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Sample records for pylori interventions results

  1. Helicobacter pylori, cyclooxygenase-2 and evolution of gastric lesions: results from an intervention trial in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Pan, Kai-Feng; Zhang, Lian; Ma, Jun-Ling; Zhou, Tong; Li, Ji-You; Shen, Lin; You, Wei-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the role of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the process of Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis, a prospective study based on an intervention trial was conducted in Linqu County, China. A total of 1401 subjects with histopathologic diagnosis were investigated at baseline, among those, 919 completed subsequent interventions (anti-H.pylori and/or celecoxib treatment). Expressions of COX-2 and Ki-67 were assessed by immunohistochemistry, and PGE2 levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay before and after interventions, respectively. We found a grade-response relationship between COX-2 expression level and risk of advanced gastric lesions at baseline. Stratified analysis indicated an additive interaction between COX-2 expression and H.pylori infection on the elevated risk of advanced gastric lesions. The odds ratios (ORs) for both factors combined were 9.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.13-20.95] for chronic atrophic gastritis, 16.26 (95% CI: 7.29-36.24) for intestinal metaplasia and 21.13 (95% CI: 7.87-56.75) for dysplasia, respectively. After interventions, COX-2 expression and Ki-67 labeling index (LI) were decreased in anti-H.pylori group (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.36-1.99 for COX-2; OR: 1.78, 95% CI: 1.49-2.12 for Ki-67) or anti-H.pylori followed by celecoxib group (OR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.17-1.70 for COX-2; OR: 1.63, 95% CI: 1.37-1.94 for Ki-67). PGE2 levels were decreased in all treatment groups. Furthermore, the regression of gastric lesions was associated with the decrease of COX-2 expression or Ki-67 LI after interventions. Our findings indicate that H.pylori-induced COX-2/PGE2 pathways play an important role on the progression of precancerous gastric lesions in a Chinese population. PMID:26449252

  2. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  3. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  4. Prospective study of Helicobacter pylori antigens and gastric noncardia cancer risk in the nutrition intervention trial cohort.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Gwen; Freedman, Neal D; Michel, Angelika; Fan, Jin-Hu; Taylor, Philip R; Pawlita, Michael; Qiao, You-Lin; Zhang, Han; Yu, Kai; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M

    2015-10-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is the strongest known risk factor for gastric noncardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA). We used multiplex serology to determine whether seropositivity to 15 H. pylori proteins is associated with the subsequent development of noncardia gastric cancer in Linxian, China. We included 448 GNCA cases and 1242 controls from two time points within the Linxian General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial, Linxian. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was defined as positivity to ≥4 of the 15 included antigens. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were adjusted for major GNCA risk factors. In addition, we undertook a meta-analysis combining H. pylori multiplex serology data from both time points. H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with a significant increase in risk of GNCA at one time point (1985; OR: 3.44, 95% CI: 1.91, 6.19) and this association remained significant following adjustment for H. pylori or CagA ELISA seropositivity (OR: 2.92, 95% CI: 1.56, 5.47). Combining data from both time points in a meta-analysis H. pylori multiplex seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of GNCA, as were six individual antigens: GroEL, HP0305, CagA, VacA, HcpC and Omp. CagM was inversely associated with risk of GNCA. We identified six individual antigens that confer an increase in risk of GNCA within this population of high H. pylori seroprevalence, as well as a single antigen that may be inversely associated with GNCA risk. We further determined that the H. pylori multiplex assay provides additional information to the conventional ELISA methods on risk of GNCA. PMID:25845708

  5. Unreliability of results of PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical or environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Abudayyeh, Suhaib; Hoffman, Jill; Brahem, Hajer; Al-Khatib, Khaldun; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare published Helicobacter pylori primer pairs for their ability to reliably detect H. pylori in gastric biopsy specimens and salivary samples. Detection limits of the 26 PCR primer pairs previously described for detection of H. pylori DNA in clinical samples were determined. Sensitivity and specificity were determined using primers with detection limits of <100 CFU/ml using 50 H. pylori-positive and -negative (by concordance by culture and histology) coded gastric biopsy specimens. These results were then confirmed with gastric biopsy specimens and saliva from patients with confirmed H. pylori status. Five of the twenty-six previously reported primer pairs (HP64-f/HP64-r, HP1/HP2, EHC-U/EHC-L, VAG-F/VAG-R, and ICT37/ICT38) had detection limits of <100 CFU/ml in the presence of gastric tissue. None had 100% specificity or sensitivity; all produced false-positive results. The HP64-f/HP64-r for ureA and HP1/HP2 for 16S rRNA individually had sensitivities and specificities of >90% with gastric biopsy specimens. No combinations of primer pairs improved the results. Using these five primer pairs, 54% of the positive saliva samples were determined to be false positive; both the HP64-f/HP64-r and the HP1/HP2 sets produced false positives with saliva. We conclude that clinicians should not rely on results using current PCR primers alone to decide the H. pylori status of an individual patient or as a basis for treatment decisions. The results of studies based on PCR identification of H. pylori in environmental samples should be viewed with caution. Possibly, specific primers sets can be identified based on the presence of multiple putative virulence factor genes. PMID:19129407

  6. Disruption of Nitric Oxide Signaling by Helicobacter pylori Results in Enhanced Inflammation by Inhibition of Heme Oxygenase-1

    PubMed Central

    Gobert, Alain P.; Asim, Mohammad; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Verriere, Thomas; Scull, Brooks P.; de Sablet, Thibaut; Glumac, Ashley; Lewis, Nuruddeen D.; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M.; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Wilson, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    A strong cellular crosstalk exists between the pathogen Helicobacter pylori and high-output NO production. However, how NO and H. pylori interact to signal in gastric epithelial cells and modulate the innate immune response is unknown. We show that chemical or cellular sources of NO induce the anti-inflammatory effector heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in gastric epithelial cells through a pathway that requires NF-κB. However, H. pylori decreases NO-induced NF-κB activation, thereby inhibiting HO-1 expression. This inhibitory effect of H. pylori results from activation of the transcription factor heat shock factor-1 by the H. pylori virulence factor CagA and by the host signaling molecules ERK1/2 and JNK. Consistent with these findings, HO-1 is downregulated in gastric epithelial cells of patients infected with cagA+, but not cagA− H. pylori. Enhancement of HO-1 activity in infected cells or in H. pylori-infected mice inhibits chemokine generation and reduces inflammation. These data define a mechanism by which H. pylori favors its own pathogenesis by inhibiting HO-1 induction through the action of CagA. PMID:21987660

  7. Impact of chronic Helicobacter pylori infection on Alzheimer's disease: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Roubaud-Baudron, Claire; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre; Quadrio, Isabelle; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2012-05-01

    Recent case-control studies reported an association between H. pylori infection and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to compare cognitive impairment, neuroinflammation, and cerebrovascular lesion load in a group of AD patients according to their H. pylori status. For the 53 AD patients included, we assessed: clinical data (vascular comorbidities and cognitive assessment), biological data (especially fibrinogen, homocysteine levels, apolipoprotein E4 genotype; cerebrospinal fluid [CSF] total tau protein [Tau], phospho-tau(181) protein [pTau(181)]), and amyloid beta peptide levels, serum/CSF-cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II (PgI/PgII) ratio, and cerebrovascular lesion load (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] fluid-attenuated inversion recovery [FLAIR] with the Fazekas and Schmidt scale). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot test. H. pylori infection was associated with a decreased Mini Mental State Examination (MMS) (p = 0.024), and higher CSF pTau(181) (p = 0.014) and tau (p = 0.021) levels. A decreased PgI/II ratio (i.e., an increased gastric atrophy) was associated with the infection (p = 0.005). Homocysteine levels were positively correlated to Fazekas score (r = 0.34; p = 0.032) and to H. pylori immunoglobulin (Ig)G levels (r = 0.44; p = 0.001). Higher CSF cytokine levels (IL-8, p = 0.003; TNF-α, p = 0.019) were associated with the infection, but systemic inflammation results were controversial. Finally, in multivariate analysis, a lower MMSE score (odds ratio [OR], 0.83 [0.72-0.97]; p = 0.017), plasma IL-1β level (OR, 0.31 [0.11-0.87]; p = 0.025), an increased gastric atrophy, i.e., a lower PgI/PgII ratio (OR, 0.63 [0.43-0.93]; p = 0.020) were still associated with the infection. AD patients infected by H. pylori tended to be more cognitively impaired. Studies are needed to attest to the impact of H. pylori infection on AD

  8. The results of Helicobacter pylori eradication on repeated bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer.

    PubMed

    Horvat, Darko; Vcev, Aleksandar; Soldo, Ivan; Timarac, Jasna; Dmitrović, Branko; Misević, Tonci; Ivezić, Zdravko; Kraljik, Nikola

    2005-06-01

    The triple therapy of Helicobacter pylori eradication prevents repeated bleeding from stomach ulcer. The aim of this one-way blind prospective study was to evaluate the efficiency of the two-week triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication in preventing renewed bleeding in patients with stomach ulcer within one year. This research included 60 hospitalized patients with bleeding stomach ulcer and positive Helicobacter pylori infection, 34 men and 26 women (average age 59.7 years). The patients were given therapeutic scheme of omeprazol--amoxicilin--metrodinazol (OAM) eradication for 14 days. Eradication of H. pylori infection was defined as lack of proof of the infection one month or several months after therapy suspension. By applying triple OAM therapy within two weeks the eradication was successful in 72%. In the group of 17 H. pylori positive patients there were 8 patients (47.6%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 3 patients (18%) with bleeding. Within the group of 43 H. pylori negative patients there were only 2 patients (4.65%) with repeated stomach ulcer and 1 patient (2%) with bleeding, during the observed period of 12 months. This research confirms the hypothesis about the necessity of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with bleeding stomach ulcer as prevention of repeated bleeding. PMID:16117312

  9. Occult H. pylori infection partially explains ‘false-positive’ results of 13C-urea breath test

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Lázaro, María J; Lario, Sergio; Sánchez-Delgado, Jordi; Montserrat, Antònia; Quílez, Elisa M; Casalots, Alex; Suarez, David; Campo, Rafel; Brullet, Enric; Junquera, Félix; Sanfeliu, Isabel; Segura, Ferran

    2015-01-01

    Background In a previous study, UBiT-100 mg, (Otsuka, Spain), a commercial 13C-urea breath test omitting citric acid pre-treatment, had a high rate of false-positive results; however, it is possible that UBiT detected low-density ‘occult’ infection missed by other routine reference tests. We aimed to validate previous results in a new cohort and to rule out the possibility that false-positive UBiT were due to an ‘occult’ infection missed by reference tests. Methods Dyspeptic patients (n = 272) were prospectively enrolled and UBiT was performed, according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Helicobacter pylori infection was determined by combining culture, histology and rapid urease test results. We calculated UBiT sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (with 95% CI). In addition, we evaluated ‘occult’ H. pylori infection using two previously-validated polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for urease A (UreA) and 16 S sequences in gastric biopsies. We included 44 patients with a false-positive UBiT, and two control groups of 25 patients each, that were positive and negative for all H. pylori tests. Results UBiT showed a false-positive rate of 17%, with a specificity of 83%. All the positive controls and 12 of 44 patients (27%) with false-positive UBiT were positive for all two PCR tests; by contrast, none of our negative controls had two positive PCR tests. Conclusions UBiT suffers from a high rate of false-positive results and sub-optimal specificity, and the protocol skipping citric acid pre-treatment should be revised; however, low-density ‘occult’ H. pylori infection that was undetectable by conventional tests accounted for around 25% of the ‘false-positive’ results. PMID:26535122

  10. Pre-treatment urea breath test results predict the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yung-Chih; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Huang, Shih-Hung

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of pre-treatment 13C-urea breath test (UBT) results with H pylori density and efficacy of eradication therapy in patients with active duodenal ulcers. METHODS: One hundred and seventeen consecutive outpatients with active duodenal ulcer and H pylori infection were recruited. H pylori density was histologically graded according to the Sydney system. Each patient received lansoprazole (30 mg b.i.d.), clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. According to pre-treatment UBT values, patients were allocated into low ( < 16‰), intermediate (16‰-35‰), and high ( > 35‰) UBT groups. RESULTS: A significant correlation was found between pre-treatment UBT results and H pylori density (P < 0.001). H pylori eradication rates were 94.9%, 94.4% and 81.6% in the low, intermediate and high UBT groups, respectively (per protocol analysis, P = 0.11). When patients were assigned into two groups (UBT results ≤ 35‰ and > 35‰), the eradication rates were 94.7% and 81.6%, respectively (P = 0.04). CONCLUSION: The intragastric bacterial load of H pylori can be evaluated by UBT, and high pre-treatment UBT results can predict an adverse outcome of eradication therapy. PMID:15052680

  11. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and poor growth. There is evidence of the role of H. pylori in childhood iron deficiency anemia, but the results are not conclusive. The possibility of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as childhood asthma, remains a controversial question. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. PMID:21049552

  12. Clarification of the link between polyunsaturated fatty acids and Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcer disease: a dietary intervention study.

    PubMed

    Duggan, A E; Atherton, J C; Cockayne, A; Balsitis, M; Evison, S; Hale, T; Hawkey, C J; Spiller, R C

    1997-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence has suggested that the declining prevalence of duodenal ulcer disease may be attributable to rising consumption of polyunsaturated fatty acids, a hypothesis supported by in vitro evidence of toxicity of such substances to Helicobacter pylori. The objective of the present study was to establish whether this association is causal. Forty patients with proven infection with H. pylori and endoscopic evidence of past or present duodenal ulcer disease were randomized to receive either polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA group), in the form of capsules and margarine, or a placebo (control). Both groups received concurrent H2 antagonist therapy. Efficacy of therapy was determined endoscopically by assessment of ulcer healing while H. pylori status was determined by antral biopsy, urease (EC 3.5.1.5) culture and histological assessment of the severity of H. pylori infection. Antral levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were quantified. Compliance was monitored. Before treatment, both groups were comparable for severity of H. pylori infection, smoking status and levels of LTB4 and PGE2. Despite a significant difference in consumption of linoleic acid (19.9 (SE 1.6) g for PUFA group v. 6.7 (SE 0.8) g for controls (P < 0.01) and linolenic acid (2.6 (SE 0.2) g v. 0.6 (SE 0.03) g (P < 0.01) there was no significant change in either the severity of H. pylori infection or prostaglandin levels in either group at 6 weeks. Consumption of a considerable amount of PUFA does not inhibit the colonization of the stomach by H. pylori nor does this alter the inflammatory changes characteristic of H. pylori gastritis. We conclude that the association between duodenal ulceration and a low level of dietary PUFA is likely to be spurious, probably reflecting the effect of confounding factors such as affluence, social class or smoking. PMID:9389880

  13. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-08-15

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  14. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  16. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  17. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  18. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G; de Laat, L; van Oijen, A H; de Boer, W A

    2012-03-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detect halitosis. In this study a possible relation between H. pylori and halitosis was evaluated, using an objective method (gas chromatography, GC) to detect the VSCs, responsible for the halitosis. The levels of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in mouth breath and in stomach air of 11 H. pylori positive patients and of 38 H. pylori negative patients, all with gastric pathology. Halitosis was also established by organoleptic scoring (OLS) of mouth-breath. The levels of H(2)S, MM and DMS in the mouth-breath and stomach air of the H. pylori positive patients did not differ significantly from those of the H. pylori negative patients. OLS of the mouth-breath resulted in 9 patients with halitosis, 1 out of the H. pylori positive group and 8 out of the H. pylori negative group, which is not statistically different. The concentrations of the VSCs in stomach air were in nearly all cases below the thresholds of objectionability of the various VSCs, indicating that halitosis does not originate in the stomach. The patients with gastric pathology were also compared with control patients without gastric pathology and with normal volunteers. No significant differences in VSCs in mouth breath were observed between these groups. Thus, in this study no association between halitosis and H. pylori infection was found. Halitosis, as established by GC and OLS, nearly always originates within the oral cavity and seldom or never within the stomach. PMID:22368251

  19. Exploring the cost-effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori screening to prevent gastric cancer in China in anticipation of clinical trial results

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Jennifer M.; Kuntz, Karen M.; Ezzati, Majid; Goldie, Sue J.

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection, the leading causal risk factor, can reduce disease progression, but the long-term impact on cancer incidence is uncertain. Using the best available data, we estimated the potential health benefits and economic consequences associated with H. pylori screening in a high-risk region of China. An empirically calibrated model of gastric cancer was used to project reduction in lifetime cancer risk, life-expectancy and costs associated with (i) single lifetime screening (age 20, 30 or 40); (ii) single lifetime screening followed by rescreening individuals with negative results and (iii) universal treatment for H. pylori (age 20, 30 or 40). Data were from the published literature and national and international databases. Screening and treatment for H. pylori at age 20 reduced the mean lifetime cancer risk by 14.5% (men) to 26.6% (women) and cost less than $1,500 per year of life saved (YLS) compared to no screening. Rescreening individuals with negative results and targeting older ages was less cost-effective. Universal treatment prevented an additional 1.5% to 2.3% of risk reduction, but incremental cost-effectiveness ratios exceeded $2,500 per YLS. Screening young adults for H. pylori could prevent one in every 4 to 6 cases of gastric cancer in China and would be considered cost-effective using the GDP per capita threshold. These results illustrate the potential promise of a gastric cancer screening program and provide rationale for urgent clinical studies to move the prevention agenda forward. PMID:18823009

  20. Helicobacter pylori: from the stomach to the heart.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Broutet, N; Ponzetto, A; Mégraud, F

    1999-11-01

    A surprising number of extra-gastrointestinal diseases have been reported to be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Since coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in western countries, and since the known risk factors cannot fully explain the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, the exploration of the role of possible causal agents has stimulated intense research. Infectious agents have been linked to coronary heart disease on epidemiological and pathogenic grounds. In 1994, H. pylori infection was reported to be one of them. Since then, a number of studies have been published with controversial results. Studies performed thus far show a high degree of heterogeneity in the selection of patients and also in the type of disease studied, i.e. coronary heart disease in general or acute myocardial infarction. Since the pathogenic development is most likely different for each of these two conditions (one chronic and the other acute) they should be studied separately. H. pylori infection can cause platelet aggregation and induces a procoagulant activity. H. pylori can also contribute to atherosclerosis, through increased concentration of homocysteine in the blood, caused by decreased levels of folic acid and cobalamin, or to an autoimmune process. Prospective cohort studies and interventional trials focusing separately on the chronic and acute phases of coronary heart disease and H. pylori infection should be performed in order to provide firm epidemiological data for a causal relationship. PMID:10563551

  1. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  2. Gender-associated differences in urea breath test for Helicobacter pylori infection referrals and results among dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Horowitz, Noya; Beit-Or, Anat; Halpern, Zamir; Santo, Erwin

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To verify whether there is a gender difference in the 13C-urea breath test results in a large cohort. METHODS: The test results of dyspeptic patients referred for 13C-urea breath testing between January and December, 2007 were evaluated. Testing was carried out at the health insurance organization branches and evaluated at a central laboratory in Israel. RESULTS: Of a total of 28 746 test results, 18 122 (63.04%) were from females and 10 624 (36.95%) from males. Overall, 10 188 (35.4%) results [expressed as delta over baseline (DOB)] were positive (DOB 13C > 5), 18,326 (63.7%) were negative (DOB 13C < 3.5) and 232 (0.8%) were borderline (DOB 13C 3.5-5). There was a significant difference between the total positive rate among females and males (34.8% vs 37.2%, respectively, P = 0.0003). The mean test value was increased by approximately 10 units for females compared to males (P < 0.01) and this difference was consistent for all age groups (i.e., between 10-80 years of age, P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: More females were referred to 13C-urea breath testing. More males had positive results. The mean test values were significantly higher among females of all age groups, possibly representing an increased bacterial load among females and suggesting gender-associated differences in Helicobacter pylori host interactions. PMID:22737592

  3. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two- ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of ...

  4. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking ...

  5. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pylori stool antigen test; H. pylori breath test; Urea breath test; CLO test; Rapid urease test (RUT) ... of H. pylori antigen in a stool sample Urea breath test A person drinks a liquid containing ...

  6. Result of school-based intervention on cardiovascular risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Hrafnkelsson, Hannes; Magnusson, Kristjan Th.; Thorsdottir, Inga; Johannsson, Erlingur

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. To assess the effectiveness of a two-year school-based intervention, consisting of integrated and replicable physical activity and nutritional education on weight, fat percentage, cardiovascular risk factors, and blood pressure. Design and setting. Six elementary schools in Reykjavik were randomly assigned to be either intervention (n = 3) or control (n = 3) schools. Seven-year-old children in the second grade in these schools were invited to participate (n = 321); 268 (83%) underwent some or all of the measurements. These 286 children were followed up for two years. Intervention. Children in intervention schools participated in an integrated and replicable physical activity programme, increasing to approximately 60 minutes of physical activity during school in the second year of intervention. Furthermore, they received special information about nutrition, and parents, teachers, and school food service staff were all involved in the intervention. Subjects. 321seven-year-old schoolchildren. Main outcome measures. Blood pressure, obesity, percentage of body fat, lipid profile, fasting insulin. Results. Children in the intervention group had a 2.3 mmHg increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and a 2.9 mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure (DBP) over the two-year intervention period, while children in the control group increased SBP by 6.7 mmHg and DPB by 8.4 mmHg. These changes were not statistically significant. Furthermore there were no significant changes in percentage body fat, lipid profile, or fasting insulin between the intervention and control schools. Conclusion. A two-year school-based intervention with increased physical activity and healthy diet did not have a significant effect on common cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:25424464

  7. Implications of the results of community intervention trials.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, G; Emmons, K; Hunt, M K; Johnston, D

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the results of population-level interventions conducted in three settings: entire communities, worksites, and schools. Four major conclusions are discussed: (a) Directions for the next generation of community-based interventions include targeting multiple levels of influence; addressing social inequalities in disease risk; involving communities in program planning and implementation; incorporating approaches for "tailoring" interventions; and utilizing rigorous process evaluation. (b) In addition to randomized controlled trials, it is time to use the full range of research phases available, from hypothesis generation and methods development to dissemination research. (c) The public health research agenda may have contributed to observed secular trends by placing behavioral risk factors on the social and media agendas. (d) The magnitude of the results of community intervention trials must be judged according to their potential public health or population-level effects. Small changes at the individual level may result in large benefits at the population level. PMID:9611625

  8. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  9. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  10. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  11. Helicobacter pylori activation of PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Carlos W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori produces a cache of virulence factors that promote colonization and persistence, which, in turn, contributes to a robust inflammatory response at the host-pathogen interface. Recently, we reported that H. pylori activates the abundant nuclear regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, resulting in the production of the catabolite poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARP-1 is emerging as a key player in establishing homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. In this article, we summarize the discovery of H. pylori-dependent PARP-1 activation, and discuss potential roles for PARP-1 in H. pylori-mediated gastric disease. In light of the remarkable successes that have reported for treating inflammatory disorders and cancers with PARP-1 inhibitors, we discuss the prospects of targeting PARP-1 for treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. PMID:21468218

  12. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  13. Validation of the String Test for the Recovery of Helicobacter pylori from Gastric Secretions and Correlation of Its Results with Urea Breath Test Results, Serology, and Gastric pH Levels

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Javier; Camorlinga, Margarita; Pérez-Peréz, Guillermo; Gonzalez, Gerardo; Muñoz, Onofre

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of the string culture test to isolate Helicobacter pylori from gastric secretions of 28 volunteers was studied. With the urea breath test (UBT) as the “gold standard,” the string culture test showed a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 100%. The results of string culture did not correlate with the UBT results, with serum antibody levels, or with the pH levels of gastric secretions. PMID:11283108

  14. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria: effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mogaddam, Majid Rostami; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Ardabili, Nastaran Safavi; Isazadeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as the presence of urticaria on most days of the week for a period of 6 weeks or longer. Some studies have reported an association between CU and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Aim To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection using the stool antigen test in patients with idiopathic CU and to investigate the infected patients with CU following eradication of H. pylori. Material and methods One hundred patients with idiopathic CU and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic between May 2012 and June 2013 and were tested for H. pylori antigen. The patients infected with H. pylori received quadruple therapy for 2 weeks. To assess eradication efficacy, a repeated H. pylori stool antigen test was performed in each patient 6 weeks after the end of anti-H. pylori therapy. The effectiveness of eradication therapy on CU was assessed 3 months after treatment. Results Thirty-six percent patients with idiopathic CU were infected with H. pylori while 23% of the controls were infected. Response to eradication therapy was evident in 33 (91.67%) patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated while 3 (8.33%) patients showed no response despite eradication of H. pylori. Clinical follow-up of 33 successfully treated patients 3 months later revealed complete remission of urticaria in 54.5%, partial remission in 18.2%, and no improvement in 27.3%. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that H. pylori infection should be included in diagnostic workup of patients with no response to habitual treatment for CU or symptomatic gastrointestinal patients. For the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, one should consider the costs and accessibility of the population to the HpSA® stool antigen test and Urea breath test (UBT). PMID:25821422

  15. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention.

