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Postpartum anal sphincter dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal incontinence presents with a female to male ratio of 8:1 suggesting childbirth as the principal causative factor, although most women do not become symptomatic until after menopause. Obstetric injury may arise as a result of direct muscular damage to the anal sphincter, as occurs during a third-degree tear, and\\/or may be the result of cumulative damage to the pudendal

M. Fitzpatrick; C. O’Herlihy



[Mechanisms of compensating the evacuatory function of the stomach after exclusion of the pyloric sphincter].  


The rate of solid food evacuation from the stomach was investigated in chronic experiments on dogs with the stomach and the duodenum (its first part) fistulae. It was found that in exclusion of the pyloric sphincter (operations of pyloroplastics or gastroduodenostomy) the stomach evacuation was mainly compensated. However, judging by the free passage of rubber balls (3 mm in diameter) into the duodenum no structures replacing the pyloric sphincter formed in the stomach. The compensation of the stomach evacuatory function under these conditions was provided by a significant increase of the enterogastric reflex. PMID:884292

Gro?sman, S D; Kharchenko, N M



Effect of Duodenal Distension on the Pyloric Sphincter and Antrum and the Gastric Corpus: Duodenopyloric Reflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

. The mechanical effect of balloon distension of the duodenum on the stomach was studied in 10 mongrel dogs with a\\u000a mean weight of 14.8 ± 3.2 kg. The response of the pyloric sphincter and antrum as well as of the corpus of the stomach to\\u000a duodenal distension by a balloon filled with water in increments of 2 ml, up

Ahmed Shafik



[The morphological characteristics of the parasympathetic innervation of the pyloric sphincter in the cat].  


The method of axonal transport of horse-radish peroxidase was used to detect the localization of neurons in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve sending the axons to the pyloric sphincter. The investigation was carried out in cats. Under study were also morphological features of the nodular ganglion responsible for afferent innervation of the sphincter. The maximum amount of the corresponding cells are found in the dorsomedial part of the dorsal motor nucleus in the area from +1.0 to +2.0 mm (with respect to obex). The afferent neurons to which information comes from interoceptors of the sphincter zone along the vagus nerve fibers, are distributed in the left and right nodular ganglia almost evenly. The major part of these cells have the area of 300-800 mkm2. PMID:7516790

Bagaev, V A; Filippova, L V; Makarov, F N


Sphincter of Oddi and its Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Sphincter of Oddi though mostly heard about in ‘anatomy textbooks’ is making its way into surgical practice due to various disease states affecting it and its dysfunction seems to be an important condition to be observed while treating patients with abdominal pain. In this review, we have attempted to discuss all the relevant conditions affecting it, particularly the dysfunction with a detailed literature review.

Seetharam, Prasad; Rodrigues, Gabriel



Contribution of ATP and nitric oxide to NANC inhibitory transmission in rat pyloric sphincter.  

PubMed Central

1. Changes in isometric tension were recorded from circular muscle strips of rat pyloric sphincter in vitro, in response to electrical field stimulation and exogenously applied muscle relaxants. 2. Concentration-response relationships were studied for relaxation to exogenously applied adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and two analogues, 2-methylthioATP (2-MeSATP) and alpha,beta-methylene ATP (alpha,beta-MeATP). These drugs evoked concentration-dependent relaxation of rat pyloric sphincter with an order of potency 2-MeSATP > ATP >> alpha,beta-MeATP, indicating the presence of P2y-purinoceptors. The IC50 value of each nucleotide was: 2-MeSATP, 5.0 x 10(-8); ATP, 7.9 x 10(-6) M; alpha,beta-MeATP showed only slight activity at a concentration of 0.1 mM. 3. Frequency-response relationships for relaxations evoked by electrical field stimulation (EFS) were studied in the absence and presence of 10 microM NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis) and 20 microM reactive blue 2 (a P2y-purinoceptor antagonist). It was found that these substances significantly reduced the relaxant response of rat pyloric sphincter to EFS by 40% and 50% respectively. In the presence of both L-NAME and reactive blue 2 the responses were reduced by 75%. 4. Concentration-response relationships were studied for ATP and 2-MeSATP in the presence of L-NAME. It was found that L-NAME did not significantly inhibit the relaxant responses to these drugs. 5. Concentration-response relationships for ATP and noradrenaline were studied in the presence of reactive blue 2 (20 microM); the P2y-antagonist significantly inhibited the relaxant response to ATP, but not that to noradrenaline.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 6

Soediono, P; Burnstock, G



Mechanisms of compensation of the evacuatory function of the stomach after exclusion of the pyloric sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of evacuation of solid food from the stomach was investigated in chronic experiments on dogs with fistulas of the stomach and proximal part of the duodenum. After exclusion of the pyloric spincter (by the operations of pyloroplasty or gastroduodenostomy) the evacuatory function of the stomach remained basically compensated although, judging from the free passage of edible rubber balls

S. D. Groisman; N. M. Kharchenko



Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction: an evidence-based review.  


Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction is a painful syndrome that presents as recurrent episodes of right upper quadrant biliary pain, or recurrent idiopathic pancreatitis. It is a disease process that has been a subject of controversy, in part because its natural history, disease course and treatment outcomes have not been clearly defined in large controlled studies with long-term follow-up. This review is aimed at clarifying the state-of-the-art with an evidence-based summary of the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches and modalities for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. PMID:24161134

Rehman, Abdul; Affronti, John; Rao, Satish



Upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction: diverticula-globus pharyngeus.  


The following discussion of upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction includes commentaries on the role of the cricopharyngeus muscle in reflux disease; the etiology and treatment of Zenker diverticulum; the use of videofluoroscopy in patients with dysphagia, suspicion of aspiration, or globus; the role of pH-impedance monitoring in globus evaluation; and treatment for reflux-associated globus. PMID:24117647

Schindler, Antonio; Mozzanica, Francesco; Alfonsi, Enrico; Ginocchio, Daniela; Rieder, Erwin; Lenglinger, Johannes; Schoppmann, Sebastian F; Scharitzer, Martina; Pokieser, Peter; Kuribayashi, Shiko; Kawamura, Osamu; Kusano, Motoyasu; Zelenik, Karol



Extrinsic and intrinsic neural control of pyloric sphincter pressure in the dog.  

PubMed Central

1. In chloralose-urethane-anaesthetized dogs a manometric assembly was inserted via a gastrostomy to monitor pyloric pressure with a sleeve sensor. Antral and duodenal contractions were monitored with both manometric side holes and serosal strain gauges. 2. Subserosal silver wire electrodes were placed in the antrum 5 cm orad and the duodenum 3 cm aborad to the pylorus to facilitate field stimulation of intramural nerves. 3. The pylorus exerted spontaneous tone (10.8 +/- 4.8 mmHg) with phasic contractions occurring at a rate varying from 1-5 min-1 and, at times, with a superimposed higher frequency up to 15 min-1. Atropine (30 micrograms kg-1 I.V. and 10 micrograms I.A.) reduced and tetrodotoxin (50-100 micrograms I.A.) enhanced the phasic activity significantly. 4. Bilateral cervical vagal section had no consistent influence on pyloric motility. 5. Stimulation of the distal ends of the cervical vagal nerves at low frequencies (0.2-0.5 Hz, 1-3 ms, 20 V) induced phasic pyloric contractions, which were abolished by atropine or hexamethonium (10 mg kg-1 I.V. and 1 mg I.A.). Higher frequencies (greater than 0.7 Hz) of stimulation inhibited both phasic and tonic contractions and this inhibition was unaffected by atropine, hexamethonium, phentolamine (1.5 mg kg-1 I.V. and 100 micrograms I.A.) or propranolol (1 mg kg-1 I.V. and 100 micrograms I.A.). All neural responses were blocked by tetrodotoxin (50-100 micrograms I.A.). 6. Duodenal field stimulation (0.2-5 Hz, 0.5 ms, 40 V) induced strong phasic and tonic contractions in the pylorus. This excitation was blocked by atropine, hexamethonium, tetrodotoxin (50-100 micrograms I.A.) or duodenal transection orad to the stimulating electrodes. 7. Antral field stimulation (0.5-1 Hz, 0.5 ms, 40 V) completely abolished phasic activity in the pylorus and reduced tonic activity, regardless of whether the contractile activity was spontaneous or induced by neural stimulation. This inhibitory action was unaffected by atropine, hexamethonium or propranolol but was blocked by tetrodotoxin and antral transection aborad to the stimulating electrodes. Phentolamine attenuated the inhibitory effect of antral field stimulation on pyloric motility. 8. It is concluded that the distal canine pylorus exhibits myogenic tone and phasic activity which is modulated by extrinsic and intrinsic nerve pathways. Vagal nerves contain fibres, activated by different stimulus parameters which can either excite or inhibit pyloric activity. Activation of antral nerves inhibits pyloric activity, with both non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and phentolamine-sensitive pathways contributing to this inhibitory response.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)

Allescher, H D; Daniel, E E; Dent, J; Fox, J E; Kostolanska, F



Gallbladder ejection fraction and its relationship to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretically, relative distal common bile duct obstruction due to sphincter of Oddi dysfunction may be a cause of poor gallbladder evacuation observed on quantitative cholescintigraphy. In this study, the relationship of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction to the gallbladder ejection fraction by quantitative cholescintigraphy was explored. Eighty-one patients with biliary-type pain and otherwise normal evaluations underwent quantitative cholescintigraphy, sphincter of Oddi

Thomas A. Ruffolo; Stuart Sherman; Glen A. Lehman; Robert H. Hawes



Assessment of Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction in Children with Non-Neuropathic Bladder Sphincter Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although nonneuropathic bladder sphincter dysfunction in children is frequently encountered, there is no consensus on the assessment of children presenting with this problem. An example is given of how these children can be assessed. After a noninvasive screening consisting of history, voiding diary, clinical examination, urinalysis, ultrasound and uroflowmetry, those children that will benefit from further videourodynamic studies are selected.

P. Hoebeke; J. Vande Walle; K. Everaert; E. Van Laecke; J. D. Van Gool



Pancreatic stenting prevents pancreatitis after biliary sphincterotomy in patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims: Patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction are at high risk of developing pancreatitis after endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Impaired pancreatic drainage caused by pancreatic sphincter hypertension is the likely explanation for this increased risk. A prospective, randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine if ductal drainage with pancreatic stenting protects against pancreatitis after biliary sphincterotomy in patients with

Paul R. Tarnasky; Yuko Y. Palesch; John T. Cunningham; Patrick D. Mauldin; Peter B. Cotton; Robert H. Hawes



Vaginal Wall Sling for Anatomical Incontinence and Intrinsic Sphincter Dysfunction: Efficacy and Outcome Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeA prospective cohort study was done to determine the efficacy and clinical outcome of a new technique for anterior vaginal wall sling construction to treat urinary incontinence due to intrinsic sphincter dysfunction or anatomical incontinence.

Shlomo Raz; Lynn Stothers; George P. H. Young; Julie Short; Barbara Marks; Ashok Chopra; Gregory R. Wahle



Visceral Algesia in Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, and Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction, Type III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Visceral hyperalgesia has been demonstrated inpatients with irritable bowel syndrome who are seen intertiary care centers. It has been hypothesized thatvisceral hyperalgesia may be related to psychological distress associated with health care seekingbehavior in these patients. Patients with fibromyalgiaand sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, type III, share manydemographic and psychosocial characteristics with patients with irritable bowel syndrome andprovide an opportunity to

Andrew Chun; Steven Desautels; Adam Slivka; Carlos Mitrani; Terence Starz; Carlo Dilorenzo; Arnold Wald



Pelvic floor dysfunction 6 years post-anal sphincter tear at the time of vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  This study aims to estimate fecal, urinary incontinence, and sexual function 6 years after an obstetrical anal sphincter tear.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among 13,213 women who had a vaginal delivery of a cephalic singleton at term, 196 women sustained an anal sphincter tear.\\u000a They were matched to 588 controls. Validated questionnaires grading fecal and urinary incontinence, and sexual dysfunction\\u000a were completed

David Baud; Sylvain Meyer; Yvan Vial; Patrick Hohlfeld; Chahin Achtari


Quantitative 99mTc-DISIDA scanning and endoscopic biliary manometry in sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.  

PubMed Central

Sphincter of Oddi (SO) dysfunction is a recognised cause of postcholecystectomy pain, but a difficult condition to diagnose, requiring endoscopic biliary manometry (EBM) to confirm sphincter motor abnormalities. We have assessed quantitative cholescintigraphy in 10 postcholecystectomy (PC) patients with clinical and manometric evidence of SO dysfunction, 10 PC patients with non-biliary type abdominal pain and 10 asymptomatic PC volunteers acting as controls to determine its value as a non-invasive screening test. Quantitative 99mTc-DISIDA scans lasted 60 minutes, activity/time curves being created by computer analysis using the entire hepatobiliary system as region-of-interest (ROI). Scintigraphic analysis demonstrated that the time in minutes to maximum counts (Tmax) was significantly increased in the SO dysfunction group compared with the non-biliary pain group and the asymptomatic volunteers (p less than 0.001). The per cent of biliary tracer emptied was also significantly less in the SO dysfunction group than either of the other groups at both 45 minutes (p less than 0.01) and 60 minutes (p less than 0.02). We conclude that quantitative cholescintigraphy may be a valuable non-invasive screening test in clinically suspected SO dysfunction.

Fullarton, G M; Allan, A; Hilditch, T; Murray, W R



Management of patients with sphincter of Oddi dysfunction based on a new classification  

PubMed Central

AIM: To propose a new classification system for sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) based on clinical data of patients. METHODS: The clinical data of 305 SOD patients documented over the past decade at our center were analyzed retrospectively, and typical cases were reported. RESULTS: The new classification with two more types (double-duct, biliary-pancreatic reflux) were set up on the basis of the Milwaukee criteria. There were 229 cases of biliary-type SOD, including 192 (83.8%) cases cured endoscopically, and 29 (12.7%) cured by open abdominal surgery, and the remaining 8 (3.5%) cases observed with unstable outcomes. Eight (50%) patients with pancreatic-type SOD were cured by endoscopic treatment, and the remaining 8 patients were cured after open abdominal surgery. There were 19 cases of double-duct-type SOD, which consisted of 7 (36.8%) patients who were cured endoscopically and 12 (63.2%) who were cured surgically. A total of 41 cases were diagnosed as biliary-pancreatic–reflux-type SOD. Twenty (48.8%) of them were treated endoscopically, 16 (39.0%) were treated by open abdominal surgery, and 5 (12.2%) were under observation. CONCLUSION: The newly proposed SOD classification system introduced in this study better explains the clinical symptoms of SOD from the anatomical perspective and can guide clinical treatment of this disease.

Gong, Jia-Qing; Ren, Jian-Dong; Tian, Fu-Zhou; Jiang, Rui; Tang, Li-Jun; Pang, Yong



Injectable Silicone Biomaterial for Fecal Incontinence Caused by Internal Anal Sphincter Dysfunction Is Effective  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE  Fecal incontinence caused by a weak or disrupted internal anal sphincter is common but there has been no effective treatment. This prospective study evaluates the medium-term clinical effects of an injectable silicone biomaterial, PTPTM (Bioplastique), used to augment the internal anal sphincter.METHOD  Eighty-two patients (64 females; median age, 66 years) with severe fecal incontinence and a low anal resting pressure caused

J. J. Tjandra; J. F. Lim; R. Hiscock; P. Rajendra



Inflatable artificial sphincter - series (image)  


Urinary continence is maintained by a muscular sphincter that surrounds the urethra as it exits the bladder. ... An artificial urinary sphincter is used to treat stress incontinence in men that is caused by urethral dysfunction such as after prostate surgery. ...


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) occurs in up to 1 in 4000 babies and results from thickening of the pyloric muscle. Babies with IHPS present with non-bilious projectile vomiting which in turn leads to a hyponatraemic, hypokalaemic, hypochloraemic, metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis is confirmed by abdominal examination during a ‘test-feed’ during which the hypertrophied pyloric muscle can be palpated as an

Paul RV Johnson



Systems and methods for forming composite lesions to treat dysfunction in sphincters and adjoining tissue regions  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Systems and methods manipulate a support structure to form a composite lesion in a tissue region at or near a sphincter. The support structure carries an array of electrodes attachable to a source of energy capable of heating tissue when transmitted by the electrodes. The systems and methods advance the electrodes to penetrate the tissue region and form, when the energy is transmitted, a first pattern of lesions. The systems and methods retract the electrodes, and shift the position of the electrodes, either rotationally, or axially, or both rotationally and axially. The systems and methods advance the electrodes a second time to form, when the energy is transmitted, a second pattern of lesions either rotationally or axially or both rotationally and axially shifted from the first pattern of lesions. The first and second patterns of lesion together comprise the composite lesion.

Edwards; Stuart D (Salinas, CA); Gaiser; John (Mountain View, CA); Utley; David S (Redwood City, CA); West; Scott H (Livermore, CA); Qin; Jay (Fremont, CA)



Human sphincter of oddi motility and cholecystokinin response following liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reported incidence of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction following orthotopic liver transplantation has ranged from 3% to 7%. If sphincteric dysfunction is unrecognized, therapy may be inappropriate; when recognized, extensive surgery may be required. To prospectively identify patients with sphincteric dysfunction, we performed sphincter of Oddi motility studies through the t-tube tract three months after transplantation. Baseline sphincter motility and

Robert D. Richards; Paul Yeaton; Hubert A. Shaffer; Daniel J. Pambianco; Timothy L. Pruett; William C. Stevenson; Ravinder K. Mittal; Richard W. McCallum



Sacral nerve stimulation for the treatment of faecal incontinence related to dysfunction of the internal anal sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In patients with faecal incontinence related to isolated internal anal sphincter (IAS) disruption, conservative management\\u000a is the mainstay of treatment. Surgical repair of the internal sphincter is not successful. This study evaluated the use of\\u000a sacral nerve stimulation (SNS) in those with faecal incontinence and IAS disruption in whom medical and behavioural treatments\\u000a had failed.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Nine patients (seven women, median

Thomas C. Dudding; David Parés; Carolynne J. Vaizey; Michael A. Kamm



Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction  


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Epidermolysis bullosa and congenital pyloric atresia.  


The association between epidermolysis bullosa (EB) and pyloric atresia (PA) is rare but well documented. Herein, we report a case of EB associated with congenital PA. A female baby, weighing 1480 g, was born vaginally to a 31-year-old gravida 7 lady at 33 weeks of gestation. Polyhydramnios was detected on antenatal assessment. The parents were non-consanguineous Saudis with no family history of significant illness. At birth, well-demarcated areas of peeled skin were present over knees, left leg and periumbilical region. Systemic examination revealed no other abnormality. On second day, the patient developed recurrent vomiting and abdominal distension. An abdominal X-ray revealed a single gastric gas bubble suggesting pyloric obstruction. Following gastroduodenostomy, the baby developed severe sepsis with multiorgan dysfunction and expired on 25th day of life. Skin biopsy showed cleavage within lamina lucida. PMID:24068383

Mithwani, Anwar Adil; Hashmi, Asif; Adil, Salman



Pyloric stenosis after gastroschisis closure.  


Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a very common surgical problem in infants. It occurs most often in otherwise well babies with normal gestation and birth history. Rarely, pyloric stenosis has been described in babies with history of prior abdominal surgery. Below we discuss the management of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a child who remained hospitalized, recovering from repair of a congenital abdominal wall defect. PMID:24069986

Streit, Stephanie M; Dixon, Jennifer A; Hebra, André



Pyloric stenosis: evolution from pylorospasm?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over a 10-year period, we have performed pyloromyotomy on 260 infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS), 10 of whom had a history suggestive of pyloric stenosis but initially had neither the physical nor radiological findings to confirm the diagnosis. All 10 demonstrated pylorospasm on upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), were treated medically without improvement, and subsequently developed classic HPS confirmed by

John R. Wesley; Michael A. DiPietro; Arnold G. Coran



Evaluation of obstetric anal sphincter injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Faecal incontinence presents with a female to male preponderance of 8:1 consistent with vaginal delivery as the principal causative factor. It results in serious social and psychological morbidity. Anal sphincter dysfunction following vaginal delivery generally results from direct muscular damage to the anal sphincter and\\/or cumulative damage to the pudendal nerves. Increasing attention is being focused on this relatively common

Rhona Mahony; Conor O'Brien; Colm O'Herlihy



Diagnosis of hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dyskinesia  

SciTech Connect

The diagnostic possibility of hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dysfunction was evaluated in 100 cholecystectomized and 28 noncholecystectomized patients. An organic lesion interfering with free bile flow was ruled out in every case. The existence of the syndrome, i.e., the dysfunction of the Oddi's musculature, was verified using the morphine-choleretic test combined with either dynamic hepatobiliary scintigraphy or (in selected cases) percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography. Hypertonic Oddi's sphincter dyskinesia can be regarded as an independent clinical syndrome.

Varro, V.; Doebroente, Z.; Hajnal, F.; Csernay, L.; Nemessanyi, Z.; Lang, J.; Narai, G.; Szabo, E.



Inflatable artificial sphincter  


Artificial sphincter (AUS) - urinary ... and you will not feel pain. An artificial sphincter has three parts: A cuff, which fits around ... Lower belly (men and women) Once the artificial sphincter is in place, you will use the pump ...


Fetal development of the pyloric muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The fetal development of the pyloric muscle was studied in five human embryos (crown-rump length 5 to 31 mm) and in ten fetuses aged 3 to 9 months. Samples of pyloric muscle were obtained during operation for pyloric stenosis in two infants aged six weeks. Anatomo-radiologic, morphologic and immunohistochemical studies were made on this material, from which it emerged

D Bourdelat; J P Barbet; J P Chevrel



Artificial Bowel Sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Fecal incontinence is a socially devastating problem. The treatment algorithm depends on the etiology of the disease. Large\\u000a anal sphincter defects can be treated by sphincter replacement procedures: the dynamic graciloplasty and the artificial bowel\\u000a sphincter (ABS). The best indications for the ABS are lesions of the anal sphincters that are inaccessible to local repair\\u000a and not responsive to sacral

Giovanni Romano; Francesco Bianco; Luisa Caggiano


Audit of sphincter repair  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to critically analyze the outcome of sphincter repair and, if possible, to identify high-risk factors. METHODS: Clinical and physiologic assessment was made of all sphincter repairs (42 patients) performed in one unit by two surgeons during five years. RESULTS: Forty-two patients (10 men, 32 women) underwent sphincter repair. Only three of five men with anterior

N. Nikiteas; S. Korsgen; D. Kumar; M. R. B. Keighley



Ultrasound diagnosis of evolving pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two infants with recurrent episodes of vomiting had upper gastrointestinal barium studies that did not show radiographic features of pyloric stenosis. However, follow-up abdominal sonograms done 1–2 weeks later documented hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, which led to surgery. This entity is not congenital, but an evolving acquired lesion. Therefore, ultrasound is an excellent modality to evaluate and monitor patients clinically suspected

Deborah A. Weiskittel; Dana L. Leary; Caroline E. Blane



Sphincter EMG as a diagnostic tool in autonomic disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a neurodegenerative disease presenting with a combination of parkinsonian, cerebellar, and\\u000a autonomic (including cardiovascular, urinary, and anorectal) dysfunction. It is pathologically defined, but at present lacks\\u000a a definitive clinical diagnostic test. The majority of patients with probable MSA have an abnormal sphincter EMG. Patients\\u000a with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease do not show marked sphincter EMG abnormalities.

Ryuji Sakakibara; Tomoyuki Uchiyama; Tomonori Yamanishi; Masahiko Kishi



Relation of pyloric motility to pyloric opening and closure in healthy subjects.  

PubMed Central

The relation between pyloric motor activity, opening, and closure was examined in eight healthy men. Manometry was performed with an assembly combining 13 side holes and a sleeve sensor positioned astride the pylorus. Simultaneous with manometry, pyloric opening and closure and antroduodenal contractions were observed fluoroscopically with the antrum filled with barium. During intraduodenal normal saline infusion, coordinated antral pressure waves swept over the pylorus and ejected barium into the duodenum. No localised pyloric motor pattern was observed under these conditions. In contrast, the intraduodenal triglyceride infusion was associated with the absence of antral pressure waves and virtual absence of antral wall movement. At the pylorus, there was a zone of luminal occlusion less than 1 cm long that persisted for the period of observation. This zone of luminal occlusion corresponded precisely with manometric recordings of a narrow zone of pyloric phasic and tonic activity. During the duodenal triglyceride infusion, the pylorus was closed for 98.5% of the measurement period when basal pyloric pressure was 4 mm Hg or more, and during this motor pattern, barium did not traverse the pylorus. Localised pyloric contractions cause sustained pyloric closure, whether these contractions are phasic or tonic. These contractions occur independently of antral or duodenal contractions and may interrupt gastric emptying. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5

Tougas, G; Anvari, M; Dent, J; Somers, S; Richards, D; Stevenson, G W



Artificial anal sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to evaluate the use of a fully implanted artificial anal sphincter for management of severe fecal incontinence. METHODS: An artificial anal sphincter was implanted in 12 patients who failed conventional management for severe fecal incontinence. Careful patient follow-up was recorded during a mean 58-month follow-up. Patients underwent preoperative and postoperative manometric assessment. Functional and patient

W. Douglas Wong; Linda L. Jensen; David C. C. Bartolo; David A. Rothenberger



Urodynamic analysis in multiple system atrophy: characterisation of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In multiple system atrophy (MSA), parkinsonism and a cerebellar syndrome are associated with autonomic dysfunction. Both bladder\\u000a neck dysfunction and external sphincter denervation have been implicated in detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia. However, urethral\\u000a dysfunction may not be adequately reflected by a single global measurement of urethral pressure. Pressure assessment at several\\u000a levels of the urethra is needed to unravel the mechanisms of

Frédéric Bloch; Bertrand Pichon; Anne-Marie Bonnet; Jacques Pichon; Marie Vidailhet; Emmanuel Roze; Michel Perrigot



Prosthetic Urinary Sphincter.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A pump/valve unit which requires a minimum of implant area and surgery is described for controlling bladder function by regulating the inflation and deflation of a urethral collar in a prosthetic urinary sphincter device. The pump has a press bulb of sili...

C. R. Helms H. M. Smyly



Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: an infectious cause?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aetiology of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis\\u000a that a common bacterium, Helicobacter pylori (HP) may be implicated in the pathogenesis of IHPS. Thirty-nine consecutive infants with confirmed IHPS had their stool analysed\\u000a with an enzyme immunoassay for the presence of HP. An age\\/sex-matched group of infants with

W. Sherwood; M. Choudhry; K. Lakhoo



Hyperglycaemia stimulates pyloric motility in normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

The motor correlates of the delay in gastric emptying produced by hyperglycaemia were investigated in 11 healthy volunteers. Fasting gastroduodenal motility was measured during euglycaemia (blood glucose concentration 3-5 mmol/l) and during hyperglycaemia induced by intravenous dextrose (blood glucose concentration 12-16 mmol/l). Antral, pyloric, and proximal duodenal pressures were recorded by a sleeve/sidehole manometric assembly positioned across the pylorus, with the aid of measurements of transmucosal potential difference. During hyperglycaemia there was stimulation of isolated pyloric pressure waves when compared with the euglycaemia period (p less than 0.05). This was associated with inhibition of antral pressure waves (p less than 0.05). In nine of the 11 subjects an episode of duodenal 'phase III like' activity occurred within 15 minutes of the onset of hyperglycaemia. It is proposed that the stimulation of localised pyloric contractions and inhibition of antral contractions contribute to the delayed gastric emptying induced by hyperglycaemia. Abnormal gastric motility in patients with diabetes mellitus may be the result of hyperglycaemia itself, rather than irreversible autonomic neuropathy.

Fraser, R; Horowitz, M; Dent, J



An instant rare complication: a fractured metallic pyloric stent.  


Metallic pyloric stenting (also termed as metallic enteral stenting) performed endoscopically, stands as first-line treatment for malignant gastric outlet obstruction. With reported evidence, these self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) re-enable oral food intake, preventing patients having to face invasive techniques such as surgical gastroenterostomy. We report a patient having received a covered pyloric SEMS insertion following a tumour growth causing stenosis in the gastric antropyloric region. After 3 weeks, the patient presented with a fracture of the pyloric SEMS, a rare complication, resulting in a second pyloric SEMS insertion. PMID:23345482

Javaid, Mahvesh Rana; Yusuf, Aasim Mohammad



Obstetric anal sphincter lacerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:To estimate the frequency of obstetric anal sphincter laceration and to identify characteristics associated with this complication, including modifiable risk factors.METHODS:A population-based, retrospective study of over 2 million vaginal deliveries at California hospitals was performed, using information from birth certificates and discharge summaries for 1992 through 1997. We excluded preterm births, stillbirths, breech deliveries, and multiple gestations. The main outcome

Victoria L Handa; Beate H Danielsen; William M Gilbert



Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: A comparative study of pyloric traumamyoplasty and Fredet-Ramstedt pyloromyotomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of surgical complications (duodenal perforation, postoperative vomiting, wound infection or dehiscence, incisional hernia) between 2 different surgical techniques for the resolution of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in children. Methods: A clinically controlled, randomized study with follow-up from 24 to 36 months was conducted. One hundred children between 15 days and

Ricardo Ordorica-Flores; Victor León-Villanueva; Eduardo Bracho-Blanchet; Ricardo Reyes-Retana; Roberto Dávila-Perez; Gustavo Varela-Fascinetto; Jose Manuel Tovilla-Mercado; Pablo Lezama-delValle; Jaime Nieto-Zermeño



Pyloric obstruction due to gastric tuberculosis--an endoscopic diagnosis.  

PubMed Central

A 22 year old male presented with symptoms of gastric outlet obstruction. Endoscopy showed a hypertrophic nodular lesion around the pyloric opening with pyloric stenosis. The endoscopic biopsy and histopathological examination revealed tuberculosis involving the stomach, an extremely rare lesion. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Gupta, B.; Mathew, S.; Bhalla, S.



