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Sample records for pylori trans-translation components

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis, inhibits Helicobacter pylori peptide deformylase activity.

    PubMed

    Cui, Kunqiang; Lu, Weiqiang; Zhu, Lili; Shen, Xu; Huang, Jin

    2013-05-31

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major causative factor for gastrointestinal illnesses, H. pylori peptide deformylase (HpPDF) catalyzes the removal of formyl group from the N-terminus of nascent polypeptide chains, which is essential for H. pylori survival and is considered as a promising drug target for anti-H. pylori therapy. Propolis, a natural antibiotic from honeybees, is reported to have an inhibitory effect on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. In addition, previous studies suggest that the main active constituents in the propolis are phenolic compounds. Therefore, we evaluated a collection of phenolic compounds derived from propolis for enzyme inhibition against HpPDF. Our study results show that Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), one of the main medicinal components of propolis, is a competitive inhibitor against HpPDF, with an IC50 value of 4.02 μM. Furthermore, absorption spectra and crystal structural characterization revealed that different from most well known PDF inhibitors, CAPE block the substrate entrance, preventing substrate from approaching the active site, but CAPE does not have chelate interaction with HpPDF and does not disrupt the metal-dependent catalysis. Our study provides valuable information for understanding the potential anti-H. pylori mechanism of propolis, and CAPE could be served as a lead compound for further anti-H. pylori drug discovery. PMID:23611786

  2. Competition between trans-translation and termination or elongation of translation

    PubMed Central

    Asano, Krisana; Kurita, Daisuke; Takada, Kazuma; Konno, Takayuki; Muto, Akira; Himeno, Hyouta

    2005-01-01

    The effects of tRNA, RF1 and RRF on trans-translation by tmRNA were examined using a stalled complex of ribosome prepared using a synthetic mRNA and pure Escherichia coli translation factors. No endoribonucleolytic cleavage of mRNA around the A site was found in the stalled ribosome and was required for the tmRNA action. When the A site was occupied by a stop codon, alanyl-tmRNA competed with RF1 with the efficiency of peptidyl-transfer to alanyl-tmRNA for trans-translation inversely correlated to the efficiency of translation termination. The competition was not affected by RF3. A sense codon also serves as a target for alanyl-tmRNA with competition of aminoacyl-tRNA. The extent of inhibition was decreased with the length of the 3′-extension of mRNA. RRF, only at a high concentration, slightly affected peptidyl-transfer for trans-translation, although it did not affect the canonical elongation. These results indicate that alanyl-tmRNA does not absolutely require the truncation of mRNA around the A site but prefers an mRNA of a short 3′-extension from the A site and that it can operate on either a sense or termination codon at the A site, at which alanyl-tmRNA competes with aminoacyl-tRNA, RF and RRF. PMID:16204455

  3. Natural products and food components with anti-Helicobacter pylori activities

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Trang, Vu Thu; Morimoto, Norihito; Nishida, Yoshie; Matsumura, Yoshihisa; Sugiura, Tetsuro

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) colonizes in over half of the world’s population. H. pylori that establishes life-long infection in the stomach is definitely associated with gastro-duodenal diseases and a wide variety of non-gastrointestinal tract conditions such as immune thrombocytopenia. Triple therapy which consists of a proton pump inhibitor and combinations of two antibiotics (amoxicillin, clarithromycin or amoxicillin, metronidazol) is commonly used for H. pylori eradication. Recently, the occurrence of drug-resistant H. pylori and the adverse effect of antibiotics have severely weakened eradication therapy. Generally antibiotics induce the disturbance of human gastrointestinal microflora. Furthermore, there are inappropriate cases of triple therapy such as allergy to antibiotics, severe complications (liver and/or kidney dysfunction), the aged and people who reject the triple therapy. These prompt us to seek alterative agents instead of antibiotics and to develop more effective and safe therapy with these agents. The combination of these agents actually may result in lower a dose of antibiotics. There are many reports world-wide that non-antibiotic substances from natural products potentially have an anti-H. pylori agent. We briefly review the constituents derived from nature that fight against H. pylori in the literature with our studies. PMID:25083070

  4. Escherichia coli Quorum-Sensing EDF, A Peptide Generated by Novel Multiple Distinct Mechanisms and Regulated by trans-Translation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sathish; Kolodkin-Gal, Ilana; Vesper, Oliver; Alam, Nawsad; Schueler-Furman, Ora; Moll, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eshcerichia coli mazEF is a stress-induced toxin-antitoxin module mediating cell death and requiring a quorum-sensing (QS) extracellular death factor (EDF), the pentapeptide NNWNN. Here we uncovered several distinct molecular mechanisms involved in its generation from the zwf mRNA encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In particular, we show that, under stress conditions, the endoribonuclease MazF cleaves specific ACA sites, thereby generating a leaderless zwf mRNA which is truncated 30 codons after the EDF-encoding region. Since the nascent ribosome peptide exit tunnel can accommodate up to 40 amino acids, this arrangement allows the localization of the EDF residues inside the tunnel when the ribosome is stalled at the truncation site. Moreover, ribosome stalling activates the trans-translation system, which provides a means for the involvement of ClpPX in EDF generation. Furthermore, the trans-translation is described as a regulatory system that attenuated the generation of EDF, leading to low levels of EDF in the single cell. Therefore, the threshold EDF molecule concentration required is achieved only by the whole population, as expected for QS. PMID:26814184

  5. Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B E; Cohen, H; Blaser, M J

    1997-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium which causes chronic gastritis and plays important roles in peptic ulcer disease, gastric carcinoma, and gastric lymphoma. H. pylori has been found in the stomachs of humans in all parts of the world. In developing countries, 70 to 90% of the population carries H. pylori. In developed countries, the prevalence of infection is lower. There appears to be no substantial reservoir of H. pylori aside from the human stomach. Transmission can occur by iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes. H. pylori is able to colonize and persist in a unique biological niche within the gastric lumen. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which appears essential to the survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A variety of tests to diagnose H. pylori infection are now available. Histological examination of gastric tissue, culture, rapid urease testing, DNA probes, and PCR analysis, when used to test gastric tissue, all require endoscopy. In contrast, breath tests, serology, gastric juice PCR, and urinary excretion of [15N]ammonia are noninvasive tests that do not require endoscopy. In this review, we highlight advances in the detection of the presence of the organism and methods of differentiating among types of H. pylori, and we provide a background for appropriate chemotherapy of the infection. PMID:9336670

  6. HELICOBACTER PYLORI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacteria which inhabits the human stomach and upper gastrointestinal tract. This encyclopedic entry summarizes the potential role of this organism as a waterborne pathogen. Information is provided on the physiology and morphology of this bacter...

  7. Toxicosis in Helicobacter Pylori infection - a hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    BELASCU, MIHAI

    2013-01-01

    Background and aim We present a new clinical entity in relation to the Helicobacter pylori infection characterized by complex and varied clinical extra-digestive manifestations. Clinical findings such as asthenia, adynamia, sleep disorders, hair and nails modifications, digestive symptoms and heart rhythm disorders describe the clinical aspect of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods The clinical presentation and therapy of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection were analyzed. Results Combined drug therapy: antibiotics + proton pump inhibitors + colloidal bismuth compound determinate remission of the symptoms in the first 3 to 5 days. The characteristic of the relation between Helicobacter pylori and the mucus-epithelial cell complex, the properties of the bacterial cell components, and the inflammatory and immunological response targeting other organs describe the immuno-pathological outbreak of Helicobacter pylori. Conclusion We support the term of toxicosis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection in selected cases. PMID:26527950

  8. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    Peptic ulcer disease - H. pylori ; PUD - H. pylori ... There are several methods to test for H. pylori infection. Breath Test (Carbon Isotope-urea Breath Test, or UBT) Up to 2 weeks before the test, you need to stop taking ...

  9. Helicobacter pylori Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... pylori stool antigen test; H. pylori breath test; Urea breath test; CLO test; Rapid urease test (RUT) ... of H. pylori antigen in a stool sample Urea breath test A person drinks a liquid containing ...

  10. Helicobacter Pylori Infections

    MedlinePlus

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria that causes infection in the stomach. It is found in about two- ... breath or stool to see if it contains H. pylori. The best treatment is a combination of ...

  11. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-12-15

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  12. Helicobacter pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hyo Jun; Lee, Dong Soo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer still is a major concern as the third most common cancer worldwide, despite declining rates of incidence in many Western countries. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the major cause of gastric carcinogenesis, and its infection insults gastric mucosa leading to the occurrence of atrophic gastritis which progress to intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, early gastric cancer, and advanced gastric cancer consequently. This review focuses on multiple factors including microbial virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors, which can heighten the chance of occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma due to H. pylori infection. Bacterial virulence factors are key components in controlling the immune response associated with the induction of carcinogenesis, and cagA and vacA are the most well-known pathogenic factors. Host genetic polymorphisms contribute to regulating the inflammatory response to H. pylori and will become increasingly important with advancing techniques. Environmental factors such as high salt and smoking may also play a role in gastric carcinogenesis. It is important to understand the virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors interacting in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis. To conclude, prevention via H. pylori eradication and controlling environmental factors such as diet, smoking, and alcohol is an important strategy to avoid H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26690981

  13. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer. PMID:27573782

  14. Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen KidsHealth > For Parents > Stool Test: H. Pylori Antigen Print A A A Text Size ... en español Muestra de materia fecal: antígeno de H. pylori What It Is Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) ...

  15. Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Backert, Steffen; Neddermann, Matthias; Maubach, Gunter; Naumann, Michael

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is estimated to infect more than half of the worlds human population and represents a major risk factor for chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, MALT lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma. H. pylori infection and clinical consequences are controlled by highly complex interactions between the host, colonizing bacteria, and environmental parameters. Important bacterial determinants linked with gastric disease development include the cag pathogenicity island encoding a type IV secretion system (T4SS), the translocated effector protein CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, adhesin BabA, urease, serine protease HtrA, secreted outer membrane vesicles, and many others. The high quantity of these factors and allelic changes in the corresponding genes reveals a sophisticated picture and problems in evaluating the impact of each distinct component. Extensive work has been performed to pinpoint molecular processes related to H. pylori-triggered pathogenesis using Mongolian gerbils, mice, primary tissues, as well as novel in vitro model systems such as gastroids. The manipulation of host signaling cascades by the bacterium appears to be crucial for inducing pathogenic downstream activities and gastric disease progression. Here, we review the most recent advances in this important research area. PMID:27531534

  16. Biofilm formation by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Stark, R M; Gerwig, G J; Pitman, R S; Potts, L F; Williams, N A; Greenman, J; Weinzweig, I P; Hirst, T R; Millar, M R

    1999-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori NCTC 11637 produces a water-insoluble biofilm when grown under defined conditions with a high carbon:nitrogen ratio in continuous culture and in 10% strength Brucella broth supplemented with 3 g l-1 glucose. Biofilm accumulated at the air/liquid interface of the culture. Light microscopy of frozen sections of the biofilm material showed few bacterial cells in the mass of the biofilm. The material stained with periodic acid Schiff's reagent. Fucose, glucose, galactose, and glycero-manno-heptose, N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid were identified in partially purified and in crude material, using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The sugar composition strongly indicates the presence of a polysaccharide as a component of the biofilm material. Antibodies (IgG) to partially purified material were found in both sero-positive and sero-negative individuals. Treatment of the biofilm material with periodic acid reduced or abolished immunoreactivity. Treatment with 5 mol l-1 urea at 100 degrees C and with phenol did not remove antigenic recognition by patient sera. The production of a water-insoluble biofilm by H. pylori may be important in enhancing resistance to host defence factors and antibiotics, and in microenvironmental pH homeostasis facilitating the growth and survival of H. pylori in vivo. PMID:10063642

  17. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan.

    PubMed

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-Korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-Ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  18. Rare Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genotypes in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Matsunari, Osamu; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Shiota, Seiji; Suzuki, Rumiko; Vilaichone, Ratha-korn; Uchida, Tomohisa; Ratanachu-ek, Thawee; Tshering, Lotay; Mahachai, Varocha; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2016-01-01

    Both the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and the incidence of gastric cancer are high in Bhutan. The high incidence of atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer suggest the phylogeographic origin of an infection with a more virulent strain of H. pylori. More than 90% of Bhutanese strains possessed the highly virulent East Asian-type CagA and all strains had the most virulent type of vacA (s1 type). More than half also had multiple repeats in East Asian-type CagA, which are rare in other countries and are reported characteristictly found in assciation with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer consistent with Bhutanese strains having multiple H. pylori virulence factors associated with an increase in gastric cancer risk. Phylogeographic analyses showed that most Bhutanese strains belonged to the East Asian population type with some strains (17.5%) sharing East Asian and Amerindian components. Only 9.5% belonged to the European type consistant with H. pylori in Bhutan representing an intermediate evolutionary stage between H. pylori from European and East Asian countries. PMID:26931643

  19. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world’s population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  20. Helicobacter pylori associated Asian enigma: Does diet deserve distinction?

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Faisal

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widespread infections in humans worldwide that chronically infects up to 50% of the world's population. The infection is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer, therefore, it has been classified as class I definite carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Despite the established etiological role of H. pylori, its actual distribution and association with related diseases is controversial and there is a large intercountry variation especially among Asian countries. H. pylori infection is more frequent in developing countries like India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh as compared to developed Asian countries like Japan, China and South Korea. However, the frequency of gastric cancer is comparatively lower in India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh with that of Japan, China and South Korea. Such phenomenon of clinical diversity, defined as enigma, is judged by genetic variability of the infecting H. pylori strains, differences in the host genetic background in various ethnic groups, and environmental factors such as dietary habits. Most of the studies have so far focused on the bacterial factor while environmental issues, including dietary components, were not given due attention as one of the factors related with H. pylori associated gastric carcinogenesis. The dietary factor has been suggested to play an important role in H. pylori related carcinogenesis, and in this respect several studies have corroborated the intake of various dietary components as modulatory factors for gastric cancer risk. In this review, such studies, from in vitro experiments to clinical trials, are being focused in detail with respect to enigma associated with H. pylori. It may be conceivably concluded from the available evidence that dietary factor can be a game changer in the scenario of Asian enigma, particularly in high risk population infected with

  1. Tests for H. pylori

    MedlinePlus

    ... special substance that has urea. Urea is a waste product the body produces as it breaks down protein. The urea used in the test has been made harmlessly radioactive. If H. pylori are present, the bacteria convert ...

  2. Detoxification of 7-Dehydrocholesterol Fatal to Helicobacter pylori Is a Novel Role of Cholesterol Glucosylation

    PubMed Central

    Hosoda, Kouichi; McGee, David J.; Hayashi, Shunji; Yokota, Kenji; Hirai, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    The glucosylation of free cholesterol (FC) by Helicobacter pylori cells has various biological significances for the survival of this bacterium. H. pylori cells with glucosylated FC are capable of evading host immune systems, such as phagocytosis by macrophages and activation of antigen-specific T cells, and surviving in the gastric mucosal tissues for long periods. An additional role of cholesterol glucosylation in the survival of H. pylori which is distinct from the role of escaping the host immune system, however, has yet to be identified. This study demonstrated that 7-dehydrocholesterol (7dFC), an FC precursor, is a toxic compound fatal to H. pylori cells, but the cell membrane of H. pylori is capable of absorbing this toxic sterol via glucosylation. In contrast to the case with 7dFC, no toxicity to H. pylori cells was detected from the glucosylated 7dFC. In addition, cgt gene mutant H. pylori cells that cannot glucosylate cholesterols had higher susceptibility to the toxic action of 7dFC than wild-type H. pylori cells. These results indicate that the cgt gene product of H. pylori serves to detoxify the sterol fatal to this bacterium and to permit this toxic sterol as a cell membrane lipid component. In summary, this study defined a novel role of cholesterol glucosylation in H. pylori. PMID:23144252

  3. Helicobacter pylori-associated immune thrombocytopenia: clinical features and pathogenic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Kuwana, Masataka

    2014-01-21

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an autoimmune disease mediated by anti-platelet autoantibodies. There is growing evidence that the eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) effectively increases platelet count in a considerable proportion of ITP patients infected with this bacterium. In the majority of ITP patients responding to H. pylori eradication therapy, the anti-platelet autoantibody response is completely resolved with no relapse for more than 7 years, indicating that the disease is cured. Therefore, adult patients with suspected ITP should be examined for H. pylori infection, and eradication therapy is recommended if the infection is present. Notably, however, the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy in ITP patients varies widely among countries, with a higher response rate in Japan compared with the United States and European countries other than Italy. The pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated ITP is still uncertain, although the mechanisms are known to involve multiple factors. H. pylori may modulate the Fcγ-receptor balance of monocytes/macrophages in favor of activating Fcγ receptors, and H. pylori components may mimic the molecular makeup of platelet antigens. Further studies of the pathogenic process of H. pylori-associated ITP may be useful for the development of new therapeutic strategies for ITP. PMID:24574745

  4. Age and Helicobacter pylori decrease gastric mucosal surface hydrophobicity independently

    PubMed Central

    Hackelsberger, A; Platzer, U; Nilius, M; Schultze, V; Gunther, T; Dominguez-Munoz, J; Malfertheiner, P

    1998-01-01

    Background—Gastric mucosal surface hydrophobicity (GMSH) is an essential component of the mucosal defence system that is decreased by Helicobacter pylori and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Gastric ulcers occur predominantly in elderly subjects, and may thus reflect diminished mucosal resistance. 
Aims—To investigate whether aging decreases GMSH. 
Patients—One hundred and twenty patients without peptic ulcer disease were divided into three age groups: I (41 years or below); II (41-64 years); and III (65 years or above). 
Methods—Biopsy specimens were taken from the antrum, corpus, and cardia for histology (Sydney system), urease testing for H pylori, and for contact angle measurement of GMSH with a goniometer. The presence of specific H pylori antibodies was checked by immunoblotting. 
Results—Fifty two patients (43%) were infected, and 68 were uninfected with H pylori. GMSH at all biopsy sites was lower in H pylori infected subjects (p=0.0001), but also decreased with age independently of infection status (p=0.0001). The most notable decrease in GMSH occurred between age groups I and II in those with, and between age groups II and III in those without, H pylori infection. GMSH was greater in antral than in corpus mucosa in both infected (p=0.0001) and uninfected patients (p=0.0003). 
Conclusions—A physiological decrease in GMSH with aging may contribute to the risk of ulcer development in the elderly, and may act synergistically with H pylori and/or NSAIDs on gastric mucosal defence. 

 Keywords: gastric mucosal defence; surface hydrophobicity; aging; Helicobacter pylori PMID:9824570

  5. Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Roma, Eleftheria; Miele, Erasmo

    2015-09-01

    This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:26372825

  6. [Helicobacter pylori and Arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Matsui, Teruaki

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-related diseases are known to include gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer, gastric MALT lymphoma, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, iron-deficient anemia, urticaria, reflux esophagitis, and some lifestyle-related diseases. It is indicated that homocysteine involved with arteriosclerosis induces lifestyle-related diseases. Homocysteine is decomposed to methionine and cysteine (useful substances) in the liver, through the involvement of vitamin B₁₂ (VB₁₂) and folic acid. However, deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid induces an increase in unmetabolized homocysteine stimulating active oxygen and promoting arteriosclerosis. VB₁₂ and folic acid are activated by the intrinsic factors of gastric parietal cells and gastric acid. The question of whether homocysteine, as a trigger of arteriosclerosis, was influenced by H. pylori infection was investigated. H. pylori infection induces atrophy of the gastric mucosa, and the function of parietal cells decreases with the atrophy to inactivate its intrinsic factor. The inactivation of the intrinsic factor causes a deficiency of VB₁₂ and folic acid to increase homocysteine's chances of triggering arteriosclerosis. The significance and usefulness of H. pylori eradication therapy was evaluated for its ability to prevent arteriosclerosis that induces lifestyle-related diseases. Persons with positive and negative results of H. pylori infection were divided into a group of those aged 65 years or more (early and late elderly) and a group of those under 65 years of age, and assessed for gastric juice. For twenty-five persons from each group who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, the degree of atrophy of the gastric mucosa was observed. Blood homocysteine was measured as a novel index of arteriosclerosis, as well as VB₁₂ and folic acid that affect the metabolism of homocysteine, and then activated by gastric acid and intrinsic factors. Their

  7. Helicobacter pylori infection in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Murakawi, Kazunari; Suzuki, Rumiko; Fujioka, Toshio; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection is gradually decreasing in Japan. On the main island of Japan, nearly all H. pylori isolates possess cagA and vacA with strong virulence. However, less virulent H. pylori strains are frequently found in Okinawa where cases of gastric cancer are the lowest in Japan. Eradication therapy for peptic ulcer, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and early gastric cancer after endoscopic resection has been approved by the Japanese national health insurance system. However, the Japanese Society for Helicobacter Research recently stated that all ‘H. pylori infection’ was considered as the indication for eradication irrespective of the background diseases. To eliminate H. pylori in Japan, the Japanese health insurance system should approve the eradication of all H. pylori infections. PMID:23265147

  8. Modulation of Innate Cytokine Responses by Products of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Frank; Wilson, Keith T.; James, Stephen P.

    2000-01-01

    The gastric inflammatory and immune response in Helicobacter pylori infection may be due to the effect of different H. pylori products on innate immune mechanisms. The aim of this study was to determine whether bacterial components could modulate cytokine production in vitro and thus contribute to Th1 polarization of the gastric immune response observed in vivo. The effect of H. pylori recombinant urease, bacterial lysate, intact bacteria, and bacterial DNA on proliferation and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from H. pylori-negative donors was examined as a model for innate cytokine responses. Each of the different H. pylori preparations induced gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin-12p40 (IL-12p40), but not IL-2 or IL-5, production, and all but H. pylori DNA stimulated release of IL-10. Addition of anti-IL-12 antibody to cultures partially inhibited IFN-γ production. In addition, each bacterial product inhibited mitogen-stimulated IL-2 production by PBMCs and Jurkat T cells. The inhibitory effect of bacterial products on IL-2 production correlated with inhibition of mitogen-stimulated lymphocyte proliferation, although urease inhibited IL-2 production without inhibiting proliferation, suggesting that inhibition of IL-2 production alone is not sufficient to inhibit lymphocyte proliferation. The results of these studies demonstrate that Th1 polarization of the gastric immune response may be due in part to the direct effects of multiple different H. pylori components that enhance IFN-γ and IL-12 production while inhibiting both IL-2 production and cell proliferation that may be necessary for Th2 responses. PMID:11035734

  9. Helicobacter pylori: Helicobacter pylori gastritis--a novel distinct disease entity.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Mori, Hideki

    2015-10-01

    A global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis has been developed. Topics discussed include whether dyspepsia caused by H. pylori infection is separate from functional dyspepsia or not, the evaluation method for H. pylori-induced gastritis, eradication therapy for H. pylori gastritis to prevent gastric carcinogenesis and management after H. pylori eradication. PMID:26369312

  10. [Transmission route of H. pylori].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masumi; Tachikawa, Tomohiro; Maekawa, Kohei; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2013-08-01

    The incidence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is rapidly decreased in Japan. H. pylori infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 years life and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. Person-to-person transmission in the family appears to be the predominant and in the population with low prevalence, several studies showed the infected mother is likely to be the main source of the infection. H. pylori can be detected from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of infection. Waterborne infection is unlikely in the developed countries. PMID:23967662

  11. The Protective Effects of 18β-Glycyrrhetinic Acid on Helicobacter pylori-Infected Gastric Mucosa in Mongolian Gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Donghui; Jiang, Jing; You, Lili; Jia, Zhifang; Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Cai, Hongke; Wang, Shidong; Hou, Zhen; Suo, Yue-er; Cao, Xueyuan

    2016-01-01

    18β-Glycyrrhetinic acid (GRA), a major component of Glycyrrhiza glabra, is widely used therapeutically in clinic. In this study, the effect of GRA on Helicobacter pylori- (H. pylori-) infected gastritis was investigated in Mongolian gerbils in vivo. The gerbils were randomly divided into groups: uninfected; H. pylori-infected; H. pylori + antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, and esomeprazole); and H. pylori + GRA. The gastric intraluminal pH value, histopathological changes, and the expression levels of inflammation-related cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, COX-2, and iNOS) were investigated. The results showed that, in the H. pylori + GRA group, the intraluminal gastric pH value was lower (2.14 ± 0.08 versus 3.17 ± 0.23, P < 0.05), erosion and hyperplasia were alleviated, the infiltration of neutrophils and mononuclear cells was attenuated (P < 0.05), and the expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2, and iNOS were decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the H. pylori-infected group. There was no significant difference in results between the H. pylori + GRA group and the H. pylori + antibiotics group. This study indicated that GRA significantly attenuated H. pylori-infected gastritis in gerbils and has the potential to be developed as a new therapeutic drug. PMID:27006947

  12. Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island's role in B7-H1 induction and immune evasion.

    PubMed

    Lina, Taslima T; Alzahrani, Shatha; House, Jennifer; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Sharpe, Arlene H; Rampy, Bill A; Pinchuk, Irina V; Reyes, Victor E

    2015-01-01

    During Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection CD4+ T cells in the gastric lamina propria are hyporesponsive and polarized by Th1/Th17 cell responses controlled by Treg cells. We have previously shown that H. pylori upregulates B7-H1 expression on GEC, which, in turn, suppress T cell proliferation, effector function, and induce Treg cells in vitro. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms and the functional relevance of B7-H1 induction by H. pylori infection to chronic infection. Using H. pylori wild type (WT), cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI-) and cagA- isogenic mutant strains we demonstrated that H. pylori requires its type 4 secretion system (T4SS) as well as its effector protein CagA and peptidoglycan (PG) fragments for B7-H1 upregulation on GEC. Our study also showed that H. pylori uses the p38 MAPK pathway to upregulate B7-H1 expression in GEC. In vivo confirmation was obtained when infection of C57BL/6 mice with H. pylori PMSS1 strain, which has a functional T4SS delivery system, but not with H. pylori SS1 strain lacking a functional T4SS, led to a strong upregulation of B7-H1 expression in the gastric mucosa, increased bacterial load, induction of Treg cells in the stomach, increased IL-10 in the serum. Interestingly, B7-H1-/- mice showed less Treg cells and reduced bacterial loads after infection. These studies demonstrate how H. pylori T4SS components activate the p38 MAPK pathway, upregulate B7-H1 expression by GEC, and cause Treg cell induction; thus, contribute to establishing a persistent infection characteristic of H. pylori. PMID:25807464

  13. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by Chloramination

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) were studied to determine their resistance to chloramination. H. pylori is an organism listed on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) Contaminant Control List (CCL). H. pylori was exposed to 2ppm of pre-formed monoc...

  14. Halitosis and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Tangerman, A; Winkel, E G; de Laat, L; van Oijen, A H; de Boer, W A

    2012-03-01

    There is disagreement about a possible relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and objective halitosis, as established by volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in the breath. Many studies related to H. pylori used self-reported halitosis, a subjective and unreliable method to detect halitosis. In this study a possible relation between H. pylori and halitosis was evaluated, using an objective method (gas chromatography, GC) to detect the VSCs, responsible for the halitosis. The levels of the VSCs hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were measured in mouth breath and in stomach air of 11 H. pylori positive patients and of 38 H. pylori negative patients, all with gastric pathology. Halitosis was also established by organoleptic scoring (OLS) of mouth-breath. The levels of H(2)S, MM and DMS in the mouth-breath and stomach air of the H. pylori positive patients did not differ significantly from those of the H. pylori negative patients. OLS of the mouth-breath resulted in 9 patients with halitosis, 1 out of the H. pylori positive group and 8 out of the H. pylori negative group, which is not statistically different. The concentrations of the VSCs in stomach air were in nearly all cases below the thresholds of objectionability of the various VSCs, indicating that halitosis does not originate in the stomach. The patients with gastric pathology were also compared with control patients without gastric pathology and with normal volunteers. No significant differences in VSCs in mouth breath were observed between these groups. Thus, in this study no association between halitosis and H. pylori infection was found. Halitosis, as established by GC and OLS, nearly always originates within the oral cavity and seldom or never within the stomach. PMID:22368251

  15. Consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Anania, Caterina; Osborn, John F; Ferraro, Flavia; Chiesa, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Although evidence is emerging that the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is declining in all age groups, the understanding of its disease spectrum continues to evolve. If untreated, H. pylori infection is lifelong. Although H. pylori typically colonizes the human stomach for many decades without adverse consequences, children infected with H. pylori can manifest gastrointestinal diseases. Controversy persists regarding testing (and treating) for H. pylori infection in children with recurrent abdominal pain, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenia, and poor growth. There is evidence of the role of H. pylori in childhood iron deficiency anemia, but the results are not conclusive. The possibility of an inverse relationship between H. pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease, as well as childhood asthma, remains a controversial question. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. PMID:21049552

  16. Helicobacter pylori in children.

    PubMed

    Sustmann, Andrea; Okuda, Masumi; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection in early childhood may differ in many aspects compared to infection in adulthood: the immune response in the gut, the type and prevalence of complications within and outside the stomach, and the impact on long-term health. In high prevalence countries, transient infections seem to be common in infants and toddlers, and the consequences of this phenomenon on the short- and long-term immune response are still unclear. Other controversial issues are related to the question of which H. pylori-infected children benefit from treatment and which is the best regimen to eradicate the infection in the presence of a worldwide increasing antibiotic resistance. The first large-scale randomized placebo-controlled vaccination trial in schoolchildren indicates that prevention of the infection may be possible. PMID:27531540

  17. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  18. Role of Toll-like receptors in Helicobacter pylori infection and immunity.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sinéad M

    2014-08-15

    The gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects the stomachs of approximately half of the world's population. Although infection induces an immune response that contributes to chronic gastric inflammation, the response is not sufficient to eliminate the bacterium. H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is linked to the severity of the host inflammatory response. Gastric epithelial cells represent the first line of innate immune defence against H. pylori, and respond to infection by initiating numerous cell signalling cascades, resulting in cytokine induction and the subsequent recruitment of inflammatory cells to the gastric mucosa. Pathogen recognition receptors of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family mediate many of these cell signalling events. This review discusses recent findings on the role of various TLRs in the recognition of H. pylori in distinct cell types, describes the TLRs responsible for the recognition of individual H. pylori components and outlines the influence of innate immune activation on the subsequent development of the adaptive immune response. The mechanistic identification of host mediators of H. pylori-induced pathogenesis has the potential to reveal drug targets and opportunities for therapeutic intervention or prevention of H. pylori-associated disease by means of vaccines or immunomodulatory therapy. PMID:25133016

  19. Helicobacter pylori in oral ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Shimoyama, T; Horie, N; Kato, T; Kaneko, T; Komiyama, K

    2000-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen involved in the development of gastrointestinal ulcers, but its involvement in oral ulcerous lesions is unclear. As culture is generally recognized as the gold standard for diagnosis of H. pylori infection, we employed this approach to assess the association of H. pylori with oral mucosal ulcerations. Samples were collected from patients with oral mucosal ulcerative disorders: 12 cases of recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), 7 cases of herpes simplex virus (HSV) stomatitis, and 3 cases of erosive lichen planus (LP). Serum IgG antibodies against H. pylori were examined in all cases. All of the RAS and erosive LP cases were culture-negative for H. pylori, while two cases of HSV stomatitis were positive. The two culture-positive cases were also seropositve for the H. pylori antigen. It is suggested that H. pylori might not have a direct association with oral ulcerations. However, H. pylori in the oral cavity might exist in a non-culturable coccoid state without productive infection, and might form colonies only under special conditions such as HSV infection. PMID:11269381

  20. Vaccinating against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Czinn, Steven J; Blanchard, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric mucosa remains a cause of significant morbidity and mortality almost 30 years after its discovery. H. pylori infection can lead to several gastric maladies, including gastric cancer, and although antimicrobial therapies for the infection exist, the cost of treatment for gastric cancer and the prognosis of individuals who present with this disease make vaccine development a cost effective alternative to bacterial eradication. Experimental mucosal and systemic H. pylori vaccines in mice significantly reduce bacterial load and sometimes provide sterilizing immunity. Clinical trials of oral vaccines consisting of H. pylori proteins with bacterial exotoxin adjuvants or live attenuated bacterial vectors expressing H. pylori proteins induce adaptive immune mechanisms but fail to consistently reduce bacterial load. Clinical trials and murine studies demonstrate that where H. pylori is killed, either spontaneously or following vaccination, the host demonstrated cellular immunity. Improved efficacy of vaccines may be achieved in new trials of vaccine formulations that include multiple antigens and use methods to optimize cellular immunity. Unfortunately, the industrial sponsors that served as the primary engine for much of the previous animal and human research have withdrawn their support. A renewed or expanded commitment from the biotechnology or pharmaceutical industry that could exploit recent advances in our understanding of the host immune response to H. pylori is necessary for the advancement of an H. pylori vaccine. PMID:21304478

  1. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    + tetracycline is authorised in the European Union for use in combination with omeprazole for 10 days. It seems effective, even in case of clarithromycin resistance. However, bismuth can cause encephalopathy, and its value when added to antibiotics and a PPI is poorly documented. We found no robust comparative data on second-line empirical treatments. In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with H. pylori, eradication of the bacterium reduces the risk of complications and recurrence. In mid-2015, the choice of antibiotics is based on trials in which the primary endpoint was a negative urea breath test, which is an acceptable surrogate criterion. In previously untreated patients, the first-choice empirical treatment consists of three antibiotics: amoxicillin (2 g daily), clarithromycin (1 g daily) and metronidazole (1 g daily), plus a PPI (in practice, omeprazole 40 mg daily), with each drug taken in two divided doses per day. The antibiotics may be taken either simultaneously for five days, or sequentially (amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days). The adverse effects of these antibiotic combinations correspond to those of their component drugs, which mainly consist of gastrointestinal disorders and the disulfiram-like reaction of metronidazole. Amoxicillin can be replaced by a fluoroquinolone in patients allergic to beta-lactam antibiotics, but there is a higher risk of resistance. Tetracycline and doxycycline appear effective, as few H. pylori strains are resistant in vitro. Bismuth can cause encephalopathy and should only be used in special cases. PMID:26942258

  2. Flavonoids with anti-Helicobacter pylori activity from Cistus laurifolius leaves.

    PubMed

    Ustün, Osman; Ozçelik, Berrin; Akyön, Yakut; Abbasoglu, Ufuk; Yesilada, Erdem

    2006-12-01

    Cistus laurifolius flower buds are used traditionally in folk medicine against gastric ailments. In a prior study we showed that the chloroform extract of Cistus laurifolius had a potent anti-ulcer activity. It has been known that there is a causal relationship between peptic ulcer and Helicobacter pylori infection. Then in a previous study, we demonstrated that chloroform extract of Cistus laurifolius possessed a significant anti-Helicobacter pylori activity. We designed this study to isolate and define the active component(s) involved in the anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of the extract through activity-guided fractionation procedures. The chloroform extract was fractionated by using various chromatography techniques, i.e., Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography and six compounds were isolated (1-6). Each of these six compounds' anti-Helicobacter pylori activity was tested in vitro and was measured as minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values by using agar dilution method. The compound 2 had the highest activity against Helicobacter pylori (MIC 3.9 microg/mL). Its chemical structure was elucidated as quercetin 3-methyl ether (isorhamnetin) by various spectroscopic techniques. We believe that the therapeutic effect of Cistus laurifolius in ulcer is at least partially related to its effect on Helicobacter pylori. We hope that the isolated flavonoid having anti-Helicobacter pylori activity ultimately can be utilized as an alternative or additive agent to the current therapy. PMID:16870372

  3. [Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood].

    PubMed

    Okuda, Masumi; Fukuda, Yoshihiro

    2009-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in the first 2 or 3 years and the risk of infection declines rapidly after 5 years of age. In developing countries, acquisition age of the infection is probably lower than in developed countries. In Japan, main transmission route is intrafamilial and mother to children infection is most important. But in developing countries, some reports suggest that extrafamilial infection is more important. The famous paper revealed that H. pylori can be cultivated from vomitus, saliva and cathartic stools and the possibility of source of H. pylori infection. Bed sharing, large number of family members, delayed weaning from a feeding bottle, regurgitated gastric juice in the mother's mouth are reported as risk factors of the infection. PMID:19999106

  4. Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: Defective immune regulation and apoptosis as proposed common links.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, Jannis; Gavalas, Emmanuel; Zavos, Christos; Stergiopoulos, Christos; Chatzopoulos, Dimitrios; Kapetanakis, Nikolaos; Gisakis, Dimitrios

    2007-01-01

    Although degenerative diseases of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), have an increasingly high impact on aged population their association with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has not as yet been thoroughly researched. Current H. pylori infection appears to induce irregular humoral and cellular immune responses that, owing to the sharing of homologous epitopes (molecular mimicry), cross-react with components of nerves, thereby contributing and possibly perpetuating the apoptotic neural tissue damage observed in neurodegenerative diseases including AD. An association between AD and H. pylori infection has been recently addressed by two studies. A higher seropositivity for anti-H. pylori immunoglobulin G antibodies in 30 patients with AD than in 30 age-matched controls was reported in one study; this serological test, however, has limitations because it does not discriminate between current and old infections. In the other study, by introducing the histological method (the actual gold standard) for diagnosis of H. pylori infection, we reported a higher prevalence of H. pylori infection in 50 AD patients than in 30 anemic controls. This pathogen may influence the pathophysiology of AD by promoting platelet and platelet-leukocyte aggregation; releasing various pro-inflammatory and vasoactive substances; developing cross-mimicry with host antigens; producing reactive oxygen metabolites and circulating lipid peroxides; influencing the apoptotic process; and increasing, through induction of atrophic gastritis, homocysteine, which contributes to vascular disorders implicated in endothelial damage and neurodegeneration. PMID:16979298

  5. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  6. Non-pharmacological treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Shmuely, Haim; Domniz, Noam; Yahav, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Many food and plant extracts have shown in vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity, but are less effective in vivo. The anti-H. pylori effects of these extracts are mainly permeabilitization of the membrane, anti-adhesion, inhibition of bacterial enzymes and bacterial grown. We, herein, review treatment effects of cranberry, garlic, curcumin, ginger and pistacia gum against H. pylori in both in vitro, animal studies and in vivo studies. PMID:27158532

  7. [Helicobacter pylori - 2012].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2012-09-01

    The author overviews some aspects of literature data of the past 2 years. Genetic research has identified polymorphisms of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors and the host which could play a role in the clinical outcome of the infection (peptic ulcer or gastric cancer). So far they have been performed in research centers but with a decrease of costs, they will take their place in diagnosing the diseases and tailoring the treatment. Antibiotic resistance is still growing in Southern European countries and is decreasing in Belgium and Scandinavia. Currently, the clarithromycin resistance rate is of 17-33% in Budapest and levofloxacin resistance achieved 27%. With careful assessment of former antibiotic use the resistance to certain antibiotics can be avoided and the rates of eradication improved. Immigration is a growing problem worldwide: according to Australian, Canadian and Texan studies, the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is much higher in the immigrant groups than in the local population. An Italian study showed that the eradication rate of triple therapy is significantly lower in the Eastern European immigrants than in the Italians. A recent research has suggested a link between female/male infertility, habitual abortion and Helicobacter pylori infection. However, there are no published data or personal experience to show whether successful eradication of the virus in these cases is followed by successful pregnancies or not. The author overviews the Maastricht process and analyzes the provisions of the Maastricht IV/Florence consensus, in which the new diagnostic algorithms and indications of eradication therapy are reformulated according to the latest levels of evidence and recommendation grading. According to the "test and treat" strategy, either the urea breath test or the stool monoclonal antigen test are recommended as a non-invasive diagnostic method in primary care. Endoscopy is still recommended in case of alarm symptoms, complicated ulcer, or if

  8. Helicobacter pylori-infected MSCs acquire a pro-inflammatory phenotype and induce human gastric cancer migration by promoting EMT in gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, QIANG; DING, JUAN; LIU, JINJUN; WANG, WEI; ZHANG, FENG; WANG, JUNHE; LI, YUYUN

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating clinical and experimental evidence has suggested that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection-associated gastric cancer (GC) is associated with high rates of mortality and serious health effects. The majority of patients succumb to H. pylori infection-associated GC due to metastasis. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which have multipotent differentiation potential, may be recruited into the tumor-associated stroma. MSCs are crucial components of the H. pylori infection-associated GC microenvironment, and may be critical for GC cell migration. In this study, an MSCs/H. pylori co-culture model was designed, and the effect of H. pylori-infected MSCs on the migration of GC cells was evaluated using a Transwell migration assay. H. pylori-infected MSC cytokine expression was evaluated using Luminex/ELISA. The expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers in the GC cells treated with supernatants from H. pylori-infected MSCs were detected by western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that the interaction between MSCs and H. pylori may induce GC cell migration, through secretion of a combination of cytokines that promote EMT in GC cells. The expression of phosphorylated forms of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was observed to be increased in MSCs by H. pylori. Inhibition of NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate blocked the effects of H. pylori-infected MSCs on SGC-7901 human stomach adenocarcinoma cell migration. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that H. pylori-infected MSCs acquire a pro-inflammatory phenotype through secretion of a combination of multiple cytokines, a number of which are NF-κB-dependent. These cytokines enhance H. pylori infection-associated GC cell migration by promoting EMT in GC cells. The results of the present study provide novel evidence for the modulatory effect of MSCs in the tumor microenvironment and provide insight into the significance of stromal cell involvement in GC progression

  9. Potential mechanism of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in Helicobacter pylori-positive patients with GERD

    PubMed Central

    Mukaisho, Ken-ichi; Hagiwara, Tadashi; Nakayama, Takahisa; Hattori, Takanori; Sugihara, Hiroyuki

    2014-01-01

    The long-term use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) exacerbates corpus atrophic gastritis in patients with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. To identify a potential mechanism for this change, we discuss interactions between pH, bile acids, and H. pylori. Duodenogastric reflux, which includes bile, occurs in healthy individuals, and bile reflux is increased in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Diluted human plasma and bile acids have been found to be significant chemoattractants and chemorepellents, respectively, for the bacillus H. pylori. Although only taurine conjugates, with a pKa of 1.8-1.9, are soluble in an acidic environment, glycine conjugates, with a pKa of 4.3-5.2, as well as taurine-conjugated bile acids are soluble in the presence of PPI therapy. Thus, the soluble bile acid concentrations in the gastric contents of patients with GERD after continuous PPI therapy are considerably higher than that in those with intact acid production. In the distal stomach, the high concentration of soluble bile acids is likely to act as a bactericide or chemorepellent for H. pylori. In contrast, the mucous layer in the proximal stomach has an optimal bile concentration that forms chemotactic gradients with plasma components required to direct H. pylori to the epithelial surface. H. pylori may then colonize in the stomach body rather than in the pyloric antrum, which may explain the occurrence of corpus-predominant gastritis after PPI therapy in H. pylori-positive patients with GERD. PMID:25232231

  10. Helicobacter pylori Physiology Predicted from Genomic Comparison of Two Strains

    PubMed Central

    Doig, Peter; de Jonge, Boudewijn L.; Alm, Richard A.; Brown, Eric D.; Uria-Nickelsen, Maria; Noonan, Brian; Mills, Scott D.; Tummino, Peter; Carmel, Gilles; Guild, Braydon C.; Moir, Donald T.; Vovis, Gerald F.; Trust, Trevor J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacteria which colonizes the gastric mucosa of humans and is implicated in a wide range of gastroduodenal diseases. This paper reviews the physiology of this bacterium as predicted from the sequenced genomes of two unrelated strains and reconciles these predictions with the literature. In general, the predicted capabilities are in good agreement with reported experimental observations. H. pylori is limited in carbohydrate utilization and will use amino acids, for which it has transporter systems, as sources of carbon. Energy can be generated by fermentation, and the bacterium possesses components necessary for both aerobic and anaerobic respiration. Sulfur metabolism is limited, whereas nitrogen metabolism is extensive. There is active uptake of DNA via transformation and ample restriction-modification activities. The cell contains numerous outer membrane proteins, some of which are porins or involved in iron uptake. Some of these outer membrane proteins and the lipopolysaccharide may be regulated by a slipped-strand repair mechanism which probably results in phase variation and plays a role in colonization. In contrast to a commonly held belief that H. pylori is a very diverse species, few differences were predicted in the physiology of these two unrelated strains, indicating that host and environmental factors probably play a significant role in the outocme of H. pylori-related disease. PMID:10477312

  11. Helicobacter pylori Growth and Urease Detection in the Chemically Defined Medium Ham's F-12 Nutrient Mixture

    PubMed Central

    Testerman, Traci L.; McGee, David J.; Mobley, Harry L. T.

    2001-01-01

    Obstacles continue to hinder in vitro studies of the gastric human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, including difficulty culturing the organism in the absence of serum or blood, rapid loss of viability following exponential growth due to autolysis, and the necessity for using high starting inocula. We demonstrate that H. pylori grows in the chemically defined broth medium Ham's F-12 nutrient mixture (F-12) in the absence of fetal bovine serum (FBS); this represents a breakthrough for studies in which serum components or proteins interfere with interpretation of results. Cultures can be continually passaged in fresh, FBS-free F-12 medium at an initial inoculum of only ∼103 CFU/ml. All H. pylori strains (n = 21), including fresh clinical isolates, grew in serum-free F-12. H. pylori grew poorly in the related medium, F-10, unless additional zinc was supplied. Enhanced growth of H. pylori in F-12 broth was obtained by addition of bovine serum albumin (BSA) (1 mg/ml), β-cyclodextrin (200 μg/ml), or cholesterol (50 μg/ml). H. pylori also grew in several simplified versions of F-12 broth lacking glucose and most vitamins but containing hypoxanthine, pyruvate, and all 20 amino acids. On F-12 medium solidified with agar, H. pylori only grew when BSA (98% pure; 1 mg/ml), cholesterol (50 μg/ml), β-cyclodextrin (200 μg/ml), or FBS (2 to 4%) was added; addition of urea and phenol allowed colorimetric detection of urease activity. Thus, F-12 agar plus cholesterol or β-cyclodextrin represents the first transparent chemically defined agar and the first urease indicator agar for H. pylori. Several lines of evidence suggested that BSA itself is not responsible for H. pylori growth enhancement in F-12 containing BSA or FBS. Taken together, these innovations represent significant advances in the cultivation and recovery of H. pylori using chemically defined media. Use of F-12 or its derivatives may lead to improved understanding of H. pylori metabolism, virulence factors, and

  12. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Leja, Mārcis; Axon, Anthony; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-09-01

    This review of recent publications related to the epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori highlights the origin of the infection, its changing prevalence, transmission, and outcome. A number of studies have addressed the ancestor roots of the bacteria, and the first genomewide analysis of bacterial strains suggests that its coexistence with humans is more ancient than previously thought. As opposed to the generally declining prevalence of H. pylori (including China and Japan), in Sweden, the prevalence of atrophic gastritis in the young population has risen. The prevalence of the infection remains high in the indigenous populations of the Arctic regions, and reinfection rates are high. A high prevalence is permanently found in the Siberian regions of Russia as well. Several studies, some of which used multiplex serology, addressed prevalence of and risks associated with various H. pylori serotypes, thereby enabling more precise risk assessment. Transmission of H. pylori was discussed, specifically fecal-oral transmission and the use of well-water and other unpurified water. Finally, the long-term course of H. pylori infection was considered, with an estimated 89% of noncardia gastric cancer cases being attributable to the infection. PMID:27531531

  13. Laryngopharyngeal reflux and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Taner; Bajin, Münir Demir; Günaydın, Rıza Önder; Özer, Serdar; Sözen, Tevfik

    2014-01-01

    Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) occurs when gastric contents pass the upper esophageal sphincter, causing symptoms such as hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, excess throat mucus, and globus. The pattern of reflux is different in LPR and gastroesophageal reflux. LPR usually occurs during the daytime in the upright position whereas gastroesophageal reflux disease more often occurs in the supine position at night-time or during sleep. Ambulatory 24-h double pH-probe monitoring is the gold standard diagnostic tool for LPR. Acid suppression with proton pump inhibitor on a long-term basis is the mainstay of treatment. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is found in many sites including laryngeal mucosa and interarytenoid region. In this paper, we aim to present the relationship between LPR and H. pylori and review the current literature. PMID:25083069

  14. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Tongtawee, Taweesak; Kaewpitoon, Soraya; Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Dechsukhum, Chavaboon; Leeanansaksiri, Wilairat; Loyd, Ryan A; Matrakool, Likit; Panpimanmas, Sukij

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection plays an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy. A diagnosis of infection is thus an important part of a treatment strategy of many gastrointestinal tract diseases. Many diagnostic tests are available but all have some limitations in different clinical situations and laboratory settings. A single gold standard cannot available, but be used for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in daily clinical practice in all areas, so several techniques have been developed to give reliable results, especially focusing on real time endoscopic features. The narrow band imaging system (NBI) and high resolution endoscopy are imaging techniques for enhanced visualization of infected mucosa and premalignant gastric lesions. The aim of this article is to review the current diagnostic options and possible future developments detection of Helicobacter pylori infection. PMID:27221831

  15. Mutagenicity and clastogenicity of extracts of Helicobacter pylori detected by the Ames test and in the micronucleus test using human lymphoblastoid cells.

    PubMed

    Arimoto-Kobayashi, Sakae; Ohta, Kaori; Yuhara, Yuta; Ayabe, Yuka; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke; Nakajima, Yoshihiro; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Oguma, Keiji; Otsuka, Takanao

    2015-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated a close association between infection with Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) and the development of gastric carcinoma. Chronic H.pylori infection increases the frequency of mutation in gastric epithelial cells. However, the mechanism by which infection of H.pylori leads to mutation in gastric epithelial cells is unclear. We suspected that components in H.pylori may be related to the mutagenic response associated with DNA alkylation, and could be detected with the Ames test using a more sensitive strain for alkylating agents. Our investigation revealed that an extract of H.pylori was mutagenic in the Ames test with Salmonella typhimurium YG7108, which is deficient in the DNA repair of O(6)-methylguanine. The extract of H.pylori may contain methylating or alkylating agents, which might induce O (6)-alkylguanine in DNA. Mutagenicity of the alkylating agents N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in the Ames test with S.typhimurium TA1535 was enhanced significantly in the presence of the extract of H.pylori. The tested extracts of H.pylori resulted in a significant induction of micronuclei in human-derived lymphoblastoid cells. Heat instability and dialysis resistance of the extracts of H.pylori suggest that the mutagenic component in the extracts of H.pylori is a heat-unstable large molecule or a heat-labile small molecule strongly attached or adsorbed to a large molecule. Proteins in the extracts of H.pylori were subsequently fractionated using ammonium sulphate precipitation. However, all fractions expressed enhancing effects toward MNU mutagenicity. These results suggest the mutagenic component is a small molecule that is absorbed into proteins in the extract of H.pylori, which resist dialysis. Continuous and chronic exposure of gastric epithelial cells to the alkylative mutagenic component from H.pylori chronically infected in the stomach might be a causal factor in the gastric carcinogenesis

  16. [Helicobacter pylori-related diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2013-10-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions drawn from the presentations on Helicobacter pylori at Digestive Disease Week 2013. Knowledge of this infection among the general population continues to be extremely limited. H. pylori is the main cause of "aging" of the human stomach. In developed countries, the prevalence of H. pylori infection has decreased but continues to be considerable. In most countries, clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance rates are markedly high. H. pylori eradication improves the symptoms of functional dyspepsia, but only in a minority of patients. The frequency of idiopathic peptic ulcers seems to be rising and their prognosis is worse. Most patients with gastric cancer have, or have had, prior H. pylori infection. The risk of developing preneoplastic lesions depends on the type (strain) of the microorganism. To prevent the development of gastric cancer, eradication therapy should be administered early (before the development of intestinal metaplasia). Among H. pylori-infected patients, those who receive long-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors more frequently develop preneoplastic lesions. In patients who undergo endoscopic resection of early gastric cancer, H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of metachronous tumors. Eradication therapy induces regression of MALT lymphoma in most patients and tumoral recurrence in the long term is exceptional; eradication is a reasonable option even when H. pylori infection has not been identified in patients with MALT lymphoma. Several diagnostic innovations were presented, such as some polymerase chain reaction techniques for use in gastric biopsy specimens or gastric juice. The efficacy of triple standard therapy is clearly inadequate. The superiority of "sequential" therapy over standard triple therapy has not been definitively established. "Concomitant" therapy is more effective and is simpler than "sequential" therapy. After failure of standard triple therapy, second

  17. [Dyspepsia and Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Carella, A M; Bianco, G; D'Alessandro, V; Villella, M; D'Amico, G; Mazzoccoli, G; Sperandeo, M; Annese, M A; Sabella, G

    1999-01-01

    Since Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was first isolated in 1983, much work has been carried out on the pathogenic effects of this organism. Hp infection is common in humans and currently is the most important etiologic agent in the development of chronic active gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, carcinoma and Malt-lymphoma of the stomach. Moreover Hp infection has also been associated with various extradigestive diseases. At present, a role of Hp infection in dyspepsia is discussed. Dyspepsia is defined by persistence of pain, burning or discomfort localised to the upper abdomen; some authors include in dyspepsia symptoms such as belching, bloating, alitosis, nausea, postprandial repletion, vomiting and regurgitation. In absence of any underlying pathologies, such as peptic ulcer, gastroesophageal reflux, pancreatitis, biliary tract disease or others, dyspepsia is defined as functional or idiopathic dyspepsia. Functional dyspepsia may be distinct in ulcer, reflux or dysmotility-like dyspepsia and unspecified dyspepsia. Hp infection is common in dyspeptic patients and a role of this bacterium has been postulated mostly in ulcer-like dyspepsia. Mechanisms by when Hp induces dyspeptic symptoms are uncertain; bacterial cytotoxins, phlogosis mediators, activity of chronic gastritis Helicobacter-related and host immune response probably play an important role in pathogenesis of functional dyspepsia. However, dyspepsia is not present only in infected patients; therefore other pathogenic factors may be implicated in expression of dyspeptic symptoms in uninfected subjects, such as gastric dysmotility, modifications of gastric output or altered visceral sensibility, psychological factors, gastroesophageal reflux and irritable bowel. PMID:10367546

  18. Chemical composition and anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of Satureja bachtiarica Bunge essential oil.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Moradi, Parisa; Mahboubi, Mohaddese; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Momtaz, Hassan; Hamedi, Behzhad

    2015-01-15

    Resistance of H. pylori strains to common antibiotics has been developed in different parts of the world and continues to increase. It is important to investigate the novel and efficient anti-H. pylori drugs, among which the plants would be suitable sources. Satureja bachtiarica Bunge is traditionally used as antimicrobial agent. In this study, we evaluated the antibacterial activity of S. bachtiarica Bunge essential oil against 10 clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori by disc diffusion and agar dilution methods. The chemical composition of essential oil was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Carvacrol (45.5%) and thymol (27.9%) were the primary constituents of oil, followed by p-cymene (4.4%), and γ-terpinene (4.0%). S. bachtiarica essential oil showed strong antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of H. pylori (17.6 ± 1.1 mm and 0.035 ± 0.13 μl/ml). Carvacrol, as the first main component, had a significant role in this effect, whereas in the presence of thymol, the antibacterial effect of carvacrol was reduced. Therefore, S. bachtiarica essential oil can be applied as an alternative agent for treatment of H. pylori infections. More studies would be required to better clarify its mechanism of action on H. pylori. PMID:25636887

  19. Helicobacter pylori and T Helper Cells: Mechanisms of Immune Escape and Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Larussa, Tiziana; Leone, Isabella; Suraci, Evelina; Imeneo, Maria; Luzza, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa of at least half of the human population, causing a worldwide infection that appears in early childhood and if not treated, it can persist for life. The presence of symptoms and their severity depend on bacterial components, host susceptibility, and environmental factors, which allow H. pylori to switch between commensalism and pathogenicity. H. pylori-driven interactions with the host immune system underlie the persistence of the infection in humans, since the bacterium is able to interfere with the activity of innate and adaptive immune cells, reducing the inflammatory response in its favour. Gastritis due to H. pylori results from a complex interaction between several T cell subsets. In particular, H. pylori is known to induce a T helper (Th)1/Th17 cell response-driven gastritis, whose impaired modulation caused by the bacterium is thought to sustain the ongoing inflammatory condition and the unsuccessful clearing of the infection. In this review we discuss the current findings underlying the mechanisms implemented by H. pylori to alter the T helper lymphocyte proliferation, thus facilitating the development of chronic infections and allowing the survival of the bacterium in the human host. PMID:26525279

  20. The Helicobacter pylori flbA flagellar biosynthesis and regulatory gene is required for motility and virulence and modulates urease of H. pylori and Proteus mirabilis.

    PubMed

    McGee, David J; Coker, Christopher; Testerman, Traci L; Harro, Janette M; Gibson, Susan V; Mobley, Harry L T

    2002-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori and Proteus mirabilis ureases are nickel-requiring metallo-enzymes that hydrolyse urea to NH3 and CO2. In both H. pylori and in an Escherichia coli model of H. pylori urease activity, a high affinity nickel transporter, NixA, is required for optimal urease activity, whereas the urea-dependent UreR positive transcriptional activator governs optimal urease expression in P. mirabilis. The H. pylori flbA gene is a flagellar biosynthesis and regulatory gene that modulates urease activity in the E. coli model of H. pylori urease activity. All flbA mutants of eight strains of H. pylori were non-motile and five had a strain-dependent alteration in urease activity. The flbA gene decreased urease activity 15-fold when expressed in E. coli containing the H. pylori urease locus and the nixA gene; this was reversed by disruption of flbA. The flbA gene decreased nixA transcription. flbA also decreased urease activity three-fold in E. coli containing the P. mirabilis urease locus in a urea- and UreR-dependent fashion. Here the flbA gene repressed the P. mirabilis urease promoter. Thus, FlbA decreased urease activity of both H. pylori and P. mirabilis, but through distinct mechanisms. H. pylori wild-type strain SS1 colonised gerbils at a mean of 5.4 x 10(6) cfu/g of antrum and caused chronic gastritis and lesions in the antrum. In contrast, the flbA mutant did not colonise five of six gerbils and caused no lesions, indicating that motility mediated by flbA was required for colonisation. Because FlbA regulates flagellar biosynthesis and secretion, as well as forming a structural component of the flagellar secretion apparatus, two seemingly unrelated virulence attributes, motility and urease, may be coupled in H. pylori and P. mirabilis and possibly also in other motile, ureolytic bacteria. PMID:12448680

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection in pediatrics.

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Barbara; Francavailla, Ruggiero

    2014-09-01

    This review concerns important pediatric studies published from April 2013 to March 2014. New data on pathogenesis have demonstrated that Th1 type cytokine secretion at the gastric level is less intense in children compared with adults. They have also shown that the most significant risk factor for Helicobacter pylori infection is the parents' origin and frequency of childcare in settings with a high prevalence of infection. A new hypothesis on the positive relationship between childhood H. pylori infection and the risk of gastric cancer in adults has been suggested which calls for an implementation of preventive programs to reduce the burden of childhood H. pylori infection in endemic areas. Several studies have investigated the role of H. pylori infection in iron-deficiency anemia, and results support the role of the bacterium in this condition. Antibiotic resistance is an area of intense research with data confirming an increase in antibiotic resistance, and the effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism on proton-pump inhibitor metabolism should be further investigated as cure rates are lower in extensive metabolizers. Studies confirmed that probiotic supplementation may have beneficial effects on eradication and therapy-related side effects, particularly diarrhea in children. PMID:25167945

  2. [Helicobacter pylori and gastric ulcer].

    PubMed

    Maaroos, H I

    1994-01-01

    In connection with longitudinal ulcer studies and the demonstration of Helicobacter pylori as the main cause of chronic gastritis, new aspects of gastric ulcer recurrences and healing become evident. This extends the possibilities to prognosticate the course of gastric ulcer and to use more effective treatment. PMID:7937016

  3. Activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human neutrophils by Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Figueroa, Erandi; Torres, Javier; Sánchez-Zauco, Norma; Contreras-Ramos, Alejandra; Alvarez-Arellano, Lourdes; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2016-02-01

    TLRs and NLRs participate in the immune system recognition of Helicobacter pylori. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to inflammasome activation by H. pylori and if NLRs in neutrophils are involved in the process. We studied how NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome components are involved in IL-1β maturation in human neutrophils in response to the infection and if they are dependent on T4SS (type IV secretion system) and TLRs. Human neutrophils were cultured and infected with the 26695 or the VirD4- H. pylori strains; the IL-1β concentration was analyzed by ELISA, and we also evaluated the activation of TLRs 2 and 4. The infection of neutrophils with both strains of H. pylori induced production of IL-1β and expression of the NLRP3 inflammasome components such as apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain and NLRP3 protein. The infection also increased the activity of caspase-1, which is required for the maturation of IL-1β. Our study shows, for the first time, that H. pylori infection induces the expression and activation of components of NLRP3 inflammasomes in human neutrophils and that the activation is independent of a functional T4SS and TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26610398

  4. Helicobacter pylori and Gastrointestinal Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the principal trigger of gastric carcinogenesis and gastric cancer (GC) and remains the third leading cause of cancer-related death in both sexes worldwide. In a big Japanese study, the risk of developing GC in patients with peptic ulcer disease who received H. pylori eradication therapy and annual endoscopic surveillance for a mean of 9.9 years was significantly lower after successful eradication therapy compared to the group with persistent infection (0.21%/year and 0.45%/year, respectively, p = .049). According to a recent meta-analysis, H. pylori eradication is insufficient in GC risk reduction in subjects with advanced precancerous conditions (i.e., intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia). A microsimulation model suggested screening smokers over the age of 50 in the U.S. for serum pepsinogens. This would allow to detect advanced gastric atrophy with endoscopic follow-up of subjects testing positive as a cost-effective strategy to reduce GC mortality. In a Taiwanese study, the anti-H. pylori IgG-based test-and-treat program had lower incremental cost-effectiveness ratios than that with (13)C-urea breath test in both sexes to prevent GC whereas expected years of life lost for GC were higher and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of test-and-treat programs were more cost-effective in young adults (30-69 years old) than in elders (>70 years old). With respect to gastrointestinal malignancies other than GC, a meta-analysis confirmed the inverse association between H. pylori infection and esophageal adenocarcinoma. In a Finnish study, H. pylori seropositivity was associated with an increased risk of biliary tract cancers (multivariate adjusted OR 2.63; 95% CI: 1.08-6.37), another meta-analysis showed a slightly increased rate of pancreatic cancer in patients with CagA-negative strains (OR: 1.30; 95% CI: 1.02-1.65), whereas current data suggest that the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasms may be population

  5. [Helicobacter pylori-associated diseases].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2015-09-01

    This article summarizes the main conclusions of the studies presented at Digestive Disease Week this year (2015) related to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable widespread reduction in the prevalence of H. pylori infection, developing countries continue to have substantial infection rates. The prevalence of clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance is markedly higher in most countries and continues to rise. Although H. pylori eradication reduces the incidence of gastric adenocarcinoma, it does not completely prevent its development; the presence of precancerous lesions--intestinal atrophy and metaplasia--is associated with a higher risk of developing this neoplasm, despite H. pylori eradication. The use of molecular diagnostic methods (polymerase chain reaction) in faecal samples could allow non-invasive evaluation of the antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. The effectiveness of standard triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decrease. The effectiveness of sequential therapy in recent studies is lower than initially described and consequently this treatment cannot be recommended in clinical practice. Concomitant therapy is more effective and simpler than sequential therapy. In penicillin-allergic patients, quadruple therapy with bismuth is the treatment of choice in our environment. After the failure of standard triple therapy, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and, moreover, is simpler and better tolerated than quadruple therapy with bismuth. Quadruple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, bismuth, levofloxacin and amoxicillin is an effective (≥ 90% eradication), simple and safe second-line therapy if triple or quadruple therapy without bismuth (sequential or concomitant) fails to eradicate the infection. The new-generation quinolones, such as moxifloxacin or sitafloxacin, could be useful in second- or third-line rescue eradication therapy. Even after the failure of 3 eradication treatments, a

  6. Helicobacter pylori activation of PARP-1

    PubMed Central

    Nossa, Carlos W

    2010-01-01

    Chronic infection of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is an important risk factor for gastric cancer. H. pylori produces a cache of virulence factors that promote colonization and persistence, which, in turn, contributes to a robust inflammatory response at the host-pathogen interface. Recently, we reported that H. pylori activates the abundant nuclear regulator poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, resulting in the production of the catabolite poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR). PARP-1 is emerging as a key player in establishing homeostasis at the host-pathogen interface. In this article, we summarize the discovery of H. pylori-dependent PARP-1 activation, and discuss potential roles for PARP-1 in H. pylori-mediated gastric disease. In light of the remarkable successes that have reported for treating inflammatory disorders and cancers with PARP-1 inhibitors, we discuss the prospects of targeting PARP-1 for treatment of H. pylori-associated gastric disease. PMID:21468218

  7. High-Level Primary Clarithromycin Resistance of Helicobacter pylori in Algiers, Algeria: A Prospective Multicenter Molecular Study.