    PubMed

    Hall, William J; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G

    2012-04-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  16. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity through delivery of structured lesson plans by PE teachers. Process evaluation data collected via class observations and interventionist interviews assessed fidelity, dose delivered, implementor participation, dose received and barriers. Process evaluation results indicate a high level of fidelity in implementing HEALTHY PE activities and offering 225 min of PE every 10 school days. Concerning dose delivered, students were active for approximately 33 min of class, representing an average of 61% of the class time. Results also indicate that PE teachers were generally engaged in implementing the HEALTHY PE curriculum. Data on dose received showed that students were highly engaged with the PE intervention; however, student misbehavior was the most common barrier observed during classes. Other barriers included teacher disengagement, large classes, limited gym space and poor classroom management. Findings suggest that the PE intervention was generally implemented and received as intended despite several barriers. PMID:22156231

  17. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yi; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lu, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P = 0.06). There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P < 0.05). The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327). PMID:25548772

  18. HEALTHY Intervention: Fitness, Physical Activity, and Metabolic Syndrome Results

    PubMed Central

    Jago, Russell; McMurray, Robert G.; Drews, Kimberly L.; Moe, Esther L.; Murray, Tinker; Pham, Trang H.; Venditti, Elizabeth M.; Volpe, Stella L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the effect of the HEALTHY intervention on the metabolic syndrome (Met-S), fitness, and physical activity levels of US middle-school students. Methods Cluster randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 (21 intervention) US middle schools. Participants were recruited at the start of sixth grade (2006) when baseline assessments were made, with post-assessments made 2.5 yr later at the end of eighth grade (2009). The HEALTHY intervention had four components: 1) improved school food environment, 2) physical activity and eating educational sessions, 3) social marketing, and 4) revised physical education curriculum. Met-S risk factors, 20-m shuttle run (fitness), and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were assessed at each time point. Ethnicity and gender were self-reported. Obesity status (normal weight, overweight, or obese) was also assessed. Results At baseline, 5% of the participants were classified with Met-S, with two-thirds of the males and one-third of the females recording below average baseline fitness levels. Control group participants reported 96 min of MVPA at baseline with 103 min reported by the intervention group. There were no statistically significant (P < 0.05) differences in Met-S, fitness, or MVPA levels at the end of the study after adjustment for baseline values and confounders. There were no differences in any ethnic, obesity, or ethnic × obesity subgroups for either gender. Conclusions The HEALTHY intervention had no effect on the Met-S, fitness, or physical activity levels. Approaches that focus on how to change physical activity, fitness, and Met-S using nonschool or perhaps in addition to school based components need to be developed. PMID:21233778

  19. Correlation Between Tympanosclerosis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Nader; Jahani, Mojtaba; Samarbaf, Alireza; Kaydani, Gholam Abbas; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Kenani, Malek; Mogehi, Sasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tympanosclerosis is a condition caused by calcification of tissues in the middle ear mucosa that sometimes results hearing loss. Helicobacter pylori is one of the pathological and etiologic factors in the development of tympanosclerosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show the role of H. pylori in the different aspects of chronic suppurative otitis media using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Patients and Methods: This case-control and cross-sectional study was performed on all patients with chronic otitis media, candidates for surgical operations, in 2013. They were allocated into the case group with tympanosclerosis and the control group without tympanosclerosis. During the surgical operation, biopsy was done from middle ear and the samples were studied to see if they contained H. pylori using the PCR method. Results: From a total of 19 patients with tympanosclerosis , 16 cases (84.2%) were H. pylori positive, while in the control group 15 (45.4%) cases out of the 37 cases were H. pylori positive, which showed a significant difference (P = 0.002). Age and gender of the patients, ear dryness and perforation size were not correlated with the presence or absence of H. pylori. Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between tympanosclerosis and H. pylori (P = 0.002). This correlation can single out H. pylori as a pathological factor in the development of tympanosclerosis; however, further studies are needed to prove this correlation. PMID:26568799

  20. Intranasal immunization with an epitope-based vaccine results in earlier protection, but not better protective efficacy, against Helicobacter pylori compared to subcutaneous immunization.

    PubMed

    Li, Haibo; Zhang, Jinyong; He, Yafei; Li, Bin; Chen, Li; Huang, Weiwei; Zou, Quanming; Wu, Chao

    2015-07-01

    The route of vaccination plays an important role in the generation of protective immunity against pathogens. In one of our previous studies, subcutaneous (SC) immunization with Epivac had been shown to induce a local and systemic Th1-biased response but failed to provide complete protection. In this study, we investigated whether intranasal (IN) immunization with Epivac could protect against Helicobacter pylori infection to a greater extent than SC immunization. Despite the generation of high serum IgG levels via the two routes of vaccination, the protective effect was independent of the humoral response level. At 2-week post-challenge, examination of the IgG subclass response showed that a dominant IgG2a response was generated after IN immunization, which coincided with elevated IFN-γ production in both splenocytes and stomach homogenates, and a significant reduction in the H. pylori load was found. In contrast, a balanced Th1/Th2 response was induced by SC immunization at the same time point and no protective effect was observed. Two weeks later, the immune response in the SC vaccination groups shifted to Th1 and was equivalent in protection to the IN vaccination route. Our results showed that IN vaccination elicited earlier systemic and gastric Th1 response, which may contribute to the earlier protection compared to SC vaccination. PMID:26044541

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in laryngeal diseases.

    PubMed

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Jurgutaviciute, Vilma; Katutiene, Inga; Janciauskas, Dainius; Vaitkus, Saulius; Adamonis, Kęstutis

    2013-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori can be found not only in the mucosa of the stomach, but in the pharyngeal and laryngeal regions as well. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to identify H. pylori infection in the biopsy material from the larynx of the patients suffering from benign laryngeal diseases (vocal fold polyps, laryngitis) and laryngeal cancer and to investigate the possible relationships between the laryngeal H. pylori and patients' socio-demographic data and laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the biopsy material from 67 adult patients treated for benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer and 11 individuals of the control group revealed that H. pylori infection could be identified in more than one-third of the patients. In the majority of cases H. pylori was found in the patients with chronic laryngitis (45.5%) and laryngeal cancer (46.2%). The findings of these sub-groups significantly differed from those of the control group (9.1%) (p < 0.05). No significant relationships between H. pylori infection found in the laryngeal region and patients' demographic data, their unhealthy habits and reflux-related symptoms or signs were obtained. It could be concluded that H. pylori can colonize in the larynx of patients with benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer. To clarify the role of H. pylori as a risk factor for laryngeal diseases further research is needed. PMID:23572292

  2. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  3. Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Delgado, Jorge-Shmuel

    2014-02-14

    Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet's disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. PMID:24587626

  4. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  5. Iron deficiency anaemia and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Annibale, B; Capurso, G; Martino, G; Grossi, C; Delle Fave, G

    2000-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of anaemia world-wide. IDA is the simple result of an imbalance between iron loss and absorption. Gastric function with hydrochloric and ascorbic acid is essential for iron absorption. Some strains of Helicobacter pylori are able to acquire iron, competing with the host. A large percentage of patients with atrophic body gastritis (ABG) develop IDA and 61% of them are H. pylori positive. Recent evidence suggests that H. pylori infection could cause IDA in the absence of peptic ulcer or other upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding lesions. Gastritis extending to the corpus and a high bacterial load are features of these patients. About 70% of IDA patients with ABG or H. pylori gastritis are premenopausal women. Both ABG and H. pylori gastritis should be considered when evaluating the GI tract of patients with iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:11118871

  6. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. Material and Methods A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Results Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Conclusions Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development. Key words:Campylobacter, elisa, h. pylori, Helicobacter Pylori, RAS, recurrent aphthous

  7. Accumulating Knowledge: When Are Reading Intervention Results Meaningful?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Jack M.; Wagner, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    The three target articles provide examples of intervention studies that are excellent models for the field. They rely on rigorous and elegant designs, the interventions are motivated by attention to underlying theoretical mechanisms, and longitudinal designs are used to examine the duration of effects of interventions that occur. When studies are…

  8. Evaluation of the benefit of addition of clidinium C to a Helicobacter pylori eradication regimen

    PubMed Central

    Chorami, Maryam; Naderi, Nosratollah; Moghimi-Dehkordi, Bijan; Mirsattari, Dariush; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to evaluate the success of H.pylori eradication therapy in patients with dyspepsia by therapeutics regimes with and without clidinium C. Background Helicobacter pylori infections are reported in all parts of the world. Appropriate antibiotic therapy can treat infection. The ideal treatment regimen has not been specified. Patients and methods In a randomized, double blind clinical trials study, 250 patients with dyspepsia were enrolled. All patients were treated by Omeprazole, Metronidazole, Amoxicillin and Bismuth (OMAB) for two weeks. One tablet clidinium C before each meal was added to this regimen in the intervention group (A). Urea Breath Test (UBT) was carried out after 8-12 weeks after treatment for evaluation of H.pylori eradication. Results 132 patients in the intervention group (A) and 118 patients in the control group (B) were enrolled to the study. The rate of eradication in group A was significantly higher than group B (62.1% vs. 50%, p=0.04). Conclusion The results supported the effect of clidinium C for increasing of helicobacter pylori eradication, but further studies need to be performed. PMID:24834261

  9. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27221831

  10. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies

    PubMed Central

    Wörz, Karl; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Non-interventional studies (NIS) have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the execution of non interventional (observational) studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP), with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies]) – Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut) on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres. This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials. PMID:21863135

  11. Results of a quality control on non-interventional studies.

    PubMed

    Wörz, Karl; Hundt, Ferdinand

    2011-01-01

    Non-interventional studies (NIS) have for decades been an established part of post-authorisation medicinal research. As early as the mid-nineties, there were at least rudimentary demands for controllable data quality. Beginning with the recommendations of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM) on the execution of non interventional (observational) studies of 1998 and finally with the guidelines and recommendations for ensuring Good Epidemiological Practice (GEP), with the VFA (Verband der forschenden Arzneimittelhersteller [German Association of Research-Based Pharmaceutical Companies]) - Recommendations for the Improvement of Quality and Transparency of NIS and the joint recommendations of BfArM and PEI (Paul-Ehrlich-Institut) on the execution of NIS, pharmaceutical companies are required to monitor and/or verify quality in the course of a project. According to a survey of pharmaceutical companies 2010, about one third of the companies surveyed to date carry out such quality controls on site, at participating study centres. This report deals with the results of such quality control measures in 4 completed projects. The control rates defined in the respective cohort study plans, the measures carried out on site and any consequent measures, such as adjustment of forms, reduction of consultation time and necessary organisational changes are described. A high level of agreement between the data collected and the original patient documents is found, comparable to that in clinical trials. PMID:21863135

  12. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) ...

  13. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  14. Simple animal model of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has become accepted as a human pathogen for the development of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcer. To develop a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with streptomycin suspended in tap water (5 mg/mL) for 3 d. The rats were inoculated by gavage at 1 mL/rat with H. pylori suspension (5 × 108-5 × 1010 CFU/mL) twice daily at an interval of 4 h for three consecutive days. Two weeks after inoculation, rats were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed. Antral biopsies were performed for urease test and the stomachs were taken for histopathology. Successful H. pylori inoculation was defined as a positive urease test and histopathology. We reported a 69.8%-83.0% success rate for H. pylori infection using the urease test, and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the results. Histopathological analysis detected bacteria along the mucous lining of the surface epithelium and crypt lumen and demonstrated mild to moderate gastric inflammation in successfully inoculated rats. We developed a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection for research into gastric microcirculatory changes and therapy with plant products. PMID:24914363

  15. Process Evaluation Results from the HEALTHY Physical Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, William J.; Zeveloff, Abigail; Steckler, Allan; Schneider, Margaret; Thompson, Deborah; Pham, Trang; Volpe, Stella L.; Hindes, Katie; Sleigh, Adriana; McMurray, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) intervention aimed at maximizing student…

  16. Effect of GutGard in the Management of Helicobacter pylori: A Randomized Double Blind Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Puram, Sreenivasulu; Suh, Hyung Chae; Kim, Seung Un; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Agarwal, Amit; Kudiganti, Venkateswarlu

    2013-01-01

    A randomized, double blind placebo controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of GutGard (root extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra) in the management of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gastric load. Participants diagnosed with H. pylori infection were randomly assigned to two groups to orally receive 150 mg of GutGard (n = 55) or placebo (n = 52) once daily for 60 days. H. pylori infection was assessed using 13C-urea breath test (13C-UBT) at days 0, 30, and 60. Stool Antigen test (HpSA) was also performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi-square, and Fisher's exact probability tests were used to compare the treatment outcomes. A significant interaction effect between group and time (P = 0.00) and significant difference in mean Delta Over Baseline (DOB) values between GutGard (n = 50) and placebo (n = 50) treated groups after intervention period were observed. On day 60, the results of HpSA test were negative in 28 subjects (56%) in GutGard treated group whereas in placebo treated group only 2 subjects (4%) showed negative response; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. On day 60, the results of 13C-UBT were negative in 24 (48%) in GutGard treated group and the difference between the groups was statistically significant. The findings suggest GutGard is effective in the management of H. pylori. PMID:23606875

  17. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  18. Interventional C-arm tomosynthesis for vascular imaging: initial results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langan, David A.; Claus, Bernhard E. H.; Al Assad, Omar; Trousset, Yves; Riddell, Cyril; Avignon, Gregoire; Solomon, Stephen B.; Lai, Hao; Wang, Xin

    2015-03-01

    As percutaneous endovascular procedures address more complex and broader disease states, there is an increasing need for intra-procedure 3D vascular imaging. In this paper, we investigate C-Arm 2-axis tomosynthesis ("Tomo") as an alternative to C-Arm Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) for workflow situations in which the CBCT acquisition may be inconvenient or prohibited. We report on our experience in performing tomosynthesis acquisitions with a digital angiographic imaging system (GE Healthcare Innova 4100 Angiographic Imaging System, Milwaukee, WI). During a tomo acquisition the detector and tube each orbit on a plane above and below the table respectively. The tomo orbit may be circular or elliptical, and the tomographic half-angle in our studies varied from approximately 16 to 28 degrees as a function of orbit period. The trajectory, geometric calibration, and gantry performance are presented. We overview a multi-resolution iterative reconstruction employing compressed sensing techniques to mitigate artifacts associated with incomplete data reconstructions. In this work, we focus on the reconstruction of small high contrast objects such as iodinated vasculature and interventional devices. We evaluate the overall performance of the acquisition and reconstruction through phantom acquisitions and a swine study. Both tomo and comparable CBCT acquisitions were performed during the swine study thereby enabling the use of CBCT as a reference in the evaluation of tomo vascular imaging. We close with a discussion of potential clinical applications for tomo, reflecting on the imaging and workflow results achieved.

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Francavailla, Ruggiero

    2014-09-01

    This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children. PMID:25167945

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection, vitamin B12 and homocysteine. A review.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Jutta; Ebert, Matthias; Malfertheiner, Peter; Luley, Claus

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between Helicobacter pylori infection, reduced cobalamin absorption and cobalamin status and, consequently, elevated homocysteine levels. This would offer an explanation why H. pylori infection is associated with coronary heart disease. To date, more than 25 studies have been published that either deal with H. pylori infection and homocysteine, H. pylori infection and cobalamin status, or both. The design of these studies differs widely in terms of definition of H. pylori status, measuring cobalamin status, selection of study cohorts and geographical study areas. Therefore, results are fairly inconclusive at present and do not suggest a major role of H. pylori infection in the development of cobalamin deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels. PMID:14571097

  1. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, Helicobacter pylori, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, J J; Sanderson, J E

    1996-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia and Helicobacter pylori infection have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. These two risk factors, though they seem unrelated, could be linked by a deficiency of vitamins and folate caused by chronic gastritis in H pylori infection. This nutritional defect could lead to failure of methylation by 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid and thus exacerbate the accumulation of homocysteine in susceptible patients. Homocysteine is toxic to endothelial cells and results in coronary artery disease. PMID:8983673

  2. Process evaluation results from the HEALTHY physical education intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Process evaluation is an assessment of the implementation of an intervention. A process evaluation component was embedded in the HEALTHY study, a primary prevention trial for Type 2 diabetes implemented over 3 years in 21 middle schools across the United States. The HEALTHY physical education (PE) i...

  3. Learning Instructor Intervention from MOOC Forums: Early Results and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika

    2015-01-01

    With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…

  4. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva and esophagus.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Luigina; Grande, Rossella; Artese, Luciano; Marzio, Leonardo

    2010-10-01

    The route of Helicobacter pylori transmission remains unclear and the currently suggested route is person-to-person transfer by faecal-oral and oral-oral mode. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of H. pylori in esophagus and saliva of humans. Saliva samples, mucosal biopsies from esophagus, gastric antrum and fundus were collected from 19 patients with positive Urea Breath Test (UBT). Gastric biopsies were used for H. pylori colture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests whereas saliva samples were collected to detect H. pylori with a Nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene as well as esophagus biopsies which were also investigated with immunohistochemical staining. Helicobacter pylori was isolated in 18 patients both in gastric antrum and fundus. The molecular analysis, confirmed by comparative sequences evaluation, gave positive results in all saliva and esophageal samples whereas the immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of H. pylori in 15.8% (3/19) of the esophagus samples. Our data suggest that saliva and esophagus may be considered reservoirs for H. pylori in humans and emphasize the need to use more susceptible techniques for H. pylori detection, in particular in over-crowded sites. Identification of the transmission route of H. pylori is crucial in developing an effective plan of surveillance by finding new means of disease management. PMID:21213594

  5. Helicobacter pylori screening: options and challenges.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Goni, Elisabetta; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis is the most frequent infectious disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical sequelae of the infection including peptic ulcer disease, sporadic gastric cancer (GC) and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (MALT-lymphoma) may develop in up to 20% of the infected individuals. The H. pylori screen-and-treat strategy is addressed to members of communities with high GC incidence, and first-degree relatives of GC patients. For primary GC prevention, H. pylori screen-and-treat is most effective in patients without precancerous conditions. In populations at moderate risk, strategies for GC prevention need to be explored. A special clinical scenario for primary and secondary prevention of H. pylori related benign complications are patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and low-dose aspirin. Vaccination represents another option for eliminating H. pylori infection in the population and a new H. pylori vaccine has shown promising results. However, long-term effects with the use of vaccine are not available. PMID:26619972

  6. Helicobacter pylori: immunoproteomics related to different pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Lusini, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2007-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes ulcer, atrophic gastritis, adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Moreover, an ongoing controversial role of this bacterium infection has been suggested in the etiopathogenesis of some extradigestive diseases. The humoral response to H. pylori during a natural infection can be used for diagnostic purposes and as a basis for vaccine development. Host-pathogen interactions may be investigated by means of immunoproteomics, which provides global information about relevant specific and nonspecific antigens, and thus might be suitable to identify novel vaccine candidates or serological markers of H. pylori infection as well as of different related diseases. In this review, we describe how several research groups used H. pylori proteomics combined with western blotting analysis, using sera from patients affected with different H. pylori-related pathologies, to investigate potential associations between host immune response and clinical outcomes of H. pylori infection, resulting in the rapid identification of novel, highly immunoreactive antigens. PMID:17941822

  7. Limitations Influencing Interventional Radiology in Canada: Results of a National Survey by the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Brien, Jeremy; Baerlocher, Mark Otto Asch, Murray R.; Hayeems, Eran; Kachura, John R.; Collingwood, Peter

    2007-09-15

    Purpose. To describe the current state and limitations to interventional radiology (IR) in Canada through a large, national survey of Canadian interventional radiologists. Methods. An anonymous online survey was offered to members of the Canadian Interventional Radiology Association (CIRA). Only staff radiologists were invited to participate. Results. Seventy-five (75) responses were received from a total of 247, giving a response rate of 30%. Respondents were split approximately equally between academic centers (47%) and community practice (53%), and the majority of interventional radiologists worked in hospitals with either 200-500 (49%) or 500-1,000 (39%) beds. Procedures listed by respondents as most commonly performed in their practice included PICC line insertion (83%), angiography and stenting (65%), and percutaneous biopsy (37%). Procedures listed as not currently performed but which interventional radiologists believed would benefit their patient population included radiofrequency ablation (36%), carotid stenting (34%), and aortic stenting (21%); the majority of respondents noted that a lack of support from referring services was the main reason for not performing these procedures (56%). Impediments to increasing scope and volume of practice in Canadian IR were most commonly related to room or equipment shortage (35%), radiologist shortage (33%), and a lack of funding or administrative support (28%). Conclusion. Interventional radiology in Canada is limited by a number of factors including funding, manpower, and referral support. A concerted effort should be undertaken by individual interventional radiologists and IR organizations to increase training capacity, funding, remuneration, and public exposure to IR in order to help advance the subspecialty.

