sclerotherapy is contraindicated such as needle phobia, allergy to certain sclerosing agents, and the presence of vessels smaller than the diameter of a 30-gauge needle (including telangiectatic matting). In these cases, transcutaneous laser therapy is a valuable alternative. Currently, different laser modalities have been proposed for the management of leg veins. The aim of this article is to present an overview of the basic principles of transcutaneous laser therapy of leg veins and to review the existing literature on this subject, including the most recent developments. The 532-nm potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP) laser, the 585-600-nm pulsed dye laser, the 755-nm alexandrite laser, various 800-983-nm diode lasers, and the 1,064-nm neodymium yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and various intense pulsed light sources have been investigated for this indication. The KTP and pulsed dye laser are an effective treatment option for small vessels (<1 mm). The side effect profile is usually favorable to that of longer wavelength modalities. For larger veins, the use of a longer wavelength is required. According to the scarce evidence available, the Nd:YAG laser produces better clinical results than the alexandrite and diode laser. Penetration depth is high, whereas absorption by melanin is low, making the Nd:YAG laser suitable for the treatment of larger and deeply located veins and for the treatment of patients with dark skin types. Clinical outcome of Nd:YAG laser therapy approximates that of sclerotherapy, although the latter is associated with less pain. New developments include (1) the use of a nonuniform pulse sequence or a dual-wavelength modality, inducing methemoglobin formation and enhancing the optical absorption

  18. Is leg compression beneficial for alpine skiers?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effects of different levels of compression (0, 20 and 40 mmHg) produced by leg garments on selected psycho-physiological measures of performance while exposed to passive vibration (60 Hz, amplitude 4-6 mm) and performing 3-min of alpine skiing tuck position. Methods Prior to, during and following the experiment the electromygraphic (EMG) activity of different muscles, cardio-respiratory data, changes in total hemoglobin, tissue oxygenation and oscillatory movement of m. vastus lateralis, blood lactate and perceptual data of 12 highly trained alpine skiers were recorded. Maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance were assessed before and after the experiment. Results The knee angle (−10°) and oscillatory movement (−20-25.5%) were lower with compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). The EMG activities of the tibialis anterior (20.2-28.9%), gastrocnemius medialis (4.9-15.1%), rectus femoris (9.6-23.5%), and vastus medialis (13.1-13.7%) muscles were all elevated by compression (P < 0.05 in all cases). Total hemoglobin was maintained during the 3-min period of simulated skiing with 20 or 40 mmHg compression, but the tissue saturation index was lower (P < 0.05) than with no compression. No differences in respiratory parameters, heart rate or blood lactate concentration were observed with or maximal isometric knee extension and flexion strength, balance, and jumping performance following simulated skiing for 3 min in the downhill tuck position were the same as in the absence of compression. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that with leg compression, alpine skiers could maintain a deeper tuck position with less perceived exertion and greater deoxygenation of the vastus lateralis muscle, with no differences in whole-body oxygen consumption or blood lactate concentration. These changes occurred without compromising maximal leg strength, jumping performance or balance

  19. Asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs.

    PubMed

    Mendese, Gary; Grande, Donald

    2013-09-01

    The authors report an unusual case of Rocky Mountain spotted fever that presented as an asymptomatic petechial eruption on the lower legs. Rocky Mountain spotted fever is rare in New England and, as such, is typically not on the differential diagnosis when presented with such patients. What began as an asymptomatic eruption progressed to more classic signs of the disease, including a positive Rocky Mountain spotted fever titer. The patient was successfully treated with doxycydine and within a short period of time, was completely back at baseline. PMID:24062875

  20. Chronic traumatic wounds of the leg.

    PubMed

    Pros, Z; Tvrdek, M; Kletenský, J; Nejedlý, A; Svoboda, S

    1996-01-01

    The authors report the results of a retrospective study of the treatment of chronic defects of soft tissues and bones of the leg and foot with free muscle and musclecutaneous flaps. The study deals with the results of the use of the microsurgical techniques during the period of 11 years at the Department of Plastic Surgery of the 3rd Medical School in Prague. Discussed are the advantages and disadvantages of this technique as one the of possible therapeutic methods inclusive of the results obtained at the above mentioned department. PMID:9018862