    PubMed

    Djennane-Hadibi, Fazia; Bachtarzi, Mohamed; Layaida, Karim; Ali Arous, Nassima; Nakmouche, Mhamed; Saadi, Berkane; Tazir, Mohamed; Ramdani-Bouguessa, Nadjia; Burucoa, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance is crucial to adaptation for the choice of the optimal first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection. Clarithromycin is a key component of the standard triple therapy largely used worldwide and, more particularly, in Algeria. Clarithromycin resistance is the main risk factor for treatment failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time in Algeria, the prevalence of the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin. We conducted a prospective study (2008-2014) that included 195 Algerian patients referred for gastroduodenal endoscopy to two University Hospitals, one General Hospital, and several private gastroenterologists in Algiers (Algeria). One gastric biopsy was collected for the molecular detection of H. pylori and the mutations in 23S rRNA genes that confer resistance to clarithromycin with a quadruplex real-time PCR using Scorpion primers. The Scorpion PCR detected H. pylori DNA in 91 biopsies (47%). A mutation conferring resistance to clarithromycin was detected in 32 of the 91 positive patients (35%) and in 29 of the 88 positive patients never previously treated for an H. pylori infection (33%). The prevalence of primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin was 33% in the Algerian population being studied. The high level of primary clarithromycin resistance in the H. pylori strains infecting the Algerian population that we report leads us to recommend the abandonment of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy as a first-line treatment in Algeria. PMID:26554340

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection and drugs malabsorption

    PubMed Central

    Lahner, Edith; Virili, Camilla; Santaguida, Maria Giulia; Annibale, Bruno; Centanni, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Drug absorption represents an important factor affecting the efficacy of oral drug treatment. Gastric secretion and motility seem to be critical for drug absorption. A causal relationship between impaired absorption of orally administered drugs and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been proposed. Associations have been reported between poor bioavailability of l-thyroxine and l-dopa and H. pylori infection. According to the Maastricht Florence Consensus Report on the management of H. pylori infection, H. pylori treatment improves the bioavailability of both these drugs, whereas the direct clinical benefits to patients still await to be established. Less strong seems the association between H. pylori infection and other drugs malabsorption, such as delavirdine and ketoconazole. The exact mechanisms forming the basis of the relationship between H. pylori infection and impaired drugs absorption and/or bioavailability are not fully elucidated. H. pylori infection may trigger a chronic inflammation of the gastric mucosa, and impaired gastric acid secretion often follows. The reduction of acid secretion closely relates with the wideness and the severity of the damage and may affect drug absorption. This minireview focuses on the evidence of H. pylori infection associated with impaired drug absorption. PMID:25132749

  9. Immune responses to Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Moyat, Mati; Velin, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common infections in human beings worldwide. H. pylori express lipopolysaccharides and flagellin that do not activate efficiently Toll-like receptors and express dedicated effectors, such as γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, vacuolating cytotoxin (vacA), arginase, that actively induce tolerogenic signals. In this perspective, H. pylori can be considered as a commensal bacteria belonging to the stomach microbiota. However, when present in the stomach, H. pylori reduce the overall diversity of the gastric microbiota and promote gastric inflammation by inducing Nod1-dependent pro-inflammatory program and by activating neutrophils through the production of a neutrophil activating protein. The maintenance of a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa and the direct action of virulence factors (vacA and cytotoxin-associated gene A) confer pro-carcinogenic activities to H. pylori. Hence, H. pylori cannot be considered as symbiotic bacteria but rather as part of the pathobiont. The development of a H. pylori vaccine will bring health benefits for individuals infected with antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains and population of underdeveloped countries. PMID:24914318

  10. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in Nasal Polyps.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Divya; Sharma, Sonal; Agarwal, Sarla; Saha, Rumpa; Gupta, Neelima

    2016-09-01

    To detect the presence of Helicobacter pylori in nasal polyps. A case-control study was conducted enrolling 35 patients with nasal polyps (cases) and patients undergoing septoplasty (controls). Fresh tissue samples were used for urea broth test and imprint cytology, while formalin fixed tissue sections were used for morphology, special stains and immunohistochemistry for H. pylori. Fresh stool samples from both groups were tested to correlate the gastrointestinal status. H. pylori was detected in 40.0 % (14/35) of cases and 8.5 % of controls (3/35) (p = 0.004) by immunohistochemistry. Amongst cases, eight were positive with urea broth test, six with imprint cytology (Giemsa stain), three with H & E, and nine with modified McMullen's stain. Hyperplasia of the lining epithelium and lymphoid aggregates were significantly noticed in nasal polyps positive for H. pylori. Stool antigen test was positive in subjects who were positive for H. pylori in the nasal mucosa. There appears to be an association between H. pylori and nasal polyps. Immunohistochemistry is more sensitive and specific method to detect H. pylori. H. pylori induced inflammatory tissue reaction pattern indicates a possible causal association. Further studies are needed to prove the causal relationship between H. pylori and nasal polyps. PMID:26830396

  11. Helicobacter pylori and allergy: Update of research

    PubMed Central

    Daugule, Ilva; Zavoronkova, Jelizaveta; Santare, Daiga

    2015-01-01

    Recently a lot of literature has been published about the possible preventive action of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) against allergy. The present review summarizes research data about the association between H. pylori and allergic diseases, as well as discusses possible hypotheses about the preventive action of H. pylori against atopy. There is evidence from observational studies to support a weak inverse association between prevalence of H. pylori infection and allergy. However, confounders like some unidentified socioeconomic factors, antibiotic use and others could bias the association. Although data from cohort studies point to a possible association of H. pylori with some of the allergic diseases, no definite proof for causal relationship has been clearly demonstrated yet. A biological mechanism proposed to explain the preventive action of H. pylori to allergy is reduced exposure to a major stimulus for the generation of Treg cells in individuals without H. pylori infection. In addition, H. pylori could be an indicator for changes in gut microbiome, reflecting the complex interaction between microbes and immune system. PMID:26713280

  12. Relation between periodontitis and helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Pei; Zhou, Weiying

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The correlation between periodontitis and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in the mouth was analyzed. Method: 70 elderly patients with periodontitis treated at our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were recruited. Dental plaques and gargle were collected for H. pylori detection using PCR technique. Periodontal health status of the patients was recorded. 70 control cases with healthy periodontium were also included. The symptoms of H. pylori infection in the mouth were compared between the two groups, and the results were analyzed statistically. Results: The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the periodontitis group was 71.4%; the positive rate of cagA gene was 35.7%. The positive rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in the control group was 34.3% and that of cagA gene was 12.9%. The two groups did not show significant differences in these two indicators (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of urease C gene of H. pylori in subgingival plaques was higher than that in supragingival plaques, and the difference was of statistical significance (P<0.05). The positive detection rate of H. pylori in patients with moderate and severe periodontitis was obviously higher than that of patients with mild periodontitis (P<0.05). Conclusion: Periodontal health status of elderly people with periodontitis correlated with H. pylori infection in the stomach. PMID:26629215

  13. Helicobacter pylori neutrophil activating protein as target for new drugs against H. pylori inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Choli-Papadopoulou, Theodora; Kottakis, Filippos; Papadopoulos, Georgios; Pendas, Stefanos

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most common human infections and the major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Within this work we present the implication of C-terminal region of H. pylori neutrophil activating protein in the stimulation of neutrophil activation as well as the evidence that the C-terminal region of H. pylori activating protein is indispensable for neutrophil adhesion to endothelial cells, a step necessary to H. pylori inflammation. In addition we show that arabino galactan proteins derived from chios mastic gum, the natural resin of the plant Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia inhibit neutrophil activation in vitro. PMID:21677824

  14. Outer membrane biogenesis in Escherichia coli, Neisseria meningitidis, and Helicobacter pylori: paradigm deviations in H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Liechti, George; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2012-01-01

    The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is capable of colonizing the gastric mucosa of the human stomach using a variety of factors associated with or secreted from its outer membrane (OM). Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and numerous OM proteins have been shown to be involved in adhesion and immune stimulation/evasion. Many of these factors are essential for colonization and/or pathogenesis in a variety of animal models. Despite this wide array of potential targets present on the bacterial surface, the ability of H. pylori to vary its OM profile limits the effectiveness of vaccines or therapeutics that target any single one of these components. However, it has become evident that the proteins comprising the complexes that transport the majority of these molecules to the OM are highly conserved and often essential. The field of membrane biogenesis has progressed remarkably in the last few years, and the possibility now exists for targeting the mechanisms by which β-barrel proteins, lipoproteins, and LPS are transported to the OM, resulting in loss of bacterial fitness and significant altering of membrane permeability. In this review, the OM transport machinery for LPS, lipoproteins, and outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are discussed. While the principal investigations of these transport mechanisms have been conducted in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis, here these systems will be presented in the genetic context of ε proteobacteria. Bioinformatic analysis reveals that minimalist genomes, such as that of Helicobacter pylori, offer insight into the smallest number of components required for these essential pathways to function. Interestingly, in the majority of ε proteobacteria, while the inner and OM associated apparatus of LPS, lipoprotein, and OMP transport pathways appear to all be intact, most of the components associated with the periplasmic compartment are either missing or are almost unrecognizable when compared to their E. coli counterparts. Eventual

  15. Oral Helicobacter pylori, its relationship to successful eradication of gastric H. pylori and saliva culture confirmation.

    PubMed

    Wang, X M; Yee, K C; Hazeki-Taylor, N; Li, J; Fu, H Y; Huang, M L; Zhang, G Y

    2014-08-01

    The present study was designed to explore the existence of oral Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), its relationship in the oral cavity to the success rate of eradication of the gastric H. pylori infection, and to determine if the mouthwash solution contained lysine (0.4%) and glycerol monolaurate (0.2%) (LGM) could eliminate oral H. pylori, as well as using the saliva H. pylori culture to confirm the existence of oral H. pylori. A total of 159 symptomatic individuals with stomach pain and 118 asymptomatic individuals with no stomach complaints, were recruited and tested using the saliva H. pylori antigen test (HPS), the H. pylori flagellin test (HPF), the urea breath test (UBT C(13)) and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test, which tests were also confirmed by saliva culture. The test subjects also received various treatments. It was found that the H. pylori antigen exists in the oral cavity in UBT C(13) negative individuals. Traditional treatment for gastric eradication had only a 10.67 percent (10.67%) effectiveness rate on the oral H. pylori infection. In groups of patients with the oral H. pylori infection, but with negative UBT C(13), a mouthwash solution provided a 72.58% effectiveness rate in the 95% of the confidence interval (CI) ranges on the oral H. pylori infection. Traditional drug gastric eradication and teeth cleaning (TC) had less than a 10% effectiveness rate. Treatment of the oral infection increased the success rate of eradication of the stomach infection from 61.33% to 82.26% in the 95% CI ranges. We concluded that the successful rate of eradication of gastric H. pylori bears a significant relationship to the oral infection from H. pylori. PMID:25179088

  16. Helicobacter pylori colonization of the oral cavity: A milestone discovery

    PubMed Central

    Yee, John KC

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several years, the severity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections has not significantly diminished. After successful eradication, the annual H. pylori recurrence rate is approximately 13% due to oral H. pylori infection. Established clinical diagnostic techniques do not identify an oral etiologic basis of H. pylori prior to gastric infection. There has been disagreement as to whether oral infection of H. pylori exists or not, with no definite conclusion. In medical practice, negative results with the urea breath test suggest that the stomach infection of H. pylori is cured in these patients. In fact, patients can present negative urea breath test results and yet exhibit H. pylori infection due to oral infection. The present paper provides evidence that H. pylori oral infection is nonetheless present, and the oral cavity represents a secondary site for H. pylori colonization. PMID:26811613

  17. Immune response to H pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Giovanni; Reyes, Victor E; Beswick, Ellen J

    2006-01-01

    The gastric mucosa separates the underlying tissue from the vast array of antigens that traffic through the stomach lumen. While the extreme pH of this environment is essential in aiding the activation of enzymes and food digestion, it also renders the gastric epithelium free from bacterial colonization, with the exception of one important human pathogen, H pylori. This bacterium has developed mechanisms to survive the harsh environment of the stomach, actively move through the mucosal layer, attach to the epithelium, evade immune responses, and achieve persistent colonization. While a hallmark of this infection is a marked inflammatory response with the infiltration of various immune cells into the infected gastric mucosa, the host immune response is unable to clear the infection and may actually contribute to the associated pathogenesis. Here, we review the host responses involved during infection with H pylori and how they are influenced by this bacterium. PMID:17007009

  18. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George; Scott, David R

    2016-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infects about 50 % of the world's population, causing at a minimum chronic gastritis. A subset of infected patients will ultimately develop gastric or duodenal ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, or MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Eradication of H. pylori requires complex regimens that include acid suppression and multiple antibiotics. The efficacy of treatment using what were once considered standard regimens have declined in recent years, mainly due to widespread development of antibiotic resistance. Addition of bismuth to standard triple therapy regimens, use of alternate antibiotics, or development of alternative regimens using known therapies in novel combinations have improved treatment efficacy in specific populations, but overall success of eradication remains less than ideal. Novel regimens under investigation either in vivo or in vitro, involving increased acid suppression ideally with fewer antibiotics or development of non-antibiotic treatment targets, show promise for future therapy. PMID:27177639

  19. Helicobacter pylori and extragastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Goni, Elisabetta; Franceschi, Francesco

    2016-09-01

    During the past year, many articles were published on the extragastric diseases related to Helicobacter pylori infection. This supports the theory that some microorganisms may cause diseases even far from the primary site of infection by interfering with different biologic processes. The role of H. pylori on idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, sideropenica anemia, and vitamin B12 deficiency is well known. On the other hand, there is a growing interest in the bacterium's association with cardiovascular, neurologic, hematologic, dermatologic, head and neck, and uro-gynecologic diseases, as well as diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, with very promising results. This review has been aimed at summarizing the results of the most relevant studies published over the last year on this fascinating topic. PMID:27531539

  20. The Host Protein Calprotectin Modulates the Helicobacter pylori cag Type IV Secretion System via Zinc Sequestration

    PubMed Central

    Gaddy, Jennifer A.; Radin, Jana N.; Loh, John T.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Delgado, Alberto G.; Ilca, Florin T.; Peek, Richard M.; Cover, Timothy L.; Chazin, Walter J.; Skaar, Eric P.; Scott Algood, Holly M.

    2014-01-01

    Transition metals are necessary for all forms of life including microorganisms, evidenced by the fact that 30% of all proteins are predicted to interact with a metal cofactor. Through a process termed nutritional immunity, the host actively sequesters essential nutrient metals away from invading pathogenic bacteria. Neutrophils participate in this process by producing several metal chelating proteins, including lactoferrin and calprotectin (CP). As neutrophils are an important component of the inflammatory response directed against the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, a major risk factor for gastric cancer, it was hypothesized that CP plays a role in the host response to H. pylori. Utilizing a murine model of H. pylori infection and gastric epithelial cell co-cultures, the role CP plays in modifying H. pylori -host interactions and the function of the cag Type IV Secretion System (cag T4SS) was investigated. This study indicates elevated gastric levels of CP are associated with the infiltration of neutrophils to the H. pylori-infected tissue. When infected with an H. pylori strain harboring a functional cag T4SS, calprotectin-deficient mice exhibited decreased bacterial burdens and a trend toward increased cag T4SS -dependent inflammation compared to wild-type mice. In vitro data demonstrate that culturing H. pylori with sub-inhibitory doses of CP reduces the activity of the cag T4SS and the biogenesis of cag T4SS-associated pili in a zinc-dependent fashion. Taken together, these data indicate that zinc homeostasis plays a role in regulating the proinflammatory activity of the cag T4SS. PMID:25330071

  1. Correlation Between Tympanosclerosis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Saki, Nader; Jahani, Mojtaba; Samarbaf, Alireza; Kaydani, Gholam Abbas; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Kenani, Malek; Mogehi, Sasan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Tympanosclerosis is a condition caused by calcification of tissues in the middle ear mucosa that sometimes results hearing loss. Helicobacter pylori is one of the pathological and etiologic factors in the development of tympanosclerosis. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to show the role of H. pylori in the different aspects of chronic suppurative otitis media using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Patients and Methods: This case-control and cross-sectional study was performed on all patients with chronic otitis media, candidates for surgical operations, in 2013. They were allocated into the case group with tympanosclerosis and the control group without tympanosclerosis. During the surgical operation, biopsy was done from middle ear and the samples were studied to see if they contained H. pylori using the PCR method. Results: From a total of 19 patients with tympanosclerosis , 16 cases (84.2%) were H. pylori positive, while in the control group 15 (45.4%) cases out of the 37 cases were H. pylori positive, which showed a significant difference (P = 0.002). Age and gender of the patients, ear dryness and perforation size were not correlated with the presence or absence of H. pylori. Conclusions: There is a significant correlation between tympanosclerosis and H. pylori (P = 0.002). This correlation can single out H. pylori as a pathological factor in the development of tympanosclerosis; however, further studies are needed to prove this correlation. PMID:26568799

  2. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection in laryngeal diseases.

    PubMed

    Siupsinskiene, Nora; Jurgutaviciute, Vilma; Katutiene, Inga; Janciauskas, Dainius; Vaitkus, Saulius; Adamonis, Kęstutis

    2013-08-01

    Clinical studies have shown that Helicobacter pylori can be found not only in the mucosa of the stomach, but in the pharyngeal and laryngeal regions as well. The aim of this prospective case-control study was to identify H. pylori infection in the biopsy material from the larynx of the patients suffering from benign laryngeal diseases (vocal fold polyps, laryngitis) and laryngeal cancer and to investigate the possible relationships between the laryngeal H. pylori and patients' socio-demographic data and laryngopharyngeal reflux. The results of the biopsy material from 67 adult patients treated for benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer and 11 individuals of the control group revealed that H. pylori infection could be identified in more than one-third of the patients. In the majority of cases H. pylori was found in the patients with chronic laryngitis (45.5%) and laryngeal cancer (46.2%). The findings of these sub-groups significantly differed from those of the control group (9.1%) (p < 0.05). No significant relationships between H. pylori infection found in the laryngeal region and patients' demographic data, their unhealthy habits and reflux-related symptoms or signs were obtained. It could be concluded that H. pylori can colonize in the larynx of patients with benign laryngeal diseases and laryngeal cancer. To clarify the role of H. pylori as a risk factor for laryngeal diseases further research is needed. PMID:23572292

  4. Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Magen, Eli; Delgado, Jorge-Shmuel

    2014-02-14

    Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet's disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. PMID:24587626

  5. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI). Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed. PMID:26814181

  6. Are probiotics useful in Helicobacter pylori eradication?

    PubMed Central

    Homan, Matjaž; Orel, Rok

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is considered an etiologic factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and MALT lymphoma. Therapeutic schemes to eradicate the bacteria are based on double antibiotic therapy and proton pump inhibitor. Despite many therapeutic improvements in H. pylori eradication treatment, it is still associated with high infection rate also in developed countries. Bacterial resistance and adverse events occurrence are among most frequent causes for anti- H. pylori treatment failure. Several studies have reported that certain probiotic strains can exhibit inhibitory activity against H. pylori bacteria. In addition, some probiotic strains can reduce the occurrence of side effects due to antibiotic therapy and consequently increase the H. pylori eradication rate. The results of the prospective double-blind placebo-controlled studies suggest that specific probiotics, such as S. boulardii and L. johnsonni La1 probably can diminish the bacterial load, but not completely eradicate the H. pylori bacteria. Furthermore, it seems that supplementation with S. boulardii is a useful concomitant therapy in the standard H. pylori eradication treatment protocol and most probably increases eradication rate. L. reuteri is equally effective, but more positive studies are needed. Finally, probiotic strains, such as S. boulardii, L. reuteri and L. GG, decrease gastrointestinal antibiotic associated adverse effects. PMID:26457024

  7. Iron deficiency anaemia and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Annibale, B; Capurso, G; Martino, G; Grossi, C; Delle Fave, G

    2000-12-01

    Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common form of anaemia world-wide. IDA is the simple result of an imbalance between iron loss and absorption. Gastric function with hydrochloric and ascorbic acid is essential for iron absorption. Some strains of Helicobacter pylori are able to acquire iron, competing with the host. A large percentage of patients with atrophic body gastritis (ABG) develop IDA and 61% of them are H. pylori positive. Recent evidence suggests that H. pylori infection could cause IDA in the absence of peptic ulcer or other upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract bleeding lesions. Gastritis extending to the corpus and a high bacterial load are features of these patients. About 70% of IDA patients with ABG or H. pylori gastritis are premenopausal women. Both ABG and H. pylori gastritis should be considered when evaluating the GI tract of patients with iron deficiency anaemia. PMID:11118871

  8. An integrated microfluidic system for diagnosis of the resistance of Helicobacter pylori to quinolone-based antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chih-Yu; Wang, Chih-Hung; Che, Yu-Jui; Kao, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Jiunn-Jong; Lee, Gwo-Bin

    2016-04-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a species of bacteria that can colonize the human stomach mucosa. It is closely associated with gastric diseases such as ulcer and inflammation. Recently, some H. pylori strains were found to express resistance to a family of antibiotics known as quinolones due to single-point mutations. Although traditional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and molecular diagnostic-based approaches can be used to determine the presence and abundance of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, such processes are relatively expensive, labor-intensive, and require bulky and costly equipment. This study therefore reports an advanced diagnostic assay performed on an integrated microfluidic system for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori. The assay features three components: (1) nucleic acid extraction by specific probe-conjugated magnetic beads, (2) amplification of the target deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments by using single-nucleotide-polymorphism polymerase chain reaction (SNP-PCR), and (3) optical detection of the PCR products. The device integrates several microfluidic components including micro-pumps, normally-closed micro-valves, and reaction chambers such that the entire diagnostic assay can be automatically executed on a single microfluidic system within one hour with detection limits of 10(0), 10(2), and 10(2) bacterial cells for H. pylori detection and two different SNP sites strains. Three PCR-based assays for determining presence of H. pylori infection and two DNA single-point mutation assays aimed at determining whether the infected strains were resistant to quinolone can be performed simultaneously on a single chip, suggesting that this microfluidic system could be a promising tool for rapid diagnosis of the presence of antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains. PMID:26630283

  9. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori and idiopathic chronic urticaria: effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Mogaddam, Majid Rostami; Yazdanbod, Abbas; Ardabili, Nastaran Safavi; Isazadeh, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Chronic urticaria (CU) is defined as the presence of urticaria on most days of the week for a period of 6 weeks or longer. Some studies have reported an association between CU and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Aim To determine the prevalence of H. pylori infection using the stool antigen test in patients with idiopathic CU and to investigate the infected patients with CU following eradication of H. pylori. Material and methods One hundred patients with idiopathic CU and 100 healthy controls were referred to our clinic between May 2012 and June 2013 and were tested for H. pylori antigen. The patients infected with H. pylori received quadruple therapy for 2 weeks. To assess eradication efficacy, a repeated H. pylori stool antigen test was performed in each patient 6 weeks after the end of anti-H. pylori therapy. The effectiveness of eradication therapy on CU was assessed 3 months after treatment. Results Thirty-six percent patients with idiopathic CU were infected with H. pylori while 23% of the controls were infected. Response to eradication therapy was evident in 33 (91.67%) patients in whom H. pylori was eradicated while 3 (8.33%) patients showed no response despite eradication of H. pylori. Clinical follow-up of 33 successfully treated patients 3 months later revealed complete remission of urticaria in 54.5%, partial remission in 18.2%, and no improvement in 27.3%. Conclusions The results of our study suggest that H. pylori infection should be included in diagnostic workup of patients with no response to habitual treatment for CU or symptomatic gastrointestinal patients. For the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, one should consider the costs and accessibility of the population to the HpSA® stool antigen test and Urea breath test (UBT). PMID:25821422

  10. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Carolina-Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo-Santiago; Zina, Lívia-Guimarães

    2016-01-01

    Background Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a recurrent painful ulcerative disorder that commonly affects the oral mucosa. Local and systemic factors such as trauma, food sensitivity, nutritional deficiencies, systemic conditions, immunological disorders and genetic polymorphisms are associated with the development of the disease. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative, microaerophile bacteria, that colonizes the gastric mucosa and it was previously suggested to be involved in RAS development. In the present paper we reviewed all previous studies that investigated the association between RAS and H. pylori. Material and Methods A search in Pubmed (MEDLINE) databases was made of articles published up until July 2015 using the following keywords: Helicobacter Pylori or H. pylori and RAS or Recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Results Fifteen experimental studies that addressed the relationship between infection with H. pylori and the presence of RAS and three reviews, including a systematic review and a meta-analysis were included in this review. The studies reviewed used different methods to assess this relationship, including PCR, nested PCR, culture, ELISA and urea breath test. A large variation in the number of patients included in each study, as well as inclusion criteria and laboratorial methods was observed. H. pylori can be detected in the oral mucosa or ulcerated lesion of some patients with RAS. The quality of the all studies included in this review was assessed using levels of evidence based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine Criteria. Conclusions Although the eradication of the infection may affect the clinical course of the oral lesions by undetermined mechanisms, RAS ulcers are not associated with the presence of the bacteria in the oral cavity and there is no evidence that H. pylori infection drives RAS development. Key words:Campylobacter, elisa, h. pylori, Helicobacter Pylori, RAS, recurrent aphthous

  11. Genetic Evolution of a Helicobacter pylori Acid-Sensing Histidine Kinase and Gastric Disease.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Uma; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Suarez, Giovanni; Azah, Ayeetin; Krezel, Andrzej M; Varga, Matthew G; Forsyth, Mark H; Peek, Richard M

    2016-08-15

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, which develops within a hypochlorhydric environment. We sequentially isolated H. pylori (strain J99) from a patient who developed corpus-predominant gastritis and hypochlorhydia over a 6-year interval. Archival J99 survived significantly better under acidic conditions than recent J99 strains. H. pylori arsRS encodes a 2-component system critical for stress responses; recent J99 isolates harbored 2 nonsynonymous arsS mutations, and arsS inactivation abolished acid survival. In vivo, acid-resistant archival, but not recent J99, successfully colonized high-acid-secreting rodents. Thus, genetic evolution of arsS may influence progression to hypochlorhydia and gastric cancer. PMID:27190191

  12. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Aging, and Consumption of Proton Pump Inhibitor on Fungal Colonization in the Stomach of Dyspeptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Massarrat, Sadegh; Saniee, Parastoo; Siavoshi, Farideh; Mokhtari, Reyhane; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Khalili-Samani, Saman

    2016-01-01

    -infection of Candida and H. pylori or infection of yeast alone could be associated with dyspeptic diseases. The occurrence of yeast cells in gastric biopsies with different Gram's reactions indicates that fungi might change their cell wall components for establishing a persistent colonization in the stomach. PMID:27252698

  13. Simple animal model of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Werawatganon, Duangporn

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has become accepted as a human pathogen for the development of gastritis and gastroduodenal ulcer. To develop a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection, male Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with streptomycin suspended in tap water (5 mg/mL) for 3 d. The rats were inoculated by gavage at 1 mL/rat with H. pylori suspension (5 × 108-5 × 1010 CFU/mL) twice daily at an interval of 4 h for three consecutive days. Two weeks after inoculation, rats were sacrificed and the stomachs were removed. Antral biopsies were performed for urease test and the stomachs were taken for histopathology. Successful H. pylori inoculation was defined as a positive urease test and histopathology. We reported a 69.8%-83.0% success rate for H. pylori infection using the urease test, and hematoxylin and eosin staining confirmed the results. Histopathological analysis detected bacteria along the mucous lining of the surface epithelium and crypt lumen and demonstrated mild to moderate gastric inflammation in successfully inoculated rats. We developed a simple rat model of chronic H. pylori infection for research into gastric microcirculatory changes and therapy with plant products. PMID:24914363

  14. Hematologic manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Campuzano-Maya, Germán

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common infection in humans, with a marked disparity between developed and developing countries. Although H. pylori infections are asymptomatic in most infected individuals, they are intimately related to malignant gastric conditions such as gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma and to benign diseases such as gastritis and duodenal and gastric peptic ulcers. Since it was learned that bacteria could colonize the gastric mucosa, there have been reports in the medical literature of over 50 extragastric manifestations involving a variety medical areas of specialization. These areas include cardiology, dermatology, endocrinology, gynecology and obstetrics, hematology, pneumology, odontology, ophthalmology, otorhinolaryngology and pediatrics, and they encompass conditions with a range of clear evidence between the H. pylori infection and development of the disease. This literature review covers extragastric manifestations of H. pylori infection in the hematology field. It focuses on conditions that are included in international consensus and management guides for H. pylori infection, specifically iron deficiency, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency, immune thrombocytopenia, and MALT lymphoma. In addition, there is discussion of other conditions that are not included in international consensus and management guides on H. pylori, including auto-immune neutropenia, antiphospholipid syndrome, plasma cell dyscrasias, and other hematologic diseases. PMID:25278680

  15. Metalloregulation of Helicobacter pylori physiology and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacterium that colonizes over half of the world's population. Chronic H. pylori infection is associated with increased risk for numerous disease outcomes including gastritis, dysplasia, neoplasia, B-cell lymphoma of mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma), and invasive adenocarcinoma. The complex interactions that occur between pathogen and host are dynamic and exquisitely regulated, and the relationship between H. pylori and its human host are no exception. To successfully colonize, and subsequently persist, within the human stomach H. pylori must temporally regulate numerous genes to ensure localization to the gastric lumen and coordinated expression of virulence factors to subvert the host's innate and adaptive immune response. H. pylori achieves this precise gene regulation by sensing subtle environmental changes including host-mediated alterations in nutrient availability and responding with dramatic global changes in gene expression. Recent studies revealed that the presence or absence of numerous metal ions encountered in the lumen of the stomach, or within host tissues, including nickel, iron, copper and zinc, can influence regulatory networks to alter gene expression in H. pylori. These expression changes modulate the deployment of bacterial virulence factors that can ultimately influence disease outcome. In this review we will discuss the environmental stimuli that are detected by H. pylori as well as the trans regulatory elements, specifically the transcription regulators and transcription factors, that allow for these significant transcriptional shifts. PMID:26388855

  16. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshiro; Asaka, Masahiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has an association with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma in the stomach. Gastric cancer occurs in only a minority of infected individuals, however. Such clinical diversities are caused by variations of H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, environmental factors, and interactions of these factors. By three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer, World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori had a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. In addition, the Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens demonstrated that H. pylori infection could develop into gastric cancer. The experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori have an interaction with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster and codes the type IV secretion machinery system, forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird morphology, growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are probably translocated into target cells and accelerate cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Understanding the molecular mechanism of the interaction between H. pylori and gastric epithelial cells will provide us with a new strategy for effective prevention of the development of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori infection. PMID:15449106

  17. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium. PMID:24587625

  18. Identification of putative vaccine candidates against Helicobacter pylori exploiting exoproteome and secretome: a reverse vaccinology based approach.

    PubMed

    Naz, Anam; Awan, Faryal Mehwish; Obaid, Ayesha; Muhammad, Syed Aun; Paracha, Rehan Zafar; Ahmad, Jamil; Ali, Amjad

    2015-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important pathogen associated with diverse gastric disorders ranging from peptic ulcer to malignancy. It has also been recognized by the World Health Organization (WHO) as class I carcinogen. Conventional treatment regimens for H. pylori seem to be ineffective, possibly due to antibiotic resistance mechanisms acquired by the pathogen. In this study we have successfully employed a reverse vaccinology approach to predict the potential vaccine candidates against H. pylori. The predicted potential vaccine candidates include vacA, babA, sabA, fecA and omp16. Host-pathogen interactions analysis elaborated their direct or indirect role in the specific signaling pathways including epithelial cell polarity, metabolism, secretion system and transport. Furthermore, surface-exposed antigenic epitopes were predicted and analyzed for conservation among 39 complete genomes of H. pylori (Genbank) for all the candidate proteins. These epitopes may serve as a base for the development of broad spectrum peptide or multi-component vaccines against H. pylori. We also believe that the proposed pipeline can be extended to other pathogens and for the identification of novel candidates for the development of effective vaccines. PMID:25818402

  19. Vaccine against Helicobacter pylori: Inevitable approach.

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin

    2016-03-21

    Over three decades have passed since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and yet many questions about its treatment remain unanswered. For example, there is no certainty regarding continued use of current antibiotic therapy against H. pylori. The bad news is that even combined regimens are also unable to eradicate bacterial colonization. The worst problem with H. pylori chemotherapy is that even if we identify the most successful regimen, it cannot eliminate the risk of re-infection. This problem is further complicated by the fact that clinicians have no information as to whether probiotics are useful or not. Moreover, to date, we have no large scale produced vaccine effective against H. pylori. Due to the relatively rapid and abundant dissemination of guidelines globally reported concerning management of gastric cancer prevention and therapeutic regimens, clinicians may choose a vaccine as better effective weapon against H. pylori. Therefore, a radical shift in adopted strategies is needed to guide ultimate decisions regarding H. pylori management. In light of failures in vaccine projects, we should identify better vaccine design targeting conserved/essential genes. The unique character and persistence of H. pylori pose obstacles to making an effective vaccine. Preferably, in developing countries, the best reasonable and logical approach is to recommend prophylactic H. pylori vaccine among children as an obligatory national program to limit primary colonization. Trying to produce a therapeutic vaccine would be postponed until later. In reality, we should not forget to prescribe narrow spectrum antibiotics. In the current review, I draw a route to define the best adopted strategy against this rogue bacterium. PMID:27003991

  20. Vaccine against Helicobacter pylori: Inevitable approach

    PubMed Central

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin

    2016-01-01

    Over three decades have passed since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and yet many questions about its treatment remain unanswered. For example, there is no certainty regarding continued use of current antibiotic therapy against H. pylori. The bad news is that even combined regimens are also unable to eradicate bacterial colonization. The worst problem with H. pylori chemotherapy is that even if we identify the most successful regimen, it cannot eliminate the risk of re-infection. This problem is further complicated by the fact that clinicians have no information as to whether probiotics are useful or not. Moreover, to date, we have no large scale produced vaccine effective against H. pylori. Due to the relatively rapid and abundant dissemination of guidelines globally reported concerning management of gastric cancer prevention and therapeutic regimens, clinicians may choose a vaccine as better effective weapon against H. pylori. Therefore, a radical shift in adopted strategies is needed to guide ultimate decisions regarding H. pylori management. In light of failures in vaccine projects, we should identify better vaccine design targeting conserved/essential genes. The unique character and persistence of H. pylori pose obstacles to making an effective vaccine. Preferably, in developing countries, the best reasonable and logical approach is to recommend prophylactic H. pylori vaccine among children as an obligatory national program to limit primary colonization. Trying to produce a therapeutic vaccine would be postponed until later. In reality, we should not forget to prescribe narrow spectrum antibiotics. In the current review, I draw a route to define the best adopted strategy against this rogue bacterium. PMID:27003991

  1. Acid, protons and Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, G.; Meyer-Rosberg, K.; Scott, D. R.; Melchers, K.

    1996-01-01

    The anti-ulcer drugs that act as covalent inhibitors of the gastric acid pump are targeted to the gastric H+/K+ ATPase by virtue of accumulation in acid and conversion to the active sulfenamide. This results in extremely effective inhibition of acid secretion. Appropriate dosage is able to optimize acid control therapy for reflux and peptic ulcer disease as compared to H2 receptor antagonists. However, clinical data on recurrence show that Helicobacter pylori eradication should accompany treatment of the lesion. These drugs have been found to synergize with many antibiotics for eradication. The survival of aerobes depends on their ability to maintain a driving force for protons across their inner membrane, the sum of a pH and potential difference gradient, the protonmotive force (pmf). The transmembrane flux of protons across the F1F0 ATPase, driven by the pmf, is coupled to the synthesis of ATP. The internal pH of H. pylori was measured using the fluorescent dye probe, BCECF, and the membrane potential defined by the uptake of the carbocyanine dye, DiSC3 [5] at different pHs to mimic the gastric environment. The protonmotive force at pH 7.0 was composed of a delta pH of 1.4 (-84mV) and a delta potential difference of -131mV, to give a pmf of -215 mV. The effect of variations in external pH on survival of the bacteria in the absence of urea correlated with the effect of external pH on the ability of the bacteria to maintain a pmf. The effect of the addition of 5 mM urea on the pmf was measured at different medium pH values. Urea restored the pmf at pH 3.0 or 3.5, but abolished the pmf at pH 7.0 or higher, due the production of the alkalinizing cation, NH3. Hence H. pylori is an acid-tolerant neutrophile due to urease activity, but urease activity also limits its survival to an acidic environment. These data help explain the occupation of the stomach by the organism and its distribution between fundus and antrum. This distribution and its alteration by proton pump

  2. Tight junction disruption: Helicobacter pylori and dysregulation of the gastric mucosal barrier

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Tyler J; Scott, Kathleen E; Fox, James G; Hagen, Susan J

    2015-01-01

    Long-term chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a risk factor for gastric cancer development. In the multi-step process that leads to gastric cancer, tight junction dysfunction is thought to occur and serve as a risk factor by permitting the permeation of luminal contents across an otherwise tight mucosa. Mechanisms that regulate tight junction function and structure in the normal stomach, or dysfunction in the infected stomach, however, are largely unknown. Although conventional tight junction components are expressed in gastric epithelial cells, claudins regulate paracellular permeability and are likely the target of inflammation or H. pylori itself. There are 27 different claudin molecules, each with unique properties that render the mucosa an intact barrier that is permselective in a way that is consistent with cell physiology. Understanding the architecture of tight junctions in the normal stomach and then changes that occur during infection is important but challenging, because most of the reports that catalog claudin expression in gastric cancer pathogenesis are contradictory. Furthermore, the role of H. pylori virulence factors, such as cytotoxin-associated gene A and vacoulating cytotoxin, in regulating tight junction dysfunction during infection is inconsistent in different gastric cell lines and in vivo, likely because non-gastric epithelial cell cultures were initially used to unravel the details of their effects on the stomach. Hampering further study, as well, is the relative lack of cultured cell models that have tight junction claudins that are consistent with native tissues. This summary will review the current state of knowledge about gastric tight junctions, normally and in H. pylori infection, and make predictions about the consequences of claudin reorganization during H. pylori infection. PMID:26523106

  3. H. pylori-Induced Higher C-Reactive Protein in Obese African Americans.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Nuzhat R; Garvey, W Timothy; Khaled, Mohammad A

    2009-02-01

    African Americans are more susceptible to develop insulin resistance, obesity, Type 2 Diabetes, and coronary heart disease (CHD), and systemic inflammation is central to the pathophysiology of these chronic diseases. African Americans are also more likely to contract H. pylori (cagA) infections during their childhood. However, the contribution of H. pylori infection to the degree of overall systemic inflammation in these chronic diseases is not known. Therefore, we studied 46 apparently healthy African Americans, over 40 years of age who were, infected with H. pylori (cagA). These volunteers were assessed at baseline and after treatment with triple regimen drug therapy to eradicate H. pylori. All but 3 subjects were found to be free of this infection by urea breath test (UBT) after the treatment period. No hyperhomocysteinemia was found in these subjects and there were no significant changes in the level of homocysteine (tHcy), folate and B(12); however, CRP levels measured by high sensitivity assay showed a significant (p=0.02) decrease 2 months after the eradication. We further stratified CRP values according to the BMI < 27 and > 27. There was more profound reduction in CRP in the more obese group (i.e., BMI>27) from 54.26 ± 23.67 to 18.73 ± 17.39 mg/l (p=0.01), compared with the leaner subjects in whom CRP decreases from 8.88 ± 6.23 to 4.94 ± 6.21 mg/L (p=0.04), after eradication of the H. pylori (cagA) infection. The level of CRP, however, remained significantly higher in the obese subjects even after the eradication of this infection, indicative of a smaller residual influence of adiposity on CRP. Thus, a major component of systemic inflammation in African Americans may be attributable to chronic H. pylori infection. PMID:22102851

  4. Diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Mégraud, Francis; Floch, Pauline; Labenz, Joachim; Lehours, Philippe

    2016-09-01

    There is progress in endoscopy techniques. While it is not yet possible to detect Helicobacter pylori directly in the stomach, it becomes easier to detect the mucosal changes induced by the bacteria. Some small changes can also increase the sensitivity of the invasive tests, for example culture or histology, but the wide use of proton-pump inhibitors has a negative impact on these tests. Only molecular methods are able to detect a limited load of bacteria, especially by using real-time PCR but also with new methods, for example dual-priming oligonucleotide-based PCR, loop-medicated isothermal amplification, droplet-digital PCR or a multiple genetic analysis system. Among the noninvasive tests, urea breath test remains a test of major interest, while there are attempts to develop an ammonia breath test and other nanosensor devices. A new antigen stool test, a chemoluminescence immunoassay using the LIAISON apparatus has also been tested for the first time with success. Despite its limitations, serology remains the most popular test to detect H. pylori antibodies. It also allows pepsinogen dosage which is of interest for detecting atrophy. PMID:27531532

  5. Helicobacter pylori therapy: a paradigm shift.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y; Dore, Maria Pina

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. Pylori) is a leading cause of gastroduodenal disease, including gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication therapies and their efficacy are summarized. A number of current treatment regimens will reliably yield >90% or 95% cure rates with susceptible strains. None has proven to be superior. We show how to predict the efficacy of a regimen in any population provided one knows the prevalence of antibiotic resistance. As with other infectious diseases, therapy should always be susceptibility-based. Susceptibility testing should be demanded. We provide recommendations for empiric therapies when that is the only option and describe how to distinguish studies providing misinformation from those providing reliable and interpretable data. When treated as an infectious disease, high H. pylori cure rates are relatively simple to reliably achieve. PMID:27077447

  6. Inactivation of Helicobacter pylori by chlorination.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, C H; Rice, E W; Reasoner, D J

    1997-01-01

    Three strains of Helicobacter pylori were studied to determine their resistance to chlorination. The organisms were readily inactivated by free chlorine and should therefore be controlled by disinfection practices normally employed in the treatment of drinking water. PMID:9406419

  7. Delineation of a Carcinogenic Helicobacter pylori Proteome*

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Aime T.; Friedman, David B.; Nagy, Toni A.; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Krishna, Uma; Kendall, Amy; Israel, Dawn A.; Tegtmeyer, Nicole; Washington, M. Kay; Peek, Richard M.

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the strongest known risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, yet only a fraction of infected persons ever develop cancer. The extensive genetic diversity inherent to this pathogen has precluded comprehensive analyses of constituents that mediate carcinogenesis. We previously reported that in vivo adaptation of a non-carcinogenic H. pylori strain endowed the output derivative with the ability to induce adenocarcinoma, providing a unique opportunity to identify proteins selectively expressed by an oncogenic H. pylori strain. Using a global proteomics DIGE/MS approach, a novel missense mutation of the flagellar protein FlaA was identified that affects structure and function of this virulence-related organelle. Among 25 additional differentially abundant proteins, this approach also identified new proteins previously unassociated with gastric cancer, generating a profile of H. pylori proteins to use in vaccine development and for screening persons infected with strains most likely to induce severe disease. PMID:19470446

  8. Helicobacter pylori modulation of gastric acid.

    PubMed Central

    Calam, J.

    1999-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays major causative roles in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Elevated acid secretion in patients with duodenal ulcers (DUs) contributes to duodenal injury, and diminished acid secretion in patients with gastric cancer allows carcinogen-producing bacteria to colonize the stomach. Eradication of H. pylori normalizes acid secretion both in hyper-secreting DU patients and hypo-secreting relatives of gastric cancer patients. Therefore, we and others have asked how H. pylori causes these disparate changes in acid secretion. H. pylori gastritis more or less restricted to the gastric antrum in DU patients is associated with increased acid secretion. This is probably because gastritis increases release of the antral acid-stimulating hormone gastrin and diminished mucosal expression of the inhibitory peptide somatostatin. Bacterial products and inflammatory cytokines including TNFalpha may cause these changes in endocrine function. Gastritis involving the gastric corpus tends to diminish acid secretion, probably because bacterial products and cytokines including IL-1 inhibit parietal cells. Pharmacological inhibition of acid secretion increases corpus gastritis in H. pylori-infected subjects, so it is envisaged that gastric hypo-secretion of any cause might become self-perpetuating. H. pylori-associated mucosal atrophy will also contribute to acid hypo-secretion and is more likely in when the diet is high in salt or lacking in antioxidant vitamins. Data on gastric acid secretion in patients with esophagitis are limited but suggest that acid secretion is normal or slightly diminished. Nevertheless, H. pylori infection may be relevant to the management of esophagitis because: (i) H. pylori infection increases the pH-elevating effect of acid inhibiting drugs; (ii) proton pump inhibitors may increase the tendency of H. pylori to cause atrophic gastritis; and (iii) successful eradication of H. pylori is reported to increase the likelihood of

  9. [Helicobacter pylori, the story so far].

    PubMed

    D'Elios, Mario Milco

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a bacterial pathogen infecting the gastric antrum of half the population worldwide. H. pylori has been discovered in 1982 by J. Robin Warren and Barry J. Marshall as the major cause of gastroduodenal pathologies, including gastric and duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. For this great discovery Warren and Marshall deserved the Nobel Prize for Medicine and Physiology in 2005. PMID:18450040

  10. Hyperhomocysteinaemia, Helicobacter pylori, and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Sung, J J; Sanderson, J E

    1996-10-01

    Hyperhomocysteinaemia and Helicobacter pylori infection have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease. These two risk factors, though they seem unrelated, could be linked by a deficiency of vitamins and folate caused by chronic gastritis in H pylori infection. This nutritional defect could lead to failure of methylation by 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolic acid and thus exacerbate the accumulation of homocysteine in susceptible patients. Homocysteine is toxic to endothelial cells and results in coronary artery disease. PMID:8983673

  11. Helicobacter pylori: a poor man's gut pathogen?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the human pathogens with highest prevalence around the world; yet, its principal mode of transmission remains largely unknown. The role of H. pylori in gastric disease and cancer has not been established until the end of the 20th century. Since then, its epidemiology has been extensively studied, and an accruing body of literature suggests that not all humans are equally at risk of infection by this gut pathogen. Here, we briefly review the different epidemiological aspects of H. pylori infection with emphasis on those factors related to human poverty. The epidemiology of H. pylori infection is characterized by marked differences between developing and developed countries, notably among children. In addition, congruent lines of evidence point out to socioeconomic factors and living standards as main determinants of the age-dependent acquisition rate of H. pylori, and consequently its prevalence. These data are alarming in the light of the changing global climate and birth rate, which are expected to change the demography of our planet, putting more children at risk of H. pylori and its complications for years to come. PMID:20356368

  12. Helicobacter pylori screening: options and challenges.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Goni, Elisabetta; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis is the most frequent infectious disease in the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical sequelae of the infection including peptic ulcer disease, sporadic gastric cancer (GC) and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (MALT-lymphoma) may develop in up to 20% of the infected individuals. The H. pylori screen-and-treat strategy is addressed to members of communities with high GC incidence, and first-degree relatives of GC patients. For primary GC prevention, H. pylori screen-and-treat is most effective in patients without precancerous conditions. In populations at moderate risk, strategies for GC prevention need to be explored. A special clinical scenario for primary and secondary prevention of H. pylori related benign complications are patients on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and low-dose aspirin. Vaccination represents another option for eliminating H. pylori infection in the population and a new H. pylori vaccine has shown promising results. However, long-term effects with the use of vaccine are not available. PMID:26619972

  13. Clinical practice: Helicobacter pylori infection in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ertem, Deniz

    2013-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is recognised as a cause of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) and usually acquired during the first years of life. While there is a decline in the prevalence of H. pylori infection in northern and western European countries, the infection is still common in southern and eastern parts of Europe and Asia. Symptoms of H. pylori-related PUD are nonspecific in children and may include epigastric pain, nausea and/or vomiting, anorexia, iron deficiency anaemia and hematemesis. Besides, only a small proportion of children develop symptoms and clinically relevant gastrointestinal disease. H. pylori infection can be diagnosed either by invasive tests requiring endoscopy and biopsy or non-invasive tests including the (13)C-urea breath test, detection of H. pylori antigen in stool and detection of antibodies in serum, urine and saliva. The aim of treatment is at least 90 % eradication rate of the bacteria, and a combination of two antibiotics plus a proton pump inhibitor has been recommended as first-line treatment. However, frequent use of antibiotics during childhood is associated with a decline in eradication rates and the search for new treatment strategies as well. This is an overview of the latest knowledge and evidence-based guidelines regarding clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of H. pylori infection in childhood. PMID:23015042

  14. Helicobacter pylori: immunoproteomics related to different pathologies.

    PubMed

    Bernardini, Giulia; Braconi, Daniela; Lusini, Paola; Santucci, Annalisa

    2007-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes ulcer, atrophic gastritis, adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Moreover, an ongoing controversial role of this bacterium infection has been suggested in the etiopathogenesis of some extradigestive diseases. The humoral response to H. pylori during a natural infection can be used for diagnostic purposes and as a basis for vaccine development. Host-pathogen interactions may be investigated by means of immunoproteomics, which provides global information about relevant specific and nonspecific antigens, and thus might be suitable to identify novel vaccine candidates or serological markers of H. pylori infection as well as of different related diseases. In this review, we describe how several research groups used H. pylori proteomics combined with western blotting analysis, using sera from patients affected with different H. pylori-related pathologies, to investigate potential associations between host immune response and clinical outcomes of H. pylori infection, resulting in the rapid identification of novel, highly immunoreactive antigens. PMID:17941822

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in symptomatic patients and detection of clarithromycin resistance using melting curve analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Ayse Demet; Öztürk, C. Elif; Akcan, Yusuf; Behçet, Mustafa; Karakoç, A. Esra; Yücel, Mihriban; Mısırlıoglu, Müge; Tuncer, Serdar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background: Clarithromycin is often a component of combination therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication; however, increases in resistance rates have decreased the success of the treatment. Objective: This study was designed to determine the prevalence of H pylori infection in symptomatic patients and to detect clarithromycin resistance rates using melting curve analysis. Methods: Patients scheduled for upper endoscopy at the Endoscopy Unit of the Department of Gastroenterology, Duzce University, Medical Faculty Hospital, Konuralp/Duzce, Turkey, were assessed for enrollment in the study. Two pairs of gastric biopsy specimens (antrum and corpus) were obtained from each study patient. Histopathologic examination, rapid urease test, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of the specimens were used to identify H pylori infection. Clarithromycin resistance was detected using melting curve analysis. Results: Seventy-five patients (41 women, 34 men; mean [SD]age, 42.6 [14.5] years [range, 17–70 years]) were included in the study. Using histopathology and rapid urease test, H pylori was detected in 40 (53.3%) of the 75 specimens. H pylori was detected using PCR in 40 (53.3%) specimens and by culture in 10 (13.3%) specimens. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR and culture were interpreted by comparing them with the results of histopathologic examination and urease tests. The specificity and sensitivity of PCR were 68.6% and 72.5%, respectively, and the specificity and sensitivity of culture were 97.1% and 22.5%, respectively. Of the 40 isolates, 21 (52.5%) were susceptible to clarithromycin, 12 (30.0%) were resistant, and a mixed susceptibility pattern was detected in 7 (17.5%) specimens. H pylori isolates from 19 (79.2%) of the 24 patients who had formerly used clarithromycin showed clarithromycin resistance. Conclusions: The prevalence of H pylori infection was 53.3% for the symptomatic patients in this study, and 47.5% of the isolates showed

  16. Optimizing the Growth of Stressed Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Crystal L.; Buchholz, Brittany J.; Ford, Timothy E.; Broadaway, Susan C.; Pyle, Barry H.; Camper, Anne K.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram -negative bacterium that colonizes the human stomach and is responsible for causing gastric ulcers. H. pylori is known to become stressed and nonculturable after exposure to unfavorable conditions. In this study, we enhanced previously published resuscitation procedures, characterized conditions under which stressed H. pylori can be recovered, and formulated a selective and differential resuscitation medium. Results showed that a specialized broth supplemented with trace minerals and lysed human erythrocytes and serum is required for the recovery of nonculturable H. pylori. The type of stress was an important factor in the efficacy of resuscitation, with cells exposed to atmospheric oxygen more readily resuscitated than nutrient deprived cells. After resuscitation, culturable cells were recovered from previously nonculturable oxygen stressed cells (24 and 72 hours of exposure) and nonculturable nutrient deprived cells (24 hours of exposure). The length of time the cells were exposed to the stress was also an important factor in the recovery of stressed H. pylori. RNA levels were quantified and transcription of the cell division related gene, cdrA (HP0066), was assessed by qRT-PCR. The low levels of RNA detected in stressed cells, after resuscitation, support the idea that a small population of viable cells may be responsible for the colonies recovered on solid agar. The modification of the resuscitation broth into a selective and differential slant culture medium also allowed the recovery of stressed H. pylori. The methods presented here highlight the benefits and limitations of using human blood products for recovering nonculturable H. pylori. PMID:21129415

  17. Agglutination of Helicobacter pylori coccoids by lectins

    PubMed Central

    Khin, Mar Mar; Hua, Jie Song; Ng, Han Cong; Wadström, Torkel; Ho, Bow

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To study the agglutination pattern of Helicobacter pylori coccoid and spiral forms. METHODS: Assays of agglutination and agglutination inhibition were applied using fifteen commercial lectins. RESULTS: Strong agglutination was observed with mannose-specific Concanavalin A (Con A), fucose-specific Tetragonolobus purpureas (Lotus A) and N-acetyl glucosamine-specific Triticum vulgaris (WGA) lectins. Mannose and fucose specific lectins were reactive with all strains of H. pylori coccoids as compared to the spirals. Specific carbohydrates, glycoproteins and mucin were shown to inhibit H. pylori lectin-agglutination reactions. Pre-treatment of the bacterial cells with formalin and sulphuric acid did not alter the agglutination patterns with lectins. However, sodium periodate treatment of bacterial cells were shown to inhibit agglutination reaction with Con A, Lotus A and WGA lectins. On the contrary, enzymatic treatment of coccoids and spirals did not show marked inhibition of H. pylori lectin agglutination. Interes tingly, heating of H. pylori cells at 60 °C for 1 h was shown to augment the agglutination with all of the lectins tested. CONCLUSION: The considerable differences in lectin agglutination patterns seen among the two differentiated forms of H. pylori might be attributable to the structural changes during the events of morphological transformation, resulting in exposing or masking some of the sugar residues on the cell surface. Possibility of various sugar residues on the cell wall of the coccoids may allow them to bind to different carbohydrate receptors on gastric mucus and epithelial cells. The coccoids with adherence characteristics like the spirals could aid in the pathogenic process of Helicobacter infection. This may probably lead to different clinical outcome of H. pylori associated gastroduodenal disease. PMID:11819557

  18. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases

    PubMed Central

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  19. Inhibitory effect of polaprezinc on the inflammatory response to Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Handa, Osamu; Yoshida, Norimasa; Tanaka, Yukiko; Ueda, Miho; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Takagi, Tomohisa; Matsumoto, Naoyuki; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2002-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori-infected gastrointestinal mucosa is frequently infiltrated by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and monocytes, and these invading cells have been implicated in gastrointestinal mucosal inflammation. To clarify the efficacy of polaprezinc, a chelate compound consisting of zinc and L-carnosine, against H pylori-induced inflammation including PMN infiltration, the in vitro effects of this drug on interleukin (IL)-8 production by an established gastric cancer cell line (MKN 45 cells) and on PMN-endothelial cell adhesive interactions was investigated. Polaprezinc and zinc sulphate inhibited IL-8 production by MKN 45 cells in response to stimulation with H pylori water extract (HPE) in a dose-dependent manner from 10(-7) M to 10(-5) M. In addition, the expression of CD11b and CD18 on PMN and PMN-dependent adhesion to endothelial cells elicited by HPE was inhibited by polaprezinc and zinc sulphate in a concentration-dependent manner. L-carnosine did not have any effects on IL-8 production or PMN-endothelial cell interactions. These results suggest that polaprezinc, mainly the zinc component, may inhibit H pylori-induced PMN-mediated gastric inflammation by attenuating CD11b/CD18 expression on PMN and IL-8 production from gastric epithelial cells. PMID:12464972

  20. Dietary, non-microbial intervention to prevent Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Young-Min; Park, Jong-Min; Jeong, Migyeong; Yoo, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Won-Hee; Shin, Seok-Pyo; Ko, Weon-Jin; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2015-06-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders including acute and chronic gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer, chronic atrophic gastritis, and gastric cancer almost three decades ago, the possibility of preventing these clinical diseases through eradicating H. pylori has been the focus of active research, but soon debate in the scientific community, though eradication opens the feasibility of cancer prevention and the removal of bacteria significantly prevents development or recurrence of peptic ulcer diseases and some clinical diseases, was proposed due to uncertainty in either achievement of complete eradication or inefficacy in cancer prevention with eradication alone. Still its linkage to gastric cancer is incontestable. Since the multiple combination of bacterial factors, environmental insults, and the host immune response that drives the initiation and progression of mucosal atrophy, metaplasia, and dysplasia toward gastric cancer is intervened, simple eradication deemed the feasibility of cancer prevention. Therefore, our group open strong hypothesis that non-microbial, dietary approach might be the alternate, for which several interventions of nutritional components can highlight rejuvenation of chronic atrophic gastritis as well as amelioration of H. pylori-associated procarcinogenic inflammation. In this review article, the experience and outcome regarding nutritional application to rejuvenate gastric atrophy will be introduced, using Korean red ginseng, garlic extracts, cancer preventive Korea kimchi, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), special form of licorice, and probiotics. The detailed influence of dietary intervention and bacterial eradication therapy on disease progression and reversibility of premalignant lesions are discussed. PMID:26207250

  1. A Population Genetics Pedigree Perspective on the Transmission of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Delport, Wayne; Cunningham, Michael; Olivier, Brenda; Preisig, Oliver; van der Merwe, Schalk W.

    2006-01-01

    The inference of transmission pathways for medicinally important bacteria is important to our understanding of pathogens. Here we report analyses of transmission in Helicobacter pylori, a major carcinogen. Our study is novel in that the focal community comprises detailed family pedigrees and has a high prevalence of H. pylori. To infer transmission, we performed high-resolution analyses of nucleotide sequences for three genes and accounted for the occurrence of mutation and recombination through the use of simulation modeling. Our results demonstrate that transmission has a strong nonfamilial component potentially the result of a large proportion of infections derived from the community. These results are interesting from both a medical and an evolutionary standpoint. First, efficient control measures and beliefs about the sources of H. pylori infection should be reevaluated. Evolutionarily, our results contradict the hypothesis of strict vertical transmission, presented as an explanation for the strong correlation between human population history and H. pylori diversity. Thus the paradox of persistent phylogenetic structure, despite a permissive mode of transmission and high recombination rates, must be solved elsewhere. Here we consider the potential for recombination events to maintain genetic structure in light of horizontal transmission. PMID:17057244

  2. Helicobacter pylori and neurological diseases: Married by the laws of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Arellano, Lourdes; Maldonado-Bernal, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review current information about the role of inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in neurological diseases such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, multiple sclerosis, and other inflammatory diseases including ischemic stroke. Infection with H. pylori usually persists throughout life, resulting in a chronic inflammatory response with local secretion of numerous inflammatory mediators including chemokines [interleukin (IL)-8, macrophage chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, growth-regulated oncogene (GRO)-α] and cytokines [IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ], which can pass into the circulation and have a systemic effect. The persistence of detectable systemic and local concentrations of inflammatory mediators is likely to alter the outcome of neurological diseases. These proinflammatory factors can induce brain inflammation and the death of neurons and could eventually be associated to Parkinson’s disease and also may be involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. However, most neurological diseases are the result of a combination of multiple factors, but the systemic inflammatory response is a common component and determinant in the onset, evolution, and outcome of diseases. However, more studies are needed to allow understanding of the effects and mechanisms by which the inflammatory response generated by H. pylori infection affects neurological diseases. PMID:25400983

  3. [Peptic Ulcer Disease Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection].

    PubMed

    Yeo, Se-Hwan; Yang, Chang-Hun

    2016-06-25

    Although the global prevalence of peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is decreasing, PUD is still one of the most common upper gastrointestinal diseases in the world due to Helicobacter pylori infection and increased use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In Korea, the prevalence of H. pylori infection is also declining, but it is still the major cause of PUD. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are caused by imbalances between bacterial virulence factors, host factors, and environmental influences. In this review, we describe the prevalence trends of H. pylori infection in Korea, the mechanism of H. pylori infection-related PUD, and treatment strategies. PMID:27312829

  4. Can Helicobacter pylori infection influence human reproduction?

    PubMed Central

    Moretti, Elena; Figura, Natale; Collodel, Giulia; Ponzetto, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection could be associated with extra-digestive diseases. Here, we report the evidences concerning the decrease in reproductive potential occurring in individuals infected by H. pylori, especially by strains expressing CagA. This infection is more prevalent in individuals with fertility disorders. Infected women have anti-H. pylori antibodies in cervical mucus and follicular fluid that may decrease sperm motility and cross react immunologically with spermatozoa, conceivably hampering the oocyte/sperm fusion. Infection by CagA positive organisms enhances the risk of preeclampsia, which is a main cause of foetus death. These findings are supported by the results of experimental infections of pregnant mice, which may cause reabsorption of a high number of foetuses and alter the balance between Th1 and Th2 cell response. Infected men have decreased sperm motility, viability and numbers of normally shaped sperm and augmented systemic levels of inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, which may damage spermatozoa. In countries where parasitic infestation is endemic, detrimental effects of infection upon spermatozoa may not occur, because the immune response to parasites could determine a switch from a predominant Th1 type to Th2 type lymphocytes, with production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. In conclusion, the evidences gathered until now should be taken into consideration for future studies aiming to explore the possible role of H. pylori infection on human reproduction. PMID:24914316

  5. Helicobacter pylori infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Nakić, Dario; Vcev, Aleksandar; Jović, Albino; Patrk, Jogen; Zekanović, Drazen; Klarin, Ivo; Ivanac, Kresimir; Mrden, Anamarija; Balen, Sanja

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine whether H. pylori infection is an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), determine is there a link between H. pylori infection and severity of disease. In this prospective, single centre study, were enrolled 100 patients with AMI and control group was consisted 93 healthy individuals. The results of this study showed no difference between H. pylori seropositivity distribution in the investigate and control group (29 vs. 26 %) and there was no significant difference on the severity of the disease. There was significant association in the patients with three and more risk factors, where the patients with lower blood pressure (124.4/77.4 vs. 145.9/87.7 mmHg) and better controlled diabetes (HbA1c 6.1% vs. 6.9%) had greater risk for AMI if they are H. pylori seropositive. The large multicentric trials would be needed to define a precise role of H. pylori infection on the developement of AMI. PMID:22053556

  6. Helicobacter pylori in dental plaque of Pakistanis.

    PubMed

    Butt, A K; Khan, A A; Bedi, R

    1999-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori is now generally accepted to play a key role in acid related and neoplastic pathology of gastroduodenal diseases. Recent reports have concluded that dental plaque is not an important reservoir for Helicobacter pylori, however, these studies did not consider the ethnic background of their subjects nor the amounts of dental plaque present. The aim of this study was to explore the association of Helicobacter pylori dental plaque colonisation in 125 males and 53 females (group I) attending a dental clinic in Pakistan. A simultaneous sample of 30 healthy volunteers with good orodental hygiene consisting of 17 males and 13 females was included as a control group (group II). Six dental plaque specimens were obtained from each subject with a sickle scaler; two were inoculated into CLO test gel and the remaining four were used to prepare cytology slides stained with Giemsa's stain. CLO test was positive in all specimens from group I, while cytology for Helicobacter pylori was positive in 173 cases in this group. One hundred and forty two cases had heavy plaque deposits and all of them were positive on cytology. In group II CLO test was positive in 20 and dental plaque cytology was positive in 7 cases. In conclusion, it is important that future studies into the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in the oral cavity should take into account the levels of oral cleanliness and the ethnic background of the subjects. PMID:10833287

  7. Helicobacter pylori Sequences Reflect Past Human Migrations.

    PubMed

    Moodley, Y; Linz, B

    2009-01-01

    The long association between the stomach bacterium Helicobacter pylori and humans, in combination with its predominantly within-family transmission route and its exceptionally high DNA sequence diversity, make this bacterium a reliable marker for discerning both recent and ancient human population movements. As much of the diversity in H. pylori sequences is generated by recombination and mutation on a local scale, the partitioning of H. pylori sequences from a large globally distributed data set into six geographic populations enabled the detection of recent ( < 500 years) human population movements including the European colonial expansion and the slave trade. The further separation of bacterial populations into distinct sub-populations traced prehistoric population movements like the settlement of the Americas by Asians across the Bering Strait and the Bantu migrations in Africa. The ability to deduce ancestral population structure from modern sequences was a key development that allowed the detection of zones of admixture, such as Europe, and the inference of multiple migration waves into these zones. The significantly similar global population structure of both H. pylori and humans confirmed not only an evolutionary time-scale association between host and parasite, but also that humans had carried H. pylori in their stomachs on their migrations out of Africa. PMID:19696494

  8. N-acetylcysteine, a novel treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hien Quoc; Couper, Richard T L; Tran, Cuong D; Moore, Lynette; Kelso, Richard; Butler, Ross N

    2004-01-01

    N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), being both a mucolytic agent and a thiol-containing antioxidant, may affect the establishment and maintenance of H. pylori infection within the gastric mucus layer and mucosa. Agar and broth dilution susceptibility tests determined the MIC of H. pylori strain SSI to NAC. H. pylori load in SSI strain-infected C57BL mice was determined as colony forming units per gram of gastric tissue. Gastritis assessment was scored and gastric surface hydrophobicity was determined by contact angle measurement. MICs of NAC were 5 to 10 and 10 to 15 mg/ml using the agar dilution and broth dilution methods, respectively. NAC (120 mg per day for 14 days) reduced the H. pylori load in mice by almost 1 log compared with sham treatment. Pretreatment with NAC (40 mg/day) also significantly reduced the H. pylori load but did not prevent H. pylori colonization. Both H. pylori infection and NAC reduced the surface hydrophobicity of murine gastric mucosa. No significant differences were observed in the gastritis scores of H. felis- or H. pylori-infected mice receiving either NAC or sham treatments. This study demonstrates that NAC inhibits the growth of H. pylori in both agar and broth susceptibility tests and in H. pylori-infected mice. NAC did not alter the severity of H. pylori- or H. felis-induced gastritis. PMID:15628716

  9. Moonlighting of Helicobacter pylori catalase protects against complement-mediated killing by utilising the host molecule vitronectin

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Corinna; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Ermert, David; Singh, Birendra; Su, Yu-Ching; Agarwal, Vaibhav; Blom, Anna M.; Riesbeck, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen and a common cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. Despite H. pylori provoking strong innate and adaptive immune responses, the bacterium is able to successfully establish long-term infections. Vitronectin (Vn), a component of both the extracellular matrix and plasma, is involved in many physiological processes, including regulation of the complement system. The aim of this study was to define a receptor in H. pylori that binds Vn and determine the significance of the interaction for virulence. Surprisingly, by using proteomics, we found that the hydrogen peroxide-neutralizing enzyme catalase KatA is a major Vn-binding protein. Deletion of the katA gene in three different strains resulted in impaired binding of Vn. Recombinant KatA was generated and shown to bind with high affinity to a region between heparin-binding domain 2 and 3 of Vn that differs from previously characterised bacterial binding sites on the molecule. In terms of function, KatA protected H. pylori from complement-mediated killing in a Vn-dependent manner. Taken together, the virulence factor KatA is a Vn-binding protein that moonlights on the surface of H. pylori to promote bacterial evasion of host innate immunity. PMID:27087644

  10. Effective treatment of allergic airway inflammation with Helicobacter pylori immunomodulators requires BATF3-dependent dendritic cells and IL-10.