Effect of destruction of the pyloric sphincter on evacuation from the stomach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evacuation from the stomach was investigated by a method of multiple drainage of an infrapyloric fistula, using edible rubber balls as material for comparison. The duration of evacuation from the stomach after pyloroplasty by the Heineke-Mikulicz method was reduced in all the dogs but the effect was statistically significant in only 2 of the 5 dogs. Pyloroplasty did not abolish

N. M. Kharchenko; S. D. Groisman



Does dehydration affect thickness of the pyloric muscle? An experimental study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Congenital hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (CHPS) is a common condition in infancy associated with smooth muscle hypertrophy and resulting in pyloric outlet obstruction. The final diagnosis of CHPS is based on precise ultrasonographic measurements of length and width of the pyloric muscle. Based on our clinical and sonographic experience, we observed that smaller measurements of the pyloric muscle were obtained in

Ruth Starinsky; Baruch Klin; Yariv Siman-Tov; Joseph Barr



Stimulation of pyloric motility by intraduodenal dextrose in normal subjects.  

PubMed Central

Recent studies suggest that the pylorus may play an important role in the regulation of the gastric emptying of nutrient liquids in man. Dextrose solutions in the range 5-25 g/dl have been reported to empty from the human stomach at a constant caloric rate of 2.1 kcal/min. This study examined, in 12 healthy volunteers, the effects of intraduodenal dextrose on pyloric motility. Dextrose solutions, 5, 10, 15, and 25 gde/dl and saline solutions, 0.9 and 2.7 g/dl were infused into the duodenum at 4 ml/min for 10 minutes. Antral, pyloric, and duodenal motility were monitored with sideholes and a sleeve sensor positioned across the pylorus. Significant increases in the rate of isolated pyloric pressure waves and in basal pyloric pressure were seen with 15 and 25 g/dl dextrose (p less than 0.02) and 2.7 g/dl saline (p less than 0.05). The intensity and duration of the phasic and tonic pyloric motor responses to intraduodenal dextrose were dose dependent and correlated directly with the rate of calorie delivery (p less than 0.005 for each parameter). Intraduodenal delivery of dextrose at a rate in excess of 2.1 kcal/min stimulates both phasic and tonic pyloric contraction. These changes in pyloric motility may contribute to the close regulation of the emptying of dextrose from the stomach.

Heddle, R; Fone, D; Dent, J; Horowitz, M



The improved ultrasound diagnosis of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective study of ultrasound in the diagnosis of idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in 200 consecutive infants\\u000a with persistent vomiting is reported. The criteria evaluated include measurements of the pyloric diameter, muscle thickness\\u000a and canal length, and observing the function of the pylorus and gastric peristalsis in real-time. Using these ultrasonic criteria,\\u000a the infants studied were assessed as 112

R. J. Stunden; G. W. LeQuesne; K. E. T. Little



New insights into the pathogenesis of infantile pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is the most common surgical cause of vomiting in infants. Despite numerous\\u000a hypotheses, the aetiopathogenesis of IHPS is not fully understood. Genetic, extrinsic and hormonal factors have been implicated\\u000a in the pathogenesis of the disease. Furthermore, abnormalities of various components of the pyloric muscle such as smooth\\u000a muscle cells, growth factors, extracellular matrix elements, nerve

Christina Panteli



Physiological and Functional Evaluation of the Transposed Human Pylorus as a Distal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Studies evaluating the human pylorus as a sphincter are scanty and contradictory. Recently, we have shown technical feasibility of transposing the human pylorus for end-stage fecal incontinence. This unique cohort of patients provided us an opportunity to study the sphincter properties of the pylorus in its ectopic position. Methods Antro-pylorus transposition on end sigmoid colostomies (n = 3) and in the perineum (n = 15) was performed for various indications. Antro-pylorus was assessed functionally (digital examination, high resolution spatiotemporal manometry, barium retention studies and colonoscopy) and by imaging (doppler ultrasound, MRI and CT angiography) in its ectopic position. Results The median resting pressure of pylorus on colostomy was 30 mmHg (range 28-38). In benign group, median resting pressure in perineum was 12.5 mmHg (range 6-44) that increased to 21.5 mmHg (range 12-29) (P = 0.481) and 31 mmHg (range 16-77) (P = 0.034) on first and second follow-up, respectively. In malignant group, median post-operative pressures were 20 mmHg (range 14-36) and 21 mmHg (range 18-44) on first and second follow-up, respectively. A definite tone and gripping sensation were felt in all the patients on digital examination. On distal loopogram, performed through the diverting colostomies, barium was retained proximal to the neo-pyloric valve. Both perineal ultrasound and MRI showed viable transposed graft. CT angiography and color doppler studies confirmed vascular flow in the transposed position. Conclusions The human pyloric valve can function as a tonic sphincter when removed from the gastroduodenal continuity.

Ghoshal, Uday C; Gupta, Vishal; Jauhari, Ramendra; Srivastava, Rajendra N; Misra, Asha; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Manoj



Pyloric motility. Sleeve sensor versus strain gauge transducer.  


Intraduodenal infusion of nutrients has been shown by intraluminal sleeve-sidehole manometry to suppress antral contractions and stimulate isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) in humans. It is still unresolved, whether these pyloric contractions occur within an otherwise quiescent zone of motor and electrical activity and whether the presence of the sleeve sensor itself affects this nutrient-associated response. In four conscious dogs, comparisons were made between paired recordings of myoelectrical and motor activities of the antropyloroduodenal region with serosal strain gauge transducers and extracellular bipolar electrodes in the presence and absence of an intraluminal manometric sleeve-sidehole assembly during intraduodenal infusions of saline and a triglyceride emulsion (Intralipid 10%, 0.5 kcal/min). Of 287 isolated pyloric pressure waves, detected by the manometric sleeve sensor, 75% were detected as isolated pyloric contractions by the strain gauge transducers and 72% occurred in the absence of electrical spike activity in the distal antrum or proximal duodenum. The lower incidence of isolated pyloric contractions (strain gauges) was related to: (1) insensitivity of the pyloric strain gauge transducer in comparison to the manometric sleeve sensor (10%), and (2) inability of the manometric sleeve-sidehole assembly to detect pressure waves in the distal antrum (7%) or proximal duodenum (8%) during antral or duodenal wall motion. The presence of the sleeve sensor itself did not affect the number of lipid-induced isolated pyloric contractions but increased their amplitude [median 9 (7-15) mN vs 4 (2-6) mN; P < 0.05].(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8131696

Edelbroek, M; Schuurkes, J; de Ridder, W; Horowitz, M; Dent, J; Akkermans, L



Artificial urinary sphincters. Radiographic evaluation.  


A small selected group of patients with urinary incontinence can be treated effectively with an artificial urinary sphincter. Since the fluid in the hydraulic system of this device is radiopaque, radiography is useful in its evaluation. An immediate postoperative radiogram should be performed to control the position and integrity of the system. It also serves as a useful baseline study in case of later complications. It should include radiograms both in the deactivated and activated state. A few cases of tube kinking may be overlooked when exposures in only one projection are used. Experience with 110 implanted sphincters is presented. PMID:2952144

Lorentzen, T; Dorph, S; Hald, T


Recent results of treatment of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  

PubMed Central

During the five year period December 1980 to November 1985, 106 infants with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis were treated. There were no operative deaths, but two late deaths occurred from associated abnormalities. The combination of preoperative rehydration, skilled anaesthesia, and the use of the Fredet-Ramstedt operation (pyloromyotomy) have virtually eliminated mortality from uncomplicated infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. The most common complications were gastro-oesophageal reflux in 11 (11%), perforation of the duodenal fornix in nine (8%), and wound infection in five (5%); no wound dehisced.

Zeidan, B; Wyatt, J; Mackersie, A; Brereton, R J



Primary cricopharyngeal dysfunction: Treatment with balloon catheter dilatation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Primary cricopharyngeal dysfunction (PCD) is a rare, idiopathic, functional disorder of the upper esophageal sphincter, characterized by dysphagia, frequent aspiration, and functional narrowing at the level of the upper esophageal sphincter. Methods: Five of 29 patients with oropharyngeal dysphagia were found to have PCD. Patients presented with severe dysphagia and predisposition to aspiration. Radiography demonstrated narrowing at the level

Jeno Solt; Judit Bajor; Mariann Moizs; Erzsébet Grexa; Péter Ö. Horváth



The artificial urinary sphincter in the treatment of incontinence in the female patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technical developments have led to a reliable artificial urinary sphincter prosthesis for female patients with otherwise intractable urinary incontinence. Candidates include patients with post-operative stressincontinence or congenital or acquired neuropathic dysfunction. Proper patient selection requires extensive urologic examinations in order to guarantee a high success rate. The most serious complications are due to cuff erosion or infection. With proper operative

P. J. M. Kil; J. D. M. De Vries



Pyloric stenosis associated Crohn's disease responding to adalimumab therapy  

PubMed Central

Gastroduodenal Crohn’s disease (CD) is rare and the response to standard medical therapy is often poor. Anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy has revolutionised the treatment of CD. We present a patient with pyloric stenosis associated with CD which improved with Adalimumab therapy. We recommend considering anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy in symptomatic gastroduodenal CD.

Gaggar, Sameer; Scott, John; Thompson, Nicholas



Sphincter repair for fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Twenty-seven patients who had sphincter repair by one surgeon over the last ten years were reviewed. Previous surgery, childbirth,\\u000a and perineal trauma were the most common causes. Twelve patients had been treated previously using an anal continence device\\u000a (N=6), postanal repair (N=5), and rectopexy (N=1). A covering colostomy was used in ten patients. At the initial operation\\u000a only 7 patients

Kazuhiko Yoshioka; Michael R. B. Keighley



Vagal afferent innervation of the lower esophageal sphincter.  


To supply a fuller morphological characterization of the vagal afferents innervating the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), specifically to label vagal terminals in the tissues forming the LES in the gastroesophageal junction, the present experiment employed injections of dextran biotin into the nodose ganglia of rats. Four types of vagal afferents innervated the LES. Clasp and sling muscle fibers were directly and prominently innervated by intramuscular arrays (IMAs). Individual IMA terminals subtended about 16° of arc of the esophageal circumference, and, collectively, the terminal fields were distributed within the muscle ring to establish a 360° annulus of mechanoreceptors in the sphincter wall. 3D morphometry of the terminals established that, compared to sling muscle IMAs, clasp muscle IMAs had more extensive arbors and larger receptive fields. In addition, at the cardia, local myenteric ganglia between smooth muscle sheets and striated muscle bundles were innervated by intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs), in a pattern similar to the innervation of the myenteric plexus throughout the stomach and esophagus. Finally, as previously described, the principle bundle of sling muscle fibers that links LES sphincter tissue to the antropyloric region of the lesser curvature was innervated by exceptionally long IMAs as well as by unique web ending specializations at the distal attachment of the bundle. Overall, the specialized varieties of densely distributed vagal afferents innervating the LES underscore the conclusion that these sensory projections are critically involved in generating LES reflexes and may be promising targets for managing esophageal dysfunctions. PMID:23583280

Powley, Terry L; Baronowsky, Elizabeth A; Gilbert, Jared M; Hudson, Cherie N; Martin, Felecia N; Mason, Jacqueline K; McAdams, Jennifer L; Phillips, Robert J



Videourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—Urinary dysfunction is a prominent autonomic feature in Parkinson's disease (PD) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), which is not only troublesome but also a cause of morbidity in these disorders. Recent advances in investigative uroneurology offer a better insight into the underlying pathophysiology and appropriate management for urinary dysfunction.?METHODS—twenty one patients with PD (15 men, six women, mean age 64 (49-76), mean disease duration 4 years (1-8 years), median Hoehn and Yahr grade 3 (1-4), all taking 300 mg/day of levodopa (100-500 mg)) and 15 with MSA (eight men, seven women, mean age 59 (48-72), mean disease duration 3 years (0.5-6 years)) were recruited. Videourodynamic and sphincter motor unit potential analyses in the patients with PD and MSA were carried out, looking for distinguishing hallmarks that might be useful in the differential diagnosis of these two diseases.?RESULTS—Urinary symptoms were found in 72% of patients with PD and in 100% with MSA. Filling phase abnormalities in the videourodynamic study included detrusor hyperreflexia in 81% of patients with PD and 56% with MSA, and uninhibited external sphincter relaxation in 33% of patients with PD and 33% of those with MSA. However, open bladder neck at the start of filling was not seen in patients with PD but was present in 53% of those with MSA, suggestive of internal sphincter denervation. Sphincter motor unit potential analysis showed neurogenic motor unit potentials in 5% of patients with PD and in 93% of those with MSA, suggestive of external sphincter denervation. On voiding, detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia was not seen in patients with PD but was present in 47% of those with MSA. Pressure-flow analysis showed that the Abrams-Griffiths number, a grading of urethral obstruction (outflow obstruction >40), in PD (40 in women and 43 in men) was larger than that in MSA (12 in women and 28 in men). Weak detrusor in PD (66% of women and 40% of men) was less common than that in MSA (71% of women and 63% of men). Postmicturition residuals >100 ml were absent in patients with PD but were present in 47% of patients with MSA.?CONCLUSION—Patients with PD had less severe urinary dysfunction with little evidence of internal or external sphincter denervation, by contrast with the common findings in MSA. The findings of postmicturition residuals >100 ml, detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia, open bladder neck at the start of bladder filling, and neurogenic sphincter motor unit potentials are highly suggestive of MSA.??

Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Uchiyama, T; Yamanishi, T



Sphincteric incontinence: the primary cause of post-prostatectomy incontinence in patients with prostate cancer.  


Post-prostatectomy incontinence in patients with cancer of the prostate is often the result of sphincteric injury. However, recent studies have emphasized the role of detrusor instability and decreased bladder compliance in the etiology of post-prostatectomy incontinence. To further clarify the primary cause of incontinence, we reviewed the urodynamic studies of 39 patients referred for evaluation of incontinence after prostatectomy (35 radical, 4 TURP and radiation) for prostate cancer. Multichannel videourodynamic studies were performed to characterize bladder function, and sphincteric incontinence was assessed by Valsalva leak point pressure (VLPP). Flexible cystourethroscopy was used to evaluate the vesicourethral anastomosis. A pad scoring system was used to measure symptom severity. Sphincteric damage was found to be the sole cause of urinary incontinence in 23 patients (59%) and a major contributor in 14 others (36%). Twenty-seven patients (69%) had VLPP less than 103 cmH2O (mean = 55) with a urethral urodynamic catheter in place. An additional 10 (26%) had VLPP less than 150 cmH2O (mean = 63) upon removal of the catheter. VLPP is an indication of the severity of sphincteric damage. The importance of removing the urodynamic catheter during measurement of the VLPP is emphasized. Urethral fibrosis was confirmed by cystourethroscopy in 26 (67%) patients. Bladder dysfunction characterized by detrusor instability and/or decreased bladder compliance was seen in 15 patients (39%). In contrast to previous studies, our results indicate that sphincteric damage, and not bladder dysfunction, accounts for the vast majority of post-prostatectomy incontinence in patients with prostate cancer. However, it is essential to identify and treat bladder dysfunction in order to optimize the outcome of treatment for sphincteric incontinence. PMID:9136137

Desautel, M G; Kapoor, R; Badlani, G H



Pharmacological dissection of the human gastro-oesophageal segment into three sphincteric components  

PubMed Central

Quantifications of gastro-oesophageal anatomy in cadavers have led some to identify the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) with the anatomical gastric sling-clasp fibres at the oesophago-cardiac junction (OCJ). However, in vivo studies have led others to argue for two overlapping components proximally displaced from the OCJ: an extrinsic crural sphincter of skeletal muscle and an intrinsic physiological sphincter of circular smooth-muscle fibres within the abdominal oesophagus. Our aims were to separate and quantify in vivo the skeletal and smooth muscle sphincteric components pharmacologically and clarify the description of the LOS. In two protocols an endoluminal ultrasound-manometry assembly was drawn through the human gastro-oesophageal segment to correlate sphincteric pressure with the anatomic crus. In protocol I, fifteen normal subjects maintained the costal diaphragm at inferior/superior positions by full inspiration/expiration (FI/FE) during pull-throughs. These were repeated after administering atropine to suppress the cholinergic smooth-muscle sphincter. The cholinergic component was reconstructed by subtracting the atropine-resistant pressures from the full pressures, referenced to the anatomic crus. To evaluate the extent to which the cholinergic contribution approximated the full smooth-muscle sphincter, in protocol II seven patients undergoing general anaesthesia for non-oesophageal pathology were administered cisatracurium to paralyse the crus. The smooth-muscle sphincter pressures were measured after lung inflation to approximate FI. The cholinergic smooth-muscle pressure profile in protocol I (FI) matched closely the post-cisatracurium smooth-muscle pressure profile in protocol II, and the atropine-resistant pressure profiles correlated spatially with the crural sling during diaphragmatic displacement. Thus, the atropine-resistant and cholinergic pressure contributions in protocol I approximated the skeletal and smooth muscle sphincteric components. The smooth-muscle pressures had well-defined upper and lower peaks. The upper peak overlapped and displaced rigidly with the crural sling, while the distal peak separated from the crus/upper-peak by 1.1 cm between FI and FE. These results suggest the existence of separate upper and lower intrinsic smooth-muscle components. The ‘upper LOS’ overlaps and displaces with the crural sling consistent with a physiological LOS. The distal smooth-muscle pressure peak defines a ‘lower LOS’ that likely reflects the gastric sling/clasp muscle fibres at the OCJ. The distinct physiology of these three components may underlie aspects of normal sphincteric function, and complexity of sphincter dysfunction.

Brasseur, James G; Ulerich, Rhys; Dai, Qing; Patel, Dalipkumar K; Soliman, Ahmed M S; Miller, Larry S



Division and repair of the sphincteric mechanism at the gastric outlet in emergency operations for bleeding peptic ulcer. A new technique for use in combination with suture ligation of the bleeding point and highly selective vagotomy.  


In three of 26 patients who were treated by highly selective vagotomy (HSV) plus suture of the bleeding point for massive hemorrhage from peptic ulceration, access to the ulcer could not be obtained by means of a duodenotomy or gastrotomy which spared the pylorus. Instead, a wide gastroduodenotomy was performed, the artery in the base of the ulcer underrun and HSV performed. The gastroduodenotomy incision was closed longitudinally, rather than as a pyloroplasty. In this way, the integrity of the antral mill and of the pyloric sphincter was restored. The patients were followed up for six months, one year and three years respectively, and were found to be in good health, without clinical or radiological evidence of gastric retention or of recurrent ulceration. Thus the sphincteric mechanism at the exit of the stomach can, like the anal sphincter, be divided and subsequently repaired with good restoration of function. PMID:341823

Johnston, D



Division and repair of the sphincteric mechanism at the gastric outlet in emergency operations for bleeding peptic ulcer. A new technique for use in combination with suture ligation of the bleeding point and highly selective vagotomy.  

PubMed Central

In three of 26 patients who were treated by highly selective vagotomy (HSV) plus suture of the bleeding point for massive hemorrhage from peptic ulceration, access to the ulcer could not be obtained by means of a duodenotomy or gastrotomy which spared the pylorus. Instead, a wide gastroduodenotomy was performed, the artery in the base of the ulcer underrun and HSV performed. The gastroduodenotomy incision was closed longitudinally, rather than as a pyloroplasty. In this way, the integrity of the antral mill and of the pyloric sphincter was restored. The patients were followed up for six months, one year and three years respectively, and were found to be in good health, without clinical or radiological evidence of gastric retention or of recurrent ulceration. Thus the sphincteric mechanism at the exit of the stomach can, like the anal sphincter, be divided and subsequently repaired with good restoration of function. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3.

Johnston, D



Experimental study of pylorus and pyloric vagus preserving gastrectomy.  


In an attempt to prevent the sequelae of conventional gastrectomy, such as rapid gastric emptying, dumping syndrome, intestinal content reflux, indigestion, and poor absorption, we have devised the pylorus and pyloric vagus preserving gastrectomy (PPVPG). Experimenting on 48 dogs, we found theoretic grounds for using our design and obtained the desired effects--retaining the merits of conventional subtotal resection of the stomach, with acidity reduction, while avoiding the above-mentioned complications. PMID:8362530

Lu, Y; Hoa, Y; Jia, S; Gao, C


Monoclonal Antibody Specific to Urochordate Botryllus schlosseri Pyloric Gland  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe here the development of a new hybridoma cell line, CF12F6, that produces a specific antibody to Botryllus schlosseri (a colonial tunicate). The monoclonal antibody was isotyped as IgG1 (by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the cellular localization of the antigenic epitope that reacts specifically with CF12F6 was confined to the cells of the pyloric gland of the zooid (by

Ziva Lapidot; Guy Paz; Baruch Rinkevich



External anal sphincter function in spinal patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six patients with complete transection of the spinal cord and six healthy volunteers were examined by using anorectal manometry together with electromyographic (EMG) recording of the external anal sphincter composed of striated muscle. Anal pressure and EMG activity of the external anal sphincter were continuously-recorded at rest and during gradual rectal distention (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 ml) by

J. Weber; F. Beuret-Blanquart; P. Ducrotte; J. Y. Touchais; P. Denis



Infantile Hypertrophic Pyloric Stenosis is Rare in an Indigenous Population of the United Arab Emirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

An 11-year retrospective study was carried out to estimate the incidence of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis among the indigenous national population of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Data for the period 1984-1994 inclusive came from the surgical operation and medical records of all patients with pyloric stenosis in Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, UAE. Tawam Hospital is one of the principal

K. P. Dawson; B. S. Ghazala; R. Shawis



Combined use of electrosurgical incisions and balloon dilatation for the treatment of refractory postoperative pyloric stenosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Drug therapy plus balloon dilatation without gastroscopic incision does not always relieve postoperative pyloric stenosis. Methods: Five patients with postoperative pyloric stenosis whose symptoms did not improve with drug therapy and balloon dilatation underwent a combination of gastroscopic incision and balloon dilatation. Two or 3 small radial incisions were made in the stenotic muscle of the pylorus electrosurgically at

Akeo Hagiwara; Yoshinobu Sonoyama; Takeshi Togawa; Junya Yamasaki; Chouhei Sakakura; Hisakazu Yamagishi



Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: where should it be treated?  

PubMed Central

A retrospective analysis in the form of an audit into the management of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in a district general hospital has revealed that the results are equivalent to that of published data from specialised units. It is stressed in this study that close co-operation has to be maintained between paediatricians and surgeons in the care of these infants. The diagnosis can be made on clinical grounds in the majority of cases. The operation has to be carried out by experienced surgeons and anaesthetists. The morbidity can be minimised under these circumstances and pyloromyotomy can be performed safely in a district general hospital.

Jahangiri, M.; Osborne, M. J.; Jayatunga, A. P.; Bradley, J. W.; Mitchenere, P.



Modifications to the Saclantcen Sphincter Corer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Modifications to the SACLANTCEN Sphincter Corer with Recoilless Piston reported in Technical Report 112 are described. These allow the interval between corings to be halved to about one hour and simplify the maintenance. (Author)

C. Gehin P. Blavier B. Matteucci



An artificial sphincter: A preliminary report  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A new method of providing continence to patients with fecal stomas is presented. The device, used as an artificial sphincter,\\u000a consists of an inflatable Silastic balloon, which is implanted in the subcutaneous tissue around the stoma; it is easily handled\\u000a by the patient. The artificial sphincter was used in six patients with colostomies. In all cases, satisfactory continence\\u000a of the

Manuel Heiblum; Alfonso Cordoba



Lower esophageal sphincter pressure in histologic esophagitis.  


The fasting lower esophageal sphincter pressure of 18 normal volunteers was compared to 22 patients with symptoms and objective evidence of gastroesophageal reflux. Lower esophageal sphincter pressure was measured by rapid pull-through using an 8-lumen radially perfused catheter that sampled pressure every45 degrees around the circumference of the sphincter. The 22 reflux patients were subdivided for analysis into two groups, those with an acute inflammatory infiltrate on biopsy and those without inflammation. Those patients without inflammatory esophagitis had normal sphincter pressures. Those with a definite inflammatory infiltrate had pressures significantly less than normal. The least reliable separation between normals and those with inflammatory esophagitis occurred in the anterior orientations. We conclude that while basal lower esophageal sphincter pressure measurement may identify patients with reflux and inflammatory esophagitis, it is of no help in identifying those patients with reflux unassociated with inflammation. Decreased basal fasting LESP does not appear to be the most important primary determinant of gastroesophageal reflux. PMID:7379675

Welch, R W; Luckmann, K; Ricks, P; Drake, S T; Bannayan, G; Owensby, L



[Usefulness of the stent through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy for pyloric stenosis].  


The stent treatment using a self expandable metallic stent (EMS) can improve the pyloric stenosis with inoperable advanced cancer. This stent treatment is minimally invasive, and the patients can take a meal immediately after the treatment. However, a placement of a stent using an endoscope is difficult because straightening up the endoscope in the stomach is an impossible task in the case of using an oral endoscope. Therefore, we used PEG and we could easily place the EMS through PEG for pyloric stenosis. We report the three cases of pyloric stenosis with an inoperable advanced gastric and pancreas cancers using this technique. In all cases, pyloric stenosis were improved, and they could take it from a mouth and could receive home care for a while. We think this technique is feasible and beneficial. PMID:17469363

Beck, Emima; Moriya, Hiromitsu; Kuroyama, Shinichi; Morise, Masaki; Kobayashi, Nobuyuki; Shimao, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masahiko



Urinary Incontinence: Sphincter Functioning from a Urological Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is a debilitating disorder caused by malfunctioning of the urethral sphincter. Anatomical and histological properties of the sphincter, its innervation and supporting structures are explained in relation to the closing mechanism of the bladder outlet. Urethral sphincter function is discussed from the passive concept of urethral pressure transmission to the ’hammock theory’ and the role of

John P. F. A. Heesakkers; Reza R. R. Gerretsen



Anal sphincter imaging in fecal incontinence using endosonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Clinical anal examination, manometry (resting and squeeze pressures), and single-fiber electromyography were compared with endosonography of the anal sphincters in 14 patients with fecal incontinence. Technical aspects of the procedure and normal imaging of the puborectal muscle and both sphincters were defined. Defects in both sphincters were seen in nine patients. The defect is visualized as a clear discontinuity in

M. A. Cuesta; S. Meijer; E. J. Derksen; H. Boutkan; S. G. M. Meuwissen



Pyloric motor function during emptying of a liquid meal from the stomach in the conscious pig.  

PubMed Central

1. In six conscious pigs antral, pyloric and duodenal pressures were recorded with a 5.5 cm sleeve sensor and multiple perfused side holes. The manometric assembly was positioned by dual point transmucosal potential difference measurement. Gastric emptying was measured by drainage of the proximal duodenum through a Thomas cannula. Pressures were correlated with emptying of ingested radiolabelled 5% dextrose. Alteration of emptying was produced by infusion into the more distal duodenum of nutrient and non-nutrient solutions of differing osmolalities. 2. Motor activity of the pylorus and antrum was stimulated by ingestion and modulated by intraduodenal infusion. Duodenal infusion of normal saline was associated with antro-pyloric pressure waves and rapid emptying of the ingested liquid. Duodenal infusion of dextrose, fatty acid, amino acids and hyperosmolar saline was associated with stimulation of isolated pyloric pressure waves, suppression of antral pressure waves and slowing of gastric emptying. 3. The dose-response relationship of these effects was investigated using varying rates of intraduodenal dextrose infusions. The emptying rate of the ingested liquid was inversely related to the rates of delivery of dextrose to the duodenum, directly related to the rate of antro-pyloric pressure waves and inversely related to the rate of isolated pyloric pressure waves. 4. Clearly defined episodes of pulsatile flow produced slightly more than half of the total emptying that occurred. This pulsatile flow was intimately associated in time with antro-pyloric pressure waves. Sequences of isolated pyloric pressure waves were associated with near cessation of emptying. When there were periods of absent pyloric antral pressure waves, flow rates intermediate between the rapid emptying of pulsatile flow during antro-pyloric pressure waves and the near cessation of flow during isolated pyloric pressure waves occurred. 5. The findings suggest a major role for the pylorus in the control of emptying of liquids from the stomach, both as a component of an antro-pyloric peristaltic pump and as a resistor to transpyloric flow during nutrient and hyperosmolar stimulation of duodenal receptors.

Treacy, P J; Jamieson, G G; Dent, J



Emergent mechanisms in multiple pattern generation of the lobster pyloric network  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   By using a hard-wired oscillator network, multiple pattern generation of the lobster pyloric network is simulated. The network\\u000a model is constructed using a relaxation oscillator representing an oscillatory or quiescent (i.e. steady-state) neuron. Modulatory\\u000a inputs to the network are hypothesized to cause changes in the dynamical properties of each pyloric neuron: the oscillatory\\u000a frequency, the postinhibitory rebound property, and

Yoshinari Makino; Masanori Akiyama; Masafumi Yano



Pre- and perinatal risk factors for pyloric stenosis and their influence on the male predominance.  


Pyloric stenosis occurs with a nearly 5-fold male predominance. To what extent this is due to environmental factors is unknown. In a cohort of all children born in Denmark, 1977-2008, the authors examined the association between pre- and perinatal exposures and pyloric stenosis and investigated whether these factors modified the male predominance. Information on pre- and perinatal factors and pyloric stenosis was obtained from national registers. Poisson regression models were used to estimate rate ratios. Among 1,925,313 children, 3,174 had surgery for pyloric stenosis. The authors found pyloric stenosis to be significantly associated with male sex, age between 2 and 7 weeks, early study period, being first born, maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm delivery, small weight for gestational age, cesarean section, and congenital malformations. Among cases, 2,595 were males and 579 were females. Lower male predominance was associated with age at diagnosis outside the peak ages, early study period, no maternal smoking during pregnancy, preterm delivery, and congenital malformations. The authors have previously found a strong familial aggregation of pyloric stenosis indicating a genetic influence. This study shows that environmental factors during and shortly after pregnancy also play a role and that several of these modify the strong male predominance. PMID:22553083

Krogh, Camilla; Gørtz, Sanne; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Biggar, Robert J; Melbye, Mads; Fischer, Thea K



Effects of glyceryl trinitrate on the pyloric motor response to intraduodenal triglyceride infusion in humans.  