  8. Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic minority patients in Guangxi: Resistance rates, mechanisms, and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Juan; Huang, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Zan-Song; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Lian-Deng; Wei, Hong-Yu; Chen, Yuan-Hong; Tang, Hua-Ying; Huang, Gan-Rong; Qin, Yan-Chun; Li, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Lu-Yao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to clarithromycin among ethnic minority patients in Guangxi, explore the underlying mechanisms, and analyze factors influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated, cultured and subjected to drug sensitivity testing. The 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates was amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing to detect point mutations. REP-PCR was used for genotyping of H. pylori isolates, and NTsys_2 software was used for clustering analysis based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Factors potentially influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 31.3%. A2143G and A2144G mutations were detected in the 23S rRNA gene of all clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates. At a genetic distance of 78%, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates could be divided into six groups. Significant clustering was noted among H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer or gastritis. CONCLUSION: The rate of clarithromycin resistance is relatively high in ethnic minority patients in Guangxi. Main mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance are A2143G and A2144G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates can be divided into six groups based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Several factors such as disease type may influence the genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. PMID:24782630

  9. Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Goni, Elisabetta; Franceschi, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    During the past year, many articles were published on the extragastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori infection. This supports the theory that some microorganisms may cause diseases even far from the primary site of infection by interfering with different biologic processes. The role of H. pylori on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sideropenica anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency is well known. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the bacterium's association with cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, head and neck, and uro-gynecologic diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, with very promising results. This review has been aimed at summarizing the results of the most relevant studies published over the last year on this fascinating topic. PMID:27531539

  10. Oral and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori: Effects and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio; Pereira, Carlos; Resende, Carlos; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Cirnes, Luis; Machado, José Carlos; Ferreira, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT). Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori. Results The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR)=1.64,95%CI=1.08-2.52), residence area (urban,OR=1.48,95%CI=1.03-2.29) and parents´ professional situation (unemployed,OR=1.22,95%CI=1.02-1.23). Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3). Conclusions The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status. PMID:26010595

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, P.; Kosunen, T. U.; Valle, J.; Riihelä, M.; Seppälä, K.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Serum IgG antibodies for H pylori were determined in 54 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of H pylori in gastric mucosa was also examined histologically (modified Giemsa) in 32 patients from whom adequate biopsy specimens of the antrum and corpus were available. Thirty five patients with gastrointestinal tumours outside the stomach and 48 with non-gastrointestinal malignancies served as controls. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 38 (70%) had H pylori antibodies (IgG) in their serum (three additional patients had H pylori antibodies IgA, class specific but not IgG specific). This prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that (49%) in the 35 controls. No differences in prevalence of H pylori antibodies were found between gastric cancer cases of intestinal (IGCA) or diffuse (DGCA) type, both these types showing H pylori antibodies (IgG) in 71% of the patients. In the subgroup of 32 subjects, five patients had normal gastric mucosa and four showed corpus limited atrophy ("pernicious anaemia type" atrophy of type A). All of these nine patients had no evidence of current or previous H pylori infection in serum (no IgG antibodies) or in tissue sections (negative Giemsa staining). The remaining 23 patients had antral or pangastritis, and all had evidence of current or previous H pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori associated chronic gastritis was the associated disease in 75% of the patients with gastric cancer occurring equally often in both IGCA and DGCA groups. About 25% of cases seem to have a normal stomach or severe corpus limited atrophy, neither of which showed evidence of concomitant H pylori infection. PMID:1577969

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and circulating ghrelin levels - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The nature of the association between ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced mainly in the stomach, and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), a bacterium that colonises the stomach, is still controversial. We examined available evidence to determine whether an association exists between the two; and if one exists, in what direction. Methods We reviewed original English language studies on humans reporting circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori infected and un-infected participants; and circulating ghrelin levels before and after H pylori eradication. Meta-analyses were conducted for eligible studies by combining study specific estimates using the inverse variance method with weighted average for continuous outcomes in a random effects model. Results Seventeen out of 27 papers that reported ghrelin levels in H pylori positive and negative subjects found lower circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori positive subjects; while 10 found no difference. A meta-analysis of 19 studies with a total of 1801 participants showed a significantly higher circulating ghrelin concentration in H pylori negative participants than in H pylori positive participants (Effect estimate (95%CI) = -0.48 (-0.60, -0.36)). However, eradicating H pylori did not have any significant effect on circulating ghrelin levels (Effect estimate (95% CI) = 0.08 (-0.33, 0.16); Test for overall effect: Z = 0.67 (P = 0.5)). Conclusions We conclude that circulating ghrelin levels are lower in H pylori infected people compared to those not infected; but the relationship between circulating ghrelin and eradication of H pylori is more complex. PMID:21269467

  13. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  14. Citalopram Intervention for Hostility: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kamarck, Thomas W.; Haskett, Roger F.; Muldoon, Matthew; Flory, Janine D.; Anderson, Barbara; Bies, Rob; Pollock, Bruce; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2009-01-01

    Hostility is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because central serotonin may modulate aggression, we might expect selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) to be effective in reducing hostility. Such effects have never been examined in individuals scoring high on hostility who are otherwise free from major DSM-IV Axis I psychopathology. 159 participants (ages 30–50, 50 % female) scoring high on 2 measures of hostility and with no current major Axis I diagnosis were randomly assigned to 2 months of citalopram (40 mg, fixed flexible dose) or placebo. Adherence was assessed by electronic measurement and by drug exposure assessment. Treated subjects showed larger reductions in state anger (condition-by-time p = .01), hostile affect (p = 02), and, among women only, physical and verbal aggression (p = .005) relative to placebo controls. Treatment was also associated with relative increases in perceived social support (p = .04). Findings have implications for understanding the CNS correlates of hostility, its associations with other psychosocial risk factors for CVD, and, potentially, for the design of effective interventions. PMID:19170463

  15. [Coronary interventions : Current developments for improved long-term results].

    PubMed

    Seidler, T

    2016-09-01

    Based on solid scientific evidence, new generation drug-eluting stents (DES) have become established as the standard of care in interventional cardiology. With at least similar safety and superior efficacy over uncoated bare metal stents (BMS) in various scenarios and including patients with increased bleeding risk, there are probably no remaining indications favoring the use of BMS. Additional developments regarding the platform, drug elution characteristics and polymer design were aimed at optimizing DES with even better outcomes. Although there is no lack of new variations, none has proven to be superior and several non-inferiority trials lacked statistical power, which precludes the label third generation (over second generation or new generation DES). While it is recognized that potential long-term advantages of bioresorbable scaffolds cannot be expected at this stage from the current ABSORB III trial, the safety and efficacy are encouraging. Beyond procedural aspects, such as intracoronary imaging, variations in duration of antiplatelet therapy should help to improve outcomes but still require careful individual weighting of ischemic vs. bleeding risk. PMID:27506215

  16. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Keom

    2016-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric diseases. The clinical implications of H. pylori infection in various diseases outside the gastrointestinal system have also been reported, including in some respiratory disorders. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with mild to moderate COPD in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Also, we aimed to elucidate the association between the seroprevalence of H. pylori and the decline of lung function in patients with COPD. Methods Participants who underwent a medical checkup for H. pylori at a referral hospital in Korea were recruited for this study. All participants were tested for H. pylori infection using an immunoassay of the H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and a rapid urease test at the time of endoscopy with a gastric mucosal specimen. We assessed the decline in lung function using the spirometric data of those who underwent spirometry more than three times. Results In total, 603 participants (201 patients with COPD and 402 controls) were analyzed. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in the patients and controls was 45.8% and 52.2%, respectively (P=0.134). The H. pylori IgG level in patients with COPD was not significantly different from that of the controls (114.8 and 109.6 units/mL, respectively; P=0.549). In addition, there were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity. Conclusion This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population. PMID:27621611

  17. Optimizing the Growth of Stressed Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Crystal L.; Buchholz, Brittany J.; Ford, Timothy E.; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram -negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and is responsible for causing gastric ulcers. H. pylori is known to become stressed and nonculturable after exposure to unfavorable conditions. In this study, we enhanced previously published resuscitation procedures, characterized conditions under which stressed H. pylori can be recovered, and formulated a selective and differential resuscitation medium. Results showed that a specialized broth supplemented with trace minerals and lysed human erythrocytes and serum is required for the recovery of nonculturable H. pylori. The type of stress was an important factor in the efficacy of resuscitation, with cells exposed to atmospheric oxygen more readily resuscitated than nutrient deprived cells. After resuscitation, culturable cells were recovered from previously nonculturable oxygen stressed cells (24 and 72 hours of exposure) and nonculturable nutrient deprived cells (24 hours of exposure). The length of time the cells were exposed to the stress was also an important factor in the recovery of stressed H. pylori. RNA levels were quantified and transcription of the cell division related gene, cdrA (HP0066), was assessed by qRT-PCR. The low levels of RNA detected in stressed cells, after resuscitation, support the idea that a small population of viable cells may be responsible for the colonies recovered on solid agar. The modification of the resuscitation broth into a selective and differential slant culture medium also allowed the recovery of stressed H. pylori. The methods presented here highlight the benefits and limitations of using human blood products for recovering nonculturable H. pylori. PMID:21129415

  18. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Properties of GutGard™

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Min; Zheng, Hong Mei; Lee, Boo Yong; Lee, Woon Kyu; Lee, Don Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Presence of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increased risk of developing upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. Antibiotic therapy and a combination of two or three drugs have been widely used to eradicate H. pylori infections. Due to antibiotic resistant drugs, new drug resources are needed such as plants which contain antibacterial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of GutGard™ to inhibit H. pylori growth both in Mongolian gerbils and C57BL/6 mouse models. Male Mongolian gerbils were infected with the bacteria by intragastric inoculation (2×109 CFU/gerbil) 3 times over 5 days and then orally treated once daily 6 times/week for 8 weeks with 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg GutGard™. After the final administration, biopsy samples of the gastric mucosa were assayed for bacterial identification via urease, catalase and ELISA assays as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the Mongolian gerbil model, IHC and ELISA assays revealed that GutGard™ inhibited H. pylori colonization in gastric mucosa in a dose dependent manner. The anti-H. pylori effects of GutGard™ in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were also examined. We found that treatment with 25 mg/kg GutGard™ significantly reduced H. pylori colonization in mice gastric mucosa. Our results suggest that GutGard™ may be useful as an agent to prevent H. pylori infection. PMID:24471118

  19. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  20. Helicobacter pylori typing as a tool for tracking human migration

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from different geographic areas exhibit clear phylogeographical differentiation; therefore, the genotypes of H. pylori strains can serve as markers for the migration of human populations. Currently, the genotypes of two virulence factors of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used markers for genomic diversity within H. pylori populations. There are two types of cagA: the East Asian type and the Western type. In addition, the right end of the cag pathogenicity island is divided into five subtypes and there are distinct mosaic structures at the signal region and the middle region of vacA. Using combinations of the cagA, cag right end junction, and vacA genotypes, five major groups (East Asia type, South/Central Asia type, Iberian/Africa type and Europe type) have been defined according to geographical associations. MLST has revealed seven modern population types and six ancestral population types of H. pylori, and is a useful tool for mapping human migration patterns. Serial studies of large numbers of H. pylori strains, including strains isolated from aboriginal populations, show that MLST analysis provides more detailed information on human migration than does the analysis of human genetics. H. pylori infection is rapidly declining as a result of improvements in personal hygiene and quality of life. The molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection has much to tell us and should be studied before it disappears entirely. PMID:19702588

  1. Helicobacter pylori typing as a tool for tracking human migration.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y

    2009-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from different geographic areas exhibit clear phylogeographical differentiation; therefore, the genotypes of H. pylori strains can serve as markers for the migration of human populations. Currently, the genotypes of two virulence factors of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used markers for genomic diversity within H. pylori populations. There are two types of cagA: the East Asian type and the Western type. In addition, the right end of the cag pathogenicity island is divided into five subtypes and there are distinct mosaic structures at the signal region and the middle region of vacA. Using combinations of the cagA, cag right end junction, and vacA genotypes, five major groups (East Asia type, South/Central Asia type, Iberian/Africa type and Europe type) have been defined according to geographical associations. MLST has revealed seven modern population types and six ancestral population types of H. pylori, and is a useful tool for mapping human migration patterns. Serial studies of large numbers of H. pylori strains, including strains isolated from aboriginal populations, show that MLST analysis provides more detailed information on human migration than does the analysis of human genetics. H. pylori infection is rapidly declining as a result of improvements in personal hygiene and quality of life. The molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection has much to tell us and should be studied before it disappears entirely. PMID:19702588

  2. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Hispanic patients with anemia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Melissa; Rosado-Carrión, Bárbara; Bredy, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Pernicious anemia represents the final phase of a process that begins with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and evolves through progressive levels of atrophy until loss of parietal cell mass. Numerous studies have suggested an association between H. pylori infection, unexplained iron deficiency anemia and cobalamin deficiency. Our research question was to determine whether there is an association between with H. pylori infection and development of anemia in Hispanic patients. This cross sectional pilot study involved data analysis of individual from years 2010-2012 examining the association between H. pylori infection and hemoglobin levels in patients with Hispanic ethnicity. A total of 189 records were evaluated, of which 33 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The study sample was divided in two groups. Group-A: 5 subjects with H. pylori infection and anemia; Group-B: 28 patients with H. pylori without anemia. Fisher exact test applied between categorical variables to determine the statistical significance of symptoms comparing anemic vs. non-anemic H. pylori infected patients yielded a p = 0.0027. In addition, restoration of anemia in two subjects following eradication therapy without previous iron or cobalamin replacement therapy suggested a potential role of this bacterium in the development of anemia in Hispanics. In conclusion, from the results of this study a potential association between Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia in Hispanic patients is suggested. Restoration of hemoglobin after eradication of bacteria further supports this concept. PMID:25065045

  3. The antimicrobial activities of phenylbutyrates against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Hsueh-Ling; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Liao, Ming-Hui; Yen, Rong-Lang; Chen, Yo-Chia

    2013-01-01

    Three phenyl derivatives of butyrate, 2-phenylbutyrate (2-PB), 3-phenylbutyrate (3-PB) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB), were evaluated in terms of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Our results indicated that PBs demonstrated specific inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli but did not influence the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus reuteri. PBs also exhibited synergistic effects on H. pylori ATCC 43504 especially at pH 5.5. In the protein expression profiles in H. pylori treated by phenylbutyrates, we also found that three protein spots identified as oxidative stress-related proteins were significantly up-regulated, confirming the response of H. pylori when exposed to PBs. Due to their antibacterial activities and low or slight cytotoxicities, PBs are potential candidates for the treatment of H. pylori infection. This is the first study to discover the antibiotic effects of 2-PB, 3-PB and 4-PB (Buphenyl). PMID:23727774

  4. Can Senior Volunteers Deliver Reminiscence and Creative Activity Interventions? Results of the Legacy Intervention Family Enactment (LIFE) Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rebecca S.; Harris, Grant M.; Burgio, Louis D.; Azuero, Casey B.; Miller, Leslie A.; Shin, Hae Jung; Eichorst, Morgan K.; Csikai, Ellen L.; DeCoster, Jamie; Dunn, Linda L.; Kvale, Elizabeth; Parmelee, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Context Palliative care patients and their family caregivers may have a foreshortened perspective of time left to live, or the expectation of the patient’s death in the near future. Patients and caregivers may report distress in physical, psychological, or existential/spiritual realms. Objectives To conduct a randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of retired senior volunteers (RSVs) in delivering a reminiscence and creative activity intervention aimed at alleviating palliative care patient and caregiver distress. Methods Of the 45 dyads that completed baseline, 28 completed post-intervention and 24 completed follow-up. The intervention group received three home visits by RSVs; control group families received three supportive telephone calls by research staff. Measures included symptom assessment and associated burden, depression, religiousness/spirituality, and meaning in life. Results Patients in the intervention group reported a significantly greater reduction in frequency of emotional symptoms (P = 0.02) and emotional symptom bother (P = 0.04) than the control group, as well as improved spiritual functioning. Family caregivers in the intervention group were more likely than control caregivers to endorse items on the Meaning in Life Scale (P = 0.02). Only improvement in intervention patients’ emotional symptom bother maintained at follow-up after discontinuing RSV contact (P = 0.024). Conclusion Delivery of the intervention by RSVs had a positive impact on palliative care patients’ emotional symptoms and burden and caregivers’ meaning in life. Meaningful prolonged engagement with palliative care patients and caregivers, possibly through alternative modes of treatment delivery such as continued RSV contact, may be necessary for maintenance of therapeutic effects. PMID:24667180

  5. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    ... special substance that has urea. Urea is a waste product the body produces as it breaks down protein. The urea used in the test has been made harmlessly radioactive. If H. pylori are present, the bacteria convert ...

  6. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection by lactobacilli in a gnotobiotic murine model.

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, A M; Aiba, Y; Takagi, A; Kamiya, S; Miwa, T; Koga, Y

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which causes gastric inflammatory diseases. Oral inoculation of H pylori usually results in only a temporary colonisation without a successful infection in the stomach of conventional mice in which lactobacilli are the predominant indigenous bacteria. AIM: To determine whether lactobacilli exert an inhibitory effect on colonisation by H pylori in the stomach. METHODS: The effects of H pylori on attachment to murine and human gastric epithelial cells and the H pylori mediated release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by these cells were examined in vitro. Lactobacillus salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice and control germ free mice were inoculated orally with H pylori to examine whether L salivarius can inhibit colonisation by H pylori. RESULTS: L salivarius inhibited both the attachment and IL-8 release in vitro. H pylori could not colonise the stomach of L salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice, but colonised in large numbers and subsequently caused active gastritis in germ free mice. In addition, L salivarius given after H pylori implantation could eliminate colonisation by H pylori. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility of lactobacilli being used as probiotic agents against H pylori. Images PMID:9274471

  7. The Onset of STI Diagnosis through Age 30: Results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Karl G.; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Hawkins, J. David; Catalano, Richard F.; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine (1) whether onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. Design A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Setting Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle. Analysis Sample 608 participants in three intervention conditions interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions Teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome Cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Intervention Mechanisms Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested. Analysis and Results Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. Conclusions A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children’s social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI through age 30, especially for African

  8. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  9. Proposed Interventions to Decrease the Frequency of Missed Test Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahls, Terry L.; Cram, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified that delays in diagnosis related to the mishandling of abnormal test results are an import contributor to diagnostic errors. Factors contributing to missed results included organizational factors, provider factors and patient-related factors. At the diagnosis error conference continuing medical education conference…

  10. Designing Clinical Trials of Intervention for Mobility Disability: Results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Pilot Trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clinical trials to assess interventions for mobility disability are critically needed, however data for efficiently designing such trials are lacking. Our results are described from the LIFE pilot clinical trial, in which 424 volunteers aged 70-89 years were randomly assigned to one of two intervent...

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  12. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction. PMID:24914316

  13. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  14. Prior H. pylori infection ameliorates S. typhimurium induced colitis: mucosal crosstalk between stomach and distal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Peter D.R.; Johnson, Laura A.; Luther, Jay; Zhang, Min; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with a lower risk of chronic autoimmune diseases including IBD. H. pylori modulates the gastric immune response, decreasing the local inflammatory response to itself. In mice, chronic Salmonella typhimurium infection induces colitis similar to Crohn’s disease characterized by inflammation which progresses towards fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior H. pylori infection acts at a distance to modulate the immune response of S. typhimurium-induced colitis. Methods Mice were infected with the mouse-adapted strain of H. pylori (SS1), followed by infection with S. typhimurium. The effect of H. pylori on colitis was determined by gross pathology, histopathology, cytokine response, and development of fibrosis in the cecum. Gastritis and systemic immune response was measured in response to infection. Results H. pylori suppresses the Th17 response to S. typhimurium infection in the mouse cecum, but does not alter the Th2 or Treg response or the development of fibrosis. H. pylori infection induces IL-10 in the mesenteric lymph nodes, suggesting an extra-gastric mechanism for immunomodulation. H. pylori/S. typhimurium co-infection decreases inflammation in both the cecum and the stomach. Conclusions This study demonstrates a potential mechanism for the negative association between H. pylori and IBD in humans. H. pylori represses the lower gastrointestinal tract Th17 response to bacterially induced colitis via extra-gastric immunomodulatory effects, illustrating immunological crosstalk between the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21560200

  15. The onset of STI diagnosis through age 30: results from the Seattle Social Development Project Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hill, Karl G; Bailey, Jennifer A; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Kosterman, Rick; Oesterle, Sabrina; Abbott, Robert D

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine (1) whether the onset of sexually transmitted infections (STI) through age 30 differed for youths who received a social developmental intervention during elementary grades compared to those in the control condition; (2) potential social-developmental mediators of this intervention; and (3) the extent to which these results differed by ethnicity. A nonrandomized controlled trial followed participants to age 30, 18 years after the intervention ended. Three intervention conditions were compared: a full-intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 1 through 6; a late intervention group, assigned to intervention in grades 5 and 6 only; and a no-treatment control group. Eighteen public elementary schools serving diverse neighborhoods including high-crime neighborhoods of Seattle are the setting of the study. Six hundred eight participants in three intervention conditions were interviewed from age 10 through 30. Interventions include teacher training in classroom instruction and management, child social and emotional skill development, and parent workshops. Outcome is the cumulative onset of participant report of STI diagnosis. Adolescent family environment, bonding to school, antisocial peer affiliation, early sex initiation, alcohol use, cigarette use, and marijuana use were tested as potential intervention mechanisms. Complementary log-log survival analysis found significantly lower odds of STI onset for the full-intervention compared to the control condition. The lowering of STI onset risk was significantly greater for African Americans and Asian Americans compared to European Americans. Family environment, school bonding, and delayed initiation of sexual behavior mediated the relationship between treatment and STI hazard. A universal intervention for urban elementary school children, focused on classroom management and instruction, children's social competence, and parenting practices may reduce the onset of STI

  16. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  17. A parent-adolescent intervention to increase sexual risk communication: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L; Zhou, Yan

    2008-10-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Generalized estimation equation (GEE) analysis indicates parents in the HIV risk reduction intervention reported significantly more general communication (p < .005), more sexual risk communication (p < .001) and more comfort with communication (p < .001) than parents in the control intervention. Behavioral, normative, and control beliefs significantly mediated the effect of the intervention on all communication outcomes. This study demonstrates the efficacy of an intervention to increase the quality and quantity of parent-adolescent communication related to general and sex-specific communication. PMID:18956979

  18. Recent results on pathogen intervention during poultry processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Slaughter plant – focus has been on Campylobacter and Salmonella - Transport: Campylobacter cross contamination in live haul cages can be lessened by drying cages between uses - Applied after spray wash results in undetectable levels of Campylobacter: Time (24-48h), absorbent powder (2 h), hot air (...