  1. Refractory leg ulcers associated with Klinefelter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yabuno, Yuto; Tosa, Mamiko; Iwakiri, Itaru; Nomoto, Shunichi; Kaneko, Mayuko; Kuwahara, Kousuke; Hyakusoku, Hiko; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    We present a man with refractory leg ulcers, bilateral varicosis of the lower extremities, and Buerger disease. Autoimmune work-up was negative. However, chromosome analysis showed Klinefelter syndrome (48 XXY). Ulcerative lesions of the lower extremities are a complication of Klinefelter syndrome. To date, the pathogenesis of ulcers in Klinefelter syndrome has not been clarified, but several factors, such as abnormalities of fibrinolysis and prothrombotic states, might be involved. Our present case emphasizes the importance of considering Klinefelter syndrome in the differential diagnosis of a male patient with nonhealing ulcers of the lower extremities. PMID:25797879

  2. How cold is cold dark matter?

    SciTech Connect

    Armendariz-Picon, Cristian; Neelakanta, Jayanth T. E-mail: jtneelak@syr.edu

    2014-03-01

    If cold dark matter consists of particles, these must be non-interacting and non-relativistic by definition. In most cold dark matter models however, dark matter particles inherit a non-vanishing velocity dispersion from interactions in the early universe, a velocity that redshifts with cosmic expansion but certainly remains non-zero. In this article, we place model-independent constraints on the dark matter temperature to mass ratio, whose square root determines the dark matter velocity dispersion. We only assume that dark matter particles decoupled kinetically while non-relativistic, when galactic scales had not entered the horizon yet, and that their momentum distribution has been Maxwellian since that time. Under these assumptions, using cosmic microwave background and matter power spectrum observations, we place upper limits on the temperature to mass ratio of cold dark matter today (away from collapsed structures). These limits imply that the present cold dark matter velocity dispersion has to be smaller than 54 m/s. Cold dark matter has to be quite cold, indeed.

  3. [Differential diagnosis and work up of chronic leg ulcers].

    PubMed

    Spoljar, Sanja

    2014-10-01

    Many factors contribute to the pathogenesis of leg ulcers. The main causes are chronic venous insufficiency, peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) and diabetes. Some leg ulcers are caused by combinations of these well-known etiologic factors. The most common cause of PAOD is arteriosclerosis. In diabetic patients, distal symmetric neuropathy and peripheral vascular disease are probably the most important etiologic factors in the development of leg ulcers. Less frequent causes of chronic leg ulcers are hematologic diseases, autoimmune diseases, genetic defects, infections, primary skin disease, cutaneous malignant diseases, use of some medications and therapeutic procedures, and numerous exogenous factors. Diagnosis of leg ulcer is made upon medical history, clinical picture, palpation of arteries, functional testing and serologic testing. Device-based diagnostic testing should be performed for additional clarification. Also, lesion biopsy should be taken for histopathology, direct immunofluorescence, bacteriology and mycology. The knowledge of differential diagnosis is essential for ensuring treatment success in a patient with leg ulcer. PMID:25326987

  4. Restless Legs Syndrome After Single Low Dose Quetiapine Administration.

    PubMed

    Soyata, Ahmet Z; Celebi, Fahri; Yargc, Lutfi I

    2016-01-01

    Restless legs syndrome is an underdiagnosed sensori-motor disorder and psychotropic drugs are one of the main secondary causes of the illness. The most common psychotropic agents that cause restless legs syndrome are antidepressants; however, antipsychotics have also been reported to induce restless legs syndrome. The prevalence, vulnerability factors and the underlying mechanism of antipsychotic-induced restless legs syndrome are unclear. A possible explanation is that dopaminergic blockade is the main precipitator of the syndrome. Quetiapine-induced restless legs syndrome is another point of interest because of its low binding to D2 receptors. We herein report the case of a restless legs syndrome that emerged after a single low dose quetiapine administration. PMID:26582164

  5. Determining the volumetric steam content in a BWR gravity leg

    SciTech Connect

    Fedulin, V.N.; Bartolomei, G.G.; Solodkii, V.A.; Shmelev, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    The structure of two-phase flow in a large-diameter limited-height gravity leg was investigated in the VK-50 reactor. Phase distribution properties and a physical model of the steam-water mixture flow in the gravity leg were described. On the basis of experimentally derived date a method was proposed for the calculation of volumetric steam content in the leg.