The retardation of gastric emptying induced by infusion of triglyceride into the small intestine is associated with suppression of antral pressure waves and stimulation of basal pyloric tone in combination with phasic pressure waves localized to the pylorus. The role of nitric oxide (NO) mechanisms in the control of pyloric motility was evaluated in 12 healthy male subjects (21-43 years), using the NO donor glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). Antropyloric pressures were measured with a manometric assembly incorporating nine sideholes, spanning the antrum and proximal duodenum, and a pyloric sleeve sensor. On separate days, an intraduodenal triglyceride infusion (10% intralipid at 1 mL min-1) was started during antral phase I activity and continued for 60 min. On one of the days GTN (600 micrograms) was given sublingually 20 min after start of the triglyceride infusion. The tonic pyloric motor response to triglyceride [5.6 (SEM 0.8,) vs. 2.7 (1.3) mmHg, P < 0.001] and both the number 3.2 (0.2) vs. 2.2 (0.2) min-1, P < 0.05] and amplitude [40 (4) vs. 27 (5) mmHg, P < 0.05] of phasic isolated pyloric pressure waves were reduced by GTN. These observations suggest that NO mechanisms are involved in the regulation of pyloric motor activity in humans. PMID:8872060

Sun, W M; Doran, S; Lingenfelser, T; Hebbard, G S; Morley, J E; Dent, J; Horowitz, M



Idiopathic non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an infant successfully treated via endoscopic approach.  


Non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has rarely been reported in pediatric literature. Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation has been shown to be a safe procedure in treating gastric outlet obstruction in older children and adults. Partial gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) was diagnosed in an infant by history and confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan excluded idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, abdominal tumors, gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary-pancreatic anomalies. Endoscopic findings showed a pinhole-sized pylorus and did not indicate peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, antral web, or evidence of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Three sessions of a step-wise endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation were conducted under general anesthesia and a fluoroscopy at two week intervals using catheter balloons (Boston Scientific Microvasive(®), MA, USA) of increasing diameters. Repeat UGI after the first session revealed normal gastrointestinal transit and no intestinal obstruction. The patient tolerated solid food without any gastrointestinal symptoms since the first session. The endoscope was able to be passed through the pylorus after the last session. Although the etiology of GOO in this infant is unclear (proposed mechanisms are herein discussed), endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation was a safe procedure for treating this young infant with non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and should be considered as an initial approach before pyloroplasty in such presentations. PMID:21191516

Karnsakul, Wikrom; Cannon, Mary L; Gillespie, Stacey; Vaughan, Richard



Adaptive changes in the pyloric motor response to intraduodenal dextrose in normal subjects.  


Gastric emptying of glucose is faster after dietary supplementation of glucose, suggesting specific adaptation to changes in nutrient intake. In the present study, the effects of a continuous long-term (0-120-minute) and two short-term (0-20- and 80-100-minute) intraduodenal infusions of dextrose (2.4 kcal/min) on antropyloroduodenal motility and blood glucose, plasma gastric inhibitory polypeptide, and insulin concentrations were evaluated in nine volunteers. In four volunteers, an intraduodenal infusion of triglyceride (2.4 kcal/min) was administered immediately after the long-term dextrose infusion. The long-term dextrose infusion initially increased isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) and basal pyloric pressure (P < 0.05 for both), but after about 30 minutes IPPWs and basal pyloric pressure decreased and returned to baseline within 80 minutes. Each short-term infusion increased IPPWs and basal pyloric pressure (P < 0.05 for both). Antral pressure waves remained suppressed during the long-term dextrose infusion. Intraduodenal triglyceride increased IPPWs and basal pyloric pressure (P < 0.05 for both). The long-term dextrose infusion was associated with a sustained increase, and both short-term dextrose infusions were associated with peaks in glucose, insulin, and gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels. There was no significant relationship between biochemical measurements and antropyloroduodenal motility. It is concluded that specific adaptive changes occur rapidly in the phasic and tonic pyloric motor response, but not the antral motor response, to intraduodenal dextrose. PMID:1451969

Edelbroek, M; Horowitz, M; Fraser, R; Wishart, J; Morris, H; Dent, J; Akkermans, L



[Treatment of the urethral sphincter insufficiency].  


The intrinsic sphincter insufficiency is a cause of stress urinary incontinence. Its definition is clinical and based on urodynamics. It is mostly met with women, in context of the post-obstetrical period or older women in a multifactorial context. For men, it occurs mainly as complication of the surgery of the cancer of prostate or bladder. An initial, clinical and paraclinical assessment allows to confirm the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter insufficiency, to estimate its severity, and to identify associated mechanisms of incontinence (urethral hypermobility, bladder overactivity) to choose the most adapted treatment. The perineal reeducation is the treatment of first intention in both sexes. At the menopausal woman, the local hormonotherapy is a useful additive. In case of failure or of incomplete efficiency, the treatment of the intrinsic sphincter insufficiency is surgical. Bulking agents, urethral slings, peri-urethral balloons and artificial sphincter are 4 therapeutic options to discuss according to history, the severity of the incontinence, the expectations of the patient. PMID:24176408

Boissier, R; Karsenty, G



Impact of Sleep Dysfunction on Anorectal Motility in Healthy Humans  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Sleep dysfunction is associated with altered gastrointestinal function and subsequently exacerbations of gastrointestinal problems. We aimed to investigate whether sleep dysfunction would influence anorectal motility as determined by anorectal manometry. The effect of anxiety on anorectal motility was also determined. Methods A total of 24 healthy volunteers underwent anorectal manometry. The anorectal parameters included resting and squeeze sphincter pressure, sensory thresholds in response to balloon distension, sphincter length, rectal compliance, and rectoanal inhibitory reflex. Sleep dysfunction was subjectively assessed by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Anxiety was assessed by the application of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaire. Results There were sixteen subjects without sleep dysfunction (7 women; mean age, 22 years) and eight subjects with sleep dysfunction (2 women; mean age, 22 years). There was no group difference in the volume threshold for rectoanal inhibitory reflux, rectal compliance or sphincter length (P = NS). Anal sphincter pressure did not differ between the groups (P = NS). The rectal sensitivity for different levels of stimulation did not differ between the groups (P = NS). Sleep quality as determined by PSQI correlated with rectal compliance (r = 0.66, P = 0.007). Although there was no differences in any manometric parameters between subjects with and without anxiety, the anxiety score correlated with rectal compliance (r = 0.57, P = 0.003). Conclusions Despite a positive association between rectal compliance and the level of subjective sleep or anxiety, sleep dysfunction did not apparently affect most of anorectal function in healthy subjects, nor did anxiety.

Liu, Tso-Tsai; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Orr, William C



Should we care about the internal anal sphincter?  


The internal anal sphincter is currently regarded as a significant contributor to continence function. Four physiological and morphological aspects of the internal anal sphincter are presented as part of the current evidence base for its preservation in anal surgery. 1) The incidence of continence disturbance following deliberate internal anal sphincterotomy is underestimated, although there is presently no prospective imaging or physiologic data supporting the selective use of sphincter-sparing surgical alternatives. 2) Given that the resting pressure is a measure of internal anal sphincter function, its physiologic representation (the rectoanal inhibitory reflex) shows inherent differences between incontinent and normal cohorts which suggest that internal anal sphincter properties act as a continence defense mechanism. 3) Anatomical differences in distal external anal sphincter overlap at the point of internal anal sphincter termination may preclude internal anal sphincter division in some patients where the distal anal canal will be unsupported following deliberate internal anal sphincterotomy. 4) internal anal sphincter-preservation techniques in fistula surgery may potentially safeguard postoperative function. Prospective, randomized trials using preoperative sphincter imaging and physiologic parameters of the rectoanal inhibitory reflex are required to shape surgical decision making in minor anorectal surgery in an effort to define whether alternatives to internal anal sphincter division lead to better functional outcomes. PMID:22156875

Zbar, Andrew P; Khaikin, Marat



Pyloric motor response to central and peripheral nitric oxide in the ferret.  


This study has investigated the relative importance of central nervous and peripheral nitroxidergic mechanisms in the control of pyloric motility. In 10 urethane-anaesthetized ferrets, drugs were administered directly to the CNS via a 0.5-mm-diameter cannula inserted into the 4th ventricle, approximately at the obex. Drugs were also given directly to the upper GI tract by close intra-arterial (i.a.) injection at the coeliac axis. Antropyloroduodenal pressures were recorded with a five-channel sleeve/sidehole micromanometric assembly (1.35 x 1.75 mm o.d.), which was introduced via the duodenum. Pyloric motility was stimulated throughout the main part of each study with a continuous i.v. infusion of CCK-8 (30 pmol min-1). This infusion produced an immediate and sustained increase in tonic and phasic pyloric activity, and sustained abolition of antral pressure waves. CCK-8 also induced a duodenal motor response, but this was short-lived (11.4 +/- 7.9 min). Coeliac axis injection of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine (SNAP) decreased phasic pyloric activity (from 330 +/- 35 to 148 +/- 21 mmHg min-1 after SNAP 5 micrograms, P < 0.01). By comparison central SNAP administration over the same dose range had no effect on CCK-stimulated pyloric motlity. Inhibition of endogenous NO synthase with L-Nitro Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME, 100 mg kg-1 close i.a.) caused a marked increase of phase pyloric motor activity from 349 +/- 59 to 1044 +/- 140 mmHg min-1 (P < 0.01). In addition, SNAP caused marked stimulation of pyloric tone from 2.6 +/- 0.5 to 13.1 +/- 2.8 mmHg (P < 0.01). Central nervous administration of L-NAME caused modest enhancement of phasic pyloric activity (248 +/- 31 to 283 +/- 32 mmHg min-1 P < 0.05) and pyloric tone (2.6 +/- 0.5 to 3.7 +/- 0.7 mmHg, P < 0.05). Our data indicate that motor activity of the ferret pylorus is potently modulated by NO released within the upper gut. Additionally, there is potential for modulation of pyloric motility by central nervous system production of NO. PMID:9347472

Lingenfelser, T; Blackshaw, L A; Sun, W M; Dent, J



Pyloric stenosis in the Oxford Record Linkage Study area.  

PubMed Central

The files of the Oxford Record Linkage Study were employed to identify 220 infants presenting with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) in the 6-year period 1966 to 1971. Information on these infants was obtained from birth certificates and maternity notes. The overall incidence was 2.5 per 1000 livebirths. There was a distinct seasonal variation, with highest incidence to infants born in the third quarter of the year as well as variation in incidence with area: the cities had much lower rates of IHPS than the adjacent rural or small urban areas. It was shown that the rates in the south and east of the area studied were far greater than in the north and west. In the present study there was no excess of primiparae, the peak maternal age group was 20 to 24; there was a slight excess of parents of social classes I and II; and a significant association with mothers who were Rhesus negative. The rate of IHPS among sibs was 85 per 1000. Though there was the usual correlation with the male sex (M:F ratio = 5.5:1), there was no variation with birthweight and only among the females was an association found with prolonged gestation. There appeared to be an inverse relation between gestation and age on admission to hospital. Images

Adelstein, P; Fedrick, J



Long-term outcome after internal sphincter myectomy for internal sphincter achalasia.  


Anal internal sphincter achalasia is a rare cause of refractory constipation. It is usually treated by internal sphincter myectomy (ISM). The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of patients who had undergone ISM for internal sphincter achalasia. Bowel habits, fecal continence, and quality of life were evaluated using a questionnaire. Fecal continence was quantitatively assessed by a score described by Holschneider. A questionnaire was sent to 13 patients (11 male, two female) operated on by ISM for intractable constipation caused by internal sphincter achalasia between 1983 and 1993. Ten patients responded and were included in the study. At the time of the study, three of the 10 patients required oral medication for constipation and had one to three bowel movements per week. One of the 10 patients had three to five bowel movements per day, and the others had one to two bowel movements per day. Four patients had normal and six patients had good continence scores. Four of the patients reported mild social problems, and one had problems associated with sports. Refractory constipation in the majority of patients with internal sphincter achalasia can be treated by ISM. However, in the long term, a significant number of patients suffer from soiling-related social problems. PMID:15616817

Heikkinen, M; Lindahl, H; Rintala, R J



Risk factors for obstetrical anal sphincter lacerations.  


The objective of this study was to identify the rate of anal sphincter lacerations in a large population-based database and analyze risk factors associated with this condition. Data were obtained from Pennsylvania Healthcare Cost Containment Council (PHC4) regarding all cases of obstetrical third and fourth degree perineal lacerations that occurred during a 2-year period from January 1990 to December 1991. Modifiable risk factors associated with this condition were analyzed, specifically episiotomy, forceps-assisted vaginal delivery, forceps with episiotomy, vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery, and vacuum with episiotomy. There were a total of 168,337 deliveries in 1990 and 165,051 deliveries in 1991 in Pennsylvania. Twenty-two percent (n = 74,881) of the deliveries were by cesarean section and were excluded from analysis. Among the remaining 258,507 deliveries, there were 18,888 (7.3%) third and fourth degree lacerations. Instrumental vaginal delivery, particularly with use of episiotomy, increased the risk of laceration significantly [forceps odds ratio (OR): 3.84, forceps with episiotomy OR: 3.89, vacuum OR: 2.58, vacuum with episiotomy OR: 2.93]. Episiotomy on the whole was associated with a threefold increase in the risk of sphincter tears. However, episiotomy in the absence of instrumental delivery seems to be protective with an OR of 0.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.93]. Instrumental vaginal delivery, particularly forceps delivery, appears to be an important risk factor for anal sphincter tears. The risk previously attributed to episiotomy is probably due to its association with instrumental vaginal delivery. Forceps delivery is associated with higher occurrence of anal sphincter injury compared to vacuum delivery. PMID:15809773

Dandolu, Vani; Chatwani, Ashwin; Harmanli, Ozgur; Floro, Clara; Gaughan, John P; Hernandez, Enrique



[The treatment of postoperative anal sphincter insufficiency].  


Postoperative anal sphincter insufficiency was revealed in 94 patients, ageing 14-64 yrs. Surgical treatment was conducted in 80 of them: sphincteroplasty--in 29, sphincterolevatoroplasty--in 37, sphincterogluteoplasty--in 8, plasty, using the m. gluteus maximus flap--in 6. Results of the patients treatment, followed up 1-4 yrs, were: good--in 54 (76.1%), fair--in 11 (15.5%) and poor--in 6 (8.4%) of them. PMID:22013668

Aliev, E A



[Sphincter-preserving surgery for lower rectal cancer aimed at improving postoperative bowel function].  


Much attention has been focused on sphincter-preserving surgery for patients with lower rectal cancer, leading to renewed interest in the outcome of postoperative bowel function. Some patients who undergo sphincter-preserving surgery experience bowel dysfunction, such as frequent stools, severe constipation, soiling, and incontinence. These symptoms were thought to be correlate with lower resting pressure, lower rectal compliance, sensory disturbance of the anal canal, spasm, and delayed transit in the colon above the anastomosis. To improve postoperative bowel function, reconstruction with the colonic J-pouch has been performed, which results in a satisfactory functional outcome. About 80% of patients with a J-pouch were able to tolerate over 10 minutes after feeling the desire to defecate. An anorectal manometric study showed no abnormal spastic movement of the neorectum and a transit study showed that the J-pouch group was superior to the straight group with respect to the smoothness of movement of radiopaque markers from the cecum to anal ring, although a small number of markers were retained in the colonic J-pouch. Patients who received a colonic J-pouch had fewer defecation problems in daily life. Further study is need to improve postoperative bowel movement in patients who undergo sphincter-preserving surgery. PMID:10919155

Morita, T; Suzuki, J; Yoshizaki, T; Kimura, Y; Nakamura, F; Itoh, T; Murata, A; Nishi, T; Koyama, M; Sasaki, M



Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle-feeding and extensive confounder information. METHODS: We performed a large population-based cohort study based on the Danish National Birth Cohort, which provided information on infants and feeding practice. Information about surgery for PS was obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The association between bottle-feeding and the risk of PS was evaluated by hazard ratios (HRs) estimated in a Cox regression model, adjusting for possible confounders. RESULTS: Among 70?148 singleton infants, 65 infants had surgery for PS, of which 29 were bottle-fed before PS diagnosis. The overall HR of PS for bottle-fed infants compared with not bottle-fed infants was 4.62 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.78–7.65). Among bottle-fed infants, risk increases were similar for infants both breast and bottle-fed (HR: 3.36 [95% CI: 1.60–7.03]), formerly breastfed (HR: 5.38 [95% CI: 2.88–10.06]), and never breastfed (HR: 6.32 [95% CI: 2.45–16.26]) (P = .76). The increased risk of PS among bottle-fed infants was observed even after 30 days since first exposure to bottle-feeding and did not vary with age at first exposure to bottle-feeding. CONCLUSIONS: Bottle-fed infants experienced a 4.6-fold higher risk of PS compared with infants who were not bottle-fed. The result adds to the evidence supporting the advantage of exclusive breastfeeding in the first months after birth.

Biggar, Robert J.; Fischer, Thea K.; Lindholm, Morten; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Melbye, Mads



Urinary Dysfunction  


... PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Living with Prostate Cancer Urinary Dysfunction Side Effects Urinary Dysfunction Bowel Dysfunction ... dysfunction is normal following initial therapy for localized prostate cancer. But it’s important to realize that not all ...


Assessment of a novel implantable artificial anal sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to test a new implantable artificial anal sphincter in the porcine model. METHOD: The artificial\\u000a sphincter, which includes an inflatable expander that compresses and flattens the bowel against a pillow, was implanted in\\u000a 16 animals and studied for periods of up to 20 weeks. The anal sphincters were destroyed, and the efficacy of

Constantinos A. Hajivassiliou; Ken B. Carter; Iain G. Finlay



Sphincter tears in primiparous women: is age a factor?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal sphincter tears during vaginal delivery may result in serious sequelae. We examined whether younger primiparous patients\\u000a were at increased risk for sphincter tears during vaginal delivery. Data from an obstetric automated record were analyzed.\\u000a Primiparous women delivering term infants (n?=?5,937) were included to test for an association between age and sphincter tear rates. Three age groups were considered:\\u000a young

C. Bryce Bowling; Thomas L. Wheeler II; Kimberly A. Gerten; Victoria R. Chapman; Kathryn L. Burgio; Holly E. Richter



Sphincter repair for fecal incontinence after obstetrical or iatrogenic injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty patients with fecal incontinence underwent sphincter repair between 1975 and 1984. Divided sphincter musculature resulted\\u000a from obstetrical injury in 23 and previous anorectal surgery in 17. Eighteen had undergone a previous attempt at repair. Fifteen\\u000a patients experienced seepage of stool and 25 had gross incontinence. In nine patients, reconstruction of the external sphincter\\u000a was by overlap of the muscle

Michael E. Pezim; Robert J. Spencer; C. Robert Stanhope; Robert W. Beart; Roger L. Ready; Duane M. Ilstrup



Confirmation of two novel loci for infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis on chromosomes 3 and 5.  


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is a multifactorial heritable condition affecting infants in the first 3 months of life. It is characterized by hypertrophy of the pylorus resulting in blockage of the pyloric canal. Patients present with projectile vomiting, weight loss and dehydration. Five susceptibility loci have been identified through genome-wide linkage analysis and candidate gene approaches. The first genome-wide association study was recently performed and three statistically significant associations identified. Here, we report our confirmation of two of these significant results thus providing further support for new loci for IHPS on chromosome 3p25.1 and chromosome 5q35.2. PMID:23426030

Everett, Kate V; Chung, Eddie M K



Management of patients with biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder without sphincter of Oddi manometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The paucity of controlled data for the treatment of most biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD) types and the incomplete response to therapy seen in clinical practice and several trials has generated controversy as to the best course of management of these patients. In this observational study we aimed to assess the outcome of patients with biliary SOD managed

Evangelos Kalaitzakis; Tim Ambrose; Jane Phillips-Hughes; Jane Collier; Roger W Chapman



Paradoxical sphincter contraction is rarely indicative of anismus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Anismus is thought to be a cause of chronic constipation by producing outlet obstruction. The underlying mechanism is paradoxical contraction of the anal sphincter or puborectalis muscle. However, paradoxical sphincter contraction (PSC) also occurs in healthy controls, so anismus may be diagnosed too often because it may be based on a non-specific finding related to untoward conditions during the anorectal

W A Voderholzer; D A Neuhaus; A G Klauser; K Tzavella; S A Müller-Lissner; N E Schindlbeck



Renal abnormalities in children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis —fact or fallacy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retrospective review of the abdominal ultrasound (US) examination of 274 children studied for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) was undertaken to determine if there is an increased incidence of renal disease as previously reported. Five major abnormalities were detected in the 126 children with HPS. Three lesions were newly diagnosed and two had been diagnosed previously. Five children had abnormalities classified

S. K. Fernbach; F. P. Morello



Secondary indigestion as a cause of functional pyloric stenosis in the cow  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 23 cows suffering from a secondary indigestion, in most cases with septicaemia, the syndrome of functional pyloric stenosis or vagal indigestion developed. The signs were anorexia, ruminal distension with fluid material, abomasal reflux into the ruminoreticulum, dehydration, hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis and uraemia. These signs often disappeared after treatment of both the primary causative disease and the secondary indigestion.

R Kuiper; HJ Breukink



Pyloric ulceration and stenosis in a two-year-old thoroughbred filly: a case report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of the two year old thoroughbred filly presented here has been diagnosed with and treated for equine gastric ulceration syndrome (EGUS). The results of her examination are documented over a five month period. The patient was finally hospitalised with acute severe colic. Absence of chronic clinical problems common for pyloric stenosis can be attributed to the permanent antiulceration



Electromyography of the internal anal sphincter performed under endosonographic guidance description of a new method  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of our study was to investigate internal anal sphincter electromyographic signals. METHODS: Electromyography of the internal anal sphincter was performed with platinum wire electrodes in six healthy volunteers (three males and three females), inserted under endosonographic guidance. Platinum wire electrodes were also inserted into the external anal sphincter. Activity of both the internal and external anal sphincter

Michael Sørensen; Michael Bachmann Nielsen; Jan Fog Pedersen; John Christiansen



Optimization of the artificial urinary sphincter: modelling and experimental validation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The artificial urinary sphincter should be long enough to prevent strangulation effects of the urethral tissue and short enough to avoid the improper dissection of the surrounding tissue. To optimize the sphincter length, the empirical three-parameter urethra compression model is proposed based on the mechanical properties of the urethra: wall pressure, tissue response rim force and sphincter periphery length. In vitro studies using explanted animal or human urethras and different artificial sphincters demonstrate its applicability. The pressure of the sphincter to close the urethra is shown to be a linear function of the bladder pressure. The force to close the urethra depends on the sphincter length linearly. Human urethras display the same dependences as the urethras of pig, dog, sheep and calf. Quantitatively, however, sow urethras resemble best the human ones. For the human urethras, the mean wall pressure corresponds to (-12.6 ± 0.9) cmH2O and (-8.7 ± 1.1) cmH2O, the rim length to (3.0 ± 0.3) mm and (5.1 ± 0.3) mm and the rim force to (60 ± 20) mN and (100 ± 20) mN for urethra opening and closing, respectively. Assuming an intravesical pressure of 40 cmH2O, and an external pressure on the urethra of 60 cmH2O, the model leads to the optimized sphincter length of (17.3 ± 3.8) mm.

Marti, Florian; Leippold, Thomas; John, Hubert; Blunschi, Nadine; Müller, Bert



Myopathy of internal anal sphincter with polyglucosan inclusions.  


In two members of an affected family with a hereditary syndrome of proctalgia fugax and constipation, a hypertrophied internal anal sphincter was found with histological features suggesting a myopathy of this muscle. In these two patients, and in an unrelated patient with a similar clinical syndrome, smooth muscle fibres of the internal anal sphincter showed numerous vacuoles, many of which contained ovoid inclusion bodies. The structural features and histochemical reactions of the inclusion bodies were consistent with a polyglucosan composition. Histological examination of the internal anal sphincter may reveal smooth muscle abnormalities in functional bowel disorders. PMID:2167961

Martin, J E; Swash, M; Kamm, M A; Mather, K; Cox, E L; Gray, A



Bladder dysfunction in peripheral neuropathies.  


Normal bladder function depends on the complex interaction of sensory and motor pathways. Bladder dysfunction can develop as a result of several neurological conditions. It can happen in a number of ways, including diabetic cystopathy, detrusor overactivity, bladder outlet obstruction, and urge and stress urinary incontinence. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common cause of peripheral neuropathy-associated bladder dysfunction. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neuropathy, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and amyloid neuropathy are other major causes. The diagnosis of bladder dysfunction should be established by the history of neurological symptoms, neurological examination, and urological evaluation. Functional evaluation of the lower urinary tract includes cystometry, sphincter electromyography, uroflowmetry, and urethral pressure profilometry. Management of urinary symptoms in patients with bladder dysfunction is usually supportive. In some cases, alpha-blocker and/or anti-muscarinic agents are needed to help improve urinary dysfunction. Intermittent self-catheterization is needed occasionally for patients with slow and/or poor recovery. PMID:22190298

Burakgazi, Ahmet Z; Alsowaity, Bander; Burakgazi, Zeynep Aydin; Unal, Dogan; Kelly, John J



Pyloric gland adenoma of the cystic duct with malignant transformation: report of a case with a review of the literature  

PubMed Central

Background Pyloric gland adenoma consists of closely packed pyloric-type glands lined by mucus-secreting cells. To date, approximately 230 cases have been reported, mostly of gastric localization with a tumour size up to 3.5 cm and a mean age of occurrence around 70 years. Adenocarcinoma develops in about 40% of cases and may be difficult to detect due to relatively mild nuclear atypia. Case presentation We present the first case of a pyloric gland adenoma of the cystic duct in a 62-year-old male patient and demonstrate the clinicopathologic characteristics, including radiographic, molecular, and cytogenetic findings. The 2 cm-tumour developed in the cystic duct and protruded into the hepatic and common bile duct. On microscopic examination, it displayed closely packed pyloric-type glands, and focal architectural distortion with mild nuclear atypia. Immunohistochemically, it expressed MUC1, MUC5AC, MUC6 and p53, but not MUC2 and CD10. The Ki67-proliferation index was 25%. Furthermore, high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia was observed in the surrounding bile duct. We detected chromosomal gains at 7p, 7q11q21, 15q, 16p, 20, losses at 6p23pter, 6q, 18, and amplifications at 1q and 6p21p22 in the pyloric gland adenoma by comparative genomic hybridization. A KRAS codon 12 mutation (c.35G>T; p.G12V) was detected in the pyloric gland adenoma and in the adjacent dysplasia by sequencing analysis. The diagnosis of pyloric gland adenoma was established with transition into well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and high-grade biliary intraepithelial neoplasia. Conclusion Pyloric gland adenoma evolving in the cystic duct is a rare differential diagnosis of obstructive bile duct tumours. Other premalignant bile duct lesions may be associated. Due to the risk of developing adenocarcinoma, surgical resection should be performed.



A comparison of early gastric and post-pyloric feeding in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To investigate the potential beneficial and adverse effects of early \\u000apost-pyloric feeding compared with gastric feeding in critically ill adult \\u000apatients with no evidence of impaired gastric emptying.Design  Randomised controlled studies comparing gastric and post-pyloric feeding in \\u000acritically ill adult patients from Cochrane Controlled Trial Register (2005 \\u000aissue 3), EMBASE and MEDLINE databases (1966 to 1 October 2005) without any \\u000alanguage

Kwok M. Ho; Geoffrey J. Dobb; Steven A. R. Webb



Bladder, Bowel, and Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Bladder dysfunction (urinary urgency/frequency), bowel dysfunction (constipation), and sexual dysfunction (erectile dysfunction) (also called “pelvic organ” dysfunctions) are common nonmotor disorders in Parkinson's disease (PD). In contrast to motor disorders, pelvic organ autonomic dysfunctions are often nonresponsive to levodopa treatment. The brain pathology causing the bladder dysfunction (appearance of overactivity) involves an altered dopamine-basal ganglia circuit, which normally suppresses the micturition reflex. By contrast, peripheral myenteric pathology causing slowed colonic transit (loss of rectal contractions) and central pathology causing weak strain and paradoxical anal sphincter contraction on defecation (PSD, also called as anismus) are responsible for the bowel dysfunction. In addition, hypothalamic dysfunction is mostly responsible for the sexual dysfunction (decrease in libido and erection) in PD, via altered dopamine-oxytocin pathways, which normally promote libido and erection. The pathophysiology of the pelvic organ dysfunction in PD differs from that in multiple system atrophy; therefore, it might aid in differential diagnosis. Anticholinergic agents are used to treat bladder dysfunction in PD, although these drugs should be used with caution particularly in elderly patients who have cognitive decline. Dietary fibers, laxatives, and “prokinetic” drugs such as serotonergic agonists are used to treat bowel dysfunction in PD. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors are used to treat sexual dysfunction in PD. These treatments might be beneficial in maximizing the patients' quality of life.

Sakakibara, Ryuji; Kishi, Masahiko; Ogawa, Emina; Tateno, Fuyuki; Uchiyama, Tomoyuki; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Yamanishi, Tomonori



Reticulo-omasal stenosis in the cow: differential diagnosis with respect to pyloric stenosis.  