    PubMed

    Engler, Daniela B; Reuter, Sebastian; van Wijck, Yolanda; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Maxeiner, Joachim; Martin, Helen; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Gerhard, Markus; Cover, Timothy L; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2014-08-12

    The prevalence of allergic asthma and other atopic diseases has reached epidemic proportions in large parts of the developed world. The gradual loss of the human indigenous microbiota has been held responsible for this trend. The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a constituent of the normal gastric microbiota whose presence has been inversely linked to allergy and asthma in humans and experimental models. Here we show that oral or i.p. tolerization with H. pylori extract prevents the airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation, and Th2 cytokine production that are hallmarks of allergen-induced asthma in mice. Asthma protection is not conferred by extracts from other enteropathogens and requires a heat-sensitive H. pylori component and the DC-intrinsic production of IL-10. The basic leucine zipper ATF-like 3 (BATF3)-dependent CD103(+)CD11b(-) dendritic cell lineage is enriched in the lungs of protected mice and strictly required for protection. Two H. pylori persistence determinants, the γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, are required and sufficient for asthma protection and can be administered in purified form to prevent asthma. In conclusion, we provide preclinical evidence for the concept that the immunomodulatory properties of H. pylori can be exploited for tolerization strategies aiming to prevent allergen-induced asthma. PMID:25074917

  11. Effective treatment of allergic airway inflammation with Helicobacter pylori immunomodulators requires BATF3-dependent dendritic cells and IL-10

    PubMed Central

    Engler, Daniela B.; Reuter, Sebastian; van Wijck, Yolanda; Urban, Sabine; Kyburz, Andreas; Maxeiner, Joachim; Martin, Helen; Yogev, Nir; Waisman, Ari; Gerhard, Markus; Cover, Timothy L.; Taube, Christian; Müller, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of allergic asthma and other atopic diseases has reached epidemic proportions in large parts of the developed world. The gradual loss of the human indigenous microbiota has been held responsible for this trend. The bacterial pathogen Helicobacter pylori is a constituent of the normal gastric microbiota whose presence has been inversely linked to allergy and asthma in humans and experimental models. Here we show that oral or i.p. tolerization with H. pylori extract prevents the airway hyperresponsiveness, bronchoalveolar eosinophilia, pulmonary inflammation, and Th2 cytokine production that are hallmarks of allergen-induced asthma in mice. Asthma protection is not conferred by extracts from other enteropathogens and requires a heat-sensitive H. pylori component and the DC-intrinsic production of IL-10. The basic leucine zipper ATF-like 3 (BATF3)-dependent CD103+CD11b− dendritic cell lineage is enriched in the lungs of protected mice and strictly required for protection. Two H. pylori persistence determinants, the γ-glutamyl-transpeptidase GGT and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, are required and sufficient for asthma protection and can be administered in purified form to prevent asthma. In conclusion, we provide preclinical evidence for the concept that the immunomodulatory properties of H. pylori can be exploited for tolerization strategies aiming to prevent allergen-induced asthma. PMID:25074917

  12. Molecular interactions of UvrB protein and DNA from Helicobacter pylori: Insight into a molecular modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Bavi, Rohit; Kumar, Raj; Rampogu, Shailima; Son, Minky; Park, Chanin; Baek, Ayoung; Kim, Hyong-Ha; Suh, Jung-Keun; Park, Seok Ju; Lee, Keun Woo

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) persevere in the human stomach, an environment in which they encounter many DNA-damaging conditions, including gastric acidity. The pathogenicity of H. pylori is enhanced by its well-developed DNA repair mechanism, thought of as 'machinery,' such as nucleotide excision repair (NER). NER involves multi-enzymatic excinuclease proteins (UvrABC endonuclease), which repair damaged DNA in a sequential manner. UvrB is the central component in prokaryotic NER, essential for damage recognition. Therefore, molecular modeling studies of UvrB protein from H. pylori are carried out with homology modeling and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results reveal that the predicted structure is bound to a DNA hairpin with 3-bp stem, an 11-nucleotide loop, and 3-nt 3' overhang. In addition, a mutation of the Y96A variant indicates reduction in the binding affinity for DNA. Free-energy calculations demonstrate the stability of the complex and help identify key residues in various interactions based on residue decomposition analysis. Stability comparative studies between wild type and mutant protein-DNA complexes indicate that the former is relatively more stable than the mutant form. This predicted model could also be useful in designing new inhibitors for UvrB protein, as well as preventing the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:27315565

  13. Recent "omics" advances in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Berthenet, Elvire; Sheppard, Sam; Vale, Filipa F

    2016-09-01

    The development of high-throughput whole genome sequencing (WGS) technologies is changing the face of microbiology, facilitating the comparison of large numbers of genomes from different lineages of a same organism. Our aim was to review the main advances on Helicobacter pylori "omics" and to understand how this is improving our knowledge of the biology, diversity and pathogenesis of H. pylori. Since the first H. pylori isolate was sequenced in 1997, 510 genomes have been deposited in the NCBI archive, providing a basis for improved understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of this important pathogen. This review focuses on works published between April 2015 and March 2016. Helicobacter "omics" is already making an impact and is a growing research field. Ultimately these advances will be translated into a routine clinical laboratory setting in order to improve public health. PMID:27531533

  14. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection 2016.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Anthony; Fischbach, Wolfgang; Gisbert, Javier P; O'Morain, Colm

    2016-09-01

    Many interesting articles have been published from different parts of the world over the last year assessing various issues around Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy. This article will address the published literature over the last year pertaining to the topic of treatment of H. pylori infection. The main themes that emerge are assessing the efficacy of standard triple therapy, as well as exploring new first-line treatments, mainly optimized nonbismuth-containing and bismuth-containing quadruple therapies with some promising data also emerging on dual therapy. There was also considerable progress in investigating antibiotic resistance rates with much more data emerging from varied parts of the world compared to recent years. Advances in the use of adjunctive therapies, especially probiotic therapies have also been made. Undoubtedly, the eradication of H. pylori remains a worthwhile goal to alleviate the burden of diseases caused by the complications of this infection, including dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. PMID:27531541

  15. Impact of Helicobacter Pylori on Mucus Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Keates, Sarah; Kelly, Ciaran; Turner, Bradley; Bansil, Rama; Erramilli, Shyamsunder

    2006-03-01

    It is well known that the viscoelastic properties of gastric mucin are crucial to the protection of the lining of the stomach against its own acidic secretions and other agents. Helicobacter Pylori, a rod shaped, gram-negative bacteria that dwells in the mucus layer of approximately 50% of the world's population is a class I carcinogen and is associated with gastric ulcers and severe gastritis. The structural damage to the mucus layer caused by H. Pylori is an important aspect of infection with this bacteria. We are examining the impact of H. Pylori on mucin and mucus rheology quantitatively using a combination of dynamic light scattering and multiple particle tracking experiments. Video microscopy data will also be presented on the motility of this bacteria in mucin at different pH and in other viscoelastic gels.

  16. Helicobacter pylori: new developments and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S J; Sherman, P M; Hunt, R H

    1997-01-01

    The authors highlight new developments in research on Helicobacter pylori. There is now consensus that all patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent duodenal or gastric ulcers who have a positive test result for H. pylori should be treated for the infection. Patients presenting with complications of ulcers, such as bleeding, should also be treated. H. pylori has recently been classified as a definite human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In treatment, new combination regimens, consisting of 3 or 4 different drugs, cure the infection in more than 80% of patients. Currently, the best combinations are: (1) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and metronidazole, (2) omeprazole (or another proton-pump inhibitor), clarithromycin and amoxicillin, (3) bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole, and (4) omeprazole, bismuth subsalicylate, tetracycline and metronidazole. PMID:9176424

  17. Characterization of Helicobacter pylori Bacteriophage KHP30

    PubMed Central

    Uchiyama, Jumpei; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Kato, Shin-ichiro; Gamoh, Keiji; Takemura-Uchiyama, Iyo; Ujihara, Takako; Daibata, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori inhabits the stomach mucosa and is a causative agent of stomach ulcer and cancer. In general, bacteriophages (phages) are strongly associated with bacterial evolution, including the development of pathogenicity. Several tailed phages have so far been reported in H. pylori. We have isolated an H. pylori phage, KHP30, and reported its genomic sequence. In this study, we examined the biological characteristics of phage KHP30. Phage KHP30 was found to be a spherical lipid-containing phage with a diameter of ca. 69 nm. Interestingly, it was stable from pH 2.5 to pH 10, suggesting that it is adapted to the highly acidic environment of the human stomach. Phage KHP30 multiplied on 63.6% of clinical H. pylori isolates. The latent period was ca. 140 min, shorter than the doubling time of H. pylori (ca. 180 min). The burst size was ca. 13, which was smaller than the burst sizes of other known tailed or spherical phages. Phage KHP30 seemed to be maintained as an episome in H. pylori strain NY43 cells, despite a predicted integrase gene in the KHP30 genomic sequence. Seven possible virion proteins of phage KHP30 were analyzed using N-terminal protein sequencing and mass spectrometry, and their genes were found to be located on its genomic DNA. The genomic organization of phage KHP30 differed from the genomic organizations in the known spherical phage families Corticoviridae and Tectiviridae. This evidence suggests that phage KHP30 is a new type of spherical phage that cannot be classified in any existing virus category. PMID:23475617

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root

    PubMed Central

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  19. Molecular Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Nepal: Specific Ancestor Root.

    PubMed

    Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Sharma, Rabi Prakash; Shrestha, Pradeep Krishna; Suzuki, Rumiko; Uchida, Tomohisa; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Nepal, a low-risk country for gastric cancer, is debatable. To our knowledge, no studies have examined H. pylori virulence factors in Nepal. We determined the prevalence of H. pylori infection by using three different tests, and the genotypes of virulence factors were determined by PCR followed by sequencing. Multilocus sequence typing was used to analyze the population structure of the Nepalese strains. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in dyspeptic patients was 38.4% (56/146), and was significantly related with source of drinking water. In total, 51 strains were isolated and all were cagA-positive. Western-type-cagA (94.1%), cagA pre-EPIYA type with no deletion (92.2%), vacA s1a (74.5%), and m1c (54.9%) were the predominant genotypes. Antral mucosal atrophy levels were significantly higher in patients infected with vacA s1 than in those infected with s2 genotypes (P = 0.03). Several Nepalese strains were H. pylori recombinants with genetic features of South Asian and East Asian genotypes. These included all East-Asian-type-cagA strains, with significantly lesser activity and inflammation in the corpus than the strains of the specific South Asian genotype (P = 0.03 and P = 0.005, respectively). Although the population structure confirmed that most Nepalese strains belonged to the hpAsia2 population, some strains shared hpEurope- and Nepalese-specific components. Nepalese patients infected with strains belonging to hpEurope showed higher inflammation in the antrum than strains from the Nepalese specific population (P = 0.05). These results support that ancestor roots of Kathmandu`s people not only connected with India alone. PMID:26226153

  20. In vitro susceptibility of Helicobacter pylori to protolichesterinic acid from the lichen Cetraria islandica.

    PubMed

    Ingolfsdottir, K; Hjalmarsdottir, M A; Sigurdsson, A; Gudjonsdottir, G A; Brynjolfsdottir, A; Steingrimsson, O

    1997-01-01

    With reference to the traditional use of Cetraria islandica (Iceland moss) for relief of gastric and duodenal ulcer, plant extracts were screened for in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori. (+)-Protolichesterinic acid, an aliphatic alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone, was identified as an active component. The MIC range of protolichesterinic acid, in free as well as salt form, was 16 to 64 micrograms/ml. PMID:8980785

  1. Chitosan as an adjuvant for a Helicobacter pylori therapeutic vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanfeng; Tao, Liming; Wang, Fucai; Liu, Wei; Jing, Lei; Liu, Dongsheng; Hu, Sijun; Xie, Yong; Zhou, Nanjin

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate the therapeutic effect of a Helicobacter pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant, as well as to identify the potential mechanism against H. pylori infection when compared with an H. pylori vaccine, with cholera toxin (CT) as an adjuvant. Mice were first infected with H. pylori and, following the establishment of an effective infection model, were vaccinated using an H. pylori protein vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant. Levels of H. pylori colonization, H. pylori‑specific antibodies and cytokines were determined by enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The TLR4 and Foxp3 mRNA and protein levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. It was identified that the H. pylori elimination rate of the therapeutic vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant (58.33%) was greater than the therapeutic vaccine with CT as an adjuvant (45.45%). The therapeutic H. pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant induced significantly greater antibody and cytokine levels when compared with the control groups. Notably, the IL‑10 and IL‑4 levels in the groups with chitosan as an adjuvant to the H. pylori vaccine were significantly greater than those in the groups with CT as an adjuvant. The mRNA expression levels of TLR4 and Foxp3 were significantly elevated in the mice that were vaccinated with chitosan as an adjuvant to the H. pylori vaccine, particularly in mice where the H. pylori infection had been eradicated. The H. pylori vaccine with chitosan as an adjuvant effectively increased the H. pylori elimination rate, the humoral immune response and the Th1/Th2 cell immune reaction; in addition, the therapeutic H. pylori vaccine regulated the Th1 and Th2 response. The significantly increased TLR4 expression and decreased CD4+CD25+Foxp3+Treg cell number contributed to the immune clearance of the H. pylori infection. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that in mice the H

  2. Campylobacter pylori and gastroduodenal disease.

    PubMed Central

    Buck, G E

    1990-01-01

    Campylobacter pylori is a newly described, spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacillus that is oxidase positive, catalase positive, and urease positive and grows slowly in culture. Although observed in human tissue at the beginning of the century, it was not cultured until 1982. Because there are significant morphological and genetic differences between this organism and other species of Campylobacter, it will probably be reclassified in a new genus. Current information indicates that the organism primarily resides in the stomach tissue of humans and nonhuman primates and may occasionally spread to the esophagus or other parts of the alimentary tract under appropriate conditions. Significant evidence has accumulated in the last several years to show that it causes gastritis, and there is mounting evidence that it may participate in the development of duodenal ulcers. It may also be associated with gastric ulcers and nonulcer dyspepsia. It can be detected in patients by culture of biopsy specimens or histological staining of biopsy tissue. Indirect evidence for the presence of the organism can be obtained by detection of urease in a tissue biopsy specimen, by urea breath tests, or by detection of specific antibody. It may not be necessary to implement these procedures for routine use, however, until the role of the organism can be defined better. Ultimately, the discovery of this organism may lead to radical changes in the diagnosis and treatment of gastric disease. Images PMID:2404565

  3. The Oligo-Acyl Lysyl Antimicrobial Peptide C12K-2β12 Exhibits a Dual Mechanism of Action and Demonstrates Strong In Vivo Efficacy against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Makobongo, Morris O.; Gancz, Hanan; Carpenter, Beth M.; McDaniel, Dennis P.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori has developed antimicrobial resistance to virtually all current antibiotics. Thus, there is a pressing need to develop new anti-H. pylori therapies. We recently described a novel oligo-acyl-lysyl (OAK) antimicrobial peptidomimetic, C12K-2β12, that shows potent in vitro bactericidal activity against H. pylori. Herein, we define the mechanism of action and evaluate the in vivo efficacy of C12K-2β12 against H. pylori after experimental infection of Mongolian gerbils. We demonstrate using a 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine (fluorescent probe) uptake assay and electron microscopy that C12K-2β12 rapidly permeabilizes the bacterial membrane and creates pores that cause bacterial cell lysis. Furthermore, using nucleic acid binding assays, Western blots, and confocal microscopy, we show that C12K-2β12 can cross the bacterial membranes into the cytoplasm and tightly bind to bacterial DNA, RNA, and proteins, a property that may result in inhibition of enzymatic activities and macromolecule synthesis. To define the in vivo efficacy of C12K-2β12, H. pylori-infected gerbils were orogastrically treated with increasing doses and concentrations of C12K-2β12 1 day or 1 week postinfection. The efficacy of C12K-2β12 was strongest in animals that received the largest number of doses at the highest concentration, indicating dose-dependent activity of the peptide (P < 0.001 by analysis of variance [ANOVA]) regardless of the timing of the treatment with C12K-2β12. Overall, our results demonstrate a dual mode of action of C12K-2β12 against the H. pylori membrane and cytoplasmic components. Moreover, and consistent with the previously reported in vitro efficacy, C12K-2β12 shows significant in vivo efficacy against H. pylori when used as monotherapy. Therefore, OAK peptides may be a valuable resource for therapeutic treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:22064541

  4. Antimicrobial Nanotherapeutics Against Helicobacter pylori Infection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thamphiwatana, Soracha

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection with its vast prevalence is responsible for various gastric diseases including gastritis, peptic ulcers, and gastric malignancy. While effective, current treatment regimens are challenged by a fast-declining eradication rate due to the increasing emergence of H. pylori strains resistant to existing antibiotics. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop novel antibacterial strategies against H. pylori. The first area of this research, we developed a liposomal nanoformulation of linolenic acid (LipoLLA) and evaluated its bactericidal activity against resistant strains of H. pylori. We found that LipoLLA was effective in killing both spiral and dormant forms of the bacteria via disrupting bacterial membranes. LipoLLA eradicated all strains of the bacteria regardless of their antibiotic resistance status. Furthermore, the bacteria did not develop drug resistance toward LipoLLA. Our findings suggest that LipoLLA is a promising antibacterial nanotherapeutic to treat antibiotic-resistant H. pylori infection. The next step, we investigated the in vivo therapeutic potential of LipoLLA for the treatment of H. pylori infection. In vivo tests further confirmed that LipoLLA was able to kill H. pylori and reduce bacterial load in the mouse stomach. LipoLLA treatment was also shown to reduce the levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, which were otherwise elevated due to the H. pylori infection. Finally, toxicity test demonstrated excellent biocompatibility of LipoLLA to normal mouse stomach. Collectively, results from this work indicate that LipoLLA is a promising, new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent for the treatment of H. pylori infection. The second area is stimuli-responsive liposomes development. By adsorbing small chitosan-modified gold nanoparticles (AuChi) onto the outer surface of liposomes, we show that at gastric pH the liposomes have

  5. Medicinal plant activity on Helicobacter pylori related diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan-Chuen

    2014-01-01

    More than 50% of the world population is infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). The bacterium highly links to peptic ulcer diseases and duodenal ulcer, which was classified as a group I carcinogen in 1994 by the WHO. The pathogenesis of H. pylori is contributed by its virulence factors including urease, flagella, vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA), cytotoxin-associated gene antigen (Cag A), and others. Of those virulence factors, VacA and CagA play the key roles. Infection with H. pylori vacA-positive strains can lead to vacuolation and apoptosis, whereas infection with cagA-positive strains might result in severe gastric inflammation and gastric cancer. Numerous medicinal plants have been reported for their anti-H. pylori activity, and the relevant active compounds including polyphenols, flavonoids, quinones, coumarins, terpenoids, and alkaloids have been studied. The anti-H. pylori action mechanisms, including inhibition of enzymatic (urease, DNA gyrase, dihydrofolate reductase, N-acetyltransferase, and myeloperoxidase) and adhesive activities, high redox potential, and hydrophilic/hydrophobic natures of compounds, have also been discussed in detail. H. pylori-induced gastric inflammation may progress to superficial gastritis, atrophic gastritis, and finally gastric cancer. Many natural products have anti-H. pylori-induced inflammation activity and the relevant mechanisms include suppression of nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation and inhibition of oxidative stress. Anti-H. pylori induced gastric inflammatory effects of plant products, including quercetin, apigenin, carotenoids-rich algae, tea product, garlic extract, apple peel polyphenol, and finger-root extract, have been documented. In conclusion, many medicinal plant products possess anti-H. pylori activity as well as an anti-H. pylori-induced gastric inflammatory effect. Those plant products have showed great potential as pharmaceutical candidates for H. pylori

  6. B cells pulsed with Helicobacter pylori antigen efficiently activate memory CD8+ T cells from H. pylori-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Azem, Josef; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Lundin, B Samuel

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection causes chronic gastritis that may progress to peptic ulcers or gastric adenocarcinoma and thereby cause major world-wide health problems. Previous studies have shown that CD4+ T cells are important in the immune response to H. pylori in humans, but the role of CD8+ T cells is less clear. In order to study the CD8+ T cell response to H. pylori in greater detail, we have evaluated efficient conditions for activation of CD8+ T cells in vitro. We show that H. pylori-reactive CD8+ T cells can be activated most efficiently by B cells or dendritic cells pulsed with H. pylori antigens. We further show that the majority of CD8+ T cells in H. pylori-infected gastric mucosa are memory cells, and that memory CD8+ T cells sorted from peripheral blood of H. pylori-infected individuals respond 15-fold more to H. pylori urease compared to memory cells from uninfected subjects. We conclude that CD8+ T cells do participate in the immune response to H. pylori, and this may have implications for the development of more severe disease outcomes in H. pylori-infected subjects. PMID:16324887

  7. Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection.

    PubMed

    Kivrak Salim, Derya; Sahin, Mehmet; Köksoy, Sadi; Adanir, Haydar; Süleymanlar, Inci

    2016-05-01

    There have been few studies concerning the cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori-infected patients with normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma (GAC).In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the genomic expression levels and immune pathological roles of cytokines-interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32-in H pylori-infected patients with normal gastric mucosa (NGM; control), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and GAC. Genomic expression levels of these cytokines were assayed by real-time PCR analysis in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 93 patients.We found that the genomic expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A mRNA were increased in the CAG group and those of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TGF-β mRNA were increased in the GAC group with reference to H pylori-infected NGM group.This study is on the interest of cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa among individuals with normal, gastritis, or GAC. Our findings suggest that the immune response of gastric mucosa to infection of H pylori differs from patient to patient. For individual therapy, levels of genomic expression of IL-6 or other cytokines may be tracked in patients. PMID:27196487

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection - recent developments in diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Ana Isabel; Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Considering the recommended indications for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy and the broad spectrum of available diagnostic methods, a reliable diagnosis is mandatory both before and after eradication therapy. Only highly accurate tests should be used in clinical practice, and the sensitivity and specificity of an adequate test should exceed 90%. The choice of tests should take into account clinical circumstances, the likelihood ratio of positive and negative tests, the cost-effectiveness of the testing strategy and the availability of the tests. This review concerns some of the most recent developments in diagnostic methods of H. pylori infection, namely the contribution of novel endoscopic evaluation methodologies for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection, such as magnifying endoscopy techniques and chromoendoscopy. In addition, the diagnostic contribution of histology and the urea breath test was explored recently in specific clinical settings and patient groups. Recent studies recommend enhancing the number of biopsy fragments for the rapid urease test. Bacterial culture from the gastric biopsy is the gold standard technique, and is recommended for antibiotic susceptibility test. Serology is used for initial screening and the stool antigen test is particularly used when the urea breath test is not available, while molecular methods have gained attention mostly for detecting antibiotic resistance. PMID:25071324

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in older people

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection as the major cause of gastroduodenal disorders three decades ago, H. pylori has been the focus of active research and debate in the scientific community. Its linkage to several diseases, such as peptic ulcer disease, gastritis and gastric malignancy is incontestable. In particular, it has been noticed that, as the aged population is increasing worldwide, older people are at increased risk of developing several gastroduodenal diseases and related complications. At the same time, gastric cancer is definitely more frequent in elderly than in adult and young people. In addition, it has been showed that peptic ulcer and related complications occur much more commonly in aged individuals than in young people, resulting in a significantly higher mortality. Although this infection plays a crucial role in gastrointestinal disorders affecting all age groups and in particular older people, only a few studies have been published regarding the latter. This article presents an overview of the epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical manifestations and therapy of H. pylori infection in elderly people. PMID:24914358

  10. Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and its pathogenic role

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Vittorio; Giannouli, Maria; Romano, Marco; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a bacterial virulence factor that converts glutamine into glutamate and ammonia, and converts glutathione into glutamate and cysteinylglycine. H. pylori GGT causes glutamine and glutathione consumption in the host cells, ammonia production and reactive oxygen species generation. These products induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and necrosis in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori GGT may also inhibit apoptosis and induce gastric epithelial cell proliferation through the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor-related peptides, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-8. H. pylori GGT induces immune tolerance through the inhibition of T cell-mediated immunity and dendritic cell differentiation. The effect of GGT on H. pylori colonization and gastric persistence are also discussed. PMID:24574736

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection: New pathogenetic and clinical aspects

    PubMed Central

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects more than half of the world’s human population, but only 1% to 3% of infected people consequently develop gastric adenocarcinomas. The clinical outcome of the infection is determined by host genetic predisposition, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental factors. The association between H. pylori infection and chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric cell carcinoma, and B cell mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been well established. With the exception of unexplained iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, H. pylori infection has no proven role in extraintestinal diseases. On the other hand, there is data showing that H. pylori infection could be beneficial for some human diseases. The unpredictability of the long-term consequences of H. pylori infection and the economic challenge in eradicating it is why identification of high-risk individuals is crucial. PMID:24914360

  12. Helicobacter pylori gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and its pathogenic role.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Vittorio; Giannouli, Maria; Romano, Marco; Zarrilli, Raffaele

    2014-01-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) is a bacterial virulence factor that converts glutamine into glutamate and ammonia, and converts glutathione into glutamate and cysteinylglycine. H. pylori GGT causes glutamine and glutathione consumption in the host cells, ammonia production and reactive oxygen species generation. These products induce cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and necrosis in gastric epithelial cells. H. pylori GGT may also inhibit apoptosis and induce gastric epithelial cell proliferation through the induction of cyclooxygenase-2, epidermal growth factor-related peptides, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-8. H. pylori GGT induces immune tolerance through the inhibition of T cell-mediated immunity and dendritic cell differentiation. The effect of GGT on H. pylori colonization and gastric persistence are also discussed. PMID:24574736

  13. Extraintestinal manifestations of Helicobacter pylori: A concise review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Frank; Rayner-Hartley, Erin; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been clearly linked to peptic ulcer disease and some gastrointestinal malignancies. Increasing evidence demonstrates possible associations to disease states in other organ systems, known as the extraintestinal manifestations of H. pylori. Different conditions associated with H. pylori infection include those from hematologic, cardiopulmonary, metabolic, neurologic, and dermatologic systems. The aim of this article is to provide a concise review of the evidence that supports or refutes the associations of H. pylori and its proposed extraintestinal manifestations. Based on data from the literature, PUD, mucosal associated lymphoid tumors lymphoma, and gastric adenocarcinoma has well-established links. Current evidence most supports extraintestinal manifestations with H. pylori in immune thrombocytopenic purpura, iron deficiency anemia, urticaria, Parkinson’s, migraines and rosacea; however, there is still plausible link with other diseases that requires further research. PMID:25232230

  14. Biomarkers for Helicobacter pylori infection and gastroduodenal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric cancer. Although identifying H. pylori infected subjects is the first approach for delineating the high-risk population for gastric cancer, the presence of H. pylori antibodies is not sufficient for gastric cancer screening. Among H. pylori infected subjects, only a minority of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. Serologic markers of H. pylori infection can serve as potential predictors for the development of gastric cancer. Serum or urinary H. pylori antibodies, cytotoxin-associated gene A antibodies, pepsinogen and microRNAs were reported to be associated with precancerous lesions or gastric cancer. In this review, we summarized the utilities and limitations of each strategy. PMID:25402582

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection, vitamin B12 and homocysteine. A review.

    PubMed

    Dierkes, Jutta; Ebert, Matthias; Malfertheiner, Peter; Luley, Claus

    2003-01-01

    It has been suggested that there is an association between Helicobacter pylori infection, reduced cobalamin absorption and cobalamin status and, consequently, elevated homocysteine levels. This would offer an explanation why H. pylori infection is associated with coronary heart disease. To date, more than 25 studies have been published that either deal with H. pylori infection and homocysteine, H. pylori infection and cobalamin status, or both. The design of these studies differs widely in terms of definition of H. pylori status, measuring cobalamin status, selection of study cohorts and geographical study areas. Therefore, results are fairly inconclusive at present and do not suggest a major role of H. pylori infection in the development of cobalamin deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels. PMID:14571097

  16. Helicobacter pylori and gastroesophageal reflux disease

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Michele; Cadeddu, Federica; Villa, Massimo; Attinà, Grazia Maria; Muzi, Marco Gallinella; Nigro, Casimiro; Rulli, Francesco; Farinon, Attilio M

    2008-01-01

    Background The nature of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and reflux oesophagitis is still not clear. To investigate the correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection and GERD taking into account endoscopic, pH-metric and histopathological data. Methods Between January 2001 and January 2003 a prospective study was performed in 146 patients with GERD in order to determine the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection at gastric mucosa; further the value of the De Meester score endoscopic, manometric and pH-metric parameters, i.e. reflux episodes, pathological reflux episodes and extent of oesophageal acid exposure, of the patients with and without Helicobacter pylori infection were studied and statistically compared. Finally, univariate analysis of the above mentioned data were performed in order to evaluate the statistical correlation with reflux esophagitis. Results There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups, HP infected and HP negative patients, regarding age, gender and type of symptoms. There was no statistical difference between the two groups regarding severity of symptoms and manometric parameters. The value of the De Meester score and the ph-metric parameters were similar in both groups. On univariate analysis, we observed that hiatal hernia (p = 0,01), LES size (p = 0,05), oesophageal wave length (p = 0,01) and pathological reflux number (p = 0,05) were significantly related to the presence of reflux oesophagitis. Conclusion Based on these findings, it seems that there is no significant evidence for an important role for H. pylori infection in the development of GERD and erosive esophagitis. Nevertheless, current data do not provide sufficient evidence to define the relationship between HP and GERD. Further assessments in prospective large studies are warranted. PMID:18601740

  17. Inflammation, immunity, and vaccines for Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Velin, Dominique; Straubinger, Kathrin; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-09-01

    The tight control of the innate and adaptive immune responses in the stomach mucosa during chronic Helicobacter pylori infection is of prime importance for the bacteria to persist and for the host to prevent inflammation-driven diseases. This review summarizes recent data on the roles of innate and adaptive immune responses during H. pylori/host interactions. In addition, the latest preclinical developments of H. pylori vaccines are discussed with a special focus on the clinical trial reported by Zeng et al., who provided evidence that oral vaccination significantly reduces the acquisition of natural H. pylori infection in children. PMID:27531535

  18. Detection of Helicobacter pylori in saliva and esophagus.

    PubMed

    Cellini, Luigina; Grande, Rossella; Artese, Luciano; Marzio, Leonardo

    2010-10-01

    The route of Helicobacter pylori transmission remains unclear and the currently suggested route is person-to-person transfer by faecal-oral and oral-oral mode. The aim of this study was to verify the presence of H. pylori in esophagus and saliva of humans. Saliva samples, mucosal biopsies from esophagus, gastric antrum and fundus were collected from 19 patients with positive Urea Breath Test (UBT). Gastric biopsies were used for H. pylori colture and antimicrobial susceptibility tests whereas saliva samples were collected to detect H. pylori with a Nested-PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene as well as esophagus biopsies which were also investigated with immunohistochemical staining. Helicobacter pylori was isolated in 18 patients both in gastric antrum and fundus. The molecular analysis, confirmed by comparative sequences evaluation, gave positive results in all saliva and esophageal samples whereas the immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of H. pylori in 15.8% (3/19) of the esophagus samples. Our data suggest that saliva and esophagus may be considered reservoirs for H. pylori in humans and emphasize the need to use more susceptible techniques for H. pylori detection, in particular in over-crowded sites. Identification of the transmission route of H. pylori is crucial in developing an effective plan of surveillance by finding new means of disease management. PMID:21213594

  19. Helicobacter pylori in human oral cavity and stomach.

    PubMed

    Bürgers, Ralf; Schneider-Brachert, Wulf; Reischl, Udo; Behr, Anke; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Lehn, Norbert; Schmalz, Gottfried; Ruhl, Stefan

    2008-08-01

    The oral cavity has been suspected as an extra-gastroduodenal reservoir for Helicobacter pylori infection and transmission, but conflicting evidence exists regarding the occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth, independently of stomach colonization. Ninety-four gastric biopsy patients were analysed for the concurrent presence of H. pylori in the mouth and stomach. Samples were collected from different areas within the mouth and H. pylori DNA was amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and verified by sequencing. Helicobacter pylori-specific serology was performed, and stomach colonization was determined by culture. In addition, relevant dental and periodontal parameters, as well as general health parameters, were recorded. Helicobacter pylori was found in the stomach of 29 patients and in the oral cavity of 16 patients. In only six patients was the bacterium detected simultaneously in the stomach and mouth. Notably, the 10 patients in whom the bacterium was found solely in the mouth did not have serum antibodies to H. pylori. The occurrence of H. pylori in the mouth was found to be correlated neither to any general or oral health parameters, nor to any particular site of collection. This study shows that H. pylori can occur in the oral cavity independently of stomach colonization. PMID:18705796

  20. Helicobacter pylori vs coronary heart disease - searching for connections

    PubMed Central

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Gajewski, Adrian; Rudnicka, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we discussed the findings and concepts underlying the potential role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infections in the initiation, development or persistence of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD). This Gram-negative bacterium was described by Marshall and Warren in 1984. The majority of infected subjects carries and transmits H. pylori with no symptoms; however, in some individuals these bacteria may cause peptic ulcers, and even gastric cancers. The widespread prevalence of H. pylori infections and the fact that frequently they remain asymptomatic may suggest that, similarly to intestinal microflora, H. pylori may deliver antigens that stimulate not only local, but also systemic inflammatory response. Recently, possible association between H. pylori infection and extragastric disorders has been suggested. Knowledge on the etiology of atherosclerosis together with current findings in the area of H. pylori infections constitute the background for the newly proposed hypothesis that those two processes may be related. Many research studies confirm the indirect association between the prevalence of H. pylori and the occurrence of CHD. According to majority of findings the involvement of H. pylori in this process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CHD-related pathologies. It needs to be elucidated, if the infection initiate or just accelerate the formation of atheromatous plaque. PMID:25914788

  1. Molecular and Structural Analysis of the Helicobacter pylori cag Type IV Secretion System Core Complex

    PubMed Central

    Frick-Cheng, Arwen E.; Pyburn, Tasia M.; Voss, Bradley J.; McDonald, W. Hayes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) can function to export or import DNA, and can deliver effector proteins into a wide range of target cells. Relatively little is known about the structural organization of T4SSs that secrete effector proteins. In this report, we describe the isolation and analysis of a membrane-spanning core complex from the Helicobacter pylori cag T4SS, which has an important role in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. We show that this complex contains five H. pylori proteins, CagM, CagT, Cag3, CagX, and CagY, each of which is required for cag T4SS activity. CagX and CagY are orthologous to the VirB9 and VirB10 components of T4SSs in other bacterial species, and the other three Cag proteins are unique to H. pylori. Negative stain single-particle electron microscopy revealed complexes 41 nm in diameter, characterized by a 19-nm-diameter central ring linked to an outer ring by spoke-like linkers. Incomplete complexes formed by Δcag3 or ΔcagT mutants retain the 19-nm-diameter ring but lack an organized outer ring. Immunogold labeling studies confirm that Cag3 is a peripheral component of the complex. The cag T4SS core complex has an overall diameter and structural organization that differ considerably from the corresponding features of conjugative T4SSs. These results highlight specialized features of the H. pylori cag T4SS that are optimized for function in the human gastric mucosal environment. PMID:26758182

  2. The Effect of Helicobacter pylori Eradication on the Levels of Essential Trace Elements

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng-Chieh; Huang, Chun-Yi; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Hsu, Wen-Hung; Wang, Sophie S. W.; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Liu, Chung-Jung; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Huang, Yeou-Lih; Lu, Chien-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This study was designed to compare the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection treatment on serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels. Patients and Methods. We measured the serum zinc, copper, and selenium levels in H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients. We also evaluated the serum levels of these trace elements after H. pylori eradication. These serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results. Sixty-three H. pylori-positive patients and thirty H. pylori-negative patients were studied. Serum copper, zinc, and selenium levels had no significant difference between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative groups. There were 49 patients with successful H. pylori eradication. The serum selenium levels were lower after successful H. pylori eradication, but not significantly (P = 0.06). There were 14 patients with failed H. pylori eradication. In this failed group, the serum selenium level after H. pylori eradication therapy was significantly lower than that before H. pylori eradication therapy (P < 0.05). The serum zinc and copper levels had no significant difference between before and after H. pylori eradication therapies. Conclusion. H pylori eradication regimen appears to influence the serum selenium concentration (IRB number: KMUH-IRB-20120327). PMID:25548772

  3. Oral and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori: Effects and Associations

    PubMed Central

    Veiga, Nélio; Pereira, Carlos; Resende, Carlos; Amaral, Odete; Ferreira, Manuela; Nelas, Paula; Chaves, Claudia; Duarte, João; Cirnes, Luis; Machado, José Carlos; Ferreira, Paula; Correia, Ilídio J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction This study consisted in the comparison of the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) present in the stomach and in saliva of a sample of Portuguese adolescents and the assessment of the association between H. pylori infection with socio-demographic variables and prevalence of dental caries. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was designed including a sample of 447 adolescents aged 12 to 19 years old, attending a public school in Sátão, Portugal. A questionnaire about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors was applied. Gastric H. pylori infection was determined using the urease breath test (UBT). Saliva collection was obtained and DNA was extracted by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in order to detect the presence of oral H. pylori. Results The prevalence of gastric H. pylori detected by UBT was 35.9%. Within the adolescents with a gastric UBT positive, only 1.9% were positive for oral H. pylori. The presence of gastric H. pylori was found to be associated with age (>15years, Odds ratio (OR)=1.64,95%CI=1.08-2.52), residence area (urban,OR=1.48,95%CI=1.03-2.29) and parents´ professional situation (unemployed,OR=1.22,95%CI=1.02-1.23). Among those with detected dental caries during the intra-oral observation, 37.4% were positive for gastric H. pylori and 40.2% negative for the same bacterial strain (p=0.3). Conclusions The oral cavity cannot be considered a reservoir for infection of H. pylori. Gastric H. pylori infection was found to be associated with socio-demographic variables such as age, residence area and socioeconomic status. PMID:26010595

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic gastritis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Sipponen, P.; Kosunen, T. U.; Valle, J.; Riihelä, M.; Seppälä, K.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori associated chronic gastritis in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS: Serum IgG antibodies for H pylori were determined in 54 consecutive patients with gastric carcinoma. The prevalence of H pylori in gastric mucosa was also examined histologically (modified Giemsa) in 32 patients from whom adequate biopsy specimens of the antrum and corpus were available. Thirty five patients with gastrointestinal tumours outside the stomach and 48 with non-gastrointestinal malignancies served as controls. RESULTS: Of the 54 patients, 38 (70%) had H pylori antibodies (IgG) in their serum (three additional patients had H pylori antibodies IgA, class specific but not IgG specific). This prevalence was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than that (49%) in the 35 controls. No differences in prevalence of H pylori antibodies were found between gastric cancer cases of intestinal (IGCA) or diffuse (DGCA) type, both these types showing H pylori antibodies (IgG) in 71% of the patients. In the subgroup of 32 subjects, five patients had normal gastric mucosa and four showed corpus limited atrophy ("pernicious anaemia type" atrophy of type A). All of these nine patients had no evidence of current or previous H pylori infection in serum (no IgG antibodies) or in tissue sections (negative Giemsa staining). The remaining 23 patients had antral or pangastritis, and all had evidence of current or previous H pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: H pylori associated chronic gastritis was the associated disease in 75% of the patients with gastric cancer occurring equally often in both IGCA and DGCA groups. About 25% of cases seem to have a normal stomach or severe corpus limited atrophy, neither of which showed evidence of concomitant H pylori infection. PMID:1577969

  5. Helicobacter pylori and non-malignant upper gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter; Kandulski, Arne

    2016-09-01

    Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) has been further decreased over the last decades along with decreasing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori-associated PUD. A delayed H. pylori eradication has been associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for complicated recurrent peptic ulcer and reemphasized the importance of eradication especially in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). PUB associated with NSAID/aspirin intake and H. pylori revealed an additive interaction in gastric pathophysiology which favors the "test-and-treat" strategy for H. pylori in patients with specific risk factors. The H. pylori-negative and NSAID-negative "idiopathic PUD" have been increasingly observed and associated with slower healing tendency, higher risk of recurrence, and greater mortality. Helicobacter pylori-associated dyspepsia has been further investigated and finally defined by the Kyoto consensus. Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is advised as first option in this group of patients. Only in the case of symptom persistence or recurrence after eradication therapy, dyspeptic patients should be classified as functional dyspepsia (FD). There were few new data in 2015 on the role of H. pylori infection in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and in particular Barrett's esophagus. A lower prevalence of gastric atrophy with less acid output in patients with erosive esophagitis confirmed previous findings. In patients with erosive esophagitis, no difference was observed in healing rates neither between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative patients nor between patients that underwent eradication therapy compared to patients without eradication. These findings are in line with the current consensus guidelines concluding that H. pylori eradication has no effects on symptoms and does not aggravate preexisting GERD. PMID:27531536

  6. Helicobacter pylori infection and circulating ghrelin levels - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The nature of the association between ghrelin, an orexigenic hormone produced mainly in the stomach, and Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), a bacterium that colonises the stomach, is still controversial. We examined available evidence to determine whether an association exists between the two; and if one exists, in what direction. Methods We reviewed original English language studies on humans reporting circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori infected and un-infected participants; and circulating ghrelin levels before and after H pylori eradication. Meta-analyses were conducted for eligible studies by combining study specific estimates using the inverse variance method with weighted average for continuous outcomes in a random effects model. Results Seventeen out of 27 papers that reported ghrelin levels in H pylori positive and negative subjects found lower circulating ghrelin levels in H pylori positive subjects; while 10 found no difference. A meta-analysis of 19 studies with a total of 1801 participants showed a significantly higher circulating ghrelin concentration in H pylori negative participants than in H pylori positive participants (Effect estimate (95%CI) = -0.48 (-0.60, -0.36)). However, eradicating H pylori did not have any significant effect on circulating ghrelin levels (Effect estimate (95% CI) = 0.08 (-0.33, 0.16); Test for overall effect: Z = 0.67 (P = 0.5)). Conclusions We conclude that circulating ghrelin levels are lower in H pylori infected people compared to those not infected; but the relationship between circulating ghrelin and eradication of H pylori is more complex. PMID:21269467

  7. A fluid model for Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reigh, Shang-Yik; Lauga, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Swimming microorganisms and self-propelled nanomotors are often found in confined environments. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori survives in the acidic environment of the human stomach and is able to penetrate gel-like mucus layers and cause infections by locally changing the rheological properties of the mucus from gel-like to solution-like. In this talk we propose an analytical model for the locomotion of Helicobacter pylori as a confined spherical squirmer which generates its own confinement. We solve analytically the flow field around the swimmer, and derive the swimming speed and energetics. The role of the boundary condition in the outer wall is discussed. An extension of our model is also proposed for other biological and chemical swimmers. Newton Trust.

  8. Recombination and DNA Repair in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dorer, Marion S.; Sessler, Tate H.; Salama, Nina R.

    2013-01-01

    All organisms have pathways that repair the genome, ensuring their survival and that of their progeny. But these pathways also serve to diversify the genome, causing changes on the level of nucleotide, whole gene, and genome structure. Sequencing of bacteria has revealed wide allelic diversity and differences in gene content within the same species, highlighting the importance of understanding pathways of recombination and DNA repair. The human stomach pathogen Helicobacter pylori is an excellent model system for studying these pathways. H. pylori harbors major recombination and repair pathways and is naturally competent, facilitating its ability to diversify its genome. Elucidation of DNA recombination, repair, and diversification programs in this pathogen will reveal connections between these pathways and their importance to infection. PMID:21682641

  9. Helicobacter pylori: a role in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Yusuf; Gul, Cuma Bulent; Arabul, Mahmut; Eren, Mehmet Ali

    2008-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a devastating psychiatric disorder that affects approximately one percent of the world's adult population. Despite substantial investigative efforts over the last decades, the exact mechanisms and pathogenesis of this condition are not yet fully understood. Published data support certain infectious agents as potential risk factors for schizophrenia. Since its discovery, Helicobacter pylori has been implicated in a variety of extra-digestive diseases, but its potential role in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders has thus far been neglected. It is hypothesized here that infection with H. pylori occurring in early childhood may induce persisting systemic biochemical aberrations, including dopaminergic dysfunction, decreased levels of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids, subtle inflammation, and homocysteine alterations, that may play a crucial role in the development of schizophrenia in genetically predisposed individuals. Evidence in favor of this hypothesis is provided and possible therapeutic implications are discussed. PMID:18591925

  10. Type I Helicobacter pylori Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Activates Mitogen Oxidase 1 in Gastric Pit Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Tsukasa; Teshima, Shigetada; Oka, Ayuko; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Kishi, Kyoichi; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2001-01-01

    Guinea pig gastric pit cells express an isozyme of gp91-phox, mitogen oxidase 1 (Mox1), and essential components for the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (p67-, p47-, p40-, and p22-phox). Helicobacter pylori lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Escherichia coli LPS have been shown to function as potent activators for the Mox1 oxidase. These cells spontaneously secreted about 10 nmol of superoxide anion (O2−)/mg of protein/h under LPS-free conditions. They expressed the mRNA and protein of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) but not those of TLR2. LPS from type I H. pylori at 2.1 endotoxin units/ml or higher stimulated TLR4-mediated phosphorylations of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 and its binding protein 1 induced TLR4 and p67-phox and up-regulated O2− production 10-fold. In contrast, none of these events occurred with H. pylori LPS from complete or partial deletion mutants of the cag pathogenicity island. Lipid A was confirmed to be a bioactive component for the priming effects, while removal of bisphosphates from lipid A completely eliminated the effects, suggesting the importance of the phosphorylation pattern besides the acylation pattern for the bioactivity. H. pylori LPS is generally accepted as having low toxicity; however, our results suggest that type I H. pylori lipid A may be a potent stimulator for innate immune responses of gastric mucosa by stimulating the TLR4 cascade and Mox1 oxidase in pit cells. PMID:11401977

  11. Hybrid Therapy Regimen for Helicobacter Pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Jian; Zhou, Li-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication remains a challenge with increasing antibiotic resistance. Hybrid therapy has attracted widespread attention because of initial report with good efficacy and safety. However, many issues on hybrid therapy are still unclear such as the eradication efficacy, safety, compliance, influencing factors, correlation with antibiotic resistance, and comparison with other regimens. Therefore, a comprehensive review on the evidence of hybrid therapy for H. pylori infection was conducted. Data Sources: The data used in this review were mainly from PubMed articles published in English up to September 30, 2015, searching by the terms of “Helicobacter pylori” or “H. pylori”, and “hybrid”. Study Selection: Clinical research articles were selected mainly according to their level of relevance to this topic. Results: Totally, 1871 patients of 12 studies received hybrid therapy. The eradication rates were 77.6–97.4% in intention-to-treat and 82.6–99.1% in per-protocol analyses. Compliance was 93.3–100.0%, overall adverse effects rate was 14.5–67.5%, and discontinued medication rate due to adverse effects was 0–6.7%. H. pylori culture and sensitivity test were performed only in 13.3% patients. Pooled analysis showed that the eradication rates with dual clarithromycin and metronidazole susceptible, isolated metronidazole or clarithromycin resistance, and dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were 98.5%, 97.6%, 92.9%, and 80.0%, respectively. Overall, the efficacy, compliance, and safety of hybrid therapy were similar with sequential or concomitant therapy. However, hybrid therapy might be superior to sequential therapy in Asians. Conclusions: Hybrid therapy showed wide differences in the efficacy but consistently good compliance and safety across different regions. Dual clarithromycin and metronidazole resistance were the key factor to efficacy. Hybrid therapy was similar to sequential or concomitant

  12. Allergies, Helicobacter pylori and the continental enigmas

    PubMed Central

    Sitaraman, Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gastric pathogen, is known to be associated with gastric and duodenal ulcers, and is also a strong risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and lymphoma of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue. Ordinarily, this should make a strong case for its eradication at par with any other infectious disease. However, the unique biology of H. pylori and the complexity of its interactions with humans, its only known natural host, do not permit the recommendation of unambiguous preventive and therapeutic measures. Moreover, this organism has co-evolved with humans as a practically universal member of the natural gastric microbiota over at least 100,000 years. H. pylori persists for a lifetime in mostly asymptomatic hosts, and causes clinical disease only in a minority of infections. Therefore, its potential contribution to the maintenance of human immune homeostasis, as is the case with the better-studied members of the intestinal microbiota, is certainly worthy of serious investigation. In this paper, we summarize some interesting and often anecdotal data drawn from recent studies, and examine their significance in the context of the hygiene hypothesis. We also examine whether the lower incidence of gastric cancer over large parts of the world in spite of a high prevalence of infection (the Asian and African enigmas) may be re-interpreted in terms of the hygiene hypothesis. Finally, it is suggested that an evolutionary-ecological approach to the study of H. pylori infection may help in the formulation of strategies for the management of this infection. This may well be an infectious disease wherein medical interventions may have to be personalized to ensure optimal outcomes. PMID:26106380

  13. Characterization of the ArsRS regulon of Helicobacter pylori, involved in acid adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pflock, Michael; Finsterer, Nadja; Joseph, Biju; Mollenkopf, Hans; Meyer, Thomas F; Beier, Dagmar

    2006-05-01

    The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is extremely well adapted to the highly acidic conditions encountered in the stomach. The pronounced acid resistance of H. pylori relies mainly on the ammonia-producing enzyme urease; however, urease-independent mechanisms are likely to contribute to acid adaptation. Acid-responsive gene regulation is mediated at least in part by the ArsRS two-component system consisting of the essential OmpR-like response regulator ArsR and the nonessential cognate histidine kinase ArsS, whose autophosphorylation is triggered in response to low pH. In this study, by global transcriptional profiling of an ArsS-deficient H. pylori mutant grown at pH 5.0, we define the ArsR approximately P-dependent regulon consisting of 109 genes, including the urease gene cluster, the genes encoding the aliphatic amidases AmiE and AmiF, and the rocF gene encoding arginase. We show that ArsR approximately P controls the acid-induced transcription of amiE and amiF by binding to extended regions located upstream of the -10 box of the respective promoters. In contrast, transcription of rocF is repressed by ArsR approximately P at neutral, acidic, and mildly alkaline pH via high-affinity binding of the response regulator to a site overlapping the promoter of the rocF gene. PMID:16672598

  14. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates.

    PubMed

    Fahey, Jed W; Stephenson, Katherine K; Wade, Kristina L; Talalay, Paul

    2013-05-24

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 260-320 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  15. Urease from Helicobacter pylori is inactivated by sulforaphane and other isothiocyanates

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Jed W.; Stephenson, Katherine K.; Wade, Kristina L.; Talalay, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Infections by Helicobacter pylori are very common, causing gastroduodenal inflammation including peptic ulcers, and increasing the risk of gastric neoplasia. The isothiocyanate (ITC) sulforaphane [SF; 1-isothiocyanato-4-(methylsulfinyl)butane] derived from edible crucifers such as broccoli is potently bactericidal against Helicobacter, including antibiotic-resistant strains, suggesting a possible dietary therapy. Gastric H. pylori infections express high urease activity which generates ammonia, neutralizes gastric acidity, and promotes inflammation. The finding that SF inhibits (inactivates) urease (jack bean and Helicobacter) raised the issue of whether these properties might be functionally related. The rates of inactivation of urease activity depend on enzyme and SF concentrations and show first order kinetics. Treatment with SF results in time-dependent increases in the ultraviolet absorption of partially purified Helicobacter urease in the 280–340 nm region. This provides direct spectroscopic evidence for the formation of dithiocarbamates between the ITC group of SF and cysteine thiols of urease. The potencies of inactivation of Helicobacter urease by isothiocyanates structurally related to SF were surprisingly variable. Natural isothiocyanates closely related to SF, previously shown to be bactericidal (berteroin, hirsutin, phenethyl isothiocyanate, alyssin, and erucin), did not inactivate urease activity. Furthermore, SF is bactericidal against both urease positive and negative H. pylori strains. In contrast, some isothiocyanates such as benzoyl-ITC, are very potent urease inactivators, but are not bactericidal. The bactericidal effects of SF and other ITC against Helicobacter are therefore not obligatorily linked to urease inactivation, but may reduce the inflammatory component of Helicobacter infections. PMID:23583386

  16. The Metabonomic Studies of Tongue Coating in H. pylori Positive Chronic Gastritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuan; Sun, Zhu-Mei; Liu, Yan-Na; Ji, Qing; Sui, Hua; Zhou, Li-Hong; Li, Fu-Feng; Li, Qi

    2015-01-01

    In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), tongue diagnosis (TD) has been an important diagnostic method for the last 3000 years. Tongue coating can be used as a very sensitive marker to determine the progress of chronic gastritis. Therefore, the scientific, qualitative, and quantitative study for the pathophysiologic basis of tongue coating (TC) emerged as a major direction for the objective research of TD. In our current report, we used GC/MS technology to determine the potential changes of metabolites and identify special metabolic biomarkers in the TC of H. pylori infected chronic gastritis patients. Four discriminative metabolites were identified by GC/MS between the TC of H. pylori infection (G + H) and without H. pylori infection (G − H) patients: ethylene, cephaloridine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and 5-pyroglutamic acid, indicating that changes in amino acid metabolism are possibly involved in the formation of TC, and the amino acid metabolites are part of the material components of TC in G + H patients. PMID:26557866

  17. Oral Cavity as an Extragastric Reservoir of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S.; Kamath, Kavitha P.; Patil, Shankargouda; Preethanath, R. S.; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Background. Several studies were reported on the prevalence, and relationship between the existence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in oral cavity and in stomach of patients. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its link to gastric infection, the existence of coinfection, and the impact of anti-H. pylori therapy on the dental plaque and vice versa. Method. Two authors independently searched the Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Scopus databases for relevant studies. The articles were analyzed critically and all qualified studies were included. The search was carried out by using a combined text and the MeSH search strategies: using the key words Helicobacter, Helicobacter pylori, and H. pylori in combination with dental plaque, periodontitis, and oral hygiene. Results. The data was presented in 8 tables and each topic separately discussed. Conclusion. Based on the systematic review of the available literature on H. pylori infection and its presence in the oral cavity, it can be concluded that dental plaque can act as a reservoir, and proper oral hygiene maintenance is essential to prevent reinfection. Due to the diversified methods and population groups involved in the available literature, no concrete evidence can be laid down. Further studies are necessary to establish the role of H. pylori in the oral cavity and its eradication on preventing the gastroduodenal infection. PMID:24701355

  18. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Properties of GutGard™

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Min; Zheng, Hong Mei; Lee, Boo Yong; Lee, Woon Kyu; Lee, Don Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Presence of Helicobacter pylori is associated with an increased risk of developing upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. Antibiotic therapy and a combination of two or three drugs have been widely used to eradicate H. pylori infections. Due to antibiotic resistant drugs, new drug resources are needed such as plants which contain antibacterial compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of GutGard™ to inhibit H. pylori growth both in Mongolian gerbils and C57BL/6 mouse models. Male Mongolian gerbils were infected with the bacteria by intragastric inoculation (2×109 CFU/gerbil) 3 times over 5 days and then orally treated once daily 6 times/week for 8 weeks with 15, 30 and 60 mg/kg GutGard™. After the final administration, biopsy samples of the gastric mucosa were assayed for bacterial identification via urease, catalase and ELISA assays as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC). In the Mongolian gerbil model, IHC and ELISA assays revealed that GutGard™ inhibited H. pylori colonization in gastric mucosa in a dose dependent manner. The anti-H. pylori effects of GutGard™ in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice were also examined. We found that treatment with 25 mg/kg GutGard™ significantly reduced H. pylori colonization in mice gastric mucosa. Our results suggest that GutGard™ may be useful as an agent to prevent H. pylori infection. PMID:24471118

  19. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: Relationship with the gastric infection

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422

  20. OVERVIEW: DISINFECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND AEROMONAS SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori and Aeromonas hydrophila are contaminants listed on the USEPA's 1998 Contaminant Candidate List (CCL).The sensitivity of H. pylori to chlorine and of Aeromonas spp. to inactivation by free chlorine, chloramine and ultraviolet (UV) was examined. Selective and...

  1. EVALUATION OF MONITORING METHODS FOR HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN POTABLE WATERS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Helicobacter pylori is a newly recognized human pathogen, known to cause gastric ulcers and thought to be a contributing factor in gastric cancer. Recent studies in the scientific literature, using a variety of methodologies, report the presence of H. pylori bacteria in environm...

  2. SURVIVAL OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI IN A NATURAL FRESHWATER ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode by which Helicobacter pylori, the causative agent of most gastric ulcers, is transmitted remains undetermined. Epidemiological evidence suggests these organisms are waterborne; however, H. pylori has rarely been grown from potential water sources. This may be due to th...

  3. Strategy for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    The eradication of Helicobacter pylori not only heals peptic ulcers but also prevents their recurrence and reduces the risk of development of gastric cancer and other H. pylori-associated disorders. H. pylori eradication heals gastritis and may prevent the spread of infection, reducing the future costs required for the treatment of subsequent H. pylori-associated diseases. There are various guidelines for the management of H. pylori infection worldwide, such as the guidelines of the American College of Gastroenterology, Maastricht IV, the Second Asia-Pacific Consensus Conference, and Japan. The Japanese health insurance system approved H. pylori eradication therapy for H. pylori-related chronic gastritis in 2013. Triple therapy regimens comprising 1 proton pump inhibitor and 2 antimicrobial agents such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin, or tetracycline have been widely used to eradicate this bacterium. The rate of successful eradication has declined owing to the increased rate of drug resistance stemming from the wide usage of antibiotics. This issue is of particular relevance with regard to clarithromycin. In worldwide, clarithromycin-based triple therapy should be abandoned, as it is no longer effective. Quadruple therapy and sequential therapy are reasonable alternatives for initial therapy. First-line treatment should be recommended on the basis of an understanding of the local prevalence of H. pylori antimicrobial resistance. PMID:24180402

  4. Helicobacter pylori and oral pathology: relationship with the gastric infection.

    PubMed

    Adler, Isabel; Muiño, Andrea; Aguas, Silvia; Harada, Laura; Diaz, Mariana; Lence, Adriana; Labbrozzi, Mario; Muiño, Juan Manuel; Elsner, Boris; Avagnina, Alejandra; Denninghoff, Valeria

    2014-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in the oral cavity and stomach, and its infection is one of the most frequent worldwide. We reviewed the literature and conducted a Topic Highlight, which identified studies reporting an association between H. pylori-infection in the oral cavity and H. pylori-positive stomach bacterium. This work was designed to determine whether H. pylori is the etiologic agent in periodontal disease, recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS), squamous cell carcinoma, burning and halitosis. Record selection focused on the highest quality studies and meta-analyses. We selected 48 articles reporting on the association between saliva and plaque and H. pylori-infection. In order to assess periodontal disease data, we included 12 clinical trials and 1 meta-analysis. We evaluated 13 published articles that addressed the potential association with RAS, and 6 with squamous cell carcinoma. Fourteen publications focused on our questions on burning and halitosis. There is a close relation between H. pylori infection in the oral cavity and the stomach. The mouth is the first extra-gastric reservoir. Regarding the role of H. pylori in the etiology of squamous cell carcinoma, no evidence is still available. PMID:25110422

  5. Helicobacter pylori typing as a tool for tracking human migration

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from different geographic areas exhibit clear phylogeographical differentiation; therefore, the genotypes of H. pylori strains can serve as markers for the migration of human populations. Currently, the genotypes of two virulence factors of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used markers for genomic diversity within H. pylori populations. There are two types of cagA: the East Asian type and the Western type. In addition, the right end of the cag pathogenicity island is divided into five subtypes and there are distinct mosaic structures at the signal region and the middle region of vacA. Using combinations of the cagA, cag right end junction, and vacA genotypes, five major groups (East Asia type, South/Central Asia type, Iberian/Africa type and Europe type) have been defined according to geographical associations. MLST has revealed seven modern population types and six ancestral population types of H. pylori, and is a useful tool for mapping human migration patterns. Serial studies of large numbers of H. pylori strains, including strains isolated from aboriginal populations, show that MLST analysis provides more detailed information on human migration than does the analysis of human genetics. H. pylori infection is rapidly declining as a result of improvements in personal hygiene and quality of life. The molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection has much to tell us and should be studied before it disappears entirely. PMID:19702588

  6. Helicobacter pylori typing as a tool for tracking human migration.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Y

    2009-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori strains from different geographic areas exhibit clear phylogeographical differentiation; therefore, the genotypes of H. pylori strains can serve as markers for the migration of human populations. Currently, the genotypes of two virulence factors of H. pylori, cagA and vacA, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) are widely used markers for genomic diversity within H. pylori populations. There are two types of cagA: the East Asian type and the Western type. In addition, the right end of the cag pathogenicity island is divided into five subtypes and there are distinct mosaic structures at the signal region and the middle region of vacA. Using combinations of the cagA, cag right end junction, and vacA genotypes, five major groups (East Asia type, South/Central Asia type, Iberian/Africa type and Europe type) have been defined according to geographical associations. MLST has revealed seven modern population types and six ancestral population types of H. pylori, and is a useful tool for mapping human migration patterns. Serial studies of large numbers of H. pylori strains, including strains isolated from aboriginal populations, show that MLST analysis provides more detailed information on human migration than does the analysis of human genetics. H. pylori infection is rapidly declining as a result of improvements in personal hygiene and quality of life. The molecular epidemiology of H. pylori infection has much to tell us and should be studied before it disappears entirely. PMID:19702588

  7. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in Hispanic patients with anemia.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Melissa; Rosado-Carrión, Bárbara; Bredy, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Pernicious anemia represents the final phase of a process that begins with Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis and evolves through progressive levels of atrophy until loss of parietal cell mass. Numerous studies have suggested an association between H. pylori infection, unexplained iron deficiency anemia and cobalamin deficiency. Our research question was to determine whether there is an association between with H. pylori infection and development of anemia in Hispanic patients. This cross sectional pilot study involved data analysis of individual from years 2010-2012 examining the association between H. pylori infection and hemoglobin levels in patients with Hispanic ethnicity. A total of 189 records were evaluated, of which 33 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The study sample was divided in two groups. Group-A: 5 subjects with H. pylori infection and anemia; Group-B: 28 patients with H. pylori without anemia. Fisher exact test applied between categorical variables to determine the statistical significance of symptoms comparing anemic vs. non-anemic H. pylori infected patients yielded a p = 0.0027. In addition, restoration of anemia in two subjects following eradication therapy without previous iron or cobalamin replacement therapy suggested a potential role of this bacterium in the development of anemia in Hispanics. In conclusion, from the results of this study a potential association between Helicobacter pylori infection and anemia in Hispanic patients is suggested. Restoration of hemoglobin after eradication of bacteria further supports this concept. PMID:25065045

  8. Phytoceuticals: mighty but ignored weapons against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Shin, Yong Woon; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2008-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas and gastric adenocarcinomas, for which the pathogenesis of chronic gastric inflammation prevails and provides the pathogenic basis. Since the role of H. pylori infection is promoting carcinogenesis rather than acting as a direct carcinogen, as several publications show, eradication alone cannot be the right answer for preventing H. pylori-associated gastric cancer. Therefore, a non-antimicrobial approach has been suggested to attain microbe-associated cancer prevention through controlling H. pylori-related chronic inflammatory processes and mediators responsible for carcinogenesis. Phytoceutical is a term for plant products that are active on biological systems. Phytoceuticals such as Korean red ginseng, green tea, red wine, flavonoids, broccoli sprouts, garlic, probiotics and flavonoids are known to inhibit H. pylori colonization, decrease gastric inflammation by inhibiting cytokine and chemokine release, and repress precancerous changes by inhibiting nuclear factor-kappa B DNA binding, inducing profuse levels of apoptosis and inhibiting mutagenesis. Even though further unsolved issues are awaited before phytoceuticals are accepted as a standard treatment for H. pylori infection, phytoceuticals can be a mighty weapon for either suppressing or modulating the disease-associated footprints of H. pylori infection. PMID:18956590

  9. RECOVERY OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI FROM WATER BY IMMUNOMAGNETIC CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A few reports have been written stating that H. pylori can be found in waters. However, detection and identification of H. pylori from water samples remains a very difficult task. One method that seems to work successfully is immunomagnetic capture. Water samples were concentr...