  19. Catheter interventions for mitral stenosis in children: results and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Stenosis of the mitral valve most often occurs as a result of chronic rheumatic heart disease, causing thickening and fibrosis of the mitral valve apparatus. Rheumatic heart disease continues to be a major public health problem in several developing countries and mitral stenosis is also common in these regions. According to the reports from India and Africa, the disease tends to follow a rapidly progressive course in children. The treatment of choice is balloon dilatation of the mitral valve. Echocardiography is indispensable for this procedure. Before planning the procedure, it is essential to assess the suitability of balloon dilatation. Echocardiography performed during the procedure helps to decide whether the size of the balloon needs to be increased in case of inadequate relief of stenosis. Most published series have reported an immediate success rate of over 90% with balloon dilatation in children and young adults. With an increase in mitral valve area and improvement in functional class, the left atrial pressure and the transmitral gradients fall. These gratifying results are also reported from very young children of less than 12 years of age. It is recommended to start with a smaller balloon size and increase its size in a stepwise fashion to minimize complications. The complications, seen in about 1% to 2% of cases, include development of significant mitral regurgitation and hemopericardium, secondary to cardiac chamber perforation. The long-term results indicate slightly higher restenosis rates in children than in adults. Most children with restenosis can undergo successful repeat dilatation. PMID:25870344

  20. Intervention Validity of Social Behavior Rating Scales: Features of Assessments that Link Results to Treatment Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Stephen N.; Gresham, Frank M.; Frank, Jennifer L.; Beddow, Peter A., III

    2008-01-01

    The term "intervention validity" refers to the extent to which assessment results can be used to guide the selection of interventions and evaluation of outcomes. In this article, the authors review the defining attributes of rating scales that distinguish them from other assessment tools, assumptions regarding the use of rating scales to measure…

  1. A Parent-Adolescent Intervention to Increase Sexual Risk Communication: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarruel, Antonia M.; Cherry, Carol Loveland; Cabriales, Esther Gallegos; Ronis, David L.; Zhou, Yan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports results of a randomized controlled trial designed to test an intervention to increase parent-adolescent sexual risk communication among Mexican parents. Data were analyzed from parents (n = 791) randomly assigned to an HIV risk reduction or health promotion intervention. Measures were administered at pretest, posttest, and 6-…

  2. Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology: The Role of Negative Results in Outcome Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan; Gutkin, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    Article discusses the role that negative results or "no-difference" findings play in research and research reviews of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Argues for publication of these findings in school psychology journals when they occur in the context of development of empirically supported interventions and translations…

  3. Helicobacter pylori: new developments and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M; Hunt, R H

    1997-01-01

    The authors highlight new developments in research on Helicobacter pylori. There is now consensus that all patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent duodenal or gastric ulcers who have a positive test result for H. pylori should be treated for the infection. Patients presenting with complications of ulcers, such as bleeding, should also be treated. H. pylori has recently been classified as a definite human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In treatment, new combination regimens, consisting of 3 or 4 different drugs, cure the infection in more than 80% of patients. Currently, the best combinations are: (1) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and metronidazole, (2) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, (3) bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole, and (4) omeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole. PMID:9176424

  4. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induced oxidative stress and zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to the stress. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency is high. We hypothesize...

  5. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  6. Results of a pilot intervention to improve health and safety for healthcare workers

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Caitlin Eicher; Dennerlein, Jack T.; Kenwood, Christopher; Stoddard, Anne M.; Hopcia, Karen; Hashimoto, Dean; Sorensen, Glorian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the feasibility of a multicomponent pilot intervention to improve worker safety and wellness in two Boston hospitals. Methods The 3-month intervention was conducted on seven hospital units. Pre (374 workers) and post (303 workers) surveys assessed changes in safety/ergonomic behaviors and practices, and social support. Wellness outcomes included self-reported pain/aching in specific body areas (musculoskeletal disorders, or MSDs) and physical activity (PA). Results Pain was reported frequently (81%), and PA averaged 4h per week. There was a post-intervention increase in safe patient handling (p <0.0001), safety practices (p = 0.0004), ergonomics (p = 0.009), and supervisor support (p = 0.01), but no changes in MSDs or PA. Conclusions Safe patient handling, ergonomics, and safety practices are good targets for worker safety and wellness interventions; longer intervention periods may reduce risk of MSDs. PMID:24270297

  7. Does a Quality Improvement Intervention for Anxiety Result in Differential Outcomes for Lower Income Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy; Chavira, Denise A.; Craske, Michelle G.; Gollineli, Daniela; Han, Xiaotong; Rose, Raphael D.; Bystritsky, Alexander; Stein, Murray B.; Roy-Byrne, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the effects of a collaborative care intervention for anxiety disorders in primary care on lower income participants relative to those with higher incomes. The authors hypothesized that lower income patients might show less improvement or improve at a lower rate given that they experience greater economic stress over the treatment course. Alternatively, lower income patients could improve at a higher rate because the intervention facilitates access to evidence-based treatment, which typically is less available to persons with lower incomes. Method The authors compared baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of patients with lower (n=287) and higher (n=717) income using t-tests and chi-square tests for continuous and categorical variables respectively. For the longitudinal analysis of intervention effects by income group, the authors jointly modeled the outcomes at the four assessment times by study site; income; time; intervention; time and intervention; income and time; income and intervention; and time, intervention and income. Results Although lower-income participants were more ill and disabled at baseline than those in the higher income group, the two income groups were very similar in their clinical response. The lower income participants experienced a comparable degree of clinical improvement, despite receiving fewer treatment sessions, less relapse prevention, and less continuous care. Conclusions These findings contribute to the ongoing discussion as to whether or not, and to what extent, quality improvement interventions work equally well across income groups or require tailoring for specific vulnerable populations. PMID:23377641

  8. [An urease enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Ding, S Z; Jia, B Q; Liu, X G

    1993-05-01

    A sensitive and specific serological diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori infection has been developed and validated in 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing endoscopy. This test is to use urease, a protein unique to H. pylori, as the basis for the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects serum H. pylori urease antibodies. The ELISA mean optical density (OD) in H. pylori-positive group is higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (0.57 +/- 0.23 vs 0.24 +/- 0.15, P < 0.001), a cut-off 0.3 OD yields a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 93%. Serum absorption test showed that Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia enterocolotica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysate do not influence serum H. pylori urease antibody level, though they all have urease except E. coli. The result implied that H. pylori urease can be a good antigen to detect serum H. pylori antibody and it would be useful for epidemiological survey and routine diagnostic approach. Nearly half of the blood donors showed positive result with H. pylori urease antibody. It is suggested that H. pylori infection is quite common in the asymptomatic population. PMID:8269756

  9. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  10. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  11. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262

  12. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  13. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-14

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  14. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  15. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX.

  16. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Fei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  17. Peptide Extracts from Cultures of Certain Lactobacilli Inhibit Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Vincent, Pascal; Makras, Eleftherios; Leroy, Frédéric; Pot, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori inhibition by probiotic lactobacilli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. Carefully selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains could therefore play an important role in the treatment of H. pylori infection and eradication. However, the underlying mechanism for this inhibition is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine if peptide extracts, containing bacteriocins or other antibacterial peptides, from six Lactobacillus cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus La1, Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471, Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029, Lactobacillus gasseri K7, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) contribute to the inhibition of H. pylori. Peptide extracts from cultures of Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were most active, reducing the viability of H. pylori ATCC 43504 with more than 2 log units within 4 h of incubation (P < 0.001). The four other extracts were less or not active. When six clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested for their susceptibility towards five inhibitory peptide extracts, similar observations were made. Again, the peptide extracts from Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were the most inhibitory, while the three other extracts resulted in a much lower inhibition of H. pylori. Protease-treated extracts were inactive towards H. pylori, confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance. PMID:26780898

  18. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins-including the previously unknown DUF466 family-in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  19. Results from a trial of an unsupported internet intervention for depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Leykin, Yan; Muñoz, Ricardo F.; Contreras, Omar; Latham, Melissa D.

    2014-01-01

    Internet interventions provide an option for those who either cannot or choose not to engage with traditional treatments. Most research on internet interventions involves guided or supported interventions. However, unsupported interventions offer considerably more scalability and cost-effectiveness, which makes them attractive for large-scale implementation. In this study, 309 participants recruited via Google AdWords entered an unsupported cognitive-behavioral internet intervention for depressive symptoms. To maximize the ecological validity of the study, participants received no incentives or live contact with study personnel. Furthermore, the study was open to individuals at any level of depressive symptoms, and all participants received the active intervention. The main outcome measures were depressive symptom level and self-efficacy in managing depressive symptoms. At follow-up, depression scores were significantly lower than baseline scores at each follow-up point (1, 2, 4, and 7 months), with pre-post effect sizes ranging from medium to large. Follow-up depression self-efficacy scores were significantly higher than baseline scores at each follow-up point, with pre-post effect sizes in the medium range. The results remained significant when analyzing only participants with depression scores indicative of a presence of a major depressive episode; results likewise remained significant when employing the conservative last observation carried forward convention, even in the presence of high attrition observed in this study. The results illustrate the potential of unsupported internet intervention to address the health needs of the global community. PMID:25485233

  20. Identification of novel drug targets in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470, HpSJM180 strains of Helicobacter pylori : an in silico approach for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Neelapu, Nageswara Rao Reddy; Pavani, T

    2013-05-01

    Helicobacter species colonizes the stomach and are associated with the development of gastritis disease. Drugs for treatment of Helicobacter infection relieve pain or gastritis symptoms but they are not targeted specifically to Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, there is dire need for discovery of new drug targets and drugs for the treatment of H. pylori. The main objective of this study is to screen the potential drug targets by in silico analysis for the potent strains of H. pylori which include HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180. Genome and metabolic pathways of pathogen H. pylori and the host Homosapien sapiens are compared and genes which were unique to H. pylori were filtered and catalogued. These unique genes were subjected to gene property analysis to identify the potentiality of the drug targets. Among the total number of genes analysed in different strains of H. pylori nearly 558, 569, 539, 569, 567 number of genes in HpB38, HpP12, HpG27, Hpshi470 and HpSJM180 found qualified as unique molecules and among them 17 qualified as potential drug targets. Membrane fusion protein of hefABC efflux system, 50 S ribosomal protein L33, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X, Apolipoprotein N acyl transferase, DNA methyalse, Histone like binding protein, Peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein OprL were found to be critical drug targets to H. pylori. Three (hefABC efflux system, Hydrogenase expression protein/formation of HypD, Cag pathogenecity island protein X) of the 17 predicted drug targets are already experimentally validated either genetically or biochemically lending credence to our unique approach. PMID:23410125

  1. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  2. Helicobacter pylori infection and stem cells at the origin of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Bessède, E; Dubus, P; Mégraud, F; Varon, C

    2015-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori infection is now recognized as the main and specific infectious cause of cancer in the world. It is responsible for gastric adenocarcinomas of both intestinal and diffuse types, which are the long-term consequences of the chronic infection of the gastric mucosa. Case-control studies have shown an association between the two, recognized as early as 1994 and further substantiated by interventional studies in which H. pylori eradication has led to the prevention of at least part of the gastric cancers. Experimental studies have highlighted the role of bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) and particularly mesenchymal stem cells, in the neoplastic process in about a quarter of the cases and possibly an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in the other cases. Different studies have confirmed that chronic infection with H. pylori induces a chronic inflammation and subsequent damage of the gastric epithelial mucosa, leading to BMDC recruitment. Once recruited, these cells home and differentiate by cell-cell fusion with local gastric epithelial cells, bearing local stem cell failure and participating in tissue regeneration. The context of chronic infection and inflammation leads to an EMT and altered tissue regeneration and differentiation from both local epithelial stem cells and BMDC. EMT induces the emergence of CD44+ cells possessing mesenchymal and stem cell properties, resulting in metaplastic and dysplastic lesions to give rise, after additional epigenetic and mutational events, to the emergence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and adenocarcinoma. PMID:25043305

  3. Detoxification of 7-Dehydrocholesterol Fatal to Helicobacter pylori Is a Novel Role of Cholesterol Glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Kouichi; McGee, David J.; Hayashi, Shunji; Yokota, Kenji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The glucosylation of free cholesterol (FC) by Helicobacter pylori cells has various biological significances for the survival of this bacterium. H. pylori cells with glucosylated FC are capable of evading host immune systems, such as phagocytosis by macrophages and activation of antigen-specific T cells, and surviving in the gastric mucosal tissues for long periods. An additional role of cholesterol glucosylation in the survival of H. pylori which is distinct from the role of escaping the host immune system, however, has yet to be identified. This study demonstrated that 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dFC), an FC precursor, is a toxic compound fatal to H. pylori cells, but the cell membrane of H. pylori is capable of absorbing this toxic sterol via glucosylation. In contrast to the case with 7dFC, no toxicity to H. pylori cells was detected from the glucosylated 7dFC. In addition, cgt gene mutant H. pylori cells that cannot glucosylate cholesterols had higher susceptibility to the toxic action of 7dFC than wild-type H. pylori cells. These results indicate that the cgt gene product of H. pylori serves to detoxify the sterol fatal to this bacterium and to permit this toxic sterol as a cell membrane lipid component. In summary, this study defined a novel role of cholesterol glucosylation in H. pylori. PMID:23144252

  4. Role of sulfatides in adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kamisago, S; Iwamori, M; Tai, T; Mitamura, K; Yazaki, Y; Sugano, K

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated that clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori preferentially bind to sulfatides (I3SO3-GalCer) and GM3 gangliosides (II3NeuAcLacCer), two predominant acidic glycosphingolipids in the human gastric mucosa, on thin-layer chromatography plates. However, it has not yet been clarified that these glycospingolipids truly serve as adhesion receptors for H. pylori in live cells. In this study, we used a gastric cancer cell line, KATO III, as a cellular model of H. pylori adhesion and examined the role of sulfatides in attachment. The adhesion of H. pylori (i.e., a standard strain of H. pylori, NCTC 11637) to KATO III cells and the effects of various substances on this adhesion were monitored and semiquantitated by flow cytometric analysis. Sulfated glycoconjugates, such as heparin and gastric mucin, significantly inhibited H. pylori adhesion to KATO III cells. Membrane preparations from KATO III cells strongly inhibited this adhesion. In the membrane preparations, sulfatides were present as a major acidic glycosphinoglipid. With the exception of sulfatides, no distinct adhesion of H. pylori to glycospingolipids from KATO III cells were observed. Moreover, H. pylori did not bind to any membrane proteins of KATO III cells. Finally, a monoclonal anti-sulfatide antibody markedly reduced H. pylori adhesion to KATO III cells. These results suggest that sulfatides, and possibly related sulfated compounds, serve as a major receptor for cell adhesion by H. pylori. PMID:8550217

  5. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mahmood Reza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Bikdeli, Bavand; Zahedani, Mohsen Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis. PMID:17006984

  6. Discovery – The Link to H.Pylori Bacteria

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supported research to solidify the link between H. pylori infections and stomach cancer. As a result, new cancer treatment and prevention strategies are being developed, encouraging scientists to carefully examine other cancers for viral and bacterial connections.

  7. Decreased level of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving intramuscular gold.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; Vandenbroucke, J P; van Duijn, W; Peña, A S; Lamers, C B

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium aurothiomalate has been reported to have in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori. Intramuscular gold, as given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may therefore influence the colonisation of the gastric mucosa with H pylori. METHODS: Two groups were compared. One group of 42 patients was treated with intramuscular gold; the other group of 58 patients was treated with antimalarial drugs. Antibodies to H pylori (IgA and IgG) were assessed by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total IgA and IgG were measured by nephelometry. RESULTS: IgA and IgG antibody titres against H pylori and total IgA and IgG levels were lower in the patients treated with gold than in the group treated with antimalarial drugs. The ratio of IgA antibodies to H pylori to total IgA antibodies and the ratio of IgG antibodies to H pylori to total IgG antibodies were lower in the group treated with gold. The percentage of seropositivity to H pylori was significantly lower in the group treated with gold than in the group treated with antimalarial drugs for the two IgA antibodies (35 and 55% respectively) and IgG antibodies to H pylori (40 and 65% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although this study cannot completely exclude the possibility that a suppressive effect of intramuscular gold on total immunoglobulin production plays a part in the decrease in the titres of IgA antibodies to H pylori and IgG antibodies to H pylori, the lower ratios of antibodies to H pylori to total immunoglobulin antibodies and the lower percentages of seropositivity to H pylori in the group treated with gold suggests that treatment with intramuscular gold decreases H pylori colonisation. PMID:1417132

  8. Accuracy of faecal occult blood test and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test for detection of upper gastrointestinal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Yeh, Yen-Po; Liao, Chao-Sheng; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Tu, Chia-Hung; Tseng, Ping-Huei; Chen, Chien-Chuan; Chen, Mei-Jyh; Liou, Jyh-Ming; Liao, Wei-Chih; Lai, Yo-Ping; Wang, Chen-Ping; Ko, Jenq-Yuh; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Chiang, Hung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2013-01-01

    Objective Highly sensitive guaiac-based faecal occult blood (Hemoccult SENSA) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen testing might help detect upper gastrointestinal lesions when appended to a colorectal cancer screening programme with faecal immunochemical testing. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracies of two stool tests in detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions. Design Cross-sectional design. Setting Hospital-based and community-based screening settings. Participants A hospital-based deviation cohort of 3172 participants to evaluate test performance and a community-based validation cohort of 3621 to verify the findings. Interventions Three types of stool tests with bidirectional endoscopy as the reference standard. Outcomes Sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative likelihood ratios. Results For detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions in cases with negative immunochemical tests, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of the guaiac-based and H pylori antigen tests were 16.3% (95% CI 13.3% to 19.8%), 90.1% (88.9% to 91.2%), 1.64 (1.31 to 2.07), and 0.93 (0.89 to 0.97), respectively, and 52.5% (48.1% to 56.9%), 80.6% (79.0% to 82.1%), 2.71 (2.41 to 3.04) and 0.59 (0.54 to 0.65), respectively. For detecting upper gastrointestinal lesions in cases with normal colonoscopy, the results of the guaiac-based and H pylori antigen tests were 17.9% (14.8% to 21.5%), 90.1% (88.9% to 91.2%), 1.81 (1.45 to 2.26) and 0.91 (0.87 to 0.95), respectively, and 53.1% (48.6% to 57.4%), 80.7% (79.1% to 82.2%), 2.75 (2.45 to 3.08) and 0.58 (0.53 to 0.64), respectively. Within the community, positive predictive values of the immunochemical and H pylori antigen tests were 36.0% (26.0% to 46.0%) and 31.9% (28.3% to 35.5%), respectively, for detecting lower and upper gastrointestinal lesions, which were similar to expected values. Conclusions The H pylori stool antigen test is more accurate than the guaiac-based test in the screening of upper

  9. Process Evaluation Results from a School- and Community-Linked Intervention: The Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, D. R.; Steckler, A.; Cohen, S.; Pratt, C.; Felton, G.; Moe, S. G.; Pickrel, J.; Johnson, C. C.; Grieser, M.; Lytle, L. A.; Lee, J.-S.; Raburn, B.

    2008-01-01

    Process evaluation is a component of intervention research that evaluates whether interventions are delivered and received as intended. Here, we describe the process evaluation results for the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) intervention. The intervention consisted of four synergistic components designed to provide supportive school-…

  10. Early intervention and prevention of anxiety disorders in children: results at 2-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Dadds, M R; Holland, D E; Laurens, K R; Mullins, M; Barrett, P M; Spence, S H

    1999-02-01

    The Queensland Early Intervention and Prevention of Anxiety Project evaluated a child- and family-focused group intervention for preventing anxiety problems in children. This article reports on 12- and 24-month follow-up data to previously reported outcomes at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. A total of 1,786 7- to 14-year-olds were screened for anxiety problems using teacher nominations and children's self-report. After diagnostic interviews, 128 children were selected and assigned to either a 10-week school-based child- and parent-focused psychosocial intervention or a monitoring group. Both groups showed improvements immediately at postintervention and at 6-month follow-up; the improvement was maintained in the intervention group only reducing the rate of existing anxiety disorder and preventing the onset of new anxiety disorders. At 12 months, the groups converged, but the superiority of the intervention group was evident again at 2-year follow-up. Severity of pretreatment diagnoses, gender, and parental anxiety predicted poor initial response to intervention, whereas pretreatment severity was the only predictor of chronicity at 24 months. Overall, follow-up results show that a brief school-based intervention for children can produce durable reductions in anxiety problems. PMID:10028219

  11. Intervention for infants with brain injury: Results of a randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Lina Kurdahi; Garg, Meena; Kamath, Meghna

    2009-01-01

    A randomized clinical trail (RCT) employed a 12-month individualized cognitive/sensorimotor stimulation program to look at the efficacy of the intervention on 62 infants with suspected brain injury. The control group infants received the State-funded follow-up program provided by the Los Angeles (LA) Regional Centers while the intervention group received intensive stimulation using the Curriculum and Monitoring System (CAMS) taught by public health nurses (PHNs). The developmental assessments and outcome measures were performed at 6, 12 and 18 months corrected age and included the Bayley motor and mental development, the Home, mother–infant interaction (Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) and Nursing Child Assessment Teaching Scale (NCATS)), parental stress and social support. At 18 months, 43 infants remained in the study. The results indicate that the intervention had minimal positive effects on the Bayley mental and motor development scores of infants in the intervention group. Likewise, the intervention did not contribute to less stress or better mother–infant interaction at 12 or 18 months although there were significant differences in the NCAFS scores favoring the intervention group at 6 months. There was a significant trend, however, for the control group to have a significant decrease over time on the Bayley mental scores. Although the sample was not large and attrition was at 31%, this study provides further support to the minimal effects of stimulation and home intervention for infants with brain injury and who may have more significant factors contributing to their developmental outcome. PMID:17138264

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection and atopic diseases: Is there a relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Angela; Garozzo, Maria Teresa; Filippelli, Martina; Tomarchio, Stefania; Ferrara, Viviana; Salpietro, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To review and conduct a meta-analysis of the existing literature on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atopy and allergic diseases. METHODS: Studies published in English assessing the prevalence of atopy and/or allergic diseases in patients with H. pylori infection and the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with atopy and/or allergic diseases were identified through a MEDLINE search (1950-2014). Random-effect model was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled results of case-control studies showed a significant inverse association of H. pylori infection with atopy/allergic disease or with exclusively atopy, but not with allergic disease, whereas pooled results of cross-sectional studies showed only a significant association between allergic disease and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence of an inverse association between atopy/allergic diseases and H. pylori infection, although further studied are needed. PMID:25516679