  6. Leg length discrepancy following irradiation for childhood tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Butler, M.S.; D'Angio, G.J.; Rate, W.R. )

    1991-05-01

    Leg length inequality developed in 12 of 67 children who were treated with radiation therapy to the kidney, abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities. All these children survived childhood cancer to the age of skeletal maturity. Of the 12 with anisomelia, seven were symptomatic. There were significant relationships between the development of leg length inequality and the total dose of radiation to the pelvic area, asymmetric irradiation to the pelvis, and high-dose irradiation to the leg.

  7. Note: Development of leg size sensors for fluid accumulation monitoring.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song; Rajamani, Rajesh; Alexander, Lee; Serdar Sezen, A

    2016-05-01

    A number of diseases can lead to fluid accumulation and swelling in the lower leg. Early detection of leg swelling can be used to effectively predict potential health risks and allows for early intervention from medical providers. Hence this note develops a novel leg size sensor based on the use of magnetic field measurement. An electromagnet is combined with two magnetic field transducers to provide a drift-free leg size estimation technique immune to environmental disturbances. The sensor can measure changes as small as 1 mm in diameter reliably during in vitro tests. Its performance is compared with that of other size measurement techniques. PMID:27250484

  8. Clinical analysis of leg ulcers and gangrene in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Michiko; Nagai, Yayoi; Sogabe, Yoko; Hattori, Tomoyasu; Inoue, Chizuru; Okada, Etsuko; Tago, Osamu; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2013-12-01

    Leg ulcers are often complicated in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), however, the etiology is multifactorial. We examined the cases of leg ulceration or gangrene in seven RA patients who were hospitalized over the past 3 years. One patient was diagnosed as having pyoderma gangrenosum. Although vasculitis was suspected in three patients, no histological evidence was obtained from the skin specimens. In these patients, angiography revealed the stenosis or occlusion of digital arteries. In the remaining three patients, leg ulcers were considered to be due to venous insufficiency. Treatment should be chosen depending on the causes of leg ulcers. PMID:24304368

  9. Restless legs syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rafie, Shahram; Jafari, Majid; Azizi, Mostafa; Bahadoram, Mohammad; Jafari, Shima

    2016-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensation of paresthesia in legs that subsequently causes involuntary and continuous movement of the lower limbs, especially at rest. Its prevalence in hemodialysis is more than that in the general population. Different risk factors have been suggested for RLS. We studied the prevalence and risk factors of RLS in 137 hemodialysis patients followed up at our center. The patients completed at least three months on dialysis and fulfilled four criteria for the diagnosis of RLS. We compared the patients with and without RLS, and the odds ratios (ORs) were estimated by the logistic regression models. The prevalence of RLS was 36.5% in the study patients. Among the variables, diabetes was the only predicting factor for the development of RLS. The diabetic patients may be afflicted with RLS 2.25 times more than the non-diabetics. Women developed severe RLS 5.23 times more than men. Neurodegeneration, decrease in dopamine level, higher total oxidant status, and neuropathy in diabetic patients may explain the RLS symptoms. PMID:26997386

  10. Olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mangsuo; Geng, Tongchao; Qiao, Liyan; Zhang, Mingjie; Shi, Jie; Huang, Fangjie; Lin, Xianzhong; Wang, Jing; Zuo, Huancong

    2014-09-01

    Only nine patients with olanzapine-induced restless legs syndrome (RLS) have been reported in the literature to our knowledge. We describe two patients with olanzapine-induced RLS treated at our hospital and review the nine reported patients. There were five women and six men aged between 28 and 62 years in the overall group. RLS symptoms emerged at olanzapine doses between 2.5 and 20mg. The symptoms improved in all patients when the dose was reduced and immediately disappeared when the medication was stopped. International Restless Legs Scale (IRLS) scores ranged from 10 to 35. Three patients had a family history of idiopathic RLS. Supplemental drugs were administered to control RLS symptoms in five patients. Ropinirole was effective in one patient, while two patients did not respond to the drug. Propoxyphene effectively relieved symptoms in one patient who did not respond to ropinirole or clonazepam. RLS symptoms did not recur following substitution of other antipsychotic drugs for olanzapine. In conclusion, olanzapine can induce RLS, particularly in patients with a family history of idiopathic RLS. More than half of the patients experienced severe to very severe symptoms. A dose-dependent relationship was observed between olanzapine and RLS symptoms. A gradual increase in dose may prevent olanzapine-induced RLS. The optimal treatment for olanzapine-induced RLS is discontinuation of olanzapine. PMID:24874697