  10. Exploring alternative treatments for Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, Guadalupe; Escobedo-Hinojosa, Wendy Itzel; de la Cruz-Herrera, Carlos Felipe; Romero, Irma

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a successful pathogen that can persist in the stomach of an infected person for their entire life. It provokes chronic gastric inflammation that leads to the development of serious gastric diseases such as peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and Mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. It is known that these ailments can be avoided if the infection by the bacteria can be prevented or eradicated. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available. However, these therapies have several inherent problems, including the appearance of resistance to the antibiotics used and associated adverse effects, the risk of re-infection and the high cost of antibiotic therapy. The delay in developing a vaccine to prevent or eradicate the infection has furthered research into new therapeutic approaches. This review summarises the most relevant recent studies on vaccine development and new treatments using natural resources such as plants, probiotics and nutraceuticals. In addition, novel alternatives based on microorganisms, peptides, polysaccharides, and intragastric violet light irradiation are presented. Alternative therapies have not been effective in eradicating the bacteria but have been shown to maintain low bacterial levels. Nevertheless, some of them are useful in preventing the adverse effects of antibiotics, modulating the immune response, gastroprotection, and the general promotion of health. Therefore, those agents can be used as adjuvants of allopathic anti-H. pylori eradication therapy. PMID:24587621

  11. The complete genome sequence of a chronic atrophic gastritis Helicobacter pylori strain: Evolution during disease progression

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Jung D.; Kling-Bäckhed, Helene; Giannakis, Marios; Xu, Jian; Fulton, Robert S.; Fulton, Lucinda A.; Cordum, Holland S.; Wang, Chunyan; Elliott, Glendoria; Edwards, Jennifer; Mardis, Elaine R.; Engstrand, Lars G.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori produces acute superficial gastritis in nearly all of its human hosts. However, a subset of individuals develops chronic atrophic gastritis (ChAG), a condition characterized in part by diminished numbers of acid-producing parietal cells and increased risk for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Previously, we used a gnotobiotic transgenic mouse model with an engineered ablation of parietal cells to show that loss of parietal cells provides an opportunity for a H. pylori isolate from a patient with ChAG (HPAG1) to bind to, enter, and persist within gastric stem cells. This finding raises the question of how ChAG influences H. pylori genome evolution, physiology, and tumorigenesis. Here we describe the 1,596,366-bp HPAG1 genome. Custom HPAG1 Affymetrix GeneChips, representing 99.6% of its predicted ORFs, were used for whole-genome genotyping of additional H. pylori ChAG isolates obtained from Swedish patients enrolled in a case-control study of gastric cancer, as well as ChAG- and cancer-associated isolates from an individual who progressed from ChAG to gastric adenocarcinoma. The results reveal a shared gene signature among ChAG strains, as well as genes that may have been lost or gained during progression to adenocarcinoma. Whole-genome transcriptional profiling of HPAG1’s response to acid during in vitro growth indicates that genes encoding components of metal uptake and utilization pathways, outer membrane proteins, and virulence factors are among those associated with H. pylori’s adaptation to ChAG. PMID:16788065

  12. [Prevention of gastric cancer by Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    PubMed

    Asaka, Masahiro

    2009-08-01

    Though the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and gastric cancer has been proved in epidemiological studies and animal experiments, the prophylactic effect of H. pylori eradication is controversial in human studies. A large-scale clinical study performed by the JAPANGAST Study Group has confirmed that the eradication of H. pylori undoubtedly decreases the incidence of metachronous gastric cancer after endoscopic mucosal resection as published in The Lancet (372: 392-397, 2008). This study shows gastric cancer is a kind of infectious disease, not a lifestyle-related disease, and can thus be averted by preventing or curing the infection, suggesting the eradication of H. pylori might be indicated to prevent development of gastric cancers. PMID:19692758

  13. The antimicrobial activities of phenylbutyrates against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chung-Yi; Cheng, Hsueh-Ling; Hsu, Jue-Liang; Liao, Ming-Hui; Yen, Rong-Lang; Chen, Yo-Chia

    2013-01-01

    Three phenyl derivatives of butyrate, 2-phenylbutyrate (2-PB), 3-phenylbutyrate (3-PB) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PB), were evaluated in terms of their antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Our results indicated that PBs demonstrated specific inhibitory activity against Helicobacter pylori and Escherichia coli but did not influence the growth of Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus reuteri. PBs also exhibited synergistic effects on H. pylori ATCC 43504 especially at pH 5.5. In the protein expression profiles in H. pylori treated by phenylbutyrates, we also found that three protein spots identified as oxidative stress-related proteins were significantly up-regulated, confirming the response of H. pylori when exposed to PBs. Due to their antibacterial activities and low or slight cytotoxicities, PBs are potential candidates for the treatment of H. pylori infection. This is the first study to discover the antibiotic effects of 2-PB, 3-PB and 4-PB (Buphenyl). PMID:23727774

  14. Identification of Helicobacter pylori in skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa.

    PubMed

    Missall, Tricia A; Pruden, Samuel; Nelson, Christine; Fohn, Laurel; Vidal, Claudia I; Hurley, M Yadira

    2012-06-01

    A 23-year-old Chinese man presented with a 3-year history of a pruritic eruption. On examination, pink urticarial papules associated with hyperpigmented reticulated patches were noted on his neck, back, and upper chest. Histopathology revealed vacuolar interface dermatitis and numerous gram-negative rods within a dilated hair follicle. The organisms were reactive with anti-Helicobacter pylori immunohistochemisty. The histologic findings and clinical presentation support the diagnosis of prurigo pigmentosa. Additional testing demonstrated a positive urease breath test and serum H. pylori IgG antibodies. The patient was referred to gastroenterology and treated with appropriate antibiotics. After treatment, esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed chronic gastritis without evidence of H. pylori infection and his skin showed reticulated hyperpigmented patches without evidence of active inflammatory papules. Although previous reports have associated prurigo pigmentosa to H. Pylori gastritis, this is the first report of H. pylori organisms identified in a skin biopsy of prurigo pigmentosa. PMID:22197863

  15. The gastric microbial community, Helicobacter pylori colonization, and disease

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Miriam E; Solnick, Jay V

    2014-01-01

    Long thought to be a sterile habitat, the stomach contains a diverse and unique community of bacteria. One particular inhabitant, Helicobacter pylori, colonizes half of the world’s human population and establishes a decades-long infection that can be asymptomatic, pathogenic, or even beneficial for the host. Many host and bacterial factors are known to influence an individual’s risk of gastric disease, but another potentially important determinant has recently come to light: the host microbiota. Although it is unclear to what extent H. pylori infection perturbs the established gastric microbial community, and H. pylori colonization seems generally resistant to disturbances in the host microbiota, it can modulate H. pylori pathogenicity. Interactions between H. pylori and bacteria at non-gastric sites are likely indirect—via programming of the pro-inflammatory vs. regulatory T lymphocytes—which may have a significant impact on human health. PMID:24642475

  16. Role of Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer: Updates

    PubMed Central

    Khatoon, Jahanarah; Rai, Ravi Prakash; Prasad, Kashi Nath

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is highly prevalent in human, affecting nearly half of the world’s population; however, infection remains asymptomatic in majority of population. During its co-existence with humans, H. pylori has evolved various strategies to maintain a mild gastritis and limit the immune response of host. On the other side, presence of H. pylori is also associated with increased risk for the development of various gastric pathologies including gastric cancer (GC). A complex combination of host genetics, environmental agents, and bacterial virulence factors are considered to determine the susceptibility as well as the severity of outcome in a subset of individuals. GC is one of the most common cancers and considered as the third most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Many studies had proved H. pylori as an important risk factor in the development of non-cardia GC. Although both H. pylori infection and GC are showing decreasing trends in the developed world, they still remain a major threat to human population in the developing countries. The current review attempts to highlight recent progress in the field of research on H. pylori induced GC and aims to provide brief insight into H. pylori pathogenesis, the role of major virulence factors of H. pylori that modulates the host environment and transform the normal gastric epithelium to neoplastic one. This review also emphasizes on the mechanistic understanding of how colonization and various virulence attributes of H. pylori as well as the host innate and adaptive immune responses modulate the diverse signaling pathways that leads to different disease outcomes including GC. PMID:26909129

  17. Helicobacter pylori in Cholecystectomy Specimens-Morphological and Immunohistochemical Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Venkatarami; Jena, Amitabh; Gavini, Siva; Thota, Asha; Nandyala, Rukamangadha; Chowhan, Amit Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma and gastric lymphoma. Current literature describes presence of H.pylori in various extra-gastric locations and its association with many diseases. Apart from the conventional location of gastric and duodenal mucosa, H.pylori have been isolated and cultured from gallbladder. Aim Analysis of cholecystectomy specimens to detect H.pylori by means of immunohistochemical staining. Materials and Methods There were a total of 118 cholecystectomy specimens received in the Department of Pathology in three months duration. We have performed immunostaining for H.pylori in 45 consecutive cases of cholecystectomy specimen. Clinical and other investigational information were retrieved from the medical records department. For each case, routine Haematoxylin and Eosin stain was studied. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was done using purified polyclonal Helicobacter pylori antiserum. Results Majority of the patients had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for the presenting complaint of right hypochondrial pain. Multiple pigmented stones were present in majority (27/45) of them. Immunostain for H.pylori was positive in ten cases. Six of these cases had pigmented gall stones, two had stones not specified and in two of the cases there were no stones. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is present in gall bladder and is commonly seen in association with stones. A more detailed study of cholecystectomy cases (both neoplastic and non-neoplastic) with serological, culture and molecular data of H.pylori is desirable to study the pathogenesis of cholecystitis, its association with gall stones and other gall bladder disorders. PMID:27437221

  18. [Diseases linked to Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P

    2014-09-01

    Below is a summary of the main conclusions that came from reports presented at this year's Digestive Disease Week (2014) relating to Helicobacter pylori infection. Despite the undeniable decline of the infection's frequency, in the near future, developed countries--or at least some sub-populations--will continue to have a significant prevalence of the infection. Clarithromycin, metronidazole and quinolone resistance rates are considerably high in most countries and these rates are on the rise. The eradication of H. pylori improves symptoms of functional dyspepsia, although only in a minority of patients; adding antidepressants to eradication therapy could improve long-term response. In patients who were admitted with gastrointestinal bleeding from peptic ulcers, it is necessary to thoroughly study the presence of H. pylori infection and administer eradication therapy as early as possible. Eradication of H. pylori in patients undergoing endoscopic resection of early-stage gastric cancer reduces incidence of metachronous tumors. We have some diagnostic innovations, such as carrying out various techniques--a rapid urease test, culture or PCR--based on gastric samples obtained by scraping the mucosa. The effectiveness of conventional triple therapy is clearly insufficient and continues to decline. The superiority of sequential therapy over conventional triple therapies has not been definitively established. Concomitant therapy is simpler and more effective than sequential therapy. Optimized concomitant therapy (with high doses of proton-pump inhibitors [PPI] and over 14 days) is highly effective, more so than standard concomitant therapy. For patients who are allergic to penicillin, 2 treatment options were essentially described: PPI-clarithromycin-metronidazole (clarithromycin-sensitive strains) and quadruple therapy with bismuth (when the bacterial sensitivity is unknown). If conventional triple therapy fails, second-line therapy with levofloxacin is effective and is

  19. Helicobacter pylori incidence and re-infection in the Aklavik H. pylori Project

    PubMed Central

    Carraher, Sally; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Munday, Rachel; Goodman, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Aklavik H. pylori Project (AHPP) (www.canhelpworkinggroup.ca) is a community-driven project examining Helicobacter pylori infection and its influence on health in a diverse Aboriginal community in the Northwest Territories. Initial research revealed that 58% of 333 participants who underwent a urea breath test (UBT) between 2007 and 2010 were H. pylori-positive. From 2008 to 2010, we offered treatment to H. pylori-positive participants and 113 consented to this treatment. Objective We estimated H. pylori incidence in AHPP participants who initially tested negative and the re-infection frequency in initially positive participants who were successfully treated to clear the infection. Methods Participants who were initially H. pylori-negative or negative after treatment during 2008–2010 were eligible for inclusion. From November 2011 to June 2012, participants were offered a UBT and the samples were analyzed using infrared spectroscopy (IRIS). Participants with a positive test result were classified as new cases for estimating incidence among participants testing negative at baseline and re-infection among those successfully treated for H. pylori infection. Results Among 38 initially negative participants, follow-up UBT showed that 33 remained negative, 3 were positive, and 2 had uncertain status. The estimated incidence proportion during the follow-up period was 8.3% (95% CI: 1.8–22.0%). Among 43 participants with a negative post-treatment UBT, 41 remained negative and 2 were positive. The estimated re-infection proportion during the follow-up period was 4.7% (95% CI: 0.6–16.0%). The frequency of new cases was similar in males and females. Aboriginal participants had a combined re-infection/incidence rate of 2.4% per year (95% CI: 0.8–5.9% per year). All 9 non-Aboriginal participants remained free from infection throughout the study period, as did all 23 participants aged 55 years and above. Conclusions The AHPP has substantially reduced the

  20. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori effects of medicinal mushroom extracts, with special emphasis on the Lion's Mane mushroom, Hericium erinaceus (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiaodong; Tan, Qi; Liu, Ruina; Yu, Kangying; Li, Pingzuo; Zhao, Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    Although the medicinal mushroom Hericium erinaceus is used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine to treat chronic superficial gastritis, the underlining pharmaceutical mechanism is yet to be fully understood. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of extracts prepared from the fruiting bodies of 14 mushroom species (H. erinaceus, Ganoderma lucidum, Cordyceps militaris, Pleurotus eryngii, P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita, Lentinus edodes, Agaricus brasiliensis, A. bisporus, Coprinus comatus, Grifola frondosa, Phellinus igniarius, Flammulina velutipes, and Hypsizygus marmoreus) were determined against Helicobacter pylori using laboratory strains of ATCC 43504 and SS1 as well as 9 clinical isolates via an in vitro microplate agar diffusion assay. Ethanol extracts (EEs) of 12 mushrooms inhibited the growth of H. pylori in vitro, with MIC values <3 mg/mL. EEs of H. erinaceus and G. lucidum also inhibited Staphylococcus aureus (MIC 7360;10 mg/mL) but had no effect on the growth of two Escherichia coli test strains (MIC >10 mg/mL). MIC values of ethyl acetate fractions (EAFs) of H. erinaceus against 9 clinical isolates of H. pylori ranged between 62.5 and 250 µg/mL. The bacteriostatic activity of EAFs was found to be concentration-dependant, and the half maximal inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values for H. pylori ATCC 43504 were 73.0 and 200 µg/mL, respectively. The direct inhibitory effect of EEs and EAFs of H. erinaceus against H. pylori could be another pharmaceutical mechanism of medicinal mushrooms-besides the immunomodulating effect of polysaccharides, suggested previously-in the treatment of H. pylori-associated gastrointestinal disorders. Further research to identify the active component(s) is currently undertaking in our laboratory. PMID:23557368

  1. High antibiotic resistance rate: A difficult issue for Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is associated with a variety of upper gastrointestinal diseases, including gastric cancer. With the wide application of antibiotics in H. pylori eradication treatment, drug-resistant strains of H. pylori are increasing. H. pylori eradication treatment failure affects the outcome of a variety of diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, antibiotic resistance that affects H. pylori eradication treatment is a challenging situation for clinicians. The ideal H. pylori eradication therapy should be safe, effective, simple, and economical. The eradication rate of triple antibiotic therapy is currently less than 80% in most parts of the world. Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for treatment failure, therefore the standard triple regimen is no longer suitable as a first-line treatment in most regions. H. pylori eradication treatment may fail for a number of reasons, including H. pylori strain factors, host factors, environmental factors, and inappropriate treatment. PMID:26730153

  2. Evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication and drug therapy in patients with functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, WEIDONG; ZHONG, XIAOQIN; ZHUANG, XINYING; JI, HONGMEI; LI, XINXIN; LI, ANQING; WANG, RUICAI; ZHU, JIANYOU; LI, YANQING

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Helicobactor pylori (H. pylori) infection and drug therapy on functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms and gastrointestinal eosinophil count. In this study, 215 continuous FD patients fulfilling Rome III criteria were enrolled. The patients were divided into a H. pylori-positive group and a H. pylori-negative group. The H. pylori-positive group was divided into H. pylori-eradicated and H. pylori-uneradicated groups following H. pylori-eradication treatment, and the H. pylori-negative group was randomly divided into esomeprazole and teprenone treatment groups. The symptom scores of the esomeprazole group were significantly lower compared with those of the teprenone group at week 6 but not at baseline and week 2. Compared with the H. pylori-uneradicated group, eosinophil counts in the antrum and body were significantly reduced in the H. pylori-eradicated group at week 6. The number of gastric eosinophil clusters was significantly higher in the H. pylori-positive group than in the H. pylori-negative group. Eradication was associated with gastric eosinophil counts but did not affect duodenal eosinophil levels. Neither esomeprazole nor teprenone treatments reduced eosinophil levels in the stomach and duodenum of H. pylori-negative patients. PMID:23935715

  3. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Duan, Guang-Cai; Fan, Qing-Tang; Chen, Shuai-Yin

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common carcinoma and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes a series of precancerous lesions like gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, and is the strongest known risk factor for GC, as supported by epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies. However, the mechanism of H. pylori developing gastric carcinoma has not been well defined. Among infected individuals, approximately 10% develop severe gastric lesions such as peptic ulcer disease, 1%-3% progresses to GC. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are determined by bacterial virulence, genetic polymorphism of hosts as well as environmental factors. It is important to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection for developing more effective treatments for this common but deadly malignancy. The recent findings on the bacterial virulence factors, effects of H. pylori on epithelial cells, genetic polymorphism of both the bacterium and its host, and the environmental factors for GC are discussed with focus on the role of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis in this review. PMID:26909232

  4. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Guang; Duan, Guang-Cai; Fan, Qing-Tang; Chen, Shuai-Yin

    2016-02-15

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common carcinoma and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection causes a series of precancerous lesions like gastritis, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, and is the strongest known risk factor for GC, as supported by epidemiological, preclinical and clinical studies. However, the mechanism of H. pylori developing gastric carcinoma has not been well defined. Among infected individuals, approximately 10% develop severe gastric lesions such as peptic ulcer disease, 1%-3% progresses to GC. The outcomes of H. pylori infection are determined by bacterial virulence, genetic polymorphism of hosts as well as environmental factors. It is important to gain further understanding of the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection for developing more effective treatments for this common but deadly malignancy. The recent findings on the bacterial virulence factors, effects of H. pylori on epithelial cells, genetic polymorphism of both the bacterium and its host, and the environmental factors for GC are discussed with focus on the role of H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis in this review. PMID:26909232

  5. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-14

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  6. Helicobacter pylori and colorectal neoplasia: Is there a causal link?

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Karatapanis, Stylianos; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D

    2016-01-01

    Ever since Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was recognized as an infectious cause of gastric cancer, there has been increasing interest in examining its potential role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Data from case-control and cross-sectional studies, mostly relying on hospital-based samples, and several meta-analyses have shown a positive statistical relationship between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasia. However, the possibility exists that the results have been influenced by bias, including the improper selection of patients and disparities with respect to potential confounders. While the evidence falls short of a definitive causal link, it appears that infection with H. pylori/H. pylori-related gastritis is associated with an increased, although modest, risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer. The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for this association remain uncertain. H. pylori has been detected in colorectal malignant tissues; however, the possibility that H. pylori is a direct activator of colonic carcinogenesis remains purely hypothetical. On the other hand, experimental data have indicated a series of potential oncogenic interactions between these bacteria and colorectal mucosa, including induction and perpetuation of inflammatory responses, alteration of gut microflora and release of toxins and/or hormonal mediators, such as gastrin, which may contribute to tumor formation. PMID:26811614

  7. Structure, function and localization of Helicobacter pylori urease.

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, B. E.; Phadnis, S. H.

    1998-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent of most cases of gastritis. Once acquired, H. pylori establishes chronic persistent infection; it is this long-term infection that, is a subset of patients, leads to gastric or duodenal ulcer, gastric cancer or gastric MALT lymphoma. All fresh isolates of H. pylori express significant urease activity, which is essential to survival and pathogenesis of the bacterium. A significant fraction of urease is associated with the surface of H. pylori both in vivo and in vitro. Surface-associated urease is essential for H. pylori to resist exposure to acid in the presence of urea. The mechanism whereby urease becomes associated with the surface of H. pylori is unique. This process, which we term "altruistic autolysis," involves release of urease (and other cytoplasmic proteins) by genetically programmed autolysis with subsequent adsorption of the released urease onto the surface of neighboring intact bacteria. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of essential communal behavior in pathogenic bacteria; such behavior is crucial to understanding the pathogenesis of H. pylori. PMID:10378351

  8. Lipid Profile in Cardiac Syndrome X: Association with Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalzadeh, Javad; Shirpoor, Alireza; Seyedmohammadzad, Mirhossein; Hajhosseini, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Chronic inflammation caused by Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) infection has a pathogenic role in Cardiac Syndrome X (CSX). In addition, it has shown that bacterial infection may affect blood lipids. Aim To assess if H.pylori affects the level of lipid profile in CSX. Materials and Methods Eighty-eight CSX patients and 97 healthy controls were enrolled. The Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Lipoprotein A (LP{A}), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Apoprotein A1 (APOA1), and Apoprotein B (APOB) was estimated colorimetrically. In addition, the presence of IgG antibody to H.pylori was tested in plasma samples by using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay method. Results TC, LP{A}, LDL, APOA1 and APOB levels in CSX group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p<0.05). But, these parameters in H.pylori positive and H.pylori negative, among CSX and control groups were not significant. Conclusion Increased plasma level of lipid profile and H.pylori infection were associated with CSX; it seems that plasma lipid disorders have a significant role in the development of CSX.

  9. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Fei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  10. Peptide Extracts from Cultures of Certain Lactobacilli Inhibit Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    De Vuyst, Luc; Vincent, Pascal; Makras, Eleftherios; Leroy, Frédéric; Pot, Bruno

    2010-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori inhibition by probiotic lactobacilli has been observed in vitro and in vivo. Carefully selected probiotic Lactobacillus strains could therefore play an important role in the treatment of H. pylori infection and eradication. However, the underlying mechanism for this inhibition is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine if peptide extracts, containing bacteriocins or other antibacterial peptides, from six Lactobacillus cultures (Lactobacillus acidophilus La1, Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471, Lactobacillus casei YIT 9029, Lactobacillus gasseri K7, Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) contribute to the inhibition of H. pylori. Peptide extracts from cultures of Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were most active, reducing the viability of H. pylori ATCC 43504 with more than 2 log units within 4 h of incubation (P < 0.001). The four other extracts were less or not active. When six clinical isolates of H. pylori were tested for their susceptibility towards five inhibitory peptide extracts, similar observations were made. Again, the peptide extracts from Lact. amylovorus DCE 471 and Lact. johnsonii La1 were the most inhibitory, while the three other extracts resulted in a much lower inhibition of H. pylori. Protease-treated extracts were inactive towards H. pylori, confirming the proteinaceous nature of the inhibitory substance. PMID:26780898

  11. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights.

    PubMed

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-16

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  12. Anti-Helicobacter pylori Potential of Artemisinin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Suchandra; Chinniah, Annalakshmi; Pal, Anirban; Kar, Sudip K.

    2012-01-01

    The antimalarial drug artemisinin from Artemisia annua demonstrated remarkably strong activity against Helicobacter pylori, the pathogen responsible for peptic ulcer diseases. In an effort to develop a novel antimicrobial chemotherapeutic agent containing such a sesquiterpene lactone endoperoxide, a series of analogues (2 natural and 15 semisynthetic molecules), including eight newly synthesized compounds, were investigated against clinical and standard strains of H. pylori. The antimicrobial spectrum against 10 H. pylori strains and a few other bacterial and fungal strains indicated specificity against the ulcer causing organism. Of five promising molecules, a newly synthesized ether derivative β-artecyclopropylmether was found to be the most potent compound, which exhibited MIC range, MIC90, and minimum bactericidal concentration range values of 0.25 to 1.0 μg/ml, 1.0 μg/ml, and 1 to 16 μg/ml, respectively, against both resistant and sensitive strains of H. pylori. The molecule demonstrated strong bactericidal kinetics with extensive morphological degeneration, retained functional efficacy at stomach acidic pH unlike clarithromycin, did not elicit drug resistance unlike metronidazole, and imparted sensitivity to resistant strains. It is not cytotoxic and exhibits in vivo potentiality to reduce the H. pylori burden in a chronic infection model. Thus, β-artecyclopropylmether could be a lead candidate for anti-H. pylori therapeutics. Since the recurrence of gastroduodenal ulcers is believed to be mainly due to antibiotic resistance of the commensal organism H. pylori, development of a candidate drug from this finding is warranted. PMID:22687518

  13. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current and future insights

    PubMed Central

    Safavi, Maliheh; Sabourian, Reyhaneh; Foroumadi, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important major cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies such as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma worldwide. H. pylori treatment still remains a challenge, since many determinants for successful therapy are involved such as individual primary or secondary antibiotics resistance, mucosal drug concentration, patient compliance, side-effect profile and cost. While no new drug has been developed, current therapy still relies on different mixture of known antibiotics and anti-secretory agents. A standard triple therapy consisting of two antibiotics and a proton-pump inhibitor proposed as the first-line regimen. Bismuth-containing quadruple treatment, sequential treatment or a non-bismuth quadruple treatment (concomitant) are also an alternative therapy. Levofloxacin containing triple treatment are recommended as rescue treatment for infection of H. pylori after defeat of first-line therapy. The rapid acquisition of antibiotic resistance reduces the effectiveness of any regimens involving these remedies. Therefore, adding probiotic to the medications, developing anti-H. pylori photodynamic or phytomedicine therapy, and achieving a successful H. pylori vaccine may have the promising to present synergistic or additive consequence against H. pylori, because each of them exert different effects. PMID:26798626

  14. Metachronous gastric cancer after successful Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Shiotani, Akiko; Haruma, Ken; Graham, David Y

    2014-09-01

    The high incidence of gastric cancer in Japan initially resulted in establishment of a country-wide gastric cancer screening program to detect early and treatable cancers. In 2013 countrywide Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication was approved coupled with endoscopy to assess for the presence of chronic gastritis. Current data support the notion that cure of the infection in those with non-atrophic gastritis will prevent development of gastric cancer. However, while progression to more severe damage is halted in those who have already developed, atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy remain at risk for subsequent development of gastric cancer. That risk is directly related to the extent and severity of atrophic gastritis. Methods to stratify cancer risk include those based on endoscopic assessment of the atrophic border, histologic grading, and non-invasive methods based on serologic testing of pepsinogen levels. Continued surveillance is required because those with atrophic gastritis/gastric atrophy retain considerable gastric cancer risk even after H. pylori eradication. Those who have already experienced a resectable early gastric cancer are among those at highest risk as metachronous lesions are frequent even after H. pylori eradication. We review the role of H. pylori and effect of H. pylori eradication indicating the incidence and the predictive factors on development of metachronous cancer after endoscopic therapy of early gastric cancer. Studies to refine risk markers to stratify for risk, surveillance methods, intervals, and duration after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether adjuvant therapy would change risk are needed. PMID:25206262

  15. Serologic Evidence for Fecal-Oral Transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Bui, David; Brown, Heidi E; Harris, Robin B; Oren, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is among the most prevalent infections in the world and a key cause of gastric diseases; however, its route of transmission remains unclear. This study aimed to assess the potential for fecal-oral transmission of H. pylori by leveraging its association with a disease with known etiology. Utilizing serology data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 1999; N = 6,347), the association between H. pylori and hepatitis A virus (HAV), a sensitive indicator for fecal-oral exposure, was assessed. Survey-weighted kappa and multiple logistic regression were used to quantify the association between H. pylori and HAV after controlling for age, sex, race, poverty, birthplace, crowding, smoking, and alcohol use. Concordant serological results were found among 69.8% of participants (survey-weighted κ = 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.26, 0.35). The adjusted odds of H. pylori seropositivity were over two times higher after adjusting for confounders (odds ratio = 2.27, 95% CI = 1.79, 2.87). Results from this study suggest H. pylori and HAV infections are strongly associated. Since HAV is primarily transmitted through the fecal-oral route, fecal-oral transmission may be an important pathway for H. pylori spread. PMID:26598563

  16. Helicobacter pylori vaccination: Is there a path to protection?

    PubMed Central

    Anderl, Florian; Gerhard, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a pathogenic, extracellular bacterium that colonizes the stomach in approximately 50% of the world population. It strongly interacts with the gastric epithelium and mostly causes asymptomatic gastritis. The colonization of H. pylori leads to ulcer development in around 20% of infected patients and may progress to gastric cancer or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in 1%. Thus, H. pylori is the major cause of gastric cancer worldwide. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen by the World Health Organization. Since its discovery in the early eighties by Warren and Marshall, research has been focused on the investigation of H. pylori biology, host-pathogen interaction, prevention and treatment. Although H. pylori induces a strong humoral and local cellular immune response, the pathogen is not cleared and establishes a chronic infection after encounters in childhood. The ability to colonize the stomach is mediated by several virulence factors that change the host environment, promote adhesion to the epithelium, influence the gastric inflammation and induce immune evasion. H. pylori can be eradicated by antibiotic treatment in combination with a proton-pump inhibitor, but efficacy is decreasing. Current therapies are expensive, have side effects and contribute to increasing antibiotic resistance, underlining the need for novel therapeutics. PMID:25232229

  17. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus casei against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Enany, Shymaa; Abdalla, Salah

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most common causes of chronic infections in humans. Curing H. pylori infection is difficult because of the habitat of the organism below the mucus adherent layer of gastric mucosa. Lactobacilli are known as acid-resistant bacteria and can remain in stomach for a long time than any other organism, we aimed in this study to examine the efficacy of Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic against H. pylori in humans. Particularly, L. casei was opted as it is considered to be one of the widely used probiotics in dairy products. One hundred and seven strains of H. pylori were isolated from dyspeptic patients and were tested for their antibiotic susceptibility to metronidazole (MTZ), clarithromycin (CLR), tetracycline (TET), and amoxicillin (AMX) by the disc diffusion method. The strains were examined for their susceptibility toward L. casei - present in fermented milk products - by well diffusion method. It was found that 74.7% strains were resistant to MTZ; 1.8% to MTZ, TET, and CLR; 3.7% to MTZ and CLR; 4.6% to MTZ and TET; and 0.9% were resistant to MTZ, TET, and AMX. The antibacterial activity of L. casei against H. pylori was determined on all the tested H. pylori isolates including antibiotic resistant strains with different patterns. Our study proposed the use of probiotics for the treatment of H. pylori infection as an effective approach. PMID:26691482

  18. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-09-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins-including the previously unknown DUF466 family-in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  19. Evolution of the Selenoproteome in Helicobacter pylori and Epsilonproteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Cravedi, Pietro; Mori, Giulia; Fischer, Frédéric; Percudani, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    By competing for the acquisition of essential nutrients, Helicobacter pylori has the unique ability to persist in the human stomach, also causing nutritional insufficiencies in the host. Although the H. pylori genome apparently encodes selenocysteine synthase (SelA, HP1513), a key pyridoxal phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme for the incorporation of selenium into bacterial proteins, nothing is known about the use of this essential element in protein synthesis by this pathogen. We analyzed the evolution of the complete machinery for incorporation of selenium into proteins and the selenoproteome of several H. pylori strains and related Epsilonproteobacteria. Our searches identified the presence of selenoproteins—including the previously unknown DUF466 family—in various Epsilonproteobacteria, but not in H. pylori. We found that a complete system for selenocysteine incorporation was present in the Helicobacteriaceae ancestor and has been recently lost before the split of Helicobacter acinonychis and H. pylori. Our results indicate that H. pylori, at variance with other gastric and enterohepatic Helicobacter, does not use selenocysteine in protein synthesis and does not use selenium for tRNA wobble base modification. However, selA has survived as a functional gene, having lost the domain for the binding of selenocysteine tRNA, but maintaining the ability to bind the PLP cofactor. The evolutionary modifications described for the SelA protein of H. pylori find parallels in other bacterial and archaeal species, suggesting that an alternative enzymatic function is hidden in many proteins annotated as selenocysteinyl-tRNA synthase. PMID:26342139

  20. Helicobacter pylori infection in children: should it be carefully assessed?

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Princz, D; Daoud, G; Salgado-Sabel, A; Cavazza, M E

    2016-05-01

    The prevalence of H. pylori infection, mainly acquired during childhood and may be persisting throughout life, has been found high in developing countries; this high prevalence is related to low socioeconomic status. The persistence of bacterium exposure is related to gastritis and other severe complications including peptic ulcer, lymphoma MALT and gastric cancer, which are rarely present in the pediatric age due to a lower inflammatory and immunological response. Virulence factors, host gastric mucosal factors, and the natural environment of patients are associated with the clinical outcome of H. pylori infection. The main bacterial virulence factors include adhesins (BabA, SabA), vacuolating cytotoxin VacA, and the products of the cag pathogenicity island (cag PAI). There are geographic differences between cagA, vacA status and H. pylori related diseases. The main criteria to evaluate H. pylori infection in children are gastrointestinal and extra gastrointestinal manifestations related to H. pylori infection, familial history of gastric cancer, peptic ulcer, lymphoma MALT, symptomatic children living in high prevalence regions, and immigrant or adopted children in developed countries. Early detection of H. pylori and its virulence factors, in addition to effective methods of eradication associated with prevention programs, may lead to the decrease of H. pylori incidence and gastritis, especially in endemic high-risk regions. The early assessment in children may prevent further severe complications in adulthood. PMID:27212173

  1. Helicobacter pylori - a seasoned pathogen by any other name

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a well known inhabitant of human stomach which is linked to peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. It was recently shown in several studies that H. pylori can be harnessed as a surrogate marker of human migration and that its population structure and stratification patterns exactly juxtapose to those of Homo sapiens. This is enough a testimony to convey that H. pylori may have coevolved with their host. Several protective effects of H. pylori colonization have been considered as evidence of a presumed symbiotic relationship. Contrary to this assumption is the presence of a strong virulence apparatus within H. pylori; why a co-evolved parasite would try inflicting its host with serious infection and even causing cancer? The answer is perhaps embedded in the evolutionary history of both the bacterium and the host. We discuss a hypothetical scenario wherein H. pylori may have acquired virulence genes from donors within its environment that varied with change in human history and ecology. The H. pylori genomes sequenced to date portray fairly high abundance of such laterally acquired genes which have no assigned functions but could be linked to inflammatory responses or other pathogenic attributes. Therefore, the powerful virulence properties and survival strategies of Helicobacter make it a seasoned pathogen; thus the efforts to portray it as a commensal or a (harmless) 'bacterial parasite' need rethinking. PMID:20030808

  2. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection on nutrition and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, Francesco; Annalisa, Tortora; Teresa, Di Rienzo; Giovanna, D’Angelo; Ianiro, Gianluca; Franco, Scaldaferri; Viviana, Gerardi; Valentina, Tesori; Riccardo, Lopetuso Loris; Antonio, Gasbarrini

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram-negative pathogen that is widespread all over the world, infecting more than 50% of the world’s population. It is etiologically associated with non-atrophic and atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcer and shows a deep association with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma and gastric adenocarcinoma. Recently, the medical research focused on the modification of the gastric environment induced by H. pylori infection, possibly affecting the absorption of nutrients and drugs as well as the production of hormones strongly implicated in the regulation of appetite and growth. Interestingly, the absorption of iron and vitamin B12 is impaired by H. pylori infection, while infected subjects have lower basal and fasting serum levels of ghrelin and higher concentration of leptin compared to controls. Since leptin is an anorexigenic hormone, and ghrelin stimulates powerfully the release of growth hormone in humans, H. pylori infection may finally induce growth retardation if acquired very early in the childhood and in malnourished children. This review is focused on the nutritional effects of H. pylori infection, such as the reduced bioavailability or the malabsorbption of essential nutrients, and of gastrointestinal hormones, as well as on the relationship between H. pylori and the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25278679

  3. H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi, Mahmood Reza; Rahnavardi, Mohammad; Bikdeli, Bavand; Zahedani, Mohsen Dehghani

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To describe the frequency of H pylori infection among 1000 southern Iranian dyspeptic patients. METHODS: A prospective study was performed in a referral hospital in south of Iran from 1999 to 2005. One thousand dyspeptic patients (518 males, mean ± SD age of 49.12 ± 12.82 years) consecutively underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Multiple gastric antral biopsy samples were taken from all patients for rapid urease test and histopathologic examination (96.9% satisfactory samples). Patients were considered H pylori-infected if one or both tests were positive. RESULTS: Six hundred and seventy-one patients (67.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 64.2%-70.0%) were H pylori-infected. H pylori positivity was significantly more frequent in patients with peptic ulcer disease (PUD) than in those with non-ulcer dyspepsia (P < 0.001). Male-to-female ratio for duodenal and gastric ulcers was 2.7:1 and 1.5:1, respectively. Moreover, the duodenal-to-gastric ulcer ratio was 1.95:1. The frequency of H pylori infection among those with endoscopic diagnosis of gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer, and normal mucosa was 70.1% (398/568), 86.2% (150/174), 71.9% (64/89), and 33.5% (54/161), respectively. H pylori infection, male sex, and older age were independently associated with PUD in multivariate analysis. H pylori positivity was associated with chronic gastritis, and chronic active gastritis with odds ratios of 34.21 (95% CI: 12.19%-96.03%) and 81.21 (95% CI: 28.85%-228.55%), respectively. CONCLUSION: H pylori and PUD are highly frequent in dyspeptic patients from south of Iran. H pylori is a cardinal risk factor for chronic active or inactive gastritis. PMID:17006984

  4. Molecular epidemiology, population genetics, and pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Rumiko; Shiota, Seiji; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is linked to various gastroduodenal diseases; however, only approximately 20% of infected individuals develop severe diseases. Despite the high prevalence of H. pylori infection in Africa and South Asia, the incidence of gastric cancer in these areas is much lower than in other countries. Furthermore, the incidence of gastric cancer tends to decrease from north to south in East Asia. Such geographic differences in the pathology can be explained, at least in part, by the presence of different types of H. pylori virulence factors, especially cagA, vacA, and the right end of the cag pathogenicity island. The genotype of the virulence genes is also useful as a tool to track human migration utilizing the high genetic diversity and frequent recombination between different H. pylori strains. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis using 7 housekeeping genes can also help predict the history of human migrations. Population structure analysis based on MLST has revealed 7 modern population types of H. pylori, which derived from 6 ancestral populations. Interestingly, the incidence of gastric cancer is closely related to the distribution of H. pylori populations. The different incidence of gastric cancer can be partly attributed to the different genotypes of H. pylori circulating in different geographic areas. Although approaches by MLST and virulence factors are effective, these methods focus on a small number of genes and may miss information conveyed by the rest of the genome. Genome-wide analyses using DNA microarray or whole-genome sequencing technology give a broad view on the genome of H. pylori. In particular, next-generation sequencers, which can read DNA sequences in less time and at lower costs than Sanger sequencing, enabled us to efficiently investigate not only the evolution of H. pylori, but also novel virulence factors and genomic changes related to drug resistance. PMID:22197766

  5. Characterization of urease from Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mobley, H L; Cortesia, M J; Rosenthal, L E; Jones, B D

    1988-05-01

    Campylobacter pylori, a suspected agent of gastritis and peptic ulceration, rapidly hydrolyzes urea. Because urease serves as the basis of detection of the organism in gastric biopsies and may represent an important virulence factor, biochemical characteristics of the enzyme were determined. C. pylori was isolated from antral biopsies from 10 patients with complaints of abdominal pain or history of peptic ulcer disease. All isolates were urease positive, with an average rate of hydrolysis by cell lysates being 36 +/- 28 mumol of NH3 per min per mg of protein, more than twice that of Proteus mirabilis and 10 times that of other urinary tract isolates. The enzyme had an apparent molecular weight of 625,000 +/- 15,000 by column chromatography, an isoelectric point of 5.9, a Km of 0.8 +/- 0.1 mM urea, an optimal temperature of 45 degrees C, and an optimal pH of 8.2. Ten isolates tested produced ureases with identical electrophoretic mobilities on nondenaturing 5% polyacrylamide activity gels. Acetohydroxamic acid (100 micrograms/ml), hydroxyurea (85 micrograms/ml), flurofamide (0.05 micrograms/ml), and EDTA (8 mM) inhibited enzyme activity by 50%. Cell lysates retained 50% of initial urease activity after 6 days and 40% activity after 18 days when stored at 4 degrees C in 20 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.8. At -70 degrees C for 18 days, 1 mM EDTA or 15% glycerol preserved 40 or 34%, respectively, of initial activity. The urease of C. pylori appears to be biochemically unique from the enzymes of other common urease-producing species. PMID:3384908

  6. Primary hyperparathyroidism with duodenal ulcer and H. pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Abe, Keiko; Oshima, Naoki; Kawashima, Kousaku; Hamamoto, Naoharu; Moritani, Makoto; Mak, Rumi; Ishihara, Shunji; Adachi, Kyoichi; Kawauchi, Hideyuki; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2002-05-01

    A patient with duodenal ulcer and primary hyperparathyroidism was found to have an abnormally high intragastric pH. The pH level returned to normal after surgical removal of the parathyroid adenoma followed by normalization of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and serum calcium concentrations. The patient was positive for Helicobacter pylon (H. pylori) infection. Although the exact mechanism by which chronic hypercalcemia or high PTH level inhibited gastric acid secretion in this case remains unclear, our findings suggest that hypercalcemia may play some role in H. pylori associated gastroduodenal diseases through induction of proinflammatory cytokines or by enhancing the attachment of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells. PMID:12058887

  7. H. Pylori in a gastric schwannoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Daniel S; Paulin, Ethan T; Parker, Mitchell I; Zhang, Bin; Parker, Glenn S; Schwartz, Mark R

    2016-04-01

    Schwannomas are benign, often asymptomatic, slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells of the neural sheath. Although H. Pylori has been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, there has never been a recorded association with schwannoma formation. We present a 64-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic partial wedge gastrectomy for an incidentally discovered gastric mass. Histologic examination was consistent with schwannoma; however, chronic inflammation with microorganisms morphologically consistent with H. Pylori was also present. This case suggests the first recorded case of H. Pylori in an immunohistochemically confirmed gastric schwannoma. PMID:27162787

  8. H. Pylori in a gastric schwannoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Paulin, Ethan T.; Parker, Mitchell I.; Zhang, Bin; Parker, Glenn S.; Schwartz, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    Schwannomas are benign, often asymptomatic, slow-growing tumors that originate from Schwann cells of the neural sheath. Although H. Pylori has been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, there has never been a recorded association with schwannoma formation. We present a 64-year-old woman who underwent a laparoscopic partial wedge gastrectomy for an incidentally discovered gastric mass. Histologic examination was consistent with schwannoma; however, chronic inflammation with microorganisms morphologically consistent with H. Pylori was also present. This case suggests the first recorded case of H. Pylori in an immunohistochemically confirmed gastric schwannoma. PMID:27162787

  9. Biomarkers and diagnostic tools for detection of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Khalilpour, Akbar; Kazemzadeh-Narbat, Mehdi; Tamayol, Ali; Oklu, Rahmi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is responsible for worldwide chronic bacterial infection in humans affecting approximately half of the world's population. H. pylori is associated with significant morbidity and mortality including gastric cancer. The infection has both direct and indirect impacts on economic and overall well-being of patients; hence, there is a great need for diagnostic markers that could be used in the development of diagnostic kits. Here, we briefly review general aspects of H. pylori infection and the diagnostic biomarkers used in laboratory tests today with a focus on the potential role of microfluidic systems in future immunodiagnosis platforms. PMID:27084783

  10. Association between Parkinson's Disease and Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Sıdıka

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection of the gastrointestinal system that is usually related to peptic ulcers. However, recent studies have revealed relationships between HP and many other diseases. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, HP can prevent the absorption of certain drugs. A high prevalence of HP has been found in patients with Parkinson's disease, and this bacterium causes motor fluctuations by affecting the absorption of levodopa, which is the main drug used to treat Parkinson's disease. Eradicating HP from patients with Parkinson's disease by applying antibiotic treatment will increase the absorption of levodopa and decrease their motor fluctuations. PMID:26932258

  11. Association between Parkinson's Disease and Helicobacter Pylori.

    PubMed

    Çamcı, Gülşah; Oğuz, Sıdıka

    2016-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori (HP) is a common infection of the gastrointestinal system that is usually related to peptic ulcers. However, recent studies have revealed relationships between HP and many other diseases. Although the exact mechanism is unknown, HP can prevent the absorption of certain drugs. A high prevalence of HP has been found in patients with Parkinson's disease, and this bacterium causes motor fluctuations by affecting the absorption of levodopa, which is the main drug used to treat Parkinson's disease. Eradicating HP from patients with Parkinson's disease by applying antibiotic treatment will increase the absorption of levodopa and decrease their motor fluctuations. PMID:26932258

  12. Interaction between Helicobacter pylori and host genetic variants in gastric carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi-Fang; Zhang, Song-Ling; Cao, Xue-Yuan; Zhou, Bao-Sen; Jiang, Jing

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the definite carcinogen of gastric cancer. H. pylori infection induces chronic inflammation, causes DNA damage and aberrant methylation of genes and these pathways are involved in H. pylori-related gastric carcinogenesis. Polymorphisms of the genes involved in these pathways could alter susceptibility to gastric cancer. In this mini review, we focused on the role of polymorphisms in these genes on the susceptibility to gastric cancer, with a particular emphasis on their possible interactions with H. pylori infection. We found that many studies on this theme did not simultaneously report H. pylori infection and the interactions remained inconclusive. PMID:27324311

  13. Relationship between Helicobacter pylori Infections in Diabetic Patients and Inflammations, Metabolic Syndrome, and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kayar, Yusuf; Pamukçu, Özgül; Eroğlu, Hatice; Kalkan Erol, Kübra; Ilhan, Aysegul; Kocaman, Orhan

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection and diabetes mellitus are two independent common diseases. It is showed that the worsening glycemic and metabolic control increases the rates of Helicobacter pylori infections and Helicobacter pylori is shown as one of the common problems in diabetic patients with complaints of gastrointestinal diseases. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence and eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori in diabetic patients and the relationship of Helicobacter pylori with the risk factors and diabetic complications. In our study, in which we have included 133 patients, we have shown a significant relationship between Helicobacter pylori infections and metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, inflammations, and diabetic complications. PMID:26464868

  14. IL-17a and IL-22 Induce Expression of Antimicrobials in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Cells and May Contribute to Epithelial Cell Defense against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Beverly R. E. A.; Radin, Jana N.; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Contreras, Diana C.; Algood, Holly M. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonization of the human stomach can lead to adverse clinical outcomes including gastritis, peptic ulcers, or gastric cancer. Current data suggest that in addition to bacterial virulence factors, the magnitude and types of immune responses influence the outcome of colonization. Specifically, CD4+ T cell responses impact the pathology elicited in response to H. pylori. Because gastritis is believed to be the initiating host response to more detrimental pathological outcomes, there has been a significant interest in pro-inflammatory T cell cytokines, including the cytokines produced by T helper 17 cells. Th17 cells produce IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22. While these cytokines have been linked to inflammation, IL-17A and IL-22 are also associated with anti-microbial responses and control of bacterial colonization. The goal of this research was to determine the role of IL-22 in activation of antimicrobial responses in models of H. pylori infection using human gastric epithelial cell lines and the mouse model of H. pylori infection. Our data indicate that IL-17A and IL-22 work synergistically to induce antimicrobials and chemokines such as IL-8, components of calprotectin (CP), lipocalin (LCN) and some β-defensins in both human and primary mouse gastric epithelial cells (GEC) and gastroids. Moreover, IL-22 and IL-17A-activated GECs were capable of inhibiting growth of H. pylori in vitro. While antimicrobials were activated by IL-17A and IL-22 in vitro, using a mouse model of H. pylori infection, the data herein indicate that IL-22 deficiency alone does not render mice more susceptible to infection, change their antimicrobial gene transcription, or significantly change their inflammatory response. PMID:26867135

  15. IL-17a and IL-22 Induce Expression of Antimicrobials in Gastrointestinal Epithelial Cells and May Contribute to Epithelial Cell Defense against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Beverly R E A; Radin, Jana N; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Contreras, Diana C; Algood, Holly M Scott

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonization of the human stomach can lead to adverse clinical outcomes including gastritis, peptic ulcers, or gastric cancer. Current data suggest that in addition to bacterial virulence factors, the magnitude and types of immune responses influence the outcome of colonization. Specifically, CD4+ T cell responses impact the pathology elicited in response to H. pylori. Because gastritis is believed to be the initiating host response to more detrimental pathological outcomes, there has been a significant interest in pro-inflammatory T cell cytokines, including the cytokines produced by T helper 17 cells. Th17 cells produce IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21 and IL-22. While these cytokines have been linked to inflammation, IL-17A and IL-22 are also associated with anti-microbial responses and control of bacterial colonization. The goal of this research was to determine the role of IL-22 in activation of antimicrobial responses in models of H. pylori infection using human gastric epithelial cell lines and the mouse model of H. pylori infection. Our data indicate that IL-17A and IL-22 work synergistically to induce antimicrobials and chemokines such as IL-8, components of calprotectin (CP), lipocalin (LCN) and some β-defensins in both human and primary mouse gastric epithelial cells (GEC) and gastroids. Moreover, IL-22 and IL-17A-activated GECs were capable of inhibiting growth of H. pylori in vitro. While antimicrobials were activated by IL-17A and IL-22 in vitro, using a mouse model of H. pylori infection, the data herein indicate that IL-22 deficiency alone does not render mice more susceptible to infection, change their antimicrobial gene transcription, or significantly change their inflammatory response. PMID:26867135

  16. Efficacy of fermented milk and whey proteins in Helicobacter pylori eradication: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sachdeva, Aarti; Rawat, Swapnil; Nagpal, Jitender

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication is considered a necessary step in the management of peptic ulcer disease, chronic gastritis, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Standard triple therapy eradication regimens are inconvenient and achieve unpredictable and often poor results. Eradication rates are decreasing over time with increase in antibiotic resistance. Fermented milk and several of its component whey proteins have emerged as candidates for complementary therapy. In this context the current review seeks to summarize the current evidence available on their role in H. pylori eradication. Pertinent narrative/systematic reviews, clinical trials and laboratory studies on individual components including fermented milk, yogurt, whey proteins, lactoferrin, α-lactalbumin (α-LA), glycomacropeptide and immunoglobulin were comprehensively searched and retrieved from Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register and abstracts/proceedings of conferences up to May 2013. A preponderance of the evidence available on fermented milk-based probiotic preparations and bovine lactoferrin suggests a beneficial effect in Helicobacter eradication. Evidence for α-LA and immunoglobulins is promising while that for glycomacropeptide is preliminary and requires substantiation. The magnitude of the potential benefit documented so far is small and the precise clinical settings are ill defined. This restricts the potential use of this group as a complementary therapy in a nutraceutical setting hinging on better patient acceptability/compliance. Further work is necessary to identify the optimal substrate, fermentation process, dose and the ideal clinical setting (prevention/treatment, first line therapy/recurrence, symptomatic/asymptomatic, gastritis/ulcer diseases etc.). The potential of this group in high antibiotic resistance or treatment failure settings presents interesting possibilities and deserves further exploration. PMID

  17. Enterohepatic Helicobacter other than Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Mateos-Muñoz, Beatriz; Pérez-de-la-Serna, Julio; Ruiz-de-León, Antonio; Serrano-Falcón, Blanca; Casabona-Francés, Sergio; Velasco-Cerrudo, Aurelio; Rey-Díaz-Rubio, Enrique

    2013-09-01

    The Helicobacter genus includes Gram negative bacteria which were originally considered to belong to the Campylobacter genus. They have been classified in a separate genus since 1989 because they have different biochemical characteristics, with more than 24 species having been identified and more still being studied.H. pylori is the best known. It has an important etiopathogenic role in peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Enterohepatic Helicobacters (EHH) other than H. pylori colonize the bowel, biliary tree and liver of animals and human beings with pathogenic potential. The difficulties existing to correctly isolate these microorganisms limit the description of their true prevalence and of the diseases they cause. Many studies have tried to discover the different clinical implications of EHH. Diseases like chronic liver disease, autoimmune hepatitis, hepatocarcinoma, autoimmune hepatobiliary disease, biliary lithiasis, cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder cancer, Meckel´s diverticulum, acute appendicitis and inflammatory bowel disease have been related with different EHH species with different results, although their prevalence is greater than in healthy subjects. However, these data are currently not sufficient to draw definitive conclusions. Finally, the best known role of EHH in bowel disease is production of acute and chronic diarrhea pictures initially referred to as Campylobacter. H. pullorum has been identified in patients with acute gastroenteritis. The correct identification of EHH as producers of infectious gastroenteritis is found in its antibiotic susceptibility. It is generally macrolide-susceptible and quinolone-resistant. PMID:24274445

  18. Helicobacter pylori virulence and cancer pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is human gastric pathogen that causes chronic and progressive gastric mucosal inflammation and is responsible for the gastric inflammation-associated diseases, gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. specific outcomes reflect the interplay between host-, environmental- and bacterial-specific factors. Progress in understanding putative virulence factors in disease pathogenesis has been limited and many false leads have consumed scarce resources. Few in vitro–in vivo correlations or translational applications have proved clinically relevant. Reported virulence factor-related outcomes reflect differences in relative risk of disease rather than specificity for any specific outcome. Studies of individual virulence factor associations have provided conflicting results. Since virulence factors are linked, studies of groups of putative virulence factors are needed to provide clinically useful information. Here, the authors discuss the progress made in understanding the role of H. pylori virulence factors CagA, vacuolating cytotoxin, OipA and DupA in disease pathogenesis and provide suggestions for future studies. PMID:25052757

  19. [Helicobacter pylori antibiotic sensitivity by microdilution].

    PubMed

    Rivas, F; Rivera, P; Hernández, F; Hevia, F; Guillén, F; Tamayo, G

    2000-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori has been recognized as the major aetiologic agent of chronic gastritis and peptic ulcers and also a risk factor for gastric cancer; eradication of H pylori prevents peptic ulcer recurrence and may also decrease the prevalence of gastric cancer in high risk populations around the world. Currently the only accepted indication for treatment is ulcer disease and maltosa, infected with Helicobacter pilory. However treatment is difficult and easily develops resistance. The elaboration of an antibiotic profile is recommended after a treatment failure. There is a lack of information in developing countries so the aim of this work was to determine the antibiotic profile of 51 strains isolated from patients gastric biopsies attended at Hospital San Juan de Dios in Costa Rica, using egg yolk broth and finding a resistance of 63.0% to metronidazole with a breakpoint of 8.0 microg/ml and 20.0% resistance to tetracycline (MIC1.0 microg/ml), 6.0% to clarithromicyn with a MIC of 0.125 microg/ml. There was no resistance to amoxicilin (MIC 0.015 microg/ml). The microdilution technique is very laborious, but highly reproducible with results accordingly to previous work, and we recommended it for the designing of therapeutical scheme. PMID:15881743

  20. Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tarique, K F; Devi, S; Abdul Rehman, S A; Gourinath, S

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the histidine triad (HIT) superfamily bind nucleotides and use the histidine triad motif to carry out dinucleotidyl hydrolase, nucleotidyltransferase and phosphoramidite hydrolase activities. Five different branches of this superfamily are known to exist. Defects in these proteins in humans are linked to many diseases such as ataxia, diseases of RNA metabolism and cell-cycle regulation, and various types of cancer. The histidine triad nucleotide protein (HINT) is nearly identical to proteins that have been classified as protein kinase C-interacting proteins (PKCIs), which also have the ability to bind and inhibit protein kinase C. The structure of HINT, which exists as a homodimer, is highly conserved from humans to bacteria and shares homology with the product of fragile histidine triad protein (FHit), a tumour suppressor gene of this superfamily. Here, the structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori (HpHINT) in complex with AMP is reported at a resolution of 3 Å. The final model has R and Rfree values of 26 and 28%, respectively, with good electron density. Structural comparison with previously reported homologues and phylogenetic analysis shows H. pylori HINT to be the smallest among them, and suggests that it branched out separately during the course of evolution. Overall, this structure has contributed to a better understanding of this protein across the animal kingdom. PMID:26750483

  1. [History of the discovery of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori is one of the greatest achievements in the modern history of gastroenterology, which led to fundamental changes in our approach to the pathogenesis and treatment of peptic ulcer disease. However, the road towards accepting the role of these spiral bacteria in the pathogenesis of certain diseases of the upper digestive tract was long and marked with repeated false interpretations and misunderstandings, even when--in retrospect--many times several researchers were very near to the discovery. The first observations concerning the presence of bacteria in animal/human stomachs dates from the dawn of medical microbiology, when the bacterial etiology of some other diseases (tuberculosis, cholera, dysentery, syphilis) was ascertained. In spite of many bacteriological, experimental, biochemical and therapeutic observations, the causative role of the microorganism in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer was not recognised even in the case of most elegant demonstrations. Sometimes, head-strong thinking and excessive belief in opinion leaders statements set back the bacterial research. The identification of Helicobacter pylori by Barry J. Marshall and J. Robert Warren in 1983 can not be, in any case, considered as serendipitous: without the endeavour, youthful curiosity, talent and ambition of the former and solid classical knowledge in pathology of the latter, peptic ulcer might be considered even today as an acid-related or psychosomatic disease, as it was during the past century. PMID:15977368

  2. [Reactive polyarthritis and painful dermatographism caused by Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Morfín Maciel, Blanca María; Castillo Ramos, Héctor Antonio

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a 36 year-old white woman with six month history of epigastric abdominal pain, reactive arthritis and painful dermographism. Serum antibodies to Helicobacter pylori were identified. All symptoms subsided when she received eradication treatment. PMID:12190006

  3. Antimicrobial activity of natural products against Helicobacter pylori: a review.

    PubMed

    Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; da Silva, Patricia Bento; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2014-01-01

    Throughout the genetic and physiological evolution of microorganisms, the microbiological sciences have been expanding the introduction of new therapeutic trials against microbial diseases. Special attention has been paid to the bacterium Helicobacter pylori, which induces gastric infections capable of causing damage, ranging from acute and chronic gastritis to the development of gastric cancer and death. The use of compounds with natural origins has gained popularity in scientific research focused on drug innovation against H. pylori because of their broad flexibility and low toxicity. The aim of this study was to describe the use of natural products against H. pylori in order to clarify important parameters for related fields. The study demonstrated the vast therapeutic possibilities for compounds originating from natural sources and revealed the need for innovations from future investigations to expand the therapeutic arsenal in the fight against H. pylori infection. PMID:25406585

  4. The role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sheh, Alexander; Fox, James G

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori overturned the conventional dogma that the stomach was a sterile organ and that pH values < 4 were capable of sterilizing the stomach. H. pylori are an etiological agent associated with gastritis, hypochlorhydria, duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. It is now appreciated that the human stomach supports a bacterial community with possibly 100s of bacterial species that influence stomach homeostasis. Other bacteria colonizing the stomach may also influence H. pylori-associated gastric pathogenesis by creating reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and modulating inflammatory responses. In this review, we summarize the available literature concerning the gastric microbiota in humans, mice, and Mongolian gerbils. We also discuss the gastric perturbations, many involving H. pylori, that facilitate the colonization by bacteria from other compartments of the gastrointestinal tract, and identify risk factors known to affect gastric homeostasis that contribute to changes in the microbiota. PMID:23962822

  5. Discovery – The Link to H.Pylori Bacteria

    Cancer.gov

    NCI supported research to solidify the link between H. pylori infections and stomach cancer. As a result, new cancer treatment and prevention strategies are being developed, encouraging scientists to carefully examine other cancers for viral and bacterial connections.

  6. The antibacterial effect of fatty acids on Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Sung Woo; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori is recommended for the management of various gastric diseases, including peptic ulcers and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Because of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance, the eradication rates of antibiotic-based therapies have decreased. Therefore, alternative treatments should be considered. The antibacterial properties of fatty acids (FAs) have been investigated in various organisms, including H. pylori. Some FAs, particularly polyunsaturated FAs, have been shown to have bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro; however, their antibacterial effects in vivo remain controversial. Poor solubility and delivery of FAs may be important reasons for this discrepancy. Recently, a series of studies demonstrated the antibacterial effects of a liposomal formulation of linolenic acid against H. pylori, both in vitro and in vivo. Further research is needed to improve the bioavailability of FAs and apply them in clinical use. PMID:26767854

  7. Ethnic and Geographic Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori within Iran

    PubMed Central

    Latifi-Navid, Saeid; Siavoshi, Farideh; Linz, Bodo; Massarrat, Sadegh; Khegay, Tanya; Salmanian, Ali-Hatef; Shayesteh, Ali Akbar; Masoodi, Mohsen; Ghanadi, Koroush; Ganji, Azita; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Achtman, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach, with individual infections persisting for decades. The spread of the bacterium has been shown to reflect both ancient and recent human migrations. We have sequenced housekeeping genes from H. pylori isolated from 147 Iranians with well-characterized geographical and ethnic origins sampled throughout Iran and compared them with sequences from strains from other locations. H. pylori from Iran are similar to others isolated from Western Eurasia and can be placed in the previously described HpEurope population. Despite the location of Iran at the crossroads of Eurasia, we found no evidence that the region been a major source of ancestry for strains across the continent. On a smaller scale, we found genetic affinities between the H. pylori isolated from particular Iranian populations and strains from Turks, Uzbeks, Palestinians and Israelis, reflecting documented historical contacts over the past two thousand years. PMID:20339588

  8. Errors in Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Maize, Kimberly M.

    2016-01-01

    Inaccuracies in the article, Crystal structure of HINT from Helicobacter pylori by Tarique et al. [(2016) Acta Cryst. F72, 42–48] are presented, and a brief history of HINT nomenclature is discussed. PMID:27050269

  9. Helicobacter pylori Associated Lymphocytic Gastritis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Eom, Dae Woon

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocytic gastritis (LG) is a rare subtype of chronic gastritis. It is defined as dense proliferation of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) more than 25 lymphocytes per 100 epithelial cells. The known major causes of LG are celiac disease and Helicobacter pylori infection. H. pylori associated LG (HpLG) has more enhanced cytotoxic and apoptotic tendencies than chronic H. pylori gastritis. A 12-year-old girl with postprandial epigastric pain was diagnosed HpLG on endoscopic biopsy. After the 1st eradication therapy, H. pylori bacilli were still found, and urea breathing test was positive. Although the endoscopic finding was partially improved, clinical symptoms and histologic finding were persisted. We could achieve the improvement of clinical symptoms and disappearance of IELs after the 2nd eradication. The discordant of histopathologic and endoscopic improvement occurred after the 1st eradication therapy of HpLG. Therefore the clinical and histopathologic evaluation should be considered as well as endoscopic findings. PMID:25349835

  10. Helicobacter pylori in North and South America before Columbus.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Yoshio; Orito, Etsuro; Mizokami, Masashi; Gutierrez, Oscar; Saitou, Naruya; Kodama, Tadashi; Osato, Michael S; Kim, Jong G; Ramirez, Francisco C; Mahachai, Varocha; Graham, David Y

    2002-04-24

    We present a molecular epidemiologic study, based on an analysis of vacA, cagA and cag right end junction genotypes from 1042 Helicobacter pylori isolates, suggesting that H. pylori was present in the New World before Columbus. Eight Native Colombian and Alaskan strains possessed novel vacA and/or cagA gene structures and were more closely related to East Asian than to non-Asian H. pylori. Some Native Alaskan strains appear to have originated in Central Asia and to have arrived after strains found in South America suggesting that H. pylori crossed the Bering Strait from Asia to the New World at different times. PMID:12062433

  11. Helicobacter pylori, HIV and Gastric Hypochlorhydria in the Malawian Population

    PubMed Central

    Geraghty, Joe; Thumbs, Alexander; Kankwatira, Anstead; Andrews, Tim; Moore, Andrew; Malamba, Rose; Mtunthama, Neema; Hellberg, Kai; Kalongolera, Lughano; O’Toole, Paul; Varro, Andrea; Pritchard, D. Mark; Gordon, Melita

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV and Helicobacter pylori are common chronic infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Both conditions can predispose to gastric hypochlorhydria that may be a risk factor for enteric infections and reduced drug absorption. We have investigated to what extent HIV and H. pylori infections are associated with hypochlorhydria in a Malawian cohort of patients undergoing endoscopy. Methods 104 sequential symptomatic adults referred for gastroscopy at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi, had blood taken for rapid HIV testing and fasting serum gastrin analysis. Gastric fluid was aspirated for pH testing, and gastric biopsies were taken. Results After 9/104 HIV-infected patients who were already established on anti-retroviral therapy were excluded, 17/95 (25.0%) were seropositive for untreated HIV, and 68/95 (71.6%) patients were H. pylori positive by histology. Hypochlorhydria (fasting gastric pH>4.0) was present in 55.8% (53/95) of patients. H. pylori infection was significantly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 2.91, [1.02-7.75], p=0.046). While single infection with HIV was not significantly independently associated with hypochlorhydria. H. pylori and HIV co-infection was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria (OR 6.25, [1.33-29.43], p=0.020) than either infection alone, suggesting an additive effect of co-infection. HIV infection was associated with higher serum gastrin levels (91.3pM vs. 53.1pM, p=0.040), while H. pylori infection was not (63.1pM vs. 55.1pM, p=0.610). Irrespective of H. pylori and HIV status, most patients (>90%) exhibited pangastritis. Only three patients had histological evidence of gastric atrophy, of which only one was HIV-infected. Conclusion H. pylori infection was associated with fasting hypochlorhydria, while HIV was not independently associated. HIV and H. pylori co-infection, however, was more strongly associated with hypochlorhydria than H. pylori infection alone. The mechanism of this apparent additive effect

  12. Infection with Helicobacter pylori Is Associated with Protection against Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Sharon; de Jong, Bouke C.; Solnick, Jay V.; la Luz Sanchez, Maria de; Yang, Shufang; Lin, Philana Ling; Hansen, Lori M.; Talat, Najeeha; Hill, Philip C.; Hussain, Rabia; Adegbola, Richard A.; Flynn, JoAnne; Canfield, Don; Parsonnet, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori, a lifelong and typically asymptomatic infection of the stomach, profoundly alters gastric immune responses, and may benefit the host in protection against other pathogens. We explored the hypothesis that H. pylori contributes to the control of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Methodology/Principal Findings We first examined M. tuberculosis-specific IFN-γ and H. pylori antibody responses in 339 healthy Northern Californians undergoing routine tuberculin skin testing. Of 97 subjects (29%) meeting criteria for latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI), 45 (46%) were H. pylori seropositive. Subjects with LTBI who were H. pylori-seropositive had 1.5-fold higher TB antigen-induced IFN-γ responses (p = 0.04, ANOVA), and a more Th-1 like cytokine profile in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, compared to those who were H. pylori seronegative. To explore an association between H. pylori infection and clinical outcome of TB exposure, we evaluated H. pylori seroprevalence in baseline samples from two high risk TB case-contact cohorts, and from cynomolgus macaques experimentally challenged with M. tuberculosis. Compared to 513 household contacts who did not progress to active disease during a median 24 months follow-up, 120 prevalent TB cases were significantly less likely to be H. pylori infected (AOR: 0.55, 95% CI 0.0.36–0.83, p = 0.005), though seroprevalence was not significantly different from non-progressors in 37 incident TB cases (AOR: 1.35 [95% CI 0.63–2.9] p = 0.44). Cynomolgus macaques with natural H. pylori infection were significantly less likely to progress to TB 6 to 8 months after M. tuberculosis challenge (RR: 0.31 [95% CI 0.12–0.80], p = 0.04). Conclusions/Significance H. pylori infection may induce bystander effects that modify the risk of active TB in humans and non-human primates. That immunity to TB may be enhanced by exposure to other microbial agents may have important implications for

  13. Non-ulcer dyspepsia: does Helicobacter pylori matter?

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, P.; Axon, A. T.