In the complex called vagal indigestion two main types of stenosis can be distinguished, pyloric stenosis and stenosis between the reticulum and omasum or reticulo-omasal stenosis. Laboratory examinations of blood and rumen fluid were carried out in 10 cows with reticulo-omasal stenosis. The results are discussed with respect to the differential diagnoses of pyloric stenosis. In the cows with reticulo-omasal stenosis no metabolic alkalosis occurred and consequently dehydration and uraemia did not develop. For the clinician valuable points of difference were a more prolonged and chronic course and, on physical examination, the absence of serious circulatory disturbances and the absence of an ammoniacal-uraemic odour in the expired air. The clinical picture of reticulo-omasal stenosis strongly resembles a syndrome described as failure of omasal transport. PMID:3776066

Kuiper, R; Breukink, H J



Video capsule endoscopy and CT enterography in diagnosing adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

PubMed Central

Primary adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is a rare but important cause of gastric outlet obstruction that may be misdiagnosed as idiopathic gastroparesis. Clinically, patients present with early satiety, abdominal fullness, nausea, epigastric discomfort and eructation. Permanent gastric retention of a video capsule endoscope is diagnostic in differentiating between the two diseases, in the absence of an organic gastric outlet obstruction. This case presents the longest video capsule retention in the medical literature to date. It is also the first case report of adult hypertrophic pyloric stenosis diagnosed with video capsule endoscopy or a computed tomography scan. Finally, an unusual “plugging” of the gastric outlet with free floating capsule has an augmented effect on disease physiology and on patient’s symptoms.

Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy; Volkov, Dmitri



Partial characterization of pyloric-duodenal lipase of gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata).  


In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of seabream Sparus aurata pyloric caeca-duodenal lipase. Optimum activity was found at pH 8.5 and salinity of 50 mM NaCl. Lipase activity was sensitive to divalent ions, and extreme pH values (4, 5, and 12), being more stable at alkaline than acid pH. Optimum temperature was found at 50°C, but lipase was stable at temperatures below 40°C. Lipase has a bile salt sodium taurocholate requirement for increased activity. Gradient PAGE electrophoresis revealed the presence of four isoforms with apparent molecular masses of 34, 50, 68, and 84 KDa, respectively. Pyloric-duodenal lipase was able to hydrolyze emulsified alimentary oils. Results confirm the presence of true lipases in Sparus aurata digestive tract. PMID:20593234

Nolasco, Héctor; Moyano-López, Francisco; Vega-Villasante, Fernando



Congenital pyloric mucosal fold resulting in an antral valve outflow obstruction in a bull terrier.  


An under-sized three-month-old female bull terrier was referred with a history of regurgitation since three days of age. Thoracic radiographs were unremarkable, while abdominal radiographs showed a distended stomach, despite a 12 hour fast. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed gastric outflow obstruction of unclear aetiology. Coeliotomy was performed, during which an excessive mucosal fold at the pyloric antrum was excised. Histopathology of the pyloric fold revealed mild oedema and fibrosis of the mucosal tissue. The dog made a complete recovery, with resolution of regurgitation and grew to within the expected breed size. In the authors' opinion, this is the first canine report of congenital antral mucosal valve resulting in gastric outflow obstruction, and only the second report in any species. PMID:23278852

Pazzi, P; Hartman, M J; Schoeman, J P



Full Functional-Length Urethral Sphincter Preservation During Radical Prostatectomy  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundA key prerequisite for urinary continence after radical prostatectomy (RP) is the functional length of the urethral sphincter and the stabilisation of its anatomic position within the pelvic floor.

Thorsten Schlomm; Hans Heinzer; Thomas Steuber; Georg Salomon; Oliver Engel; Uwe Michl; Alexander Haese; Markus Graefen; Hartwig Huland



D2 plus radical resection combined with perioperative chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer with pyloric obstruction  

PubMed Central

A patient with advanced gastric cancer complicated with pyloric obstruction was treated using D2 + radical resection combined with perioperative chemotherapy, and had satisfying outcomes. The perioperative chemotherapy regimen was Taxol and S1 (tegafur, gimeracil, and oteracil). Three cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy were delivered before surgery, and three cycles of adjuvant therapy after surgery. PR was achieved after chemotherapy. D2 + dissection of stations 8p, 12b, 12p, 13 and 14v lymph nodes was performed on September 10, 2012.

Du, Yian; Xu, Zhiyuan; Yang, Litao; Huang, Ling; Wang, Bing; Yu, Pengfei; Dong, Ruizeng



Radiologic findings in cutis laxa syndrome and unusual association with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  


Cutis laxa (CL) is a rare congenital and acquired disorder characterized by loose and redundant skin with reduced elasticity. Three types of congenital cutis laxa have been recognized. Other findings are pulmonary emphysema, bronchiectasia, hernia and diverticulosis. We describe a female neonate involved by cutis laxa syndrome and a positive family history. We focus on the radiologic findings of this case such as multiple bladder diverticulosis, GI diverticulosis and very rare accompanying hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS). PMID:24046787

Alehossein, Mehdi; Pourgholami, Masoud; Kamrani, Kamyar; Soltani, Mohammad; Yazdi, Afshin; Salamati, Payman



Displacement of the abomasum to the left side and pyloric obstruction in a goat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A 4-year-old female native goat with the history of inappetence and no defecation was referred to the Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine of Shiraz, Shiraz, southern Iran. During exploratory laparotomy, pyloric obstruction and displacement of the abomasum to the left side was observed. Obstruction of pylorus was due to a ball-shaped phytobezoar. The goat was followed

Meimandi Parizi; Rowshan Ghasrodashti; A. Meimandi


Pyloric motility and liquid gastric emptying during barostatic control of gastric pressure in pigs.  

PubMed Central

1. In conscious pigs, intragastric pressure was controlled by a water barostat such that the gastroduodenal pressure gradient was always positive with the barostat set above 15 cm. In six pigs pyloric motor function was removed by prior pylorectomy. 2. In pylorus-intact animals, isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) occurred at a median of 2.9 min-1 during duodenal dextrose infusion with the barostat set at or above a threshold of 15 cm. Increases of intragastric pressure above this threshold had no additional effect upon rates of IPPWs. Below this threshold, with identical duodenal dextrose infusion, IPPWs occurred infrequently (0.5 min-1). In pylorus-excised animals virtually no IPPWs were seen. 3. In both pylorus-intact and -excised animals, the rate of antral pressure waves (APWs) was dependent upon intragastric pressure during duodenal infusion of both saline and dextrose. No threshold for stimulation was seen. Duodenal dextrose infusion inhibited APWs in pylorus-intact animals only. 4. With a positive gastroduodenal pressure gradient, gastric emptying was more rapid in pylorus-excised animals than pylorus-intact animals during duodenal dextrose infusion. In contrast, gastric emptying rates were not different between pylorus-intact and -excised animals during saline infusion. 5. These findings suggest an all-or-none-type stimulation of localized pyloric contractions by distension of the stomach beyond a threshold, in synergism with stimulation by nutrients within the upper small bowel. In contrast, stimulation of antral motility is in proportion to distension of the stomach. The pylorus, by way of localized pyloric contractions, is an effective resistor to transpyloric flow in the face of a positive gastroduodenal pressure gradient.

Treacy, P J; Jamieson, G G; Dent, J



Pyloric motility and liquid gastric emptying during barostatic control of gastric pressure in pigs.  


1. In conscious pigs, intragastric pressure was controlled by a water barostat such that the gastroduodenal pressure gradient was always positive with the barostat set above 15 cm. In six pigs pyloric motor function was removed by prior pylorectomy. 2. In pylorus-intact animals, isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) occurred at a median of 2.9 min-1 during duodenal dextrose infusion with the barostat set at or above a threshold of 15 cm. Increases of intragastric pressure above this threshold had no additional effect upon rates of IPPWs. Below this threshold, with identical duodenal dextrose infusion, IPPWs occurred infrequently (0.5 min-1). In pylorus-excised animals virtually no IPPWs were seen. 3. In both pylorus-intact and -excised animals, the rate of antral pressure waves (APWs) was dependent upon intragastric pressure during duodenal infusion of both saline and dextrose. No threshold for stimulation was seen. Duodenal dextrose infusion inhibited APWs in pylorus-intact animals only. 4. With a positive gastroduodenal pressure gradient, gastric emptying was more rapid in pylorus-excised animals than pylorus-intact animals during duodenal dextrose infusion. In contrast, gastric emptying rates were not different between pylorus-intact and -excised animals during saline infusion. 5. These findings suggest an all-or-none-type stimulation of localized pyloric contractions by distension of the stomach beyond a threshold, in synergism with stimulation by nutrients within the upper small bowel. In contrast, stimulation of antral motility is in proportion to distension of the stomach. The pylorus, by way of localized pyloric contractions, is an effective resistor to transpyloric flow in the face of a positive gastroduodenal pressure gradient. PMID:8006821

Treacy, P J; Jamieson, G G; Dent, J



Memokath® stents for the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) in men with spinal cord injury: The Princess Royal Spinal Injuries Unit 10-year experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design:Medical records review.Objective:To assess the effectiveness of the Memokath (Engineers & Doctors A\\/S, Denmark) thermosensitive stent as a ‘nondestructive’ means of reducing bladder outlet resistance by treating detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) of neurogenic bladder dysfunction associated with spinal cord injury.Setting:Spinal Injuries Unit, Sheffield, England.Methods:A medical records review was performed to examine our experience of Memokaths over the last 10

S S Mehta; P R Tophill



A new catheter for endoscopic manometry of Oddi's sphincter.  


With a newly designed manometry catheter and a modified pull-through maneuver a high presure zone can reproducibly be recorded between the duodenum and the pancreato-biliary tree corresponding to Oddi's sphincter. Catheter marking allows in addition calculation of the length of this zone. Since the sealed end of the catheter remains during pressure recording within the ductal system repeated push-and-pull maneuvres can be performed through the sphincter area. PMID:862584

Rösch, W; Lux, G; Seuberth, K



Treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia with baclofen and doxazosin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) is an involuntary contraction of the external urethral sphincter during detrusor contraction.\\u000a A high proportion of patients needing repeat surgery and long term failure have both been described in the literature. In\\u000a the present study, we evaluated clinical characteristics, underlying disorders and outcomes of conservative medical treatment\\u000a in 21 female patients. Two patients were newly diagnosed

H. Kilicarslan; S. Ayan; H. Vuruskan; G. Gokce; E. Y. Gultekin



Characterization of basal hepatic bile flow and the effects of intravenous cholecystokinin on the liver, sphincter, and gallbladder in patients with sphincter of Oddi spasm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The major objectives of this project were to establish the pattern of basal hepatic bile flow and the effects of intravenous administration of cholecystokinin on the liver, sphincter of Oddi, and gallbladder, and to identify reliable parameters for the diagnosis of sphincter of Oddi spasm (SOS). Eight women with clinically suspected sphincter of Oddi spasm (SOS group), ten control subjects

Gerbail T. Krishnamurthy; Shakuntala Krishnamurthy; Randy D. Watson



Motility Disorders of the Stomach  


... particles and juice which splash against a closed sphincter muscle (the pyloric sphincter) to grind the food into small particles. (2) ... that are accompanied by opening of the pyloric sphincter muscle. These are sometimes called "housekeeper waves" because ...


Three-dimensional imaging of the lower esophageal sphincter in gastroesophageal reflux disease.  

PubMed Central

The resistance of the lower esophageal sphincter to reflux of gastric juice is determined by the integrated effects of radial pressures exerted over the entire length of the sphincter. This can be quantitated by three-dimensional computerized imaging of sphincter pressures obtained by a pullback of radially oriented pressure transducers and by calculating the volume of this image, in other words, the sphincter pressure vector volume. Validation studies showed that sphincter imaging based on a stepwise pullback of a catheter with four or eight radial side holes is superior to a rapid motorized pullback. Compared with 50 healthy volunteers, the total and abdominal sphincter pressure vector volume was lower in 150 patients with increased esophageal acid exposure (p less than 0.001) and decreased with increasing esophageal mucosal damage (p less than 0.01). Calculation of the sphincter pressure vector volume was superior to standard techniques in identifying a mechanically defective sphincter as the cause of increased esophageal acid exposure, particularly in patients without mucosal damage. The Nissen and Belsey fundoplication increased the total and intra-abdominal sphincter pressure vector volume (p less than 0.001) and normalized the three-dimensional sphincter image. Failure to do so was associated with recurrent or persistent reflux. These data indicate that three-dimensional imaging of the lower esophageal sphincter improves the identification of patients who would benefit from an antireflux procedure. Analysis of the three-dimensional sphincter pressure profile should become the standard for evaluation of the lower esophageal sphincter.

Stein, H J; DeMeester, T R; Naspetti, R; Jamieson, J; Perry, R E



Vagal control of lower oesophageal sphincter motility in the cat  

PubMed Central

1. The effects of vagal efferent fibre stimulation on the smooth muscle of the lower oesophageal sphincter have been studied on the anaesthetized animal and on the isolated and perfused organ. 2. In both muscle layers (longitudinal and circular) vagal stimulation elicits two types of electromyographic (e.m.g.) potentials: (a) excitatory junction potentials (e.j.p.s) where there is a depolarization of the smooth muscle fibres. E.j.p.s can give rise to spike potentials inducing a contraction of the sphincter; (b) inhibitory junction potentials (i.j.p.s) where there is hyperpolarization of the smooth muscle fibres, often followed by a transient depolarization which may initiate spikes (post-inhibitory rebound). 3. Pure i.j.p.s are observed after atropine treatment which suppresses e.j.p.s. Under these conditions, a long lasting vagal stimulation induces a long duration hyperpolarization concomitant with an opening of the lower oesophageal sphincter followed after the cessation of stimulation by a powerful rebound leading to a strong contraction which closes the sphincter. 4. Several arguments, pharmacological (action of acetylcholine (ACh), atropine and hexamethonium) and physiological (threshold and latency of responses) lead to the following conclusions. Preganglionic vagal fibres are cholinergic and they activate (a) intramural excitatory cholinergic neurones; (b) intramural non-adrenergic inhibitory neurones (purinergic neurones). Preganglionic fibres leading to inhibition have a higher threshold than those leading to excitation. Both excitatory and inhibitory pathways are interconnected inside the intramural network. In particular, activation of intramural inhibitory neurones, by relaxing the oesophagus orally to the lower oesophageal sphincter, inhibits intramural excitatory neurones and subsequently blocks vagal excitatory responses. 5. Two functions may be attributed to the vagal extrinsic innervation: (a) closure of the lower oesophageal sphincter by maintaining the basal tone of the sphincter; this would imply that at rest the inhibitory control is supplanted by the excitatory one; (b) sphincter opening during swallowing by suppressing the excitatory stimulus and reinforcing the inhibitory one (it may be recalled that after bilateral vagotomy, swallowing is no longer followed by a relaxation of the sphincter).

Gonella, J.; Niel, J. P.; Roman, C.



Designing micro- and nanostructures for artificial urinary sphincters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dielectric elastomers are functional materials that have promising potential as actuators with muscle-like mechanical properties due to their inherent compliancy and overall performance: the combination of large deformations, high energy densities and unique sensory capabilities. Consequently, such actuators should be realized to replace the currently available artificial urinary sphincters building dielectric thin film structures that work with several 10 V. The present communication describes the determination of the forces (1 - 10 N) and deformation levels (~10%) necessary for the appropriate operation of the artificial sphincter as well as the response time to master stress incontinence (reaction time less than 0.1 s). Knowing the dimensions of the presently used artificial urinary sphincters, these macroscopic parameters form the basis of the actuator design. Here, we follow the strategy to start from organic thin films maybe even monolayers, which should work with low voltages but only provide small deformations. Actuators out of 10,000 or 100,000 layers will finally provide the necessary force. The suitable choice of elastomer and electrode materials is vital for the success. As the number of incontinent patients is steadily increasing worldwide, it becomes more and more important to reveal the sphincter's function under static and stress conditions to realize artificial urinary sphincters, based on sophisticated, biologically inspired concepts to become nature analogue.

Weiss, Florian M.; Deyhle, Hans; Kovacs, Gabor; Müller, Bert



[Animal experiment studies on the treatment of fecal incontinence by means of artificial sphincter].  


Animal experiments concerning replacing the intestinal sphincter by a hydraulic system are reported. The investigations were carried out an minipigs. The sphincter system functioned well. Several complications occurred, however, which are described in detail. PMID:136817

Schöning, G V; Zühlke, H; Langbein, L



Effects of feeding and starvation on proteolytic and tryptic activities in pyloric caecal tissues and duct fluids of the seastar Pisaster ochraceus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pisaster ochraceus were collected at Post Point, Bellingham, Washington, USA, in 1980. Total protease and tryptic specific activities were measured in pyloric caecal tissues and pyloric duct fluids of fed and starved individuals. Feeding resulted in increased levels of total protease and tryptic activities, and led to an increase in the ratio of total protease to tryptic specific activity in

T. F. Holzman; S. F. Russo; D. C. Williams



Clinical significance of pyloric aperture in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease: a prospective study.  


Despite so much contributions reported in the literature, the aetiology of the duodenal ulcer remains an enigmatic subject to the medical profession. Findings of Helicobacter pylori seem to have overshadowed the real issue, in that, how a small area of the duodenal mucosa could be inflicted with the acid-pepsin injury has not been questioned? One hundred and sixty-eight consecutive patients, presented with epigastric pain were included in the endoscopic study. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence and its clinical importance on the sizes of the pyloric aperture in the aetiology of peptic ulcer disease. Demographic data on the sizes of the pyloric aperture were divided into two groups, in that, those up to 3 mm in diameter were included in one and those over the size of 3 mm in another. Among the 168 cases, the gastric ulcer was found in 12 and duodenal ulcer in 27 patients. The sex ratio of men to women was 1.4:1 found in the former and 8:1 in the latter. Among other findings, a knuckle of duodenal mucoa was noticed prolapsing through the large pyloric aperture. It could be postulated that a knuckle of the mucosa that keeps peeping through the pylorus acts as a mucosal plug in empty stomach, like a cork in the acid bottle. The main physiological function is to protect the mucosa from being damaged by the acid-pepsin injury or by the reflux of bile, but the tip of the plug seems to be subjected to such injury. Furthermore, the surface epithelial cells could also be subjected to ischaemic change while prolapsing through the pylorus. This may lead to reduced production of the mucosal gel and bicarbonate secretion, thus exposing the damaged mucosa to acid bath. This supports the concept, how a small area of the stomach or duodenum could be inflicted with ulceration. PMID:19810367

Saha, Sisir Kumar



Anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence: effect on symptom severity, quality of life, and anal sphincter squeeze pressures  

PubMed Central

Introduction and hypothesis The objective of this study was to determine the effect of external anal sphincter repair on fecal incontinence symptoms, quality of life, and anal sphincter squeeze pressures. Methods The fecal incontinence symptoms and impact on quality of life, patient satisfaction, and anorectal manometry were assessed pre- and post-operatively. Results One hundred four women were eligible and 74/104 (71%) returned post-operative questionnaires. Fifty-four of 74 (73%) had pre- and post-operative questionnaires. Twenty-five of 74 (34%) had pre- and post-operative anorectal manometry measures. Mean length of follow-up for participants (n=54) was 32±19 months. Modified Manchester Health Questionnaire scores decreased from 47.3±21.9 to 28.4±24.3 (p<0.01) and Fecal Incontinence Severity Index scores from 30.6±13.0 to 21.6±15.5 (p<0.01). Seventy-seven percent of the participants was satisfied. Sphincter squeeze pressures increased from 53.4±25.0 to 71.8±29.1 mmHg (p<0.01). Conclusions External anal sphincter repair resulted in sustained improvements in fecal incontinence severity and quality of life along with improved anal sphincter squeeze pressures.

Gleason, Jonathan Lee; Markland, Alayne; Greer, Wm Jerod; Szychowski, Jeff M.; Gerten, Kimberly A.; Richter, Holly E.



Secondary indigestion as a cause of functional pyloric stenosis in the cow.  


In 23 cows suffering from a secondary indigestion, in most cases with septicaemia, the syndrome of functional pyloric stenosis or vagal indigestion developed. The signs were anorexia, ruminal distension with fluid material, abomasal reflux into the ruminoreticulum, dehydration, hypochloraemic, hypokalaemic metabolic alkalosis and uraemia. These signs often disappeared after treatment of both the primary causative disease and the secondary indigestion. The importance of recognising this condition is emphasised, because the serious signs of the secondary indigestion may dominate the causative disease. The prognosis depends upon the causative disease and is not necessarily bad. PMID:3798682

Kuiper, R; Breukink, H J



Partial characterization of pyloric-duodenal lipase of gilthead seabream ( Sparus aurata )  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we report the isolation and characterization of seabream Sparus aurata pyloric caeca-duodenal lipase. Optimum activity was found at pH 8.5 and salinity of 50 mM NaCl. Lipase activity was sensitive\\u000a to divalent ions, and extreme pH values (4, 5, and 12), being more stable at alkaline than acid pH. Optimum temperature was\\u000a found at 50°C, but lipase

Héctor Nolasco; Francisco Moyano-López; Fernando Vega-Villasante



Effects of cholecystokinin on appetite and pyloric motility during physiological hyperglycemia.  


Recent studies suggest that the interaction between small intestinal nutrient stimulation and the blood glucose concentration is important in the regulation of gastric motility and appetite. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effects of cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) on antropyloric motility and appetite are influenced by changes in the blood glucose concentration within the normal postprandial range. Seven healthy volunteers were studied on 4 separate days. A catheter incorporating a sleeve sensor was positioned across the pylorus, and the blood glucose was stabilized at either 4 mmol/l (2 days) or 8 mmol/l (2 days). After the desired blood glucose had been maintained for 90 min, an intravenous infusion of either CCK-8 (2 ng. kg(-1). min(-1)) or saline (control) was given for 60 min. Thirty minutes after the infusion began, the catheter was removed and subjects drank 400 ml of water with guar gum before being offered a buffet meal. The amount of food consumed (kcal) was quantified. The order of the studies was randomized and single-blinded. There were fewer antral waves at a blood glucose of 8 than at 4 mmol/l during the 90-min period before the infusions (P<0.05) and during the first 30 min of CCK-8 or saline infusion (P = 0.07). CCK-8 suppressed antral waves (P<0.05), stimulated isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) (P<0.01), and increased basal pyloric pressure (P<0.005) compared with control. During administration of CCK-8, basal pyloric pressure (P<0.01), but not the number of IPPWs, was greater at a blood glucose of 8 mmol/l than at 4 mmol/l. CCK-8 suppressed the energy intake at the buffet meal (P<0.01), with no significant difference between the two blood glucose concentrations. We conclude that the acute effect of exogenous CCK-8 on basal pyloric pressure, but not appetite, is modulated by physiological changes in the blood glucose concentration. PMID:10644567

Rayner, C K; Park, H S; Doran, S M; Chapman, I M; Horowitz, M



Comparative effects on glucose absorption of intragastric and post-pyloric nutrient delivery in the critically ill  

PubMed Central

Introduction Studies in the critically ill that evaluate intragastric and post-pyloric delivery of nutrient have yielded conflicting data. A limitation of these studies is that the influence in the route of feeding on glucose absorption and glycaemia has not been determined. Methods In 68 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, liquid nutrient (100 ml; 1 kcal/ml containing 3 g of 3-O-Methyl-D-glucopyranose (3-OMG), as a marker of glucose absorption), was infused into either the stomach (n = 24) or small intestine (n = 44) over six minutes. Blood glucose and serum 3-OMG concentrations were measured at regular intervals for 240 minutes and the area under the curves (AUCs) calculated for 'early' (AUC60) and 'overall' (AUC240) time periods. Data are presented as mean (95% confidence intervals). Results Glucose absorption was initially more rapid following post-pyloric, when compared with intragastric, feeding (3-OMG AUC60: intragastric 7.3 (4.3, 10.2) vs. post-pyloric 12.5 (10.1, 14.8) mmol/l.min; P = 0.008); however, 'overall' glucose absorption was similar (AUC240: 49.1 (34.8, 63.5) vs. 56.6 (48.9, 64.3) mmol/l.min; P = 0.31). Post-pyloric administration of nutrients was also associated with greater increases in blood glucose concentrations in the 'early' period (AUC60: 472 (425, 519) vs. 534 (501, 569) mmol/l.min; P = 0.03), but 'overall' glycaemia was also similar (AUC240: 1,875 (1,674, 2,075) vs. 1,898 (1,755, 2,041) mmol/l.min; P = 0.85). Conclusions In the critically ill, glucose absorption was similar whether nutrient was administered via a gastric or post-pyloric catheter. These data may have implications for the perceived benefit of post-pyloric feeding on nutritional outcomes and warrant further investigation.



Upper esophageal sphincter during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation: effects of reflux content and posture  

PubMed Central

Although some studies show that the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contracts during transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR), others show that it relaxes. We hypothesized that the posture of the subject and constituents of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may determine the type of UES response during the TLESR. High-resolution manometry and esophageal pH/impedance recording were performed in 10 healthy volunteers in the right recumbent (1 h) and upright (1 h) positions following the ingestion of a 1,000-Kcal meal. The UES pressure response during TLESR and constituents of GER (liquid, air, and pH) were determined. 109 TLESRs (58 upright and 51 recumbent) were analyzed. The majority of TLESRs were associated with GER (91% upright and 88% recumbent) events. UES relaxation was the predominant response during upright position (81% of TLESRs), and it was characteristically associated with presence of air in the reflux (92%). On the other hand, UES contraction was the predominant response during recumbent position (82% of TLESRs), and it was mainly associated with liquid reflux (71%). The rate of esophageal pressure increase (dP/dt) during the GER, but not the pH, had major influence on the type of UES response during TLESR. The dP/dt during air reflux (127 ± 39 mmHg/s) was significantly higher than liquid reflux (31 ± 6 mmHg/s, P < 0.0001). We concluded that the nature of UES response during TLESR, relaxation or contraction, is related to the posture and the constituents of GER. We propose that the rapid rate of esophageal pressure increase associated with air reflux determines the UES relaxation response to GER.

Babaei, Arash; Bhargava, Valmik



Management of patients with biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder without sphincter of Oddi manometry  

PubMed Central

Background The paucity of controlled data for the treatment of most biliary sphincter of Oddi disorder (SOD) types and the incomplete response to therapy seen in clinical practice and several trials has generated controversy as to the best course of management of these patients. In this observational study we aimed to assess the outcome of patients with biliary SOD managed without sphincter of Oddi manometry. Methods Fifty-nine patients with biliary SOD (14% type I, 51% type II, 35% type III) were prospectively enrolled. All patients with a dilated common bile duct were offered endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy whereas all others were offered medical treatment alone. Patients were followed up for a median of 15 months and were assessed clinically for response to treatment. Results At follow-up 15.3% of patients reported complete symptom resolution, 59.3% improvement, 22% unchanged symptoms, and 3.4% deterioration. Fifty-one percent experienced symptom resolution/improvement on medical treatment only, 12% after sphincterotomy, and 10% after both medical treatment/sphincterotomy. Twenty percent experienced at least one recurrence of symptoms after initial response to medical and/or endoscopic treatment. Fifty ERCP procedures were performed in 24 patients with an 18% complication rate (16% post-ERCP pancreatitis). The majority of complications occurred in the first ERCP these patients had. Most complications were mild and treated conservatively. Age, gender, comorbidity, SOD type, dilated common bile duct, presence of intact gallbladder, or opiate use were not related to the effect of treatment at the end of follow-up (p > 0.05 for all). Conclusions Patients with biliary SOD may be managed with a combination of endoscopic sphincterotomy (performed in those with dilated common bile duct) and medical therapy without manometry. The results of this approach with regards to symptomatic relief and ERCP complication rate are comparable to those previously published in the literature in cohorts of patients assessed by manometry.



Comparison of the effect of laparoscopic and conventional pyloric surgery on gastric emptying in dogs.  


The effect of a laparoscopic approach and pyloric surgery on canine gastrointestinal activity, particularly gastric emptying time, is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of laparoscopic and conventional pyloric surgery, in Ramstedt pyloromyotomy and Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, on complete gastric emptying time in 20 clinically normal dogs. Dogs were divided into four groups of five animals: dogs with laparoscopic Ramstedt pyloromyotomy, conventional Ramstedt pyloromyotomy, or laparoscopic Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty, and the conventional Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty group. Gastric emptying time using barium sulfate mixed with dry kibble dog food was measured fluoroscopically before and 1 month after surgery. Gastric emptying of solids was significantly enhanced in the pyloroplasty groups in the postoperative period compared with preoperative emptying. Just as after conventional pyloromyotomy, gastric emptying time after laparoscopic pyloromyotomy was not statistically different as compared with preoperative values. This study indicates that the fluoroscopic test meal is a valuable tool for defining complete gastric emptying time in normal dogs. We conclude that pyloromyotomy was less effective in decreasing complete gastric emptying time than Heineke-Mikulicz pyloroplasty in normal dogs. The possibility of decreasing complete gastric emptying time by laparoscopic surgery suggests a potential clinical application for this technique in small animals. PMID:15693561

Sánchez-Margallo, Francisco M; Ezquerra-Calvo, Luis J; Soria-Gálvez, Federico; Usón-Gargallo, Jesús


Sympathetic control of antral and pyloric electrical activity in the rabbit.  


The effects of section and stimulation of the sympathetic nerve trunk on gastric motility were investigated in conscious and decorticate rabbits. In conscious animals after section of the abdominal splanchnic nerve, rhythm of antral and pyloric bursts was enhanced, becoming more regular, and the period of arrest of the rhythmic bursts, which was usually observed at the end of inflation of the antrum in intact rabbits, was shortened to 33.6 +/- 4.0 s from 112.2 +/- 14.6 s observed before the sympathetic nerve transection. Adrenergic agonists, phenylephrine (100 micrograms/kg), clonidine (5 micrograms/kg) and salbutamol (1 mg/kg) inhibited antral and pyloric activity. In decorticate rabbits the major effect of stimulation of the peripheral or the central end of the thoracic sympathetic trunk was inhibition; this was seen both with the spontaneous and vagally induced e.m.g. activity of the antrum and pylorus. Inhibition induced by stimulation of sympathetic efferents was abolished by beta-blocking agents and that induced by stimulation of the sympathetic afferents disappeared after alpha-adrenergic block. Significance of a dual control of the gastric motility by the sympathetic nerve was discussed. PMID:3351191

Deloof, S



[Imaging diagnosis of infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: report of a case and review of the literature].  


Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) is familiar to most pediatric and general practitioners, it is a pathology where the radiologist nowadays has a key role confirming the clinical suspicion based in ultrasound and upper-gastrointestinal barium examinations. There is hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the antropyloric portion of the stomach, which becomes abnormally thickened, it manifests as obstruction to gastric emptying. Infants with IHPS are clinically normal at birth, but they develop a nonbilious forceful vomiting during the first weeks of postnatal life, which is described as "projectile". Surgical treatment is curative. The clinical diagnosis hinges on palpation of the thickened pylorus. Imaging findings include the "string sign" (elongation of the pyloric canal) and the "double-track sign" (presence of linear tracts of contrast material separated by the intervening mucosa) on fluoroscopic observation. Sonographic examination demonstrates the thickened prepyloric antrum bridging the duodenal bulb and distended stomach. We present the case of a 26-days-old infant with IHPS; presenting this case we make a brief review of the clinical features and main imaging findings of IHPS. PMID:17966373

Roldán-Valadez, Ernesto; Solórzano-Morales, Sara; Osorio-Peralta, Sandra


Physiological changes in blood glucose affect appetite and pyloric motility during intraduodenal lipid infusion.  


We evaluated the effects of varying blood glucose concentration within the normal postprandial range and its interaction with small intestinal nutrients on antropyloric motility and appetite. Eight healthy males (19-40 yr) underwent paired studies, with a blood glucose level of 5 or 8 mmol/l. Manometry and visual analog scales were used to assess motility and appetite, during fasting and intraduodenal lipid infusion (1.5 kcal/min). In the fasting state, antral waves were suppressed at 8 mmol/l compared with 5 mmol/l (P = 0.018). However, pyloric motility was no different between the two blood glucose concentrations. Hunger was no different at 5 mmol/l compared with 8 mmol/l, but fullness was greater at 8 mmol/l (P = 0. 01). During intraduodenal lipid infusion, antral waves were suppressed (P < 0.035) and isolated pyloric pressure waves (IPPWs) were stimulated (P < 0.02) compared with during the fasting state, with no difference between blood glucose concentrations, although the temporal patterning of IPPWs varied between blood glucose concentrations. The amplitude of IPPWs was greater at 5 mmol/l compared with 8 mmol/l (P < 0.001), and hunger decreased at 8 mmol/l compared with 5 mmol/l (P = 0.02). We conclude that "physiological" hyperglycemia modifies gastric motor and sensory function and that synergy exists between blood glucose concentration and small intestinal nutrients in modulating gastric motility and appetite. PMID:9756511

Andrews, J M; Rayner, C K; Doran, S; Hebbard, G S; Horowitz, M



Results of artificial sphincter in severe anal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE AND METHODS: Fourteen AMS 800® (American Medical Systems, Minneapolis, MN) urinary artificial sphincters have been consecutively implanted in 13 patients with total incontinence for stool of various causes (traumatic or postoperative, 7; congenital, 3; neurologic, 2; idiopathic, 1). No proximal stoma was constructed but was already present in one patient before implantation. RESULTS: Sepsis occurred in two patients. Removal

Paul-Antoine Lehur; Francis Michot; Philippe Denis; Philippe Grise; Joël Leborgne; Paul Teniere; Jean-Marie Buzelin



Electroacupuncture may relax the sphincter of Oddi in humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study was designed to evaluate the effects of electroacupuncture on sphincter of Oddi (SO) motility in humans and to associate the manometric findings with cholecystokinin (CCK) plasma levels. Methods: Eleven patients (M:F = 5:6) with various kinds of biliary disorders were enrolled. SO motility was monitored with conventional low-compliance, continuous perfusion technique at ERCP (n = 9) or

Sung-Koo Lee; Myung-Hwan Kim; Hong-Ja Kim; Dong-Wan Seo; Kyo-Sang Yoo; Yun-Ho Joo; Young-Il Min; Ji-Hoon Kim; Byung-Il Min



Effect of lateral sphincterotomy on internal anal sphincter function  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the effect of lateral sphincterotomy on internal anal sphincter function in patients with chronic anal fssure. METHODS: Using an eight-channel perfusion catheter and computerized data analysis, a prospective manometric study was performed on patients with chronic anal fissure undergoing lateral sphincterotomy (LS). RESULTS: Mean resting pressure (MRP) in patients with anal fissure (85.1

N. Williams; N. A. Scott; M. H. Irving



A Recoilless Piston for the Saclantcen Sphincter Corer.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modification to the SACLANTCEN 'Sphincter' corer reported in Technical Report 34 is described. It consists of a simple system for positioning the piston relatively to a fixed platform lying on the sea floor, thereby eliminating recoil during deep-sea co...

A. Kermabon U. Cortis



Thermal responses of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a numerical investigation of the thermal behavior of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys (SMAs) proposed by the authors. The SMA artificial anal sphincter has the function of occlusion at body temperature and can be opened with a thermal transformation induced deformation of SMAs to solve the problem of severe fecal incontinence. The investigation of its thermal behavior is of great importance in terms of practical use in living bodies as a prosthesis. In this work, a previously proposed phenomenological model was applied to simulate the thermal responses of SMA plates that had undergone thermally induced transformation. The numerical approach for considering the thermal interaction between the prosthesis and surrounding tissues was discussed based on the classical bio-heat equation. Numerical predictions on both in vitro and in vivo cases were verified by experiments with acceptable agreements. The thermal responses of the SMA artificial anal sphincter were discussed based on the simulation results, with the values of the applied power and the geometric configuration of thermal insulation as parameters. The results obtained in the present work provided a framework for the further design of SMA artificial sphincters to meet demands from the viewpoint of thermal compatibility as prostheses.

Luo, Yun; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Matsuzawa, Kenichi



Celecoxib (Celebrex) Increases Canine Lower Esophageal Sphincter Pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Prostaglandins inhibit the contraction of gastrointestinal smooth muscle and may decrease lower esophageal sphincter tone. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor celecoxib (Celebrex) could increase lower esophageal pressure (without affecting gastric emptying) compared to placebo and cisapride (Prepulsid), a compound previously used to treat reflux disease.Materials and methods. Six mongrel dogs were assigned

Sebastian G. de la Fuente; Ross L. McMahon; Erik M. Clary; Mary B. Harris; D. Curtis Lawson; James D. Reynolds; W. Steve Eubanks; Theodore N. Pappas



Starvation and refeeding effects on pyloric caeca structure of Caspian salmon (Salmo trutta caspius, Kessler 1877) juvenile.  


Effect of starvation and refeeding on the structure of pyloric caeca was studied in the juveniles of Caspian Sea salmon. Juveniles (average body weight 12±0.1g) were subjected to four levels of feeding: full-fed for 6 weeks (FFF), 3 weeks fed and 3 weeks following starvation (FS), 3 weeks starved and 3 weeks fed (SF), and full-starved (SSS) for 6 weeks. Light microscopic studies showed significant reduction (p<0.05) in the enterocytes height and number, villus length, epithelial area and pyloric caeca total area in starved groups as compared to control group. These reductions were more significant (p<0.05) in long term starved group (SSS) than short term starved group (FS). Additionally, refeeding increased pyloric caeca size and enterocyte's number in SF group whereas, the epithelial total area and villus length did not reach the same area and length as control group. Results indicated that in Caspian Sea salmon juveniles food deprivation and consuming of food source, adversely affected the tissue of pyloric caeca while refeeding can be effective on healing tissue damage. PMID:23477933

Emadi Shaibani, Mina; Mojazi Amiri, Bagher; Khodabandeh, Saber



Does surgery correct esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux  

SciTech Connect

The high incidence of dysphagia in patients with symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux (GER) but no evidence of peptic stricture suggests esophageal motor dysfunction. Conventional methods for detecting dysfunction (radiologic and manometric examinations) often fail to detect abnormality in these patients. Radionuclide transit (RT), a new method for detecting esophageal motor dysfunction, was used to prospectively assess function in 29 patients with symptomatic GER uncomplicated by stricture before and three months after antireflux surgery (HILL). The preoperative incidence of dysphagia and esophageal dysfunction was 73% and 52%, respectively. During operation (Hill repair), intraoperative measurement of the lower esophageal sphincter pressure was performed and the LESP raised to levels between 45 and 55 mmHg. The preoperative lower esophageal sphincter pressure was raised from a mean of 8.6 mmHg, to mean of 18.5 mmHg after operation. No patient has free reflux after operation. Postoperative studies on 20 patients demonstrated persistence of all preoperative esophageal dysfunction despite loss of dysphagia. RT has demonstrated a disorder of esophageal motor function in 52% of patients with symptomatic GER that may be responsible for impaired esophageal clearance. This abnormality is not contraindication to surgery. The results indicate that construction of an effective barrier to reflex corrects symptoms of reflux, even in the presence of impaired esophageal transit. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test for assessment of esophageal function.

Russell, C.O.; Pope, C.E.; Gannan, R.M.; Allen, F.D.; Velasco, N.; Hill, L.D.



Hypothalamic dysfunction  


... dysfunction is a problem with the region of the brain called the hypothalamus , which helps control the pituitary ... timed blood samples MRI or CT scans of the brain Visual field eye exam (if there is a ...


Erectile Dysfunction  


... Other medications Other medications for erectile dysfunction include: Alprostadil self-injection. With this method, you use a fine needle to inject alprostadil (Caverject Impulse, Edex) into the base or side ...


Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Homework assignments continue to be the most effective way of optimizing therapeutic gains in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions.\\u000a Some of the treatments for sexual dysfunctions, including the use of homework, have been scientifically supported. Other treatments\\u000a have been used with varying degrees of reported efficacy but have not been empirically validated. Nonetheless, sex therapy\\u000a homework typically involves a combination

Nancy Gambescia


Renal abnormalities in children with hypertrophic pyloric stenosis--fact or fallacy?  


Retrospective review of the abdominal ultrasound (US) examination of 274 children studied for hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (HPS) was undertaken to determine if there is an increased incidence of renal disease as previously reported. Five major abnormalities were detected in the 126 children with HPS. Three lesions were newly diagnosed and two had been diagnosed previously. Five children had abnormalities classified as minor or normal variants. Renal abnormalities were found in six of the 148 children who did not HPS. Only three of these were newly diagnosed and medically important. Eight children without HPS had minor abnormalities or normal variants of the kidneys. Newly diagnosed medically important renal lesions were present in 2.4% of children screened for HPS. The incidence of the finding was the similar in children with and without HPS. PMID:8414755

Fernbach, S K; Morello, F P



Temperature sensitivity of the pyloric neuromuscular system and its modulation by dopamine.  


We report here the effects of temperature on the p1 neuromuscular system of the stomatogastric system of the lobster (Panulirus interruptus). Muscle force generation, in response to both the spontaneously rhythmic in vitro pyloric network neural activity and direct, controlled motor nerve stimulation, dramatically decreased as temperature increased, sufficiently that stomach movements would very unlikely be maintained at warm temperatures. However, animals fed in warm tanks showed statistically identical food digestion to those in cold tanks. Applying dopamine, a circulating hormone in crustacea, increased muscle force production at all temperatures and abolished neuromuscular system temperature dependence. Modulation may thus exist not only to increase the diversity of produced behaviors, but also to maintain individual behaviors when environmental conditions (such as temperature) vary. PMID:23840789

Thuma, Jeffrey B; Hobbs, Kevin H; Burstein, Helaine J; Seiter, Natasha S; Hooper, Scott L



Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a study of feeding practices and other possible causes.  

PubMed Central

We carried out a case-control study of the hospital charts of 91 infants with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) to determine the feeding practices at the time of discharge from the neonatal nursery. We excluded infants whose feeding might have been influenced by confounding factors. The infants were matched with controls for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the IHPS group was 3501 g and of the control group 3543 g. The male:female ratio for the IHPS group was 5.5. The odds ratio of male predominance was 4. We found that bottle-feeding was 2.9 times more prevalent among the infants with IHPS than among the control subjects. We speculate that the recently observed decrease in the incidence of IHPS is due to the decline in bottle-feeding.

Habbick, B F; Khanna, C; To, T



Outlet Dysfunction Constipation.  


The diagnosis of outlet dysfunction constipation in patients with idiopathic constipation that responds poorly or not at all to conservative measures, such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives, is based upon diagnostic testing. These tests include colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry or electromyography, barium defecography, and expulsion of a water-filled balloon. The literature suggests that conditions such as pelvic floor dyssynergia exist but may be over-diagnosed as a laboratory artifact. In our laboratory, we screen patients with balloon expulsion studies, and then test for dyssynergia only if the result of the balloon expulsion test is abnormal. In my opinion, anal sphincter electromyogram and manometry are equivalent in establishing the diagnosis. Barium defecography is helpful in making a diagnosis of a rectocele, but I prefer to document that vaginal pressure on the rectocele significantly improves rectal evacuation. Manometry also helps to establish the presence of megarectum, hypotonia, and weak expulsion efforts. Conceptually, biofeedback training, which incorporates simulated defecation, is the most logical approach to pelvic floor dyssynergia. It incurs no risk and benefits 60% to 80% of patients. The drawbacks are the time-intensive nature of the therapy and the short-term costs, which are offset if there is sustained benefit. There is no evidence that biofeedback is helpful in children with constipation. Habit training has established benefits, but recurrences are frequent and long-term reinforcement is helpful to maintain success. Laxatives and enemas are adjunctive therapies in both habit training and biofeedback. Surgery is effective in those uncommon patients with physiologically significant rectoceles, but surgical division of the puborectalis muscle is risky and unproven. Likewise, botulinum toxin injection into the puborectalis is unproven, but the effects are rarely permanent should incontinence occur. Diagnostic measures and therapeutic success are enhanced when patients are seen in centers experienced with the evaluation of these disorders. PMID:11469987

Wald, Arnold



Transient Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation in Morbid Obesity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There is strong evidence that morbid obesity is often accompanied by gastroesophageal reflux. Gastroesophageal reflux is caused\\u000a predominantly by transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs). Only few data are available about TLESRs in patients\\u000a with stage III obesity (body mass index?>?35). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and types of TLESRs in patients\\u000a with morbid obesity

J. H. Schneider; M. Küper; A. Königsrainer; B. Brücher



Sphincter Preservation for Distal Rectal Cancer: Paradise Lost?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this issue of the Annals of Surgical Oncology , Dr. Steele and colleagues report the long awaited results of the only multi-institutional prospective controlled trial of sphincter-sparing treatment for distal rectal carcinoma in the literature. The objectives of the study were clearly delineated and included: (1) determination of whether survival of patients with T1 and T2 adenocarcinomas who are

Nicholas J. Petrelli; Thomas K. Weber



Ambulatory High Resolution Manometry, Lower Esophageal Sphincter Lift and Transient Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Lower esophageal sphincter (LES) lift seen on high resolution manometry (HRM) is a possible surrogate marker of the longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus. Recent studies suggest that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus induces LES relaxation. Aim Our goal was to determine, 1) the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM and 2) to detect LES lift with LES relaxation using ambulatory HRM color isobaric contour plots. Methods In vitro validation studies were performed to determine the accuracy of HRM technique in detecting axial movement of the LES. Eight healthy normal volunteers were studied using a custom designed HRM catheter and a 16 channel data recorder, in the ambulatory setting of subject’s home environment. Color HRM plots were analyzed to determine the LES lift during swallow-induced LES relaxation as well as during complete and incomplete transient LES relaxations. Results Satisfactory recordings were obtained for 16 hours in all subjects. LES lift was small (2 mm) in association with swallow-induced LES relaxation. LES lift could not be measured during complete transient LES relaxations (TLESR) because the LES is not identified on the HRM color isobaric contour plot once it is fully relaxed. On the other hand, LES lift, mean 7.6 ± 1.4 mm, range 6–12 mm was seen with incomplete TLESRs (n = 80). Conclusions Our study demonstrates the feasibility of prolonged ambulatory HRM recordings. Similar to a complete TLESR, longitudinal muscle contraction of the distal esophagus occurs during incomplete TLESRs, which can be detected by the HRM. Using prolonged ambulatory HRM, future studies may investigate the temporal correlation between abnormal longitudinal muscle contraction and esophageal symptoms.

Mittal, Ravinder K.; Karstens, Anna; Leslie, Eric; Babaei, Arash; Bhargava, Valmik



Oddi: the paradox of the man and the sphincter.  


Ruggero Oddi was born of a modest family in the small town of Perugia, Italy, in 1866. While still a young medical student, he identified the sphincter and in addition characterized its physiological properties. At the early age of 29 years, he was appointed as the director of the Physiological Institute at Genoa, but a dalliance with drugs and fiscal improprieties resulted in his being relieved of this eminent position in Italian Physiology. He subsequently sought employment as a physician in the Belgian colonial medical service and briefly spent time in the Congo. The deterioration of his physical status and his use of Vitaline, a homeopathic preparation, led to the demise of his medical career. For reasons that are unclear, he then traveled to Africa where he died in Tunisia. In the last 50 years, the use of sophisticated methodology has allowed delineation of aspects of the neural and hormonal regulatory mechanisms of the sphincter. Its exact role in disease has not been determined, although its relationship to the putative entity of biliary dyskinesia has been suggested. The paradox of both the sphincter and its original discoverer remain to be resolved. PMID:8185478

Modlin, I M; Ahlman, H



[Erectile dysfunction].  


Erectile Dysfunction is one of the most prevalent sexual disorders in men. According to the current literature the prevalence is about 16% for all men. The diagnostic workup of a patient suffering from E.D. is a detailed anamnesis, a physical and endocrinological evaluation and the suggestion of the optimal therapeutic treatment. The therapeutic application of PDE-5 inhibitors has made the therapy of E.D. much easier. It is a safe and highly efficient therapeutic option. But man must not forget that in severe cases of erectile dysfunction, the application of SKAT therapy, penile implants or vacuum devices might be necessary. Since a functioning sex life is important not only for the men, but also for the couple, a more open attitude of us, physicians, is desirable to help more men who suffer from this sexual dysfunction. PMID:19997838

Esterbauer, Brigitte; Jungwirth, Andreas



Clinical, manometric and sonographic assessment of the anal sphinctersA comparative prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   One hundred patients with various anorectal disorders but intact anal sphincters were evaluated prospectively by three independent\\u000a observers to determine the specificity, sensibility and accuracy of digital exploration and anal ultrasound compared to anal\\u000a manometry, in assessing internal and sphincter hypertonicity (IH) and the relaxation of sphincters on straining (SR). Accuracy\\u000a of the digital examination in evaluating IH was

U. Favetta; A. Amato; A. Interisano; M. Pescatori



Nature of the vagal inhibitory innervation to the lower esophageal sphincter.  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the nature of the vagal inhibitory innervation to the lower esophageal sphincter in the anesthetized opossum. Sphincter relaxation with electrical stimulation of the vagus was not antagonized by atropine, propranolol, phentolamine, or by catechloamine depletion with reserpine. A combination of atropine and propranolol was also ineffective, suggesting that the vagal inhibitory influences may be mediated by the noncholinergic, nonadrenergic neurons. To determine whether a synaptic link with nicotinic transmission was present, we investigated the effect of hexamethonium on vagal-stimulated lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Hexamethonium in doses that completely antagonized the sphincter relaxation in response to a ganglionic stimulant, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), did not block the sphincter relaxation in response to vagal stimulation at 10 pulses per second, and optimal frequency of stimulation. A combination of hexamethonium and catecholamine depletion was also ineffective, but hexamethonium plus atropine markedly antagonized sphincter relaxation (P less than 0.001). Moreover, 4-(m-chlorophenyl carbamoyloxy)-2-butyltrimethylammonium chloride (McN-A-343), a muscarinic ganglionic stimulant, also caused relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter. We suggest from these results that: (a) pthe vagal inhibitory pathway to the sphincter consists of preganglionic fibers which synapse with postganglionic neurons: (b) the synaptic transmission is predominantly cholinergic and utilizes nicotinic as well as muscarinic receptors on the postganglionic neuron, and; (c) postganglionic neurons exert their influence on the sphincter by an unidentified inhibitory transmitter that is neither adrenergic nor cholinergic.

Goyal, R K; Rattan, S



Comparative anti-ulcerogenic study of pantoprazole formulation with and without sodium bicarbonate buffer on pyloric ligated rat  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the anti-ulcer activity of buffered pantoprazole tablet against plain pantoprazole in pyloric ligated rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo pyloric ligated ulcerogenesis model was used to assess the effect of buffered pantoprazole on the volume of the gastric content, pH, total and free acidity, and ulcerogenic lesion. Pantoprazole level in gastric content and concurrently in stomach tissue was assessed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: Buffered tablet effectively increases the pH of the gastric content above 4 up to 6 h (P<0.001) protecting pantoprazole from acid degradation resulting in high concentration in the gastric content and stomach tissue. Conclusions: This study substantiates better, faster and prolonged bioavailability of pantoprazole-buffered tablet compared to plain pantoprazole.

Bigoniya, Papiya; Shukla, A.; Singh, C. S.; Gotiya, P.



Accommodative dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective review of the records of 114 subjects with accommodative dysfunction has been completed. Most subjects (N = 96) were found to have accommodative insufficiency. Lesser numbers of subjects were categorized in the class of infacility of accommodation (N = 14), spasm of accommodation (N = 3) and fatigue of accommodation (N = 1). A majority of the subjects

K. M. Daum



Tension-free vaginal tape for the treatment of urodynamic stress incontinence with intrinsic sphincteric deficiency.  


The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedure in women with urodynamic stress incontinence diagnosed as having intrinsic sphincteric deficiency (ISD). The combination of a maximal urethral closure pressure < 20 cm H2O and a Valsalva leak point pressure < 60 cm H2O was considered as diagnostic of ISD. Subjects with detrusor overactivity on preoperative urodynamics were excluded. A total of 35 patients with both low closure pressure and leak point pressure were enrolled. Bladder perforation occurred in three (8.6%) cases. Postoperative urinary voiding difficulties occurred in nine (25.7%) women. Two patients underwent surgical detension of the tape, with complete resolution of urinary retention and no relapse of incontinence. Women with postoperative voiding dysfunction had a significantly lower detrusorial pressure at the peak flow on preoperative urodynamics compared to those who voided efficiently after TVT. The mean (range) follow-up time was 12.5 months (3-36). The objective cure rate for stress incontinence was 91.4%. Two of the three (66%) patients in whom the TVT procedure failed had a fixed urethra. De novo urge incontinence was found in five (14.3%) patients. PMID:16211315

Ghezzi, Fabio; Serati, Maurizio; Cromi, Antonella; Uccella, Stefano; Salvatore, Stefano; Triacca, Paola; Bolis, Pierfrancesco



Digital Rectal Examination of Sphincter Pressures in Chronic Anal Fissure Is Unreliable  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Chronic anal fissure is said to be associated with internal sphincter hypertonia. However, an unknown proportion of fissures may be associated with normal or even low resting pressures and may subsequently be resistant to pharmacological treatments or at risk from surgical treatments, both of which aim to reduce sphincter hypertonia. This study investigated the ability of surgeons to detect

Oliver M. Jones; Thanesan Ramalingam; Ian Lindsey; Chris Cunningham; Bruce D. George; Neil J. McC Mortensen



A New Implantation Procedure of Artificial Sphincter for Anal Incontinence: The Transvaginal Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A destroyed or severely scarred anterior perineum predicts difficult healing and risk of perineal erosion and remains a contraindication\\u000a for the implantation of an artificial anal sphincter via a perineal approach. This report describes the first implantations of an artificial anal sphincter via a transvaginal approach in female patients with anal incontinence. Between 2003 and 2005, the Acticon Neosphincter? was

Francis Michot; Jean-Jacques Tuech; Benoit Lefebure; Valerie Bridoux; Philippe Denis



Inhibition of the lower oesophageal sphincter by fat— a mechanism for fatty food intolerance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of fat and protein meals on the lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was tested in normal subjects using an infused open-tipped manometric system. After ingestion of a minced beef meal, the mean peak pressure at the lower oesophageal sphincter increased 5·8 ± 1·5 mm Hg (± 1 SE). By contrast, ingestion of a corn oil meal resulted in a

Otto T. Nebel; Donald O. Castell



Anal sphincter repair for obstetric injury: Manometric evaluation of functional results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal manometry before and after surgical repair on a homogeneous group of patients with anterior sphincter defect caused by obstetric injury defined the parameters affected by the repair to achieve anal continence. Between November 1985 and April 1989, 28 patients who underwent anterior anal sphincter reconstruction were studied using anal manometry and were graded for continence. Anal function was improved

James W. Fleshman; Zeev Dreznik; Robert D. Fry; Ira J. Kodner



Perineal body measurement improves evaluation of anterior sphincter lesions during endoanal ultrasonography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endoanal ultrasonography has become an important tool in the evaluation of patients with anal incontinence. However, the extent of anterior defects is sometimes difficult to quantitate during endoanal ultrasonography. PURPOSE: This study was designed to evaluate perineal body measurement during endoanal ultrasonography in assessing patients with obstetric anal sphincter injuries. METHODS: Forty-two patients with anal incontinence because of obstetric sphincter

Jan P. Zetterström; Anders Mellgren; Robert D. Madoff; Donald G. Kim; W. Douglas Wong



Fetal surgery for repair of myelomeningocele allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles in sheep.  


One major problem for patients with myelomeningocele (MMC) is fecal incontinence. To prevent this problem, fetal surgery for repair of MMC has been recently undertaken. The strategy behind this surgery is to allow normal development of anal sphincter muscles. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fetal surgery for repair of MMC allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles. Myelomeningocele was surgically created in fetal sheep at 75 days of gestation. At 100 days of gestation, fetal surgery for repair of the MMC lesion was performed. Three repair methods were used: standard neurosurgical repair (4 fetal sheep), covering the MMC lesion with Alloderm (2 fetal sheep), and covering the MMC lesion with Gore-Tex (2 fetal sheep). After the sheep were delivered (140 days of gestation), external and internal anal sphincter muscles were analyzed histopathologically. In control fetal sheep (not repaired) anal sphincter muscles did not develop normally. In contrast, in fetal sheep that underwent repair of the MMC, the external and internal anal sphincter muscles developed normally. Histopathologically, in the external sphincter muscles, muscle fibers were dense. In the internal sphincter muscles, endomysial spaces were small, myofibrils were numerous, and fascicular units were larger than those in unrepaired fetal sheep. There was no difference in muscle development for the repair methods. Fetal surgery for repair of MMC allows normal development of anal sphincter muscles. PMID:14689212

Yoshizawa, Jyoji; Sbragia, Lourenco; Paek, Bettina W; Sydorak, Roman M; Yamazaki, Yoji; Harrison, Michael R; Farmer, Diana L



Anal sphincter biofeedback relaxation treatment for women with intractable constipation symptoms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some constipated women have difficulty relaxing the striated muscles of the anal sphincters, sometimes called anismus. This study was developed to provide a biofeedback-based relaxation treatment to teach these patients to relax the “voluntary” anal sphincter muscle in order to assess whether this treatment would be effective in reducing symptomatology. Seven constipated patients who were unresponsive to a high-fiber diet

Geoffrey K. Turnbull; Paul G. Ritvo



Endoluminal ultrasound is preferable to electromyography in mapping anal sphincteric defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assessment of complex sphincteric defects in patients with fecal incontinence by digital rectal examination and intraoperative dissection can be difficult in the presence of excessive scarring. Adjunctive investigation such as endoluminal ultrasound (ELUS) and needle electromyography (EMG) may provide objective evidence of the nature and extent of the sphincteric defects. In a series of 11 patients, ELUS of the anal

Joe J. Tjandra; Jeffrey W. Milsom; Thomas Schroeder; Victor W. Fazio



Anal incontinence—sphincter ani repair: indications, techniques, outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Fecal incontinence is a debilitating problem that has many different causes. There also are many treatments options, from\\u000a behavioral modification to sphincteroplasty to artificial anal sphincter and colostomy. In a society with an aging population,\\u000a fecal incontinence is an ever-increasing problem and will continue to grow.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Discussion  Treatment plans need to be individually tailored for each patient. The surgeon should be

Susan Galandiuk; Leslie A. Roth; Quincy J. Greene



Is there a role for concomitant pelvic floor repair in patients with sphincter defects in the treatment of fecal incontinence?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims  More than half of all patients who undergo overlapping anal sphincter repair for fecal incontinence develop recurrent symptoms. Many have associated pelvic floor disorders that are not surgically addressed during sphincter repair. We evaluate the outcomes of combined overlapping anal sphincteroplasty and pelvic floor repair (PFR) vs. anterior sphincteroplasty alone in patients with concomitant sphincter and pelvic floor

Scott R. Steele; Patrick Lee; Philip S. Mullenix; Matthew J. Martin; Eugene S. Sullivan



The prevalence of anal sphincter defects in faecal incontinence: a prospective endosonic study.  

PubMed Central

Forty six patients (median age 61 years; 42 women) with faecal incontinence and 16 age and sex matched controls undergoing a restorative proctocolectomy were assessed by clinical examination, anorectal physiology, and anal endosonography. Forty patients (87%) with faecal incontinence had a sphincter defect demonstrated on anal endosonography (31 external and 21 internal anal sphincter defects). The commonest cause of faecal incontinence was obstetric trauma. This occurred in 35 women, 30 of whom exhibited a morphological defect in the anorectal sphincter complex. In 22 of these patients with a history of a perineal tear or episiotomy, 21 (95%) had a sphincter defect. Sphincter defects were commonly located at the level of the midanal canal. Images Figure 1 Figure 2

Deen, K I; Kumar, D; Williams, J G; Olliff, J; Keighley, M R



Management of neurogenic bowel dysfunction.  