  13. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcer drugs that act as covalent inhibitors of the gastric acid pump are targeted to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase by virtue of accumulation in acid and conversion to the active sulfenamide. This results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion. Appropriate dosage is able to optimize acid control therapy for reflux and peptic ulcer disease as compared to H2 receptor antagonists. However, clinical data on recurrence show that Helicobacter pylori eradication should accompany treatment of the lesion. These drugs have been found to synergize with many antibiotics for eradication. The survival of aerobes depends on their ability to maintain a driving force for protons across their inner membrane, the sum of a pH and potential difference gradient, the protonmotive force (pmf). The transmembrane flux of protons across the F1F0 ATPase, driven by the pmf, is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The internal pH of H. pylori was measured using the fluorescent dye probe, BCECF, and the membrane potential defined by the uptake of the carbocyanine dye, DiSC3 [5] at different pHs to mimic the gastric environment. The protonmotive force at pH 7.0 was composed of a delta pH of 1.4 (-84mV) and a delta potential difference of -131mV, to give a pmf of -215 mV. The effect of variations in external pH on survival of the bacteria in the absence of urea correlated with the effect of external pH on the ability of the bacteria to maintain a pmf. The effect of the addition of 5 mM urea on the pmf was measured at different medium pH values. Urea restored the pmf at pH 3.0 or 3.5, but abolished the pmf at pH 7.0 or higher, due the production of the alkalinizing cation, NH3. Hence H. pylori is an acid-tolerant neutrophile due to urease activity, but urease activity also limits its survival to an acidic environment. These data help explain the occupation of the stomach by the organism and its distribution between fundus and antrum. This distribution and its alteration by proton pump

  14. Changes in gastric microbiota induced by Helicobacter pylori infection and preventive effects of Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 against such infection.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfang; Wan, Cuixiang; Xie, Qiong; Huang, Renhui; Tao, Xueying; Shah, Nagendra P; Wei, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative pathogen linked to gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Gastric microbiota might play an essential role in the pathogenesis of these stomach diseases. In this study, we investigated the preventive effect of a probiotic candidate Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 as a protective agent against the gastric mucosal inflammation and alteration of gastric microbiota induced by H. pylori infection in a mouse model. Prior to infection, mice were pretreated with or without 400 µL of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 at a concentration of 10(9) cfu/mL per mouse. At 6 wk postinfection, gastric mucosal immune response and alteration in gastric microbiota mice were examined by quantitative real-time PCR and high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, respectively. The results showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented increase in inflammatory cytokines (e.g., IL-1β and IFN-γ) and inflammatory cell infiltration in gastric lamina propria induced by H. pylori infection. Weighted UniFrac principal coordinate analysis showed that L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented the alteration in gastric microbiota post-H. pylori infection. Linear discriminant analysis coupled with effect size identified 22 bacterial taxa (e.g., Pasteurellaceae, Erysipelotrichaceae, Halomonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae, and Spirochaetaceae) that overgrew in the gastric microbiota of H. pylori-infected mice, and most of them belonged to the Proteobacteria phylum. Lactobacillus plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreatment prevented this alteration; only 6 taxa (e.g., Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Clostridiaceae), mainly from the taxa of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, were dominant in the gastric microbiota of the L. plantarum ZDY 2013 pretreated mice. Administration of L. plantarum ZDY 2013 for 3 wk led to increase in several bacterial taxa (e.g., Rikenella, Staphylococcus, Bifidobacterium), although a nonsignificant alteration was found in the gastric microbiota

  15. Helicobacter pylori Infection – A Boon or a Bane: Lessons from Studies in a Low-Prevalence Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. PMID:23607896

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. PMID:23607896

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  18. Helicobacter pylori infection in older people

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders three decades ago, H. pylori has been the focus of active research and debate in the scientific community. Its linkage to several diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric malignancy is incontestable. In particular, it has been noticed that, as the aged population is increasing worldwide, older people are at increased risk of developing several gastroduodenal diseases and related complications. At the same time, gastric cancer is definitely more frequent in elderly than in adult and young people. In addition, it has been showed that peptic ulcer and related complications occur much more commonly in aged individuals than in young people, resulting in a significantly higher mortality. Although this infection plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal disorders affecting all age groups and in particular older people, only a few studies have been published regarding the latter. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapy of H. pylori infection in elderly people. PMID:24914358

  19. [In vitro activities of faropenem against clarithromycin resistance Helicobacter pylori isolates].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Saika, T; Matsuzaki, K; Kobayashi, I; Fujioka, T; Nasu, M; Saionji, K; Igari, J

    1998-03-01

    Agar dilution and semi-solid agar dilution were used to determine the MIC of faropenem (FRPM) against 24 H. pylori isolates. FRPM was active against clarithromycin resistance H. pylori isolates. And, the MICs obtained by both methods were in agreement. The results suggest that FRPM was not affected by pH and is a clinically useful oral antibiotic for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infections. PMID:9585692

  20. Allergies, Helicobacter pylori and the continental enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is known to be associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and is also a strong risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and lymphoma of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ordinarily, this should make a strong case for its eradication at par with any other infectious disease. However, the unique biology of H. pylori and the complexity of its interactions with humans, its only known natural host, do not permit the recommendation of unambiguous preventive and therapeutic measures. Moreover, this organism has co-evolved with humans as a practically universal member of the natural gastric microbiota over at least 100,000 years. H. pylori persists for a lifetime in mostly asymptomatic hosts, and causes clinical disease only in a minority of infections. Therefore, its potential contribution to the maintenance of human immune homeostasis, as is the case with the better-studied members of the intestinal microbiota, is certainly worthy of serious investigation. In this paper, we summarize some interesting and often anecdotal data drawn from recent studies, and examine their significance in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. We also examine whether the lower incidence of gastric cancer over large parts of the world in spite of a high prevalence of infection (the Asian and African enigmas) may be re-interpreted in terms of the hygiene hypothesis. Finally, it is suggested that an evolutionary-ecological approach to the study of H. pylori infection may help in the formulation of strategies for the management of this infection. This may well be an infectious disease wherein medical interventions may have to be personalized to ensure optimal outcomes. PMID:26106380

  1. Non-ulcer dyspepsia: does Helicobacter pylori matter?

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, P.; Axon, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a heterogenous disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal or retrosternal discomfort lasting for more than four weeks for which no cause can be determined. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated as a potential cause in a subset of patients but the association has not been proven and H pylori eradication in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia has had variable results. Large well-controlled studies are needed to clarify the relationship. PMID:7596927

  2. Gastric emptying and Helicobacter pylori infection in duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Perri, F; Ghoos, Y F; Maes, B D; Geypens, B J; Ectors, N; Geboes, K; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1996-03-01

    The pathogenetic link between Helicobacter pylori gastritis and duodenal ulcer is still unknown. Fast gastric emptying of liquids might be important in the pathogenesis of gastric metaplasia of the duodenum and duodenal ulcer through an increased exposure of the duodenum to gastric acid. In H. pylori-infected subjects, an abnormal gastric emptying could affect urea breath test results and correlate with histological gastritis. This study was performed to evaluate the gastric emptying of liquids in duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection and the possible relation between the bacterial load, gastric emptying, and urea breath test results. Seventeen duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori gastritis and 15 healthy volunteers were studied by a [14C]octanoic acid and [13C]urea breath test to evaluate gastric emptying rate and H. pylori status simultaneously. Endoscopy with antral biopsies were performed in all duodenal ulcer patients. Duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection have a normal liquid gastric emptying that is unrelated with histological severity of gastritis. The urea breath test results and the gastric emptying parameters do not correlate with histology. A significant correlation between the gastric emptying and the urea hydrolysis rate is found. It is concluded that H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is not associated with abnormally fast liquid gastric emptying, and this finding should be taken into account when a casual link between H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is searched for. The correlation between gastric emptying and urea hydrolysis rate explains why no conclusions on intragastric bacterial load can be drawn from the urea breath test results. PMID:8617116

  3. Harnessing peer networks as an instrument for AIDS prevention: results from a peer-driven intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Broadhead, R S; Heckathorn, D D; Weakliem, D L; Anthony, D L; Madray, H; Mills, R J; Hughes, J

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Since 1985, community outreach efforts to combat acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among injecting drug users (IDUs) in the United States have overwhelmingly depended on a provider-client model that relies on staffs of professional outreach workers. We report on a comparison of this traditional outreach model with an innovative social network model, termed "a peer-driven intervention" (PDI). The latter provides IDUs with guidance and structured incentives that permit them to play a much more active role in the outreach process, thereby harnessing peer pressure on behalf of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention efforts. METHODS: We compare the performance of a traditional outreach intervention (TOI) and a PDI that were implemented in medium-sized towns in eastern and central Connecticut. Comparisons are based on the number and representativeness of IDUs recruited at each site, the effectiveness of HIV prevention education, compliance rates with AIDS risk reduction recommendations, and relative cost. The analyses are based on 522 initial interviews and 190 six-month follow-up interviews conducted during the first two years of each intervention's operation. RESULTS: Both interventions produced significant reductions in HIV risk behaviors, as measured using self-reports. The PDI outperformed the traditional intervention with respect to the number of IDUs recruited, the ethnic and geographic representativeness of the recruits, and the effectiveness of HIV prevention education. In addition, the costs of recruiting IDUs into the intervention and educating them about HIV in the community was only one-thirtieth as much in the PDI as in the traditional intervention. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that given guidance and nominal incentives, IDUs can play a more extensive role in community outreach efforts than the traditional model allows. The findings also suggest that both interventions reduce HIV-associated risk behaviors, but the PDI reaches

  4. Helicobacter pylori: Helicobacter pylori gastritis--a novel distinct disease entity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Mori, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    A global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been developed. Topics discussed include whether dyspepsia caused by H. pylori infection is separate from functional dyspepsia or not, the evaluation method for H. pylori-induced gastritis, eradication therapy for H. pylori gastritis to prevent gastric carcinogenesis and management after H. pylori eradication. PMID:26369312

  5. [Transmission route of H. pylori].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masumi; Tachikawa, Tomohiro; Maekawa, Kohei; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2013-08-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is rapidly decreased in Japan. H. pylori infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 years life and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. Person-to-person transmission in the family appears to be the predominant and in the population with low prevalence, several studies showed the infected mother is likely to be the main source of the infection. H. pylori can be detected from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of infection. Waterborne infection is unlikely in the developed countries. PMID:23967662

  6. A childhood obesity intervention developed by families for families: results from a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ineffective family interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity have, in part, been attributed to the challenges of reaching and engaging parents. With a particular focus on parent engagement, this study utilized community-based participatory research to develop and pilot test a family-centered intervention for low-income families with preschool-aged children enrolled in Head Start. Methods During year 1 (2009–2010), parents played an active and equal role with the research team in planning and conducting a community assessment and using the results to design a family-centered childhood obesity intervention. During year 2 (2010–2011), parents played a leading role in implementing the intervention and worked with the research team to evaluate its results using a pre-post cohort design. Intervention components included: (1) revisions to letters sent home to families reporting child body mass index (BMI); (2) a communication campaign to raise parents’ awareness of their child’s weight status; (3) the integration of nutrition counseling into Head Start family engagement activities; and (4) a 6-week parent-led program to strengthen parents’ communication skills, conflict resolution, resource-related empowerment for healthy lifestyles, social networks, and media literacy. A total of 423 children ages 2–5 years, from five Head Start centers in upstate New York, and their families were exposed to the intervention and 154 families participated in its evaluation. Child outcome measures included BMI z-score, accelerometer-assessed physical activity, and dietary intake assessed using 24-hour recall. Parent outcomes included food-, physical activity- and media-related parenting practices and attitudes. Results Compared with pre intervention, children at post intervention exhibited significant improvements in their rate of obesity, light physical activity, daily TV viewing, and dietary intake (energy and macronutrient intake). Trends were observed

  7. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  8. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  9. Burnout hazard in teachers results of a clinical-psychological intervention study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The study investigates whether established in-patient therapy for teachers with burnout results in long-acting success and whether gender gaps and differences between teachers of different school levels exist. According to our knowledge, our study is the most extensive inpatient intervention study on the burnout of a defined occupational group, i.e., teachers. Methods 200 teachers participated, 150 took part in a later performed katamnestic survey. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used and work-related data were recorded. The days of incapacity for work and the percentage of teachers endangered by burnout decreased, which supports the long-term success of the treatment. Results Significant differences between males and females and between teacher levels were found. However, the differences between teacher levels only showed up before treatment. Because males only underwent treatment at a more severe stage, further efforts in persuading males to start therapy earlier are needed. Conclusions The proven and long-term success of the performed intervention could have greater effects if people, especially males, undergo treatment more frequently. Our results are based on selectively high proposition of teachers of advanced age. Thus it is possible that the long term effect of the intervention, particularly on retirement age, is greater when the intervention is started earlier. Regular burnout tests could help to identify risk cases among teachers at an early stage and to offer a therapeutic intervention. PMID:22192422

  10. Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Michele; Cadeddu, Federica; Villa, Massimo; Attinà, Grazia Maria; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Nigro, Casimiro; Rulli, Francesco; Farinon, Attilio M

    2008-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis is still not clear. To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and GERD taking into account endoscopic, pH-metric and histopathological data. Methods Between January 2001 and January 2003 a prospective study was performed in 146 patients with GERD in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection at gastric mucosa; further the value of the De Meester score endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric parameters, i.e. reflux episodes, pathological reflux episodes and extent of oesophageal acid exposure, of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection were studied and statistically compared. Finally, univariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed in order to evaluate the statistical correlation with reflux esophagitis. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, HP infected and HP negative patients, regarding age, gender and type of symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding severity of symptoms and manometric parameters. The value of the De Meester score and the ph-metric parameters were similar in both groups. On univariate analysis, we observed that hiatal hernia (p = 0,01), LES size (p = 0,05), oesophageal wave length (p = 0,01) and pathological reflux number (p = 0,05) were significantly related to the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Conclusion Based on these findings, it seems that there is no significant evidence for an important role for H. pylori infection in the development of GERD and erosive esophagitis. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence to define the relationship between HP and GERD. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted. PMID:18601740

  11. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  12. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Radić, Mislav

    2014-09-28

    The relationship between infection and autoimmunity has been increasingly defined over the last 20 years. The systemic rheumatic diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to self-antigen. The exact etiology for the majority of these diseases is unknown; however, a complex combination of host and environmental factors are believed to play a pivotal role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widely studied infectious agents proposed as agents triggering autoimmune response. The persistent presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa results in chronic immune system activation with ongoing cytokine signaling, infiltration of gastric mucosa by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, as well as production of antibodies and effector T-cells. Various mechanisms have been proposed in an attempt to explain the extra-intestinal manifestations of H. pylori infections. These include: molecular mimicry, endothelial cell damage, superantigens and microchimerism. I performed a systematic literature review using the keywords "rheumatoid arthritis", "Sjögren's syndrome", "systemic sclerosis", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "Helicobacter pylori" and "pathogenesis". A systematic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Library and ACR/EULAR meeting abstracts. In systemic rheumatic diseases H. pylori infection prevalence alone should not be expected to provide sufficient evidence for or against a pathologic role in the disease. In this article I review studies examining the potential involvement of H. pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases. Further studies of the immunological response to H. pylori and its role in the pathogenesis of systemic rheumatic diseases are warranted. PMID:25278681

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Ahmadi, R; Moradi, N; Fadaei, R; Sezavar, S H; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether impact of the seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on ferritin and iron levels is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anti H pylori IgG, IgA levels, serum ferritin and iron concentration of 86 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results of present study showed that seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients was higher than controls and CAD patients with negative anti H pylori IgG and IgA significantly. A significant negative correlation was found between seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA, ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients with seronegativity and seronegativity to H pylori IgG and IgA in comparison with controls. The achieved results from present study suggest that the involvement of H pylori infection in atherosclerosis process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. Moreover, impact of the presence of H pylori infection on reduction of the ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients as a risk factor independent of other classic factors including lipid profiles and inflammatory factors was remarkable. PMID:27545208

  14. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:24104691

  15. Oligonucleotide probe for detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, M; Hoshina, S; Green, P; Neu, H C; LoGerfo, P; Watanabe, I; Mutai, M; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a novel and practical DNA-RNA hybridization assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. This technique utilizes a [32P]ddATP-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a nucleotide sequence present in C. pylori 16S rRNA. This probe is very sensitive and reacted with all 23 strains of C. pylori tested. It is also highly specific, since there was no cross-reactivity with the heterologous organisms Campylobacter coli, C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni, and C. laridis or with Escherichia coli. Hybridization of the oligonucleotide probe with C. pylori RNA was completely inhibited by treatment of the membrane filters with RNase but not DNase. Although a gastric mucosa tissue homogenate slightly inhibited the hybridization, as few as 10(4) C. pylori cells could be detected even in the presence of 5 mg of gastric mucosa. Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from patients referred for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were tested for C. pylori infection by direct oligonucleotide hybridization, and the results were compared with those of bacteriological cultures, the urease test, and histological observations. A comparison of the urease test and the oligonucleotide hybridization results showed an excellent correlation between the two methods. The clinical usefulness of this oligonucleotide-RNA hybridization method is discussed. Images PMID:2480360

  16. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan. PMID:25024699

  17. Increasing hepatitis C knowledge among homeless adults: results of a community-based, interdisciplinary intervention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Darlene; Nyamathi, Adeline; Stein, Judith A; Koniak-Griffin, Deborah; Hodge, Felicia; Gelberg, Lillian

    2014-01-01

    Homeless adults have high rates of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and low levels of HCV knowledge. This study reports results of an interdisciplinary, community-based intervention using stakeholder cooperation, case management, risk factor identification, and modification of dysfunctional psychosocial factors to increase HCV knowledge among homeless adults (N = 747). Data are from a randomized quasi-experimental study, with the major goal of evaluating the effectiveness of a Nurse Case Managed Intervention compared to a Standard Intervention, encouraging completion of a three-series hepatitis A/hepatitis B vaccination program. Increased HCV knowledge was measured with an 18-item questionnaire discerning risk factors for HCV and common misconceptions about individuals with HCV. A significant increase in HCV knowledge resulted regardless of intervention format. Receiving the Nurse Case Managed Intervention predicted greatest gain in HCV knowledge (p < 0.000). Successfully engaging key stakeholders, outreach workers, community organizations, and homeless people themselves proved most efficacious in increasing HCV knowledge. PMID:23616250

  18. Functional profile of gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Huilin; Geng, Li; Li, Boqing

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastro-duodenal diseases, ranging from chronic gastritis to the development of peptic ulcer disease and end-stage gastric cancer. In the present study, the 26695 and SS1 strains of H. pylori were used to study the differential functional profiles of gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori. The apoptosis rates in GES-1 cells were significantly increased 3, 12 and 24 h after H. pylori 26695 and SS1 infection. Moreover, apoptosis by cells infected with the H. pylori 26695 strain was significantly higher than cells infected with the SS1 strain of H. pylori. No significant changes in the proliferation rates of GES-1 cells were observed after H. pylori 26695 or SS1 infection at any time during the experimental period. Exposure to H. pylori 26695 and SS1 induced a significant decline in the adhesion rates of GES-1 cells in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, H. pylori 26695 infection increased migration of GES-1 cells every hour during the whole experimental period compared with control cells. However, GES-1 cells infected with the H. pylori SS1 strain exhibited migration rates almost stable and comparable to those of control cells. These results indicate that the gastric epithelial cells respond differently depending on the H. pylori strains. This study indicates that the development of different gastric-related diseases may be a H. pylori strain-specific response. PMID:27015934

  19. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  20. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O’Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D. Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy. Methods 104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken. Results After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0%) were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6%) patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0) was present in 55.8% (53/95) of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046). While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020) than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3pM vs. 53.1pM, p=0.040), while H. pylori infection was not (63.1pM vs. 55.1pM, p=0.610). Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90%) exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected. Conclusion H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect

  1. Effect of culture conditions on morphological changes of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, K; Hamasaki, N; Watanabe, T; Uchida, T; Fujiwara, Y; Takaishi, O; Higuchi, K; Arakawa, T; Ishii, E; Kobayashi, K; Yano, I; Kuroki, T

    1999-01-01

    The morphological conversion of Helicobacter pylori from the spiral form to the coccoid form may be the expression of a transitory adaptation to an unsuitable environment. The mechanism(s) of this conversion are not clear. In this study, we examined whether the morphological conversion of H. pylori is affected by various culture conditions, such as oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, or the presence of beta-cyclodextrin. H. pylori (NTCC11916) was cultured on Brucella agar, followed by culture in Brucella broth containing 1% agar under several conditions. Morphological conversion of individual H. pylori on the agar plate was investigated with time after incubation under phase contrast microscopy. When H. pylori was inoculated in Brucella broth containing beta-cyclodextrin, the spiral form of the organism was observed even after 6 days of incubation under standard culture conditions: 37 degrees C, pH 7, and microaerobic atmosphere (5% O2/10% CO2/85% N2) (control). The morphological conversion of H. pylori was completed on day 3 in an aerobic atmosphere (20% O2 supply) and on day 2 in an undermicroaerobic atmosphere (<0.1% O2). Its complete morphological conversion was observed at pH 8 on day 5 and at pH 4 on day 6. All of the H. pylori (100%) incubated at 20 degrees or 42 degrees C had converted from the bacillary to the coccoid form on day 4. Conditioned medium without beta-cyclodextrin caused complete conversion on day 5. These results suggest that oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, and beta-cyclodextrin may be related to the H. pylori morphological conversion from the bacillary to the coccoid form. PMID:10616762

  2. Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88–116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43–56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36–52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya. PMID:22589724

  3. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: From environment to human host

    PubMed Central

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems. PMID:24914322

  4. Extracellular galectin-3 counteracts adhesion and exhibits chemoattraction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Ho, Bow

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside lectin that is upregulated and rapidly secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. An earlier study reported the involvement of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) in the expression of intracellular Gal-3. However, the role of extracellular Gal-3 and its functional significance in H. pylori-infected cells remains uncharacterized. Data presented here demonstrate secretion of Gal-3 is an initial host response event in gastric epithelial cells during H. pylori infection and is independent of CagA. Previously, Gal-3 was shown to bind to H. pylori LPS. The present study elaborates the significance of this binding, as extracellular recombinant Gal-3 (rGal-3) was shown to inhibit the adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric epithelial cells. Interestingly, a decrease in H. pylori adhesion to host cells also resulted in a decrease in apoptosis. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated a chemoattractant role of extracellular rGal-3 in the recruitment of THP-1 monocytes. This study outlines the previously unidentified roles of extracellular Gal-3 where it acts as a negative regulator of H. pylori adhesion and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and as a chemoattractant to THP-1 monocytes. Our findings could contribute to the better understanding of how Gal-3 acts as a modulator under H. pylori-induced pathological conditions. PMID:27283429

  5. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin D; Gilger, Mark A; Czinn, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guoqiang; Zhu, Huanhuan; Zhou, Feng; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Li, Chenwan

    2014-10-10

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), infecting half of the world's population, causes gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved regulator of cellular energy and metabolism. Recent studies indicated an important role for AMPK in promoting cell survival. In this study, we discovered that H Pylori induced AMPK activation in transformed (GEC-1 line) and primary human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Inhibition of H Pylori-stimulated AMPK kinase activity by AMPK inhibitor compound C exacerbated apoptosis in transformed and primary GECs. Meanwhile, downregulation of AMPK expression by targeted shRNAs promoted apoptosis in H pylori-infected GECs. In contrast, A-769662 and resveratrol, two known AMPK activators, or AMPKα1 over-expression, enhanced H Pylori-induced AMPK activation, and inhibited GEC apoptosis. Our data suggested that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) could be the upstream kinase for AMPK activation by H pylori. Partial depletion of TAK1 by shRNAs not only inhibited AMPK activation, but also suppressed survival of H pylori-infected GECs. Taken together, these results suggest that TAK1-dependent AMPK activation protects GECs from H pylori-Induced apoptosis. PMID:25229685