    1995-01-01

    Non-ulcer dyspepsia is a heterogenous disorder characterised by chronic or recurrent abdominal or retrosternal discomfort lasting for more than four weeks for which no cause can be determined. Helicobacter pylori has been implicated as a potential cause in a subset of patients but the association has not been proven and H pylori eradication in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia has had variable results. Large well-controlled studies are needed to clarify the relationship. PMID:7596927

  14. Effect of culture conditions on morphological changes of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tominaga, K; Hamasaki, N; Watanabe, T; Uchida, T; Fujiwara, Y; Takaishi, O; Higuchi, K; Arakawa, T; Ishii, E; Kobayashi, K; Yano, I; Kuroki, T

    1999-01-01

    The morphological conversion of Helicobacter pylori from the spiral form to the coccoid form may be the expression of a transitory adaptation to an unsuitable environment. The mechanism(s) of this conversion are not clear. In this study, we examined whether the morphological conversion of H. pylori is affected by various culture conditions, such as oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, or the presence of beta-cyclodextrin. H. pylori (NTCC11916) was cultured on Brucella agar, followed by culture in Brucella broth containing 1% agar under several conditions. Morphological conversion of individual H. pylori on the agar plate was investigated with time after incubation under phase contrast microscopy. When H. pylori was inoculated in Brucella broth containing beta-cyclodextrin, the spiral form of the organism was observed even after 6 days of incubation under standard culture conditions: 37 degrees C, pH 7, and microaerobic atmosphere (5% O2/10% CO2/85% N2) (control). The morphological conversion of H. pylori was completed on day 3 in an aerobic atmosphere (20% O2 supply) and on day 2 in an undermicroaerobic atmosphere (<0.1% O2). Its complete morphological conversion was observed at pH 8 on day 5 and at pH 4 on day 6. All of the H. pylori (100%) incubated at 20 degrees or 42 degrees C had converted from the bacillary to the coccoid form on day 4. Conditioned medium without beta-cyclodextrin caused complete conversion on day 5. These results suggest that oxygen concentration, pH, temperature, and beta-cyclodextrin may be related to the H. pylori morphological conversion from the bacillary to the coccoid form. PMID:10616762

  15. Age of the Association between Helicobacter pylori and Man

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Robert P.; Nieuwoudt, Martin; Soodyall, Himla; Schlebusch, Carina M.; Bernhöft, Steffi; Hale, James; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Mugisha, Lawrence; van der Merwe, Schalk W.; Achtman, Mark

    2012-01-01

    When modern humans left Africa ca. 60,000 years ago (60 kya), they were already infected with Helicobacter pylori, and these bacteria have subsequently diversified in parallel with their human hosts. But how long were humans infected by H. pylori prior to the out-of-Africa event? Did this co-evolution predate the emergence of modern humans, spanning the species divide? To answer these questions, we investigated the diversity of H. pylori in Africa, where both humans and H. pylori originated. Three distinct H. pylori populations are native to Africa: hpNEAfrica in Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan speakers, hpAfrica1 in Niger-Congo speakers and hpAfrica2 in South Africa. Rather than representing a sustained co-evolution over millions of years, we find that the coalescent for all H. pylori plus its closest relative H. acinonychis dates to 88–116 kya. At that time the phylogeny split into two primary super-lineages, one of which is associated with the former hunter-gatherers in southern Africa known as the San. H. acinonychis, which infects large felines, resulted from a later host jump from the San, 43–56 kya. These dating estimates, together with striking phylogenetic and quantitative human-bacterial similarities show that H. pylori is approximately as old as are anatomically modern humans. They also suggest that H. pylori may have been acquired via a single host jump from an unknown, non-human host. We also find evidence for a second Out of Africa migration in the last 52,000 years, because hpEurope is a hybrid population between hpAsia2 and hpNEAfrica, the latter of which arose in northeast Africa 36–52 kya, after the Out of Africa migrations around 60 kya. PMID:22589724

  16. Complex polysaccharides as PCR inhibitors in feces: Helicobacter pylori model.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, L; Bonnemaison, D; Vekris, A; Petry, K G; Bonnet, J; Vidal, R; Cabrita, J; Mégraud, F

    1997-04-01

    A model was developed to study inhibitors present in feces which prevent the use of PCR for the detection of Helicobacter pylori. A DNA fragment amplified with the same primers as H. pylori was used to spike samples before extraction by a modified QIAamp tissue method. Inhibitors, separated on an Ultrogel AcA44 column, were characterized. Inhibitors in feces are complex polysaccharides possibly originating from vegetable material in the diet. PMID:9157172

  17. Role of Helicobacter pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Radić, Mislav

    2014-09-28

    The relationship between infection and autoimmunity has been increasingly defined over the last 20 years. The systemic rheumatic diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to self-antigen. The exact etiology for the majority of these diseases is unknown; however, a complex combination of host and environmental factors are believed to play a pivotal role. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most widely studied infectious agents proposed as agents triggering autoimmune response. The persistent presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa results in chronic immune system activation with ongoing cytokine signaling, infiltration of gastric mucosa by neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, as well as production of antibodies and effector T-cells. Various mechanisms have been proposed in an attempt to explain the extra-intestinal manifestations of H. pylori infections. These include: molecular mimicry, endothelial cell damage, superantigens and microchimerism. I performed a systematic literature review using the keywords "rheumatoid arthritis", "Sjögren's syndrome", "systemic sclerosis", "systemic lupus erythematosus", "Helicobacter pylori" and "pathogenesis". A systematic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE; EMBASE; Cochrane Library and ACR/EULAR meeting abstracts. In systemic rheumatic diseases H. pylori infection prevalence alone should not be expected to provide sufficient evidence for or against a pathologic role in the disease. In this article I review studies examining the potential involvement of H. pylori infection in autoimmune systemic rheumatic diseases. Further studies of the immunological response to H. pylori and its role in the pathogenesis of systemic rheumatic diseases are warranted. PMID:25278681

  18. Molecular Evidence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Prostate Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Al-Marhoon, Mohammed S.; Ouhtit, Allal; Al-Abri, Aisha O.; Venkiteswaran, Krishna P.; Al-Busaidi, Qassim; Mathew, Josephkunju; Al-Haddabi, Ibrahim; Shareef, Omar; Aquil, Shahid; Rahman, Khalid; Al-Hashmi, Intisar; Gupta, Ishita; Ganguly, Shyam S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is detectable in both benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa). Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between infective chronic prostatitis and prostatic carcinoma. Many bacteria have been found in the prostate of patients with chronic prostatitis, BPH, and PCa. Methods One hundred consecutive patients with prostate diseases were enrolled in the study. Detection of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue from patients with BPH and PCa was performed using both immunohistochemistry and PCR, and the results were confirmed by DNA sequencing. Odds ratios and the Fisher Exact test were used for the analysis of the associations between the variables. Results Among the patients, 78% had BPH and 19% had PCa. While immunohistochemistry showed no positive sample for H. pylori, PCR combined with sequencing detected H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue samples from 5 patients. However, statistical analysis of the data showed that BPH and PCa are not significantly associated with the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostate tissue (odds ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval = 0.09–23.34, one-tailed Chi-square value = 0.660, p > 0.05). The limitation of this study was the small number of PCa patients. Conclusions This study provides, for the first time, molecular evidence of the presence of H. pylori DNA in prostatic tissue of patients with BPH and PCa. It paves the way for further comprehensive studies to examine the association of H. pylori infection with BPH and PCa. PMID:26889133

  19. Helicobacter Pylori Gastritis, a Presequeale to Coronary Plaque

    PubMed Central

    Raut, Shrikant C.; Patil, Vinayak W.; Dalvi, Shubhangi M.; Bakhshi, Girish D.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student’s t-test, Pearson’s correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005), as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 µmol/L; P=0.037) and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017), than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171) no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25918633

  20. Culture of Helicobacter pylori from stool samples in children.

    PubMed

    Falsafi, Tahereh; Valizadeh, Nargess; Najafi, Mehri; Ehsani, Azadeh; Khani, Afsaneh; Landarani, Zahra; Falahi, Zahra

    2007-03-01

    We evaluated two protocols for isolation of Helicobacter pylori in stool from biopsied and nonbiopsied children. Twenty-three child patients whose presumptive positivity or negativity was diagnosed by endoscopy and a rapid urease test at site were used to compare biopsy-based tests with stool-based tests (H. pylori stool antigen test and stool culture). Their gastric activity and bacterial density were graded by the updated Sydney system. Biopsy and stool specimens were cultured on Campy-blood and Belo horizonte agar plates after enrichment in selective Campy-Thio medium. To compare two stool culture protocols, stools from 20 nonbiopsied children were tested by the HpSA test and cultured either as above or after treatment with cholestyramine. Grown colonies were screened by Gram staining, slide agglutination using anti-H. pylori monoclonal IgG; positive isolates were tested by biochemical tests and polymerase chain reaction for H. pylori-specific ureA gene. Coccoid H. pylori was isolated in stool samples from the biopsied patients whose bacterial density was two to four in histology. Their oxidase was slightly positive but became positive after two subcultures, while additional biochemical tests confirmed the isolation of H. pylori. Similar coccoid but oxidase positive H. pylori was isolated from three nonbiopsied children with the protocol of cholestyramine treatment only. The density of bacteria in the stomach may influence the recovery of H. pylori from stool; inactivation of bile with cholestyramine improves the yield in culture and favors isolation of an enhanced metabolic form of bacteria. PMID:17538651

  1. Biofilm and Helicobacter pylori: From environment to human host

    PubMed Central

    García, Apolinaria; Salas-Jara, María José; Herrera, Carolina; González, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative pathogen that selectively colonizes the human gastric epithelium. Over 50% of the world population is infected with H. pylori reaching up to 90% of infected individuals in developing countries. Nonetheless the increased impact upon public health care, its reservoir and the transmission pathway of the species has not been clearly established yet. Molecular studies allowed the detection of H. pylori in various aquatic environments, even forming biofilm in tap water distribution systems in several countries, suggesting a role of water as a possible reservoir of the pathogen. The persistence of human infection with H. pylori and the resistance of clinical isolates to commonly used antibiotics in eradication therapy have been related to the genetic variability of the species and its ability to develop biofilm, demonstrated both in vivo and in vitro experiments. Thus, during the last years, experimental work with this pathogen has been focused in the search for biofilm inhibitors and biofilm destabilizing agents. However, only two anti- H. pylori biofilm disrupting agents have been successfully used: Curcumin - a natural dye - and N-acetyl cysteine - a mucolytic agent used in respiratory diseases. The main goal of this review was to discuss the evidences available in the literature supporting the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm upon various surfaces in aquatic environments, both in vivo and in vitro. The results published and our own observations suggest that the ability of H. pylori to form biofilm may be important for surviving under stress conditions or in the spread of the infection among humans, mainly through natural water sources and water distribution systems. PMID:24914322

  2. Gastric emptying and Helicobacter pylori infection in duodenal ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Perri, F; Ghoos, Y F; Maes, B D; Geypens, B J; Ectors, N; Geboes, K; Hiele, M I; Rutgeerts, P J

    1996-03-01

    The pathogenetic link between Helicobacter pylori gastritis and duodenal ulcer is still unknown. Fast gastric emptying of liquids might be important in the pathogenesis of gastric metaplasia of the duodenum and duodenal ulcer through an increased exposure of the duodenum to gastric acid. In H. pylori-infected subjects, an abnormal gastric emptying could affect urea breath test results and correlate with histological gastritis. This study was performed to evaluate the gastric emptying of liquids in duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection and the possible relation between the bacterial load, gastric emptying, and urea breath test results. Seventeen duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori gastritis and 15 healthy volunteers were studied by a [14C]octanoic acid and [13C]urea breath test to evaluate gastric emptying rate and H. pylori status simultaneously. Endoscopy with antral biopsies were performed in all duodenal ulcer patients. Duodenal ulcer patients with H. pylori infection have a normal liquid gastric emptying that is unrelated with histological severity of gastritis. The urea breath test results and the gastric emptying parameters do not correlate with histology. A significant correlation between the gastric emptying and the urea hydrolysis rate is found. It is concluded that H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is not associated with abnormally fast liquid gastric emptying, and this finding should be taken into account when a casual link between H. pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease is searched for. The correlation between gastric emptying and urea hydrolysis rate explains why no conclusions on intragastric bacterial load can be drawn from the urea breath test results. PMID:8617116

  3. Helicobacter pylori gastritis, a presequeale to coronary plaque.

    PubMed

    Raut, Shrikant C; Patil, Vinayak W; Dalvi, Shubhangi M; Bakhshi, Girish D

    2015-01-28

    Helicobacter pylori are considered the most common human pathogen colonizing gastric mucosa. Gastritis with or without H. pylori infection is associated with increase in levels of homocysteine and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) but a more pronounced increase is noted in gastritis with H. pylori infection. Increasing level of homocysteine, due to decreased absorption of vitamin B12 and folic acid, together with increased CRP levels in gastritis with H. pylori infection may be the earliest event in the process of atherosclerosis and plaque formation. Retrospective study conducted at tertiary care hospital in Mumbai by Department of Biochemistry in association with Department of Surgery. Eighty patients who underwent gastroscopy in view of gastritis were subjected to rapid urease test for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Vitamin B12, folic acid, homocysteine and hs-CRP were analyzed using chemiluminescence immuno assay. Student's t-test, Pearson's correlation and linear regression used for statistical analysis. Patients with H. pylori gastritis had significantly lower levels of vitamin B12 (271.6±101.3 vs 390.6±176.7 pg/mL; P=0.0005), as well as higher levels of homocysteine (17.4±7.4 vs 13.8±7.8 µmol/L; P=0.037) and hs-CRP (2.5±2.9 vs 1.2±1.1 mg/L; P=0.017), than in patients without H. pylori gastritis. However, folic acid showed (8.9±3.2 vs 10.0±3.6 ng/mL; P=0.171) no significant difference. Elevated homocysteine and hs-CRP in H. pylori gastritis may independently induce endothelial dysfunction, leading to cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25918633

  4. Dormant phages of Helicobacter pylori reveal distinct populations in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Vale, F. F.; Vadivelu, J.; Oleastro, M.; Breurec, S.; Engstrand, L.; Perets, T. T.; Mégraud, F.; Lehours, P.

    2015-01-01

    Prophages of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium known to co-evolve in the stomach of its human host, were recently identified. However, their role in the diversity of H. pylori strains is unknown. We demonstrate here and for the first time that the diversity of the prophage genes offers the ability to distinguish between European populations, and that H. pylori prophages and their host bacteria share a complex evolutionary history. By comparing the phylogenetic trees of two prophage genes (integrase and holin) and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based data obtained for seven housekeeping genes, we observed that the majority of the strains belong to the same phylogeographic group in both trees. Furthermore, we found that the Bayesian analysis of the population structure of the prophage genes identified two H. pylori European populations, hpNEurope and hpSWEurope, while the MLST sequences identified one European population, hpEurope. The population structure analysis of H. pylori prophages was even more discriminative than the traditional MLST-based method for the European population. Prophages are new players to be considered not only to show the diversity of H. pylori strains but also to more sharply define human populations. PMID:26387443

  5. Use of probiotics in the fight against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ruggiero, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    After the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and the evidence of its relationship with gastric diseases, antibiotic-based therapies were developed, which efficacy was however limited by antibiotic resistance and lack of patient compliance. A vaccine would overcome these drawbacks, but currently there is not any H. pylori vaccine licensed. In the frame of the studies aimed at finding alternative therapies or at increasing the efficacy of the current ones and/or reducing their side effects, the investigation on the use of probiotics plays an interesting role. In vitro and preclinical studies have shown the feasibility of this approach. Several clinical trials indicated that administration of probiotics can reduce the side effects of H. pylori eradication treatment, increasing tolerability, and often increases the overall efficacy. The results of these trials vary, likely reflecting the variety of probiotics assessed and that of the eradication treatment, as well as the differences in the geographic area that imply different H. pylori strains distribution, host susceptibility, and therapy efficacy. In conclusion, the use of probiotics appears promising as an adjuvant for the current H. pylori eradication treatment, though it still requires optimization. PMID:25400981

  6. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D; Karatapanis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, are now recommended as first-line empirical treatment options providing high efficacy (reportedly > 90% in intention to treat analysis) even in high clarithromycin resistance settings. These include the bismuth quadruple, concomitant, sequential and hybrid therapies. Due to the rapid development of quinolone resistance, levofloxacin-based regimens should be reserved as second-line/rescue options. Adjunct use of probiotics has been proposed in order to boost eradication rates and decrease occurrence of treatment-related side effects. Molecular testing methods are currently available for the characterization of H. pylori therapeutic susceptibility, including genotypic detection of macrolide resistance and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 2C19 status known to affect the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors. In the future, use of these techniques may allow for culture-free, non-invasive tailoring of therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:25400982

  7. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Papastergiou, Vasilios; Georgopoulos, Sotirios D; Karatapanis, Stylianos

    2014-11-15

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major human pathogen associated with significant morbidity and mortality. However, after decades of efforts, treatment of H. pylori remains a challenge for physicians, as there is no universally effective regimen. Due to the rising prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, mainly to clarithromycin, efficacy of standard triple therapies has declined to unacceptably low levels in most parts of the world. Novel regimens, specifically experimented to improve the therapeutic outcome against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains, are now recommended as first-line empirical treatment options providing high efficacy (reportedly > 90% in intention to treat analysis) even in high clarithromycin resistance settings. These include the bismuth quadruple, concomitant, sequential and hybrid therapies. Due to the rapid development of quinolone resistance, levofloxacin-based regimens should be reserved as second-line/rescue options. Adjunct use of probiotics has been proposed in order to boost eradication rates and decrease occurrence of treatment-related side effects. Molecular testing methods are currently available for the characterization of H. pylori therapeutic susceptibility, including genotypic detection of macrolide resistance and evaluation of the cytochrome P450 2C19 status known to affect the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors. In the future, use of these techniques may allow for culture-free, non-invasive tailoring of therapy for H. pylori infection. PMID:25400982

  8. Helicobacter pylori infection in India from a western perspective

    PubMed Central

    Thirumurthi, Selvi; Graham, David Y.

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common bacterial infectious disease whose manifestations predominately affect the gastrointestinal tract. India is the prototypical developing country as far as H. pylori infection is concerned and more than 20 million Indians are estimated to suffer from peptic ulcer disease. Considering the high level of medical research and of the pharmaceutical industry, one would expect that India would be the source of much needed information regarding new therapies and approaches that remain effective in the presence of antimicrobial resistance, new methods to reliably prevent reinfection, and the development of therapeutic and preventive vaccines. Here we discuss H. pylori as a problem in India with an emphasis on H. pylori infection as a serious transmissible infectious disease. We discuss the pros and cons of eradication of H. pylori from the entire population and come down on the side of eradication. The available data from India regarding antimicrobial use and resistance as well as the effectiveness of various treatments are discussed. Rigorous ongoing studies to provide current regional antibiotic resistance patterns coupled with data concerning the success rate with different treatment regimens are needed to guide therapy. A systematic approach to identify reliably effective (e.g., 90% or greater treatment success) cost-effective regimens is suggested as well as details of regimens likely to be effective in India. H. pylori is just one of the health care problems faced in India, but one where all the resources are on hand to understand and solve it. PMID:23168695

  9. Helicobacter pylori infection in India from a western perspective.

    PubMed

    Thirumurthi, Selvi; Graham, David Y

    2012-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common bacterial infectious disease whose manifestations predominately affect the gastrointestinal tract. India is the prototypical developing country as far as H. pylori infection is concerned and more than 20 million Indians are estimated to suffer from peptic ulcer disease. Considering the high level of medical research and of the pharmaceutical industry, one would expect that India would be the source of much needed information regarding new therapies and approaches that remain effective in the presence of antimicrobial resistance, new methods to reliably prevent reinfection, and the development of therapeutic and preventive vaccines. Here we discuss H. pylori as a problem in India with an emphasis on H. pylori infection as a serious transmissible infectious disease. We discuss the pros and cons of eradication of H. pylori from the entire population and come down on the side of eradication. The available data from India regarding antimicrobial use and resistance as well as the effectiveness of various treatments are discussed. Rigorous ongoing studies to provide current regional antibiotic resistance patterns coupled with data concerning the success rate with different treatment regimens are needed to guide therapy. A systematic approach to identify reliably effective (e.g., 90% or greater treatment success) cost-effective regimens is suggested as well as details of regimens likely to be effective in India. H. pylori is just one of the health care problems faced in India, but one where all the resources are on hand to understand and solve it. PMID:23168695

  10. Methods for Detecting the Environmental Coccoid Form of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Mazaheri Assadi, Mahnaz; Chamanrokh, Parastoo; Whitehouse, Chris A.; Huq, Anwar

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is recognized as the most common pathogen to cause gastritis, peptic and duodenal ulcers, and gastric cancer. The organisms are found in two forms: (1) spiral-shaped bacillus and (2) coccoid. H. pylori coccoid form, generally found in the environment, is the transformed form of the normal spiral-shaped bacillus after exposed to water or adverse environmental conditions such as exposure to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antimicrobial agents. The putative infectious capability and the viability of H. pylori under environmental conditions are controversial. This disagreement is partially due to the fact of lack in detecting the coccoid form of H. pylori in the environment. Accurate and effective detection methods of H. pylori will lead to rapid treatment and disinfection, and less human health damages and reduction in health care costs. In this review, we provide a brief introduction to H. pylori environmental coccoid forms, their transmission, and detection methods. We further discuss the use of these detection methods including their accuracy and efficiency. PMID:26075197

  11. Growth phase-dependent composition of the Helicobacter pylori exoproteome.

    PubMed

    Snider, Christina A; Voss, Bradley J; McDonald, W Hayes; Cover, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes the human stomach and is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer and peptic ulcer disease. Analysis of H. pylori protein secretion is complicated by the occurrence of bacterial autolysis. In this study, we analyzed the exoproteome of H. pylori at multiple phases of bacterial growth and identified 74 proteins that are selectively released into the extracellular space. These include proteins known to cause alterations in host cells, antigenic proteins, and additional proteins that have not yet been studied in any detail. The composition of the H. pylori exoproteome is dependent on the phase of bacterial growth. For example, the proportional abundance of the vacuolating toxin VacA in culture supernatant is higher during late growth phases than early growth phases, whereas the proportional abundance of many other proteins is higher during early growth phases. We detected marked variation in the subcellular localization of putative secreted proteins within soluble and membrane fractions derived from intact bacteria. By providing a comprehensive view of the H. pylori exoproteome, these results provide new insights into the array of secreted H. pylori proteins that may cause alterations in the gastric environment. PMID:26363098

  12. Oligonucleotide probe for detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Morotomi, M; Hoshina, S; Green, P; Neu, H C; LoGerfo, P; Watanabe, I; Mutai, M; Weinstein, I B

    1989-01-01

    We have developed a novel and practical DNA-RNA hybridization assay for the detection and identification of Campylobacter pylori in the gastric mucosa. This technique utilizes a [32P]ddATP-labeled synthetic oligonucleotide probe complementary to a nucleotide sequence present in C. pylori 16S rRNA. This probe is very sensitive and reacted with all 23 strains of C. pylori tested. It is also highly specific, since there was no cross-reactivity with the heterologous organisms Campylobacter coli, C. fetus subsp. fetus, C. jejuni, and C. laridis or with Escherichia coli. Hybridization of the oligonucleotide probe with C. pylori RNA was completely inhibited by treatment of the membrane filters with RNase but not DNase. Although a gastric mucosa tissue homogenate slightly inhibited the hybridization, as few as 10(4) C. pylori cells could be detected even in the presence of 5 mg of gastric mucosa. Gastric biopsy specimens obtained from patients referred for upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy were tested for C. pylori infection by direct oligonucleotide hybridization, and the results were compared with those of bacteriological cultures, the urease test, and histological observations. A comparison of the urease test and the oligonucleotide hybridization results showed an excellent correlation between the two methods. The clinical usefulness of this oligonucleotide-RNA hybridization method is discussed. Images PMID:2480360

  13. Genome Sequencing Reveals a Phage in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lehours, Philippe; Vale, Filipa F.; Bjursell, Magnus K.; Melefors, Ojar; Advani, Reza; Glavas, Steve; Guegueniat, Julia; Gontier, Etienne; Lacomme, Sabrina; Alves Matos, António; Menard, Armelle; Mégraud, Francis; Engstrand, Lars; Andersson, Anders F.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Helicobacter pylori chronically infects the gastric mucosa in more than half of the human population; in a subset of this population, its presence is associated with development of severe disease, such as gastric cancer. Genomic analysis of several strains has revealed an extensive H. pylori pan-genome, likely to grow as more genomes are sampled. Here we describe the draft genome sequence (63 contigs; 26× mean coverage) of H. pylori strain B45, isolated from a patient with gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The major finding was a 24.6-kb prophage integrated in the bacterial genome. The prophage shares most of its genes (22/27) with prophage region II of Helicobacter acinonychis strain Sheeba. After UV treatment of liquid cultures, circular DNA carrying the prophage integrase gene could be detected, and intracellular tailed phage-like particles were observed in H. pylori cells by transmission electron microscopy, indicating that phage production can be induced from the prophage. PCR amplification and sequencing of the integrase gene from 341 H. pylori strains from different geographic regions revealed a high prevalence of the prophage (21.4%). Phylogenetic reconstruction showed four distinct clusters in the integrase gene, three of which tended to be specific for geographic regions. Our study implies that phages may play important roles in the ecology and evolution of H. pylori. PMID:22086490

  14. Helicobacter pylori and autoimmune disease: Cause or bystander

    PubMed Central

    Smyk, Daniel S; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Rigopoulou, Eirini I; Sakkas, Lazaros I; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the main cause of chronic gastritis and a major risk factor for gastric cancer. This pathogen has also been considered a potential trigger of gastric autoimmunity, and in particular of autoimmune gastritis. However, a considerable number of reports have attempted to link H. pylori infection with the development of extra-gastrointestinal autoimmune disorders, affecting organs not immediately relevant to the stomach. This review discusses the current evidence in support or against the role of H. pylori as a potential trigger of autoimmune rheumatic and skin diseases, as well as organ specific autoimmune diseases. We discuss epidemiological, serological, immunological and experimental evidence associating this pathogen with autoimmune diseases. Although over one hundred autoimmune diseases have been investigated in relation to H. pylori, we discuss a select number of papers with a larger literature base, and include Sjögrens syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitides, autoimmune skin conditions, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, autoimmune thyroid disease, multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica and autoimmune liver diseases. Specific mention is given to those studies reporting an association of anti-H. pylori antibodies with the presence of autoimmune disease-specific clinical parameters, as well as those failing to find such associations. We also provide helpful hints for future research. PMID:24574735

  15. Antibiotic treatment for Helicobacter pylori: Is the end coming?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Young; Choi, Duck Joo; Chung, Jun-Won

    2015-01-01

    Infection with the Gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been associated with gastro-duodenal disease and the importance of H. pylori eradication is underscored by its designation as a group I carcinogen. The standard triple therapy consists of a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin and clarithromycin, although many other regimens are used, including quadruple, sequential and concomitant therapy regimens supplemented with metronidazole, clarithromycin and levofloxacin. Despite these efforts, current therapeutic regimens lack efficacy in eradication due to antibiotic resistance, drug compliance and antibiotic degradation by the acidic stomach environment. Antibiotic resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole is particularly problematic and several approaches have been proposed to overcome this issue, such as complementary probiotic therapy with Lactobacillus. Other studies have identified novel molecules with an anti-H. pylori effect, as well as tailored therapy and nanotechnology as viable alternative eradication strategies. This review discusses current antibiotic therapy for H. pylori infections, limitations of this type of therapy and predicts the availability of newly developed therapies for H. pylori eradication. PMID:26558152

  16. Transmission of Helicobacter pylori: a role for food?

    PubMed Central

    van Duynhoven, Y. T.; de Jonge, R.

    2001-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes and grows in human gastric epithelial tissue and mucus. Its presence is associated with gastritis and there is substantial evidence that it causes peptic and duodenal ulcers and chronic gastritis. Since 1994, H. pylori has been classified as carcinogenic to humans. In industrialized countries, as many as 50% of adults are infected with the pathogen, while in the developing world, prevalence values of about 90% have been reported. As little is known about the mode of transmission, a literature search was carried out to determine whether food acts a reservoir or vehicle in the transmission of H. pylori. Although growth of the pathogen should be possible in the gastrointestinal tract of all warm-blooded animals, the human stomach is its only known reservoir. Under conditions where growth is not possible, H. pylori can enter a viable, but nonculturable state. H. pylori has been detected in such states in water, but not in food. Person-to-person contact is thought to be the most likely mode of transmission, and there is no direct evidence that food is involved in the transmission of H. pylori. PMID:11417041

  17. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection by invasive and noninvasive tests

    PubMed Central

    Pourakbari, Babak; Ghazi, Mona; Mahmoudi, Shima; Mamishi, Setareh; Azhdarkosh, Hossein; Najafi, Mehri; Kazemi, Bahram; Salavati, Ali; Mirsalehian, Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Although several invasive and noninvasive tests have been developed for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection, all of the tests have their limitations. We conducted a study to investigate and compare the suitability of rapid urease test (RUT), serology, histopathology and stool antigen tests with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of H. pylori, and correlate the diagnostic methods with PCR. Eighty nine patients (61 adults, 28 children) referred to the Firoozgar Hospital and Children Medical Center Hospital for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy entered to the study and noninvasive tests such as immunoassay for serological antibodies against H. pylori and detection of its antigen in feces were measured. The biopsies were utilized for histological examination, RUT and PCR. The H. pylori statuses were evaluated by the positivity of ureC PCR in biopsy specimens and 53 subjects had H. pylori positive result. Histopathology showed high overall performance in adults and children with sensitivity and specificity 100% and 90%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for stool antigen test were 87.8%, 75% and 82%, respectively. Correlation of RUT, serology (IgG), histopathology and stool antigen tests with PCR were 0.82, 0.32, 0.91 and 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, the RUT and histopathology are as accurate as the PCR of biopsy and stool antigen test can consider as appropriate noninvasive test for detection of H. pylori infection. PMID:24516421

  18. Dormant phages of Helicobacter pylori reveal distinct populations in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vale, F F; Vadivelu, J; Oleastro, M; Breurec, S; Engstrand, L; Perets, T T; Mégraud, F; Lehours, P

    2015-01-01

    Prophages of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium known to co-evolve in the stomach of its human host, were recently identified. However, their role in the diversity of H. pylori strains is unknown. We demonstrate here and for the first time that the diversity of the prophage genes offers the ability to distinguish between European populations, and that H. pylori prophages and their host bacteria share a complex evolutionary history. By comparing the phylogenetic trees of two prophage genes (integrase and holin) and the multilocus sequence typing (MLST)-based data obtained for seven housekeeping genes, we observed that the majority of the strains belong to the same phylogeographic group in both trees. Furthermore, we found that the Bayesian analysis of the population structure of the prophage genes identified two H. pylori European populations, hpNEurope and hpSWEurope, while the MLST sequences identified one European population, hpEurope. The population structure analysis of H. pylori prophages was even more discriminative than the traditional MLST-based method for the European population. Prophages are new players to be considered not only to show the diversity of H. pylori strains but also to more sharply define human populations. PMID:26387443

  19. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk—these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma, although there are no convincing data to support the benefits of H pylori infections. PMID:25655557

  20. A 20-minute breath test for helicobacter pylori

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, B.J.; Plankey, M.W.; Hoffman, S.R.; Boyd, C.L.; Dye, K.R.; Frierson, H.F. Jr.; Guerrant, R.L.; McCallum, R.W. )

    1991-04-01

    In this study, we evaluated a simplified rapid {sup 14}C-urea breath test for the diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori. Fasting patients undergoing initial assessment for H. pylori drank 5 microCi of {sup 14}C-urea in 20 ml of water. Breath was collected at intervals for 30 min. Samples were counted in a beta-counter, and the results were expressed as counts per minute (cpm). In the same week, patients underwent endoscopy, and a blinded investigator examined biopsy samples of gastric mucosa by culture and histology for H. pylori. There were 49 H. pylori-negative (HP-) and 104 H. pylori-positive (HP+) patients in the study. HP+ patients expired a mean of 4398 cpm (SD 2468) per mmol CO{sub 2} in a sample taken 20 min after ingestion of the isotope. In contrast, HP--patients expired only 340 cpm (SD 196). If the mean +3 SD of HP- patients was used as a cutoff value, the 20-minute sample gave a sensitivity of 97% and a specificity of 100% for detecting H. pylori. The radiation exposure from this test is less than 1% of that received from an upper gastrointestinal series, and the short collection time makes it both convenient and cost effective.

  1. [H. pylori infections in children: clinical, diagnostic and treatment implications].

    PubMed

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Iwańczak, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most widespread infection all over the Word. The rate of this infection varies, depending on age, geographic region, socioeconomic and hygienic conditions. Most infected children live in the poor, developing countries without adequate living and hygienic conditions. Prevalence of H. pylori infections in children in Poland was 32.01%. The course of infection in children depends on individual predisposition, environmental factors and virulence of H. pylori. In children in Poland infection with cagA+s1m1 genotype occurs most frequently. In children, a connection of H. pylori infection to ulcer disease of the duodenum was demonstrated. Additionally, the diagnostic tests of infection and diagnostic assessing eradication were discussed in the work. Recommendations on the treatment of H. pylori taking into account the necessity of the assessment of bacteria sensitivity to antibiotics were outlined. It is particularly important in the regions with high resistance of H. pylori to clarythromycin, which in children can exceed 20%. PMID:24340886

  2. The Relationship between H. pylori Infection and Osteoporosis in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Asaoka, Daisuke; Nagahara, Akihito; Hojo, Mariko; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Shimada, Yuji; Yoshizawa, Takashi; Osada, Taro; Watanabe, Sumio

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objective. H. pylori infection causes a chronic inflammation in the gastric mucosa. However, this local inflammation may result in extra-digestive conditions. Our aim is to investigate the relationship between H. pylori infection and osteoporosis in Japan. Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted among outpatients at the Juntendo University Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Participants for patient profile, H. pylori infection status, comorbidity, internal medical therapies, lumbar dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and bone turnover marker were collected and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for reflux esophagitis, hiatal hernia, peptic ulcer disease (PUD), and endoscopic gastric mucosal atrophy (EGA) was performed. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was performed in accordance with the Japanese criteria. We investigated risk factors of osteoporosis. Results. Of the eligible 200 study subjects, 41 cases were of osteoporosis. Bivariate analysis showed that age, being female, BMI, alcohol, smoking, H. pylori, bone-specific ALP, PUD, and EGA were related to osteoporosis. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.13; 95%CI 1.07–1.20), being female (OR 4.77; 95%CI 1.78–12.77), BMI (OR 0.79; 95%CI 0.68–0.92), H. pylori (OR 5.33; 95%CI 1.73–16.42), and PUD (OR 4.98; 95%CI 1.51–16.45) were related to osteoporosis. Conclusions. H. pylori infection may be a risk factor of osteoporosis in Japan. PMID:25024699

  3. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection: Current options and developments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yao-Kuang; Kuo, Fu-Chen; Liu, Chung-Jung; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Shih, Hsiang-Yao; Wang, Sophie SW; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Kuo, Chao-Hung; Huang, Yao-Kang; Wu, Deng-Chyang

    2015-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a crucial part in the effective management of many gastroduodenal diseases. Several invasive and non-invasive diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori and each test has its usefulness and limitations in different clinical situations. Although none can be considered as a single gold standard in clinical practice, several techniques have been developed to give the more reliable results. Invasive tests are performed via endoscopic biopsy specimens and these tests include histology, culture, rapid urease test as well as molecular methods. Developments of endoscopic equipment also contribute to the real-time diagnosis of H. pylori during endoscopy. Urea breathing test and stool antigen test are most widely used non-invasive tests, whereas serology is useful in screening and epidemiological studies. Molecular methods have been used in variable specimens other than gastric mucosa. More than detection of H. pylori infection, several tests are introduced into the evaluation of virulence factors and antibiotic sensitivity of H. pylori, as well as screening precancerous lesions and gastric cancer. The aim of this article is to review the current options and novel developments of diagnostic tests and their applications in different clinical conditions or for specific purposes. PMID:26523098

  4. Association between Helicobacter pylori seropositivity and mild to moderate COPD: clinical implications in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Ji Won; Lee, Jung Kyu; Heo, Eun Young; Chung, Hee Soon; Kim, Deog Keom

    2016-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is a major cause of gastric diseases. The clinical implications of H. pylori infection in various diseases outside the gastrointestinal system have also been reported, including in some respiratory disorders. In this study, we investigated the seroprevalence of H. pylori in patients with mild to moderate COPD in an Asian country with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. Also, we aimed to elucidate the association between the seroprevalence of H. pylori and the decline of lung function in patients with COPD. Methods Participants who underwent a medical checkup for H. pylori at a referral hospital in Korea were recruited for this study. All participants were tested for H. pylori infection using an immunoassay of the H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and a rapid urease test at the time of endoscopy with a gastric mucosal specimen. We assessed the decline in lung function using the spirometric data of those who underwent spirometry more than three times. Results In total, 603 participants (201 patients with COPD and 402 controls) were analyzed. The seroprevalence of H. pylori IgG in the patients and controls was 45.8% and 52.2%, respectively (P=0.134). The H. pylori IgG level in patients with COPD was not significantly different from that of the controls (114.8 and 109.6 units/mL, respectively; P=0.549). In addition, there were no significant differences in the annual forced expiratory volume in 1 second or forced vital capacity between the participants with H. pylori seropositivity and seronegativity. Conclusion This study showed no relationship between H. pylori infection and COPD in a country with a high burden of H. pylori infection. Furthermore, H. pylori infection did not affect the rate of lung function decline in this study population. PMID:27621611

  5. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: invasive methods.

    PubMed

    Pajares-García, J M

    1998-10-01

    The methods which require endoscopy for the examination of the gastric mucosa are called invasive (direct) methods. Several tests can be performed on the gastric mucosa obtained by endoscopy: Rapid urease test, histology, smear (cytology), culture and polymerase chain reaction. A combination of at least two tests with high sensitivity and specificity is recommended for clinical trials, and, when possible, for clinical management of patients. In clinical practice the invasive methods should be carried out only in those patients to be treated with eradication regimes. All invasive methods rely on gastric biopsy samples. Therefore, the specimens should be taken under optimal conditions. Several factors guide the site and the number of biopsy specimens for identification of Helicobacter pylori infection. In pre-treatment diagnosis, the biopsies should be taken from the distal antrum (2 cm from the pylorus). The number required depends on the diagnostic method used: in Helicobacter pylori eradicated patients the same number of biopsies for histology and culture should be taken from the antrum and corpus. The sensitivity and specificity of the Rapid urease test varies from 80-90% the results are known very quickly and the cost is very low. The maximal accuracy of histology is obtained with: an optimal specimen processing, an adequate staining and an experienced observer. This method of biopsy processing facilitates the identification of Helicobacter pylori which is commonly located on the superficial and foveolar epithelium. Sensitivity depends on the observer's experience and the extent of biopsy sampling. In general, the histological method has a sensitivity and specificity of 90-95%. In patients treated by proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics or bismuth salts two-four weeks prior to biopsy, the bacteria may be restricted to the corpus or fundus. Culture is strictly indicated in patients after failure of two or more eradication regimens to test for susceptibility and

  6. "Helicobacter Pylori" Infection in Five Inpatient Units for People with Intellectual Disability and Psychiatric Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, David; Vemuri, Murali; Gunatilake, Deepthi; Tewari, Sidhartha

    2008-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of "Helicobacter pylori" infection has been reported among people with intellectual disability, especially those residing in hospital and similar settings. Surveys of inpatients have found unusually high rates of gastrointestinal malignancy, to which "H. pylori" infection predisposes. Methods: "Helicobacter pylori"…

  7. Absence of Helicobacter pylori within the Oral Cavities of Members of a Healthy South African Community

    PubMed Central

    Olivier, Brenda J.; Bond, Robert P.; van Zyl, Walda B.; Delport, Maraliese; Slavik, Tomas; Ziady, Christopher; Terhaar sive Droste, Jochim S.; Lastovica, Albert; van der Merwe, Schalk W.

    2006-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate the oral cavity as a reservoir from where Helicobacter pylori may be transmitted. Histology and PCR amplification were performed. Eighty-four percent of the stomach biopsies tested positive; however, H. pylori was not detected in dental samples, indicating the absence of H. pylori within the oral cavity. PMID:16455932

  8. Helicobacter pylori isolates from ethnic minority patients in Guangxi: Resistance rates, mechanisms, and genotype

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li-Juan; Huang, Yan-Qiang; Chen, Bing-Pu; Mo, Xiao-Qiang; Huang, Zan-Song; Huang, Xiao-Feng; Wei, Lian-Deng; Wei, Hong-Yu; Chen, Yuan-Hong; Tang, Hua-Ying; Huang, Gan-Rong; Qin, Yan-Chun; Li, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Lu-Yao

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) resistance to clarithromycin among ethnic minority patients in Guangxi, explore the underlying mechanisms, and analyze factors influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. METHODS: H. pylori strains were isolated, cultured and subjected to drug sensitivity testing. The 23S rRNA gene of H. pylori isolates was amplified by PCR and analyzed by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing to detect point mutations. REP-PCR was used for genotyping of H. pylori isolates, and NTsys_2 software was used for clustering analysis based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Factors potentially influencing genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates were analyzed. RESULTS: The rate of clarithromycin resistance was 31.3%. A2143G and A2144G mutations were detected in the 23S rRNA gene of all clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates. At a genetic distance of 78%, clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates could be divided into six groups. Significant clustering was noted among H. pylori isolates from patients with peptic ulcer or gastritis. CONCLUSION: The rate of clarithromycin resistance is relatively high in ethnic minority patients in Guangxi. Main mechanisms of clarithromycin resistance are A2143G and A2144G mutations in the 23S rRNA gene. Clarithromycin-resistant H. pylori isolates can be divided into six groups based on REP-PCR DNA fingerprints. Several factors such as disease type may influence the genotype distribution of H. pylori isolates. PMID:24782630

  9. Immune Responses to "Helicobacter pylori" Infection in Children with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram

    2012-01-01

    Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included who were permanent resident of…

  10. Antimicrobial activity of curcumin against Helicobacter pylori isolates from India and during infections in mice.

    PubMed

    De, Ronita; Kundu, Parag; Swarnakar, Snehasikta; Ramamurthy, T; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Nair, G Balakrish; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment failure is a major cause of concern for the Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases like gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric cancer. Curcumin, diferuloylmethane from turmeric, has recently been shown to arrest H. pylori growth. The antibacterial activity of curcumin against 65 clinical isolates of H. pylori in vitro and during protection against H. pylori infection in vivo was examined. The MIC of curcumin ranges from 5 microg/ml to 50 microg/ml, showing its effectiveness in inhibiting H. pylori growth in vitro irrespective of the genetic makeup of the strains. The nucleotide sequences of the aroE genes, encoding shikimate dehydrogenase, against which curcumin seems to act as a noncompetitive inhibitor, from H. pylori strains presenting differential curcumin MICs showed that curcumin-mediated growth inhibition of Indian H. pylori strains may not be always dependent on the shikimate pathway. The antimicrobial effect of curcumin in H. pylori-infected C57BL/6 mice and its efficacy in reducing the gastric damage due to infection were examined histologically. Curcumin showed immense therapeutic potential against H. pylori infection as it was highly effective in eradication of H. pylori from infected mice as well as in restoration of H. pylori-induced gastric damage. This study provides novel insights into the therapeutic effect of curcumin against H. pylori infection, suggesting its potential as an alternative therapy, and opens the way for further studies on identification of novel antimicrobial targets of curcumin. PMID:19204190

  11. Effects of prolonged chlorine exposures upon PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of low doses of free chlorine on the detection by qPCR of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) cells by qPCR in tap water was monitored. H. pylori target sequences (within suspended, intact cells at densities of 102 to 103 cells /ml) were rendered undetectable by qPCR an...

  12. Helicobacter pylori and food products: a public health problem.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen causing gastritis and chronic superficial infection (CSG). It colonizes the stomach of more than 50% of humans and causes disease. This microorganism is associated with the gastric antral epithelium in patients with active chronic gastritis, peptic (gastric) or duodenal ulcers, and gastric adenocarcinoma H. pylori is present in feces, sewage, and water but is killed by routine chlorination. Therefore, in developing countries, consumption of sewage-contaminated drinking water and vegetables may pose a risk; properly cooking foods and chlorinating water reduces the risk of transmitting H. pylori to humans. In South America the consumption of raw vegetables fertilized with human feces has been found to be a risk factor for infection, and consumption of water from a municipal supply has been suggested as a risk factor for children. Epidemiological studies have found that H. pylori organisms colonize the stomach and duodenum of humans and many animal species and family clusters; it is believed to be orally transmitted person to person. This transmission is the major, if not exclusive, source of infection.H. pylori has been detected in the mouth from dental plaque. Recent observations in persons infected with H. pylori caused to vomit or have diarrhea showed that an actively unwell person with these symptoms could spread H. pylori in the immediate vicinity by aerosol, splashing of vomitus, infected vomitus, and infected diarrhea. In summary, H. pylori is usually spread by the fecal-oral route but possibly also by the oral-oral route and the spread of contaminated secretions. Thus, in developing countries, individuals catch H. pylori at a very young age from other persons (children) in their environment. In developed countries, H. pylori is more difficult to acquire and is usually transmitted from one family member to another, possibly by the fecal-oral route, or by the oral-oral route, e.g., kissing, vomitus. On occasion

  13. Probiotics for Standard Triple Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Goran; Salkic, Nermin; Vukelic, Karina; JajacKnez, Alenka; Stimac, Davor

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The primary objective in the study is determination of efficacy of probiotic preparation as a supportive therapy in eradication of Helicobacter pylori. The study was multicenter, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled, and double-blind. The subjects first filled out a specially designed questionnaire to assess the severity of the 10 symptoms, which can be related to eradication therapy to be monitored during the trial. Each subject then received 28 capsules of probiotic preparation or matching placebo capsules, which they were supposed to take over the following 14 days, twice a day, at least 2 hours prior to or after the antibiotic therapy administration. A total of 804 patients were enrolled in the trial, of which 650 (80.85%) were included in the analysis. The results show a significantly larger share of cured subjects in the probiotic arm versus the placebo arm (87.38% vs 72.55%; P < 0.001). Additionally, presence and intensity of epigastric pain, bloating, flatulence, taste disturbance, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, heartburn, rash, and diarrhea were monitored over the study period. At 15 days postinclusion, probiotic treatment was found superior to placebo in 7 of 10 mentioned symptoms. Average intensity for symptoms potentially related to antibiotic therapy was significantly higher in the placebo group, 0.76 vs 0.55 (P < 0.001). Adding probiotics to the standard triple therapy for H pylori eradication significantly contributes to treatment efficacy and distinctly decreases the adverse effects of therapy and the symptoms of the underlying disease. PMID:25929897

  14. Probiotics in Helicobacter pylori-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Boltin, Doron

    2016-02-01

    The ideal treatment regimen for the eradication Helicobacter pylori infection has yet to be identified. Probiotics, particularly Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Saccharomyces, have been suggested as adjuncts to antibiotics for the treatment of H. pylori. There is in vitro evidence that probiotics dampen the Th1 response triggered by H. pylori, attenuate H. pylori associated hypochlorhydria and secrete bacteriocidal metabolites. Probiotics interact with the innate host immune system through adherence to the gastric epithelium and secretion of bacterial adhesins. In prospective human studies, probiotic monotherapy effectively decrease H. pylori density (expired (13)CO2) by 2.0%-64.0%. Probiotic monotherapy has also been shown to eradicate H. pylori in up to 32.5%, although subsequent recrudescence is likely. Eleven meta-analyses have evaluated the efficacy of probiotics as adjuvants to antibiotics for the eradication of H. pylori. The addition of a probiotic increased treatment efficacy, OR 1.12-2.07. This benefit is probably strain-specific and may only be significant with relatively ineffective antibiotic regimens. The pooled prevalence of adverse effects was 12.9%-31.5% among subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with 24.3%-45.9% among controls. Diarrhea in particular was significantly reduced in subjects receiving adjuvant probiotics, compared with controls (OR 0.16-0.47). A reduction in adverse events other than diarrhea is variable. Despite the apparent benefit on efficacy and side effects conferred by probiotics, the optimal probiotic species, dose and treatment duration has yet to be determined. Further studies are needed to identify the probiotic, antibiotic and patient factors which might predict benefit from probiotic supplementation. PMID:27048901

  15. Overview of the phytomedicine approaches against Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Filipa F; Oleastro, Mónica

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) successfully colonizes the human stomach of the majority of the human population. This infection always causes chronic gastritis, but may evolve to serious outcomes, such as peptic ulcer, gastric carcinoma or mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. H. pylori first line therapy recommended by the Maastricht-4 Consensus Report comprises the use of two antibiotics and a proton-pomp inhibitor, but in some regions failure associated with this treatment is already undesirable high. Indeed, treatment failure is one of the major problems associated with H. pylori infection and is mainly associated with bacterial antibiotic resistance. In order to counteract this situation, some effort has been allocated during the last years in the investigation of therapeutic alternatives beyond antibiotics. These include vaccines, probiotics, photodynamic inactivation and phage therapy, which are briefly revisited in this review. A particular focus on phytomedicine, also described as herbal therapy and botanical therapy, which consists in the use of plant extracts for medicinal purposes, is specifically addressed, namely considering its history, category of performed studies, tested compounds, active principle and mode of action. The herbs already experienced are highly diverse and usually selected from products with a long history of employment against diseases associated with H. pylori infection from each country own folk medicine. The studies demonstrated that many phytomedicine products have an anti-H. pylori activity and gastroprotective action. Although the mechanism of action is far from being completely understood, current knowledge correlates the beneficial action of herbs with inhibition of essential H. pylori enzymes, modulation of the host immune system and with attenuation of inflammation. PMID:24914319

  16. [Alzheimer's disease and Helicobacter pylori infection: a possible link?].

    PubMed

    Roubaud Baudron, Claire; Varon, Christine; Mégraud, Francis; Salles, Nathalie

    2016-03-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with Aß peptide and Tau protein deposits, but the initial process inducing the disease and ultimately neurodegeneration has not yet been elucidated. An infectious hypothesis is suggested by the alteration of the blood-brain barrier and the activation of neuroinflammation in the brain, which could play a role, especially in the decrease of Aß peptide clearance. Several viral or bacterial agents have been incriminated, including Helicobacter pylori. Infection by H. pylori is acquired during childhood and often lifetime persisting, inducing a chronic gastric inflammation, which remains asymptomatic in approximately 80% of cases. However H. pylori infection can induce systemic inflammation and increase homocysteine levels, contributing to worsen AD lesions. Association between H. pylori and AD is suggested by 1) epidemiologic studies, which show higher AD prevalence and more pronounced cognitive impairment in infected than in non-infected subjects; 2) experimental studies in murine models: a) in a first study we evaluated the impact of H. pylori infection on the brain of non-AD predisposed C57BL/6J mice. After an 18-month infection, H. pylori induced a significant gastric inflammation but no brain Aβ deposit nor increased neuroinflammation was observed in their brain; b) we currently study the impact of Helicobacter species infection on behavior and cerebral lesions of AD transgenic (APPswe/PS1dE9) mice and their wild type littermate. The results of these studies do not allow to conclude a significant association between AD and H. pylory infection but may contribute to a better understanding of the role of brain neuroinflammation in AD. PMID:27005340

  17. H pylori infection causes chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Gabriele; Karnholz, Arno; Stoeckelhuber, Mechthild; Merchant, Juanita L; Haas, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether chronic H pylori infection has the potential to induce pancreatitis in the Mongolian gerbil model, and whether it is dependent on an intact type IV secretion system. METHODS: Mongolian gerbils were infected with wild type (WT) H pylori typeIstrain B128 or its isogenic mutant B128 ΔcagY (defective type IV secretion). After seven months of infection, H pylori was reisolated from antrum and corpus and H pylori DNA was analyzed by semi-nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Inflammation and histological changes were documented in the gastric antrum, corpus, and pancreas by immunohistochemistry. Cytokine mRNA, gastric pH, plasma gastrin, amylase, lipase, and glucose levels were determined. RESULTS: The H pylori infection rate was 95%. Eight infected animals, but none of the uninfected group, developed transmural inflammation and chronic pancreatitis. Extensive interstitial fibrosis and inflammation of the pancreatic lobe adjacent to the antrum was confirmed by trichrome stain, and immuno-histochemically. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was significantly increased in the antral mucosa of all infected gerbils. In the corpus, only cytokine levels of WT-infected animals and those developing transmural inflammation and pancreatitis were significantly increased. Levels of lipase, but not glucose or amylase levels, were significantly reduced in the pancreatitis group. H pylori DNA was detected in infected antral and corpus tissue, but not in the pancreas. CONCLUSION: H pylori infection is able to induce chronic pancreatitis in Mongolian gerbils independently of the type IV secretion system, probably by an indirect mechanism associated with a penetrating ulcer. PMID:17663507

  18. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori: transmission, translocation and extragastric reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Nabwera, H M; Logan, R P

    1999-12-01

    Although H. pylori infection is endemic and despite more than 10 years of research, the mode and route of transmission remain elusive. This may, in part, be due to the inherent problems of detecting H. pylori noninvasively. The prevalence of infection varies between countries and is closely related to Growth Domestic Product. An age-cohort effect and data from longitudinal studies suggest that the incidence of infection is much higher in children than adults. In developing countries the prevalence of infection is often more than 80% in young adults, in contrast to less than 10% for similar age groups in developed countries. The observations of mosaicism (in the VacA gene) and a panmycytic population structure imply exchange of genetic material either in or outside of the host, which is supported by the increasing recognition of polyclonal infection and suggests that secondary infection occurs after primary acquisition. In addition, in children persistent primary infection may sometimes occur only after previous (repeated) exposure and/or transient colonisation of the gastric mucosa. H. pylori and other gastric Helicobacter spp are always noninvasive, but other human nongastric Helicobacter spp have sometimes been isolated from the systemic circulation in immunocompromised patients. For nonhuman hosts, intestinal Helicobacter spp are thought to translocate more frequently from the colon to the liver. Within the human host, the oral cavity is the principal extragastric reservoir, although case reports suggest that H. pylori may sometimes be found beyond the 2nd part of the duodenum. The hypothesis that H. pylori is a zoonosis or transmitted as coccoid forms by a vector (pets, houseflies) is not supported by recent research showing that H. pylori is entirely unable to support an aerobic or anaerobic metabolism and that coccoid forms are non-viable. H. pylori is primarily acquired in infancy, most probably via the oroorogastric route, from other family members or close

  19. Ancestral European roots of Helicobacter pylori in India

    PubMed Central

    Devi, S Manjulata; Ahmed, Irshad; Francalacci, Paolo; Hussain, M Abid; Akhter, Yusuf; Alvi, Ayesha; Sechi, Leonardo A; Mégraud, Francis; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2007-01-01

    Background The human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is co-evolved with its host and therefore, origins and expansion of multiple populations and sub populations of H. pylori mirror ancient human migrations. Ancestral origins of H. pylori in the vast Indian subcontinent are debatable. It is not clear how different waves of human migrations in South Asia shaped the population structure of H. pylori. We tried to address these issues through mapping genetic origins of present day H. pylori in India and their genomic comparison with hundreds of isolates from different geographic regions. Results We attempted to dissect genetic identity of strains by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of the 7 housekeeping genes (atpA, efp, ureI, ppa, mutY, trpC, yphC) and phylogeographic analysis of haplotypes using MEGA and NETWORK software while incorporating DNA sequences and genotyping data of whole cag pathogenicity-islands (cagPAI). The distribution of cagPAI genes within these strains was analyzed by using PCR and the geographic type of cagA phosphorylation motif EPIYA was determined by gene sequencing. All the isolates analyzed revealed European ancestry and belonged to H. pylori sub-population, hpEurope. The cagPAI harbored by Indian strains revealed European features upon PCR based analysis and whole PAI sequencing. Conclusion These observations suggest that H. pylori strains in India share ancestral origins with their European counterparts. Further, non-existence of other sub-populations such as hpAfrica and hpEastAsia, at least in our collection of isolates, suggest that the hpEurope strains enjoyed a special fitness advantage in Indian stomachs to out-compete any endogenous strains. These results also might support hypotheses related to gene flow in India through Indo-Aryans and arrival of Neolithic practices and languages from the Fertile Crescent. PMID:17584914

  20. Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    PubMed Central

    Noonavath, Ravinder Naik; Lakshmi, Chandrasekharan Padma; Dutta, Tarun Kumar; Kate, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication on platelet counts in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (cITP). METHODS: A total of 36 cITP patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori was done by rapid urease test and Giemsa staining of the gastric biopsy specimen. All H. pylori positive patients received standard triple therapy for 14 d and were subjected for repeat endoscopy at 6 wk. Patients who continued to be positive for H. pylori on second endoscopy received second line salvage therapy. All the patients were assessed for platelet response at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th months. RESULTS: Of the 36 patients, 17 were positive for H. pylori infection and eradication was achieved in 16 patients. The mean baseline platelet count in the eradicated patients was 88615.38 ± 30117.93/mm3 and platelet count after eradication at 6 wk, 3 mo and 6 mo was 143230.77 ± 52437.51/mm3 (P = 0.003), 152562.50 ± 52892.3/mm3 (P = 0.0001), 150187.50 ± 41796.68/mm3 (P = 0.0001) respectively and in the negative patients, the mean baseline count was 71000.00 ± 33216.46/mm3 and at 6 wk, 3rd and 6th month follow up was 137631.58 ± 74364.13/mm3 (P = 0.001), 125578.95 ± 71472.1/mm3 (P = 0.005), 77210.53 ± 56892.28/mm3 (P = 0.684) respectively. CONCLUSION: Eradication of H. pylori leads to increase in platelet counts in patients with cITP and can be recommended as a complementary treatment with conventional therapy. PMID:24944483

  1. Epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients

    PubMed Central

    Archampong, Timothy Nii Akushe; Asmah, Richard Harry; Wiredu, Edwin Kwame; Gyasi, Richard Kwasi; Nkrumah, Kofi Nyaako; Rajakumar, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative urease-producing bacterium causally linked with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric adenocarcinoma. Infection is more frequent and acquired at an earlier age in developing countries compared to European populations. The incidence of Helicobacter pylori infection in dyspeptic Ghanaian patients was 75.4%. However, epidemiological factors associated with infection vary across populations. Methods This study used a cross-sectional design to consecutively sample dyspeptic patients at the Endoscopy Unit of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra between 2010 and 2012. The study questionnaire elicited their epidemiological clinical characteristics. Helicobacter pylori infection was confirmed by rapid-urease examination of antral biopsies at upper Gastro-intestinal endoscopy. Results The sample population of dyspeptic patients attending the Endoscopy Unit for upper GI endoscopy yielded 242 patients of which 47.5% were females. The age distribution of H. pylori-infection was even across most age – groups, ranging from 69.2% (61 – 70) years to 80% (21 – 30) years. Helicobacter pylori prevalence decreased across areas mapping to the three residential classes in accordance with increasing affluence with rural areas having the highest prevalence. The unemployed and patients in farming had relatively high Helicobacter pylori infection rates of 92.3% and 91.7% respectively. Conclusion Helicobacter pylori is endemic in Ghana but the persistently high prevalence across age groups despite significant community anti-microbial use suggests likely re-crudescence or re-infection from multiple sources in a developing country. Socio-cultural factors such as residential class and farming may be facilitating factors for its continued prevalence. PMID:26430475

  2. Association between Helicobacter pylori infection and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Kountouras, J; Tsolaki, M; Boziki, M; Gavalas, E; Zavos, C; Stergiopoulos, C; Kapetanakis, N; Chatzopoulos, D; Venizelos, I

    2007-09-01

    The association of Helicobacter pylori infection and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has recently been addressed, but no relative data exist regarding mild cognitive impairment (MCI), a prodromal phase of AD. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate H. pylori infection, by histology in a Greek MCI cohort. Sixty-three consecutive patients with amnestic MCI and 35 normal controls underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, histologic and serological examinations. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 88.9% (56/63) in MCI patients and 48.6% (17/35) in anaemic controls, as confirmed by biopsy (P < 0.001, odds ratio: 8.47, 95% CI: 3.03-23.67). Mean serum anti-H. pylori IgG concentration and plasma total homocysteine (Hcy) titre were higher in MCI patients than controls (74.86 +/- 57.22 vs. 17.37 +/- 9.30 U/ml; and 16.03 +/- 4.28 vs. 13.5 +/- 1.20 micromol/l; P < 0.001 and P = 0.015, respectively). When compared with the anaemic participants, MCI patients exhibited more often multifocal (body and antral) gastritis (92.1% vs. 68.6%; P = 0.03); in H. pylori positive MCI patients cognitive state correlated with serum anti-H. pylori IgG concentration. In conclusion, H. pylori prevalence was significantly higher in MCI patients than controls. This infection might contribute, at least in part, to the pathophysiology of MCI, possibly through induction of chronic atrophic gastritis and elevated Hcy consequences. PMID:17718688

  3. Effectiveness of vaccination with recombinant HpaA from Helicobacter pylori is influenced by host genetic background.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Philip; Doidge, Christopher; Pinczower, Gideon; Wilson, John; Harbour, Stacey; Swierczak, Agnieszka; Lee, Adrian

    2007-07-01

    Several studies have explored the production and immunogenicity of HpaA as a potential protective antigen against Helicobacter pylori but little is known regarding its protective capabilities. We therefore evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant HpaA (rHpaA) as a candidate vaccine antigen against H. pylori. To explore the impact of genetic diversity, inbred and outbred mice were prophylactically and therapeutically immunized with rHpaA adjuvanted with cholera toxin (CT). Prophylactic immunization induced a reduction in bacterial colonization in BALB/c and QS mice, but was ineffective in C57BL/6 mice, despite induction of antigen-specific antibodies. By contrast, therapeutic immunization was effective in all three strains of mice. Prophylactic immunization with CT-adjuvanted rHpaA was more effective when delivered via the nasal route than following intragastric delivery in BALB/c mice. However, HpaA-mediated protection was inferior to that induced by bacterial lysate. Hence, protective efficacy is inducible with vaccines containing HpaA, most relevantly shown in an outbred population of mice. The effectiveness of protection induced by HpaA antigen was influenced by host genetics and was less effective than lysate. HpaA therefore has potential for the development of effective immunization against H. pylori but this would probably entail the antigen to be one component of a multiantigenic vaccine. PMID:17567282

  4. Muc5ac gastric mucin glycosylation is shaped by FUT2 activity and functionally impacts Helicobacter pylori binding

    PubMed Central

    Magalhães, Ana; Rossez, Yannick; Robbe-Masselot, Catherine; Maes, Emmanuel; Gomes, Joana; Shevtsova, Anna; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Borén, Thomas; Reis, Celso A.