  11. Intramedullary leg lengthening with a motorized nail

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose In the last decade, intramedullary limb lengthening has become a viable alternative to traditional external systems. We retrospectively analyzed the use of an intramedullary motorized nail (Fitbone) in a consecutive series of 32 patients. Patients and methods During the period September 2006 to December 2008, 32 consecutive patients with a median age of 17 (IQR: 15–19) years were treated with a fully implantable, motorized intramedullary lengthening device (Fitbone). The median leg length discrepancy was 35 (IQR: 30–44) mm at the femur (n = 21) and 28 (IQR: 25–30) mm at the tibia (n = 11). Results Leg lengthening was successful in 30 of 32 cases, with no residual relevant discrepancy (± 5 mm). No intraoperative complications were observed. The consolidation index was significantly different (p = 0.04) between femoral lengthening (mean 35 days/cm) and tibial lengthening (mean 48 days/cm) but did not depend on age older/younger than 16 or previous operations at the affected site. 3 problems, 3 obstacles, and 4 complications (3 minor, 1 major) were encountered in 8 patients, 5 of which were implant-associated. Interpretation This technique even allows correction in patients with multiplanar deformities. Compared to external devices, intramedullary systems provide comfort and reduce complication rates, give improved cosmetic results, and lead to fast rehabilitation since percutaneous, transmuscular fixation is prevented. This results in reasonable overall treatment costs despite the relatively high costs of implants. PMID:21561309

  12. Immediate effects of the trunk stabilizing exercise on static balance parameters in double-leg and one-leg stances

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jwa-jun; Park, Se-yeon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immediate effect of stabilizing exercise using the PNF technique on standing balance in one-leg and double-leg stances. [Subjects and Methods] The present study recruited 34 healthy participants from a local university. The Participants performed four balance tests (double-leg stance with and without vision, one-leg stance with and without vision), before and after exercise. The exercise consisted of exercises performed using PNF techniques (stabilizing reversal and rhythmic stabilization), which were applied to facilitate trunk musculature. To examine balance ability, total displacement of the center of pressure was measured during balance tests. [Results] The total anterior–posterior center of pressure displacement was significantly reduced after applying rhythmic stabilization compared before exercise regardless of the balance test conditions. [Conclusion] The present results suggest that trunk stability exercise using rhythmic stabilization could effectively enhance balance ability under one-leg and double-leg conditions. PMID:27390392

  13. Driving performance in cold, warm, and thermoneutral environments.

    PubMed

    Daanen, Hein A M; van de Vliert, Evert; Huang, Xu

    2003-11-01

    Driving performance deteriorates at high ambient temperatures. Less is known about the effect of low ambient temperatures and the role of subjective aspects like thermal comfort and having control over the ambient temperature. Therefore, an experiment was constructed in which 50 subjects performed a road-tracking task in a cold (5 degrees C), a thermoneutral (20 degrees C) or a warm (35 degrees C) climate. All subjects had a heater/blower (H/B) which generated a fixed amount of heat/wind that could either be controlled or not controlled. In the cold climate, averaged leg skin temperature dropped to 18.5 degrees C and head skin temperature to 24.9 degrees C; the thermal comfort was rated between 'cold' and 'very cold'. In the warm climate, averaged leg skin temperature rose to 36.6 degrees C and head skin temperature to 30.8 degrees C; the thermal comfort was rated as 'hot'. Driving performance in the ambient temperature extremes decreased 16% in the cold environment and 13% in the warm situation. Having control over the local head temperature by adjusting a H/B affected neither thermal comfort nor driving performance. In agreement with the literature on priming effects, subjects who started with the no-control condition performed much better in all driving tasks because they were primed to focus on the driving task as such, rather than the complex combination of temperature controls and driving task. It can be concluded that a thermoneutral temperature in a car enhances driving performance and may thus positively affect safety. Using manual climatic controls in hot or cold cars may interfere with the driving task. PMID:14559420

  14. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; C. Guttridge D, Denis; Amer, Amal O.