  7. Characterization of feline Helicobacter pylori strains and associated gastritis in a colony of domestic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Stalis, I H; Rufo, R; Lee, G; Linn, J; Li, X; Kleanthous, H

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young adult domestic cats from a commercial vendor were found to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histopathologic analyses, selected electron microscopy, and urease mapping were performed on mucosal samples collected from the cardias and fundi, bodies, and antra of these cats' stomachs. H. pylori organisms were abundant in all areas of the stomach on the basis of histologic evaluation and urease mapping. H. pylori infection was associated with a moderate to severe lymphofollicular gastritis in 21 of 24 cats (88%). The gastritis was most pronounced in the antral region and consisted mainly of multifocal lymphoplasmacytic follicular infiltrates in the deep mucosa. The severity of gastritis in the antrum corresponded to high numbers of H. pylori there on the basis of the use of the urease assay as an indicator of H. pylori colonization. Ten of 24 cats (42%) also had small to moderate numbers of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. All 24 cats had gastric lymphoid follicles, with follicles being most prevalent in the antrum. Electron microscopy of gastric tissue revealed numerous H. pylori organisms, some of which were closely adhered to the mucosal epithelium. Human H. pylori gene-specific primers to ureA and ureB amplified products of similar sizes from H. pylori cat isolates. Digestion of the products with restriction enzymes resulted in fragments characteristic of the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of H. pylori isolates from humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7494015

  8. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Labio, Roger William de; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Queiroz, Valdeir Fagundes de; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001) and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection. PMID:20512249

  9. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  10. Evaluation of noninvasive tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tamadon, Mohamad Reza; Saberi Far, Morteza; Soleimani, Alireza; Ghorbani, Raheb; Semnani, Vahid; Malek, Farhad; Malek, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis is the most common method of renal replacement therapy for treatment of acute and chronic kidney failure. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a major role in development of peptic ulcer, gastric neoplasms, and lymphoma as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disorders in hemodialysis patients. Objectives: In this study the diagnostic values of noninvasive tests [i.e. urea breath test (UBT), helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HPSA) and serology] in diagnosis of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients have been studied. Patients and Methods: All patients undergoing hemodialysis in Fatemieh Hospital, Semnan, Iran, were enrolled in the study, and their H. pylori status were assessed by using non-invasive tests including UBT, HPSA and serology. Patients with at least two out of 3 positive tests were considered infected with H. pylori. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the tests used in diagnosing H. pylori infection were 62.5%, 65.4%, 62.5% and 65.4% for UBT, 100%, 72.2%, 58.3% and 100% for serology, and 100%, 75%, 60.9% and 100% for fecal antigen test, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that H. pylori serology and stool antigen tests have higher diagnostic values than UBT, and they are more reliable than UBT in diagnosis of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24475457

  11. Helicobacter pylori: Effect of coexisting diseases and update on treatment regimens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The presence of concomitant diseases is an independent predictive factor for non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) peptic ulcers. Patients contracting concomitant diseases have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease through pathogenic mechanisms distinct from those of H. pylori infections. Factors other than H. pylori seem critical in peptic ulcer recurrence in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cirrhotic patients. However, early H. pylori eradication is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent complicated peptic ulcers in patients with ESRD and liver cirrhosis. Resistances to triple therapy are currently detected using culture-based and molecular methods. Culture susceptibility testing before first- or second-line therapy is unadvisable. Using highly effective empiric first-line and rescue regimens can yield acceptable results. Sequential therapy has been included in a recent consensus report as a valid first-line option for eradicating H. pylori in geographic regions with high clarithromycin resistance. Two novel eradication regimens, namely concomitant and hybrid therapy, have proven more effective in patients with dual- (clarithromycin- and metronidazole-) resistant H. pylori strains. We aim to review the prevalence of and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection in patients with ESRD and cirrhosis. Moreover, we summarized the updated H. pylori eradication regimens. PMID:26558147

  12. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  13. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  14. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  15. Growth phase-dependent composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Christina A; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Analysis of H. pylori protein secretion is complicated by the occurrence of bacterial autolysis. In this study, we analyzed the exoproteome of H. pylori at multiple phases of bacterial growth and identified 74 proteins that are selectively released into the extracellular space. These include proteins known to cause alterations in host cells, antigenic proteins, and additional proteins that have not yet been studied in any detail. The composition of the H. pylori exoproteome is dependent on the phase of bacterial growth. For example, the proportional abundance of the vacuolating toxin VacA in culture supernatant is higher during late growth phases than early growth phases, whereas the proportional abundance of many other proteins is higher during early growth phases. We detected marked variation in the subcellular localization of putative secreted proteins within soluble and membrane fractions derived from intact bacteria. By providing a comprehensive view of the H. pylori exoproteome, these results provide new insights into the array of secreted H. pylori proteins that may cause alterations in the gastric environment. PMID:26363098

  16. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by invasive and noninvasive tests

    PubMed Central

    Pourakbari, Babak; Ghazi, Mona; Mahmoudi, Shima; Mamishi, Setareh; Azhdarkosh, Hossein; Najafi, Mehri; Kazemi, Bahram; Salavati, Ali; Mirsalehian, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Although several invasive and noninvasive tests have been developed for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, all of the tests have their limitations. We conducted a study to investigate and compare the suitability of rapid urease test (RUT), serology, histopathology and stool antigen tests with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori, and correlate the diagnostic methods with PCR. Eighty nine patients (61 adults, 28 children) referred to the Firoozgar Hospital and Children Medical Center Hospital for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered to the study and noninvasive tests such as immunoassay for serological antibodies against H. pylori and detection of its antigen in feces were measured. The biopsies were utilized for histological examination, RUT and PCR. The H. pylori statuses were evaluated by the positivity of ureC PCR in biopsy specimens and 53 subjects had H. pylori positive result. Histopathology showed high overall performance in adults and children with sensitivity and specificity 100% and 90%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for stool antigen test were 87.8%, 75% and 82%, respectively. Correlation of RUT, serology (IgG), histopathology and stool antigen tests with PCR were 0.82, 0.32, 0.91 and 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, the RUT and histopathology are as accurate as the PCR of biopsy and stool antigen test can consider as appropriate noninvasive test for detection of H. pylori infection. PMID:24516421

  17. Use of probiotics in the fight against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation on the use of probiotics plays an interesting role. In vitro and preclinical studies have shown the feasibility of this approach. Several clinical trials indicated that administration of probiotics can reduce the side effects of H. pylori eradication treatment, increasing tolerability, and often increases the overall efficacy. The results of these trials vary, likely reflecting the variety of probiotics assessed and that of the eradication treatment, as well as the differences in the geographic area that imply different H. pylori strains distribution, host susceptibility, and therapy efficacy. In conclusion, the use of probiotics appears promising as an adjuvant for the current H. pylori eradication treatment, though it still requires optimization. PMID:25400981

  18. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  19. Pilot Study Results from a Brief Intervention to Create Smoke-Free Homes

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle C.; Escoffery, Cam; Bundy, Lucja; Berg, Carla J.; Haardörfer, Regine; Yembra, Debbie; Schauer, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Very few community-based intervention studies have examined how to effectively increase the adoption of smoke-free homes. A pilot study was conducted to test the feasibility, acceptability, and short-term outcomes of a brief, four-component intervention for promoting smoke-free home policies among low-income households. We recruited forty participants (20 smokers and 20 nonsmokers) to receive the intervention at two-week intervals. The design was a pretest-posttest with follow-up at two weeks after intervention. The primary outcome measure was self-reported presence of a total home smoking ban. At follow-up, 78% of participants reported having tried to establish a smoke-free rule in their home, with significantly more nonsmokers attempting a smoke-free home than smokers (P = .03). These attempts led to increased smoking restrictions, that is, going from no ban to a partial or total ban, or from a partial to a total ban, in 43% of the homes. At follow-up, 33% of the participants reported having made their home totally smoke-free. Additionally, smokers reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day. Results suggest that the intervention is promising and warrants a rigorous efficacy trial. PMID:22675374

  20. Helicobacter pylori in children.

    PubMed

    Sustmann, Andrea; Okuda, Masumi; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood may differ in many aspects compared to infection in adulthood: the immune response in the gut, the type and prevalence of complications within and outside the stomach, and the impact on long-term health. In high prevalence countries, transient infections seem to be common in infants and toddlers, and the consequences of this phenomenon on the short- and long-term immune response are still unclear. Other controversial issues are related to the question of which H. pylori-infected children benefit from treatment and which is the best regimen to eradicate the infection in the presence of a worldwide increasing antibiotic resistance. The first large-scale randomized placebo-controlled vaccination trial in schoolchildren indicates that prevention of the infection may be possible. PMID:27531540

  1. Results From a Lay Health Advisor Intervention to Prevent Lead Poisoning Among Rural Native American Children

    PubMed Central

    Kegler, Michelle Crozier; Malcoe, Lorraine Halinka

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We tested the effectiveness of a community-based lay health advisor intervention for primary prevention of lead poisoning among Native American children who lived in a former mining area. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional population-based blood lead assessments of Native American and White children aged 1 to 6 years and in-person caregiver interviews before (n=331) and after (n=387) a 2-year intervention. Results. Mean childhood blood lead levels decreased and selected preventive behaviors improved for both Native American and White (comparison) communities. Several short-term outcomes also improved from pre- to postintervention, but only knowledge and hand-washing self-efficacy increased more among Native Americans than among Whites. Conclusions. Our findings provide limited support for the effectiveness of lay health advisor interventions as a primary lead poisoning prevention strategy for Native American communities. PMID:15451742

  2. Active Learning in Large Classes: Can Small Interventions Produce Greater Results than Are Statistically Predictable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adrian, Lynne M.

    2010-01-01

    Six online postings and six one-minute papers were added to an introductory first-year class, forming 5 percent of the final grade, but represented significant intervention in class functioning and amount of active learning. Active learning produced results in student performance beyond the percentage of the final grade it constituted. (Contains 1…

  3. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred...

  4. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred...

  5. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred...

  6. 42 CFR 483.372 - Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities Providing Inpatient Psychiatric Services for Individuals Under Age 21 § 483.372 Medical treatment for injuries resulting from an emergency safety intervention. (a... participation under the Medicaid program that reasonably ensure that— (1) A resident will be transferred...

  7. Effectiveness of an Intervention Program for Improving School Atmosphere: Some Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, A. M.; Rivas, M. T.; Trianes, M. V.

    2006-01-01

    This work describes the results of the "Programa de Desarrollo Social y Afectivo" [Social and Affective Development Program] (Trianes & Munoz, 1994; Trianes, 1996), under way during four years at a public school in a disadvantaged area Malaga, earmarked for special educational resources. The intervention is meant to improve classroom and school…

  8. Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, T; Horie, N; Kato, T; Kaneko, T; Komiyama, K

    2000-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen involved in the development of gastrointestinal ulcers, but its involvement in oral ulcerous lesions is unclear. As culture is generally recognized as the gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection, we employed this approach to assess the association of H. pylori with oral mucosal ulcerations. Samples were collected from patients with oral mucosal ulcerative disorders: 12 cases of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), 7 cases of herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis, and 3 cases of erosive lichen planus (LP). Serum IgG antibodies against H. pylori were examined in all cases. All of the RAS and erosive LP cases were culture-negative for H. pylori, while two cases of HSV stomatitis were positive. The two culture-positive cases were also seropositve for the H. pylori antigen. It is suggested that H. pylori might not have a direct association with oral ulcerations. However, H. pylori in the oral cavity might exist in a non-culturable coccoid state without productive infection, and might form colonies only under special conditions such as HSV infection. PMID:11269381

  9. Vaccinating against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Czinn, Steven J; Blanchard, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality almost 30 years after its discovery. H. pylori infection can lead to several gastric maladies, including gastric cancer, and although antimicrobial therapies for the infection exist, the cost of treatment for gastric cancer and the prognosis of individuals who present with this disease make vaccine development a cost effective alternative to bacterial eradication. Experimental mucosal and systemic H. pylori vaccines in mice significantly reduce bacterial load and sometimes provide sterilizing immunity. Clinical trials of oral vaccines consisting of H. pylori proteins with bacterial exotoxin adjuvants or live attenuated bacterial vectors expressing H. pylori proteins induce adaptive immune mechanisms but fail to consistently reduce bacterial load. Clinical trials and murine studies demonstrate that where H. pylori is killed, either spontaneously or following vaccination, the host demonstrated cellular immunity. Improved efficacy of vaccines may be achieved in new trials of vaccine formulations that include multiple antigens and use methods to optimize cellular immunity. Unfortunately, the industrial sponsors that served as the primary engine for much of the previous animal and human research have withdrawn their support. A renewed or expanded commitment from the biotechnology or pharmaceutical industry that could exploit recent advances in our understanding of the host immune response to H. pylori is necessary for the advancement of an H. pylori vaccine. PMID:21304478

  10. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Demiray, Ebru

    2007-02-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods, the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult. Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro. PMID:17278188

  11. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  12. Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer: Results From a Rural Community Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Westfall, John M.; Zittleman, Linda; Sutter, Christin; Emsermann, Caroline B.; Staton, Elizabeth W.; Van Vorst, Rebecca; Dickinson, L. Miriam

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Colon cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Despite tests that can detect and enable removal of precancerous polyps, effectively preventing this disease, screening for colon cancer lags behind other cancer screening. The purpose of this study was to develop and test a community-based participatory approach to increase colon cancer screening. METHODS Using a community-based participatory research approach, the High Plains Research Network and their Community Advisory Council developed a multicomponent intervention—Testing to Prevent Colon Cancer—to increase colon cancer screening. A controlled trial compared 9 intervention counties in northeast Colorado with 7 control counties in southeast Colorado. We performed a baseline and postintervention random digit–dial telephone survey and conducted both intent-to-treat and on-treatment analyses. RESULTS In all, 1,050 community members completed a preintervention questionnaire and 1,048 completed a postintervention questionnaire. During the study period, there was a 5% absolute increase in the proportion of respondents who reported ever having had any test in the intervention region (from 76% to 81%) compared with no increase in the control region (77% at both time points) (P = .22). No significant differences between these groups were found in terms of being up to date generally or on specific tests. The extent of exposure to intervention materials was associated with a significant and cumulative increase in screening. CONCLUSIONS This community-based multicomponent intervention engaged hundreds of community members in wide dissemination aimed at increasing colorectal cancer screening. Although we did not find any statistically significant differences, the findings are consistent with an intervention-related increase in screening and provide preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of such interventions to improve colon cancer screening. PMID:24218373

  13. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    PubMed

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  14. Preoperative nutritional deficiencies in severely obese bariatric candidates are not linked to gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Gerig, Rahel; Ernst, Barbara; Wilms, Britta; Thurnheer, Martin; Schultes, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Severely obese subjects have been found to show a high prevalence of distinct nutritional deficiencies even without any bariatric intervention but the underlying reasons remain obscure. We tested the hypothesis that gastric Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with increased nutritional deficiency rates. Taking advantage of our large database, we identified 404 patients who had undergone a gastroscopy--as a standard diagnostic assessment before bariatric surgery--along with a histological examination of gastric mucosal biopsies with concurrent nutritional blood measurements. Eighty-five (21 %) of the obese patients included in the study displayed a gastric H. pylori infection. Sex distribution, age and body mass index did not differ between H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients (P > 0.29). Referring to nutritional markers, neither serum levels of total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, magnesium, ferritin, zinc, copper, vitamin B12, folate and 25-OH vitamin D3 nor respective deficiency rates differed between the H. pylori+ and H. pylori- patients group (all P > 0.13). Overall, 49.5 % of the bariatric candidates displayed at least one nutritional deficiency. Our data confirm previous reports on high prevalences of nutritional deficiencies in severely obese subjects. However, they do not provide evidence for a contributing role of gastric H. pylori infection to these nutritional alterations. PMID:23430478

  15. Ischemic cardiovascular disease and Helicobacter pylori. Where is the link?

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Oliaro, E; Gandolfo, N; Aruta, E; Mangiardi, L; Orzan, F; Bergerone, S; Rizzetto, M; Ponzetto, A

    2000-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in western countries. Although several major risk factors have been identified, they fail to account for all the epidemiological variants of the disease, thus warranting research into novel causal agents. Cardiovascular diseases have long been associated with chronic infections acting through the activation of inflammatory pathways, and antibiotic therapy has been shown to produce a dramatic decrease in the rate of disease recurrence in patients with a history of myocardial infarction or unstable angina. The link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and CHD, first described by Mendall et al. in 1994, has been the subject of a multitude of epidemiological and clinical studies; however, these have been so heterogeneous that not two of them are based on a comparable selection of patients and focused on the same kind of disease, e.g. stable coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies supports the thesis that H. pylori plays an extremely important role in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: the bacterium causes platelet aggregation and induces pro-coagulant activity in experimentally infected mice. H. pylori may also contribute to atherosclerosis through an auto-immune process against endothelial cells or an increased concentration of homocysteine in the blood due to decreased levels of folic acid and cobalamin. The exact role of H. pylori cannot yet be fully assessed: there is a clear and present need for further studies with appropriate epidemiological and clinical approaches to investigate through prospective and interventional trial the possible causal relationship between H. pylori and CHD. PMID:11232965

  16. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  17. Lack of Association Found between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Diarrhea-Predominant Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Feng; Xiong, Man; Ma, Zonghui; Huang, Senxiong; Li, Aimin

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The association between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) is still controversial. Here we performed a retrospective study to explore this issue. Methods. A total of 502 inpatients with Rome III confirmed IBS-D and known H. pylori status from 8 hospitals were enrolled. H. pylori-positive patients, hospitalized in the recent year, were followed up to evaluate the effects of H. pylori eradication on IBS-D clinical course. Results. Of the 502 IBS-D patients, 206 were H. pylori-positive, with an infection rate that has no significant difference with that of the general population in Guangdong province (p = 0.348). For patients followed up, no significant differences were noted as to overall symptoms (p = 0.562), abdominal pain/discomfort (p = 0.777), bloating (p = 0.736), stool frequency (p = 0.835), or stool characteristics (p = 0.928) between the H. pylori-eradicated group and the control group. The results were the same in long-term follow-up patients except the improvement of bloating, which showed that the bloating score in the H. pylori-eradicated group was significantly lower (p = 0.047). Conclusions. No significant correlation between H. pylori infection and IBS-D was noted. Overall, IBS-D patients may not benefit from H. pylori eradication. PMID:27493660

  18. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-14

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status. PMID:26185372

  19. [Results of endovascular interventions in patients with occlusive stenotic lesions of arteries of the aortoiliac segment].

    PubMed

    Karpenko, A A; Starodubtsev, V B; Ignatenko, P V; Rabtsun, A A; Mitrofanov, V O

    2016-01-01

    Presented herein are the results of endovascular interventions performed in a total of 220 patients with chronic ischaemia of lower limbs and occlusive and stenotic lesions of the aortoiliac arterial segment. Group One patients (n=155) underwent angioplasty with stenting (a total of 186 interventions performed) and Group Two patients (n=65) were subjected to recanalization of the occlusion zone with stenting (65 interventions). The remote results were assessed in all patients within the terms of up to 4 years. In Group One patients, restenosis of the stented segments within the mentioned terms of follow up was revealed in 11 (7.1%) cases, thrombosis - in 5 (3.2%) cases. In Group Two patients restenosis was detected in 3 (4.6%) cases and thrombosis of the stented segment in 6 (9.2%) cases. In the both groups, restenosis >50% or thrombosis of the stented segment developed significantly more often with the length of the stented segment exceeding 100 mm (p=0.01 in Group One and p=0.0077 in Group Two). Primary patency of the stented segments at 12 and 24 months after the intervention in Group One amounted to 97.5±1.5 and 92.3±3.3% and in Group Two 92.7±3.6 and 81.9±6.6%, respectively. A conclusion was made that endovascular interventions may be a method of choice in occlusive and stenotic lesions of the aortoiliac-segment arteries. Extended length of the lesion of iliac-segment arteries (more than 100 mm) deteriorates the rates of primary patency after stenting. PMID:27336338

  20. The healthy building intervention study: Objectives, methods and results of selected environmental measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, W.J.; Faulkner, D.; Sullivan, D.

    1998-02-17

    To test proposed methods for reducing SBS symptoms and to learn about the causes of these symptoms, a double-blind controlled intervention study was designed and implemented. This study utilized two different interventions designed to reduce occupants` exposures to airborne particles: (1) high efficiency filters in the building`s HVAC systems; and (2) thorough cleaning of carpeted floors and fabric-covered chairs with an unusually powerful vacuum cleaner. The study population was the workers on the second and fourth floors of a large office building with mechanical ventilation, air conditioning, and sealed windows. Interventions were implemented on one floor while the occupants on the other floor served as a control group. For the enhanced-filtration intervention, a multiple crossover design was used (a crossover is a repeat of the experiment with the former experimental group as the control group and vice versa). Demographic and health symptom data were collected via an initial questionnaire on the first study week and health symptom data were obtained each week, for eight additional weeks, via weekly questionnaires. A large number of indoor environmental parameters were measured during the study including air temperatures and humidities, carbon dioxide concentrations, particle concentrations, concentrations of several airborne bioaerosols, and concentrations of several microbiologic compounds within the dust sampled from floors and chairs. This report describes the study methods and summarizes the results of selected environmental measurements.

  1. ASSESSING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LOW PRESSURE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT FOR INACTIVATING HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) light from a low-pressure source to determine log inactivation versus applied fluence. Results indicate that H. pylori is readily inactivated at UV fluences typically used in water treatment r...