There are several modalities for treating neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD), including conservative treatments (diet, medications, biofeedback, transanal irrigation, massage, electrical stimulation, anal plug). When conservative treatments fail, clinicians can choose from a variety of therapeutic options, including colostomies, Malone anterograde continence enemas, sacral anterior root stimulator implantations, graciloplasties, and artificial bowel sphincters. We reviewed the various treatments for constipation and/or fecal incontinence in patients with NBD and propose over-reaching stepwise algorithms for the management of NBD. Our review included English language articles, randomized controlled studies, cohort studies, case-control studies, and retrospective studies (if necessary) that assessed the management of NBD. Our literature search identified 577 articles, of which 79 met our inclusion criteria. There is little evidence for the success of conservative but non-pharmacological treatments. There is strong evidence for the success of pharmacological interventions (i.e., prokinetic agents) in the treatment of chronic constipation. While surgical interventions may be considered, there is little evidence of their effectiveness. Bowel management programs for patients with neurologic diseases require a multi-faceted approach. While a range of medical and surgical treatments are available, there is little evidence for their effectiveness, with the exception of pharmacological interventions. PMID:22222963

Paris, G; Gourcerol, G; Leroi, A M



Factors influencing lower esophageal sphincter relaxation after deglutition  

PubMed Central

AIM: To study the relationship between upper esophageal sphincter (UES) relaxation, peristaltic pressure and lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation following deglutition in non-dysphagic subjects. METHODS: Ten non-dysphagic adult subjects had a high-resolution manometry probe passed transnasally and positioned to cover the UES, the esophageal body and the LES. Ten water swallows in each subject were analyzed for time lag between UES relaxation and LES relaxation, LES pressure at time of UES relaxation, duration of LES relaxation, the distance between the transition level (TL) and the LES, time in seconds that the peristaltic wave was before (negative value) or after the TL when the LES became relaxed, and the maximal peristaltic pressure in the body of the esophagus. RESULTS:Relaxation of the LES occurred on average 3.5 s after the bolus had passed the UES and in most cases when the peristaltic wave front had reached the TL. The LES remained relaxed until the peristaltic wave faded away above the LES. CONCLUSION: LES relaxation seemed to be caused by the peristaltic wave pushing the bolus from behind against the LES gate.

Tibbling, Lita; Gezelius, Per; Franzen, Thomas



Esophageal dysfunction in esophagopharyngeal regurgitation.  


Esophageal manometry was performed in 20 patients with esophagopharyngeal regurgitation, in 20 patients with severe chronic heartburn but without regurgitation, and in 20 normal subjects. The purpose of the procedure was to identify possible differences between these groups in upper esophageal sphincter and lower esophageal sphincter resting pressures, and in amplitude of peristaltic contraction in the distal esophagus. The mean peak upper esophageal sphincter pressures in normal subjects and in patients with chronic heartburn were significantly greater than in the patients with esophagopharyngeal regurgitation (101 and 108 vs. 54 mmHg, respectively). In the normal subjects, the mean lower esophageal sphincter resting pressure (19 mmHg) was significantly greater than for the heartburn group (14 mmHg) and for the patients with esophagopharyngeal regurgitation (10 mmHg). The amplitude of peristalsis was significantly lower in the group with regurgitation than in both normal subjects and the group with chronic heartburn. Nine normal subjects responded to intraesophageal infusion of 0.9% NaCl and 0.1 N HCl with a significant increase in upper esophageal sphincter resting pressure, but the group with esophagopharyngeal regurgitation showed no significant change. Patients with esophagopharyngeal regurgitation have lower esophageal sphincter hypotension, diminished peristaltic amplitude, upper esophageal sphincter hypotension, and diminished upper esophageal sphincter response to intraesophageal fluid. We conclude there is in these patients a breakdown of several normal esophageal mechanisms which ordinarily serve as barriers to esophagopharyngeal regurgitation. PMID:7053042

Gerhardt, D C; Castell, D O; Winship, D H; Shuck, T J



Reinnervation of Urethral and Anal Sphincters With Femoral Motor Nerve to Pudendal Nerve Transfer  

PubMed Central

Aims Lower motor neuron damage to sacral roots or nerves can result in incontinence and a flaccid urinary bladder. We showed bladder reinnervation after transfer of coccygeal to sacral ventral roots, and genitofemoral nerves (L1, 2 origin) to pelvic nerves. This study assesses the feasibility of urethral and anal sphincter reinnervation using transfer of motor branches of the femoral nerve (L2–4 origin) to pudendal nerves (S1, 2 origin) that innervate the urethral and anal sphincters in a canine model. Methods Sacral ventral roots were selected by their ability to stimulate bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter contraction and transected. Bilaterally, branches of the femoral nerve, specifically, nervus saphenous pars muscularis [Evans HE. Miller’s anatomy of the dog. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders; 1993], were transferred and end-to-end anastomosed to transected pudendal nerve branches in the perineum, then enclosed in unipolar nerve cuff electrodes with leads to implanted RF micro-stimulators. Results Nerve stimulation induced increased anal and urethral sphincter pressures in five of six transferred nerves. Retrograde neurotracing from the bladder, urethral sphincter, and anal sphincter using fluorogold, fast blue, and fluororuby, demonstrated urethral and anal sphincter labeled neurons in L2–4 cord segments (but not S1–3) in nerve transfer canines, consistent with rein-nervation by the transferred femoral nerve motor branches. Controls had labeled neurons only in S1–3 segments. Postmortem DiI and DiO labeling confirmed axonal regrowth across the nerve repair site. Conclusions These results show spinal cord reinnervation of urethral and anal sphincter targets after sacral ventral root transection and femoral nerve transfer (NT) to the denervated pudendal nerve. These surgical procedures may allow patients to regain continence.

Ruggieri, Michael R.; Braverman, Alan S.; Bernal, Raymond M.; Lamarre, Neil S.; Brown, Justin M.; Barbe, Mary F.



Vagal mechanoreceptors located in the lower oesophageal sphincter of the cat.  

PubMed Central

In anaesthetized cats, sixty-two vagal sensory units with afferent endings in the lower oesophageal sphincter were recorded by means of extracellular glass micro-electrodes implanted in the nodose ganglion. All the receptors had non-medullated fibres, with conduction velocities ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 m/s. From the direct stimulation of the lower oesophageal sphincter, three types of mechanoreceptors were identified. Thirty-one were activated by natural stimuli:tonic contraction of the sphincter and distension elicited by the passage of a bolus. Artificial stimulation effected by digital compression was also effective. These receptors were similar to muscular endings already described in the digestive tract. Their main characteristic, i.e. their slow adaptation, suggests that they act as sensors of sphincter opening and closure. This was corroborated by observations obtained during distension of the cervical or thoracic oesophagus; a maximum decrease occurred in the lower oesophageal sphincter mechanoreceptor discharge when the distension was produced between 9 and 12 cm from the lower oesophageal sphincter. Twenty-nine endings were found in the superficial layers (mucosae). Contrary to the muscular receptors, the mucosal receptors were not affected by normal contractions or distensions of the lower oesophageal sphincter. They were activated only by strong stimuli like digital compression or distension achieved with a balloon. In addition, mucosal stroking was a potent stimulus. Whatever the stimulus used, the mucosal receptors showed rather rapidly adapting discharges. These receptors should be considered to be sensors of bolus consistency. Two mechanoreceptors, located in the serous membrane of the lower oesophageal sphincter, were identified by touching or by stretching. Their discharges showed that they belonged to the rapidly adapting type. A comparison of the three types of receptors found in the lower oesophageal sphincter is made with known digestive endings and their possible role is discussed.

Clerc, N; Mei, N



Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy: the first Caribbean family.  


Hereditary proctalgia is an extremely rare condition characterized by endosonographic evidence of internal anal sphincter (IAS) thickening and specific ultrastructural changes seen at light and electron microscopy (EM). We report the case of a 54-year-old Caribbean woman with severe proctalgia and IAS thickening, treated with IAS myectomy. Transmission EM showed PAS-positive inclusions and granulofibrillary smooth muscle inclusion bodies. Anal endosonography of 5 family members from 3 generations showed IAS thickening in all cases with reported proctalgia. The condition represents an isolated IAS myopathy which is a probable polysaccharide storage disease variant. This condition may require specific surgical therapy with specimen preservation and ultrastructural examination for optimal characterization and treatment. PMID:17357870

Zbar, A P; de la Portilla, F; Borrero, J J; Garriques, S



Dysfunctional voiding: A review of the terminology, presentation, evaluation and management in children and adults  

PubMed Central

Dysfunctional voiding (DV) is a voiding disorder characterized by dyssynergic striated sphincteric activity in the absence of a proven neurological etiology. It can present at any age with a spectrum of storage and voiding symptoms that may resemble florid neurogenic bladder. There is a striking lack of clarity regarding what this entity represents, the diagnostic methodology and treatment. The limitations of existing guideline documents are analyzed. Specifically, use of the term “habitual”, the assumption that bladder changes are secondary to the outlet, the emphasis on “staccato” voiding and the implication of striated urethral sphincter are discussed. Literature shows that DV may also present with continuous slow flow or normal flow. Dyssynergia may be at the level of the striated urethral sphincter, the pelvic floor or both, better termed “striated urethral sphincter-pelvic floor complex” (SUS-PFC).A diagnostic algorithm is provided so that patients are evaluated on merit rather than on the basis of different philosophies of individual centers. High-risk markers such as hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, renal failure or marked voiding difficulty should prompt a formal urodynamics evaluation and imaging for neurological etiology. Patients with predominantly storage symptoms with incidental staccato voiding can be managed initially, on the basis of non-invasive evaluation. Conservative urotherapy including biofeedback is appropriate initial management for patients without high risk factors. Treatment and evaluation should be escalated based on response. Patients with severe DV will need treatment similar to neurogenic bladder including clean intermittent catheterization and measures to control storage pressures.

Sinha, Sanjay



Dysfunctional voiding: A review of the terminology, presentation, evaluation and management in children and adults.  


Dysfunctional voiding (DV) is a voiding disorder characterized by dyssynergic striated sphincteric activity in the absence of a proven neurological etiology. It can present at any age with a spectrum of storage and voiding symptoms that may resemble florid neurogenic bladder. There is a striking lack of clarity regarding what this entity represents, the diagnostic methodology and treatment. The limitations of existing guideline documents are analyzed. Specifically, use of the term "habitual", the assumption that bladder changes are secondary to the outlet, the emphasis on "staccato" voiding and the implication of striated urethral sphincter are discussed. Literature shows that DV may also present with continuous slow flow or normal flow. Dyssynergia may be at the level of the striated urethral sphincter, the pelvic floor or both, better termed "striated urethral sphincter-pelvic floor complex" (SUS-PFC).A diagnostic algorithm is provided so that patients are evaluated on merit rather than on the basis of different philosophies of individual centers. High-risk markers such as hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, renal failure or marked voiding difficulty should prompt a formal urodynamics evaluation and imaging for neurological etiology. Patients with predominantly storage symptoms with incidental staccato voiding can be managed initially, on the basis of non-invasive evaluation. Conservative urotherapy including biofeedback is appropriate initial management for patients without high risk factors. Treatment and evaluation should be escalated based on response. Patients with severe DV will need treatment similar to neurogenic bladder including clean intermittent catheterization and measures to control storage pressures. PMID:22279306

Sinha, Sanjay



Human Umbilical Cord Blood Mononuclear Cell Transplantation in Rats with Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency  

PubMed Central

To evaluate the effectiveness of the human umbilical cord blood (HUCB) transplantation for the treatment of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), we analyzed the short term effects of HUCB mononuclear cell transplantation in rats with induced-ISD. ISD was induced in rats by electro-cauterization of periurethral soft tissue with HUCB mononuclear cell injection after 1 week. The sphincter function measured by mean leak point pressure was significantly improved in the experimental group compared to the control group at 4 weeks. (91.75±18.99 mmHg vs. 65.02±22.09 mmHg, P=0.001). Histologically, the sphincter muscle was restored without damage while in the control group it appeared markedly disrupted with atrophic muscle layers and collagen deposit. We identified injected HUCB cells in the tissue sections by Di-I signal and Prussian blue staining. HUCB mononuclear cell injection significantly improved urethral sphincter function, suggesting its potential efficacy in the treatment of ISD.

Lim, Joa-Jin; Jang, Jin-Beum; Kim, Ji-Young; Moon, Sung-Hwan; Lee, Chung-No



Cisapride restores the decreased lower oesophageal sphincter pressure in reflux patients.  

PubMed Central

The effect of the new prokinetic drug cisapride on the resting lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and on the strength of peristaltic contractions was studied in 10 healthy controls and in 10 reflux patients with abnormally low (less than 10 mm Hg) basal lower oesophageal sphincter pressure. A slow intravenous injection of cisapride 10 mg significantly increased the sphincter pressure in the controls but even more in the patients in whom it almost doubled the resting lower oesophageal sphincter pressure of 8.7 (0.5) mm Hg to between 15 and 20 mm Hg for at least 90 min. Results are expressed as mean (SE). Cisapride also significantly increased the amplitude of peristaltic contractions in controls and reflux patients. Therefore, cisapride might be useful in the treatment of reflux.

Ceccatelli, P; Janssens, J; Vantrappen, G; Cucchiara, S



Bladder augmentation and artificial sphincter implantation: Urodynamic behavior and effects on continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo quantify changes in bladder capacity, pressure and compliance after isolated bladder augmentation or augmentation associated with implantation of an artificial sphincter, and to compare the various types of augmentation.

Juan S. Rodó; Freud A. Cáceres; Javier R. Lerena; Enrica Rossy



New Artificial Urinary Sphincter Devices in the Treatment of Male Iatrogenic Incontinence  

PubMed Central

Severe persistent stress incontinence following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer treatment, although not very common, remains the most annoying complication affecting patient's quality of life, despite good surgical oncological results. When severe incontinence persists after the first postoperative year and conservative treatment has been failed, surgical treatment has to be considered. In these cases it is generally accepted that artificial urinary sphincter is the gold standard treatment. AUS 800 by American Medical Systems has been successfully used for more than 35 years. Recently three more sphincter devices, the Flow-Secure, the Periurethral Constrictor, and the ZSI 375, have been developed and presented in the market. A novel type of artificial urinary sphincter, the Tape Mechanical Occlusive Device, has been inserted in live canines as well as in human cadavers. These new sphincter devices are discussed in this paper focusing on safety and clinical results.

Vakalopoulos, Ioannis; Kampantais, Spyridon; Laskaridis, Leonidas; Chachopoulos, Vasileios; Koptsis, Michail; Toutziaris, Chrysovalantis



Dynamic Rectus Abdominis Muscle Sphincter for Stomal Continence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some life-saving surgeries result in the necessity to establish permanent intestinal stomas; this outcome has an undeniable physical and emotional effect on the patient's life. Although patients with permanent stomas reasonably adjust, complications that include peristomal skin irritation, pouching system dysfunction, social inhibition, depression, and sexual dysfunction also have been reported. \\u000aThe quest for intestinal stomal continence has resulted in

J. W. J. M. Bardoel



Hereditary vacuolar internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: a new case contribution.  


Hereditary anal sphincter myopathy is rare. We present a family with one affected member with proctalgia fugax, constipation and internal anal sphincter hypertrophy. Ultrastructural findings show vacuolization of smooth muscle cells without the characteristic polyglucosan inclusion. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using an oral calcium antagonist. Based on clinical presentation, endosonography and morphological findings, we consider our case is a histological variant of the vacuolar myopathy originally described. PMID:15716662

de la Portilla, Fernando; Borrero, Juan José; Rafel, Enrique



Experience with the AS-800 artificial urinary sphincter in myelodysplastic children.  


The authors describe their experience with an artificial urinary sphincter (model AS-800; American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minn.) in treating urinary incontinence in children. Twenty-eight sphincters were implanted in 27 boys between May 1986 and June 1989. All the boys had neurogenic bladders secondary to myelomeningocele or sacral agenesis. The mean age at the time of initial implantation was 14 years (range from 9 to 19 years), and the median follow-up was 12 months (range from 6 to 31 months). The sphincters were implanted initially around the bladder neck in 25 cases. Three required reimplantation around the bulbous urethra. The complication rate was 39% (11 of 28 cases). There were two cases of erosion, two cases of infection without erosion and seven cases of device-related problems. The artificial sphincter had to be removed in four cases. There were no deaths. The revision rate was 25% (7 of 28 cases). Continence was evaluated in 22 (88%) of 25 boys who had functional sphincters in place. Five boys required oxybutinin chloride to maintain continence. Ten boys required augmentation cystoplasty before (3), after (6) and combined with (1) sphincter implantation. Eight of these 10 children were able to void spontaneously and were continent. One required intermittent catheterization twice a day and another six times a day. The authors conclude from their experience that the artificial urinary sphincter (model AS-800) can establish continence in boys with neurogenic bladders. Proper selection of the ideal patient for the artificial sphincter is essential to avoid complications. PMID:1498739

Aprikian, A; Berardinucci, G; Pike, J; Kiruluta, G



Effect of intravenous diazepam on human lower oesophageal sphincter pressure under controlled double blind crossover conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of diazepam on the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure is controversial. Therefore, a double-blind crossover study was performed on 18 healthy volunteers to determine the sphincter response to intravenous diazepam--70, 140, 280 microgram\\/kg, which correspond to a total dose of 5, 10, and 20 mg. respectively. After the 5 and 10 mg dose no signficant effect on LOS

T R Weihrauch; C F Förster; H Köhler; K Ewe; J Krieglstein



Decreased rate of obstetrical anal sphincter laceration is associated with change in obstetric practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to describe the rate of obstetrical anal sphincter laceration in a large cohort of women and to identify\\u000a the characteristics associated with this complication. Data from all vaginal deliveries occurring between January 1996 and\\u000a December 2004 at one institution were used to compare women with and without anal sphincter lacerations. Among 16,667 vaginal\\u000a deliveries, 1,703 (10.2%)

Steven M. Minaglia; Begüm Özel; Nicole M. Gatto; Lisa Korst; Daniel R. Mishell Jr; David A. Miller



Factors associated with anal sphincter laceration in 40,923 primiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with anal sphincter laceration in primiparous women. A subpopulation\\u000a of 40,923 primiparous women at term with complete data sets was abstracted from a state-wide perinatal database in Germany.\\u000a Outcome variable was anal sphincter laceration. Independent variables were 17 known obstetrical risk factors\\/conditions\\/interventions\\u000a impacting childbirth recorded on the perinatal data collection

Peter Baumann; Ahmad O. Hammoud; Samuel Gene McNeeley; Elizabeth DeRose; Bela Kudish; Susan Hendrix



Anatomy and physiology of the male urethral sphincter and its preservation in prostatic surgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radical prostatectomy is commonly used in the management of localized prostate cancer. Urinary incontinence after prostatectomy\\u000a is of great concern to many patients. Improved understanding of the anatomy of the external urethral sphincter complex has\\u000a resulted in a statistically significant decrease in the incidence of postprostatectomy incontinence. Most recent anatomic\\u000a studies have described the external urethral sphincter complex as consisting

H. Heinzer; P. G. Hammerer; H. Huland



Thermal control of shape memory alloy artificial anal sphincters for complete implantation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an approach for the thermal control of an artificial anal sphincter using shape memory alloys. An artificial anal sphincter has been proposed by the authors to resolve problems of severe fecal incontinence in patients. The basic design of the artificial sphincter consists of two all-round shape memory alloy plates as the main functional parts, and heaters that are attached to the SMA plates for generating the thermal cycles required for the phase transformation accompanied shape changes of the plates. The SMA artificial sphincter could be fitted around intestines, performing an occlusion function at body temperature and a release function upon heating. Thermal compatibility of such prostheses is most important and is critical for practical use. Since a temperature rise of approximately 20 °C from body temperature is needed to activate a complete transformation of SMA plates, an earlier model of ours allowed only a short period of heating, resulting in incomplete evacuation. In this work, a thermal control approach using a temperature-responsive reed switch has been incorporated into the device to prevent the SMA plates from overheating. Then, with thermal insulation the artificial anal sphincter is expected to allow a long enough opening period for fecal continence; without any thermal impact to the surrounding tissues that would be in contact with the artificial sphincter. Thermal control was confirmed in both in vitro and in vivo experiments, suggesting the effectiveness of the present approach. The modified SMA artificial anal sphincter has been implanted into animal models for chronic experiments of up to 4 weeks, and has exhibited good performance by maintaining occlusion and release functions. At autopsy, no anomaly due to thermal impact was found on the surfaces of intestines that had been in contact with the artificial anal sphincter.

Luo, Yun; Okuyama, Takeshi; Takagi, Toshiyuki; Kamiyama, Takamichi; Nishi, Kotaro; Yambe, Tomoyuki



Effect of modern analgesic drugs (tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine) on the bile duct sphincter in man.  

PubMed Central

Modern narcotic analgesic drugs, such as tramadol, pentazocine, and buprenorphine share similarities of molecular structure with morphine which is widely believed to cause spasm of the bile duct sphincter and so impede bile flow. This study assessed the effects of intravenously administered analgesics on bile duct sphincter motor activity measured by ERCP manometry. Ten minutes after pentazocine injection the duration of contractions and baseline pressure of the bile duct sphincter rose from 6.2 +/- 0.2 to 8.2 +/- 0.27 s and from 5.1 +/- 0.6 to 8.8 +/- 0.4 mmHg respectively. Tramadol, buprenorphine and saline showed no such effect. These data indicated that the effects of such drugs on bile duct sphincter function can be safely assessed by ERCP manometry and that pentazocine adversely affects the bile duct sphincter, whilst tramadol and buprenorphine do not. We consider therefore that pentazocine is not the premedication of first choice for endoscopic procedures involving the sphincter of Oddi and should also be avoided in patients with pancreatic and biliary disorders.

Staritz, M; Poralla, T; Manns, M; Meyer Zum Buschenfelde, K H



Magnetic Resonance Imaging and 3-Dimensional Analysis of External Anal Sphincter Anatomy  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To use magnetic resonance images of living women and 3-dimesional modeling software to identify the component parts and characteristic features of the external anal sphincter (EAS) that have visible separation or varying origins and insertions. METHODS: Detailed structural analysis of anal sphincter anatomy was performed on 3 pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets selected for image clarity from ongoing studies involving nulliparous women. The relationships of anal sphincter structures seen in axial, sagittal, and coronal planes were examined using the 3-D Slicer 2.1b1 software program. The following were requirements for sphincter elements to be considered separate: 1) a clear and consistently visible separation or 2) a different origin or insertion. The characteristic features identified in this way were then evaluated in images from an additional 50 nulliparas for the frequency of feature visibility. RESULTS: There were 3 components of the EAS that met criteria as being “separate” structures. The main body (EAS-M) is separated from the subcutaneous external anal sphincter (SQ-EAS) by a clear division that could be observed in all (100%) of the MRI scans reviewed. The wing-shaped end (EAS-W) has fibers that do not cross the midline ventrally, but have lateral origins near the ischiopubic ramus. This EAS-W component was visible in 76% of the nulliparas reviewed. CONCLUSION: Three distinct external anal sphincter components can be identified by MRI in the majority of nulliparous women.

Hsu, Yvonne; Fenner, Dee E.; Weadock, William J.; DeLancey, John O. L.



Lipolytic enzymes of the digestive organs of the crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci): comparison of the stomach and pyloric caeca.  


1. Stomach and pyloric caeca homogenates from the crown-of-thorns starfish hydrolysed p-nitrophenyl esters, alpha-naphthyl esters, cholesteryl oleate and tributyrin. The pyloric caeca contained the highest activities. 2. The p-nitrophenyl acetate hydrolytic activity eluted at 0.23 M NaCl on ion exchange chromatography while the p-nitrophenyl palmitate hydrolytic activity eluted between 0.2 and 1.0 M NaCl. 3. Polyacrylamide gel zymograms for alpha-naphthyl acetate hydrolytic activity revealed one major band and several minor bands of activity for both tissues. 4. Isoelectric focusing zymograms revealed one major band with a pI = 4.2 for both tissues, with an additional band at pI = 3.5 for pyloric caeca. 5. The pyloric caeca contained twice as much lipid as the stomach. Lipid extracts contained mixtures of steroids and steroid-esters; a cholesterol-like sterol was tentatively identified. PMID:2721155

Brahimi-Horn, M C; Guglielmino, M L; Sparrow, L G; Logan, R I; Moran, P J



Primary repair of advanced obstetric anal sphincter tears: should it be performed by the overlapping sphincteroplasty technique?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced obstetric anal sphincter tears are often associated with a high incidence of fecal and flatus incontinence. We aimed\\u000a to assess the clinical outcome of these repairs when done by the overlapping sphincteroplasty technique with reconstruction\\u000a of the internal anal sphincter and perineum. Between August 2005 and December 2006, all grades 3 and 4 obstetric anal sphincter\\u000a tears in our

Yoram Abramov; Beni Feiner; Thalma Rosen; Motti Bardichev; Eli Gutterman; Arie Lissak; Ron Auslander



Combined Diagnostic Modalities Improve Detection of Detrusor External Sphincter Dyssynergia  

PubMed Central

Introduction. The diagnosis of detrusor-external sphincter dyssynergia (DESD) is a clinically relevant finding during urodynamic testing. However, there is no consensus regarding diagnostic specifics of electromyography (EMG) or voiding cystourethrography (VCUG). We evaluated the concordance of the two modalities most commonly used in clinical practice for the diagnosis of DESD. Methods. Patients were prospectively evaluated by a single urodynamicist at an academic center and retrospectively re-evaluated by an independent urodynamicist for agreement. DESD was determined by increased patch EMG activity or a dilated bladder neck/proximal urethra on VCUG during detrusor contraction. Minimal acceptable criterion for agreement was set at 70%. Results. Forty-six patients were diagnosed with DESD with both modalities available. Of these 46 patients, 25 were diagnosed by both tests, 11 by VCUG alone and 10 by patch EMG alone. Binomial testing demonstrated the proportion of agreement was 54% (95% CI 39% to 68%). Conclusion. We found significant disagreement between the two modalities, similar to previously reported findings using needle EMG, and we expand the applicability of our data to the majority of clinicians who use patch EMG electrodes. This further supports the idea that the combined use of EMG and VCUG for diagnosis can identify more cases of DESD than either modality alone.

Spettel, Sara; Kalorin, Carmin; De, Elise



Conventional cutting vs. internal anal sphincter-preserving seton for high trans-sphincteric fistula: a prospective randomized manometric and clinical trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Cutting setons have been used in complicated perirectal sepsis with good effect, although there is a moderately high incidence of fecal leakage after their use. The aim of this study was to compare a modified cutting seton, which repaired the internal anal sphincter muscle and re-routed the seton through the intersphincteric space, with a conventional cutting seton. Methods: A

A. P. Zbar; J. Ramesh; M. Beer-Gabel; R. Salazar; M. Pescatori



Topical diltiazem and bethanechol decrease anal sphincter pressure without side effects  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND—Topical nitrates lower anal sphincter pressure and heal anal fissures, but a majority of patients experience headache. The internal anal sphincter has a calcium dependent mechanism to maintain tone, and also receives an inhibitory extrinsic cholinergic innervation. It may therefore be possible to lower anal sphincter pressure using calcium channel blockers and cholinergic agonists without side effects.?AIMS—To investigate the effect of oral and topical calcium channel blockade and a topical cholinomimetic on anal sphincter pressure.?METHODS—Three studies were conducted, each involving 10 healthy volunteers. In the first study subjects were given oral 60 mg diltiazem or placebo on separate occasions. They were then given diltiazem once or twice daily for four days. In the second and third studies diltiazem and bethanechol gels of increasing concentration were applied topically to lower anal pressure.?RESULTS—A single dose of 60 mg diltiazem lowered the maximum resting anal sphincter pressure (MRP) by a mean of 21%. Once daily diltiazem produced a clinically insignificant effect but a twice daily regimen reduced anal pressure by a mean of 17%. Diltiazem and bethanechol gel produced a dose dependent reduction of the anal pressure; 2% diltiazem produced a maximal 28% reduction, and 0.1% bethanechol a maximal 24% reduction, the effect lasting three to five hours.?CONCLUSIONS—Topical diltiazem and bethanechol substantially reduce anal sphincter pressure for a prolonged period, and represent potential low side effect alternatives to topical nitrates for the treatment of anal fissures.???Keywords: diltiazem; bethanechol; anal sphincter pressure; anal fissures

Carapeti, E; Kamm, M; Evans, B; Phillips, R



Anal sphincteric neurogenic injury in asymptomatic nulliparous women and fecal incontinence  

PubMed Central

While anal sphincter neurogenic injury documented by needle electromyography (EMG) has been implicated to cause fecal incontinence (FI), most studies have been uncontrolled. Normal values and the effects of age on anal sphincter motor unit potentials (MUP) are ill defined. The functional significance of anal sphincter neurogenic injury in FI is unclear. Anal pressures and EMG were assessed in 20 asymptomatic nulliparous women (age, 38 ± 5 yr; mean ± SE) and 20 women with FI (54 ± 3 yr). A computerized program quantified MUP duration and phases. These parameters and MUP recruitment were also semiquantitatively assessed by experienced electromyographers in real time. Increasing age was associated with longer and more polyphasic MUP in nulliparous women by quantitative analysis. A higher proportion of FI patients had prolonged (1 control, 7 patients, P = 0.04) and polyphasic MUP (2 controls, 9 patients, P = 0.03) at rest but not during squeeze. Semiquantitative analyses identified neurogenic or muscle injury in the anal sphincter (11 patients) and other lumbosacral muscles (4 patients). There was substantial agreement between quantitative and semiquantitative analyses (? statistic 0.63 ± 95% CI: 0.32–0.96). Anal resting and squeeze pressures were lower (P ? 0.01) in FI than controls. Anal sphincter neurogenic or muscle injury assessed by needle EMG was associated (P = 0.01) with weaker squeeze pressures (83 ± 10 mmHg vs. 154 ± 30 mmHg) and explained 19% (P = 0.01) of the variation in squeeze pressure. Anal sphincter MUP are longer and more polyphasic in older than younger nulliparous women. Women with FI have more severe neurogenic or muscle anal sphincter injury, which is associated with lower squeeze pressures.

Daube, Jasper; Litchy, William; Traue, Julia; Edge, Jessica; Enck, Paul; Zinsmeister, Alan R.