    2016-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is lined by a thick and complex layer of mucus that protects the mucosal epithelium from biochemical and mechanical aggressions. This mucus barrier confers protection against pathogens but also serves as a binding site that supports a sheltered niche of microbial adherence. The carcinogenic bacteria Helicobacter pylori colonize the stomach through binding to host glycans present in the glycocalyx of epithelial cells and extracellular mucus. The secreted MUC5AC mucin is the main component of the gastric mucus layer, and BabA-mediated binding of H. pylori to MUC5AC confers increased risk for overt disease. In this study we unraveled the O-glycosylation profile of Muc5ac from glycoengineered mice models lacking the FUT2 enzyme and therefore mimicking a non-secretor human phenotype. Our results demonstrated that the FUT2 determines the O-glycosylation pattern of Muc5ac, with Fut2 knock-out leading to a marked decrease in α1,2-fucosylated structures and increased expression of the terminal type 1 glycan structure Lewis-a. Importantly, for the first time, we structurally validated the expression of Lewis-a in murine gastric mucosa. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of mucin FUT2-mediated fucosylation impairs gastric mucosal binding of H. pylori BabA adhesin, which is a recognized feature of pathogenicity. PMID:27161092

  5. Modulation of the CD4+ T-cell response by Helicobacter pylori depends on known virulence factors and bacterial cholesterol and cholesterol α-glucoside content.

    PubMed

    Beigier-Bompadre, Macarena; Moos, Verena; Belogolova, Elena; Allers, Kristina; Schneider, Thomas; Churin, Yuri; Ignatius, Ralf; Meyer, Thomas F; Aebischer, Toni

    2011-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori blocks the proliferation of human CD4(+) T cells, facilitated by vacuolating exotoxin (VacA) and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT). H. pylori-triggered T-cell reactions in mice correlate with bacterial cholesterol and cholesterol α-glucoside content but their role in human cells is unclear. We characterized the effect of VacA, GGT, and cholesterol on T-helper 1, T-helper 2, T-regulatory and T-helper 17 associated cytokines and T-cell proliferation. VacA, GGT, and bacterial cholesterol content exhibited differential and synergistic inhibitory effects on the expression of activation markers CD25 and CD69 and on interleukin 2, interleukin 4, interleukin 10, and interferon γ production. These factors did not affect the H. pylori-mediated abrogation of transforming growth factor β secretion or increased interleukin 6 production. Cholesterol α-glucosyltransferase-deficient bacteria exerted strongly reduced antiproliferative effects on primary human CD4(+) T cells. In conclusion, H. pylori shapes rather than suppresses human CD4(+) T-cell responses, and glucosylated cholesterol is a relevant bacterial component involved in this modulation. PMID:21921201

  6. Comparison of Helicobacter pylori Urease Inhibition by Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri and Berberine: Mechanisms of Interaction with the Sulfhydryl Group.

    PubMed

    Li, Cailan; Xie, Jianhui; Chen, Xiaoying; Mo, Zhizhun; Wu, Wen; Liang, Yeer; Su, Zuqing; Li, Qian; Li, Yucui; Su, Ziren; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-03-01

    Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri, and berberine were reported to inhibit Helicobacter pylori. However, the underlying mechanism remained elusive. Urease plays a vital role in H. pylori colonization and virulence. In this work, aqueous extracts of Rhizoma Coptidis, Cortex Phellodendri of different origins, and purified berberine were investigated against H. pylori urease and jack bean urease to elucidate the inhibitory capacity, kinetics, and mechanism. Results showed that berberine was the major chemical component in Rhizoma Coptidis and Cortex Phellodendri, and the content of berberine in Rhizoma Coptidis was higher than in Cortex Phellodendri. The IC50 values of Rhizoma Coptidis were significantly lower than those Cortex Phellodendri and purified berberine, of which Coptis chinensis was shown to be the most active concentration- and time-dependent urease inhibitor. The Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis indicated that the inhibition pattern of C. chinensis against urease was noncompetitive for both H. pylori urease and jack bean urease. Thiol protectors (L-cysteine, glutathione, and dithiothreithol) significantly protected urease from the loss of enzymatic activity, while fluoride and boric acid showed weaker protection, indicating the active-site sulfhydryl group was possibly responsible for its inhibition. Furthermore, the urease inhibition proved to be reversible since C. chinensis-blocked urease could be reactivated by glutathione. The results suggested that the anti-urease activity of Rhizoma Coptidis was superior to that of Cortex Phellodendri and berberine, which was believed to be more likely to correlate to the content of total alkaloids rather than berberine monomer. The concentration- and time-dependent, reversible, and noncompetitive inhibition against urease by C. chinensis might be attributed to its interaction with the sulfhydryl group of the active site of urease. PMID:26669678

  7. Development of gastric cancer associated with Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Toshiro

    2004-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with histological gastritis, gastric atrophy, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma in the stomach. However, gastric cancer only develops in a minority of infected individuals. Such clinical diversity is caused by variations in the interactions between H. pylori pathogenicity, host susceptibility, and environmental factors. Based on evidence from three prospective epidemiological studies, the International Agency for Research on Cancer and the World Health Organization (IARC/WHO) concluded in 1994 that H. pylori has a causal linkage to gastric carcinogenesis and is a definite carcinogen in humans. Two large-scale, prospective, epidemiological studies have recently been reported in Japan and have confirmed that H. pylori infection constitutes a high risk factor for the development of gastric cancer, at least in males. In order to obtain evidence that eradication of H. pylori leads to a reduction in the occurrence of gastric cancer, reversibility of precancerous lesions, gastric atrophy or intestinal metaplasia should be proven after eradication treatment. A biopsy specimen from the lesser curvature of the corpus is the most sensitive for evaluating the regression of gastric atrophy on histology, and the evaluation needs be conducted at least 13 months after treatment. In a Mongolian gerbil model with or without low-dose chemical carcinogens, it has been demonstrated that H. pylori can lead to the development of gastric cancer. Experimental studies have elucidated that virulence factors of H. pylori interact with gastric epithelial cell signaling related to carcinogenesis. The cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) is a major virulence gene cluster; it encodes the type IV secretion machinery system forming a cylinder-like structure. The CagA protein is translocated into target cells via this secretion system and induces a hummingbird phenotype, a growth factor-like effect. The other gene products are

  8. Should quinolones come first in Helicobacter pylori therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Berning, Marco; Krasz, Susanne; Miehlke, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    New generations of fluoroquinolones, like levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, exhibit a broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and have been successfully introduced into the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Based on a large body of evidence, current guidelines recommend the use of levofloxacin- or moxifloxacin-containing proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) triple therapies in second-line or rescue treatment of H. pylori infection. The efficacy of standard PPI triple therapies has substantially declined during the last decade, mainly due to increasing resistance against the key antibiotics clarithromycin and metronidazole. Therefore, alternative strategies for first-line therapy of H. pylori infection have been evaluated in a considerable number of clinical trials including sequential regimens, nonbismuth quadruple regimens, and quinolone-containing PPI triple therapy regimens. The aim of this paper is to summarize the current body of evidence of levofloxacin- and moxifloxacin-containing regimens in first-line treatment of H. pylori infection, and to discuss the risks and benefits of these strategies in the light of increasing resistance of H. pylori to quinolones. PMID:21694812

  9. Does Helicobacter pylori exhibit corkscrew motion while swimming?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantino, Maira; Hardcastle, Joseph; Bansil, Rama

    2015-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a spiral shaped bacterium associated with ulcers, gastric cancer, gastritis among other diseases. In order to colonize the harsh acidic environment of the stomach H. pylori has to go across the viscoelastic mucus layer of the stomach. Many studies have been conducted on the swimming of H. pylori in viscous media however none have taken into account the influence of cell-body shape on the trajectory. We present an experimental study of the effects of body shape in the swimming trajectory of H. pylori in viscous media by a quantitative analysis of the bacterium rotation and translation in gels using phase contrast microscopy and particle tracking techniques. Preliminary microscopic tracking measurements show very well defined helical trajectories in the spiral-shaped wild type H. pylori. These helical trajectories are not seen in rod-shaped mutants which sometimes display whirling motion about one end acting as a hinge. We will present an analysis of the different trajectories for bacteria swimming in media with different viscoelastic parameters. Supported by the National Science Foundation PHY PoLS.

  10. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27604795

  11. Effect of physical environment on survival of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    West, A. P.; Millar, M. R.; Tompkins, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: To determine the effects of physical conditions on survival of Helicobacter pylori in aquatic environments. Survival for prolonged time intervals would implicate environmental water as a possible source of infection. METHODS: The effect of ionic strength, pH, urea, protein and composition of incubation atmosphere on the survival of H pylori NCTC 11637 and two clinical isolates (CI 82 and 92) was investigated. RESULTS: H pylori strains survived for longer periods in physiological (0.15M) saline than in 0.05M or 0.6M saline solution. Optimal pH range for survival was between pH 5.8 and 6.9. Addition of urea (final concentration 100 microM/l-1 and 5 mM/l-1) to neutral unbuffered 0.15M saline resulted in a reduction in survival; addition of bovine serum albumin (1%) or gelatin (1%) resulted in variable survival times compared with saline alone. Incubation in a microaerobic gas mixture prolonged survival compared with incubation in air. CONCLUSION: H pylori survival in water over a prolonged period is possible for a range of physical variables. The results indicate that H pylori could survive in environmental water which may thus act as a potential reservoir of infection. PMID:1556231

  12. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-10-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a "gastritis-like" appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Northwestern Mexican plants against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Robles-Zepeda, Ramón E; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Garibay-Escobar, Adriana; Gálvez-Ruiz, Juan C; Ruiz-Bustos, Eduardo

    2011-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the major etiologic agent of such gastric disorders as chronic active gastritis and gastric carcinoma. Over the past few years, the appearance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has led to the development of better treatments, such as the use of natural products. This study evaluated the anti-H. pylori activity of 17 Mexican plants used mainly in the northwestern part of Mexico (Sonora) for the empirical treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. The anti-H. pylori activity of methanolic extracts of the plants was determined by using the broth microdilution method. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentrations ranged from less than 200 to 400 μg/mL for Castella tortuosa, Amphipterygium adstringens, Ibervillea sonorae, Pscalium decompositum, Krameria erecta, Selaginella lepidophylla, Pimpinella anisum, Marrubium vulgare, Ambrosia confertiflora, and Couterea latiflora and were greater than 800 μg/mL for Byophyllum pinnatum, Tecoma stans linnaeus, Kohleria deppena, Jatropha cuneata, Chenopodium ambrosoides, and Taxodium macronatum. Only Equisetum gigantum showed no activity against H. pylori. This study suggests the important role that these plants may have in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders caused by H. pylori. The findings set the groundwork for further characterization and elucidation of the active compounds responsible for such activity. PMID:21663492

  14. The Immune Battle against Helicobacter pylori Infection: NO Offense.

    PubMed

    Gobert, Alain P; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a successful pathogen of the human stomach. Despite a vigorous immune response by the gastric mucosa, the bacterium survives in its ecological niche, thus favoring diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. The current literature demonstrates that high-output of nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible enzyme NO synthase-2 (NOS2) plays major functions in host defense against bacterial infections. However, pathogens have elaborated several strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of NO; this includes inhibition of host NO synthesis and transcriptional regulation in response to reactive nitrogen species, allowing the bacteria to face the nitrosative stress. Moreover, NO is also a critical mediator of inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this context, we review the recent findings on the expression of NOS2 in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues and epithelial cells, the role of NO in H. pylori-related diseases and H. pylori gene expression, and the mechanisms whereby H. pylori regulates NO synthesis by host cells. PMID:26916789

  15. Endoscopic surveillance of gastric cancers after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Terai, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remains high in East Asian countries. Current data suggest that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication might be more effective for preventing gastric cancer in young people before they develop atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. However, the long-term effect of H. pylori eradication on metachronous cancer prevention after endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer remains controversial, with some discordance between results published for Japanese and Korean studies. The detection ability of synchronous lesions before ER and eradication of H. pylori directly influences these results. After eradication, some gastric cancers are more difficult to diagnose by endoscopy because of morphologic changes that lead to a flat or depressed appearance. Narrow-band imaging with magnifying endoscopy (NBI-ME) is expected to be useful for identifying metachronous cancers. However, some gastric cancers after eradication show a “gastritis-like” appearance under NBI-ME. The gastritis-like appearance correlates with the histological surface differentiation of the cancer tubules and superficial non-neoplastic epithelium atop or interspersed with the cancer. Till date, it remains unclear whether H. pylori eradication could prevent progression of gastric cancer. Until we can establish more useful endoscopic examination methodologies, regular endoscopic surveillance of high-risk groups is expected to be the most beneficial approach for detection. PMID:26457015

  16. Alkyl hydroperoxide reductase: a candidate Helicobacter pylori vaccine.

    PubMed

    O'Riordan, Avril A; Morales, Veronica Athie; Mulligan, Linda; Faheem, Nazia; Windle, Henry J; Kelleher, Dermot P

    2012-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important etiological agent of chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of alkyl hydroperoxide reductase (AhpC) and mannosylated AhpC (mAhpC) as candidate vaccines in the C57BL/6J mouse model of H. pylori infection. Recombinant AhpC was cloned, over-expressed and purified in an unmodified form and was also engineered to incorporate N and C-terminal mannose residues when expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Mice were immunized systemically and mucosally with AhpC and systemically with mAhpC prior to challenge with H. pylori. Serum IgG responses to AhpC were determined and quantitative culture was used to determine the efficacy of vaccination strategies. Systemic prophylactic immunization with AhpC/alum and mAhpC/alum conferred protection against infection in 55% and 77.3% of mice, respectively. Mucosal immunization with AhpC/cholera toxin did not protect against infection and elicited low levels of serum IgG in comparison with systemic immunization. These data support the use of AhpC as a potential vaccine candidate against H. pylori infection. PMID:22512976

  17. Relationship of Halitosis with Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    HajiFattahi, Farnaz; Hesari, Maryam; Zojaji, Homayoun; Sarlati, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori may be one of the main causes of halitosis. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship of Helicobacter pylori infection with halitosis. Materials and Methods: This case control study was performed on 44 dyspeptic patients with a mean age of 34.29±13.71 years (range 17 to 76 years). The case group included 22 patients with halitosis and no signs of diabetes mellitus, renal or liver failure, upper respiratory tract infection, malignancies, deep carious teeth, severe periodontitis, coated tongue, dry mouth or poor oral hygiene. Control group included 22 patients without halitosis and the same age, sex, systemic and oral conditions as the case group. Halitosis was evaluated using organoleptic test (OLT) and Helicobacter pylori infection was evaluated by Rapid Urease Test (RUT) during endoscopy. The data were statistically analyzed using chi square, Mann Whitney and t-tests. Results: Helicobacter pylori infection was detected in 20 (91%) out of 22 halitosis patients, and 7 control subjects (32%) (P<0.001). Conclusion: Helicobacter pylori gastric infection can be a cause of bad breath. Dentists should pay more attention to this infection and refer these patients to internists to prevent further gastrointestinal (GI) complications and probable malignancies. PMID:26622273

  18. Gastrointestinal diseases and halitosis: association of gastric Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, K; Yamano, Y; Mitsunaga, A; Shimizu, S; Kagawa, J; Ogiuchi, H

    2002-06-01

    The relationship between gastrointestinal conditions and halitosis is discussed. Few reports have suggested that gastrointestinal diseases may cause halitosis. H. pylori infection, which causes gastric ulcers, is considered as a possible cause for halitosis. Intensity of malodour of mouth air was found to be higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in negative patients. The levels of hydrogen sulphide and dimethyl sulphide in mouth air were also significantly higher in the positive patients than in the negative patients (P<0.05). When odour strength in exhaled breath was compared between the two groups, no significant difference was found. Hence, H. pylori infection might not cause a systemic condition producing breath odour. Although there were no significant differences in periodontal parameters or tongue coating between the positive and negative groups, H. pylori may be a frequent contributor to the production of malodour even though its role had not been suspected before. Further study would be necessary to clarify the reason for the increase of volatile sulphur compounds (VSCs) level in H. pylori infection. PMID:12090454

  19. Breakdown of gastric mucus in presence of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed Central

    Sidebotham, R L; Batten, J J; Karim, Q N; Spencer, J; Baron, J H

    1991-01-01

    The potential of Helicobacter pylori to degrade gastric mucus was examined. Colonies of H pylori cultured from antral mucosal biopsy specimens of patients with non-autoimmune gastritis were washed with sterile saline, passed through a sterilisation filter, and the filtrate examined for urease, protease, and mucolytic activity. The filtrate failed to hydrolyse bovine serum albumin, or to degrade stable mucus glycoprotein structures of high particle weight that had been separated from human gastric mucus on Sepharose 2B. The high particle weight mucus glycoprotein was, however, extensively degraded when incubated with H pylori filtrate (which possessed urease activity) in the presence of 2 M urea, to release fragments of Mr approximately 2 X 10(6). The high particle weight mucus glycoprotein was also broken down to a comparable extent when incubated with Jack bean urease in the presence of 2 M urea, or 1 M ammonium carbonate, or 40 mM carbonate-bicarbonate buffer (pH 8.7), but not when treated with 4 M urea alone, or Jack bean urease alone. These results indicate that the loss of high particle weight mucus glycoprotein in gastric mucus from patients with gastritis and gastric ulcers is unlikely to be due to the mucolytic action of an extra-cellular protease produced by H pylori, but it may result from the destabilising effects of a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, generated at the mucosal surface when H pylori urease hydrolyses transuded plasma urea. Images PMID:1997534

  20. PCR detection of Helicobacter pylori in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Rimbara, Emiko; Sasatsu, Masanori; Graham, David Y

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important pathogen whose primary niche is the human stomach. H. pylori is etiologically associated with gastric inflammation (gastritis), peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. Both noninvasive (e.g., urea breath and stool antigen tests) and invasive (gastric biopsy for histology, culture, or PCR) tests are used for diagnosis. PCR detection of H. pylori has been reported using a variety of clinical samples including gastric biopsy, gastric juice, saliva, dental plaque, and stools as well as environmental samples. Whenever possibly, noninvasive tests are preferred over invasive tests. H. pylori are excreted in the stool. Culture from stool is variable whereas stool antigen testing is widely used. Stool consists of a complicated mixture of commensal bacteria and chemicals and often includes inhibitors of PCR. Nevertheless, simple extraction methods are available to efficiently extract DNA from human stools and nested-PCR targeting the 23S rRNA gene have proven to be highly sensitive for the detection of H. pylori. Detection of clarithromycin susceptibility/resistance is important clinically and the mutation of the 23S rRNA gene responsible for resistance can also be detected using stool. This described method can be modified for other clinical samples such as gastric juice or biopsy material. PMID:23104297

  1. Chinese Helicobacter pylori vaccine: Solution for an old challenge?

    PubMed

    Talebi Bezmin Abadi, Amin; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause for gastric cancer in high risk individuals. H. pylori colonizes more than 50% of the world's population and associated peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancy have important public health implications. It has been classified as a class I carcinogen in 1994 by the World Health Organization. Clinicians are often prompted to eliminate the infection the moment it is detected. This also, unfortunately, led to reckless use of antibiotics and reports of increasing resistance are now worldwide. Each year, many of people die from gastric cancer; thus application of effective vaccine can reduce this relatively high mortality worldwide. H. pylori can be eliminated by antibiotics but efficacy is sharply decreasing. Moreover, current therapy is also expensive and with side effects. Vaccine may be the best solution to the above problem but there are many challenges in producing such an effective therapeutic vaccine. Recently, the Chinese group published in Lancet, a single-center, randomized, phase III study of an oral recombinant vaccine (Urease B subunit fused with heat-labile enterotoxin B derived from Escherichia coli) prescribed in the Chinese children (6-15 years) without a history of H. pylori infection. This review provides an insight into this new solution for an old challenge. PMID:27602242

  2. Helicobacter pylori urease inhibition by rabeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, M; Imamura, L; Park, J B; Kobashi, K

    1995-08-01

    We investigated the inhibitory effects of four gastric proton pump inhibitors (PPIs): rabeprazole, a novel benzimidazole PPI, omeprazole, lansoprazole and AG-2000, on the urease activity of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Their 50% inhibitory concentrations (I50s) were found to be 0.29, 5.4, 9.3 and 0.3 microM respectively. Rabeprazole and omeprazole were also potent inhibitors of Jack bean and Proteus mirabilis cellular ureases. The thioether derivative of rabeprazole, one of its metabolites, had no inhibitory effect on H. pylori urease, despite being reported as a more potent inhibitor of H. pylori growth than rabeprazole. The inhibitory effect of rabeprazole was prevented completely and reversed considerably by the addition of sulfhydryl compounds, such as beta-mercaptoethanol, glutathione and dithiothreitol. Moreover, the addition of beta-mercaptoethanol recovered the urease activity inhibited by rabeprazole. From these results, we expected that rabeprazole inhibited H. pylori urease activity by forming disulfide bonds between it and the active site of the enzyme. PMID:8535394

  3. Recent Insights into Antibiotic Resistance in Helicobacter pylori Eradication

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Wenming; Yang, Yunsheng; Sun, Gang

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics have been useful in the treatment of H. pylori-related benign and malignant gastroduodenal diseases. However, emergence of antibiotic resistance often decreases the eradication rates of H. pylori infections. Many factors have been implicated as causes of treatment failure, but the main antibiotic resistance mechanisms described to date are due to point mutations on the bacterial chromosome, a consequence of a significantly phenotypic variation in H. pylori. The prevalence of antibiotic (e.g., clarithromycin, metronidazole, tetracycline, amoxicillin, and furazolidone) resistance varies among different countries; it appears to be partly determined by geographical factors. Since the worldwide increase in the rate of antibiotic resistance represents a problem of relevance, some studies have been performed in order to identify highly active and well-tolerated anti-H. pylori therapies including sequential, concomitant quadruple, hybrid, and quadruple therapy. These represent a promising alternatives in the effort to overcome the problem of resistance. The aim of this paper is to review the current status of antibiotic resistance in H. pylori eradication, highlighting the evolutionary processes in detail at alternative approaches to treatment in the past decade. The underlying resistance mechanisms will be also followed. PMID:22829809

  4. [The role of CagA in H. pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Masaru; Azuma, Takeshi

    2009-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) chronically colonizes human gastric epithelium and induces various diseases. But the mechanism of carcinogenesis in H. pylori infection remains to be assessed. We described that after attachment of H. pylori to gastric epithelial cells, CagA is injected directly from the bacteria into the cells and undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation. Tyrosine phosphorylated CagA can bind to SHP-2. Deregulation of SHP -2 by CagA may induce abnormal proliferation and movement of gastric epithelial cells. There are two patterns of CagA motifs between East Asian strains and Western strains. East Asian-type CagA confers stronger SHP-2 binding and transforming activities than Western-type CagA. We assessed the association between CagA diversity and clinical outcome in Asian countries, where mortalities from gastric cancer is different. As results, H. pylori infection with East Asian-type CagA was associated with gastric atrophy and cancer. Therefore, persistent active inflammation induced by the East Asian CagA-positive strain may play a role in the pathogenesis of disease. PMID:19999107

  5. Endoscopic gastritis, serum pepsinogen assay, and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young

    2016-09-01

    Endoscopic findings of the background gastric mucosa are important in the Helicobacter pylori-seroprevalent population. It is strongly correlated not only with the risk of gastric cancer, but also with the excretion ability of gastric mucosa cells. In noninfected subjects, common endoscopic findings are regular arrangement of collecting venules, chronic superficial gastritis, and erosive gastritis. In cases of active H. pylori infection, nodularity on the antrum, hemorrhagic spots on the fundus, and thickened gastric folds are common endoscopic findings. The secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is usually intact in both noninfected and actively infected stomachs, and the intragastric condition becomes hyperacidic upon inflammation. Increased serum pepsinogen II concentration correlates well with active H. pylori infection, and also indicates an increased risk of diffuse-type gastric cancer. In chronic inactive H. pylori infection, metaplastic gastritis and atrophic gastritis extending from the antrum (closed-type chronic atrophic gastritis) toward the corpus (open-type chronic atrophic gastritis) are common endoscopic findings. The intragastric environment is hypoacidic and the risk of intestinal-type gastric cancer is increased in such conditions. Furthermore, there is a decrease in serum pepsinogen I concentration when the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells is damaged. Serologic and endoscopic changes that occur upon H. pylori infection are important findings for estimating the secreting ability of the gastric mucosa cells, and could be applied for the secondary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27604795

  6. Helicobacter pylori update: gastric cancer, reliable therapy, and possible benefits.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of diverse gastric and extragastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, therefore there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to the development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk-these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma. When tested, these hypotheses have not been confirmed and are therefore most likely false. PMID:25655557

  7. Contemporary Diagnostic Strategies for the Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Elfant, Adam B.; Howden, Colin W.; Stollman, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is highly prevalent, affecting approximately half of the world’s population. While the majority of infected individuals are asymptomatic, H. pylori infection is associated with certain diseases, including peptic ulcers (either duodenal or gastric), gastritis, and 2 malignancies—gastric cancer and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Many of the epidemiologic associations between these diseases and H. pylori infection have been further validated by treatment studies, which show that effective eradication therapy correlates with a decreased risk of disease. A variety of testing strategies are used to detect H. pylori infection. Serologic techniques are widely available and inexpensive, but they are no longer preferred as they have low sensitivities and specificities, and they may show a positive result for a long period following effective therapy. The remaining testing methods are divided into 2 categories: invasive tests (which require endoscopy) and noninvasive tests. Noninvasive test methods such as the urea breath test and stool antigen test have gained popularity due to their high sensitivities and specificities. Further, both of these methods may be used to confirm the absence of infection following eradication therapy. Due to the increasing incidence of treatment failure (caused in part by antibiotic resistance), post-treatment testing is recommended to confirm H. pylori eradication. PMID:24847180

  8. Helicobacter pylori: from the stomach to the heart.

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Broutet, N; Ponzetto, A; Mégraud, F

    1999-11-01

    A surprising number of extra-gastrointestinal diseases have been reported to be associated with Helicobacter pylori infection, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Since coronary heart disease is the principal cause of death in western countries, and since the known risk factors cannot fully explain the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease, the exploration of the role of possible causal agents has stimulated intense research. Infectious agents have been linked to coronary heart disease on epidemiological and pathogenic grounds. In 1994, H. pylori infection was reported to be one of them. Since then, a number of studies have been published with controversial results. Studies performed thus far show a high degree of heterogeneity in the selection of patients and also in the type of disease studied, i.e. coronary heart disease in general or acute myocardial infarction. Since the pathogenic development is most likely different for each of these two conditions (one chronic and the other acute) they should be studied separately. H. pylori infection can cause platelet aggregation and induces a procoagulant activity. H. pylori can also contribute to atherosclerosis, through increased concentration of homocysteine in the blood, caused by decreased levels of folic acid and cobalamin, or to an autoimmune process. Prospective cohort studies and interventional trials focusing separately on the chronic and acute phases of coronary heart disease and H. pylori infection should be performed in order to provide firm epidemiological data for a causal relationship. PMID:10563551

  9. Prevention of Helicobacter pylori infection by lactobacilli in a gnotobiotic murine model.

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, A M; Aiba, Y; Takagi, A; Kamiya, S; Miwa, T; Koga, Y

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium which causes gastric inflammatory diseases. Oral inoculation of H pylori usually results in only a temporary colonisation without a successful infection in the stomach of conventional mice in which lactobacilli are the predominant indigenous bacteria. AIM: To determine whether lactobacilli exert an inhibitory effect on colonisation by H pylori in the stomach. METHODS: The effects of H pylori on attachment to murine and human gastric epithelial cells and the H pylori mediated release of interleukin-8 (IL-8) by these cells were examined in vitro. Lactobacillus salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice and control germ free mice were inoculated orally with H pylori to examine whether L salivarius can inhibit colonisation by H pylori. RESULTS: L salivarius inhibited both the attachment and IL-8 release in vitro. H pylori could not colonise the stomach of L salivarius infected gnotobiotic BALB/c mice, but colonised in large numbers and subsequently caused active gastritis in germ free mice. In addition, L salivarius given after H pylori implantation could eliminate colonisation by H pylori. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the possibility of lactobacilli being used as probiotic agents against H pylori. Images PMID:9274471

  10. Prior H. pylori infection ameliorates S. typhimurium induced colitis: mucosal crosstalk between stomach and distal intestine

    PubMed Central

    Higgins, Peter D.R.; Johnson, Laura A.; Luther, Jay; Zhang, Min; Kao, John Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with a lower risk of chronic autoimmune diseases including IBD. H. pylori modulates the gastric immune response, decreasing the local inflammatory response to itself. In mice, chronic Salmonella typhimurium infection induces colitis similar to Crohn’s disease characterized by inflammation which progresses towards fibrosis. The aim of this study was to determine whether prior H. pylori infection acts at a distance to modulate the immune response of S. typhimurium-induced colitis. Methods Mice were infected with the mouse-adapted strain of H. pylori (SS1), followed by infection with S. typhimurium. The effect of H. pylori on colitis was determined by gross pathology, histopathology, cytokine response, and development of fibrosis in the cecum. Gastritis and systemic immune response was measured in response to infection. Results H. pylori suppresses the Th17 response to S. typhimurium infection in the mouse cecum, but does not alter the Th2 or Treg response or the development of fibrosis. H. pylori infection induces IL-10 in the mesenteric lymph nodes, suggesting an extra-gastric mechanism for immunomodulation. H. pylori/S. typhimurium co-infection decreases inflammation in both the cecum and the stomach. Conclusions This study demonstrates a potential mechanism for the negative association between H. pylori and IBD in humans. H. pylori represses the lower gastrointestinal tract Th17 response to bacterially induced colitis via extra-gastric immunomodulatory effects, illustrating immunological crosstalk between the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract. PMID:21560200

  11. Antimicrobial Characterization of Inula britannica against Helicobacter pylori on Gastric Condition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Hwan; Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-06-28

    The antimicrobial effects of methanol and ethanol extracts of Inula britannica against several Helicobacter pylori strains (26695, J99, and SS1) were evaluated in vitro, to determine their applicability as functional foods. In the paper disc diffusion method, the antimicrobial effects of the I. britannica extracts against the H. pylori strains were apparent. Viable cell counting also showed that the extracts at 100 μg/ml concentration dramatically decreased the viability of the H. pylori strains. In particular, the methanol and ethanol extracts at a concentration of 100 μg/ml reduced the H. pylori SS1 cell number to 2.46 log CFU/ml and 1.08 log CFU/ml, respectively. In the presence of 100 μg/ml extracts, the urease production of H. pylori SS1 was decreased to more than 30%, whereas that of H. pylori J99 and H. pylori 26695 was decreased to about 20%, relative to the controls. The extracts inhibited the attachment of the H. pylori strains to human gastric AGS cells as well as caused the detachment of already attached H. pylori cells. In addition, the H. pylori morphology was changed to a coccoidal shape in the presence of the extracts. In conclusion, the I. britannica extracts were effective against H. pylori strains in vitro, irrespective of genotype status, and could therefore be used as novel functional foods. PMID:26907756

  12. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  13. Helicobacter pylori infection and extragastric disorders in children: A critical update

    PubMed Central

    Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John F; Tromba, Valeria; Romaggioli, Sara; Bascetta, Stefano; Chiesa, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a highly prevalent, serious and chronic infection that has been associated causally with a diverse spectrum of extragastric disorders including iron deficiency anemia, chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, growth retardation, and diabetes mellitus. The inverse relation of H. pylori prevalence and the increase in allergies, as reported from epidemiological studies, has stimulated research for elucidating potential underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Although H. pylori is most frequently acquired during childhood in both developed and developing countries, clinicians are less familiar with the pediatric literature in the field. A better understanding of the H. pylori disease spectrum in childhood should lead to clearer recommendations about testing for and treating H. pylori infection in children who are more likely to develop clinical sequelae. A further clinical challenge is whether the progressive decrease of H. pylori in the last decades, abetted by modern clinical practices, may have other health consequences. PMID:24587617

  14. Wnt/β-catenin, an oncogenic pathway targeted by H. pylori in gastric carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaowen; Xin, Na; Wang, Wei; Zhao, Chenghai

    2015-01-01

    A section of gastric cancers presents nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlated with H. pylori infection. H. pylori stimulate Wnt/β-catenin pathway by activating oncogenic c-Met and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), or by inhibiting tumor suppressor Runx3 and Trefoil factor 1 (TFF1). H. pylori also trigger Wnt/β-catenin pathway by recruiting macrophages. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin pathway is found involved in H. pylori-induced gastric cancer stem cell generation. Recently, by using gastroids, researchers have further revealed that H. pylori induce gastric epithelial cell proliferation through β-catenin. These findings indicate that Wnt/β-catenin is an oncogenic pathway activated by H. pylori. Therefore, this pathway is a potential therapy target for H. pylori-related gastric cancer. PMID:26417932

  15. Screening test for anti-Helicobacter pylori activity of traditional Chinese herbal medicines

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Feng; Chen, Ye; Li, Jing; Qing, He-Ping; Wang, Ji-De; Zhang, Ya-Li; Long, Bei-Guo; Bai, Yang

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) activity of 50 traditional Chinese herbal medicines in order to provide the primary evidence for their use in clinical practice. METHODS: A susceptibility test of water extract from 50 selected traditional Chinese herbal medicines for in vitro H. pylori Sydney strain 1 was performed with broth dilution method. Anti-H. pylori activity of the selected Chinese herbal medicines was evaluated according to their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). RESULTS: The water extract from Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis could significantly inhibit the H. pylori activity with their MIC less than 7.8 mg/mL, suggesting that traditional Chinese herbal medicines have anti-inflammatory and antibacterial effects and can thus be used in treatment of H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: Rhizoma Coptidis, Radix Scutellariae and Radix isatidis are the potential sources for the synthesis of new drugs against H. pylori. PMID:21105198

  16. An association between Helicobacter pylori and upper respiratory tract disease: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Kariya, Shin; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a major cause of chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and considerable evidence supports the notion that infection with this bacterium is also associated with gastric malignancy in addition to various other conditions including pulmonary, vascular and autoimmune disorders. Gastric juice infected with H. pylori might play an important role in upper respiratory tract infection. Although direct and/or indirect mechanisms might be involved in the association between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the etiological role of H. pylori in upper respiratory tract disorders has not yet been fully elucidated. Although various studies over the past two decades have suggested a relationship between H. pylori and upper respiratory tract diseases, the findings are inconsistent. The present overview describes the outcomes of recent investigations into the impact of H. pylori on upper respiratory tract and adjacent lesions. PMID:24587622

  17. High prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in asymptomatic Hispanics.

    PubMed Central

    Dehesa, M; Dooley, C P; Cohen, H; Fitzgibbons, P L; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1991-01-01

    In this study, we estimated the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and histologic gastritis in 58 asymptomatic Hispanic adult volunteers (mean age, 41 years; 59% male) by endoscopic biopsy of the upper gastrointestinal tract. Forty-six subjects (79%) were found to harbor H. pylori in gastric biopsies, and all had histologic gastritis. Four other subjects were found to have gastritis in the absence of H. pylori. Similar prevalences of H. pylori and gastritis were noted in all age groups and also in American-born and immigrant Hispanics. Biopsy data and serologic studies of H. pylori antibodies correlated well. We conclude that H. pylori infection is an almost universal finding in the gastric mucosa of asymptomatic adult Hispanics, regardless of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unknown, but we speculate that H. pylori and its associated gastritis could have a role in the high incidence of gastric carcinoma in Hispanic populations. PMID:1864929

  18. Structural insight into β-Clamp and its interaction with DNA Ligase in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Preeti; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Mazumder, Mohit; Rehman, Syed Arif Abdul; Kumari, Nilima; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative and microaerophilic bacterium, is the major cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Owing to its central role, DNA replication machinery has emerged as a prime target for the development of antimicrobial drugs. Here, we report 2Å structure of β-clamp from H. pylori (Hpβ-clamp), which is one of the critical components of DNA polymerase III. Despite of similarity in the overall fold of eubacterial β-clamp structures, some distinct features in DNA interacting loops exists that have not been reported previously. The in silico prediction identified the potential binders of β-clamp such as alpha subunit of DNA pol III and DNA ligase with identification of β-clamp binding regions in them and validated by SPR studies. Hpβ-clamp interacts with DNA ligase in micromolar binding affinity. Moreover, we have successfully determined the co-crystal structure of β-clamp with peptide from DNA ligase (not reported earlier in prokaryotes) revealing the region from ligase that interacts with β-clamp. PMID:27499105

  19. Structural insight into β-Clamp and its interaction with DNA Ligase in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Preeti; Tarique, Khaja Faisal; Mazumder, Mohit; Rehman, Syed Arif Abdul; kumari, Nilima; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative and microaerophilic bacterium, is the major cause of chronic gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. Owing to its central role, DNA replication machinery has emerged as a prime target for the development of antimicrobial drugs. Here, we report 2Å structure of β-clamp from H. pylori (Hpβ-clamp), which is one of the critical components of DNA polymerase III. Despite of similarity in the overall fold of eubacterial β-clamp structures, some distinct features in DNA interacting loops exists that have not been reported previously. The in silico prediction identified the potential binders of β-clamp such as alpha subunit of DNA pol III and DNA ligase with identification of β-clamp binding regions in them and validated by SPR studies. Hpβ-clamp interacts with DNA ligase in micromolar binding affinity. Moreover, we have successfully determined the co-crystal structure of β-clamp with peptide from DNA ligase (not reported earlier in prokaryotes) revealing the region from ligase that interacts with β-clamp. PMID:27499105

  20. Stability data of FlgD from Helicobacter pylori and structural comparison with other homologs.

    PubMed

    Pulić, Ivana; Cendron, Laura; Salamina, Marco; Polverino de Laureto, Patrizia; Matković-Čalogović, Dubravka; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2016-06-01

    Flagellin component D (FlgD) from Helicobacter pylori is involved in the assembly of the hook of flagella, helical tubular structures that provide motility in non-filamentous bacteria. Data provided in this article refer to HpFlgD from strains 26695 (HpFlgD_26695) and G27 (HpFlgD_G27). Within this article, information on the secondary structure content and different type of interfaces found in the two crystal forms of HpFlgD (monoclinic, HpFlgD_m and tetragonal, HpFlgD_t) are provided, as well as the list of the hydrogen bonds between monomers that are relevant for their assembly into a tetramer. Additionally, data involving investigation of the size of HpFlgD in the solution and the crystallized HpFlgD are presented, "Crystal structure of truncated FlgD from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori" [1]. The superposition of the different domains of HpFlgD (Fn-III and tudor domains) with the similar domains found in other species is shown, as well as the superposition of HpFlgD and modeled HpFlgE (flagellar hook protein). PMID:27014738

  1. Screening Helicobacter pylori genes induced during infection of mouse stomachs

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Aparna; Hodgson, Nathaniel; Yan, Ming; Joo, Jungsoo; Gu, Lei; Sang, Hong; Gregory-Bryson, Emmalena; Wood, William G; Ni, Yisheng; Smith, Kimberly; Jackson, Sharon H; Coleman, William G

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of in vivo environment on gene expression in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) as it relates to its survival in the host. METHODS: In vivo expression technology (IVET) systems are used to identify microbial virulence genes. We modified the IVET-transcriptional fusion vector, pIVET8, which uses antibiotic resistance as the basis for selection of candidate genes in host tissues to develop two unique IVET-promoter-screening vectors, pIVET11 and pIVET12. Our novel IVET systems were developed by the fusion of random Sau3A DNA fragments of H. pylori and a tandem-reporter system of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and beta-galactosidase. Additionally, each vector contains a kanamycin resistance gene. We used a mouse macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 and mice, as selective media to identify specific genes that H. pylori expresses in vivo. Gene expression studies were conducted by infecting RAW 264.7 cells with H. pylori. This was followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis to determine the relative expression levels of in vivo induced genes. RESULTS: In this study, we have identified 31 in vivo induced (ivi) genes in the initial screens. These 31 genes belong to several functional gene families, including several well-known virulence factors that are expressed by the bacterium in infected mouse stomachs. Virulence factors, vacA and cagA, were found in this screen and are known to play important roles in H. pylori infection, colonization and pathogenesis. Their detection validates the efficacy of these screening systems. Some of the identified ivi genes have already been implicated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of H. pylori and other bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli and Vibrio cholerae. Transcription profiles of all ivi genes were confirmed by real time PCR analysis of H. pylori RNA isolated from H. pylori infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. We compared the expression profile of H. pylori and RAW 264

  2. Causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Takafumi; Goto, Yasuyuki; Maeda, Osamu; Watanabe, Osamu; Ishiguro, Kazuhiro; Goto, Hidemi

    2006-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the world, accounting for a large proportion of all cancer cases in Asia, Latin America, and some countries in Europe. Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is regarded as playing a specific role in the development of atrophic gastritis, which represents the most recognized pathway in multistep intestinal-type gastric carcinogenesis. Recent studies suggest that a combination of host genetic factors, bacterial virulence factors, and environmental and lifestyle factors determine the severity of gastric damage and the eventual clinical outcome of H pylori infection. The seminal discovery of H pylori as the leading cause of gastric cancer should lead to effective eradication strategies. Prevention of gastric cancer requires better screening strategies to identify candidates for eradication. PMID:16482615

  3. Helicobacter pylori: Genomic Insight into the Host-Pathogen Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Kathryn P.; Gaddy, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The advent of genomic analyses has revolutionized the study of human health. Infectious disease research in particular has experienced an explosion of bacterial genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data complementing the phenotypic methods employed in traditional bacteriology. Together, these techniques have revealed novel virulence determinants in numerous pathogens and have provided information for potential chemotherapeutics. The bacterial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori, has been recognized as a class 1 carcinogen and contributes to chronic inflammation within the gastric niche. Genomic analyses have uncovered remarkable coevolution between the human host and H. pylori. Perturbation of this coevolution results in dysregulation of the host-pathogen interaction, leading to oncogenic effects. This review discusses the relationship of H. pylori with the human host and environment and the contribution of each of these factors to disease progression, with an emphasis on features that have been illuminated by genomic tools. PMID:25722969

  4. Bioactive compounds of Crocus sativus L. and their semi-synthetic derivatives as promising anti-Helicobacter pylori, anti-malarial and anti-leishmanial agents.

    PubMed

    De Monte, Celeste; Bizzarri, Bruna; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Carradori, Simone; Mollica, Adriano; Luisi, Grazia; Granese, Arianna; Alcaro, Stefano; Costa, Giosuè; Basilico, Nicoletta; Parapini, Silvia; Scaltrito, Maria Maddalena; Masia, Carla; Sisto, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Crocus sativus L. is known in herbal medicine for the various pharmacological effects of its components, but no data are found in literature about its biological properties toward Helicobacter pylori, Plasmodium spp. and Leishmania spp. In this work, the potential anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic effects of crocin and safranal, two important bioactive components in C. sativus, were explored, and also some semi-synthetic derivatives of safranal were tested in order to establish which modifications in the chemical structure could improve the biological activity. According to our promising results, we virtually screened our compounds by means of molecular modeling studies against the main H. pylori enzymes in order to unravel their putative mechanism of action. PMID:25766747

  5. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies. PMID:15373702

  6. The Association of Age and Antibiotic Resistance of Helicobacter Pylori

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Zizhong; Han, Feng; Meng, Fei; Tu, Miaoying; Yang, Ningmin; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is steadily increasing worldwide, resulting in the low efficiency of the current therapeutic approaches for eradication. In this study, we investigated the relationship between antibiotic resistances, the year of sample collection, and the ages of the infected individuals. A total of 29,034 gastric mucosa biopsy samples were randomly collected from January 1, 2009 to December 9, 2014 in Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, China. An antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined using an agar-dilution method. The statistical significance was tested using the chi-squared (χ2) test. A total of 9687 strains were isolated. The resistance rate to clarithromycin, levofloxacin, and metronidazole were 17.76%, 19.66%, and 95.5%, respectively. Resistance was rare against amoxicillin, gentamicin, and furazolidone. The metronidazole resistance rate stayed at a consistently high level. In contrast, the resistance rates of clarithromycin and levofloxacin increased rapidly from 2009 to 2011, gradually decreased from 2012 to 2013, and then increased again in 2014. Although patients ages 31 to 50 and 71 to 80 years had lower infection rates of H pylori, they also had higher resistance rates to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. The highest antibiotic resistance rate was observed in patients’ ages 71 to 80 years old. Younger patients (below 30 years old) had a lower resistance to levofloxacin. Patients’ ages 51 to 60 years old may thus represent an important category for the future study of H pylori infection. Age plays a key element in H pylori resistance to clarithromycin and levofloxacin. It is therefore necessary to consider individualized therapy for the optimized treatment of H pylori-infected patients. PMID:26937912

  7. Metabolic consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection and eradication

    PubMed Central

    Buzás, György Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is still the most prevalent infection of the world. Colonization of the stomach by this agent will invariably induce chronic gastritis which is a low-grade inflammatory state leading to local complications (peptic ulcer, gastric cancer, lymphoma) and remote manifestations. While H. pylori does not enter circulation, these extragastric manifestations are probably mediated by the cytokines and acute phase proteins produced by the inflammed mucosa. The epidemiologic link between the H. pylori infection and metabolic changes is inconstant and controversial. Growth delay was described mainly in low-income regions with high prevalence of the infection, where probably other nutritional and social factors contribute to it. The timely eradication of the infection will lead to a more healthy development of the young population, along with preventing peptic ulcers and gastric cancer An increase of total, low density lipoprotein and high density liporotein cholesterol levels in some infected people creates an atherogenic lipid profile which could promote atherosclerosis with its complications, myocardial infarction, stroke and peripheral vascular disease. Well designed and adequately powered long-term studies are required to see whether eradication of the infection will prevent these conditions. In case of glucose metabolism, the most consistent association was found between H. pylori and insulin resistance: again, proof that eradication prevents this common metabolic disturbance is expected. The results of eradication with standard regimens in diabetics are significantly worse than in non-diabetic patients, thus, more active regimens must be found to obtain better results. Successful eradication itself led to an increase of body mass index and cholesterol levels in some populations, while in others no such changes were encountered. Uncertainities of the metabolic consequences of H. pylori infection must be clarified in the future. PMID:24833852

  8. Ischemic cardiovascular disease and Helicobacter pylori. Where is the link?

    PubMed

    Pellicano, R; Oliaro, E; Gandolfo, N; Aruta, E; Mangiardi, L; Orzan, F; Bergerone, S; Rizzetto, M; Ponzetto, A

    2000-12-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death in western countries. Although several major risk factors have been identified, they fail to account for all the epidemiological variants of the disease, thus warranting research into novel causal agents. Cardiovascular diseases have long been associated with chronic infections acting through the activation of inflammatory pathways, and antibiotic therapy has been shown to produce a dramatic decrease in the rate of disease recurrence in patients with a history of myocardial infarction or unstable angina. The link between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and CHD, first described by Mendall et al. in 1994, has been the subject of a multitude of epidemiological and clinical studies; however, these have been so heterogeneous that not two of them are based on a comparable selection of patients and focused on the same kind of disease, e.g. stable coronary heart disease or acute myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies supports the thesis that H. pylori plays an extremely important role in the acute phase of myocardial infarction: the bacterium causes platelet aggregation and induces pro-coagulant activity in experimentally infected mice. H. pylori may also contribute to atherosclerosis through an auto-immune process against endothelial cells or an increased concentration of homocysteine in the blood due to decreased levels of folic acid and cobalamin. The exact role of H. pylori cannot yet be fully assessed: there is a clear and present need for further studies with appropriate epidemiological and clinical approaches to investigate through prospective and interventional trial the possible causal relationship between H. pylori and CHD. PMID:11232965

  9. [Eradication therapy of antibiotic-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakov, P L; Belousova, N L; Shcherbakova, M Iu; Kashnikov, V S

    2010-01-01

    Treatment of inflammatory diseases of the upper digestive tract, associated with Helicobacter pylori has recently greatly complicated by the presence of significant number of resistant strains of this microorganism to traditionally used drugs for eradication therapy. Average resistance to metronidazole and clarithromycin in Russia is about 30 and 25% respectively. The article presents the experience of treating patients with metronidazole resistant strains of H. pylori with using triple therapy, which included a drug used nitrofurans--nifuroxazide in suspension, proton pump inhibitors and clarithromycin. PMID:21485525

  10. Probiotic BIFICO cocktail ameliorates Helicobacter pylori induced gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hong-Jing; Liu, Wei; Chang, Zhen; Shen, Hui; He, Li-Juan; Wang, Sha-Sha; Liu, Lu; Jiang, Yuan-Ying; Xu, Guo-Tong; An, Mao-Mao; Zhang, Jun-Dong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the protective effect of triple viable probiotics on gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and elucidate the possible mechanisms of protection. METHODS: Colonization of BIFICO strains in the mouse stomach was determined by counting colony-forming units per gram of stomach tissue. After treatment with or without BIFICO, inflammation and H. pylori colonization in the mouse stomach were analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin and Giemsa staining, respectively. Cytokine levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Milliplex. The activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB and MAPK signaling in human gastric epithelial cells was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 mRNA expression in the mouse stomach. RESULTS: We demonstrated that BIFICO, which contains a mixture of Enterococcus faecalis, Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, was tolerant to the mouse stomach environment and was able to survive both the 8-h and 3-d courses of administration. Although BIFICO treatment had no effect on the colonization of H. pylori in the mouse stomach, it ameliorated H. pylori-induced gastritis by significantly inhibiting the expression of cytokines and chemokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, G-CSF and MIP-2 (P < 0.05). These results led us to hypothesize that BIFICO treatment would diminish the H. pylori-induced inflammatory response in gastric mucosal epithelial cells in vitro via the NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. Indeed, we observed a decrease in the expression of the NF-κB subunit p65 and in the phosphorylation of IκB-α, ERK and p38. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in the production of IL-8, TNF-α, G-CSF and GM-CSF (P < 0.05), and the increased expression of TLR2, TLR4 and MyD88 induced by H. pylori in the stomach was also significantly reduced following BIFICO treatment (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our

  11. The Multiple Carbohydrate Binding Specificities of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teneberg, Susann

    Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is a risk factor for the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Adhesion of microbes to the target tissue is an important determinant for successful initiation, establishment and maintenance of infection, and a variety of different candidate carbohydrate receptors for H. pylori have been identified. Here the different the binding specifities, and their potential role in adhesion to human gastric epithelium are described. Finally, recent findings on the roles of sialic acid binding SabA adhesin in interactions with human neutrophils and erythrocytes are discussed.

  12. Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwari, A; Krishnaveni, D; Venugopal, S; Shashikumar, P; Vidyasagar, A; Jyothy, A

    2011-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a major cause of cancer death worldwide, especially in developing countries. The incidence of gastric cancer varies from country to country, probably as a result of genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors. H. pylori infection is considered as a major risk factor in the development of gastric cancer. However, the scenario varies in Asian countries, exhibiting a higher rate of H. pylori infection and low incidence of gastric cancer, which could be attributed to strain-specific virulence factors and host genetic makeup. In this review, we discuss the various virulence factors expressed by this bacterium and their interaction with the host factors, to influence pathogenesis. PMID:21248438

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Bytzer, Peter; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg; Rosenstock, Steffen; Wildt, Signe

    2011-04-01

    National Danish guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection have been approved by the Danish Society for Gastroenterology. All patients with peptic ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and MALT lymphoma should be tested for Hp. We also recommend testing in first degree relatives to patients with gastric cancer, in NSAID-naive patients, who need long-term NSAID therapy, and in patients presenting with dyspepsia and no alarm symptoms. Non-endoscoped patients can be tested with a urea-breath test or a faecal antigen test. Endoscoped patients can be tested with a rapid urease test. Proton pump inhibitor therapy should be stopped at least 1 week prior to Hp testing. All infected patients should be offered Hp eradication therapy. First-line treatment is 7-day triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and clarithromycine in combination with metronidazole or amoxicilline. Quadruple therapy for 2 weeks with bismuthsubsalicylate, tetracycline, metronidazole and a proton pump inhibitor is recommended in case of treatment failure. Hp testing should be offered to all patients after eradication therapy but is mandatory in patients with ulcer disease, noninvasive gastric cancer or MALT lymphoma. Testing after eradication should not be done before 4 weeks after treatment has ended. PMID:21466771

  14. Local Immune Response in Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Kivrak Salim, Derya; Sahin, Mehmet; Köksoy, Sadi; Adanir, Haydar; Süleymanlar, Inci

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There have been few studies concerning the cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa of Helicobacter pylori–infected patients with normal mucosa, chronic gastritis, and gastric carcinoma (GAC). In the present study, we aimed to elucidate the genomic expression levels and immune pathological roles of cytokines—interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, IL-17A, IL-32—in H pylori–infected patients with normal gastric mucosa (NGM; control), chronic active gastritis (CAG), and GAC. Genomic expression levels of these cytokines were assayed by real-time PCR analysis in gastric biopsy specimens obtained from 93 patients. We found that the genomic expression levels of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A mRNA were increased in the CAG group and those of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, TGF-β mRNA were increased in the GAC group with reference to H pylori–infected NGM group. This study is on the interest of cytokine profiles in gastric mucosa among individuals with normal, gastritis, or GAC. Our findings suggest that the immune response of gastric mucosa to infection of H pylori differs from patient to patient. For individual therapy, levels of genomic expression of IL-6 or other cytokines may be tracked in patients. PMID:27196487

  15. Evaluation of salivary and serum anti-Helicobacter pylori in Egyptian patients with H. pylori related gastric disorders.

    PubMed

    El-Fakhfakh, Effat Abd El-Monem; Montasser, Iman Fawzy; Khalifa, Reham Ali Ahmed

    2014-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common and important transmissible bacterial human pathogen. Although several diagnostic tests are available for the detection of H. pylori infection, all of them have both advantages and disadvantages, and none can be considered as a single gold standard. Serological methods analyzing (serum and saliva) by using enzyme immunoassays, which are simple, reproducible and inexpensive, can detect either antigen or antibody. This study evaluated the frequency of anti- H. pylori serum and salivary antibodies positivity among Egyptian patients with gastric disorders and the validity of salivary, serum serological tests for diagnosis of H. pylori, comparing this with gold standard tests performed on endoscopy biopsy. This prospective, case-controlled study included 45 Egyptian patients who attended Ain Shams University Hospitals Cairo, Egypt between January 2013 and June 2013. There were 29 males &16 females their mean age was 51.78 +/- 7 (range 18-60). Among the ulcerogenic drugs, Aspirin was the most common drug (46.7%). The evidence revealed the sensitivity of Rapid Urease Test (RUT) was 100%, specificity was 71.4%, Positive Predictive value (PPV) was 88.6% and Negative Predictive value (NPV) was 100%. The sensitivity of serum IgG was 68.97% and specificity was 42.86%; while the sensitivity of serum IgA was 89.6% and the specificity was 50%. Correlating the salivary IgG results with H. pylori status diagnosed by culture, salivary IgG succeeded to diagnose 19 cases from the 31 positive H. pylori patients with a sensitivity of 63.33% & specificity of 92.86% whereas the results of salivary IgA showed a sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 92.86%. PMID:24961032

  16. Beyond the stomach: An updated view of Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Testerman, Traci L; Morris, James

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an extremely common, yet underappreciated, pathogen that is able to alter host physiology and subvert the host immune response, allowing it to persist for the life of the host. H. pylori is the primary cause of peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. In the United States, the annual cost associated with peptic ulcer disease is estimated to be $6 billion and gastric cancer kills over 700000 people per year globally. The prevalence of H. pylori infection remains high (> 50%) in much of the world, although the infection rates are dropping in some developed nations. The drop in H. pylori prevalence could be a double-edged sword, reducing the incidence of gastric diseases while increasing the risk of allergies and esophageal diseases. The list of diseases potentially caused by H. pylori continues to grow; however, mechanistic explanations of how H. pylori could contribute to extragastric diseases lag far behind clinical studies. A number of host factors and H. pylori virulence factors act in concert to determine which individuals are at the highest risk of disease. These include bacterial cytotoxins and polymorphisms in host genes responsible for directing the immune response. This review discusses the latest advances in H. pylori pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment. Up-to-date information on correlations between H. pylori and extragastric diseases is also provided. PMID:25278678

  17. Destructive effects of butyrate on the cell envelope of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, Hideo; Osaki, Takako; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kurata, Satoshi; Zaman, Cynthia; Woo, Timothy Derk Hoong; Takahashi, Motomichi; Matsubara, Sachie; Kawakami, Hayato; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Kamiya, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can be found in the oral cavity and is mostly detected by the use of PCR techniques. Growth of H. pylori is influenced by various factors in the mouth, such as the oral microflora, saliva and other antimicrobial substances, all of which make colonization of the oral cavity by H. pylori difficult. In the present study, we analysed the effect of the cell supernatant of a representative periodontal bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis on H. pylori and found that the cell supernatant destroyed the H. pylori cell envelope. As P. gingivalis produces butyric acid, we focused our research on the effects of butyrate and found that it significantly inhibited the growth of H. pylori. H. pylori cytoplasmic proteins and DNA were detected in the extracellular environment after treatment with butyrate, suggesting that the integrity of the cell envelope was compromised and indicating that butyrate has a bactericidal effect on H. pylori. In addition, levels of extracellular H. pylori DNA increased following treatment with the cell supernatant of butyric acid-producing bacteria, indicating that the cell supernatant also has a bactericidal effect and that this may be due to its butyric acid content. In conclusion, butyric acid-producing bacteria may play a role in affecting H. pylori colonization of the oral cavity. PMID:22194341

  18. 15NH4+ excretion test: a new method for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, J C; Liu, G L; Zhang, Z H; Mou, Y L; Chen, Q A; Wu, J C; Yang, S L

    1992-01-01

    A noninvasive test for the detection of Helicobacter pylori infection that uses [15N]urea as a tracer has been established. The principle the test is based on is the strong urease activity of H. pylori. After oral ingestion, [15N]urea is broken down into ammonia and carbon dioxide by H. pylori urease in the stomach. The ammonia is absorbed into the blood and excreted in the urine. The amount of [15N]urea, reflecting the magnitude of H. pylori infection, is evaluated by measuring the abundance and excretion rate of 15N in ammonia in the urine. Thirty-six patients were examined in our study. The 15N excretion rates in urine ammonia of patients who were H. pylori positive were significantly higher than those of H. pylori-negative patients (P less than 0.05). Twenty-three patients were H. pylori positive by Gram stain and culture. The sensitivity of the 15NH4 excretion test compared with these techniques was 96%, and no false positives were obtained. The 15NH4+ excretion rates of 13 H. pylori-negative subjects were all in the normal range (less than 0.3%). This method is a simple, precise, highly sensitive, noninvasive, nonradioactive test. It could be used for diagnosis as well as for the followup of patients receiving H. pylori eradication therapy, especially children and pregnant women. It could also be used in epidemiological investigation of H. pylori infection in a general population. PMID:1734051

  19. [An urease enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Helicobacter pylori infection].

    PubMed

    Ding, S Z; Jia, B Q; Liu, X G

    1993-05-01

    A sensitive and specific serological diagnostic test for Helicobacter pylori infection has been developed and validated in 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms undergoing endoscopy. This test is to use urease, a protein unique to H. pylori, as the basis for the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that detects serum H. pylori urease antibodies. The ELISA mean optical density (OD) in H. pylori-positive group is higher than that in H. pylori-negative group (0.57 +/- 0.23 vs 0.24 +/- 0.15, P < 0.001), a cut-off 0.3 OD yields a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 93%. Serum absorption test showed that Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Yersinia enterocolotica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cell lysate do not influence serum H. pylori urease antibody level, though they all have urease except E. coli. The result implied that H. pylori urease can be a good antigen to detect serum H. pylori antibody and it would be useful for epidemiological survey and routine diagnostic approach. Nearly half of the blood donors showed positive result with H. pylori urease antibody. It is suggested that H. pylori infection is quite common in the asymptomatic population. PMID:8269756

  20. Effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba Extract Against Helicobacter pylori-Induced Inflammation in Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Jeong Hoon; Khin, Phyu Phyu; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori and the effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extract on the expression of cytokines in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial cells. Cultured human adenocarcinoma gastric cells (AGS) were infected by H. pylori in RPMI 1640 media. Cell growth was measured by trypan blue assay. Western blot analysis was performed to investigate effect of extract containing Quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on the expression of inflammatory factors and the inhibition on cell growth. Furthermore, we compared the inhibitory effects with various combinations of clarithromycin, amoxicillin, omeprazole, and ECQ. The urease test with Christensen's Urea Agar was performed to identify the urease activity of H. pylori and the effect ECQ has on urease activity. When the cells were exposed to H. pylori, the trypan blue assay revealed a decrease in the rate of cell growth. Western blot analysis showed that H. pylori-infected cells had increased levels of degraded IκB-α and inflammatory factors. Pretreatment with ECQ inhibited interleukin expression induced by H. pylori in a dose-dependent manner. A combination of ECQ and antibiotics inhibited cytokine expression more effectively than other treatments. H. pylori displayed significant urease activity. ECQ did not significantly inhibit urease activity. These data suggest that H. pylori infection has cytotoxic effects against AGS cells, and ECQ may inhibit the production of proinflammatory cytokines in H. pylori-infected AGS cells. PMID:26580421

  1. Role of sulfatides in adhesion of Helicobacter pylori to gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kamisago, S; Iwamori, M; Tai, T; Mitamura, K; Yazaki, Y; Sugano, K

    1996-01-01

    We have demonstrated that clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori preferentially bind to sulfatides (I3SO3-GalCer) and GM3 gangliosides (II3NeuAcLacCer), two predominant acidic glycosphingolipids in the human gastric mucosa, on thin-layer chromatography plates. However, it has not yet been clarified that these glycospingolipids truly serve as adhesion receptors for H. pylori in live cells. In this study, we used a gastric cancer cell line, KATO III, as a cellular model of H. pylori adhesion and examined the role of sulfatides in attachment. The adhesion of H. pylori (i.e., a standard strain of H. pylori, NCTC 11637) to KATO III cells and the effects of various substances on this adhesion were monitored and semiquantitated by flow cytometric analysis. Sulfated glycoconjugates, such as heparin and gastric mucin, significantly inhibited H. pylori adhesion to KATO III cells. Membrane preparations from KATO III cells strongly inhibited this adhesion. In the membrane preparations, sulfatides were present as a major acidic glycosphinoglipid. With the exception of sulfatides, no distinct adhesion of H. pylori to glycospingolipids from KATO III cells were observed. Moreover, H. pylori did not bind to any membrane proteins of KATO III cells. Finally, a monoclonal anti-sulfatide antibody markedly reduced H. pylori adhesion to KATO III cells. These results suggest that sulfatides, and possibly related sulfated compounds, serve as a major receptor for cell adhesion by H. pylori. PMID:8550217

  2. tlpA gene expression is required for arginine and bicarbonate chemotaxis in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Cerda, Oscar A; Núñez-Villena, Felipe; Soto, Sarita E; Ugalde, José Manuel; López-Solís, Remigio; Toledo, Héctor

    2011-01-01

    About half of the human population is infected with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium causing gastritis, peptic ulcer and progression to gastric cancer. Chemotaxis and flagellar motility are required for colonization and persistence of H. pylori in the gastric mucus layer. It is not completely clear which chemical gradients are used by H. pylori to maintain its position. TlpA, a chemotaxis receptor for arginine/ bicarbonate, has been identified. This study aimed to find out whether tlpA gene expression is required for the chemotactic response to arginine/bicarbonate. Wild-type motile H. pylori ATCC 700392 and H. pylori ATCC 43504, a strain having an interrupted tlpA gene, were used. Also, a tlpA-knockout mutant of H. pylori 700392 (H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat) was produced by homologous recombination. Expression of tlpA was assessed by a Reverse Transcriptase-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Chemotaxis was measured as a Relative Chemotaxis Response (RCR) by a modified capillary assay. H. pylori 700392 presented chemotaxis to arginine and sodium bicarbonate. H. pylori 700-tlpA::cat showed neither tlpA gene expression nor chemotaxis towards arginine and bicarbonate. Besides confirming that TlpA is a chemotactic receptor for arginine/bicarbonate in H. pylori, this study showed that tlpA gene expression is required for arginine/bicarbonate chemotaxis. PMID:22688915

  3. Decreased level of antibodies against Helicobacter pylori in patients with rheumatoid arthritis receiving intramuscular gold.