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires’ disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  15. The Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Lyase (LegS2) Contributes to the Restriction of Legionella pneumophila in Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Abu Khweek, Arwa; Kanneganti, Apurva; Guttridge D, Denis C; Amer, Amal O

    2016-01-01

    L. pneumophila is the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease, a human illness characterized by severe pneumonia. In contrast to those derived from humans, macrophages derived from most mouse strains restrict L. pneumophila replication. The restriction of L. pneumophila replication has been shown to require bacterial flagellin, a component of the type IV secretion system as well as the cytosolic NOD-like receptor (NLR) Nlrc4/ Ipaf. These events lead to caspase-1 activation which, in turn, activates caspase-7. Following caspase-7 activation, the phagosome-containing L. pneumophila fuses with the lysosome, resulting in the restriction of L. pneumophila growth. The LegS2 effector is injected by the type IV secretion system and functions as a sphingosine 1-phosphate lyase. It is homologous to the eukaryotic sphingosine lyase (SPL), an enzyme required in the terminal steps of sphingolipid metabolism. Herein, we show that mice Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages (BMDMs) and human Monocyte-Derived Macrophages (hMDMs) are more permissive to L. pneumophila legS2 mutants than wild-type (WT) strains. This permissiveness to L. pneumophila legS2 is neither attributed to abolished caspase-1, caspase-7 or caspase-3 activation, nor due to the impairment of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Instead, an infection with the legS2 mutant resulted in the reduction of some inflammatory cytokines and their corresponding mRNA; this effect is mediated by the inhibition of the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB). Moreover, BMDMs infected with L. pneumophila legS2 mutant showed elongated mitochondria that resembles mitochondrial fusion. Therefore, the absence of LegS2 effector is associated with reduced NF-κB activation and atypical morphology of mitochondria. PMID:26741365

  16. Cold pool dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, Leah D.; Heever, Susan C.

    2016-02-01

    The mechanisms by which sensible heat fluxes (SHFs) alter cold pool characteristics and dissipation rates are investigated in this study using idealized two-dimensional numerical simulations and an environment representative of daytime, dry, continental conditions. Simulations are performed with no SHFs, SHFs calculated using a bulk formula, and constant SHFs for model resolutions with horizontal (vertical) grid spacings ranging from 50 m (25 m) to 400 m (200 m). In the highest resolution simulations, turbulent entrainment of environmental air into the cold pool is an important mechanism for dissipation in the absence of SHFs. Including SHFs enhances cold pool dissipation rates, but the processes responsible for the enhanced dissipation differ depending on the SHF formulation. The bulk SHFs increase the near-surface cold pool temperatures, but their effects on the overall cold pool characteristics are small, while the constant SHFs influence the near-surface environmental stability and the turbulent entrainment rates into the cold pool. The changes to the entrainment rates are found to be the most significant of the SHF effects on cold pool dissipation. SHFs may also influence the timing of cold pool-induced convective initiation by altering the environmental stability and the cold pool intensity. As the model resolution is coarsened, cold pool dissipation is found to be less sensitive to SHFs. Furthermore, the coarser resolution simulations not only poorly but sometimes wrongly represent the SHF impacts on the cold pools. Recommendations are made regarding simulating the interaction of cold pools with convection and the land surface in cloud-resolving models.

  17. The comparison of cold-water immersion and cold air therapy on maximal cycling performance and recovery markers following strength exercises

    PubMed Central

    Hayter, Kane J.; Schumann, Moritz; Deakin, Glen B.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and cold air therapy (CAT) on maximal cycling performance (i.e. anaerobic power) and markers of muscle damage following a strength training session. Twenty endurance-trained but strength-untrained male (n = 10) and female (n = 10) participants were randomised into either: CWI (15 min in 14 °C water to iliac crest) or CAT (15 min in 14 °C air) immediately following strength training (i.e. 3 sets of leg press, leg extensions and leg curls at 6 repetition maximum, respectively). Creatine kinase, muscle soreness and fatigue, isometric knee extensor and flexor torque and cycling anaerobic power were measured prior to, immediately after and at 24 (T24), 48 (T48) and 72 (T72) h post-strength exercises. No significant differences were found between treatments for any of the measured variables (p > 0.05). However, trends suggested recovery was greater in CWI than CAT for cycling anaerobic power at T24 (10% ± 2%, ES = 0.90), T48 (8% ± 2%, ES = 0.64) and T72 (8% ± 7%, ES = 0.76). The findings suggest the combination of hydrostatic pressure and cold temperature may be favourable for recovery from strength training rather than cold temperature alone. PMID:27069791

  18. Cold fusion, Alchemist's dream

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E.D.