Preoperative Therapy for Lower Rectal Cancer and Modifications in Distance From Anal Sphincter  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the frequency and magnitude of changes in lower rectal cancer resulting from preoperative therapy and its impact on sphincter-saving surgery. Preoperative therapy can increase the rate of preserving surgery by shrinking the tumor and enhancing its distance from the anal sphincter. However, reliable data concerning these modifications are not yet available in published reports. Methods and Materials: A total of 98 cases of locally advanced cancer of the lower rectum (90 Stage uT3-T4N0-N+ and 8 uT2N+M0) that had undergone preoperative therapy were studied by endorectal ultrasonography. The maximal size of the tumor and its distance from the anal sphincter were measured in millimeters before and after preoperative therapy. Surgery was performed 6-8 weeks after therapy, and the histopathologic margins were compared with the endorectal ultrasound data. Results: Of the 90 cases, 82.5% showed tumor downsizing, varying from one-third to two-thirds or more of the original tumor mass. The distance between the tumor and the anal sphincter increased in 60.2% of cases. The median increase was 0.73 cm (range, 0.2-2.5). Downsizing was not always associated with an increase in distance. Preserving surgery was performed in 60.6% of cases. It was possible in nearly 30% of patients in whom the cancer had reached the anal sphincter before the preoperative therapy. The distal margin was tumor free in these cases. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that in very low rectal cancer, preoperative therapy causes tumor downsizing in >80% of cases and in more than one-half enhances the distance between the tumor and anal sphincter. These modifications affect the primary surgical options, facilitating or making sphincter-saving surgery possible.

Gavioli, Margherita [Divisione di Chirurgia II, Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, Modena (Italy)], E-mail:; Losi, Lorena [Instituto di Anatomia Patologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Luppi, Gabriele; Iacchetta, Francesco; Zironi, Sandra; Bertolini, Federica [Dipartimento di Oncologia, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Falchi, Anna Maria; Bertoni, Filippo [Unita di Radioterapia Oncologica, Universita di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena (Italy); Natalini, Gianni [Divisione di Chirurgia II, Nuovo Ospedale Civile S. Agostino-Estense, Modena (Italy)



5-HT is present in nerves of guinea pig sphincter of Oddi and depolarizes sphincter of Oddi neurons.  


This study involved immunohistochemistry and intracellular electrophysiology to investigate serotonergic neurotransmission in the sphincter of Oddi (SO). 5-Hydroxytryptamine (HT)-positive neurons (14 cells/preparation) and nerve fibers were observed in the ganglionated plexus. Serotonergic nerve fibers, which persisted under 2- to 6-day organ culture, were densely distributed, with varicose endings encircling some SO neurons. When 5-HT was applied to SO neurons, it elicited three different responses: 1) a fast depolarization to 5-HT in 31 of 62 cells was mimicked by 2-methyl-5-HT and blocked by LY-278584 (1 microM); 2) a prolonged depolarization to 5-HT in 21 of 62 cells evoked an increase in input resistance and was attenuated by the 5-HT1P antagonist renzapride (1 microM) but not by the 5-HT4 antagonist SDZ-205557 (0.1-10 microM); and 3) an indirect depolarization blocked by TTX or atropine was observed in 32 of 62 cells. 5-HT superfusion elicited a dose-dependent monophasic depolarization (EC50 = 2 microM, n=14). In conclusion, 5-HT is present in nerves of the SO and elicits both 5-HT3 and 5-HT1P receptor-mediated depolarizations, supporting the concept that 5-HT plays a role in SO regulation. PMID:9815032

Hillsley, K; Mawe, G M



Use of the bulbocavernosus reflex system in assessing voiding dysfunction.  


PURPOSE: The Bulbocavernosus Reflex System (BRS) (Laborie, Canada) is an office-based procedure used to measure the bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) latency period. The aim of this study is to evaluate the BCR as a predictor of specific voiding dysfunction patterns confirmed by urodynamics (UDS). METHODS: A total of 87 men were evaluated with BRS, UDS, and electromyography at Weill Cornell Medical College from March to August 2010. Baseline characteristics, demographics, UDS, and latency parameters were recorded. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate prolonged BCR (latency >45 ms) as a predictor of specific voiding dysfunction patterns. RESULTS: The median age of men was 70.4 years (IQR 57.6-75.6). Based on UDS, 60 men were given a primary or secondary diagnosis of bladder outlet obstruction (BOO), 43 a diagnosis of detrusor overactivity (DO), 11 a diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD), and 4 a diagnosis of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). Median BCR latency was 57.0 ms (IQR 47.5-76.5) and 68 (78 %) men demonstrated a prolonged latency. In multivariate analysis, latency period was not significantly associated with DO, BOO, ISD, or DSD (p = 0.067, 0.696, 0.999, 0.971, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Prolonged bulbocavernosus reflex latency was not associated with DO, BOO, ISD, or DSD. Although evidence in the literature suggests a link between this reflex arc and voiding, its specific diagnostic role remains unclear. Large prospective trials are needed to further explore the role of BCR in the evaluation of patients with voiding dysfunction. PMID:23525787

Laudano, Melissa A; Chughtai, Bilal; Lee, Richard K; Seklehner, Stephan; Elterman, Dean; Kaplan, Steven A; Te, Alexis E



A brief compound test for assessment of autonomic and sensory-motor dysfunction in familial amyloid polyneuropathy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\u000a   Familial amyloid polyneuropathies (FAP) patients manifest progressive sensory-motor length dependent polyneuropathy and severe\\u000a autonomic dysfunction. In this setting the autonomic manifestations include mainly postural hypotension, nausea and vomiting,\\u000a diarrhea and constipation, sphincter distur- bances and erectile dysfunction. Reproducible quantitative evaluation of signs\\u000a and symptoms are necessary for the assessment of treatment efficacy.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objective\\u000a   To determine the reliability of a

Christian Denier; Beatrice Ducot; Helene Husson; Pierre Lozeron; David Adams; Lawrence Meyer; Gerard Said; Violaine Planté-Bordeneuve



Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation. A newly identified condition.  


A newly identified myopathy of the internal anal sphincter is described. In the affected family, at least one member from each of five generations had severe proctalgia fugax; onset was usually in the third to fifth decades of life. Three members of the family have been studied in detail. Each had severe pain intermittently during the day and hourly during the night. Constipation was an associated symptom, in particular difficulty with rectal evacuation. Clinically the internal anal sphincter was thickened and of decreased compliance. The maximum anal canal pressure was usually increased with marked ultraslow wave activity. Anal endosonography confirmed a grossly thickened internal anal sphincter. Two patients were treated by internal anal sphincter strip myectomy; one showed marked improvement and one was relieved of the constipation but had only slight improvement of the pain. The hypertrophied muscle in two of the patients showed unique myopathic changes, consisting of vacuolar changes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive polyglycosan bodies in the smooth muscle fibers and increased endomysial fibrosis. In vitro organ-bath studies showed insensitivity of the muscle to noradrenaline, isoprenaline, carbachol, dimethylpiperazinium, and electrical-field stimulation. Immunohistochemical studies for substance P, calcitonin gene-related peptide, galanin, neuropeptide Y, and vasoactive intestinal peptide showed staining in a similar distribution to that in control tissue. A specific autosomal-dominant inherited myopathy of the internal anal sphincter that causes anal pain and constipation has been identified and characterized. PMID:1993504

Kamm, M A; Hoyle, C H; Burleigh, D E; Law, P J; Swash, M; Martin, J E; Nicholls, R J; Northover, J M



Gender influences sphincter of Oddi response to cholecystokinin in the prairie dog.  


Although gallstones and disorders of biliary tract motility are both more common in women than men, sphincter of Oddi motility has not previously been compared between the sexes. In this study, cholescintigraphy (under ketamine and diazepam anesthesia) was used to determine gallbladder emptying rate and ejection fraction in response to cholecystokinin (CCK) in eight male and six female prairie dogs fed a nonlithogenic diet. Ten days later, under alpha-chloralose anesthesia, sphincter of Oddi phasic wave activity was monitored for 10-min intervals before (control), during 20 min of CCK infusion, and for 20 min after infusion. Gallbladder emptying rate and ejection fraction and baseline sphincter of Oddi frequency, amplitude, and motility index (= frequency x amplitude) did not differ significantly between the sexes. Sphincter of Oddi phasic wave frequency was increased during CCK infusion in both males and females, but the change in amplitude was significantly greater in females, than males. We conclude that the increased incidence of biliary tract disease in women may be due to altered sphincter of Oddi hormonal response. PMID:7485498

Tierney, S; Qian, Z; Yung, B; Lipsett, P A; Pitt, H A; Sostre, S; Lillemoe, K D



Eustachian Tube Dysfunction  


MENU Return to Web version Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Overview What is eustachian tube dysfunction? The eustachian tubes are small passageways that connect the upper part of your throat (pharynx) ...


Compound muscle action potential of the external anal sphincter.  


AIM: Pudendal nerve terminal motor latency (PNTML) assesses distal innervation of the external anal sphincter (EAS) but it is insensitive to early nerve damage. We propose to extend the assessment of PNTML to the measurement of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) of the EAS to understand its progressive denervation. METHOD: 90 female patients with faecal incontinence were prospectively examined and compared with 36 asymptomatic women who acted as controls. PNTML was performed bilaterally and the muscle response analysed for CMAP to include amplitude, area and duration. Anorectal manometry was measured by a station-pull technique using a water-filled microballoon. SPSS Version 11.5 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: In asymptomatic females the CMAP on the left side was greater in nulliparous (n=7) than parous (n=27, p<0.05) individuals. There was a positive correlation with maximum squeeze pressure and Area on the left side (p<0.05, r=0.397). In women with faecal incontinence, CMAP on the left side had a negative correlation with age (n=75, p<0.05), there was no correlation with parity or anorectal manometry. Nulliparous asymptomatic females had a greater CMAP (p<0.05) on the left side than asymptomatic parous women and parous women with faecal incontinence. Right side measurements were not conclusive. CONCLUSION: CMAP demonstrated progressive denervation with age in women with faecal incontinence but did not reliably identify early signs of denervation in asymptomatic females. The area on the left side related to muscle function in asymptomatic females but not in women with faecal incontinence. CMAP can distinguish between parous women with faecal incontinence and nulliparous asymptomatic women but is not a useful test of EAS function. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:23758958

Nockolds, C L; Hosker, G L; Kiff, E S



Sensory Integration Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Sensory integration dysfunction (SID) (also known as regulatory sensory processing disorder, sensory processing dysfunction,\\u000a or sensory processing dysfunction) is a neurological disorder that involves impairment in processing data from the different\\u000a senses (vision, auditory, touch, olfaction, and taste), the vestibular system (movement), and proprioception (body awareness).

Mark L. Goldstein; Stephen Morewitz



PubMed Central

Objective Assess the effect of pregnancy and first vaginal delivery on urethral striated sphincter neuromuscular function. Study Design Quantitative electromyographic (EMG) interference pattern analysis of the urethral sphincter of 23 nulligravidas and 31 third trimester primigravidas allowed comparison of mean motor unit parameters before term vaginal delivery and post partum. Results Mean electromyographic interference pattern parameters in the primigravidas were significantly lower than nulligravidas even antepartum, with decreased turns, lower amplitude, and less activity. The only significant change at 6 months post partum was further decline in number of turns resulting in a further decrease in turns:amplitude. All other electromyographic abnormalities persisted at six months post partum and remained abnormal compared to the nulligravidas. Conclusion Urethral sphincter neuromuscular function changed significantly during pregnancy and these changes persisted post partum. Lack of recovery 6 months post partum suggests a physiologic impact of pregnancy itself on future risk of urinary incontinence.

Weidner, Alison C.; South, Mary M.T.; Sanders, Donald B.; Stinnett, Sandra S.



Fecal and urinary incontinence after vaginal delivery with anal sphincter disruption in an obstetrics unit in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence of urinary and bowel incontinence in relation to anal sphincter laceration in primiparous women and to identify factors that are associated with anal sphincter laceration in a unit that uses primarily midline episiotomy.

Dee E Fenner; Becky Genberg; Pavna Brahma; Lorri Marek; John O. L DeLancey



Early effect of external beam radiation therapy on the anal sphincter: A study using anal manometry and transrectal ultrasound  

Microsoft Academic Search

The early effect of pelvic irradiation on the anal sphincter has not been previously investigated. This study prospectively evaluated the acute effect of preoperative radiation on anal function. Twenty patients with rectal carcinoma received 4,500 cGy of preoperative external beam radiation. The field of radiation included the sphincter in 10 patients and was delivered above the anorectal ring in 10

Elisa H. Birnbaum; Zeev Dreznik; Robert J. Myerson; David L. Lacey; Robert D. Fry; Ira J. Kodner; James W. Fleshman



Erectile dysfunction: management update  

PubMed Central

DRAMATIC ADVANCES IN THE MANAGEMENT of erectile dysfunction have occurred over the past decade. Oral therapy with vasoactive agents has emerged as first-line treatment and has transformed both the manner in which the public views erectile dysfunction and the way health care providers deliver care. Whereas an extensive investigation was previously common in the management of erectile dysfunction, recent treatment guidelines promote a more minimalist, goal-oriented approach. In this article, we review the physiology of erection, and the pathophysiology, diagnosis and clinical management of erectile dysfunction. We also present the existing evidence for the efficacy of 3 phosphodiesterase inhibitors, the most widely used class of agents for erectile dysfunction.

Fazio, Luke; Brock, Gerald



Outcome of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS)—role of structured management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  Prospective studies up to 1 year after repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) report anal incontinence in 33%\\u000a of women and up to 92% have a sonographic sphincter defect. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome of repair by\\u000a doctors who have undergone structured training using a standardized protocol.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Doctors repaired OASIS after attending a

Vasanth Andrews; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan



Mode of delivery after previous obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS)—a reappraisal?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  To prospectively evaluate anorectal symptoms, quality of life (QoL), sphincter integrity and function after subsequent childbirth\\u000a following previous obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  A validated Manchester Health Questionnaire, endoanal sonography and manometry were performed during the third trimester and\\u000a 13 weeks postpartum. Women without objective compromise of anal function were recommended a vaginal delivery and the others\\u000a a caesarean

Inka Scheer; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan



Persisting anorectal dysfunction after rectal cancer surgery.  


AIM: Sphincter saving rectal cancer management affects anorectal function. This study evaluated persisting anorectal dysfunction and its impact on patients' well-being. METHOD: Seventy-nine patients with a follow-up of 12 - 37 (median 22) months and seventy-nine age- and sex-matched control subjects completed questionnaires. RESULTS: The median number of diurnal bowel movements was 3 in patients and 1 in controls (p<.0001). Nocturnal defecation occurred in 53% of patients. The median Vaizey score was 8 in patients and 4 in controls (p<.0001). Urgency without incontinence was reported by 47% of patients and 49% of controls (p=0.873), soiling by 28% of patients and 3% in controls (p<0.0001), incontinence for flatus by 73% of patients and 49% of controls (p=0.0019), incontinence for solid stools by 16% of patients and 4% of controls (p=0.0153). Incontinence of liquid stools occurred in 17 of 20 patients and 1 of 5 controls who had liquid stools (p=0.0123). Incontinence for gas, liquid or solid stool occurred once or more weekly in 47%, 19% and 6% of patients respectively. Evacuation difficulties were reported by 98% of patients, but also by 77% in controls. Neoadjuvant radio(chemo)therapy adversely affected defecation frequency and continence. Incontinence was associated with severe discomfort in 50% of patients, severe anxiety in 40%, and severe embarrassment in 48%. CONCLUSION: Anorectal dysfunction is a frequent problem after management of rectal cancer with an impact on the wellbeing of patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID:23692392

Maris, A; Penninckx, F; Devreese, A M; Staes, F; Moons, P; Van Cutsem, E; Haustermans, K; D'Hoore, A



[Is sphincter-plasty for treatment of fecal incontinence in patients older than 60 justified?].  


Overlapping sphincteroplasty is the method of choice for isolated anterior sphincter defects. Patients over 60 years of age can undergo this operation with similar good results as in younger patients. However, preoperative physiologic assessment of the pelvic floor is necessary for a good postoperative outcome. PMID:9101903

Pfeifer, J; Rabl, H; Uranüs, S; Wexner, S D



Sphincter-preserving surgery after preoperative radiochemotherapy for T3 low rectal cancers  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and the effectiveness of preoperative radiochemotherapy followed by total mesorectal excision (TME) and sphincter-preserving procedures for T3 low rectal cancer. Patients with rectal cancer and T3 tumors located within 1–6 cm of the dentate line received preoperative radiochemotherapy. Concurrent 5-fluorouracil-based radiochemotherapy was used. Radical resection with TME and sphincter-preserving procedures were performed during the six to eight weeks following radiotherapy. Survival was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method. The anal function was evaluated using the Wexner score. The clinical response rate was 83.5%, overall downstaging of T classification was 75.3% and pathological complete response was 15.3%. The anastomotic fistula rate was 4.7%. A median follow-up of 30 months showed the local recurrence rate to be 4.7% and the distant metastasis rate to be 5.9%. The three-year overall survival rate was 87%. The degree of anal incontinence as measured using the Wexner score decreased over time, and the anal sphincter function in the majority of patients gradually improved. Preoperative radiochemotherapy was found to improve tumor downstaging, reduces local recurrence, increase the sphincter preservation rate, and is therefore of benefit to patients with T3 low rectal cancer.




Urethral Sphincteric Insufficiency in Postmenopausal Females: Treatment with Phenylpropanolamine and Estriol Separately and in Combination  

Microsoft Academic Search

A randomized open comparative cross-over trial was carried out in 20 postmenopausal women, mean age 69 years, suffering from urinary incontinence due to urethral sphincteric insufficiency. They were treated with phenylpropanolamine (PPA) 50 mg p.o. twice daily or estriol vaginal suppositories 1 mg daily separately and in combination for periods of 4 weeks. Urodynamic investigations were carried out before and

H. O. Beisland; E. Fossberg; A. Moer; S. Sander



Complete anal sphincter complex disruption from intercourse: A case report and literature review  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION Anal sphincter injuries are uncommon injuries outside of obstetric practice – but they may cause disastrous complications. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a case of complete anal sphincter disruption from anal intercourse in a 25 year old woman. Clinical management is presented and technical details of the repair are discussed. She had an uneventful post-operative course and good continence after 154 days of follow up. DISCUSSION This is one of a handful of reported cases of anal sphincter disruption secondary to anal intercourse. The established risk factors in this case included receptive anal intercourse coupled with alcohol use. We review the pertinent surgical principles that should be observed when repairing these injuries, including anatomically correct repair and appropriate suture choice. There is little evidence to support simultaneous faecal diversion for primary repair of acute perineal lacerations. CONCLUSION Acute post-coital sphincter injuries should be treated operatively on an emergent basis, without diversion because they are low energy injuries with minimal tissue loss and excellent blood supply. Although repair of each injury should be individualized, the majority of these injuries do not require concomitant protective colostomy creation.

Cawich, S.O.; Samuels, L.; Bambury, I.; Cherian, C.J.; Christie, L.; Kulkarni, S.



Function of the Internal Anal Sphincter and Rectal Sensitivity in Idiopathic Constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anal manometry was performed in 8 control individuals (group A) and in 13 patients with idiopathic constipation (group B), 6 of whom were grouped apart (group C) because of an elective delay of the intestinal transit in the rectum. The basal pressure of the internal anal sphincter, the rectal inflation volume necessary to elicit the rectoanal inhibitory reflex, and the

F. Baldi; F. Ferrarini; R. Corinaldesi; R. Balestra; M. Cassan; G. P. Fenati; L. Barbara



Diagnosing intrinsic sphincteric deficiency: Comparing urethral closure pressure, urethral axis, and Valsalva leak point pressures  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: Our purpose was to compare three measures proposed to diagnose intrinsic sphincteric deficiency: maximum urethral closure pressure, Valsalva leak point pressure, and straining urethral axis. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 159 women with pure genuine stress incontinence had the three measures determined in a standardized fashion. Critical cutoff values for the Valsalva leak point pressure (52 cm) and urethral

Richard C. Bump; Kimberly W. Coates; Geoffrey W. Cundiff; Robert L. Harris; Alison C. Weidner



Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors Cause Relaxation of the Internal Anal Sphincter In Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: Pharmacologic treatments are gaining widespread acceptance as first-line therapy for anal fissure. However, existing treatments have limited clinical usefulness because of side effects and incomplete healing rates. METHODS: Fresh human surgical resection specimens containing internal anal sphincter and rectal circular muscle were collected. Strips of smooth muscle were cut from each muscle group and mounted in a superfusion organ

Oliver M. Jones; Alison F. Brading; Neil J. Mc C. Mortensen



Automatic localisation of innervation zones: A simulation study of the external anal sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traumas of the innervation zone (IZ) of the external anal sphincter (EAS), e.g. during delivery, can promote the development of faecal incontinence. Recently developed probes allow high-resolution detection of EMG signals from the EAS. The analysis of pelvic floor muscles by surface EMG (in particular, the estimation of the location of the IZ) has potential applications in the diagnosis and

Luca Mesin; Marco Gazzoni; Roberto Merletti



Multichannel Surface EMG for the Non-Invasive Assessment of the Anal Sphincter Muscle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: This work focuses on recording, processing and interpretation of multichannel surface EMG detected from the external anal sphincter muscle. The aim is to describe the information that can be extracted from signals recorded with such a technique. Methods: The recording of many signals from different locations on a muscle allows the extraction of additional information on muscle physiology and

R. Merletti; A. Bottin; C. Cescon; D. Farina; M. Gazzoni; S. Martina; L. Mesin; M. Pozzo; A. Rainoldi; P. Enck



Dilated common duct sign. A potential indicator of a sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia  

SciTech Connect

The cholescintigraphic findings of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia (SOD) in a 45-year-old woman with persistent right upper quadrant pain and biliary colic are reported. After an overnight fast, the patient was injected with 5 mCi of Tc-99 disofenin and .02 micrograms/kg of cholecystokinin (CCK) post maximal gallbladder filling. Pre and postcholescintiscans were obtained and gallbladder ejection fractions determined. The hepatobiliary scan was normal, except for a delay in biliary-bowel transit. The gallbladder responded normally to CCK, however, the Sphincter of Oddi responded abnormally, as there was a paradoxical response to CCK manifested by a marked dilatation of the common bile duct. It was postulate that this dilatation (the dilated common duct sign) was due to an inappropriate response of the smooth muscle of the Sphincter of Oddi (contraction vs relaxation) to CCK and was the cause of this patient's biliary colic. The dilated common duct sign should alert the physician to the possibility of a Sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia.

DeRidder, P.; Fink-Bennett, D.



The use of conventional electromyography to assess external sphincter neuropathy in man  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional electromyography was used to measure motor unit potential duration in the external anal sphincter in normal subjects and patients with idiopathic faecal incontinence. The results revealed a direct correlation between age and mean motor unit potential duration in control subjects, but no differences between age-matched male and female subjects. Patients with faecal incontinence exhibited prolongation of mean motor unit

D C Bartolo; J A Jarratt; N W Read



[Anal sphincter repair in the treatment of anal incontinence - when and how to do it?].  


Anal incontinence is a disease of high prevalence. For many patients the disease causes severe stress and often results in social isolation. Whenever a sphincter lesion has been diagnosed by digital rectal examination and endosonographic access, anal sphincter reconstruction can be performed with the same results either in overlapping or in end-to-end suture technique. sing these procedures, in more than 60 % of patients the continence can be initially improved. However, benefit decreases after 5 years down to 40-50 %. The prognosis gets worse with increasing age and supplementary descending pelvic floor. Anal repair with reconstruction of internal and external sphincters is performed in neurogenic incontinence. This can be achieved by posterior or anterior anal repair (total pelvic floor repair). Nowadays these procedures are not common, due to unsuccessfulness. Instead, sacral nerve stimulation as a more expensive but less invasive method has displaced the anal repair on this indication. Interpretation of the published results remains delicate because of heterogenous evaluation criteria of postoperative outcome: subjective amelioration, postoperative satisfaction and quality of life, improvement of incontinence score or achievement of complete anal continence. However, it is proven that after immediate reconstruction of traumatic sphincter lesions the postoperative outcome is better than a two-step operation with primary ostomy. PMID:22933005

Kersting, S; Berg, E



The Safety and Efficacy of the Artificial Bowel Sphincter for Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this trial was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and impact on quality of life of the Acticon™ artificial bowel sphincter for fecal incontinence. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, nonrandomized clinical trial was conducted under a common protocol. Patients were evaluated with anal physiology, endoanal ultrasonography, a fecal incontinence scoring system, fecal incontinence quality of life assessment, and

W. Douglas Wong; Susan M. Congliosi; Michael P. Spencer; Marvin L. Corman; Patrick Tan; Frank G. Opelka; Marcus Burnstein; Juan J. Nogueras; H. Randolph Bailey; Jose Manuel Devesa; Robert D. Fry; Burt Cagir; Elisa Birnbaum; James W. Fleshman; Mallory A. Lawrence; W. Donald Buie; John Heine; Peter S. Edelstein; Sharon Gregorcyk; Paul Antoine Lehur; Francis Michot; P. Terry Phang; David J. Schoetz; Fabio Potenti; Josephine Y. Tsai



Internal anal sphincter augmentation for fecal incontinence using injectable silicone biomaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: A disrupted or weak internal anal sphincter can lead to passive fecal incontinence. This muscle is not amenable to direct surgical repair. Previous preliminary attempts to restore functional continuity have included a cutaneous flap to fill an anal canal defect, and injection therapy using polytetrafluoroethylene, collagen, or autologous fat. Urologists have also used injections of collagen or silicone to

Andrew J. Malouf; Carolynne J. Vaizey; Christine S. Norton; Michael A. Kamm



Diagnosis of anal sphincter tears by postpartum endosonography to predict fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine whether anal endosonography immediately after vaginal delivery can predict subsequent fecal incontinence.Methods: We studied nulliparas who delivered vaginally and had no anal sphincter tears (third- or fourth-degree perineal tears) diagnosed clinically by endosonography before any suture of the perineum. The sonographer was unaware of delivery details and the obstetrician and the women were not informed of endosonography

Daniel L Faltin; Michel Boulvain; Olivier Irion; Stéphane Bretones; Catalin Stan; Antoine Weil



A Synthetic Prostaglandin E1 Analog, Alprostadil Alfadex, Relaxes Sphincter of Oddi in Humans  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is well established that prostaglandins (PGs) exert potent pharmacological actions on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle, although their effects on the sphincter of Oddi (SO) remain to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PGE1 on motility of the human SO. Twenty patients appearing for routine endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) examination were studied.

Tatsuya Koshitani; Tadashi Kodama; Hideki Sato; Junpei Takaaki; Yoichi Imamura; Keimei Kato; Naoki Wakabayashi; Kazuhiko Tokita; Shoji Mitsufuji



Tripod Modification of Sphincter Corer: Construction, Operation, Core Extrusion and Sampling Efficiency.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A 21-cm diameter sphincter corer has been modified by mounting it in a tripod frame. This modification results in more dependable recovery of undisturbed surficial sediment and greater penetration into firm sediment. The device is useful in water depths f...

J. C. Burke S. A. Casso R. E. Hamblin



Current Evaluation of Upper Oesophageal Sphincter Opening in Dysphagia Practice: An International SLT Survey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: The assessment of adequate upper oesophageal sphincter (UOS) opening during swallowing is an integral component of dysphagia evaluation. Aims: To ascertain speech and language therapists' (SLTs) satisfaction with current methods for assessing UOS function in people with dysphagia and to identify challenges encountered by SLTs with UOS…

Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; McMahon, Barry P.



Effects of Cannabinoid Agonists on Sheep Sphincter of Oddi in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: According to recent studies, the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in both physiological and pathophysiological situations. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of cannabinoid (CB) agonists on isolated sheep sphincter of Oddi (SO)in vitro. Methods: The isolated sheep SO tissues were mounted in organ baths and tested for isometric tension and cyclic GMP

Bulent Sarac; Nedim Durmus; Ahmet Altun; Mustafa Turan; Tijen Kaya; Mehmet Sencan; Ihsan Bagcivan



Management of obstetric anal sphincter injury: a systematic review & national practice survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We aim to establish the evidence base for the recognition and management of obstetric anal sphincter injury (OASI) and to compare this with current practice amongst UK obstetricians and coloproctologists. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature and a postal questionnaire survey of consultant obstetricians, trainee obstetricians and consultant coloproctologists was carried out. RESULTS: We found a wide variation

Ruwan J Fernando; Abdul H Sultan; Simon Radley; Peter W Jones; Richard B Johanson



Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperuricemia induces endothelial dysfunction.BackgroundHyperuricemia has been linked to cardiovascular and renal diseases, possibly through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent endothelial dysfunction. The enzymatic effect of xanthine oxidase is the production of ROS and uric acid. Studies have shown that inhibiting xanthine oxidase with allopurinol can reverse endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, rat studies have shown that hyperuricemia-induced hypertension




Third degree obstetric anal sphincter tears: risk factors and outcome of primary repair.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES--To determine (i) risk factors in the development of third degree obstetric tears and (ii) the success of primary sphincter repair. DESIGN--(i) Retrospective analysis of obstetric variables in 50 women who had sustained a third degree tear, compared with the remaining 8553 vaginal deliveries during the same period. (ii) Women who had sustained a third degree tear and had primary sphincter repair and control subjects were interviewed and investigated with anal endosonography, anal manometry, and pudendal nerve terminal motor latency measurements. SETTING--Antenatal clinic in teaching hospital in inner London. SUBJECTS--(i) All women (n = 8603) who delivered vaginally over a 31 month period. (ii) 34 women who sustained a third degree tear and 88 matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Obstetric risk factors, defecatory symptoms, sonographic sphincter defects, and pudendal nerve damage. RESULTS--(i) Factors significantly associated with development of a third degree tear were: forceps delivery (50% v 7% in controls; P = 0.00001), primiparous delivery (85% v 43%; P = 0.00001), birth weight > 4 kg (P = 0.00002), and occipito-posterior position at delivery (P = 0.003). No third degree tear occurred during 351 vacuum extractions. Eleven of 25 (44%) women who were delivered without instruments and had a third degree tear did so despite a posterolateral episiotomy. (ii) Anal incontinence or faecal urgency was present in 16 women with tears and 11 controls (47% v 13%; P = 0.00001). Sonographic sphincter defects were identified in 29 with tears and 29 controls (85% v 33%; P = 0.00001). Every symptomatic patient had persistent combined internal and external sphincter defects, and these were associated with significantly lower anal pressures. Pudendal nerve terminal motor latency measurements were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS--Vacuum extraction is associated with fewer third degree tears than forceps delivery. An episiotomy does not always prevent a third degree tear. Primary repair is inadequate in most women who sustain third degree tears, most having residual sphincter defects and about half experiencing anal incontinence, which is caused by persistent mechanical sphincter disruption rather than pudendal nerve damage. Attention should be directed towards preventive obstetric practice and surgical techniques of repair. Images FIG 1 FIG 2

Sultan, A. H.; Kamm, M. A.; Hudson, C. N.; Bartram, C. I.