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, M; Dijkmans, B A; Vandenbroucke, J P; van Duijn, W; Peña, A S; Lamers, C B

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sodium aurothiomalate has been reported to have in vitro activity against Helicobacter pylori. Intramuscular gold, as given to patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may therefore influence the colonisation of the gastric mucosa with H pylori. METHODS: Two groups were compared. One group of 42 patients was treated with intramuscular gold; the other group of 58 patients was treated with antimalarial drugs. Antibodies to H pylori (IgA and IgG) were assessed by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and total IgA and IgG were measured by nephelometry. RESULTS: IgA and IgG antibody titres against H pylori and total IgA and IgG levels were lower in the patients treated with gold than in the group treated with antimalarial drugs. The ratio of IgA antibodies to H pylori to total IgA antibodies and the ratio of IgG antibodies to H pylori to total IgG antibodies were lower in the group treated with gold. The percentage of seropositivity to H pylori was significantly lower in the group treated with gold than in the group treated with antimalarial drugs for the two IgA antibodies (35 and 55% respectively) and IgG antibodies to H pylori (40 and 65% respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although this study cannot completely exclude the possibility that a suppressive effect of intramuscular gold on total immunoglobulin production plays a part in the decrease in the titres of IgA antibodies to H pylori and IgG antibodies to H pylori, the lower ratios of antibodies to H pylori to total immunoglobulin antibodies and the lower percentages of seropositivity to H pylori in the group treated with gold suggests that treatment with intramuscular gold decreases H pylori colonisation. PMID:1417132

  4. Vacuoles of Candida yeast as a specialized niche for Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Siavoshi, Farideh; Saniee, Parastoo

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are resistant to hostile gastric environments and antibiotic therapy, reflecting the possibility that they are protected by an ecological niche, such as inside the vacuoles of human epithelial and immune cells. Candida yeast may also provide such an alternative niche, as fluorescently labeled H. pylori were observed as fast-moving and viable bacterium-like bodies inside the vacuoles of gastric, oral, vaginal and foodborne Candida yeasts. In addition, H. pylori-specific genes and proteins were detected in samples extracted from these yeasts. The H. pylori present within these yeasts produce peroxiredoxin and thiol peroxidase, providing the ability to detoxify oxygen metabolites formed in immune cells. Furthermore, these bacteria produce urease and VacA, two virulence determinants of H. pylori that influence phago-lysosome fusion and bacterial survival in macrophages. Microscopic observations of H. pylori cells in new generations of yeasts along with amplification of H. pylori-specific genes from consecutive generations indicate that new yeasts can inherit the intracellular H. pylori as part of their vacuolar content. Accordingly, it is proposed that yeast vacuoles serve as a sophisticated niche that protects H. pylori against the environmental stresses and provides essential nutrients, including ergosterol, for its growth and multiplication. This intracellular establishment inside the yeast vacuole likely occurred long ago, leading to the adaptation of H. pylori to persist in phagocytic cells. The presence of these bacteria within yeasts, including foodborne yeasts, along with the vertical transmission of yeasts from mother to neonate, provide explanations for the persistence and propagation of H. pylori in the human population. This Topic Highlight reviews and discusses recent evidence regarding the evolutionary adaptation of H. pylori to thrive in host cell vacuoles. PMID:24833856

  5. Clinical role and importance of fluorescence in situ hybridization method in diagnosis of H pylori infection and determination of clarithromycin resistance in H pylori eradication therapy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Ozlem; Demiray, Ebru

    2007-02-01

    H pylori is etiologically associated with gastritis, gastric and duodenal ulcers, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Eradicating H pylori may convert rapidly the outcome of related diseases with the use of more accurate diagnostic molecular tests. Indeed some of the tests cannot give the evidence of current infection; H pylori can be detected by noninvasive and invasive methods, the latter requiring an endoscopy. Eradication failure is a big problem in H pylori infection. Recently, clarithromycin resistance in H pylori strains is increasing and eradication therapy of this bacterium is becoming more difficult. Molecular methods have frequently been applied besides phenotypic methods for susceptibility testing to detect clarithromycin resistance due to mutations in the 2143 and 2144 positions of 23S rRNA gene. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method on paraffin embedded tissue is a rapid, accurate and cost-effective method for the detection of H pylori infection and to determine clarithromycin resistance within three hours according to the gold standards as a non-culture method. This method can also be applied to fresh biopsy samples and the isolated colonies from a culture of H pylori, detecting both the culturable bacillary forms and the coccoid forms of H pylori, besides the paraffin embedded tissue sections. This technique is helpful for determining the bacterial density and the results of treatment where clarithromycin has been widely used in populations to increase the efficacy of the treatment and to clarify the treatment failure in vitro. PMID:17278188

  6. Helicobacter pylori Eradication Therapy Is Effective as the Initial Treatment for Patients with H. pylori-Negative and Disseminated Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Park, Hyungchul; Ko, Young Bo; Na, Hee Kyong; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We investigated the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy for gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status or disease stage. Methods From November 1995 to September 2014, 345 subjects who were diagnosed with gastric MALT lymphoma and had received eradication therapy as their first-line treatment were eligible for inclusion in this study. A retrospective review was performed using the medical records. Results Of the 345 patients, H. pylori infection was detected in 317 patients (91.9%). The complete remission (CR) rate after eradication therapy was 82.3%, which was higher in H. pylori-positive patients than in H. pylori-negative patients (84.5% vs 57.1%, p=0.001). CR rates after eradication did not present significant differences between stages, and the CR rate was 83.3% for stage IE1 and 74.4% for stage IE2 or above (p=0.167). The overall CR rate was 87.2% after additional treatment, and neither H. pylori infection status nor stage showed differences according to the treatment response. Conclusions Eradication therapy led to CR in 57.1% of H. pylori-negative patients and in 74.4% of patients with stage IE2 or above. Eradication therapy is worthwhile as an initial treatment for gastric MALT lymphoma regardless of the H. pylori infection status and stage. PMID:27114423

  7. 14C-urea breath test in C pylori gastritis.

    PubMed Central

    Rauws, E A; Royen, E A; Langenberg, W; Woensel, J V; Vrij, A A; Tytgat, G N

    1989-01-01

    14C-urea breath test was used to detect Campylobacter pylori colonisation in 129 consecutive non-ulcer dyspepsia patients. Fasting patients were given 3 microCi (110 kBq) of 14C-labelled urea after a test meal. Breath samples were collected at 10 minute intervals for 90 minutes and the C-14 activity was counted on a liquid scintillation analyser. Urea derived 14CO2 appears in the exhaled breath of Campylobacter pylori culture positive individuals within 20-30 minutes. Likelihood analysis revealed a most favourable cut off level of [0.07% dose 14C-urea/mmol CO2] multiplied by body weight at t = 40 minutes, to separate culture positive from culture negative subjects. Using this upper limit of normal, a positive likelihood ratio of 50 and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.05 was calculated. Sensitivity of the test was 95% and specificity 98%. The 14C-urea breath test is a simple, sensitive and non-invasive test, that detects viable C pylori microorganism and semiquantitatively assesses the bacterial load of C pylori colonisation. Administration of a single dose of colloidal bismuth subcitrate resulted in a rapid decrease in 14CO2 excretion, so this test can be used to confirm eradication of the bacterium in therapeutic trials without endoscopy, or need for culture. PMID:2753404

  8. A METHOD TO DETECT VIABLE HELICOBACTER PYLORI BACTERIA IN GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The inability to detect the presence of viable Helicobacter pylori bacteria in environmental waters has hindered the public health community in assessing the role water may playin the transmission of this pathogen. This work describes a cultural enrichment method coupled with an...

  9. Helicobacter pylori and Other Gastric Microbiota in Gastroduodenal Pathologies.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Schütte, Kerstin; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori changed the traditional view of the stomach as a hostile organ to bacterial survival. H. pylori induces chronic gastritis, which has the potential to progress to severe complications such as peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia. The development of modern nucleotide sequencing techniques and new biocomputational tools allow the possibility of studying the diversity and complexity of the microbiome in the whole gastrointestinal (GI) tract and overcome the limitations of culturing techniques. However, the differentiation of alive resident and transient microbes in the upper GI tract and their role in the pathogenesis of gastroduodenal diseases requires an analysis beyond the detection of bacterial genomic material alone. Metabolomic and transcriptomic analyses of the bacteria may add important insights into their interaction with the host. Currently, the interaction of H. pylori with other microbes in the stomach and duodenum and their role for health and disease is poorly understood. This review provides a concise overview on the current knowledge of H. pylori and other gastric microbiota in the relationship with gastroduodenal pathologies. PMID:27028228

  10. Attempts to enhance the eradication rate of Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Bang, Chang Seok; Baik, Gwang Ho

    2014-01-01

    Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole present challenges in maintaining optimal eradication rates. Knowledge of local antibiotic resistance and consumption pattern is important in selecting a reliable regimen. In addition, adverse effect profiles of therapeutic regimens are important and must be addressed to enhance compliance rates. Various methods of enhancing the eradication rates of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have been investigated, including changing combinations or durations of established drugs, adding adjuvant drugs, or development of new molecules or agents. Bismuth-containing quadruple, sequential, concomitant, and levofloxacin-based triple therapies are replacing the long-standing standard of the triple regimen. Despite the encouraging results of these regimens, individualized approaches like treatment after antibiotics resistance test or CYP2C19 genotyping would be the mainstream of future therapy. Because scientific, economic, and technical problems make these advance therapies unfit for widespread use, future development for H. pylori therapy should be directed to overcome individualized antibiotic resistance. Although various novel regimens and additive agents have indicated favorable outcomes, more studies or validations are needed to become a mainstream H. pylori therapy. PMID:24833855

  11. Effects of Helicobacter Pylori Eradication Among Adults with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, R. A.; Schluter, P. J.; Webb, P. M.

    2004-01-01

    Compared to the general population, Helicobacter pylori infection is more common among adults with intellectual disability (ID) and is associated with greater levels of disability, maladaptive behaviour, and institutionalization. Little information exists about the effects of eradication therapy in this group, so we aimed to evaluate: (1) success…

  12. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan; Lv, Yan; Zhang, Jian-Bin; Wang, Bing; Lv, Guo-Jun; Ma, Xiao-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogenic bacterial infections and is found in the stomachs of approximately half of the world’s population. It is the primary known cause of gastritis, gastroduodenal ulcer disease and gastric cancer. However, combined drug therapy as the general treatment in the clinic, the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, adverse reactions and poor patient compliance are major obstacles to the eradication of H. pylori. Oral site-specific drug delivery systems that could increase the longevity of the treatment agent at the target site might improve the therapeutic effect and avoid side effects. Gastroretentive drug delivery systems potentially prolong the gastric retention time and controlled/sustained release of a drug, thereby increasing the concentration of the drug at the application site, potentially improving its bioavailability and reducing the necessary dosage. Recommended gastroretentive drug delivery systems for enhancing local drug delivery include floating systems, bioadhesive systems and expandable systems. In this review, we summarize the important physiological parameters of the gastrointestinal tract that affect the gastric residence time. We then focus on various aspects useful in the development of gastroretentive drug delivery systems, including current trends and the progress of novel forms, especially with respect to their application for the treatment of H. pylori infections. PMID:25071326

  13. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K

    2016-01-21

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa's cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade. Emerging long-term data showed that eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of subsequent cancer development. It however remains confusing whether eradication of the bacterium in individuals with pre-neoplastic gastric lesions could regress these changes as well as in preventing cancer. Whilst H. pylori eradication could likely regress AG, the presence of IM may be a point of no return in this cascade. Hence, surveillance by endoscopy may be indicated in those with extensive IM or those with incomplete IM, particularly in populations with high GC risk. The optimal interval and the best tool of surveillance endoscopy remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:26811668

  14. Helicobacter pylori associated gastric intestinal metaplasia: Treatment and surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kevin Sze-Hang; Wong, Irene Oi-Ling; Leung, Wai K

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the leading causes of cancer related death in the world, particularly in East Asia. According to the Correa’s cancer cascade, non-cardia GC is usually developed through a series of mucosal changes from non-atrophic gastritis to atrophic gastritis (AG), intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia and adenocarcinoma. Atrophic gastritis and IM are therefore generally considered to be pre-neoplastic gastric lesions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is an important initiating and promoting step of this gastric carcinogenesis cascade. Emerging long-term data showed that eradication of H. pylori reduced the risk of subsequent cancer development. It however remains confusing whether eradication of the bacterium in individuals with pre-neoplastic gastric lesions could regress these changes as well as in preventing cancer. Whilst H. pylori eradication could likely regress AG, the presence of IM may be a point of no return in this cascade. Hence, surveillance by endoscopy may be indicated in those with extensive IM or those with incomplete IM, particularly in populations with high GC risk. The optimal interval and the best tool of surveillance endoscopy remains to be determined in future studies. PMID:26811668

  15. A Novel Reduction Strategy of Clarithromycin Resistance in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tadjrobehkar, Omid; Abdollahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic resistance is a major therapeutic problem in patients infected with Helicobacter pylori. H. pylori clarithromycin resistant mutants have been evolved during antibiotic therapy, this is mainly due to 23s rRNA point mutations. Objectives: In the present study, we investigated anti-mutational features of four traditionally Iranian medicinal plants on three local isolated H. pylori strains. Materials and Methods: In this study clarithromycin resistance was used as a mutation indicator. Frequencies of such mutations in the presence and absence of plant extracts were evaluated. Mutation incidence was evaluated by Luria Delbruck fluctuation assay. Results: The mean mutation frequency in H. pylori isolates was 27 × 10-9 which decreased at the presence of Mirtus communis, Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium and Thymus vulgaris of plant extract, this amount was 97.4%, 95.2%, 63.7% and 19.6% respectively. Moreover, A-to-G transition at 2143 position (A2143G) was detected by PCR-sequencing as major point mutation causing clarithromycin resistant mutants. Conclusions: The efficacy of these plant extracts in prohibiting resistance showed considerable results. This finding should be considered to use plant extracts with antibiotics to develop more effective eradication regimens. PMID:25741431

  16. Differences in Genotypes of Helicobacter pylori from Different Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K.; Velapatiño, Billie; Su, WanWen; Pan, ZhiJun; Garcia, Claudia; Hernandez, Virginia; Valdez, Yanet; Mistry, Rajesh S.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yuan, Yuan; Gao, Hua; Alarcón, Teresa; López-Brea, Manuel; Balakrish Nair, G.; Chowdhury, Abhijit; Datta, Simanti; Shirai, Mutsunori; Nakazawa, Teruko; Ally, Reidwaan; Segal, Isidore; Wong, Benjamin C. Y.; Lam, S. K.; Olfat, Farzad O.; Borén, Thomas; Engstrand, Lars; Torres, Olga; Schneider, Roberto; Thomas, Julian E.; Czinn, Steven; Berg, Douglas E.

    2000-01-01

    DNA motifs at several informative loci in more than 500 strains of Helicobacter pylori from five continents were studied by PCR and sequencing to gain insights into the evolution of this gastric pathogen. Five types of deletion, insertion, and substitution motifs were found at the right end of the H. pylori cag pathogenicity island. Of the three most common motifs, type I predominated in Spaniards, native Peruvians, and Guatemalan Ladinos (mixed Amerindian-European ancestry) and also in native Africans and U.S. residents; type II predominated among Japanese and Chinese; and type III predominated in Indians from Calcutta. Sequences in the cagA gene and in vacAm1 type alleles of the vacuolating cytotoxin gene (vacA) of strains from native Peruvians were also more like those from Spaniards than those from Asians. These indications of relatedness of Latin American and Spanish strains, despite the closer genetic relatedness of Amerindian and Asian people themselves, lead us to suggest that H. pylori may have been brought to the New World by European conquerors and colonists about 500 years ago. This thinking, in turn, suggests that H. pylori infection might have become widespread in people quite recently in human evolution. PMID:10809702

  17. Structural Insights into Polymorphic ABO Glycan Binding by Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Moonens, Kristof; Gideonsson, Pär; Subedi, Suresh; Bugaytsova, Jeanna; Romaõ, Ema; Mendez, Melissa; Nordén, Jenny; Fallah, Mahsa; Rakhimova, Lena; Shevtsova, Anna; Lahmann, Martina; Castaldo, Gaetano; Brännström, Kristoffer; Coppens, Fanny; Lo, Alvin W; Ny, Tor; Solnick, Jay V; Vandenbussche, Guy; Oscarson, Stefan; Hammarström, Lennart; Arnqvist, Anna; Berg, Douglas E; Muyldermans, Serge; Borén, Thomas; Remaut, Han

    2016-01-13

    The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Le(b) blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial attachment to gastric surfaces, increasing strain virulence and forming a recognized risk factor for peptic ulcers and gastric cancer. High sequence variation causes BabA functional diversity, but the underlying structural-molecular determinants are unknown. We generated X-ray structures of representative BabA isoforms that reveal a polymorphic, three-pronged Le(b) binding site. Two diversity loops, DL1 and DL2, provide adaptive control to binding affinity, notably ABO versus O bg preference. H. pylori strains can switch bg preference with single DL1 amino acid substitutions, and can coexpress functionally divergent BabA isoforms. The anchor point for receptor binding is the embrace of an ABO fucose residue by a disulfide-clasped loop, which is inactivated by reduction. Treatment with the redox-active pharmaceutic N-acetylcysteine lowers gastric mucosal neutrophil infiltration in H. pylori-infected Le(b)-expressing mice, providing perspectives on possible H. pylori eradication therapies. PMID:26764597

  18. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: what should be the gold standard?

    PubMed

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-09-28

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983, numerous detection methods for the presence of the bacterium have been developed. Each one of them has been associated with advantages and disadvantages. Noninvasive tests such as serology, (13)C urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen tests are usually preferred by the clinicians. Serology has its own limitation especially in endemic areas while (13)C UBT is technically very demanding. The stool antigen detection method, although specific, is usually associated with poor sensitivity. The (13)C UBT is believed to be specific, but with present revelation of the fact that stomach is colonized by many other urease producing bacteria makes it questionable. Histology, culture, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the tests which are carried out on antral biopsies collected by invasive means. Histology has been proposed to be very sensitive and specific but the question is how by simply looking the morphology of the bacteria in the microscope, one can claim that the curved bacterium is exclusively H. pylori. Rapid urease test (RUT), the doctor's test, is also challenged because the presence of other urease producing bacteria in the stomach cannot be denied. Moreover, RUT has been reported with poor sensitivity specially, when density of the bacterium is low. Isolation of H. pylori is essential to investigate its growth requirements, antibiotic susceptibility testing, studying virulence factor to develop vaccine and many more explorations. It has also got several disadvantages i.e., special condition for transporting, media, incubation and few days waiting for the colonies to appear, apart from the speed essentially needed to process the specimens. Till date, majority of the microbiological laboratories in the world are not equipped and trained to isolate such fastidious bacterium. The option left is PCR methods to detect H. pylori's DNA in gastric mucosa, gastric juice, saliva, dental

  19. The Korean Perspective of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Lessons from Japan Policy to Prevent Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sooyeon; Park, Jong-Min; Park, Sang-Ho; Kim, Eun-Hee; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2013-01-01

    The guideline of the Korean College of Helicobacter and Upper Gastrointestinal Research group for Helicobacter pylori infection was first produced in 1998. Definite indication for H. pylori eradication is early gastric cancer in addition to the previous indications of peptic ulcer (PUD) including scar lesion and marginal zone B cell lymphoma (MALT type). Though treatment regimen was similar, Japan government declared the inclusion of H. pylori eradication in patients with H. pylori-associated chronic gastritis, suggesting the treatment guideline is quite different between Korea and Japan from February 21, 2013. The prime rationale of Japanese extended treatment guideline for H. pylori infection was based on the drastic intention to prevent gastric cancer according to their beliefs that H. pylori eradication can decrease gastric cancer incidence as well as mortality. In this review, the discrepancy in treatment guideline between Korea and Japan will be explained. PMID:25337536

  20. Unintended consequences of Helicobacter pylori infection in children in developing countries

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Dulciene MM; Rocha, Andreia MC; Crabtree, Jean E

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is predominantly acquired early in life. The prevalence of the infection in childhood is low in developed countries, whereas in developing countries most children are infected by 10 y of age. In poor resource settings, where malnutrition, parasitic/enteropathogen and H. pylori infection co-exist in young children, H. pylori might have potentially more diverse clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the impact of childhood H. pylori infection in developing countries that should now be the urgent focus of future research. The extra-gastric manifestations in early H. pylori infection in infants in poor resource settings might be a consequence of the infection associated initial hypochlorhydria. The potential role of H. pylori infection on iron deficiency, growth impairment, diarrheal disease, malabsorption and cognitive function is discussed in this review. PMID:23988829

  1. Examination of tissue distribution of Helicobacter pylori within columnar-lined esophagus.

    PubMed

    Sharma, V K; Demian, S E; Taillon, D; Vasudeva, R; Howden, C W

    1999-06-01

    H. pylori may colonize columnar-lined esophagus, although an etiologic role in esophageal adenocarcinoma is unproven. H. pylori can adhere to intestinal metaplasia in the stomach. This study was designed to examine if H. pylori adheres to specialized intestinal metaplasia in columnar-lined esophagus. Esophageal biopsies from patients with columnar-lined esophagus were reviewed. Patients with only gastric metaplasia were excluded. Sections with specialized intestinal metaplasia in at least one third of at least one gland were recut, stained using the Giemsa stain, and reexamined by two independent pathologists using strict criteria for adherence by H. pylori. The 209 esophageal biopsies with adequate specialized intestinal metaplasia from 58 patients were examined: H. pylori was only seen on gastric metaplasia in three patients-and never on specialized intestinal metaplasia. Within the esophagus, H. pylori adheres only to gastric metaplasia, which is not considered premalignant for esophageal adenocarcinoma. PMID:10389690

  2. Transforming growth factor-β: an important mediator in Helicobacter pylori-associated pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianshuang; Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic, helical bacillus that specifically colonizes the gastric mucosa. The interaction of virulence factors, host genetic factors, and environmental factors contributes to the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated conditions, such as atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia. Infection with H. pylori has recently been recognized as the strongest risk factor for gastric cancer. As a pleiotropic cytokine, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β regulates various biological processes, including cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and metastasis. Recent studies have shed new light on the involvement of TGF-β signaling in the pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. This review focuses on the potential etiological roles of TGF-β in H. pylori-mediated gastric pathogenesis. PMID:26583078

  3. Inflammatory response of macrophages cultured with Helicobacter pylori strains was regulated by miR-155.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yongliang; Li, Guangxin; Wu, Jianhong; Zhang, Xian; Wang, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA-155 plays an important role in the inflammatory response macrophages, while present studies identified that miR-155 was up-expressed in gastritis induced by Helicobacter pylori. We found that miR-155 was over expressed in macrophages infected with H. pylori in vivo or in vitro. Subsequently, inflammatory cytokines IL-23, IL-10, TNF-α and IL-8 were increased significantly, and the expression of CD80, CD86 or COX2, NOS2. Were enhanced in H. pylori infection macrophages by regulated with miR-155mimics. Furthermore, the apoptosis of macrophages induced by H. pylori was increased obviously due to the over-expression of miR-155. Therefore, these observations indicated that miR-155 may act as a inflammatory promoter in H. pylori infected macrophages. These findings contribute us to understand the functions of miR-155 in gastritis induced by H. pylori furtherly. PMID:26191144

  4. Intracellular and Interstitial Expression of Helicobacter pylori Virulence Genes in Gastric Precancerous Intestinal Metaplasia and Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Semino-Mora, Cristina; Doi, Sonia Q.; Marty, Aileen; Simko, Vlado; Carlstedt, Ingemar; Dubois, Andre

    2008-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer are associated with Helicobacter pylori, but the bacterium often is undetectable in these lesions. To unravel this apparent paradox, IM, H. pylori presence, and the expression of H. pylori virulence genes were quantified concurrently using histologic testing, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. H. pylori was detected inside metaplastic, dysplastic, and neoplastic epithelial cells, and cagA and babA2 expression was colocalized. Importantly, expression of cagA was significantly higher in patients with IM and adenocarcinoma than in control subjects. The preneoplastic “acidic” MUC2 mucin was detected only in the presence of H. pylori, and MUC2 expression was higher in patients with IM, dysplasia, and cancer. These novel findings are compatible with the hypothesis that all stages of gastric carcinogenesis are fostered by persistent intracellular expression of H. pylori virulence genes, especially cagA inside MUC2-producing precancerous gastric cells and pleomorphic cancer cells. PMID:12695995

  5. Biofilms and Helicobacter pylori: Dissemination and persistence within the environment and host

    PubMed Central

    Percival, Steven L; Suleman, Louise

    2014-01-01

    The presence of viable Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the environment is considered to contribute to the levels of H. pylori found in the human population, which also aids to increase its genetic variability and its environmental adaptability and persistence. H. pylori form biofilms both within the in vitro and in vivo environment. This represents an important attribute that assists the survival of this bacterium within environments that are both hostile and adverse to proliferation. It is the aim of this paper to review the ability of H. pylori to form biofilms in vivo and in vitro and to address the inherent mechanisms considered to significantly enhance its persistence within the host and in external environments. Furthermore, the dissemination of H. pylori in the external environment and within the human body and its impact upon infection control will be discussed. PMID:25133015

  6. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 Influences Bacterial Virulence and Is Essential for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Anderl, Florian; Kruse, Tobias; Schindele, Franziska; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna; Fischer, Wolfgang; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The Dsb protein family is responsible for introducing disulfide bonds into nascent proteins in prokaryotes, stabilizing the structure of many proteins. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 is a Dsb-like protein, shown to catalyze disulfide bond formation and to participate in redox homeostasis. Notably, many H. pylori virulence factors are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. By employing H. pylori HP0231 deficient strains we analyzed the effect of lack of this bacterial protein on the functionality of virulence factors containing putative disulfide bonds. The lack of H. pylori HP0231 impaired CagA translocation into gastric epithelial cells and reduced VacA-induced cellular vacuolation. Moreover, H. pylori HP0231 deficient bacteria were not able to colonize the gastric mucosa of mice, probably due to compromised motility. Together, our data demonstrate an essential function for H. pylori HP0231 in gastric colonization and proper function of bacterial virulence factors related to gastric pathology. PMID:27138472

  7. Serum pepsinogen I and II concentrations and IgG antibody to Helicobacter pylori in dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Biasco, G; Paganelli, G M; Vaira, D; Holton, J; Di Febo, G; Brillanti, S; Miglioli, M; Barbara, L; Samloff, I M

    1993-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the association between histologically confirmed gastritis, carriage of Helicobacter pylori and pepsinogen (PG) I and PG II concentrations. METHODS--Prospective study of 81 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was made. The extent of gastric mucosal inflammation and the presence of H pylori was determined, and serology to evaluate PG I and II concentrations and IgG titres to H pylori was carried out. RESULTS--The presence of H pylori was strongly correlated with high IgG antibody titres to H pylori and gastritis. Patients who were H pylori positive had significantly higher PG I and PG II concentrations and a significantly lower PG I:PG II ratio than patients who were negative for H pylori. In 13 patients with duodenal ulcer and H pylori positive gastritis serum PG I concentrations were significantly higher than in H pylori positive patients without duodenal ulcer. Significant correlations were found between the age of patients and serum PG II, the PG I:PG II ratio, IgG antibodies to H pylori, the severity of body gastritis and H pylori infection, and between the degree of gastritis in the body of the stomach and the PG II concentration. CONCLUSIONS--Serum PG I and II concentrations, together with a fall in the PG I:PG II ratio, could be used as predictors of H pylori infection as well as serum IgG antibody response to H pylori. PMID:8227432

  8. Gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Konturek, P C; Konturek, S J; Brzozowski, T

    2006-09-01

    The Nobel prize in Physiology and Medicine in 2005 was presented to Barry Marshall and Robin Warren for their discovery of Helicobacter pylori (Hp), but only the involvement of this germ in gastritis and peptic ulcer has been mentioned in the award sentence, while numerous epidemiological, clinical and experimental studies and reports emphasized the crucial role of Hp in pathogenesis of gastric cancer (GC). This review is based on the old concept proposed by P. Correa much before the discovery of spiral bacteria in the stomach, postulating the cascade of mucosal changes from acute/chronic gastritis into the atrophic gastritis with intestinal metaplasia and finally to dysplasia and GC. It is now widely accepted view that Hp infection is the major initiator of the inflammatory and atrophic changes in gastric mucosa accompanied by an over-expression of certain growth factors such as gastrin as well as of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and anti-apoptotic proteins including survivin and B-cl(2), leading to proliferation of mutated atrophic cells, excessive angiogenesis, inhibition of apoptosis and formation of gastric tumour. All the morphological and biochemical changes associated with the transformation of mucosal cells into the cancer cells can be traced in excellent experimental model of gastric cancerogenesis induced by infection of Hp in Mongolian gerbils. Since the eradication therapy was proved in several prospective clinical trials to greatly reduce the incidence of GC and this was confirmed on the gerbil model of Hp-induced GC, it has been postulated; a) that Hp is the major causal factor in pathogenesis of GC and b) that the only rational approach in attempt to reduce the occurrence of GC is the global eradication of Hp. PMID:17033105

  9. Polysorbate 80 and Helicobacter pylori: a microbiological and ultrastructural study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The frequent occurrence of chemoresistant strains reduces the chances of eradication of H. pylori infection and prompted the investigation of non-antibiotic substances active against this organism. Some surfactants enhance the effectiveness of antibiotics for their permeabilizing properties towards bacteria. We examined the antimicrobial activity to H. pylori of the surfactant polysorbate 80, used alone and in association with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, metronidazole, levofloxacin and tetracycline. We also aimed to study the ultrastructural alterations caused upon H. pylori by polysorbate 80, alone and in combination with antibiotics. Twenty-two H. pylori strains were tested using the broth dilution method. After incubation, broth from each dilution was subcultured onto agar enriched with foetal bovine serum to determine the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Synergistic effect of polysorbate 80 with antibiotics was investigated by the broth dilution and disc diffusion techniques. Ultrastructural alterations of organisms treated with polysorbate 80, alone and in association with antibiotics were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. Results MBCs of polysorbate 80 ranged from 2.6 (1.1) μg/ml to 32 (0) μg/ml. Polysorbate 80 exerted a synergistic effect when associated with metronidazole and clarithromycin: polysorbate 80 and metronidazole MBCs decreased by ≥ 4 fold; clarithromycin MBCs for two resistant strains decreased by 20 and 1000 times. The principal alteration caused by polysorbate 80 consisted in the detachment of the outer membrane of bacteria. Conclusions The bactericidal activity of polysorbate 80 and the synergistic effect of the association with metronidazole and clarithromycin could be useful in the treatment of H. pylori infection. PMID:22998649

  10. Local Cytokine Response in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, C.; Quiding-Järbrink, M.; Lönroth, H.; Hamlet, A.; Svennerholm, A.-M.

    1998-01-01

    The host immune response to Helicobacter pylori infection might be of importance with regard to the outcome of infection by this organism, e.g., to explain why only a proportion of infected subjects develop peptic ulcers. In this study we have analyzed the local response of different cytokines—i.e., the proinflammatory interleukin-1β, (IL-1β), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and IL-8; the immunoregulatory gamma interferon (IFN-γ); and IL-4; and the anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)—in antral biopsy specimens from H. pylori-infected duodenal ulcer (DU) patients and asymptomatic (AS) carriers (i.e., with chronic gastritis only). For comparison, biopsy specimens from uninfected healthy individuals were also analyzed. An immunohistochemical technique was used to allow quantification of the cytokine responses as well as identification of the cell types associated with the cytokine expression. We found that the levels of all of the studied cytokines except IL-4 were increased in the H. pylori-infected subjects compared to the levels in the healthy individuals. Our results indicate that the antral cytokine response is of the Th1 type since IFN-γ, but not IL-4, was up-regulated both in H. pylori-infected DU patients and in AS carriers. However, there were no significant differences in either proinflammatory or immunoregulatory cytokine levels when H. pylori-infected subjects with and without peptic ulcers were compared. Some of the cytokines, particularly IL-1β and TGF-β, were also found in the gastric mucosae of healthy, uninfected subjects. We also showed that the gastric epithelium contributes substantially to the antral cytokine response of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6 in addition to IL-8. PMID:9826379

  11. Helicobacter pylori eradication in West Asia: A review

    PubMed Central

    Fakheri, Hafez; Bari, Zohreh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of first- and second-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimens varies considerably in West Asian countries, mainly due to the variable prevalence of resistant organisms. However, no review article has yet evaluated and compared the efficacy of different regimens among different countries of this region. Therefore, we conducted a review to select the best options and provide recommendations for H. pylori treatment in this geographic region. A search through PubMed was carried out to obtain relevant randomized clinical trials published in English language up to June 2013. According to the results, among different therapeutic regimens used as the first-line protocols, 10-d Bismuth-Furazolidone/Metronidazole quadruple therapy, 14-d Clarithromycin-containing hybrid therapy and 14-d quadruple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor + Bismuth + Tetracycline (500 mg QID) + Metronidazole (500 mg TDS) seemed to be appropriate options. Among second-line therapeutic regimens, Bismuth-based quadruple therapies containing Tetracycline and Furazolidone/Metronidazole, triple therapy containing Amoxicillin and Gatifloxacin and Quadruple therapy including Bismuth + Azithromycin and Ofloxacin seemed to be effective options. Third-line therapies were not evaluated in West Asia; most guidelines, however, recommend choosing optimal eradication regimen according to the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. Although we limited our investigation to H. pylori eradication regimens in West Asia, the clinical significance of the results goes beyond the countries situated in this geographic region. In fact, the results are transferrable to any region as long as the patterns of resistance are the same. PMID:25132752

  12. Protein Glycosylation in Helicobacter pylori: Beyond the Flagellins?

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Patrick S.; Ford, Rachel S.; Zebian, Najwa; Merkx-Jacques, Alexandra; Vijayakumar, Somalinga; Ratnayake, Dinath; Hayworth, Jacqueline; Creuzenet, Carole

    2011-01-01

    Glycosylation of flagellins by pseudaminic acid is required for virulence in Helicobacter pylori. We demonstrate that, in H. pylori, glycosylation extends to proteins other than flagellins and to sugars other than pseudaminic acid. Several candidate glycoproteins distinct from the flagellins were detected via ProQ-emerald staining and DIG- or biotin- hydrazide labeling of the soluble and outer membrane fractions of wild-type H. pylori, suggesting that protein glycosylation is not limited to the flagellins. DIG-hydrazide labeling of proteins from pseudaminic acid biosynthesis pathway mutants showed that the glycosylation of some glycoproteins is not dependent on the pseudaminic acid glycosylation pathway, indicating the existence of a novel glycosylation pathway. Fractions enriched in glycoprotein candidates by ion exchange chromatography were used to extract the sugars by acid hydrolysis. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection revealed characteristic monosaccharide peaks in these extracts. The monosaccharides were then identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The spectra are consistent with sugars such as 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac) previously described on flagellins, 5-acetamidino-7-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Am7Ac), bacillosamine derivatives and a potential legionaminic acid derivative (Leg5AmNMe7Ac) which were not previously identified in H. pylori. These data open the way to the study of the mechanism and role of protein glycosylation on protein function and virulence in H. pylori. PMID:21984942

  13. Phasevarion mediated epigenetic gene regulation in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Srikhanta, Yogitha N; Gorrell, Rebecca J; Steen, Jason A; Gawthorne, Jayde A; Kwok, Terry; Grimmond, Sean M; Robins-Browne, Roy M; Jennings, Michael P

    2011-01-01

    Many host-adapted bacterial pathogens contain DNA methyltransferases (mod genes) that are subject to phase-variable expression (high-frequency reversible ON/OFF switching of gene expression). In Haemophilus influenzae and pathogenic Neisseria, the random switching of the modA gene, associated with a phase-variable type III restriction modification (R-M) system, controls expression of a phase-variable regulon of genes (a "phasevarion"), via differential methylation of the genome in the modA ON and OFF states. Phase-variable type III R-M systems are also found in Helicobacter pylori, suggesting that phasevarions may also exist in this key human pathogen. Phylogenetic studies on the phase-variable type III modH gene revealed that there are 17 distinct alleles in H. pylori, which differ only in their DNA recognition domain. One of the most commonly found alleles was modH5 (16% of isolates). Microarray analysis comparing the wild-type P12modH5 ON strain to a P12ΔmodH5 mutant revealed that six genes were either up- or down-regulated, and some were virulence-associated. These included flaA, which encodes a flagella protein important in motility and hopG, an outer membrane protein essential for colonization and associated with gastric cancer. This study provides the first evidence of this epigenetic mechanism of gene expression in H. pylori. Characterisation of H. pylori modH phasevarions to define stable immunological targets will be essential for vaccine development and may also contribute to understanding H. pylori pathogenesis. PMID:22162751

  14. Ammonium Metabolism Enzymes Aid Helicobacter pylori Acid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Erica F.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori possesses a highly active urease to support acid tolerance. Urea hydrolysis occurs inside the cytoplasm, resulting in the production of NH3 that is immediately protonated to form NH4+. This ammonium must be metabolized or effluxed because its presence within the cell is counterproductive to the goal of raising pH while maintaining a viable proton motive force (PMF). Two compatible hypotheses for mitigating intracellular ammonium toxicity include (i) the exit of protonated ammonium outward via the UreI permease, which was shown to facilitate diffusion of both urea and ammonium, and/or (ii) the assimilation of this ammonium, which is supported by evidence that H. pylori assimilates urea nitrogen into its amino acid pools. We investigated the second hypothesis by constructing strains with altered expression of the ammonium-assimilating enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the ammonium-evolving periplasmic enzymes glutaminase (Ggt) and asparaginase (AsnB). H. pylori strains expressing elevated levels of either GS or GDH are more acid tolerant than the wild type, exhibit enhanced ammonium production, and are able to alkalize the medium faster than the wild type. Strains lacking the genes for either Ggt or AsnB are acid sensitive, have 8-fold-lower urea-dependent ammonium production, and are more acid sensitive than the parent. Additionally, we found that purified H. pylori GS produces glutamine in the presence of Mg2+ at a rate similar to that of unadenylated Escherichia coli GS. These data reveal that all four enzymes contribute to whole-cell acid resistance in H. pylori and are likely important for assimilation and/or efflux of urea-derived ammonium. PMID:24936052

  15. Helicobacter pylori eradication in West Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Fakheri, Hafez; Bari, Zohreh; Aarabi, Mohsen; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2014-08-14

    The efficacy of first- and second-line Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication regimens varies considerably in West Asian countries, mainly due to the variable prevalence of resistant organisms. However, no review article has yet evaluated and compared the efficacy of different regimens among different countries of this region. Therefore, we conducted a review to select the best options and provide recommendations for H. pylori treatment in this geographic region. A search through PubMed was carried out to obtain relevant randomized clinical trials published in English language up to June 2013. According to the results, among different therapeutic regimens used as the first-line protocols, 10-d Bismuth-Furazolidone/Metronidazole quadruple therapy, 14-d Clarithromycin-containing hybrid therapy and 14-d quadruple therapy including a proton pump inhibitor + Bismuth + Tetracycline (500 mg QID) + Metronidazole (500 mg TDS) seemed to be appropriate options. Among second-line therapeutic regimens, Bismuth-based quadruple therapies containing Tetracycline and Furazolidone/Metronidazole, triple therapy containing Amoxicillin and Gatifloxacin and Quadruple therapy including Bismuth + Azithromycin and Ofloxacin seemed to be effective options. Third-line therapies were not evaluated in West Asia; most guidelines, however, recommend choosing optimal eradication regimen according to the pattern of antibiotic susceptibility of H. pylori. Although we limited our investigation to H. pylori eradication regimens in West Asia, the clinical significance of the results goes beyond the countries situated in this geographic region. In fact, the results are transferrable to any region as long as the patterns of resistance are the same. PMID:25132752

  16. Functional profile of gastric epithelial cells infected with Helicobacter pylori strains.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Sun, Hui; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhao, Huilin; Geng, Li; Li, Boqing

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastro-duodenal diseases, ranging from chronic gastritis to the development of peptic ulcer disease and end-stage gastric cancer. In the present study, the 26695 and SS1 strains of H. pylori were used to study the differential functional profiles of gastric epithelial cells infected with H. pylori. The apoptosis rates in GES-1 cells were significantly increased 3, 12 and 24 h after H. pylori 26695 and SS1 infection. Moreover, apoptosis by cells infected with the H. pylori 26695 strain was significantly higher than cells infected with the SS1 strain of H. pylori. No significant changes in the proliferation rates of GES-1 cells were observed after H. pylori 26695 or SS1 infection at any time during the experimental period. Exposure to H. pylori 26695 and SS1 induced a significant decline in the adhesion rates of GES-1 cells in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, H. pylori 26695 infection increased migration of GES-1 cells every hour during the whole experimental period compared with control cells. However, GES-1 cells infected with the H. pylori SS1 strain exhibited migration rates almost stable and comparable to those of control cells. These results indicate that the gastric epithelial cells respond differently depending on the H. pylori strains. This study indicates that the development of different gastric-related diseases may be a H. pylori strain-specific response. PMID:27015934

  17. [In vitro activities of faropenem against clarithromycin resistance Helicobacter pylori isolates].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Saika, T; Matsuzaki, K; Kobayashi, I; Fujioka, T; Nasu, M; Saionji, K; Igari, J

    1998-03-01

    Agar dilution and semi-solid agar dilution were used to determine the MIC of faropenem (FRPM) against 24 H. pylori isolates. FRPM was active against clarithromycin resistance H. pylori isolates. And, the MICs obtained by both methods were in agreement. The results suggest that FRPM was not affected by pH and is a clinically useful oral antibiotic for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infections. PMID:9585692

  18. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gold, Benjamin D.; Gilger, Mark A.; Czinn, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  19. Evaluation of noninvasive tests for diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Tamadon, Mohamad Reza; Saberi Far, Morteza; Soleimani, Alireza; Ghorbani, Raheb; Semnani, Vahid; Malek, Farhad; Malek, Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis is the most common method of renal replacement therapy for treatment of acute and chronic kidney failure. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) plays a major role in development of peptic ulcer, gastric neoplasms, and lymphoma as well as increased risk of cardiovascular disorders in hemodialysis patients. Objectives: In this study the diagnostic values of noninvasive tests [i.e. urea breath test (UBT), helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HPSA) and serology] in diagnosis of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients have been studied. Patients and Methods: All patients undergoing hemodialysis in Fatemieh Hospital, Semnan, Iran, were enrolled in the study, and their H. pylori status were assessed by using non-invasive tests including UBT, HPSA and serology. Patients with at least two out of 3 positive tests were considered infected with H. pylori. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the tests used in diagnosing H. pylori infection were 62.5%, 65.4%, 62.5% and 65.4% for UBT, 100%, 72.2%, 58.3% and 100% for serology, and 100%, 75%, 60.9% and 100% for fecal antigen test, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed that H. pylori serology and stool antigen tests have higher diagnostic values than UBT, and they are more reliable than UBT in diagnosis of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients. PMID:24475457

  20. Helicobacter pylori: Effect of coexisting diseases and update on treatment regimens

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Shen-Shong; Hu, Hsiao-Yun

    2015-01-01

    The presence of concomitant diseases is an independent predictive factor for non-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) peptic ulcers. Patients contracting concomitant diseases have an increased risk of developing ulcer disease through pathogenic mechanisms distinct from those of H. pylori infections. Factors other than H. pylori seem critical in peptic ulcer recurrence in end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cirrhotic patients. However, early H. pylori eradication is associated with a reduced risk of recurrent complicated peptic ulcers in patients with ESRD and liver cirrhosis. Resistances to triple therapy are currently detected using culture-based and molecular methods. Culture susceptibility testing before first- or second-line therapy is unadvisable. Using highly effective empiric first-line and rescue regimens can yield acceptable results. Sequential therapy has been included in a recent consensus report as a valid first-line option for eradicating H. pylori in geographic regions with high clarithromycin resistance. Two novel eradication regimens, namely concomitant and hybrid therapy, have proven more effective in patients with dual- (clarithromycin- and metronidazole-) resistant H. pylori strains. We aim to review the prevalence of and eradication therapy for H. pylori infection in patients with ESRD and cirrhosis. Moreover, we summarized the updated H. pylori eradication regimens. PMID:26558147

  1. Extracellular galectin-3 counteracts adhesion and exhibits chemoattraction in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Subhash, Vinod Vijay; Ling, Samantha Shi Min; Ho, Bow

    2016-08-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside lectin that is upregulated and rapidly secreted by gastric epithelial cells in response to Helicobacter pylori infection. An earlier study reported the involvement of H. pylori cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) in the expression of intracellular Gal-3. However, the role of extracellular Gal-3 and its functional significance in H. pylori-infected cells remains uncharacterized. Data presented here demonstrate secretion of Gal-3 is an initial host response event in gastric epithelial cells during H. pylori infection and is independent of CagA. Previously, Gal-3 was shown to bind to H. pylori LPS. The present study elaborates the significance of this binding, as extracellular recombinant Gal-3 (rGal-3) was shown to inhibit the adhesion of H. pylori to the gastric epithelial cells. Interestingly, a decrease in H. pylori adhesion to host cells also resulted in a decrease in apoptosis. Furthermore, the study also demonstrated a chemoattractant role of extracellular rGal-3 in the recruitment of THP-1 monocytes. This study outlines the previously unidentified roles of extracellular Gal-3 where it acts as a negative regulator of H. pylori adhesion and apoptosis in gastric epithelial cells, and as a chemoattractant to THP-1 monocytes. Our findings could contribute to the better understanding of how Gal-3 acts as a modulator under H. pylori-induced pathological conditions. PMID:27283429

  2. Development of a Mouse Model of Helicobacter pylori Infection that Mimics Human Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetti, Marta; Arico, Beatrice; Burroni, Daniela; Figura, Natale; Rappuoli, Rino; Ghiara, Paolo

    1995-03-01

    The human pathogen Helicobacter pylori is associated with gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and gastric cancer. The pathogenesis of H. pylori infection in vivo was studied by adapting fresh clinical isolates of bacteria to colonize the stomachs of mice. A gastric pathology resembling human disease was observed in infections with cytotoxin-producing strains but not with noncytotoxic strains. Oral immunization with purified H. pylori antigens protected mice from bacterial infection. This mouse model will allow the development of therapeutic agents and vaccines against H. pylori infection in humans.

  3. Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Demirci, Hakan; Ozturk, Kadir; Kurt, Omer

    2016-01-01

    We read the article “Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication: A prospective single-center study from China” written by Wang et al with great interest. It is reported in American and European guidelines that there is no sufficient test for the diagnosis of H. pylori except culture and that using at least two different tests for diagnosis of H. pylori is recommended. Patients who used antibiotics or bismuth salts in the previous 2 wk were excluded from study. But patients who used probiotics and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E were not excluded. PMID:27099453

  4. Helicobacter pylori and gastrointestinal symptoms in diagnostics and adjuvant chemotherapy of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Soveri, Leena-Maija; Osterlund, Pia; Ruotsalainen, Tarja; Poussa, Tuija; Rautelin, Hilpi; Bono, Petri

    2014-02-01

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is the mainstay of adjuvant treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC). Few studies have explored Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)-associated gastrointestinal symptoms in the diagnosis of CRC, and the association between H. pylori infection and gastrointestinal toxicity during adjuvant chemotherapy in CRC. Seventy-nine CRC patients were randomised in a prospective clinical trial to receive 5-FU and leucovorin administered as bolus injection (Mayo regimen) or continuous infusion (simplified de Gramont regimen). H. pylori antibodies were analysed at baseline, twice monthly during treatment and after treatment up to 12 months. Thirty-seven patients (47%) were H. pylori-seronegative at baseline. There was no significant association between baseline H. pylori seropositivity (n=42; 53%) and oro-gastrointestinal toxicity during chemotherapy. The median time from symptom onset of CRC to surgery was significantly longer in patients with H. pylori infection (median time, 6 vs. 5 months; P=0.012). Functional dyspeptic symptoms at presentation significantly delayed diagnosis (median time, 7.5 vs. 5 months; P=0.035), whereas anaemia, bowel symptoms, occlusion, blood in the stool, infection and hypolactasia did not. We conclude that there is no association between H. pylori status and gastrointestinal toxicity in CRC patients during chemotherapy. Dyspeptic symptoms and presence of H. pylori may delay the diagnosis of CRC. (www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN98405441). PMID:24396486

  5. The Effects of Two Novel Copper-Based Formulations on Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Saracino, Ilaria M; Zaccaro, Cristina; Re, Giovanna Lo; Vaira, Dino; Holton, John

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of two novel copper-based inorganic formulations for their activity against 60 isolates of Helicobacter pylori (Hp). The two copper-based formulations were tested against three NCTC Helicobacter pylori isolates and 57 clinical strains isolated from the UK and Italy in time-kill assays. Both copper-based formulations were bio-cidal against all Helicobacter pylori strains tested reducing the viable count by 4-5 log within 2 h. These two copper-based anti-microbial agents deserve further study in relation to the treatment of H. pylori-related gastric disease. PMID:27029303

  6. New Diagnostic Strategies for Detection of Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatric Patients.

    PubMed

    Gold, Benjamin D; Gilger, Mark A; Czinn, Steven J

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) is a common chronic bacterial infection that is an important cause of peptic ulcer disease and gastroduodenal disease in children. H pylori is also associated with extragastric manifestations, including growth reduction, iron-deficiency anemia, and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Current guidelines recommend endoscopy with biopsy for the definitive demonstration of H pylori infection. In contrast to serology, the fecal antigen test and the urea breath test provide reliable, sensitive, and specific results for detecting active H pylori infection in children before and after treatment. The first-line treatment option for pediatric patients is triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor and 2 antibiotics, which include amoxicillin and clarithromycin or metronidazole. Decreasing eradication rates and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of H pylori have led to the use of other treatments, such as sequential therapy or triple therapy with newer antibiotics, particularly in geographic areas with high rates of antibiotic resistance. Patients should be tested after treatment to confirm eradication, as the absence of symptoms does not necessarily mean that H pylori is no longer present. This clinical roundtable monograph provides an overview of H pylori infection, as well as expert insight into the diagnosis and management of H pylori infection in children. PMID:26491414

  7. AMP-activated protein kinase activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guoqiang; Zhu, Huanhuan; Zhou, Feng; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Li, Chenwan

    2014-10-10

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), infecting half of the world's population, causes gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved regulator of cellular energy and metabolism. Recent studies indicated an important role for AMPK in promoting cell survival. In this study, we discovered that H Pylori induced AMPK activation in transformed (GEC-1 line) and primary human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Inhibition of H Pylori-stimulated AMPK kinase activity by AMPK inhibitor compound C exacerbated apoptosis in transformed and primary GECs. Meanwhile, downregulation of AMPK expression by targeted shRNAs promoted apoptosis in H pylori-infected GECs. In contrast, A-769662 and resveratrol, two known AMPK activators, or AMPKα1 over-expression, enhanced H Pylori-induced AMPK activation, and inhibited GEC apoptosis. Our data suggested that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) could be the upstream kinase for AMPK activation by H pylori. Partial depletion of TAK1 by shRNAs not only inhibited AMPK activation, but also suppressed survival of H pylori-infected GECs. Taken together, these results suggest that TAK1-dependent AMPK activation protects GECs from H pylori-Induced apoptosis. PMID:25229685

  8. Characterization of feline Helicobacter pylori strains and associated gastritis in a colony of domestic cats.

    PubMed Central

    Handt, L K; Fox, J G; Stalis, I H; Rufo, R; Lee, G; Linn, J; Li, X; Kleanthous, H

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young adult domestic cats from a commercial vendor were found to be infected with Helicobacter pylori. Histopathologic analyses, selected electron microscopy, and urease mapping were performed on mucosal samples collected from the cardias and fundi, bodies, and antra of these cats' stomachs. H. pylori organisms were abundant in all areas of the stomach on the basis of histologic evaluation and urease mapping. H. pylori infection was associated with a moderate to severe lymphofollicular gastritis in 21 of 24 cats (88%). The gastritis was most pronounced in the antral region and consisted mainly of multifocal lymphoplasmacytic follicular infiltrates in the deep mucosa. The severity of gastritis in the antrum corresponded to high numbers of H. pylori there on the basis of the use of the urease assay as an indicator of H. pylori colonization. Ten of 24 cats (42%) also had small to moderate numbers of eosinophils in the gastric mucosa. All 24 cats had gastric lymphoid follicles, with follicles being most prevalent in the antrum. Electron microscopy of gastric tissue revealed numerous H. pylori organisms, some of which were closely adhered to the mucosal epithelium. Human H. pylori gene-specific primers to ureA and ureB amplified products of similar sizes from H. pylori cat isolates. Digestion of the products with restriction enzymes resulted in fragments characteristic of the restriction fragment length polymorphism patterns of H. pylori isolates from humans.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7494015

  9. Endoscopic and histopathologic findings associated with H. pylori infection in very young children.

    PubMed

    Tutar, Engin; Ertem, Deniz; Kotiloglu Karaa, Esin; Pehlivanoglu, Ender

    2009-01-01

    Most of the individuals infected with H. pylori acquire the infection early in life. However, there is limited data regarding endoscopic and histopathologic findings of H. pylori infection when it is acquired during infancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the H. pylori-related endoscopic and histopathological findings in children younger than 2 years of age. One hundred and fifty-two infants who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were included in the study. The diagnosis of H. pylori infection was based on histopathology and a positive rapid urease test. Forty of 152 (26.3%) infants were infected with H. pylori, and 65% of the infected infants had histopathologic gastritis. There were no clinical or endoscopic findings suggestive of H. pylori infection. No correlation could be found between the density of H. pylori and the severity of gastritis. H. pylori infection is associated with various degrees of gastritis in more than half of the infected infants. Since the likelihood of normal histopathology is rare in H. pylori-infected infants, its long-term complications should be cautiously followed up in endemic areas. PMID:18594977

  10. Helicobacter pylori detection in gastric biopsies, saliva and dental plaque of Brazilian dyspeptic patients.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Labio, Roger William de; Gatti, Luciano Lobo; Silva, Luiz Carlos da; Queiroz, Valdeir Fagundes de; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso; Payão, Spencer Luiz Marques

    2010-05-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen that causes chronic gastritis and is associated with the development of peptic ulcer disease and gastric malignancies. The oral cavity has been implicated as a potential H. pylori reservoir and may therefore be involved in the reinfection of the stomach, which can sometimes occur following treatment of an H. pylori infection. The objectives of this paper were (i) to determine the presence of H. pylori in the oral cavity and (ii) to examine the relationship between oral H. pylori and subsequent gastritis. Gastric biopsies, saliva samples and dental plaques were obtained from 78 dyspeptic adults. DNA was extracted and evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using polymerase chain reaction and Southern blotting methods. Persons with gastritis were frequently positive for H. pylori in their stomachs (p < 0.0001) and there was a statistically significant correlation between the presence of H. pylori in gastric biopsies and the oral cavity (p < 0.0001). Our results suggest a relationship between gastric infection and the presence of this bacterium in the oral cavity. Despite this, H. pylori were present in the oral cavity with variable distribution between saliva and dental plaques, suggesting the existence of a reservoir for the species and a potential association with gastric reinfection. PMID:20512249

  11. Salivary anti-Helicobacter pylori positivity among endoscopy patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Feteih, R; Abdel-Salam, M; Jamjoom, H; Akbar, H

    2009-01-01

    In this study, endoscopy patients with and without chronic liver disease (CLD) were examined and tested for Helicobacter pylori infection by detecting the presence of serum and salivary anti-H. pylori antibody. The validity of these measures was compared with Campylobacter-like organism analysis (gold standard) performed on patients requiring gastric biopsy. Among 114 patients with CLD and 50 without, the commonest endoscopy diagnosis was gastritis (27.2%). Salivary H. pylori positivity was significantly associated with older age. Salivary anti-H. pylori antibody positivity showed low sensitivity (36.6%) and high specificity (75.8%) in CLD patients. PMID:20218127

  12. Might Helicobacter pylori infection be associated with distortion on taste perception?

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Maria Paola; Pellegrini, Camilla; Bassetto, Maria Antonietta; Osculati, Francesco; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marcolini, Lisa; Pegoraro, Manuela; Fontana, Roberta; De Franceschi, Lucia

    2013-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been found in dental plaque, saliva and lingual sites. To date, taste or olfaction disorders related to H. pylori infections have never been reported. In a review of the literature we found two papers just referring to a sour taste sensation during H. pylori infection. Studies in animal models suggest that changes in taste perception may relate to infections which damage taste buds. We observed an interesting clinical case of a 24-year-old Ghanaian woman with documented H. pylori gastric infection, complaining of cacosmia and cacogeusia. Taste evaluation indicated hypogeusia and highlighted a specific difficulty in discriminating between bitter and acid tastes. Saliva fluid was found positive for the ureA gene (H. pylori ureasi A). On the basis of this report, we hypothesize that taste perception might be correlated with a documented H. pylori infection. So, in a dyspeptic clinical picture in both pre and post diagnostic phase when H. pylori infection is suspected, taste evaluation might be important. Further studies are certainly needed in a large patient population to clarify the possible connection between H. pylori infection and smell-taste distortion. PMID:23845559

  13. [Overview of researches for Helicobacter pylori in oral cavity and stomach].

    PubMed

    Yang, Kaiyu; Li, Yuqing; Zhou, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the most common pathogens in human and it is closely related to gastrointestinal diseases. It is essential for us to understand the transmission process of H. pylori to prevent its spreading. The oral cavity has been proposed as a reservoir for gastric H. pylori, which has been detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in both dental plaque and saliva. Some researchers have proposed H. pylori in oral cavity may play an important role in its transmission and reinfection. Oral-oral or fecal-oral transmission are thought to be the most possible transmit way. This review will discuss the evidence for the role of the oral cavity in the transmission of H. pylori, the difficulties encountered in addressing this topic and possible directions for future research. Oral H. pylori may also play a role in the diagnosis and prevention of deceases related to H. pylori such as gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma. The recent progresses in this area are also reviewed. Moreover, we also discussed the relationship between oral H. pylori and oral deceases like periodontal disease and oral ulcer. PMID:25033655

  14. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world's population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  15. [Role of ammonia-monochloramine system in Helicobacter pylori--induced gastric mucosal injury].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M; Miura, S

    1993-12-01

    Monochloramine is a reactive oxidant which is yielded by the reaction of neutrophil-derived hypochlorous acid and ammonia. Luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay reveals that H. pylori directly elicits a respiratory burst of neutrophils. This activation is also observed by adding the bacterial supernatant of cultured or sonicated H. pylori, suggesting that H. pylori-derived soluble factor may be responsible for the release of chlorinated oxidants. In vitro cytotoxicity assay indicates that cultured rabbit gastric mucosal cells are significantly damaged by neutrophils which are stimulated by H. pylori. This injury is attenuated by urease inhibitor, antioxidants, and taurine (monochloramine scavenger). These data support the concept that ammonia-monochloramine system plays an important role in H. pylori-associated gastric mucosal injury. Omeprazole and rebamipide significantly inhibit not only H. pylori-induced respiratory burst of neutrophils but also H. pylori-associated urease activity. This evidence emphasizes the advantageous effect of these anti-ulcer compounds on H. pylori-positive gastric lesion and postulates a new strategy for anti-H. pylori treatment. PMID:8283624

  16. Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Hakan; Ozturk, Kadir; Kurt, Omer

    2016-04-21

    We read the article "Effects of daily telephone-based re-education before taking medicine on Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication: A prospective single-center study from China" written by Wang et al with great interest. It is reported in American and European guidelines that there is no sufficient test for the diagnosis of H. pylori except culture and that using at least two different tests for diagnosis of H. pylori is recommended. Patients who used antibiotics or bismuth salts in the previous 2 wk were excluded from study. But patients who used probiotics and antioxidant vitamins such as vitamins C and E were not excluded. PMID:27099453

  17. Inhibition of Helicobacter pylori urease activity in vivo by the synthetic nickel binding protein Hpn.

    PubMed

    Heyl, Kerstin A; Fischer, André; Göbel, Ulf B; Henklein, Peter; Heimesaat, Markus M; Bereswill, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the most common cause of gastroduodenal ulcerations worldwide. Adaptation of H. pylori to the acidic environment is mediated by urease splitting urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia. Whereas neutralization of acid by ammonia is essential for gastric H. pylori colonization, the catalytic activity of urease is mediated by nickel ions. Therefore, nickel uptake and metabolism play key roles in H. pylori infection and urease is considered first line target for drug development and vaccination. Since nickel binding within H. pylori cells is mediated by the Histidine-rich protein designated Hpn, we investigated whether nickel binding by a synthetic Hpn is capable of abrogating urease activity of live H. pylori in liquid cultures. Supplementation of growth media with synthetic Hpn completely inhibited urease acitivity in live cells, indicating that H. pylori nickel uptake is effectively blocked by Hpn. Thus, nickel chelation by Hpn is stronger than nickel uptake of H. pylori offering therapeutic use of Hpn. Although the nickel binding of Hpn was confirmed by binding assays in vitro, its use in anti-H. pylori directed strategy will further need to be adapted to the gastric environment given that protons interfere with nickel binding and Hpn is degraded by pepsin. PMID:24265922

  18. The expression of IGF-1R in Helicobacter pylori-infected intestinal metaplasia and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Noriko; Kozu, Karina; Kobayashi, Shun; Nishiyama, Ryu; Okubo, Rie; Akai, Yuichi; Moriyama, Mitsuhiko; Kinukawa, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of IGF-1R has been demonstrated in gastrointestinal cancers, and its expression is reported as the result of the loss of tumor suppressors. IL-16 is involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic inflammatory diseases. The aim of this study is to determine the changes in the expression of IGF-1R in intestinal metaplasia (IM) and gastric cancer (GC) as well as the effect of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and IL-16 on cell proliferation and IGF-1R expression in gastric cells. AGS cells were incubated with combinations of IL-16 and H. pylori. Gastric cell proliferation was studied by BrdU uptake. In H. pylori infected mucosa, IGF-1R was significantly higher in IM than chronic gastritis (CG), and also higher in GC than CG and IM. H. pylori significantly decreased BrdU uptake. IL-16 increased BrdU uptake and IGF-1R on AGS cells which had been decreased by H. pylori. Co-incubation with IL-16 increased the expression of IGF-1R mRNA in H. pylori infected cells. We conclude that the expression of IGF-1R in H. pylori infected gastric mucosa may indicate an early stage of carcinogenesis. The IL-16 secretion by H. pylori can be a trigger for the expression of IGF-1R, and it may also be a factor for gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:27499580

  19. Helicobacter pylori infection and iron deficiency in patients with coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Fallah, S; Ahmadi, R; Moradi, N; Fadaei, R; Sezavar, S H; Seifi, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether impact of the seropositivity to Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) infection on ferritin and iron levels is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis in patients with cardiovascular disease. The anti H pylori IgG, IgA levels, serum ferritin and iron concentration of 86 patients with cardiovascular disease and 64 participants free of cardiovascular disease as control subjects were determined by ELISA assay. The results of present study showed that seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA levels of coronary artery disease (CAD) patients was higher than controls and CAD patients with negative anti H pylori IgG and IgA significantly. A significant negative correlation was found between seropositivity to H pylori IgG and IgA, ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients with seronegativity and seronegativity to H pylori IgG and IgA in comparison with controls. The achieved results from present study suggest that the involvement of H pylori infection in atherosclerosis process is based on the chronic inflammation which might facilitate the CAD-related pathologies. Moreover, impact of the presence of H pylori infection on reduction of the ferritin and iron levels of CAD patients as a risk factor independent of other classic factors including lipid profiles and inflammatory factors was remarkable. PMID:27545208

  20. Role of dental plaque, saliva and periodontal disease in Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Pradeep S; Kamath, Kavitha P; Anil, Sukumaran

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is one of the most common bacterial infections in humans. Although H. pylori may be detected in the stomach of approximately half of the world’s population, the mechanisms of transmission of the microorganism from individual to individual are not yet clear. Transmission of H. pylori could occur through iatrogenic, fecal-oral, and oral-oral routes, and through food and water. The microorganism may be transmitted orally and has been detected in dental plaque and saliva. However, the role of the oral cavity in the transmission and recurrence of H. pylori infection has been the subject of debate. A large number of studies investigating the role of oral hygiene and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection have varied significantly in terms of their methodology and sample population, resulting in a wide variation in the reported results. Nevertheless, recent studies have not only shown that the microorganism can be detected fairly consistently from the oral cavity but also demonstrated that the chances of recurrence of H. pylori infection is more likely among patients who harbor the organism in the oral cavity. Furthermore, initial results from clinical trials have shown that H. pylori-positive dyspeptic patients may benefit from periodontal therapy. This paper attempts to review the current body of evidence regarding the role of dental plaque, saliva, and periodontal disease in H. pylori infection. PMID:24914323

  1. The antimicrobial effects and metabolomic footprinting of carboxyl-capped bismuth nanoparticles against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Nazari, P; Dowlatabadi-Bazaz, R; Mofid, M R; Pourmand, M R; Daryani, N E; Faramarzi, M A; Sepehrizadeh, Z; Shahverdi, A R

    2014-01-01

    Organic salts of bismuth are currently used as antimicrobial agents against Helicobacter pylori. This study evaluated the antibacterial effect of elemental bismuth nanoparticles (Bi NPs) using a serial agar dilution method for the first time against different clinical isolates and a standard strain of H. pylori. The Bi NPs were biologically prepared and purified by a recently described method and subjected to further characterization by infrared spectroscopy and anti-H. pylori evaluation. Infrared spectroscopy results showed the presence of carboxyl functional groups on the surface of biogenic Bi NPs. These biogenic nanoparticles showed good antibacterial activity against all tested H. pylori strains. The resulting MICs varied between 60 and 100 μg/ml for clinical isolates of H. pylori and H. pylori (ATCC 26695). The antibacterial effect of bismuth ions was also tested against all test strains. The antimicrobial effect of Bi ions was lower than antimicrobial effect of bismuth in the form of elemental NPs. The effect of Bi NPs on metabolomic footprinting of H. pylori was further evaluated by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. Exposure of H. pylori to an inhibitory concentration of Bi NPs (100 μg/ml) led to release of some metabolites such as acetate, formic acid, glutamate, valine, glycine, and uracil from bacteria into their supernatant. These findings confirm that these nanoparticles interfere with Krebs cycle, nucleotide, and amino acid metabolism and shows anti-H. pylori activity. PMID:24104691

  2. Evidence-based assessment of proton-pump inhibitors in Helicobacter pylori eradication: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Eslick, Guy D

    2014-01-01

    Peptic ulcer disease continues to be issue especially due to its high prevalence in the developing world. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection associated duodenal ulcers should undergo eradication therapy. There are many regimens offered for H. pylori eradication which include triple, quadruple, or sequential therapy regimens. The central aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the evidence for H. pylori therapy from a meta-analytical outlook. The consequence of the dose, type of proton-pump inhibitor, and the length of the treatment will be debated. The most important risk factor for eradication failure is resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole. PMID:25356018

  3. Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43629/NCTC 11639 Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) from Biofilm and Planktonic Phase Associated with Extracellular DNA (eDNA)

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Rossella; Di Marcantonio, Maria C.; Robuffo, Iole; Pompilio, Arianna; Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella; Codagnone, Marilina; Muraro, Raffaella; Stoodley, Paul; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Mincione, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistence is associated with its capacity to develop biofilms as a response to changing environmental conditions and stress. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a component of H. pylori biofilm matrix but the lack of DNase I activity supports the hypothesis that eDNA might be protected by other extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and/or Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs), which bleb from the bacteria surface during growth. The aim of the present study was to both identify the eDNA presence on OMVs segregated from H. pylori ATCC 43629/NCTC 11639 biofilm (bOMVs) and its planktonic phase (pOMVs) and to characterize the physical-chemical properties of the OMVs. The presence of eDNA in bOMVs and pOMVs was initially carried out using DNase I-gold complex labeling and Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (TEM). bOMVs and pOMVs were further isolated and physical-chemical characterization carried out using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. eDNA associated with OMVs was detected and quantified using a PicoGreen spectrophotometer assay, while its extraction was performed with a DNA Kit. TEM images showed that eDNA was mainly associated with the OMV membrane surfaces; while PicoGreen staining showed a four-fold increase of dsDNA in bOMVs compared with pOMVs. The eDNA extracted from OMVs was visualized using gel electrophoresis. DLS analysis indicated that both planktonic and biofilm H. pylori phenotypes generated vesicles, with a broad distribution of sizes on the nanometer scale. The DLS aggregation assay suggested that eDNA may play a role in the aggregation of OMVs, in the biofilm phenotype. Moreover, the eDNA associated with vesicle membrane may impede DNase I activity on H. pylori biofilms. These results suggest that OMVs derived from the H. pylori biofilm phenotype may play a structural role by preventing eDNA degradation by nucleases, providing a bridging function between eDNA strands on OMV surfaces and promoting aggregation. PMID:26733944

  4. Human Trefoil Factor 2 Is a Lectin That Binds α-GlcNAc-capped Mucin Glycans with Antibiotic Activity against Helicobacter pylori*

    PubMed Central

    Hanisch, Franz-Georg; Bonar, David; Schloerer, Nils; Schroten, Horst

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is the major cause of gastric cancer and remains an important health care challenge. The trefoil factor peptides are a family of small highly conserved proteins that are claimed to play essential roles in cytoprotection and epithelial repair within the gastrointestinal tract. H. pylori colocalizes with MUC5AC at the gastric surface epithelium, but not with MUC6 secreted in concert with TFF2 by deep gastric glands. Both components of the gastric gland secretome associate non-covalently and show increased expression upon H. pylori infection. Although blood group active O-glycans of the Lewis-type form the basis of H. pylori adhesion to the surface mucin layer and to epithelial cells, α1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans on gastric mucins were proposed to inhibit H. pylori growth as a natural antibiotic. We show here that the gastric glycoform of TFF2 is a calcium-independent lectin, which binds with high specificity to O-linked α1,4-GlcNAc-capped hexasaccharides on human and porcine stomach mucin. The structural assignments of two hexasaccharide isomers and the binding active glycotope were based on mass spectrometry, linkage analysis, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, glycan inhibition, and lectin competition of TFF2-mucin binding. Neoglycolipids derived from the C3/C6-linked branches of the two isomers revealed highly specific TFF2 binding to the 6-linked trisaccharide in GlcNAcα1-4Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-6(Fucα1-2Galβ1-3)GalNAc-ol(Structure 1). Supposedly, lectin TFF2 is involved in protection of gastric epithelia via a functional relationship to defense against H. pylori launched by antibiotic α1,4-GlcNAc-capped mucin glycans. Lectin-carbohydrate interaction may have also an impact on more general functional aspects of TFF members by mediating their binding to cell signaling receptors. PMID:25124036

  5. Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43629/NCTC 11639 Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs) from Biofilm and Planktonic Phase Associated with Extracellular DNA (eDNA).