  2. The significance of cagA+Helicobacter pylori in reflux oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Timms, V; Charlett, A; Valori, R; Uff, J; Shepherd, N; Barr, H; McNulty, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Helicobacter pylori is a gastroduodenal pathogen associated with ulceration, dyspepsia, and adenocarcinoma. Recent preliminary studies have suggested that H pylori may be protective for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, strains of H pylori identified by the presence of the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) are shown to have a significant inverse association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that cagA+ H pylori may protect against oesophageal carcinoma, these strains may be protective for oesophagitis, a precursor of oesophageal carcinoma.
AIMS—The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cagA+ H pylori and endoscopically proved oesophagitis.
PATIENTS—The study group included 1486 patients attending for routine upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.
METHODS—At endoscopy the oesophagus was assessed for evidence of reflux disease and graded according to standard protocols. Culture and histology of gastric biopsy specimens determined H pylori status. The prevalence of cagA was identified by an antibody specific ELISA (Viva Diagnostika, Germany).
RESULTS—H pylori was present in 663/1485 (45%) patients and in 120/312 (38%) patients with oesophagitis. Anti-CagA antibody was found in 499/640 (78%) H pylori positive patients. Similarly, anti-CagA antibody was found in 422/521 (81%) patients with a normal oesophagus and in 42/60 (70%) with mild, 24/35 (69%) with moderate, and 11/24 (46%) with severe oesophagitis. The risk of severe oesophagitis was significantly decreased for patients infected with cagA+ H pylori after correction for confounding variables (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.80; p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that infection by cagA+ H pylori may be protective for oesophageal disease.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; cagA+; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophagitis; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; hiatus hernia PMID:11511554

  3. Disease manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic Canada: using epidemiology to address community concerns

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Girgis, Safwat; Bailey, Robert; Morse, John; Fedorak, Richard N; Geary, Janis; Fagan-Garcia, Katharine; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Helicobacter pylori infection, linked to gastric cancer, is responsible for a large worldwide disease burden. H pylori prevalence and gastric cancer rates are elevated among indigenous Arctic communities, but implementation of prevention strategies is hampered by insufficient information. Some communities in northern Canada have advocated for H pylori prevention research. As a first step, community-driven research was undertaken to describe the H pylori-associated disease burden in concerned communities. Design Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a clinical interview and gastroscopy with gastric biopsies taken for histopathological examination in February 2008. Setting Study procedures were carried out at the health centre in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada (population ∼600). Participants All residents of Aklavik were invited to complete a clinical interview and gastroscopy; 194 (58% female participants; 91% Aboriginal; age range 10–80 years) completed gastroscopy and had gastric biopsies taken. Primary and secondary outcome measures This analysis estimates the prevalence of gastric abnormalities detected by endoscopy and histopathology, and associations of demographic and clinical variables with H pylori prevalence. Results Among 194 participants with evaluable gastric biopsies, 66% were H pylori-positive on histology. Among H pylori-positive participants, prevalence was 94% for acute gastritis, 100% for chronic gastritis, 21% for gastric atrophy and 11% for intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, while chronic inflammation severity was mild in 9%, moderate in 47% and severe in 43%. In a multivariable model, H pylori prevalence was inversely associated with previous gastroscopy, previous H pylori therapy and aspirin use, and was positively associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions In this population, H pylori-associated gastric histopathology shows a pattern compatible with elevated risk of gastric cancer. These

  4. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on hyperammonaemia in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, H; Ito, S; Azuma, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Ohtaki, Y; Sato, F; Hirai, M; Kuriyama, M; Kohli, Y

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori has strong urease activity. Ammonia produced by H pylori in the stomach can be a source of systemic ammonia in patients with hepatic dysfunction. The effect of the eradication of H pylori on hyperammonaemia was examined in patients with liver cirrhosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were analysed in 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and hyperammonaemia. All patients were first treated with a low protein diet, kanamycin, lactulose, and branched chain enriched amino acid solution. Hyperammonaemia remained in 18 patients. These 18 patients were divided into three groups according to the status of H pylori infection; those with a diffuse distribution of H pylori in the stomach (group I), those with a regional distribution (group II), and those without H pylori (group III). These patients were given 30 mg iansoprazole, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 400 mg clarithromycin or 500 mg metronidazole for two weeks to eradicate H pylori. RESULTS: In group I ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were significantly reduced after H pylori eradication. The blood ammonia concentration at 12 weeks after the eradication was still significantly lower than that before eradication. In groups II and III the ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were not significantly reduced after eradication therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The diffuse distribution of H-pylori in the stomach contributes partly to hyperammonaemia in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the eradication of H pylori is effective in patients with hyperammonaemia with diffuse H pylori infection in the stomach. Images PMID:9245925

  5. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  6. Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis in Northern Maharashtra, India: A Histopathological Study of Gastric Mucosal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Parvez; Suryawanshi, Kishor H.; Pagare, Poonam S.; Surana, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) are of major concern today because of its causal relationships with gastrointestinal diseases. It represents one of the most common and medically important infections worldwide. H.pylori plays a key role in the aetiology of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. There is paucity of literature regarding the morphological changes in H.pylori associated gastritis. Aim We undertake this study to find out the association and prevalence of H.pylori associated gastritis by histopathological methods in North Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods A total 310 patients with various upper gastrointestinal disorders were included in this study over the period of 19 months from July 2013 to January 2015. The detailed clinical history was taken and patients were subjected to video gastroscopy. Each biopsy was studied with Haematoxylin and Eosin/Giemsa method. Results The prevalence of H.pylori was high in third to fourth decades. Out of 310 patients of gastrocopy, 144 were H.pylori positive by Haematoxylin and Eosin/Giemsa method. Morphological changes specific for H.pylori was noted as atrophy and irregular gastric mucosa, lymphoid aggregates and reactive atypia. Male patient were outnumbered by female patients. Conclusion Histopathological evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing H.pylori infection. Prevalence of H.pylori in the present study was 46.5% in patients undergoing videogastroscopic biopsies for gastritis and vague upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore and large scale studies are required to establish the diagnostic modalities for H.pylori associated gastritis to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:26266125

  7. The effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite and energy expenditure are regulated in part by ghrelin and leptin produced in the gastric mucosa, which may be modified by H. pylori colonization. We prospectively evaluated the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in serum ghrelin and leptin levels, and body weight. Methods Veterans referred for upper GI endoscopy were evaluated at baseline and ≥8 weeks after endoscopy, and H. pylori status and body weight were ascertained. During the first visit in all subjects, and during subsequent visits in the initially H. pylori-positive subjects and controls, blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h after a standard high protein meal, and levels of eight hormones determined. Results Of 92 enrolled subjects, 38 were H. pylori-negative, 44 H. pylori-positive, and 10 were indeterminate. Among 23 H. pylori-positive subjects who completed evaluation after treatment, 21 were eradicated, and 2 failed eradication. After a median of seven months following eradication, six hormones related to energy homeostasis showed no significant differences, but post-prandial acylated ghrelin levels were nearly six-fold higher than pre-eradication (p = 0.005), and median integrated leptin levels also increased (20%) significantly (p < 0.001). BMI significantly increased (5 ± 2%; p = 0.008) over 18 months in the initially H. pylori-positive individuals, but was not significantly changed in those who were H. pylori-negative or indeterminant at baseline. Conclusions Circulating meal-associated leptin and ghrelin levels and BMI changed significantly after H. pylori eradication, providing direct evidence that H. pylori colonization is involved in ghrelin and leptin regulation, with consequent effects on body morphometry. PMID:21489301

  8. Helicobacter pylori incidence and re-infection in the Aklavik H. pylori Project

    PubMed Central

    Carraher, Sally; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Munday, Rachel; Goodman, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Aklavik H. pylori Project (AHPP) (www.canhelpworkinggroup.ca) is a community-driven project examining Helicobacter pylori infection and its influence on health in a diverse Aboriginal community in the Northwest Territories. Initial research revealed that 58% of 333 participants who underwent a urea breath test (UBT) between 2007 and 2010 were H. pylori-positive. From 2008 to 2010, we offered treatment to H. pylori-positive participants and 113 consented to this treatment. Objective We estimated H. pylori incidence in AHPP participants who initially tested negative and the re-infection frequency in initially positive participants who were successfully treated to clear the infection. Methods Participants who were initially H. pylori-negative or negative after treatment during 2008–2010 were eligible for inclusion. From November 2011 to June 2012, participants were offered a UBT and the samples were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). Participants with a positive test result were classified as new cases for estimating incidence among participants testing negative at baseline and re-infection among those successfully treated for H. pylori infection. Results Among 38 initially negative participants, follow-up UBT showed that 33 remained negative, 3 were positive, and 2 had uncertain status. The estimated incidence proportion during the follow-up period was 8.3% (95% CI: 1.8–22.0%). Among 43 participants with a negative post-treatment UBT, 41 remained negative and 2 were positive. The estimated re-infection proportion during the follow-up period was 4.7% (95% CI: 0.6–16.0%). The frequency of new cases was similar in males and females. Aboriginal participants had a combined re-infection/incidence rate of 2.4% per year (95% CI: 0.8–5.9% per year). All 9 non-Aboriginal participants remained free from infection throughout the study period, as did all 23 participants aged 55 years and above. Conclusions The AHPP has substantially reduced the

  9. Population structure of Helicobacter pylori among ethnic groups in Malaysia: recent acquisition of the bacterium by the Malay population

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations. PMID:19538757

  10. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  11. Effect of Lifestyle Intervention on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Results of the POWER-UP Trial

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Marion L.; Wadden, Thomas A.; Chittams, Jesse; Diewald, Lisa; Panigrahi, Eva; Volger, Sheri; Sarwer, David B.; Moore, Reneé H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of three weight loss interventions on cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, glucose, and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation. We also examined whether categories of incremental weight change conferred greater improvements on these parameters. Methods This 2-year trial was conducted in a primary care setting and included 390 obese participants who were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: 1) Usual Care [quarterly primary care provider (PCP) visits that included education about weight management]; 2) Brief Lifestyle Counseling (quarterly PCP visits plus monthly behavioral counseling provided by a trained auxiliary healthcare provider); or 3) Enhanced Brief Lifestyle Counseling (the same care as described for the previous intervention, plus weight loss medications or meal replacements). The primary outcome was change in cardiometabolic risk factors among groups. Results At month 24, participants in Enhanced Brief Lifestyle Counseling lost significantly more weight than those in Usual Care (4.6 vs. 1.7 kg), with no other significant differences between groups. Enhanced Brief Lifestyle Counseling produced significantly greater improvements in HDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels at one or more assessments, compared with the other two interventions. Markers of insulin resistance also improved significantly more in this group throughout the 2 years. Collapsing across the three groups, greater weight loss was associated with greater improvements in triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, and markers of insulin resistance and inflammation at month 24, but was not significantly associated with reductions in blood pressure, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol at any time. Conclusions Enhanced Brief Lifestyle Counseling, which produced the largest weight loss, was generally associated with the greatest improvements in cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that an intensive weight

  12. Quantitative study of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus by competitive PCR using synthetic DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, T; Kaneko, E; Suzuki, M; Arai, H; Futami, H

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is closely related to upper gastrointestinal diseases, and the precise evaluation of H. pylori infection is necessary for the treatment of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish a method for the quantitative detection of H. pylori. We applied a competitive PCR method using various amounts of synthetic DNA fragments containing the same primer-binding and a subset of the same template sequences as the target competing for primer binding and amplification in order to quantify H. pylori in gastric mucus. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of histological examination, the rapid urease test, bacterial culture, the [13C]urea breath test, and urea and ammonia measurements in gastric juice. As the quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus increased, the rates of positivity of histological examination, the rapid urease test, and bacterial culture increased. The quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus was also significantly correlated with the results of the [13C]urea breath test and was negatively correlated with the urea/ammonia ratio in gastric juice. The competitive PCR method provides an objective measure of the quantity of H. pylori and makes it possible to distinguish true negatives from false negatives due to incomplete PCR and true positives from false positives due to contamination. This method is very useful for the precise evaluation of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:8880492

  13. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-01-01

    Background The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. Results We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. Conclusion These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent. PMID:17584914

  14. Helicobacter pylori DNA decreases pro-inflammatory cytokine production by dendritic cells and attenuates DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Jay; Owyang, Stephanie Y.; Takeuchi, Tomomi; Cole, Tyler; Zhang, Min; Liu, Maochang; Erb-Downward, John; Rubenstein, Joel H.; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background & Aims Recently there has been emerging epidemiological data to suggest Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) may protect against certain chronic inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the mechanism for the observed inverse association between H. pylori and IBD has not been described. Methods The frequency of immunoregulatory (IRS) to immunostimulatory (ISS) sequences within the genome of various bacteria was calculated using MacVector software. The induction of type I IFN and IL-12 responses by DNA-pulsed murine bone marrow–derived dendritic cells (BMDC) and human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) was analyzed by cytokine production. The effect of H. pylori DNA on E. coli DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12 was assessed. The in vivo significance of H. pylori DNA suppression was assessed in a DSS-model of colitis. The systemic levels of type I IFN were assessed in H. pylori-colonized and non-colonized patients. Results We showed that H. pylori DNA has a significantly elevated IRS:ISS ratio. In vitro experiments revealed the inability of H. pylori DNA to stimulate type I IFN or IL-12 production from mouse BMDCs or human pDCs. Additionally, H. pylori DNA was able to suppress E. coli-DNA production of type I IFN and IL-12. Administration of H. pylori DNA prior to the induction of DSS colitis significantly ameliorated the severity of colitis as compared to E. coli DNA or vehicle control in both an acute and chronic model. Finally, the systemic levels of type I IFN were found to be lower in H. pylori-colonized patients versus non-colonized controls. Conclusions Overall, our study indicates that H pylori DNA has the ability to down-regulate pro-inflammatory responses from DCs and this may in part explain the inverse association between H. pylori and IBD. PMID:21471567

  15. Ethnicity is a strong predictor for Helicobacter pylori infection in young women in a multi-ethnic European city

    PubMed Central

    den Hollander, W. J.; Holster, I. L.; den Hoed, C. M.; van Deurzen, F.; van Vuuren, A.J.; Jaddoe, V. W.; Hofman, A.; Perez, G. I. Perez; Blaser, M. J.; Moll, H. A.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM At the same time that H. pylori prevalence is declining in Western countries, immigrants from developing countries with high H. pylori prevalence have settled in Western urban areas. Actual epidemiologic data on H. pylori in a migrant community may help in realizing a more selective approach to assess H. pylori-related diseases. We aimed to define H. pylori prevalence as well as risk groups for H. pylori in a cohort of young women living in a multi-ethnic European city. METHODS We measured IgG anti-H. pylori and CagA-antibodies in serum of pregnant women included in a population-based prospective cohort study. Information on demographics, and socio-economic status was collected by questionnaires. Chi-square and logistic regression were used. RESULTS In total, 3146 (46%) of the 6837 tested women (mean age 29.7 ± 5.3) were H. pylori-positive and 1110 (35%) of them were CagA-positive. The H. pylori prevalence in Dutch women was 24%, which was significantly lower than in non-Dutch women (64%; p<0.001). In particular, H. pylori positivity was found in 92% of Moroccan (OR 19.2; 95% CI 11.8-32.0), 80% of Cape Verdean (7.6; 5.0-11.5), 81% of Turkish (9.0; 6.7-12.1), 60% of Dutch Antillean (3.3; 2.3-4.7), and 58% of Surinamese women (3.0; 2.3-3.8). Among H. pylori-positive Dutch subjects, 19% were CagA-positive compared with 40% of the non-Dutch subjects (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Despite a general trend of declining prevalence in Western countries, H. pylori remains highly prevalent in migrant communities, which may constitute target groups for screening and eradication to prevent H. pylori-related diseases. PMID:23808840

  16. Geranylgeranylacetone selectively binds to the HSP70 of Helicobacter pylori and alters its coccoid morphology

    PubMed Central

    Grave, Ewa; Yokota, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Soh; Tamura, Arisa; Ohtaki-Mizoguchi, Takako; Yokota, Kenji; Oguma, Keiji; Fujiwara, Kazuhiko; Ogawa, Nobuaki; Okamoto, Tomoya; Otaka, Michiro; Itoh, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA) is used to treat patients suffering from peptic ulcers and gastritis. We examined the effect of GGA on Helicobacter pylori, which is a causative factor of gastrointestinal diseases. Previously, we have reported that GGA binds specifically to the molecular chaperone HSP70. In this paper, we report that GGA bounds to H. pylori HSP70 (product of the DnaK gene) with 26-times higher affinity than to human HSP70, and induced large conformational changes as observed from surface plasmon resonance and circular dichroism. Binding of GGA suppressed the activity of the H. pylori chaperone. GGA also altered several characteristics of H. pylori cells. GGA-treated cells elicited enhanced interleukin-8 production by gastric cancer cell lines and potentiated susceptibility to complement as compared to untreated cells. GGA also caused morphological alterations in H. pylori as reflected in fewer coccoid-like cells, suggesting that GGA converts H. pylori to an actively dividing, spiral state (vegetative form) from a non-growing, coccoid state. This morphological conversion by GGA resulted in accelerated growth of H. pylori. These results suggest a model in which GGA sensitizes H. pylori to antibiotic treatment by converting the cells to an actively growing state. PMID:26345206

  17. Survival of Helicobacter pylori in the wastewater treatment process and the receiving river in Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xiaohui; Xi, Chuanwu; Wu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-01

    Contaminated water may play a key role in the transmission of Helicobacter pylori, resulting in gastrointestinal diseases in humans. The wastewater treatment process is an important barrier to control the transmission of H. pylori. However, the presence and viability of H. pylori in the treatment process is not well known. In this paper, the real colony morphology of H. pylori was confirmed by two types of culture media. The survival of H. pylori through the tertiary wastewater treatment process, especially UV disinfection, and in the receiving Huron River in Ann Arbor, Michigan, was investigated by plates cultivation, regular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and quantitative real-time PCR from DNA. The results demonstrated that H. pylori was not only present, but also viable in all processed wastewater samples in the Ann Arbor wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). H. pylori can be found in a higher concentration in the receiving Huron River. There are many kinds of antibiotic- and UV-resistant bacteria, including H. pylori, in the final effluent of Ann Arbor WWTP. PMID:27441864

  18. Frequency of sabA Gene in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Ranjbar, Reza; pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khalifeh Gholi, Mohammad; Aliramezani, Amir; Vaise Malekshahi, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of sialic acid binding adhesin (sabA) as a new outer membrane protein in gastroduodenal diseases has been recognized. The prevalence rate of sabA gene varies in different geographic areas. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sabA gene in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from different clinical outcomes in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study included 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms admitted to the endoscopy suite of gastroenterology section of Firouzgar University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March to August 2011. Gastric biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using standard microbiological method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sabA genopositive was determined by PCR in H. pylori strains. Results H. pylori isolates were recovered from 82 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU; n = 17), gastric ulcer (GU; n = 15), gastric cancer (GC; n = 13), and gastritis (G; n = 37). The frequency of sabA gene in H. pylori strains was 100% in gastric cancer, 86.7% in gastric ulcer, and 83.3% in both gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Conclusions This is a report on the prevalence of sabA gene in H. pylori isolated from different gastric patients in Iran. The results showed a high prevalence of sabA in our clinical H. pylori isolates. PMID:24616782

  19. An Additive Effect of Oral N-Acetyl Cysteine on Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Hamidian, Seyed Mohammad-Taghi; Aletaha, Najmeh-sadat; Taslimi, Reza; Montazeri, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background. Helicobacter pylori is highly adapted to the gastric environment where it lives within or beneath the gastric mucous layer. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of N-acetyl cysteine to the treatment regimen of H. pylori infection would affect eradication rates of the disease. Methods. A total of 79 H. pylori positive patients were randomized to two therapeutic groups. Both groups received a 14-day course of three-drug regimen including amoxicillin/clarithromycin/omeprazole. Experimental group (38 subjects) received NAC, and control group (41 subjects) received placebo, besides three-drug regimen. H. pylori eradication was evaluated by urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the cessation of therapy. Results. The rate of H. pylori eradication was 72.9% and 60.9% in experimental and control groups, respectively (P = 0.005). By logistic regression modeling, female gender (OR 3.68, 95% CI: 1.06–5.79; P = 0.040) and treatment including NAC (OR 1.88, 95% CI: 0.68–3.15; P = 0.021) were independent factors associated with H. pylori eradication. Conclusion. The results of the present study show that NAC has an additive effect on the eradication rates of H. pylori obtained with three-drug regimen and appears to be a promising means of eradicating H. pylori infection. PMID:26421191

  20. Effect of physical environment on survival of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    West, A. P.; Millar, M. R.; Tompkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effects of physical conditions on survival of Helicobacter pylori in aquatic environments. Survival for prolonged time intervals would implicate environmental water as a possible source of infection. METHODS: The effect of ionic strength, pH, urea, protein and composition of incubation atmosphere on the survival of H pylori NCTC 11637 and two clinical isolates (CI 82 and 92) was investigated. RESULTS: H pylori strains survived for longer periods in physiological (0.15M) saline than in 0.05M or 0.6M saline solution. Optimal pH range for survival was between pH 5.8 and 6.9. Addition of urea (final concentration 100 microM/l-1 and 5 mM/l-1) to neutral unbuffered 0.15M saline resulted in a reduction in survival; addition of bovine serum albumin (1%) or gelatin (1%) resulted in variable survival times compared with saline alone. Incubation in a microaerobic gas mixture prolonged survival compared with incubation in air. CONCLUSION: H pylori survival in water over a prolonged period is possible for a range of physical variables. The results indicate that H pylori could survive in environmental water which may thus act as a potential reservoir of infection. PMID:1556231

  1. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD. PMID:27005340

  2. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Gabriele; Karnholz, Arno; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Merchant, Juanita L; Haas, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type IV secretion system. METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pylori typeIstrain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 ΔcagY (defective type IV secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase, lipase, and glucose levels were determined. RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%. Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immuno-histochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased. Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue, but not in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type IV secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer. PMID:17663507

  3. Modulation of Innate Cytokine Responses by Products of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Frank; Wilson, Keith T.; James, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The gastric inflammatory and immune response in Helicobacter pylori infection may be due to the effect of different H. pylori products on innate immune mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial components could modulate cytokine production in vitro and thus contribute to Th1 polarization of the gastric immune response observed in vivo. The effect of H. pylori recombinant urease, bacterial lysate, intact bacteria, and bacterial DNA on proliferation and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from H. pylori-negative donors was examined as a model for innate cytokine responses. Each of the different H. pylori preparations induced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), but not IL-2 or IL-5, production, and all but H. pylori DNA stimulated release of IL-10. Addition of anti-IL-12 antibody to cultures partially inhibited IFN-γ production. In addition, each bacterial product inhibited mitogen-stimulated IL-2 production by PBMCs and Jurkat T cells. The inhibitory effect of bacterial products on IL-2 production correlated with inhibition of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, although urease inhibited IL-2 production without inhibiting proliferation, suggesting that inhibition of IL-2 production alone is not sufficient to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. The results of these studies demonstrate that Th1 polarization of the gastric immune response may be due in part to the direct effects of multiple different H. pylori components that enhance IFN-γ and IL-12 production while inhibiting both IL-2 production and cell proliferation that may be necessary for Th2 responses. PMID:11035734

  4. Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Noonavath, Ravinder Naik; Lakshmi, Chandrasekharan Padma; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Kate, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on platelet counts in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP). METHODS: A total of 36 cITP patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori was done by rapid urease test and Giemsa staining of the gastric biopsy specimen. All H. pylori positive patients received standard triple therapy for 14 d and were subjected for repeat endoscopy at 6 wk. Patients who continued to be positive for H. pylori on second endoscopy received second line salvage therapy. All the patients were assessed for platelet response at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th months. RESULTS: Of the 36 patients, 17 were positive for H. pylori infection and eradication was achieved in 16 patients. The mean baseline platelet count in the eradicated patients was 88615.38 ± 30117.93/mm3 and platelet count after eradication at 6 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo was 143230.77 ± 52437.51/mm3 (P = 0.003), 152562.50 ± 52892.3/mm3 (P = 0.0001), 150187.50 ± 41796.68/mm3 (P = 0.0001) respectively and in the negative patients, the mean baseline count was 71000.00 ± 33216.46/mm3 and at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th month follow up was 137631.58 ± 74364.13/mm3 (P = 0.001), 125578.95 ± 71472.1/mm3 (P = 0.005), 77210.53 ± 56892.28/mm3 (P = 0.684) respectively. CONCLUSION: Eradication of H. pylori leads to increase in platelet counts in patients with cITP and can be recommended as a complementary treatment with conventional therapy. PMID:24944483