    1989-09-01

    In this report the following topics relating to cold fusion are discussed: muon catalysed cold fusion; piezonuclear fusion; sundry explanations pertaining to cold fusion; cosmic ray muon catalysed cold fusion; vibrational mechanisms in excited states of D{sub 2} molecules; barrier penetration probabilities within the hydrogenated metal lattice/piezonuclear fusion; branching ratios of D{sub 2} fusion at low energies; fusion of deuterons into {sup 4}He; secondary D+T fusion within the hydrogenated metal lattice; {sup 3}He to {sup 4}He ratio within the metal lattice; shock induced fusion; and anomalously high isotopic ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He.

  19. A modular network for legged locomotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golubitsky, Martin; Stewart, Ian; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Collins, J. J.

    1998-04-01

    In this paper we use symmetry methods to study networks of coupled cells, which are models for central pattern generators (CPGs). In these models the cells obey identical systems of differential equations and the network specifies how cells are coupled. Previously, Collins and Stewart showed that the phase relations of many of the standard gaits of quadrupeds and hexapods can be obtained naturally via Hopf bifurcation in small networks. For example, the networks they used to study quadrupeds all had four cells, with the understanding that each cell determined the phase of the motion of one leg. However, in their work it seemed necessary to employ several different four-oscillator networks to obtain all of the standard quadrupedal gaits. We show that this difficulty with four-oscillator networks is unavoidable, but that the problems can be overcome by using a larger network. Specifically, we show that the standard gaits of a quadruped, including walk, trot and pace, cannot all be realized by a single four-cell network without introducing unwanted conjugacies between trot and pace - conjugacies that imply a dynamic equivalence between these gaits that seems inconsistent with observations. In this sense a single network with four cells cannot model the CPG of a quadruped. We also introduce a single eight-cell network that can model all of the primary gaits of quadrupeds without these unwanted conjugacies. Moreover, this network is modular in that it naturally generalizes to provide models of gaits in hexapods, centipedes, and millipedes. The analysis of models for many-legged animals shows that wave-like motions, similar to those obtained by Kopell and Ermentrout, can be expected. However, our network leads to a prediction that the wavelength of the wave motion will divide twice the length of the animal. Indeed, we reproduce illustrations of wave-like motions in centipedes where the animal is approximately one-and-a-half wavelength long - motions that are consistent

  20. Cold stress and the cold pressor test.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, Dee U; Michael, Joel

    2013-03-01

    Temperature and other environmental stressors are known to affect blood pressure and heart rate. In this activity, students perform the cold pressor test, demonstrating increased blood pressure during a 1- to 2-min immersion of one hand in ice water. The cold pressor test is used clinically to evaluate autonomic and left ventricular function. This activity is easily adapted to an inquiry format that asks students to go to the scientific literature to learn about the test and then design a protocol for carrying out the test in classmates. The data collected are ideal for teaching graphical presentation of data and statistical analysis. PMID:23471256

  1. [Pseudo-radicular referred leg pain].

    PubMed

    von Heymann, W

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-radicular leg pain as initially described by Bruegger more than 55 years ago was at that time a genius explanation for so many non-radicular pain syndromes that needed not any kind of surgical intervention but in first line a manual treatment or a treatment by therapeutic local anesthetics. Today we describe this pain as a "referred pain" originating from other anatomic structures that may occur during the development of chronic pain. Nevertheless this pain is found in many patients and it still seems to be a big problem for many physicians and surgeons. Imaging does not help either. The history and the clinical symptoms, the examinations, the chain reactions in the motor system as well as the treatment options from the point of view of manual medicine are described. PMID:26563144

  2. Concrete hulls for tension-leg platforms

    SciTech Connect

    De Oliveira, J.G. ); Fjeld, S. )

    1990-06-01

    This paper describes the main features of a concrete-hull tension-leg-platform (TLP) concept developed for the Heidrun field in the Haltenbanken area of the Norwegian sector of the North Sea. The hydrodynamic response and the methods adopted to optimize the hull dimensions, as well as the mooring system and hull mechanical outfitting, are discussed first. Then construction methods are briefly described. Inspection, maintenance, and repair are also addressed. Finally, the advantages of the concrete-hull TLP concept are summarized, including the concrete hull's adaptability to a large range of design requirements, low cost, and short construction time. This paper shows that the concrete-hull TLP is a very cost-efficient solution for the development of deepwater fields.