    PubMed

    Grande, Rossella; Di Marcantonio, Maria C; Robuffo, Iole; Pompilio, Arianna; Celia, Christian; Di Marzio, Luisa; Paolino, Donatella; Codagnone, Marilina; Muraro, Raffaella; Stoodley, Paul; Hall-Stoodley, Luanne; Mincione, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori persistence is associated with its capacity to develop biofilms as a response to changing environmental conditions and stress. Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is a component of H. pylori biofilm matrix but the lack of DNase I activity supports the hypothesis that eDNA might be protected by other extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and/or Outer Membrane Vesicles (OMVs), which bleb from the bacteria surface during growth. The aim of the present study was to both identify the eDNA presence on OMVs segregated from H. pylori ATCC 43629/NCTC 11639 biofilm (bOMVs) and its planktonic phase (pOMVs) and to characterize the physical-chemical properties of the OMVs. The presence of eDNA in bOMVs and pOMVs was initially carried out using DNase I-gold complex labeling and Transmission Electron Microscope analysis (TEM). bOMVs and pOMVs were further isolated and physical-chemical characterization carried out using dynamic light scattering (DLS) analysis. eDNA associated with OMVs was detected and quantified using a PicoGreen spectrophotometer assay, while its extraction was performed with a DNA Kit. TEM images showed that eDNA was mainly associated with the OMV membrane surfaces; while PicoGreen staining showed a four-fold increase of dsDNA in bOMVs compared with pOMVs. The eDNA extracted from OMVs was visualized using gel electrophoresis. DLS analysis indicated that both planktonic and biofilm H. pylori phenotypes generated vesicles, with a broad distribution of sizes on the nanometer scale. The DLS aggregation assay suggested that eDNA may play a role in the aggregation of OMVs, in the biofilm phenotype. Moreover, the eDNA associated with vesicle membrane may impede DNase I activity on H. pylori biofilms. These results suggest that OMVs derived from the H. pylori biofilm phenotype may play a structural role by preventing eDNA degradation by nucleases, providing a bridging function between eDNA strands on OMV surfaces and promoting aggregation. PMID:26733944

  6. Diagnosis of Helicobacter pylori: What should be the gold standard?

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Saurabh Kumar; Pratap, Chandra Bhan; Jain, Ashok Kumar; Gulati, Anil Kumar; Nath, Gopal

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in 1983, numerous detection methods for the presence of the bacterium have been developed. Each one of them has been associated with advantages and disadvantages. Noninvasive tests such as serology, 13C urea breath test (UBT) and stool antigen tests are usually preferred by the clinicians. Serology has its own limitation especially in endemic areas while 13C UBT is technically very demanding. The stool antigen detection method, although specific, is usually associated with poor sensitivity. The 13C UBT is believed to be specific, but with present revelation of the fact that stomach is colonized by many other urease producing bacteria makes it questionable. Histology, culture, rapid urease test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the tests which are carried out on antral biopsies collected by invasive means. Histology has been proposed to be very sensitive and specific but the question is how by simply looking the morphology of the bacteria in the microscope, one can claim that the curved bacterium is exclusively H. pylori. Rapid urease test (RUT), the doctor’s test, is also challenged because the presence of other urease producing bacteria in the stomach cannot be denied. Moreover, RUT has been reported with poor sensitivity specially, when density of the bacterium is low. Isolation of H. pylori is essential to investigate its growth requirements, antibiotic susceptibility testing, studying virulence factor to develop vaccine and many more explorations. It has also got several disadvantages i.e., special condition for transporting, media, incubation and few days waiting for the colonies to appear, apart from the speed essentially needed to process the specimens. Till date, majority of the microbiological laboratories in the world are not equipped and trained to isolate such fastidious bacterium. The option left is PCR methods to detect H. pylori’s DNA in gastric mucosa, gastric juice, saliva, dental

  7. Purification and characterization of urease from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Dunn, B E; Campbell, G P; Perez-Perez, G I; Blaser, M J

    1990-06-01

    Urease was purified 112-fold to homogeneity from the microaerophilic human gastric bacterium, Helicobacter pylori. The urease isolation procedure included a water extraction step, size exclusion chromatography, and anion exchange chromatography. The purified enzyme exhibited a Km of 0.3 +/- 0.1 mM and a Vmax of 1,100 +/- 200 mumols of urea hydrolyzed/min/mg of protein at 22 degrees C in 31 mM Tris-HCl, pH 8.0. The isoelectric point was 5.99 +/- 0.03. Molecular mass estimated for the native enzyme was 380,000 +/- 30,000 daltons, whereas subunit values of 62,000 +/- 2,000 and 30,000 +/- 1,000 were determined. The partial amino-terminal sequence (17 residues) of the large subunit of H. pylori urease (Mr = 62,000) was 76% homologous with an internal sequence of the homohexameric jack bean urease subunit (Mr = 90,770; Takashima, K., Suga, T., and Mamiya, G. (1988) Eur. J. Biochem. 175, 151-165) and was 65% homologous with amino-terminal sequences of the large subunits of heteropolymeric ureases from Proteus mirabilis (Mr = 73,000) and from Klebsiella aerogenes (Mr = 72,000; Mobley, H. L. T., and Hausinger, R. P. (1989) Microbiol. Rev. 53, 85-108). The amino-terminal sequence (20 residues) of the small subunit of H. pylori urease (Mr = 30,000) was 65 and 60% homologous with the amino-terminal sequences of the subunit of jack bean urease and with the Mr = 11,000 subunit of P. mirabilis urease (Jones, B. D., and Mobley, H. L. T. (1989) J. Bacteriol. 171, 6414-6422), respectively. Thus, the urease of H. pylori shows similarities to ureases found in plants and other bacteria. When used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, neither purified urease nor an Mr = 54,000 protein that co-purified with urease by size exclusion chromatography was as effective as crude preparations of H. pylori proteins at distinguishing sera from persons known either to be infected with H. pylori or not. PMID:2188975

  8. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Sung, Jae Kyu; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  9. Clinical Outcome of Eradication Therapy for Gastric Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma according to H. pylori Infection Status

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seok; Kang, Sun Hyung; Moon, Hee Seok; Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background. To evaluate the long-term outcome of H. pylori eradication therapy for gastric MALT lymphoma according to the presence of H. pylori infection. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients between January 2001 and June 2014. The clinicopathologic characteristics and clinical outcomes were compared between H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma groups. Results. Fifty-four patients were enrolled: 12 H. pylori-negative and 42 H. pylori-positive patients. The tumor was located more frequently in both the proximal and distal parts of the stomach (P = 0.001), and the percentage of multiple lesions was significantly greater in the H. pylori-negative group (P = 0.046). Forty-seven patients received initial eradication therapy, and 85% (35/41) of H. pylori-positive patients and 50% (3/6) of H. pylori-negative patients achieved complete remission after eradication therapy. The presence of multiple lesions was a predictive factor for unresponsiveness to H. pylori eradication (P = 0.024). The efficacy of eradication therapy (P = 0.133), complete remission (CR) maintenance period, and relapse after eradication therapy were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions. H. pylori eradication therapy could be an effective first-line treatment for localized H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma, especially for single lesions. PMID:27034656

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of Helicobacter pylori Strain 29CaP Isolated from a Mexican Patient with Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mucito-Varela, Eduardo; Castillo-Rojas, Gonzalo; Cevallos, Miguel A.; Lozano, Luis; Merino, Enrique; López-Leal, Gamaliel

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer and other gastroduodenal diseases. We report here the complete genome sequence of H. pylori strain 29CaP, isolated from a Mexican patient with gastric cancer. The genomic data analysis revealed a cag-negative H. pylori strain that contains a prophage sequence. PMID:26769924

  11. Low concentrations of zinc in gastric mucosa are associated with increased severity of Helicobacter pylori-induced inflammation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Chronic infection by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most common cause of gastric cancer. H. pylori induced oxidative stress and zinc deficiency results in increased sensitivity to the stress. In Ecuador, the prevalence of gastric cancer and zinc deficiency is high. We hypothesize...

  12. A highly specific and sensitive DNA probe derived from chromosomal DNA of Helicobacter pylori is useful for typing H. pylori isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Ferguson, D A; Ha, T; Chi, D S; Thomas, E

    1993-01-01

    HindIII-digested DNA fragments derived from an EcoRI-digested 6.5-kb fragment of chromosomal DNA prepared from Helicobacter pylori ATCC 43629 (type strain) were cloned into the pUC19 vector. A 0.86-kb insert was identified as a potential chromosomal DNA probe. The specificity of the probe was evaluated by testing 166 non-H. pylori bacterial strains representing 38 genera and 91 species which included aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerophilic flora of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tracts. None of the 166 non-H. pylori strains hybridized with this probe (100% specificity), and the sensitivity of this probe was also 100% when H. pylori isolates from 72 patients with gastritis and with the homologous ATCC type strain were tested by dot blot hybridization. The capability of this probe for differentiating between strains of H. pylori was evaluated by Southern blot hybridization of HaeIII-digested chromosomal DNA from 68 clinical isolates and the homologous ATCC type strain of H. pylori. Fifty-one unique hybridization patterns were seen among the 69 strains tested, demonstrating considerable genotypic variation among H. pylori clinical isolates. We propose that this probe would be of significant value for conducting epidemiologic studies. Images PMID:8370744

  13. On the importance of developing a new generation of breath tests for Helicobacter pylori detection.

    PubMed

    Kushch, Ievgeniia; Korenev, Nikolai; Kamarchuk, Lyudmila; Pospelov, Alexander; Kravchenko, Andrey; Bajenov, Leonid; Kabulov, Mels; Amann, Anton; Kamarchuk, Gennadii

    2015-12-01

    State-of-the-art methods for non-invasive detection of the Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection have been considered. A reported global tendency towards a non-decreasing prevalence of H. pylori worldwide could be co-influenced by the functional limitations of urea breath tests (UBTs), currently preferred for the non-invasive recognition of H. pylori in a clinical setting. Namely, the UBTs can demonstrate false-positive or false-negative results. Within this context, limitations of conventional clinically exploited H. pylori tests have been discussed to justify the existing need for the development of a new generation of breath tests for the detection of H. pylori and the differentiation of pathogenic and non-pathogenic strains of the bacterium. This paper presents the results of a pilot clinical study aimed at evaluating the development and diagnostic potential of a new method based on the detection of the non-urease products of H. pylori vital activity in exhaled gas. The characteristics of breath of adolescents with H. pylori-positive and H. pylori-negative functional dyspepsia, together with a consideration of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) status of H. pylori-positive subjects, have been determined for the first time using innovative point-contact nanosensor devices based on salts of the organic conductor tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ). The clinical and diagnostic relevance of the response curves of the point-contact sensors was assessed. It was found that the recovery time of the point-contact sensors has a diagnostic value for differentiation of the H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer disease. The diagnostically significant elongation of the recovery time was even more pronounced in patients infected with CagA-positive H. pylori strains compared to the CagA-negative patients. Taking into account the operation of the point-contact sensors in the real-time mode, the obtained results are essential prerequisites for the development of a fast and

  14. Does the antibody production ability affect the serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer?

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Hyun Ah; Lee, Sun-Young; Moon, Hee Won; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung; Park, Hyung Seok; Shim, Chan Sup; Han, Hye Seung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between serum titers of anti-Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) immunoglobulin G (IgG) and hepatitis B virus surface antibody (HBsAb). METHODS Korean adults were included whose samples had positive Giemsa staining on endoscopic biopsy and were studied in the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg)/HBsAb serologic assay, pepsinogen (PG) assay, and H. pylori serologic test on the same day. Subjects were excluded if they were positive for HBsAg, had a recent history of medication, or had other medical condition(s). We analyzed the effects of the following factors on serum titers of HBsAb and the anti-H. pylori IgG: Age, density of H. pylori infiltration in biopsy samples, serum concentrations of PG I and PG II, PG I/II ratio, and white blood cell count. RESULTS Of 111 included subjects, 74 (66.7%) exhibited a positive HBsAb finding. The serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer did not correlate with the serum HBsAb titer (P = 0.185); however, it correlated with the degree of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy (P < 0.001) and serum PG II concentration (P = 0.042). According to the density of H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy, subjects could be subdivided into those with a marked (median: 3.95, range 0.82-4.00) (P = 0.458), moderate (median: 3.37, range 1.86-4.00), and mild H. pylori infiltrations (median: 2.39, range 0.36-4.00) (P < 0.001). Subjects with a marked H. pylori infiltration on gastric biopsy had the highest serological titer, whereas in subjects with moderate and mild H. pylori infiltrations titers were correspondingly lower (P < 0.001). After the successful eradication, significant decreases of the degree of H. pylori infiltration (P < 0.001), serum anti-H. pylori IgG titer (P < 0.001), and serum concentrations of PG I (P = 0.028) and PG II (P = 0.028) were observed. CONCLUSION The anti-H. pylori IgG assay can be used to estimate the burden of bacteria in immunocompetent hosts with H. pylori infection, regardless

  15. Seroepidemiology of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Pregnant Women in Rural Durango, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme

    2013-01-01

    The seroepidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection in pregnant women in Durango, Mexico is largely unknown. The prevalence of anti-H. pylori IgG antibodies was examined in 343 pregnant women living in rural areas in 7 municipalities in Durango State, Mexico, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). A correlation of H. pylori seropositivity with socio-demographic, obstetric and behavioral characteristics of pregnant women was also assessed. In total, 179 (52.2%) of the 343 pregnant women (mean age, 24.2 ± 5.9 years) had H. pylori IgG antibodies, 75 (41.9%) of whom had H. pylori IgG antibody levels higher than 100 U/mL. The seroprevalence of H. pylori infection varied from 33.3% to 65% among municipalities. In contrast, the seroprevalence was comparable among women regardless their age, educational level, occupation, socioeconomic status, animal contacts, foreign travel, eating habits, contact with soil, crowding, sanitary conditions at home and educational level of the head of their families. Multivariant analysis of socio-demographic and behavioral variables showed that H. pylori seropositivity was associated with municipality (OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.01–1.24; P=0.02). Of the obstetric characteristics, the seroprevalence of H. pylori infection increased significantly with the number of pregnancies and deliveries but not with the number of cesarean sections or miscarriages. Rural pregnant women in Durango had a lower seroprevalence of H. pylori infection than those from populations in developing countries. Results support a variability of H. pylori seroprevalence within a region. Further research at a municipal level might help to understand the epidemiology of H. pylori infection. PMID:24711758

  16. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014–February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50–59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30–39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia. PMID:26599790

  17. Helicobacter pylori Associated Gastritis in Northern Maharashtra, India: A Histopathological Study of Gastric Mucosal Biopsies

    PubMed Central

    Mujawar, Parvez; Suryawanshi, Kishor H.; Pagare, Poonam S.; Surana, Akshay

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) are of major concern today because of its causal relationships with gastrointestinal diseases. It represents one of the most common and medically important infections worldwide. H.pylori plays a key role in the aetiology of chronic gastritis, duodenal ulcer, gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. There is paucity of literature regarding the morphological changes in H.pylori associated gastritis. Aim We undertake this study to find out the association and prevalence of H.pylori associated gastritis by histopathological methods in North Maharashtra, India. Materials and Methods A total 310 patients with various upper gastrointestinal disorders were included in this study over the period of 19 months from July 2013 to January 2015. The detailed clinical history was taken and patients were subjected to video gastroscopy. Each biopsy was studied with Haematoxylin and Eosin/Giemsa method. Results The prevalence of H.pylori was high in third to fourth decades. Out of 310 patients of gastrocopy, 144 were H.pylori positive by Haematoxylin and Eosin/Giemsa method. Morphological changes specific for H.pylori was noted as atrophy and irregular gastric mucosa, lymphoid aggregates and reactive atypia. Male patient were outnumbered by female patients. Conclusion Histopathological evaluation is the gold standard for diagnosing H.pylori infection. Prevalence of H.pylori in the present study was 46.5% in patients undergoing videogastroscopic biopsies for gastritis and vague upper gastrointestinal symptoms. Furthermore and large scale studies are required to establish the diagnostic modalities for H.pylori associated gastritis to prevent morbidity and mortality. PMID:26266125

  18. Antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of Helicobacter pylori isolated from patients in North India.

    PubMed

    Gehlot, Valentina; Mahant, Shweta; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Das, Kunal; De, Ronita; Kar, Premashis; Das, Rajashree

    2016-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori-related gastroduodenal diseases are very common in India. Antibiotic resistance to commonly used antibiotics against H. pylori is increasing very rapidly. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of H. pylori strains from India against commonly used antibiotics in H. pylori treatment. Helicobacter pylori were cultured from 68 patients suffering from various gastroduodenal diseases in North India. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) to different antibiotics were determined by agar dilution. The clinical diagnosis of the 68 patients who were H. pylori culture-positive were gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) (n=23), non-erosive reflux disease (NERD) (n=22), non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) (n=13), antral gastritis (n=3), duodenal ulcer (n=2) and others (n=5). Of the 68 H. pylori isolates, 20 (29.4%) showed no resistance. The prevalence of drug resistance was 70.6%, including resistance to metronidazole (48.5%), furazolidone (22.1%), amoxicillin (17.6%), tetracycline (16.2%) and clarithromycin (11.8%). Dual and multiple drug resistance were found in 26.5% and 8.8% of cases, respectively. In conclusion, more than two-thirds of the isolated H. pylori strains showed resistance to at least one of the antibiotics for H. pylori treatment. Metronidazole resistance was most prevalent amongst the isolates tested. Emergence of dual and multidrug resistance is of great concern and there is an urgent need for regular antibiotic resistance surveillance studies. Amoxicillin- and clarithromycin-based anti-H. pylori regimens commonly prescribed for triple therapy in India show least resistance and hence are appropriate for anti-H. pylori management in India. PMID:27436467

  19. The significance of cagA+Helicobacter pylori in reflux oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Warburton-Timms, V; Charlett, A; Valori, R; Uff, J; Shepherd, N; Barr, H; McNulty, C

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Helicobacter pylori is a gastroduodenal pathogen associated with ulceration, dyspepsia, and adenocarcinoma. Recent preliminary studies have suggested that H pylori may be protective for oesophageal adenocarcinoma. In addition, strains of H pylori identified by the presence of the cytotoxin associated gene A (cagA) are shown to have a significant inverse association with oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Given that cagA+ H pylori may protect against oesophageal carcinoma, these strains may be protective for oesophagitis, a precursor of oesophageal carcinoma.
AIMS—The aim of this study was to investigate the association between cagA+ H pylori and endoscopically proved oesophagitis.
PATIENTS—The study group included 1486 patients attending for routine upper gastrointestinal tract endoscopy.
METHODS—At endoscopy the oesophagus was assessed for evidence of reflux disease and graded according to standard protocols. Culture and histology of gastric biopsy specimens determined H pylori status. The prevalence of cagA was identified by an antibody specific ELISA (Viva Diagnostika, Germany).
RESULTS—H pylori was present in 663/1485 (45%) patients and in 120/312 (38%) patients with oesophagitis. Anti-CagA antibody was found in 499/640 (78%) H pylori positive patients. Similarly, anti-CagA antibody was found in 422/521 (81%) patients with a normal oesophagus and in 42/60 (70%) with mild, 24/35 (69%) with moderate, and 11/24 (46%) with severe oesophagitis. The risk of severe oesophagitis was significantly decreased for patients infected with cagA+ H pylori after correction for confounding variables (odds ratio 0.57, 95% confidence interval 0.41-0.80; p=0.001).
CONCLUSIONS—These results suggest that infection by cagA+ H pylori may be protective for oesophageal disease.


Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; cagA+; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophagitis; oesophageal adenocarcinoma; hiatus hernia PMID:11511554

  20. Disease manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection in Arctic Canada: using epidemiology to address community concerns

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Justin; Goodman, Karen J; Girgis, Safwat; Bailey, Robert; Morse, John; Fedorak, Richard N; Geary, Janis; Fagan-Garcia, Katharine; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Helicobacter pylori infection, linked to gastric cancer, is responsible for a large worldwide disease burden. H pylori prevalence and gastric cancer rates are elevated among indigenous Arctic communities, but implementation of prevention strategies is hampered by insufficient information. Some communities in northern Canada have advocated for H pylori prevention research. As a first step, community-driven research was undertaken to describe the H pylori-associated disease burden in concerned communities. Design Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a clinical interview and gastroscopy with gastric biopsies taken for histopathological examination in February 2008. Setting Study procedures were carried out at the health centre in Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada (population ∼600). Participants All residents of Aklavik were invited to complete a clinical interview and gastroscopy; 194 (58% female participants; 91% Aboriginal; age range 10–80 years) completed gastroscopy and had gastric biopsies taken. Primary and secondary outcome measures This analysis estimates the prevalence of gastric abnormalities detected by endoscopy and histopathology, and associations of demographic and clinical variables with H pylori prevalence. Results Among 194 participants with evaluable gastric biopsies, 66% were H pylori-positive on histology. Among H pylori-positive participants, prevalence was 94% for acute gastritis, 100% for chronic gastritis, 21% for gastric atrophy and 11% for intestinal metaplasia of the gastric mucosa, while chronic inflammation severity was mild in 9%, moderate in 47% and severe in 43%. In a multivariable model, H pylori prevalence was inversely associated with previous gastroscopy, previous H pylori therapy and aspirin use, and was positively associated with alcohol consumption. Conclusions In this population, H pylori-associated gastric histopathology shows a pattern compatible with elevated risk of gastric cancer. These

  1. Effects of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy on hyperammonaemia in patients with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed Central

    Miyaji, H; Ito, S; Azuma, T; Ito, Y; Yamazaki, Y; Ohtaki, Y; Sato, F; Hirai, M; Kuriyama, M; Kohli, Y

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Helicobacter pylori has strong urease activity. Ammonia produced by H pylori in the stomach can be a source of systemic ammonia in patients with hepatic dysfunction. The effect of the eradication of H pylori on hyperammonaemia was examined in patients with liver cirrhosis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were analysed in 50 patients with liver cirrhosis and hyperammonaemia. All patients were first treated with a low protein diet, kanamycin, lactulose, and branched chain enriched amino acid solution. Hyperammonaemia remained in 18 patients. These 18 patients were divided into three groups according to the status of H pylori infection; those with a diffuse distribution of H pylori in the stomach (group I), those with a regional distribution (group II), and those without H pylori (group III). These patients were given 30 mg iansoprazole, 1000 mg amoxicillin, and 400 mg clarithromycin or 500 mg metronidazole for two weeks to eradicate H pylori. RESULTS: In group I ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were significantly reduced after H pylori eradication. The blood ammonia concentration at 12 weeks after the eradication was still significantly lower than that before eradication. In groups II and III the ammonia concentrations in blood and gastric juice were not significantly reduced after eradication therapy. CONCLUSIONS: The diffuse distribution of H-pylori in the stomach contributes partly to hyperammonaemia in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the eradication of H pylori is effective in patients with hyperammonaemia with diffuse H pylori infection in the stomach. Images PMID:9245925

  2. Detection of Helicobacter pylori DNA in the saliva of patients complaining of halitosis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nao; Yoneda, Masahiro; Naito, Toru; Iwamoto, Tomoyuki; Masuo, Yousuke; Yamada, Kazuhiko; Hisama, Kazuhiro; Okada, Ichizo; Hirofuji, Takao

    2008-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection, which causes peptic ulcers and gastric cancer, is considered a possible cause of halitosis. Recently, the oral cavity was identified as a possible H. pylori reservoir, particularly in the presence of periodontal disease, which is a cause of halitosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate by PCR the prevalence of oral H. pylori in the saliva of subjects complaining of halitosis. Samples were obtained from 326 non-dyspeptic subjects, comprising 251 subjects with actual malodour and 75 subjects without halitosis. DNA was extracted from the samples, and the presence of H. pylori and periodontopathic bacteria including Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola and Prevotella intermedia was examined by PCR. H. pylori was detected in 21 (6.4 %) of 326 samples. The methyl mercaptan concentration and periodontal parameters including tooth mobility, periodontal pocket depth (PPD) and occult blood in the saliva were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Each of the periodontopathic bacteria was also detected at a significantly higher frequency in the H. pylori-positive subjects. Among those patients with a PPD of > or =5 mm and a tongue coating score of < or =2, no difference was observed in oral malodour levels between the H. pylori-positive and -negative subjects. However, the presence of occult blood in the saliva and the prevalence of Prevotella intermedia were significantly greater in the H. pylori-positive subjects. H. pylori was detected in 16 (15.7 %) of 102 subjects with periodontitis, suggesting that progression of periodontal pocket and inflammation may favour colonization by this species and that H. pylori infection may be indirectly associated with oral pathological halitosis following periodontitis. PMID:19018029

  3. Inverse Relationship Between Helicobacter Pylori Infection and Asthma Among Adults Younger than 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Kim, Nayoung; Lim, Seon Hee; Kwon, Jin-Won; Shin, Cheol Min; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Joo Sung; Jung, Hyun Chae; Cho, Sang-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have suggested that Helicobacter pylori could prevent allergic disease, particularly in children. However, whether this is true in adults is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is negative association between H. pylori infection and asthma among adults in an area with a high prevalence of H. pylori. This was a cross-sectional study using 2011 health surveillance data. Blood samples were taken from all participants to measure serum H. pylori IgG status. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, and medical history, including asthma and other allergic conditions were collected by a questionnaire. Of the 15,032 patients, 9492 (63.1%) had a history of H. pylori infection, 359 (2.4%) had asthma, and 3277 (21.8%) had other allergic conditions. H. pylori infection was positively correlated with age (OR, 1.050; 95% CI, 1.047–1.053, P < 0.001). Asthma history was positively correlated with age (OR, 1.022; 95% CI, 1.013–1.032, P < 0.001). H. pylori and age were shown to have interaction on asthma in the total participants (OR, 1.041; 95% CI, 1.021–1.062, P < 0.001). In subgroup analysis, H. pylori infection among those < 40 years old was inversely correlated with asthma (OR, 0.503; 95% CI, 0.280–0.904, P = 0.021). Other allergic conditions were not related with H. pylori infection among the total and those <40 years old. The inverse association between H. pylori infection and asthma among young adults suggests that the underlying immune mechanism induced by H. pylori infection may affect allergic reactions associated with asthma in young adults. PMID:26937899

  4. The effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in plasma ghrelin and leptin

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Appetite and energy expenditure are regulated in part by ghrelin and leptin produced in the gastric mucosa, which may be modified by H. pylori colonization. We prospectively evaluated the effect of H. pylori eradication on meal-associated changes in serum ghrelin and leptin levels, and body weight. Methods Veterans referred for upper GI endoscopy were evaluated at baseline and ≥8 weeks after endoscopy, and H. pylori status and body weight were ascertained. During the first visit in all subjects, and during subsequent visits in the initially H. pylori-positive subjects and controls, blood was collected after an overnight fast and 1 h after a standard high protein meal, and levels of eight hormones determined. Results Of 92 enrolled subjects, 38 were H. pylori-negative, 44 H. pylori-positive, and 10 were indeterminate. Among 23 H. pylori-positive subjects who completed evaluation after treatment, 21 were eradicated, and 2 failed eradication. After a median of seven months following eradication, six hormones related to energy homeostasis showed no significant differences, but post-prandial acylated ghrelin levels were nearly six-fold higher than pre-eradication (p = 0.005), and median integrated leptin levels also increased (20%) significantly (p < 0.001). BMI significantly increased (5 ± 2%; p = 0.008) over 18 months in the initially H. pylori-positive individuals, but was not significantly changed in those who were H. pylori-negative or indeterminant at baseline. Conclusions Circulating meal-associated leptin and ghrelin levels and BMI changed significantly after H. pylori eradication, providing direct evidence that H. pylori colonization is involved in ghrelin and leptin regulation, with consequent effects on body morphometry. PMID:21489301

  5. Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas: A review.

    PubMed

    Asano, Naoki; Iijima, Katsunori; Koike, Tomoyuki; Imatani, Akira; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2015-07-14

    Since Isaacson and Wright first reported on the extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the stomach in 1983, following studies have clarified many aspects of this disease. We now know that the stomach is the most affected organ by this disease, and approximately 90% of gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas are related to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. This implies that approximately 10% of gastric MALT lymphomas occur independent of H. pylori infection. The pathogenesis of these H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas remains unclear. To date, there have been several speculations. One possibility is that genetic alterations result in nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. Among these alterations, t(11;18)(q21;q21) is more frequently observed in H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphomas, and such translocation results in the synthesis of fusion protein API2-MALT1, which causes canonical and noncanonical NF-κB activation. Another possibility is infection with bacteria other than H. pylori. This could explain why H. pylori eradication therapy can cure some proportions of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients, although the bacteria responsible for MALT lymphomagenesis are yet to be defined. Recent advances in endoscopy suggest magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging as a useful tool for both detecting gastric MALT lymphoma lesions and judging the response to treatment. A certain proportion of H. pylori-negative gastric MALT lymphoma patients respond to eradication therapy; hence, H. pylori eradication therapy could be considered as a first-line treatment for gastric MALT lymphomas regardless of their H. pylori infection status. PMID:26185372

  6. Risk Factors and Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Five Largest Islands of Indonesia: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Syam, Ari Fahrial; Miftahussurur, Muhammad; Makmun, Dadang; Nusi, Iswan Abbas; Zain, Lukman Hakim; Zulkhairi; Akil, Fardah; Uswan, Willi Brodus; Simanjuntak, David; Uchida, Tomohisa; Adi, Pangestu; Utari, Amanda Pitarini; Rezkitha, Yudith Annisa Ayu; Subsomwong, Phawinee; Nasronudin; Suzuki, Rumiko; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection in Indonesia is still controversial and mainly investigated in the largest ethnic group, Javanese. We examined the prevalence of H. pylori infection using four different tests including culture, histology confirmed by immunohistochemistry and rapid urease test. We also analyzed risk factors associated with H. pylori infection in five largest islands in Indonesia. From January 2014-February 2015 we consecutively recruited a total of 267 patients with dyspeptic symptoms in Java, Papua, Sulawesi, Borneo and Sumatera Island. Overall, the prevalence of H. pylori infection was 22.1% (59/267). Papuan, Batak and Buginese ethnics had higher risk for H. pylori infection than Javanese, Dayak and Chinese ethnics (OR = 30.57, 6.31, 4.95; OR = 28.39, 5.81, 4.61 and OR = 23.23, 4.76, 3.77, respectively, P <0.05). The sensitivity and specificity for RUT and culture were 90.2%, 92.9% and 80.5%, 98.2%, respectively. The patients aged 50-59 years group had significantly higher H. pylori infection than 30-39 years group (OR 2.98, P = 0.05). Protestant had significantly higher H. pylori infection rate than that among Catholic (OR 4.42, P = 0.008). It was also significantly lower among peoples who used tap water as source of drinking water than from Wells/river (OR 9.67, P = 0.03). However only ethnics as become independent risk factors for H. pylori infection. Although we confirmed low prevalence of H. pylori in Javanese; predominant ethnic in Indonesia, several ethnic groups had higher risk of H. pylori infection. The age, religion and water source may implicate as a risk factor for H. pylori infection in Indonesia. PMID:26599790

  7. Role of the Helicobacter pylori virulence factors vacuolating cytotoxin, CagA, and urease in a mouse model of disease.

    PubMed Central

    Ghiara, P; Marchetti, M; Blaser, M J; Tummuru, M K; Cover, T L; Segal, E D; Tompkins, L S; Rappuoli, R

    1995-01-01

    The pathogenic role of Helicobacter pylori virulence factors has been studied with a mouse model of gastric disease. BALB/c mice were treated orally with different amounts of sonic extracts of cytotoxic H. pylori strains (NCTC 11637, 60190, 84-183, and 87A300 [CagA+/Tox+]). The pathological effects on histological sections of gastric mucosae were assessed and were compared with the effects of treatments with extracts from noncytotoxic strains (G21 and G50 [CagA-/Tox-]) and from strains that express either CagA alone (D931 [CagA+/Tox-]) or the cytotoxin alone (G104 [CagA-/Tox+]). The treatment with extracts from cytotoxic strains induced various epithelial lesions (vacuolation, erosions, and ulcerations), recruitment of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, and a marked reduction of the mucin layer. Extracts of noncytotoxic strains induced mucin depletion but no other significant pathology. Crude extracts of strain D931, expressing CagA alone, caused only mild infiltration of inflammatory cells, whereas extracts of strain G104, expressing cytotoxin alone, induced extensive epithelial damage but little inflammatory reaction. Loss of the mucin layer was not associated with a cytotoxic phenotype, since this loss was observed in mice treated with crude extracts of all strains. The pathogenic roles of CagA, cytotoxin, and urease were further assessed by using extracts of mutant strains of H. pylori defective in the expression of each of these virulence factors. The results obtained suggest that (i) urease activity does not play a significant role in inducing the observed gastric damage, (ii) cytotoxin has an important role in the induction of gastric epithelial cell lesions but not in eliciting inflammation, and (iii) other components present in strains which carry the cagA gene, but distinct from CagA itself, are involved in eliciting the inflammatory response. PMID:7558333

  8. Conformational Analysis of Isolated Domains of Helicobacter pylori CagA

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Hernan; Saijo-Hamano, Yumiko; Kwok, Terry; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The CagA protein of Helicobacter pylori is associated with increased virulence and gastric cancer risk. CagA is translocated into the host cell by a H. pylori type IV secretion system via mechanisms that are poorly understood. Translocated CagA interacts with numerous host factors, altering a variety of host signalling pathways. The recently determined crystal structure of C-terminally-truncated CagA indicated the presence of two domains: the smaller, flexible N-terminal domain and the larger, middle domain. In this study, we have investigated the conformation, oligomeric state and stability of the N-terminal, middle and glutamate-proline-isoleucine-tyrosine-alanine (EPIYA)-repeats domains. All three domains are monomeric, suggesting that the multimerisation of CagA observed in infected cells is likely to be mediated not by CagA itself but by its interacting partners. The middle and the C-terminal domains, but not the N-terminal domain, are capable of refolding spontaneously upon heat denaturation, lending support to the hypothesis that unfolded CagA is threaded C-terminus first through the type IV secretion channel with its N-terminal domain, which likely requires interactions with other domains to refold, being threaded last. Our findings also revealed that the C-terminal EPIYA-repeats domain of CagA exists in an intrinsically disordered premolten globule state with regions in PPII conformation - a feature that is shared by many scaffold proteins that bind multiple protein components of signalling pathways. Taken together, these results provide a deeper understanding of the physicochemical properties of CagA that underpin its complex cellular and oncogenic functions. PMID:24223932

  9. Evaluation of [13C]Urea Breath Test and Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen Test for Diagnosis of H. pylori Infection in Children from a Developing Country

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Luciana de Carvalho Costa; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; de Moura, Sílvia Beleza; de Figueiredo Soares, Taciana; Esteves, Ana Maria Braz; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; de Carvalho, Anfrisina Sales Teles; Bitencourt, Paulo; Ferreira, Alexandre; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2003-01-01

    The [13C]urea breath test (13C-UBT) and Helicobacter pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) for the diagnosis of H. pylori infection in children were validated. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 93.8, 99.1, 97.8, and 98.0%, respectively, for the 13C-UBT and 96.9, 100, 100, and 98.0%, respectively, for HpSA. Both tests are appropriate for diagnosing H. pylori infection in children. PMID:12843086

  10. Helicobacter pylori treatment: Still a work in progress.

    PubMed

    Senatore, Frank J; Wilmot, Jonathan; Birk, John W

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a common worldwide bacterium, possessing adaptability that has created difficulty achieving eradication. While the standard treatment was thought to be triple therapy with a proton pump inhibitor, amoxicillin, and clarithromycin, growing rates of treatment failure and antibiotic resistance have stimulated research into novel regimens. Quadruple therapy with bismuth has been compared for both first- and second-line treatments, but eradication still has not reached expected goals. Innovative regimens including sequential and concomitant therapy, as well as the introduction of new antibiotics into previous treatment schedules, have shown promising improvements in eradication rates. We discuss and compare these unique regimens, reviewing the current literature to deduce those which are most likely to provide the highest success in curing H. pylori infection. PMID:26490697

  11. Helicobacter pylori identification: a diagnostic/confirmatory method for evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, B; Gonçalves, M J; Pacheco, P; Lopes, J; Salazar, F; Relvas, M; Coelho, C; Pacheco, J J; Velazco, C

    2014-09-01

    The Helicobacter pylori extra gastric reservoir is probably the oral cavity. In order to evaluate the presence of this bacterium in patients with periodontitis and suspicious microbial cultures, saliva was collected from these and non-periodontitis subjects. PCRs targeting 16S rRNA gene and a 860 bp specific region were performed, and digested with the restriction enzyme DdeI. We observed that the PCR-RFLP approach augments the accuracy from 26.2 % (16/61), found in the PCR-based results, to 42.6 % (26/61), which is an excellent indicator for the establishment of this low-cost procedure as a diagnostic/confirmatory method for H. pylori evaluation. PMID:24715050

  12. Ribosome hijacking: a role for small protein B during trans-translation

    PubMed Central

    Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Germain-Amiot, Noella; Gillet, Reynald; Hallier, Marc; Ponchon, Luc; Dardel, Frédéric; Felden, Brice

    2009-01-01

    Tight recognition of codon–anticodon pairings by the ribosome ensures the accuracy and fidelity of protein synthesis. In eubacteria, translational surveillance and ribosome rescue are performed by the ‘tmRNA–SmpB' system (transfer messenger RNA–small protein B). Remarkably, entry and accommodation of aminoacylated-tmRNA into stalled ribosomes occur without a codon–anticodon interaction but in the presence of SmpB. Here, we show that within a stalled ribosome, SmpB interacts with the three universally conserved bases G530, A1492 and A1493 that form the 30S subunit decoding centre, in which canonical codon–anticodon pairing occurs. The footprints at positions A1492 and A1493 of a small decoding centre, as well as on a set of conserved SmpB amino acids, were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance. Mutants at these residues display the same growth defects as for ΔsmpB strains. The SmpB protein has functional and structural similarities with initiation factor 1, and is proposed to be a functional mimic of the pairing between a codon and an anticodon. PMID:19132006

  13. Helicobacter pylori Infection – A Boon or a Bane: Lessons from Studies in a Low-Prevalence Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Raj, Sundramoorthy Mahendra; Graham, David Y.

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. PMID:23607896

  14. Helicobacter pylori infection--a boon or a bane: lessons from studies in a low-prevalence population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Mahendra Raj, Sundramoorthy; Graham, David Y

    2013-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is etiologically associated with gastric cancer and peptic ulcer diseases which are both important public health burdens which could be largely eliminated by H. pylori eradication. However, some investigators urge caution based on the hypothesis that eradication of H. pylori may result in an increase in the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal adenocarcinoma, and childhood asthma. The ethnic Malays of northeastern Peninsular Malaysia have long had a low prevalence of H. pylori infection and, as expected, the incidence of gastric cancer and its precursor lesions is exceptionally low. The availability of a population with a low H. pylori prevalence and generally poor sanitation allows separation of H. pylori from the hygiene hypothesis and direct testing of whether absence of H. pylori is associated with untoward consequence. Contrary to predictions, in Malays, erosive esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, distal esophageal cancers, and childhood asthma are all of low incidence. This suggests that H. pylori is not protective rather the presence of H. pylori infection is likely a surrogate for poor hygiene and not an important source of antigens involved in the hygiene hypothesis. Helicobacter pylori in Malays is related to transmission from H. pylori-infected non-Malay immigrants. The factors responsible for low H. pylori acquisition, transmission, and burden of H. pylori infection in Malays remain unclear and likely involves a combination of environmental, host (gene polymorphisms), and strain virulence factors. Based on evidence from this population, absence of H. pylori infection is more likely to be boon than a bane. PMID:23607896

  15. [Helicobacter pylori, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents and gastroduodenal changes].

    PubMed

    Teixeira, A V

    1995-09-01

    The author discusses the possible interactions between non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) which may play an important role in the unleashing of gastroduodenal lesions. To our knowledge, AINEs have no influence on the prevalence of infection by Hp and the latter does not seem to influence the development and intensity of the lesions caused by NSAIDs. PMID:7484272

  16. Kyoto global consensus report on Helicobacter pylori gastritis

    PubMed Central

    Sugano, Kentaro; Tack, Jan; Kuipers, Ernst J; Graham, David Y; El-Omar, Emad M; Miura, Soichiro; Haruma, Ken; Asaka, Masahiro; Uemura, Naomi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Objective To present results of the Kyoto Global Consensus Meeting, which was convened to develop global consensus on (1) classification of chronic gastritis and duodenitis, (2) clinical distinction of dyspepsia caused by Helicobacter pylori from functional dyspepsia, (3) appropriate diagnostic assessment of gastritis and (4) when, whom and how to treat H. pylori gastritis. Design Twenty-three clinical questions addressing the above-mentioned four domains were drafted for which expert panels were asked to formulate relevant statements. A Delphi method using an anonymous electronic system was adopted to develop the consensus, the level of which was predefined as ≥80%. Final modifications of clinical questions and consensus were achieved at the face-to-face meeting in Kyoto. Results All 24 statements for 22 clinical questions after extensive modifications and omission of one clinical question were achieved with a consensus level of >80%. To better organise classification of gastritis and duodenitis based on aetiology, a new classification of gastritis and duodenitis is recommended for the 11th international classification. A new category of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia together with a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. The adoption of grading systems for gastric cancer risk stratification, and modern image-enhancing endoscopy for the diagnosis of gastritis, were recommended. Treatment to eradicate H. pylori infection before preneoplastic changes develop, if feasible, was recommended to minimise the risk of more serious complications of the infection. Conclusions A global consensus for gastritis was developed for the first time, which will be the basis for an international classification system and for further research on the subject. PMID:26187502

  17. Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with selective immunoglobulin a deficiency.

    PubMed

    Magen, E; Waitman, D-A; Goldstein, N; Schlesinger, M; Dickstein, Y; Kahan, N R

    2016-06-01

    Selective immunoglobulin A (IgA) deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in the western world. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence and clinical characteristics of Helicobacter pylori-infected dyspeptic patients with IgAD. Case samples were drawn from all subjects ≥ 12 years of age (n = 104729) who had undergone serum total IgA measurements during 2004-14 for any reason at Leumit Healthcare Services (Israel) and had serum total IgA < 0·07 g/l. The control group was comprised of a random sample of remaining patients with a case-control ratio of 10 controls for each case. The dyspeptic diseases were identified and retrieved from Leumit Health Care Services electronic database using specific ICD-9-CM diagnostic codes. The case group included 347 subjects and the control group 3470 subjects. There were no significant differences in the prevalence of patients with dyspepsia [84 (24·2%) versus 821 (23·6%) for cases and controls, respectively]. Additionally, there was no difference in a proportion of dyspeptic H. pylori-positive subjects [59 (17·1%) versus 524 (15·1%)] between the case and control groups. Only 59 (17%) among the 347 IgAD patients underwent gastroscopy. A significantly larger proportion of case subjects experienced several forms of gastritis [13 (61·9%) versus 38 (21·6%), P < 0·001), duodenal ulcers [seven (33·3%) versus 19 (10·8%); P = 0·01] and nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) [two (9·5%) versus none; P = 0·011]. IgAD is not associated with increased prevalence of H. pylori-associated dyspepsia; nevertheless, H. pylori-infected dyspeptic IgAD subjects experience more EGD-proved gastritis, duodenal ulcers and NLH. PMID:26749258

  18. Is Helicobacter pylori really the cause of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Nyrén, O

    1998-08-01

    Since 1994, when the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) designated Helicobacter pylori a human carcinogen, a considerable number of new studies have examined the association of this microorganism with risk of gastric cancer. The aim of this review was to critically evaluate current evidence of a causal relationship between the infection and gastric cancer in humans, taking these new studies into account. A MEDLINE search for the years 1982 through March 1998 yielded eight cohort studies, 40 case-control studies and eight ecologic studies. They were divided into four categories according to the weight of the evidence produced. In the category producing the strongest evidence, the cohort studies, five out of eight studies (including the three that formed the basis for the IARC decision) found a statistically significant excess risk of gastric cancer among the infected with odds ratios ranging between 2.8 and 6.0. Two cohort studies showed a non-significant tendency towards a positive association, but with point estimates indicating no more than a 50-60% excess risk among the H. pylori seropositive, and one apparently well-performed cohort study was completely negative. The two population-based case-control studies published to date found statistically non-significant odds ratios no higher than 1.3 and 1.4. Thus, the evidence of a strong causal link between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has, if anything, become less convincing. Recent studies seem to indicate that the strength of the association may vary with type of H. pylori strain, and possibly presence of effect-modifying co-factors in the host and/or the environment. Future studies need to identify high-risk constellations of carcinogenic strains and unfavorable co-factors to make targeted prophylaxis cost-effective. PMID:9870034

  19. Lipopolysaccharide structures of Helicobacter pylori genomic strains 26695 and J99, mouse model H. pylori Sydney strain, H. pylori P466 carrying sialyl Lewis X, and H. pylori UA915 expressing Lewis B classification of H. pylori lipopolysaccharides into glycotype families.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M A; Appelmelk, B J; Rasko, D A; Moran, A P; Hynes, S O; MacLean, L L; Chan, K H; Michael, F S; Logan, S M; O'Rourke, J; Lee, A; Taylor, D E; Perry, M B

    2000-01-01

    This study describes the molecular makeup of the cell-wall lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) (O-chain polysaccharide-->core oligosaccharide-->lipid A) from five Helicobacter pylori strains: H. pylori 26695 and J99, the complete genome sequences of which have been published, the established mouse model Sydney strain (SS1), and the symptomatic strains P466 and UA915. All chemical and serological experiments were performed on the intact LPSs. H. pylori 26695 and SS1 possessed either a low-Mr semi-rough-form LPS carrying mostly a single Ley type-2 blood-group determinant in the O-chain region covalently attached to the core oligosaccharide or a high-Mr smooth-form LPS, as did strain J99, with an elongated partially fucosylated type-2 N-acetyllactosamine (polyLacNAc) O-chain polymer, terminated mainly by a Lex blood-group determinant, connected to the core oligosaccharide. In the midst of semi-rough-form LPS glycoforms, H. pylori 26695 and SS1 also expressed in the O-chain region a difucosylated antigen, alpha-L-Fucp(1-3)-alpha-L-Fucp(1-4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc, and the cancer-cell-related type-1 or type-2 linear B-blood-group antigen, alpha-D-Galp(1-3)-beta-D-Galp(1-3 or 4)-beta-D-GlcpNAc. The LPS of H. pylori strain P466 carried the cancer-associated type-2 sialyl Lex blood-group antigen, and the LPS from strain UA915 expressed a type-1 Leb blood-group unit. These findings should aid investigations that focus on identifying and characterizing genes responsible for LPS biosynthesis in genomic strains 26695 and J99, and in understanding the role of H. pylori LPS in animal model studies. The LPSs from the H. pylori strains studied to date were grouped into specific glycotype families. PMID:10632700

  20. Current views of the relationship between Helicobacter pylori and Henoch-Schonlein purpura in children

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Li-Jing; Mao, Meng

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is one of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases and may play a potential role in certain extra-intestinal diseases. H. pylori infection are mainly acquired during childhood, and it has been reported that in endemic areas of China the infection rates are extraordinarily higher in HSP children, particular those with abdominal manifestations. Furthermore, eradication therapy may ameliorate Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) manifestations and decrease the recurrence of HSP. Therefore, results suggested that detection of H. pylori infection by appropriate method ought to be applied in HSP children. Current evidences indicate that local injury of gastric mucosa and immunological events induced by H. pylori infection are involved in the development of HSP. Increased serum IgA, cryoglobulins, C3 levels, autoimmunity, proinflammatory substances and molecular mimicry inducing immune complex and cross-reactive antibodies caused by H. pylori infection might play their roles in the course of HSP. However, there are no investigations confirming the causality between H. pylori infection and HSP, and the pathogenesis mechanism is still unclear. More bench and clinical studies need to be executed to elaborate the complex association between H. pylori and HSP. PMID:26862506

  1. Does Helicobacter pylori play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed Central

    Maghbool, Maryam; Maghbool, Masood; Shahriari, Mehdi; Karimi, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acute self-limited bleeding disorder that can progress to chronic form in 10–15% of the cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a possible cause of chronic ITP. We studied 30 children with resistant chronic ITP for H. pylori infection based on the detection of H. pylori fecal antigen. This retrospective study was based on data obtained from medical records of 30 children aged between five and 17 years (median age at ITP diagnosis was ten years). A specially-designed data sheet was used to record information on age, sex, duration of disease, family history of bleeding disorders, previous treatments and median platelet count. In patients with H. pylori infection, antimicrobial treatment consisted of amoxicillin, metronidazol and omeprazol. Response was assessed every month for one year and defined as complete (platelet count >150×109/L) or partial (platelet count between 50 and 150×109/L). We detected H. pylori infection in 5 patients. In 4 of them increased platelet count was seen during one year of follow-up and in one patient the platelet count was acceptable during six months. Although the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced thrombocytopenia was unclear in our patient sample, the assessment of H. pylori infection and use of eradication therapy should be attempted in chronic and resistant ITP patients. PMID:21589818

  2. Helicobacter pylori induces IL-1β protein through the inflammasome activation in differentiated macrophagic cells.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shoichiro; Kameyama, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takaya; Sato, Seiichi; Ohnishi, Naomi; Hayashi, Takeru; Murata-Kamiya, Naoko; Higashi, Hideaki; Hatakeyama, Masanori; Takaoka, Akinori

    2016-01-01

    More than 50% of people in the world are infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which induces various gastric diseases. Especially, epidemiological studies have shown that H. pylori infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer. It has been reported that the levels of interleukin (IL)-1β are upregulated in gastric tissues of patients with H. pylori infection. In this study, we investigated the induction mechanism of IL-1β during H. pylori infection. We found that IL-1βmRNA and protein were induced in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated THP-1 cells after H. pylori infection. This IL-1β production was inhibited by a caspase-1 inhibitor and a ROS inhibitor. Furthermore, K(+) efflux and Ca(2+) signaling were also involved in this process. These data suggest that NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) and its complex, known as NLRP3 inflammasome, are involved in IL-1β production during H. pylori infection because it is reported that NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by ROS, K(+) efflux and/or Ca(2+) signaling. These findings may provide therapeutic strategy for the control of gastric cancer in H. pylori-infected patients. PMID:26912137

  3. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Cancer: Timing and Impact of Preventive Measures.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Vasapolli, Riccardo; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a Gram negative spiraliform bacterium that is commonly found in the stomach. H. pylori infection is still one of the world's most frequent infections, present in the stomachs of approximately one-half of the world's people. H. pylori infection is etiologically linked to histologic chronic active gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, and primary B-cell gastric lymphoma (gastric MALT lymphoma) and represents the major risk factor for the development of sporadic non-cardia gastric cancer (GC) of both intestinal and diffuse type. Studies that have examined the impact of GC prevention through H. pylori eradication have shown mixed results, but recent data suggest that prevention is only efficacious in patients without intestinal metaplasia or dysplasia. This indicates that, like in Barrett's esophagus, we need better clinical risk markers to indicate which patients are at greatest risk of developing cancer to guide clinical strategies. Furthermore, recent epidemiological data have suggested a possible contribution of H. pylori in modifying the risk of developing other gastrointestinal malignancies (including esophageal, pancreatic, hepatocellular, and colorectal cancer), although mechanistically these associations remain unexplained. We review clinically relevant aspects of H. pylori infection in the context of GC development as well as studies that have examined the impact of eradication on GC development and, lastly, discuss these recent epidemiological studies connecting H. pylori infection to extragastric gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:27573783

  4. Quantitative study of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucus by competitive PCR using synthetic DNA fragments.

    PubMed Central

    Furuta, T; Kaneko, E; Suzuki, M; Arai, H; Futami, H

    1996-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is closely related to upper gastrointestinal diseases, and the precise evaluation of H. pylori infection is necessary for the treatment of these diseases. The aim of the present study was to establish a method for the quantitative detection of H. pylori. We applied a competitive PCR method using various amounts of synthetic DNA fragments containing the same primer-binding and a subset of the same template sequences as the target competing for primer binding and amplification in order to quantify H. pylori in gastric mucus. The results obtained by this method were compared with the results of histological examination, the rapid urease test, bacterial culture, the [13C]urea breath test, and urea and ammonia measurements in gastric juice. As the quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus increased, the rates of positivity of histological examination, the rapid urease test, and bacterial culture increased. The quantity of H. pylori in gastric mucus was also significantly correlated with the results of the [13C]urea breath test and was negatively correlated with the urea/ammonia ratio in gastric juice. The competitive PCR method provides an objective measure of the quantity of H. pylori and makes it possible to distinguish true negatives from false negatives due to incomplete PCR and true positives from false positives due to contamination. This method is very useful for the precise evaluation of gastric H. pylori infection. PMID:8880492

  5. Does Helicobacter pylori play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura?

    PubMed

    Maghbool, Maryam; Maghbool, Masood; Shahriari, Mehdi; Karimi, Mehran

    2009-01-01

    Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is an acute self-limited bleeding disorder that can progress to chronic form in 10-15% of the cases. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a possible cause of chronic ITP. We studied 30 children with resistant chronic ITP for H. pylori infection based on the detection of H. pylori fecal antigen. This retrospective study was based on data obtained from medical records of 30 children aged between five and 17 years (median age at ITP diagnosis was ten years). A specially-designed data sheet was used to record information on age, sex, duration of disease, family history of bleeding disorders, previous treatments and median platelet count. In patients with H. pylori infection, antimicrobial treatment consisted of amoxicillin, metronidazol and omeprazol. Response was assessed every month for one year and defined as complete (platelet count >150×10(9)/L) or partial (platelet count between 50 and 150×10(9)/L). We detected H. pylori infection in 5 patients. In 4 of them increased platelet count was seen during one year of follow-up and in one patient the platelet count was acceptable during six months. Although the pathological mechanism of H. pylori-induced thrombocytopenia was unclear in our patient sample, the assessment of H. pylori infection and use of eradication therapy should be attempted in chronic and resistant ITP patients. PMID:21589818

  6. In vitro inhibition of Helicobacter pylori growth and adherence to gastric mucosal cells by Pycnogenol.

    PubMed

    Rohdewald, Peter; Beil, Winfried

    2008-05-01

    The emergence of antibiotic resistant H. pylori strains has necessitated the identification of alternative additive therapies for the treatment of this infection. The study tested whether a specific pine bark extract (Pycnogenol is effective in inhibiting the growth and adherence of H. pylori in vitro. Inhibition of H. pylori growth by Pycnogenol was tested in liquid medium as well as in an in vitro model by using sessile bacteria attached to AGS cells. Adherence was determined by co-incubation of gastric cells with Pycnogenol and H. pylori in vitro. Pycnogenol inhibited H. pylori growth in suspension with an MIC(50) of 12.5 microg/mL. Growth of H. pylori in infected cells was reduced to 10% of the control value by 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. Adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells was reduced by 70% after 3 h incubation with 125 microg/mL Pycnogenol. The results show a significant, yet limited inhibition of growth and adherence of H. pylori to gastric cells by Pycnogenol. In vivo studies have to demonstrate the clinical relevance of these findings. PMID:18350522

  7. Association of helicobacter pylori infection with serum magnesium in kidney transplant patients

    PubMed Central

    Hafizi, Massoud; Mardani, Saeed; Borhani, Ali; Ahmadi, Ali; Nasri, Parto; Nasri, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Few studies are available regarding the various promoting factors of H. pylori infection in kidney disease patients especially renal transplant individuals. Objectives: This study was therefore conducted to examine the association of serum magnesium with H. pylori infection among kidney transplant patients. This cross-sectional investigation was conducted on a group of stable kidney transplant patients. Peripheral venous blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis after an overnight fast, Also urea breath test (UBT) was conducted for patients. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 cases was enrolled to the study. Mean serum magnesium value of the patients was 1.98 ± 0.62 mg/dl. Serum magnesium level in positive H. pylori patients was more than negative H. pylori patients (p=0.0005). In this study population, there was no significant difference in serum intact PTH, calcium, alkaline phosphatase, albumin levels and body mass index (BMI) between males and females or H. pylori positive and H. pylori negative subjects (p>0.5). Conclusion: It is possible that, magnesium aggravates H. pylori infection in kidney transplant patients through the mechanisms like hemodialysis, which we had reported previously. However, more studies are necessary to prove the association of magnesium with H. pylori infection in renal transplant patients and finding the clinical relevance of our findings. PMID:25610889

  8. Complete Genome Sequences of Two Helicobacter pylori Strains from a Canadian Arctic Aboriginal Community

    PubMed Central

    Kersulyte, Dangeruta; Bertoli, M. Teresita; Tamma, Sravya; Keelan, Monika; Munday, Rachel; Geary, Janis; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Goodman, Karen J.

    2015-01-01

    We report here the complete genome sequences of two Amerind Helicobacter pylori strains from Aklavik, Northwest Territories, Canada. One strain contains extra iron-cofactored urease genes and ~140 rearrangements in its chromosome relative to other described strains (typically differing from one another by <10 rearrangements), suggesting that it represents a novel lineage of H. pylori. PMID:25883278

  9. Rate heterogeneity in the evolution of Helicobacter pylori and the behavior of homoplasious sites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helicobacter pylori are bacteria with substantial strain-to-strain variability. Although frequent recombination events have been proposed as contributing to the variability, the effects of nucleotide substitution rate heterogeneities on the reconstruction of H. pylori genealogies have not been stud...

  10. Frequency of sabA Gene in Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated From Patients in Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Pakbaz, Zahra; Shirazi, Mohammad Hasan; Ranjbar, Reza; pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Khalifeh Gholi, Mohammad; Aliramezani, Amir; Vaise Malekshahi, Ziba

    2013-01-01

    Background The importance of sialic acid binding adhesin (sabA) as a new outer membrane protein in gastroduodenal diseases has been recognized. The prevalence rate of sabA gene varies in different geographic areas. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of sabA gene in Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strains isolated from different clinical outcomes in Tehran, Iran. Patients and Methods The study included 120 patients with dyspeptic symptoms admitted to the endoscopy suite of gastroenterology section of Firouzgar University Hospital, Tehran, Iran from March to August 2011. Gastric biopsy specimens were evaluated for the presence of H. pylori using standard microbiological method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. The sabA genopositive was determined by PCR in H. pylori strains. Results H. pylori isolates were recovered from 82 patients with duodenal ulcer (DU; n = 17), gastric ulcer (GU; n = 15), gastric cancer (GC; n = 13), and gastritis (G; n = 37). The frequency of sabA gene in H. pylori strains was 100% in gastric cancer, 86.7% in gastric ulcer, and 83.3% in both gastritis and duodenal ulcer. Conclusions This is a report on the prevalence of sabA gene in H. pylori isolated from different gastric patients in Iran. The results showed a high prevalence of sabA in our clinical H. pylori isolates. PMID:24616782

  11. Expression of inflammatory mediators in the otitis media induced by Helicobacter pylori antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    Kariya, S; Okano, M; Fukushima, K; Nomiya, S; Kataoka, Y; Nomiya, R; Akagi, H; Nishizaki, K

    2008-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that is recognized as one of the key factors in gastric diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have shown relationships between H. pylori and extra-digestive diseases, and the presence of H. pylori in the middle ear and upper respiratory tract has been reported. However, the role of H. pylori in middle ear disease remains unclear. The present study demonstrated that H. pylori whole-cell protein directly induces macrophage migration inhibitory factor, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in middle ear epithelium in mice, and severe proliferation of inflammatory cells was observed in middle ear cavity inoculated with H. pylori whole-cell protein. In addition, trans-tympanic injection of macrophage migration inhibitory factor up-regulated expression of macrophage inflammatory protein 2 in the middle ear. These findings indicate that H. pylori infection causes immunological inflammation in middle ear epithelium, and H. pylori may play a significant role in otitis media. PMID:18727622

  12. Influence of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Metabolic Syndrome in Old Chinese People.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen; Xuan, Cunfu

    2016-01-01

    Background. H. pylori infection is one of the most common chronic infectious inflammatory diseases worldwide and is also a risk factor for atherosclerosis. Patients with metabolic syndrome are known to be at increased risk for atherosclerosis. The aim of our study was to assess the effects of H. pylori infection on serum lipids, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic syndrome in old Chinese people. Material and Method. A total of 191 (133 males and 58 females, aged 73.19 ± 11.03 years) people who had gastroscopy examination in our hospital were divided into H. pylori-positive group (n = 80) and H. pylori-negative group (n = 111). H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test. Results. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and incidence of metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). It was found that BMI (p < 0.01, OR 74.469), H. pylori infection (p < 0.01, OR 5.427), total cholesterol (p < 0.01, OR 15.544), and diabetes mellitus (p < 0.01, OR 23.957) were significantly associated with the risk of metabolic syndrome by binary logistic regression analysis. Conclusions. Patients with H. pylori infection had higher BMI and fasting glucose levels and had incidence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27429613

  13. Extragastric manifestations of Helicobacter pylori infection: Possible role of bacterium in liver and pancreas diseases.

    PubMed