  5. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients

    PubMed Central

    Archampong, Timothy Nii Akushe; Asmah, Richard Harry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Gyasi, Richard Kwasi; Nkrumah, Kofi Nyaako; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative urease-producing bacterium causally linked with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection is more frequent and acquired at an earlier age in developing countries compared to European populations. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients was 75.4%. However, epidemiological factors associated with infection vary across populations. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to consecutively sample dyspeptic patients at the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra between 2010 and 2012. The study questionnaire elicited their epidemiological clinical characteristics. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination of antral biopsies at upper Gastro-intestinal endoscopy. Results The sample population of dyspeptic patients attending the Endoscopy Unit for upper GI endoscopy yielded 242 patients of which 47.5% were females. The age distribution of H. pylori-infection was even across most age – groups, ranging from 69.2% (61 – 70) years to 80% (21 – 30) years. Helicobacter pylori prevalence decreased across areas mapping to the three residential classes in accordance with increasing affluence with rural areas having the highest prevalence. The unemployed and patients in farming had relatively high Helicobacter pylori infection rates of 92.3% and 91.7% respectively. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is endemic in Ghana but the persistently high prevalence across age groups despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from multiple sources in a developing country. Socio-cultural factors such as residential class and farming may be facilitating factors for its continued prevalence. PMID:26430475

  6. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication remains a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance. Hybrid therapy has attracted widespread attention because of initial report with good efficacy and safety. However, many issues on hybrid therapy are still unclear such as the eradication efficacy, safety, compliance, influencing factors, correlation with antibiotic resistance, and comparison with other regimens. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the evidence of hybrid therapy for H. pylori infection was conducted. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to September 30, 2015, searching by the terms of “Helicobacter pylori” or “H. pylori”, and “hybrid”. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Totally, 1871 patients of 12 studies received hybrid therapy. The eradication rates were 77.6–97.4% in intention-to-treat and 82.6–99.1% in per-protocol analyses. Compliance was 93.3–100.0%, overall adverse effects rate was 14.5–67.5%, and discontinued medication rate due to adverse effects was 0–6.7%. H. pylori culture and sensitivity test were performed only in 13.3% patients. Pooled analysis showed that the eradication rates with dual clarithromycin and metronidazole susceptible, isolated metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance, and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were 98.5%, 97.6%, 92.9%, and 80.0%, respectively. Overall, the efficacy, compliance, and safety of hybrid therapy were similar with sequential or concomitant therapy. However, hybrid therapy might be superior to sequential therapy in Asians. Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant

  7. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  8. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: Possible role of bacterium in liver and pancreas diseases.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth Ma; Roesler, Bruna M; Zeitune, José Mr

    2015-12-28

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an ancient microorganism that has co-evolved with humans for over 60000 years. This bacterium typically colonizes the human stomach and it is currently recognized as the most common infectious pathogen of the gastroduodenal tract. Although its chronic infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, dysplasia, neoplasia, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, it has been suggested the possible association of H. pylori infection with several extragastric effects including hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Since a microorganism resembling H. pylori was detected in samples from patients with hepatobiliary disorders, several reports have been discussed the possible role of bacteria in hepatic diseases as hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis. Additionally, studies have reported the possible association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic diseases, especially because it has been suggested that this infection could change the pancreatic physiology. Some of them have related a possible association between the microorganism and pancreatic cancer. H. pylori infection has also been suggested to play a role in the acute and chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis, autoimmune pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Considering that association of H. pylori to liver and pancreas diseases needs further clarification, our work offers a review about the results of some investigations related to the potential pathogenicity of H. pylori in these extragastric diseases. PMID:26730276

  9. Influence of pretreatment with H2 receptor antagonists on the cure rates of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Tokoro, Chikako; Inamori, Masahiko; Koide, Tomoko; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Endo, Hiroki; Hosono, Kunihiro; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Yoneda, Masato; Yasuzaki, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Masami; Abe, Yasunobu; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Kawana, Ichiro; Nakajima, Atsushi; Maeda, Shin; Matsuda, Reikei; Takahashi, Daisuke

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Pretreatment with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) reportedly decreases the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication, however, the effect of pretreatment with an H2 receptor antagonist (H2RA) on H. pylori eradication has not yet been studied. We compared the efficacy of eradication regimen (lansoprazole/amoxicillin/clarithromycin) in patients with H. pylori infection with or without H2RA pretreatment. Material/Methods In this retrospective study conducted at three centers, 310 patients with H. pylori infection were treated. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was made using the rapid urease test, bacterial cultures and histological examination of endoscopic biopsy specimens. The patients were assigned to receive an eradication regimen first or following pretreatment with H2RA. Eradication was assessed using the 13C-urea breath test more than 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. Results Overall, H. pylori was eradicated in 79.7% of the cases: the eradication rate was 81.6% in the pretreatment group, and 77.6% in the eradication first group (p=0.3799, chi-square test). No significant difference in the eradication rate was observed between the two groups. Conclusions Pretreatment with H2RA had no significant influence on the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:21525804

  10. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: Possible role of bacterium in liver and pancreas diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth MA; Roesler, Bruna M; Zeitune, José MR

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an ancient microorganism that has co-evolved with humans for over 60000 years. This bacterium typically colonizes the human stomach and it is currently recognized as the most common infectious pathogen of the gastroduodenal tract. Although its chronic infection is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, dysplasia, neoplasia, MALT lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma, it has been suggested the possible association of H. pylori infection with several extragastric effects including hepatobiliary and pancreatic diseases. Since a microorganism resembling H. pylori was detected in samples from patients with hepatobiliary disorders, several reports have been discussed the possible role of bacteria in hepatic diseases as hepatocellular carcinoma, cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and fibrosis. Additionally, studies have reported the possible association between H. pylori infection and pancreatic diseases, especially because it has been suggested that this infection could change the pancreatic physiology. Some of them have related a possible association between the microorganism and pancreatic cancer. H. pylori infection has also been suggested to play a role in the acute and chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis, autoimmune pancreatitis, diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Considering that association of H. pylori to liver and pancreas diseases needs further clarification, our work offers a review about the results of some investigations related to the potential pathogenicity of H. pylori in these extragastric diseases. PMID:26730276

  11. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection.

    PubMed

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection. PMID:26855818

  12. Helicobacter pylori and its reservoirs: A correlation with the gastric infection

    PubMed Central

    Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has long been found to cause gastric diseases such as gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. The transmission medium of this bacterium has yet to be determined, though several studies have speculated that the oral cavity is a reservoir for H. pylori. Others have also reported that the oral cavity may be a source of both transmission and gastric reinfection; however, such results are controversial. We reviewed the literature and selected studies that report an association among H. pylori detections in the oral cavity (dental plaque, saliva, tongue, tonsil tissue, root canals, oral mucosa) in humans and in animals, as well as in the human stomach. The oral cavity may be considered the main reservoir for H. pylori. There are a correlations between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and periodontal disease, oral tissue inflammation, H. pylori transmission, and gastric reinfection. We believe that the mouth is a reservoir and that it plays a crucial role in both H. pylori transmission and gastric infection. PMID:26855818

  13. Current views of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li-Jing; Mao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and may play a potential role in certain extra-intestinal diseases. H. pylori infection are mainly acquired during childhood, and it has been reported that in endemic areas of China the infection rates are extraordinarily higher in HSP children, particular those with abdominal manifestations. Furthermore, eradication therapy may ameliorate Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) manifestations and decrease the recurrence of HSP. Therefore, results suggested that detection of H. pylori infection by appropriate method ought to be applied in HSP children. Current evidences indicate that local injury of gastric mucosa and immunological events induced by H. pylori infection are involved in the development of HSP. Increased serum IgA, cryoglobulins, C3 levels, autoimmunity, proinflammatory substances and molecular mimicry inducing immune complex and cross-reactive antibodies caused by H. pylori infection might play their roles in the course of HSP. However, there are no investigations confirming the causality between H. pylori infection and HSP, and the pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. More bench and clinical studies need to be executed to elaborate the complex association between H. pylori and HSP. PMID:26862506

  14. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27573783

  15. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and adherence to gastric mucosal cells by Pycnogenol.

    PubMed

    Rohdewald, Peter; Beil, Winfried

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains has necessitated the identification of alternative additive therapies for the treatment of this infection. The study tested whether a specific pine bark extract (Pycnogenol is effective in inhibiting the growth and adherence of H. pylori in vitro. Inhibition of H. pylori growth by Pycnogenol was tested in liquid medium as well as in an in vitro model by using sessile bacteria attached to AGS cells. Adherence was determined by co-incubation of gastric cells with Pycnogenol and H. pylori in vitro. Pycnogenol inhibited H. pylori growth in suspension with an MIC(50) of 12.5 microg/mL. Growth of H. pylori in infected cells was reduced to 10% of the control value by 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells was reduced by 70% after 3 h incubation with 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. The results show a significant, yet limited inhibition of growth and adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells by Pycnogenol. In vivo studies have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:18350522

  16. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  17. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  18. Fragmentation of CagA Reduces Hummingbird Phenotype Induction by Helicobactor pylori.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Chi; Kuo, Wein-Shung; Chen, Ying-Chieh; Perng, Chin-Lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng; Ou, Yueh-Hsing

    2016-01-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been linked to various gastro-intestinal diseases; nevertheless it remains to be clarified why only a minority of infected individuals develop illness. Studies from the West have indicated that the cagA gene and the associated EPIYA genotype of H. pylori is closely linked to the development of severe gastritis and gastric carcinoma; however, as yet no consistent correlation has been found among the bacteria from East Asia. In addition to genotype variation, the CagA protein undergoes fragmentation; however, the functional significance of fragmentation with respect to H. pylori infection remains unknown. In this study, we isolated 594 H. pylori colonies from 99 patients and examined the fragmentation patterns of CagA protein using immunoblotting. By analyzing the ability of the isolates to induce the host cell morphological transition to the highly invasive hummingbird phenotype, we demonstrated that H. pylori colonies with substantial CagA fragmentation are less potent in terms of causing this morphological transition. Our results uncovered a functional role for CagA fragmentation with respect to H. pylori-induced hummingbird phenotype formation and these findings suggest the possibility that the post-translational processing of CagA may be involved in H. pylori infection pathogenesis. PMID:26934189

  19. A method for assessment of Helicobacter pylori genotype using stool specimens.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Itaru; Sasaki, Tadahiro; Fujimoto, Saori; Moriyama, Toshiki; Azuma, Takeshi; Yamamoto, Yoshimasa

    2009-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has been regarded as a major factor associated with the development of gastric diseases. The characterization of infected H. pylori in asymptomatic individuals is important for the prediction of the onset of such diseases. However, because of the difficulty in obtaining gastric biopsy samples, H. pylori in healthy subjects have not been studied sufficiently. Therefore, we tested a noninvasive method for the characterization of H. pylori using stool specimens. This method involved H. pylori antigen detection in stool specimens by immunochromatography; confirmation of H. pylori DNA by real-time PCR that involved the detection of its 16S rRNA gene in the DNA extracted from stool specimens; and nested PCR with genotype-specific primer pairs. A total of 80 samples obtained from asymptomatic subjects were assessed using this method. The results showed that the prevalence of H. pylori in asymptomatic Japanese individuals was 37.5%. The detection rate of the virulence factor gene cagA was 18.8%. Furthermore, all the detected cagA belonged to the highly virulent East-Asian type. These data suggest that the method used in this study is valuable for studying the molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection in asymptomatic people. PMID:19484810

  20. Effect of curing Helicobacter pylori infection on intragastric pH during treatment with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Verdú, E F; Armstrong, D; Idström, J P; Labenz, J; Stolte, M; Dorta, G; Börsch, G; Blum, A L

    1995-01-01

    It has been shown that omeprazole treatment produces higher intragastric pH values in Helicobacter pylori positive subjects than in H pylori negative subjects. This study aimed to investigate the effect of curing H pylori on the intragastric pH in both the presence and absence of omeprazole therapy. Twenty four hour intragastric pH recordings were performed before and after a one week course of omeprazole (20 mg once daily) in 18 H pylori positive subjects and were repeated after the infection had been cured. In the absence of omeprazole, the total 24 hour pH values before cure did not differ from those afterwards. During omeprazole treatment the 24 hour pH values were much higher before (median (95% CI) 5.4: 4.3, 6.0), than after cure of infection (3.6: 2.1, 4.4; p < 0.001). The omeprazole induced fall in H+ activity before cure of H pylori did not, however, differ from that afterwards. It is concluded that the apparently greater antisecretory effect of omeprazole during H pylori infection may be a result of the production of acid neutralising compounds by the H pylori. Although a direct interaction between H pylori and omeprazole cannot be excluded, it seems unlikely. PMID:8537042

  1. ATP-Dependent Lon Protease Contributes to Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Bin; Wang, Minggang; Hou, Nengyi; Hu, Xiao; Jia, Guiqing; Qin, Xianpeng; Zuo, Xiaofei; Liu, Yang; Luo, Kun; Song, Wei; Wang, Kang; Pang, Minghui

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest risk factor for development of gastric cancer. Host cellular stress responses, including inflammatory and immune responses, have been reported highly linked to H. pylori-induced carcinogenesis. However, whether mitochondrial regulation and metabolic reprogramming, which are potently associated with various cancers, play a role in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis is largely unknown. Here we revealed that Lon protease (Lonp1), which is a key inductive of mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) and is required to maintain the mitochondrial quality, was greatly induced in H. pylori infected gastric epithelial cells. Importantly, we uncovered that knockdown of Lonp1 expression significantly diminished the metabolic switch to glycolysis and gastric cell proliferation associated with low multiplicity of H. pylori infection. In addition, Lonp1 overexpression in gastric epithelial cells also promoted glycolytic switch and cell overgrowth, suggesting H. pylori effect is Lonp1 dependent. We further demonstrated that H. pylori induced Lonp1 expression and cell overgrowth, at least partially, via HIF-1α regulation. Collectively, our results concluded the relevance of Lonp1 for cell proliferation and identified Lonp1 as a key regulator of metabolic reprogramming in H. pylori-induced gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27108387

  2. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People

    PubMed Central

    Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  3. Factors associated with H pylori epidemiology in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Cinthia; Barrado, Andrés; Janjetic, Mariana; Balcarce, Norma; Rua, Eduardo Cueto; Oshiro, Masaru; Calcagno, María L; Sarrasague, Margarita Martinez; Fuda, Julián; Weill, Ricardo; Zubillaga, Marcela; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I; Boccio, José

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To determine prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic children in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and to investigate factors associated with H pylori positivity. METHODS: A total of 395 children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms referred to the Gastroente-rology Unit of the Children Hospital “Sor Maria Ludovica” were evaluated for the presence of H pylori by the 13C-Urea Breath Test (13C-UBT). A questionnaire was applied to the recruited population. RESULTS: Prevalence of H pylori infection was 40.0% in this population (mean age 9.97 ± 3.1 years). The factors associated with H pylori positivity were number of siblings (P < 0.001), presence of pet cats (P = 0.03) and birds (P = 0.04) in the household, and antecedents of gastritis among family members (P = 0.01). After multivariate analysis, number of siblings [Odds ratio (OR) = 1.39; 95% CI, 1.20-1.61] and contact with pet cats (OR = 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.09) remained as variables associated with H pylori infection. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of H pylori infection in children with upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Argentina was similar to that reported in developed countries. Children from families with a higher crowding index and presence of pet cats have a higher risk of being colonized with H pylori. PMID:16981273

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  5. Helicobacter pylori Resists the Antimicrobial Activity of Calprotectin via Lipid A Modification and Associated Biofilm Formation

    PubMed Central

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Cullen, Thomas W.; Chazin, Walter J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Trent, M. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori is one of several pathogens that persist within the host despite a robust immune response. H. pylori elicits a proinflammatory response from host epithelia, resulting in the recruitment of immune cells which manifests as gastritis. Relatively little is known about how H. pylori survives antimicrobials, including calprotectin (CP), which is present during the inflammatory response. The data presented here suggest that one way H. pylori survives the nutrient sequestration by CP is through alteration of its outer membrane. CP-treated H. pylori demonstrates increased bacterial fitness in response to further coculture with CP. Moreover, CP-treated H. pylori cultures form biofilms and demonstrate decreased cell surface hydrophobicity. In response to CP, the H. pylori Lpx lipid A biosynthetic enzymes are not fully functional. The lipid A molecules observed in H. pylori cultures treated with CP indicate that the LpxF, LpxL, and LpxR enzyme functions are perturbed. Transcriptional analysis of lpxF, lpxL, and lpxR indicates that metal restriction by CP does not control this pathway through transcriptional regulation. Analyses of H. pylori lpx mutants reveal that loss of LpxF and LpxL results in increased fitness, similar to what is observed in the presence of CP; moreover, these mutants have significantly increased biofilm formation and reduced cell surface hydrophobicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism of H. pylori resistance to the antimicrobial activity of CP via lipid A modification strategies and resulting biofilm formation. PMID:26646009

  6. Classroom ventilation and indoor air quality-results from the FRESH intervention study.

    PubMed

    Rosbach, J; Krop, E; Vonk, M; van Ginkel, J; Meliefste, C; de Wind, S; Gehring, U; Brunekreef, B

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate ventilation of classrooms may lead to increased concentrations of pollutants generated indoors in schools. The FRESH study, on the effects of increased classroom ventilation on indoor air quality, was performed in 18 naturally ventilated classrooms of 17 primary schools in the Netherlands during the heating seasons of 2010-2012. In 12 classrooms, ventilation was increased to targeted CO2 concentrations of 800 or 1200 ppm, using a temporary CO2 controlled mechanical ventilation system. Six classrooms were included as controls. In each classroom, data on endotoxin, β(1,3)-glucans, and particles with diameters of <10 μm (PM10 ) and <2.5 μm (PM2.5 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ) were collected during three consecutive weeks. Associations between the intervention and these measured indoor air pollution levels were assessed using mixed models, with random classroom effects. The intervention lowered endotoxin and β(1,3)-glucan levels and PM10 concentrations significantly. PM10 for instance was reduced by 25 μg/m³ (95% confidence interval 13-38 μg/m³) from 54 μg/m³ at maximum ventilation rate. No significant differences were found between the two ventilation settings. Concentrations of PM2.5 and NO2 were not affected by the intervention. Our results provide evidence that increasing classroom ventilation is effective in decreasing the concentrations of some indoor-generated pollutants. PMID:26171647

  7. A weight-loss intervention program designed for Mexican-American women: Cultural adaptations and results

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Vega-López, Sonia; Kauffman, Tia; Calderón, Mariana Rosales; Cervantes, María Antonieta

    2013-01-01

    Background This study assessed the feasibility of a culturally-appropriate weight-loss intervention targeting obese Spanish-speaking Mexican women. Methods This 12-month weight-loss program was based on behavioral interventions previously used successfully with English-speaking participants. Cultural adaptations included: female interventionists, minimal written materials, emphasis on group activities, focus on Mexican traditions and beliefs, and skill-building approach to food measurement. All sessions were conducted in Spanish. The study had few exclusionary criteria, which allowed participation of women with a wide range of literacy levels. Results Recruitment exceeded expectations, with 47 participants enrolling in the program. Not counting participants who became pregnant during the study, attendance at 6 and 12 months was 62% and 50% respectively. Mean weight loss at 6 and 12 months was 5.3 kg and 7.2 kg, respectively, with a mean reduction in BMI of 4.0 kg/m2 and 5.5 kg/m2 from baseline to 6 and 12 months, respectively. Discussion This pilot study shows that it is feasible to develop and implement culturally-appropriate behavioral lifestyle interventions for obesity treatment in Mexican-American women. PMID:22460538

  8. RAN as a predictor of reading skills, and vice versa: results from a randomised reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Ulrika

    2014-07-01

    Although phonemic awareness is a well-known factor predicting early reading development, there is also evidence that Rapid Automatized Naming (RAN) is an independent factor that contributes to early reading. The aim of this study is to examine phonemic awareness and RAN as predictors of reading speed, reading comprehension and spelling for children with reading difficulties. It also investigates a possible reciprocal relationship between RAN and reading skills, and the possibility of enhancing RAN by intervention. These issues are addressed by examining longitudinal data from a randomised reading intervention study carried out in Sweden for 9-year-old children with reading difficulties (N = 112). The intervention comprised three main elements: training of phonics, reading comprehension strategies and reading speed. The analysis of the data was carried out using structural equation modelling. The results demonstrated that after controlling for autoregressive effects and non-verbal IQ, RAN predicts reading speed whereas phonemic awareness predicts reading comprehension and spelling. RAN was significantly enhanced by training and a reciprocal relationship between reading speed and RAN was found. These findings contribute to support the view that both phonemic awareness and RAN independently influence early phases of reading, and that both are possible to enhance by training. PMID:24803174

  9. Helicobacter pylori γ-Glutamyltranspeptidase Induces Tolerogenic Human Dendritic Cells by Activation of Glutamate Receptors.

    PubMed

    Käbisch, Romy; Semper, Raphaela P; Wüstner, Stefanie; Gerhard, Markus; Mejías-Luque, Raquel

    2016-05-15

    Helicobacter pylori infection is characterized by chronic persistence of the bacterium. Different virulence factors, including H. pylori γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (gGT), have been reported to induce tolerogenicity by reprogramming dendritic cells (DCs). gGT is present in all bacterial isolates, indicating an important role for gGT in the course of infection. In the current study, we have analyzed the effect of H. pylori gGT on human DCs and the subsequent adaptive immune response. We show that glutamate produced due to H. pylori gGT enzymatic activity tolerizes DCs by inhibiting cAMP signaling and dampening IL-6 secretion in response to the infection. Together, our results provide a novel molecular mechanism by which H. pylori manipulates the host's immune response to persist within its host. PMID:27183641

  10. Preliminary investigations into surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jiaying; Sun, Yinjing; Hou, Jiapeng; Wang, Yuyan; Liu, Yu; Xie, Cao; Lu, Weiyue; Pan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports investigations into the preparation and characterization of surface molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (SMINs) designed to adhere to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Imprinted nanoparticles were prepared by the inverse microemulsion polymerization method. A fraction of Lpp20, an outer membrane protein of H. pylori known as NQA, was chosen as template and modified with myristic acid to facilitate its localization on the surface of the nanoparticles. The interaction between these SMINs with the template NQA were evaluated using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), change in zeta potential and fluorescence polarization (FP). The results were highly consistent in demonstrating a preferential recognition of the template NQA for SMINs compared with the control nanoparticles. In vitro experiments also indicate that such SMINs are able to adhere to H. pylori and may be useful for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26713273