  3. Systemic ketoconazole treatment for Fusarium leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Landau, M; Srebrnik, A; Wolf, R; Bashi, E; Brenner, S

    1992-07-01

    Fusarium oxysporum was isolated from a large foot ulcer in an otherwise healthy 69-year-old man. Although tissue invasion could not be proven histologically, systemic antifungal treatment was administered with satisfactory response. Fusarium species are common soil-inhabiting organisms and plant pathogens. In humans, Fusarium is considered an opportunistic agent in skin ulcers, interdigital spaces, and burned skin, but can also cause mycotic keratitis, onychomycosis, and rarely deep-seated or disseminated infections, especially in an immunocompromised host. The distinction between skin infection and saprophytic growth, as well as optimal treatment regimens for the two types of infection, have not been clearly defined. We describe a case of leg ulcers caused by Fusarium oxysporum in a 69-year-old man treated successfully with oral ketoconazole. "Silent" immunologic disturbances were found in this apparently healthy patient. The case illustrates a relatively benign infection caused by Fusarium that responded to systemic antifungal drug treatment. PMID:1500248

  4. How critical is chronic critical leg ischaemia?

    PubMed

    Kroese, A J; Stranden, E

    1998-01-01

    "Critical" according to the Oxford dictionary means: a "turning point" where an acute change for better or worse may be anticipated. Thus, the meaning of the word "critical" complies with its use in relation to ischaemia. We don't really know, prospectively, what will happen to the critically ischaemic limb, whether it will improve or worsen. The answer to the question "How critical is critical leg ischaemia (CLI)?" must be: "We don't know!" The addition of ankle systolic pressure as an objective haemodynamic measurement has not made the definition of the Second European Consensus Group significantly better than the original Fontaine classification, grade III and IV. For clinical practice the Fontaine classification will be sufficient. For scientific purposes macro- and microcirculatory assessments and information about the patient's risk profile should be added. PMID:9676324

  5. Ontogenetic shifts in functional morphology of dragonfly legs (Odonata: Anisoptera).

    PubMed

    Leipelt, Klaus Guido; Suhling, Frank; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2010-12-01

    Anisopteran leg functions change dramatically from the final larval stadium to the adult. Larvae use legs mainly for locomotion, walking, climbing, clinging, or burrowing. Adults use them for foraging and grasping mates, for perching, clinging to the vegetation, and for repelling rivals. In order to estimate the ontogenetic shift in the leg construction from the larva to the adult, this study quantitatively compared lengths of fore, mid, and hind legs and the relationships between three leg segments, femur, tibia, and tarsus, in larval and adult Anisoptera of the families Gomphidae, Aeshnidae, Cordulegastridae, Corduliidae, and Libellulidae, represented by two species each. We found that leg segment length ratio as well as ontogenetic shift in length ratios was different between families, but rather similar within the families. While little ontogenetic shift occurred in Aeshnidae, there were some modifications in Corduliidae and Libellulidae. The severest shift occurred in Gomphidae and Cordulegastridae, both having burrowing larvae. These two families form a cluster, which is in contrast to their taxonomic relationship within the Anisoptera. Cluster analysis implies that the function of larval legs is primarily responsible for grouping, whereas adult behavior or the taxonomic relationships do not explain the grouping. This result supports the previous hypothesis about the convergent functional shift of leg characters in the dragonfly ontogenesis. PMID:21036021

  6. ODYSSEUS autonomous walking robot: The leg/arm design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourbakis, N. G.; Maas, M.; Tascillo, A.; Vandewinckel, C.

    1994-01-01

    ODYSSEUS is an autonomous walking robot, which makes use of three wheels and three legs for its movement in the free navigation space. More specifically, it makes use of its autonomous wheels to move around in an environment where the surface is smooth and not uneven. However, in the case that there are small height obstacles, stairs, or small height unevenness in the navigation environment, the robot makes use of both wheels and legs to travel efficiently. In this paper we present the detailed hardware design and the simulated behavior of the extended leg/arm part of the robot, since it plays a very significant role in the robot actions (movements, selection of objects, etc.). In particular, the leg/arm consists of three major parts: The first part is a pipe attached to the robot base with a flexible 3-D joint. This pipe has a rotated bar as an extended part, which terminates in a 3-D flexible joint. The second part of the leg/arm is also a pipe similar to the first. The extended bar of the second part ends at a 2-D joint. The last part of the leg/arm is a clip-hand. It is used for selecting several small weight and size objects, and when it is in a 'closed' mode, it is used as a supporting part of the robot leg. The entire leg/arm part is controlled and synchronized by a microcontroller (68CH11) attached to the robot base.

  7. Multiple medicament allergies in two patients with chronic leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Rademaker, M; Wood, B; Greig, D E

    1996-08-01

    Medicament allergies in patients with chronic leg ulcers is well recognized. In the past, topical antibiotics, rubber additives and wool alcohols have been the most common reported allergens. Allergy to topical corticosteroids has been reported. We document two cases of multiple corticosteroid allergy in patients with chronic leg ulceration. PMID:8771871

  8. Restless legs syndrome in patients on hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Salman, Saleh Mohammad Yaser

    2011-03-01

    Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is common among dialysis patients, with a reported prevalence of 6-60%. The prevalence of RLS in Syrian patients on hemodialysis (HD) is not known. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of RLS in patients on regular HD, and to find the possible correlation between the presence of RLS and demographic, clinical, and biochemical factors. One hundred and twenty-three patients (male/female = 70/53, mean age = 41.95 ± 15.11 years) on HD therapy at the Aleppo University Hospital were enrolled into the study. RLS was diagnosed based on criteria established by the International Restless Legs Syn-drome Study Group (IRLSSG). Data procured were compared between patients with and without RLS. Applying the IRLSSG criteria for the diagnosis, RLS was seen in 20.3% of the study pa-tients. No significant difference in age, gender, and intake of nicotine and caffeine was found between patients with and without the RLS. Similarly, there was no difference between the two groups in the duration of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), the period of dialysis dependence, dialysis adequacy, urea and creatinine levels, and the presence of anemia. The co-morbidities and the use of drugs also did not differ in the two groups. Our study suggests that the high prevalence of RLS among patients on HD requires careful attention and correct diagnosis can lead to better therapy and better quality of life. The pathogenesis of RLS is not clear and further studies are required to identify any possible cause as well as to discover the impact of this syndrome on sleep, quality of life, and possibly other complications such as cardiovasculare disease. PMID:21422649

  9. Auger tension leg platform cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    In 1986, Shell began investigating corrosion control systems for a generic 3,000 ft. water depth Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type structure to be located in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. In 1987, the 2,850 ft. deep Garden Banks block 426 ``Auger`` location was chosen for the first TLP, and the detailed design process began in earnest. During late 1993 and early 1994, the Auger hull was mated with the other components at its permanent site, and first oil and gas production began April 15, 1994. This paper describes the corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft. (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure. Each major type of component (hull, subsea marine wellhead/guidebase, tendon foundation template, tendon, and production riser) has its own combination of coating system and cathodic protection system designed for a thirty five year lifetime. Cathodic protection (CP) is achieved using a variety of sacrificial anode alloys and geometries (e.g. bracelet, flush-mount, and standoff anodes). Anode and cathode CP design parameters for each component depend upon water depth, and were developed using field test data, laboratory studies, field measurements on existing structures, and available literature information. CP design was performed using design spreadsheets constructed for each component, which optimized anode geometries. Extensive quality assurance efforts were part of the anode procurement process, to ensure performance for the intended life of the corrosion-control systems. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of cathodic protection against seawater corrosion. Corrosion control of one additional system, the eight point lateral mooring system, is not addressed here.

  10. Gender Differences in Leg Stiffness and Stiffness Recruitment Strategy During Two-Legged Hopping

    PubMed Central

    Padua, Darin A.; Arnold, Brent L.; Carcia, Christopher R.; Granata, Kevin P.

    2006-01-01

    The authors compared leg stiffness (KVERT), muscle activation, and joint movement patterns between 11 men and 10 women during hopping. Physically active and healthy men and women performed continuous 2-legged hopping at their preferred rate and at 3.0 Hz. Compared with men, women demonstrated decreased KVERT; however, after the authors normalized for body mass, gender differences in KVERT were eliminated. In comparison with men, women also demonstrated increased quadriceps and soleus activity, as well as greater quadriceps-to-hamstrings coactivation ratios. There were no significant gender differences for joint movement patterns (p > .05). The relationship between the observed gender differences in muscle recruitment and the increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in women requires further study. PMID:15730945