Optimization and scale up of the adsorption fractionation of cod pyloric caeca deoxyribonuclease using axial and radial flow columns.  


The key step in the purification of a deoxyribonuclease (DNase) from extracts of cod (Gadus morhua L.) pyloric caeca, is the selective retention of the enzyme by anion exchange chromatography. The cod DNase purification on Q-Sepharose Fast Flow (Pharmacia) was optimized, using a 60 ml fixed-bed column. In combination with titration curve analysis, we have screened the effect of buffer pHs, feed conductivity and protein loading, on the product recovery and purity. We have developed elution conditions which allow effective separation of the cod DNase from bounded impurities, such as proteinases and nucleic acids. Low levels of these impurities were regarded as essential for the desired product quality. The optimum resolution and maximum purification (ca. 20-fold increase in specific activity) of DNase, was, however, achieved at low protein loading (2.6 mg ml-1 gel), corresponding to less than 4% of the dynamic bed capacity. Scale-up to a 2.5 l pilot scale column (axial flow) and a 0.25 l radial flow column showed that the separation and yield obtained at laboratory scale was retained, and was independent of column geometry and bed height. The implications for a production scale scenario of 100 g of fractionated protein, are also discussed, as well as process hygiene. The optimization described herein adds further knowledge to the treatment of fish waste and the downstream processing of valuable biochemicals from marine raw material. PMID:1368078

Straetkvern, K O; Raae, A J; Folkvord, K; Naess, B A; Aasen, I M



Basal internal anal sphincter tone, inhibitory neurotransmission, and other factors contributing to the maintenance of high pressures in the anal canal.  


Maintenance of the basal tone in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is critical for rectoanal continence. Effective evacuation requires a fully functional rectoanal inhibitory reflex (RAIR)-mediated relaxation of the IAS via inhibitory neurotransmission (INT). Systematic studies examining the nature of the INT in different species have identified nitric oxide (NO) as the major inhibitory neurotransmitter. However, other mediators such as vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), ATP, and carbon monoxide (CO) may also play species-specific role under certain experimental conditions. Measurements of the intraluminal pressures in the IAS along with the force of the isolated IAS tissues are the mainstay in the basic studies for the molecular mechanisms underlying the basal tone and in the nature of the INT. The identification of NO as the inhibitory neurotransmitter has led to major advances in the diagnosis and treatment of a number of rectoanal motility disorders associated with the IAS dysfunction. Besides the IAS, the high pressures in the anal canal are affected by the external anal sphincter (EAS) function, and its malfunction may also lead to rectoanal incontinence. Different approaches including biofeedback have been attempted to improve the EAS function, with variable outcomes. There is a dire need for the innovative ways to improve the week high pressures zone in the anal canal. This viewpoint focuses on two studies that extend the above concept of multiplicity of inhibitory neurotransmitters (Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011 23 e11–25), and that high pressures in the anal canal can be improved by the EAS plication (Neurogastroenterol Motil 2011 23 70–5). PMID:21188800

Rattan, S; Singh, J



A Missing Sphincteric Component of the Gastro-Esophageal Junction in Patients with GERD  

PubMed Central

Background It was recently shown that the tonic pressure contribution to the high-pressure zone (HPZ) of the esophagogastric segment (EGS) contains contributions from three distinct components, two of which are smooth muscle intrinsic sphincter components, a proximal and a distal component (1). Aim To compare the pressure contributions from the three sphincteric components in normal subjects with those in GERD patients. Methods A simultaneous endoluminal ultrasound (EUS) and manometry catheter was pulled through the esophago-gastric segment in 15 healthy volunteers and 7 patients with symptomatic GERD, before and after administration of atropine. Pre-atropine (complete muscle tone), postatropine (non-muscarinic muscle tone plus residual muscarinic tone), and subtracted (pure muscarinic muscle tone) pressure contributions to the sphincter were averaged after referencing spatially to the right crural diaphragm (RCd) and the pull-through start position. Results In the normal group the atropine-resistant and atropine-attenuated pressures identified the crural and two smooth muscle sphincteric components respectively. The subtraction pressure curve contained proximal and distal peaks. The proximal component moved with the crural sling between FI and FE and the distal component coincided with the gastric sling-clasp fiber muscle complex. The subtraction curve in the GERD patients contained only a single pressure peak that moved with the crural sphincter, while the distal pressure peak of the intrinsic muscle component, which was previously recognized in the normal subjects, was absent. Conclusions We hypothesize that the distal muscarinic smooth muscle pressure component (gastric sling/clasp muscle fiber component) is defective in GERD patients.

Miller, Larry; Dai, Qing; Vegesna, Anil; Korimilli, Annapurna; Ulerich, Rhys; Schiffner, Bryan; Brassuer, James



[Pharmacotherapy of erectile dysfunction].  


Among the drugs used to treat erectile dysfunction most common are prostaglandins El, viagra, iochimbin, vasodilators and desaggregants, vitamins, biogenic stimulators, etc. The comparative analysis of their efficacy was made in 360 patients with erectile dysfunction, primarily at subcompensated stage, aged 17-83 years. Organic and psychogenic erectile dysfunctions were diagnosed in 69 and 31% of the patients, respectively. Intracavernous injections of prostaglandin El (Caverject) were effective in 74%, transurethral alprostadil (MUSE) when adjusting the dose--in 38.7% of the patients. Iochimbin in patients with organic and psychogenic forms of erectile dysfunctions was effective in 25 and 40% of patients, respectively. In 26.3 and 19% of such patients the response was obtained after use of the combination including xantinol, nicotinate, trental, biogenic stimulators and adaptogens. Viagra was effective in 60 and 77.3% of patients with psychogenic and organic erectile dysfunctions, respectively. PMID:16856460

Kovalev, V A; Koroleva, S V; Kamalov, A A


Internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: further clinical and radiological characterization in a patient.  


We report a case of a distinctive familial internal anal sphincter myopathy with unique histological and radiological features. A 67-year-old woman presented with a 20-year history of proctalgia fugax and outlet obstruction; other family members were similarly affected. Computed tomograpy and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a grossly hypertrophied internal anal sphincter. Strip myectomy of the sphincter was carried out with improvement in evacuation but little relief of proctalgia. Further relief of symptoms was obtained using oral and transdermal nitrates and a calcium antagonist. Histological examination of the excised muscle revealed hypertrophy and an abnormal arrangement of fibres in whorls; many fibres contained vacuoles with inclusion bodies positive for periodic acid-Schiff. This description of a specific anal sphincter myopathy illustrates the potential importance of histopathological studies of smooth muscle in functional disorders of the gut. PMID:9058640

Guy, R J; Kamm, M A; Martin, J E



Intraoperative Nerve Stimulation With Measurement of Urethral Sphincter Pressure Changes During Radical Retropubic Prostatectomy: A Feasibility Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe evaluated the feasibility of using intraoperative nerve stimulation and real-time urodynamic monitoring to identify the intrapelvic innervation of the urethral sphincter during radical retropubic prostatectomy.




Structured hands-on training in repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS): an audit of clinical practice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted an audit to evaluate how effective a structured course in the management of obstetric anal sphincter injuries\\u000a (OASIS) was at imparting knowledge. Training was undertaken using models and cadaveric pig’s anal sphincters. An anonymous\\u000a questionnaire was completed prior to and 8 weeks after the course. Four hundred and ninety seven completed the questionnaire\\u000a before and 63% returned it after

Vasanth Andrews; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan



Study of the mechanisms involved in the bradykinin-induced contraction of the pig iris sphincter muscle in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to investigate the mechanisms by which bradykinin induces contraction of the pig iris sphincter muscle in vitro. Addition of bradykinin, Lys-bradykinin and Met-Lys-bradykinin to the pig iris sphincter resulted in a graded contraction with a mean EC50s of 21, 11 and 5 nM, respectively. The bradykinin B1 receptor agonist des-Arg9-bradykinin only caused a slight contraction, measured

Mariem El Sayah; João B Calixto



Appearance of insulin-like growth factor mRNA in the liver and pyloric ceca of a teleost in response to exogenous growth hormone.  

PubMed Central

Augmentation of vertebrate growth by growth hormone (GH) is primarily due to its regulation of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) and IGF II levels. To characterize the effect of GH on the levels of IGF I and IGF II mRNA in a teleost, 10 micrograms of bovine GH (bGH) per g of body weight was administered to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) through i.p. injection. The levels of IGF I and IGF II mRNA were determined simultaneously, by using RNase protection assays, in the liver, pyloric ceca, kidney, and gill at 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hr after injection. In the liver, IGF I mRNA levels were significantly elevated at 6 and 12 hr (approximately 2- to 3-fold, P < or = 0.01), while IGF II mRNA levels were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 hr (approximately 3-fold, P < or = 0.01). In the pyloric ceca, IGF II mRNA levels were significantly elevated at 12, 24, and 48 hr (approximately 3-fold, P < or = 0.01), while IGF I mRNA was below the limits of assay accuracy. GH-dependent IGF mRNA appearance was not detected in the gill and kidney. Serum bGH levels, determined by using a radioimmunoassay, were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 hr (P < 0.005). In primary hepatocyte culture, IGF I and IGF II mRNA levels increased in a bGH dose-dependent fashion, with ED50 values of approximately 45 and approximately 6 ng of bGH per ml, respectively. The GH-dependent appearance of IGF II mRNA in the liver and pyloric ceca suggests important roles for this peptide hormone exclusive of IGF I.

Shamblott, M J; Cheng, C M; Bolt, D; Chen, T T



Mydriasis associated with local dysfunction of parasympathetic nerves in two dogs.  


In clinical practice, photophobia resulting from persistent mydriasis may be associated with dysfunction of ocular parasympathetic nerves or primary iris lesions. We encountered a 5-year-old Miniature Dachshund and a 7-year-old Shih Tzu with mydriasis, abnormal pupillary light reflexes, and photophobia. Except for sustained mydriasis and photophobia, no abnormalities were detected on general physical examination or ocular examination of either dog. We performed pharmacological examinations using 0.1% and 2% pilocarpine to evaluate and diagnose parasympathetic denervation of the affected pupillary sphincter muscles. On the basis of the results, we diagnosed a pupillary abnormality due to parasympathetic dysfunction and not to overt primary iris lesions. The test revealed that neuroanatomic localization of the lesion was postciliary ganglionic in the first dog. PMID:19996558

Kanda, Teppei; Tsuji, Kazuhiro; Hiyama, Keiko; Tsuka, Takeshi; Minami, Saburo; Hikasa, Yoshiaki; Furukawa, Toshinori; Okamoto, Yoshiharu



Relationship of bladder dysfunction with upper urinary tract deterioration in cerebral palsy.  


Although lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) has been previously documented by clinical observations and urodynamic tests, its correlation with upper urinary tract deterioration (UUTD) has not been demonstrated. This paper documents symptoms and urodynamic findings of LUTD and their relationship with UUTD in 33 children with CP. By sonography, 4 of these children were found to have UUTD. Age was found to correlate with UUTD, but gender difference and mental or motor functions did not. When comparing urinary symptoms with UUTD, incontinence (n = 31) did not correlate, but on the other hand symptoms of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (interrupted voiding, urinary retention, hesitancy; n = 5) and culture proven febrile urinary tract infections (n = 4) did. Abnormal urodynamics findings were not diagnostic. We conclude that, apart from incontinence, dysfunctional voiding symptoms and febrile urinary tract infections are valuable indicators of UUTD. PMID:22921013

Gündo?du, Gökhan; Kömür, Mustafa; Avlan, Dinçer; Sar?, Ferda Bacaks?zlar; Deliba?, Ali; Ta?delen, Bahar; Nayc?, Ali; Okuyaz, Cetin



The effect of cisapride on gastro-oesophageal dysfunction in systemic sclerosis: a controlled manometric study.  

PubMed Central

1. Cisapride is a novel prokinetic drug which facilitates or restores motility throughout the gastrointestinal tract. Its mechanism of action is thought to involve enhancement of acetylcholine release in the myenteric plexus of the gut. 2. The effect of intravenous cisapride 10 mg on gastro-oesophageal dysfunction was investigated in 20 patients with systemic sclerosis, using a double-blind, randomised, cross-over, placebo-controlled manometric study design. 3. The increase in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure was significantly higher after cisapride (mean +/- s.e. mean, 8.3 +/- 2.1 cm H2O) than after placebo (mean +/- s.e. mean. 0.1 +/- 0.3 cm H2O) (P less than 0.001). The increase in the number of fundic gastric contractions during the 30 min study period was significantly higher after cisapride (mean +/- s.e. mean, 7.7 +/- 2.3) than after placebo (mean +/- s.e. mean, 0.9 +/- 0.6) (P less than 0.01). 4. No serious clinical adverse effects were observed. 5. The study demonstrates that intravenous cisapride induces a significant increase in lower oesophageal sphincter pressure and in the number of fundic gastric contractions, which may be beneficial in the treatment of scleroderma gastro-oesophageal dysfunction. Further long-term studies of the effect of oral cisapride in patients with systemic sclerosis are warranted.

Kahan, A; Chaussade, S; Gaudric, M; Freitag, B; Amor, B; Menkes, C J; Strauch, G; Guerre, J; Couturier, D



Dysphagia and esophageal motor dysfunction in gastroesophageal reflux are corrected by fundoplication.  


Abnormalities in esophageal peristaltic function and acid clearance appear to be responsible for prolonged esophageal acid exposure, a major determinant of the reflux esophagitis and esophageal stricture. We evaluated esophageal motility by manometry in 50 healthy controls and in 35 symptomatic reflux patients before, within 6 months, and 1 year after Nissen fundoplication. Preoperative motility was analyzed in relation to the presence or absence of both nonobstructive dysphagia and erosive esophagitis. We found that (a) preoperative dysphagia was related more to peristaltic dysfunction than to esophagitis; (b) peristaltic wave amplitude and duration were significantly lower than control values in patients with reflux, without correlation to degree of esophagitis or lower esophageal sphincter hypotension; (c) dysphagia ceased in most patients after antireflux surgery at the same time that normal motility was restored independently of lower esophageal sphincter pressure increments. These results suggest that motility disturbances are an important cause of dysphagia in reflux disease, and that reflux is the cause of, rather than the consequence of, peristaltic dysfunction. PMID:2007730

Grande, L; Lacima, G; Ros, E; Pujol, A; Garcia-Valdecasas, J C; Fuster, J; Visa, J; Pera, C



Alternative salvage technique for removing large sharp foreign body near upper esophageal sphincter.  


Removing sharp foreign bodies located in the esophagus can be dangerous and challenging. Proper apparatus and appropriate technique should be employed to avoid life-threatening complications such as perforation and mediastinitis. A 59-year-old man came to the emergency department with foreign body sensation in the upper esophagus which proved to be a large sharp fish bone impacted near upper esophageal sphincter. With the ordinary upper endoscope, the foreign body could not be retrieved even with the assistance of a cap. Foreign body removal was attempted again using a colonoscope with cap fitted at the end. Larger caliber of the scope rendered more stable support within the lumen enabling better maneuver of the scope tip to secure wider working space, and application of the cap permitted better visual field. Herein, we report the first case of successful removal of a large sharp fish bone impacted near the upper esophageal sphincter using cap assisted colonoscope. PMID:22318080

Hyun, Jong Jin; Chun, Hoon Jai; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Kim, Yong Sik; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang



Maximizing rectal cancer results: TEM and TATA techniques to expand sphincter preservation.  


Rectal cancer management benefits from a multidisciplinary approach involving medical and radiation oncology as well as surgery. Presented are the current dominant issues in rectal cancer management with an emphasis on our treatment algorithm at the Lankenau Medical Center. By basing surgical decisions on the downstaged rectal cancer we explore how sphincter preservation can be extended even for cancers of the distal 3 cm of the rectum. TATA and TEM techniques can be used to effectively treat cancer from an oncologic standpoint while maintaining a high quality of life through sphincter preservation and avoidance of a permanent colostomy. We review the results of our efforts, including the use of advanced laparoscopy in the surgical management of low rectal cancers. PMID:21640918

Marks, John H; Frenkel, Joseph L; D'Andrea, Anthony P; Greenleaf, Chistopher E



Change in the force-summed pressure measurements of the upper esophageal sphincter prelaryngectomy and postlaryngectomy.  


The pharyngoesophageal high pressure zone (PE-HPZ) was measured prelaryngectomy and postlaryngectomy with a new force-summing probe that accounts for sphincter pressure asymmetry. A total of 31 patients were studied six times each. Postoperatively, pressures dropped from 130+/-24 mm Hg to 66+/-9 mm Hg. After a standardized, intensive laryngectomy rehabilitation program, 12 of 19 postoperative patients acquired acceptable esophageal speech and 7 did not. Speakers and nonspeakers were found to have nearly identical PE-HPZ pressures (speakers = 70+/-10 mm Hg, nonspeakers = 59+/-18 mm Hg). Differences in sphincter length or relaxation likewise did not discriminate between these two groups. We conclude that PE-HPZ pressure is not a critical determinant of the acquisition of esophageal speech. PMID:517922

Welch, R W; Gates, G A; Luckmann, K F; Ricks, P M; Drake, S T


Botulinum A toxin treatment for detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in spinal cord disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

We studied the efficacy of endoscopic injection of Botulinum A toxin (150 I.U. Dysport®) in the treatment of detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia in 17 patients with spinal cord disease. One month after the injection, the postvoiding residual urine volume (?176 ml, P<0.001), the bladder pressure on voiding (?19 cm water, P<0.01), and the urethral pressure (?24 cm water, P<0.001) were significantly decreased.

H Petit; L Wiart; E Gaujard; F Le Breton; J M Ferrière; A Lagueny; P A Joseph; M Barat



Gastroesophageal sphincteric pressures before and after oral anticholinergic drug and placebo administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Resting pressures in each 0.5-cm. segment of the gastroesophageal sphincter were measured in 24 presumably healthy persons before and following 1 week's oral administration of an anticholinergic drug, valethamate bromide, 20 mg. q.i.d. or a placebo of identical appearance. The double-blind technic was used with 12 subjects in each group. Pressures were detected by a 5- × 5-mm. water-filled balloon

Maurice L. Kelley; Harry L. Friedland



Effect of the trauma mechanism on the bladder-sphincteric behavior after spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study design: Retrospective study.Objective: To determine if spinal cord injuries due to gunshot wounds (GW) are associated with different bladder and sphincteric behavior compared to other trauma mechanisms.Setting: Spinal injury center, Brazilian university hospital.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the records and urodynamic studies of 71 patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) referred to the Brazilian National Spinal Cord Injury Center over

C A R Sacomani; F E Trigo-Rocha; C M Gomes; J A Greve; T E P Barros; S Arap



Postpartum anal sphincter lacerations in a population with minimal exposure to episiotomy and operative vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case–control study was designed to identify risk factors for anal sphincter lacerations (ASL) in a multicultural population\\u000a where episiotomies and operative vaginal deliveries are rarely performed. Cases were subjects with ASL delivered between July\\u000a 1997 and June 2003. Two controls were selected for each case matched for gestational age. Independent variables collected\\u000a included age, race\\/ethnicity, parity, tobacco use, medical

Cindi Lewis; Alana M. Williams; Rebecca G. Rogers



Effects of sevoflurane and enflurane on lower esophageal sphincter pressure and gastroesophageal pressure gradient in children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The effects of sevoflurane and enflurane on the intraluminal pressure of the lower esophagus (LE), lower esophageal sphincter\\u000a (LES), and stomach were investigated in paralyzed and mechanically ventilated children under general anesthesia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods. A total of 14 children, ASA physical status class I without risk factors for regurgitation, scheduled for orthopedic surgery\\u000a were studied. After induction of anesthesia, we

Atsushi Kohjitani; Junji Shirakawa; Eiko Satoh; Tetsuro Kagawa; Masayori Nakajima; Hidefumi Obara



Towards Safer Treatments for Benign Anorectal Disease: The Pharmacological Manipulation of the Internal Anal Sphincter  

PubMed Central

INTRODUCTION The internal anal sphincter (IAS) is an important structure that is responsible for the majority of resting tone of the sphincter complex. It has a central role in continence and damage to the muscle has serious implications. Injury is most frequently from obstetric trauma though iatrogenic injury from proctological surgery is also common. This review expands on how developments in understanding of the pharmacology of IAS might identify drug treatments as alternatives for proctological conditions such as anal fissure, avoiding the risk of sphincter injury. It also examines the role of pharmacology in treatment of those patients with established incontinence. RESULTS Much of the basic physiology and pharmacology of the IAS has been established through in vitro analysis, particularly in the superfusion organ bath. Further analysis has been undertaken using animal models such the pig. Clinical trials have established the efficacy of a number of agents for reducing IAS tone including glyceryl trinitrate and botulinum toxin. These drugs are probably safer, but less effective, than surgery for sphincter spasm, as is seen in anal fissure, though surgery alone or in combination with drug treatment may be appropriate for some patients. In vitro analysis and small-scale clinical trials suggest that phenylephrine and methoxamine may have a role in treating patients with incontinence primarily attributable to inadequate IAS function. CONCLUSIONS The pharmacology of IAS has been extensively studied in the laboratory, both in vitro and in animal models. In a short time, this laboratory work has been applied to clinical problems after testing in clinical trials. It is likely, however, that the best drugs and the optimal targets for manipulation have not yet been identified.

Jones, Oliver M



Involvement of cholecystokininA receptors in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations triggered by gastric distension  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) are the main mechanism underlying gastroesophageal reflux. In the present study we evaluated the effect of loxiglumide, a specific cholecystokininA (CCKA)-receptor antagonist, on the occurrence of TLESRs evoked by gastric distension.Methods:Eight healthy subjects underwent esophageal manometry using a 10-lumen sleeve assembly during placebo or loxiglumide (10 mg\\/kg\\/h) in a randomized double-blind order. Gastric distension

G. E. E. Boeckxstaens; D. P. Hirsch; N. Fakhry; R. H. Holloway; M. D'Amato; G. N. J. Tytgat



Preoperative Chemoradiation for Extraperitoneal T3 Rectal Cancer: Acute Toxicity, Tumor Response, and Sphincter Preservation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate whether or not an intermediate dose of preoperative external radiation therapy intensified by systemic chemotherapy could improve the tumor response, sphincter preservation, and tumor control.Methods and Materials: Between March 1990 and December 1995, 83 consecutive patients with resectable extraperitoneal adenocarcinoma of the rectum were treated with preoperative chemoradiation: bolus i.v. mitomycin C (MMC), 10 mg\\/m2, Day 1

Vincenzo Valentini; Claudio Coco; Numa Cellini; Aurelio Picciocchi; Domenico Genovesi; Giovanna Mantini; Brunella Barbaro; Santa Cogliandolo; Claudio Mattana; Fabrizio Ambesi-Impiombato; Manfredo Tedesco; Maurizio Cosimelli



High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the anal sphincter using a dedicated endoanal receiver coil  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   The use of a surface coil in MR imaging improves signal-to-noise ratio of adjacent tissues of interest. We therefore devised\\u000a an endoanal receiver coil for imaging the anal sphincter. The probe is solid and re-usable: it comprises a saddle geometry\\u000a receiver with integral tuning, matching and decoupling. It is placed in the anal canal and immobilised externally. Both in

N. M. deSouza; A. D. Williams; D. J. Gilderdale



Clinical significance of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia type in patients with post-traumatic spinal cord injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To investigate the significance of categorizing detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) by type in patients with chronic spinal cord injury.Methods. A retrospective review of the charts, video-urodynamic studies, and upper tract radiographic studies of 269 patients with post-traumatic, suprasacral spinal cord injuries was performed. The patients were categorized according to the DSD type (intermittent or continuous), level and completeness of

Kyle J Weld; Marshall J Graney; Roger R Dmochowski



Sphincter saving rectum resection is the standard procedure for low rectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim To determine the procedure of choice for rectal cancer, particularly low rectal cancer. Methods Complete search, according to evidence-based methods, of comparative studies and national surveys published in English since 1990. Selection criteria: comparative studies between abdominoperineal excision (APER) and sphincter-saving operations (SSO) with a minimum of 50 patients presenting cancer in the lower one-third of the rectum, perfect

E. Di Betta; A. D'Hoore; L. Filez; F. Penninckx



The nerve branches to the external anal sphincter: the macroscopic supply and microscopic structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The study was performed using 45 pelvic half section specimens (41 fetal ones and four adults). The macroscopic dissection\\u000a followed the nerve branches from their spinal roots up to the external anal sphincter. Three nerve branches were found: the\\u000a anterior ramus arising from the external perineal nerve, the inferior rectal nerve and an independent posterior branch. The\\u000a anterior and the

C Gagnard; G Godlewski; D Prat; O Lan; J Cousineau; Y Maklouf



Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, Lower Oesophageal Sphincter-Relaxing Drugs and Oesophageal Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Aims: The incidence of oesophageal cancer has doubled in the last three decades. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may be protective, whilst bronchodilators and calcium channel blockers that relax the lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) may increase gastro-oesophageal reflux and the risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma. We conducted a case-control study to examine the association between the use of NSAIDs and

Satish Ranka; Jenny M. Gee; Ian T. Johnson; Jane Skinner; Andrew R. Hart; Michael Rhodes



Urinary incontinence after obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS)—is there a relationship?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study aimed to compare urinary symptoms and its impact on women’s quality of life after obstetric anal sphincter injuries\\u000a (OASIS) with a matched control group in the short term. The study group consisted of 100 primiparous women with OASIS and\\u000a 104 controls who sustained a second-degree tear or had a mediolateral episiotomy performed. All women completed a validated\\u000a International

Inka Scheer; Vasanth Andrews; Ranee Thakar; Abdul H. Sultan



Tibial nerve dysfunction  


... nerve dysfunction is a loss of movement or sensation in the foot from damage to the tibial ... the leg. The tibial nerve supplies movement and sensation to the calf and foot muscles. A problem ...


Sexual Dysfunction in Women  


... also cause sexual dysfunction. You may have less sexual desire during pregnancy, right after childbirth or when you are breastfeeding. After menopause many women feel less sexual desire, have vaginal dryness or have pain during sex ...


Dysautonomia (Autonomic Dysfunction)  


NINDS Dysautonomia Information Page Synonym(s): Autonomic Dysfunction, Familial Dysautonomia, Riley-Day Syndrome Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is Dysautonomia? Is there any treatment? ...


Erectile Dysfunction (ED)  


... try a medicine to help with erectile dysfunction. Sildenafil (brand name: Viagra), tadalfil and vardenafil are medicines ... is best for you. How should I take sildenafil? Follow your doctor's instructions. Usually, a man takes ...


The Current Role of the Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Male and Female Urinary Incontinence  

PubMed Central

The evolution of the artificial urinary sphincter has affected the current surgical options for urinary incontinence. With its unique features, the artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) has been an attractive option for the treatment of urinary incontinence regardless of gender. The current paper discusses the indications, contraindications, types of devices, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS in the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence. A PubMed review of the available literature was performed and articles reporting implantation of artificial urinary sphincters for urinary incontinence in both male and female patients were evaluated. There was a comparable satisfactory continence rate after the implantation of an AUS (59~97% in males vs. 60~92% in females). In comparison, there were some differences in the indications, contraindications, surgical approaches, outcomes, and complications of the AUS implanted for urinary incontinence in male and female patients. AUS implantation is a safe and effective surgical option for the treatment of urinary incontinence of various etiologies. Continuous evolution of the device has made it an attractive option for the treatment of both male and female urinary incontinence.

Islah, MAR; Cho, Sung Yong



Sphincter preservation for distal rectal cancer - a goal worth achieving at all costs?  

PubMed Central

To assess the merits of currently available treatment options in the management of patients with low rectal cancer, a review of the medical literature pertaining to the operative and non-operative management of low rectal cancer was performed, with particular emphasis on sphincter preservation, oncological outcome, functional outcome, morbidity, quality of life, and patient preference. Low anterior resection (AR) is technically feasible in an increasing proportion of patients with low rectal cancer. The cost of sphincter preservation is the risk of morbidity and poor functional outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Transanal and endoscopic surgery are attractive options in selected patients that can provide satisfactory oncological outcomes while avoiding the morbidity and functional sequelae of open total mesorectal excision. In complete responders to neo-adjuvant chemoradiotherapy, a non-operative approach may prove to be an option. Abdominoperineal excision (APE) imposes a permanent stoma and is associated with significant incidence of perineal morbidity but avoids the risk of poor functional outcome following AR. Quality of life following AR and APE is comparable. Given the choice, most patients will choose AR over APE, however patients following APE positively appraise this option. In striving toward sphincter preservation the challenge is not only to achieve the best possible oncological outcome, but also to ensure that patients with low rectal cancer have realistic and accurate expectations of their treatment choice so that the best possible overall outcome can be obtained by each individual.

Mulsow, Jurgen; Winter, Des C



Recurrent urethrovesical anastomotic strictures following artificial urinary sphincter implantation: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction The management of an anastomotic stricture after a radical prostatectomy can become a complex and difficult situation when an artificial urinary sphincter precedes the formation of the stricture. The urethral narrowing does not allow the passage of the routinely used urological instruments and no previous reports have suggested alternate approaches. Case presentation We present the case of a 68-year-old Greek man diagnosed as having a recurrent anastomotic stricture approximately two years after a radical prostatectomy and three years after the implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter, and propose novel alternate methods of treatment. Our patient was first subjected to stricture incision with the use of a rigid ureteroscope with a holmium:yttrium-aluminium-garnet laser fiber, which was followed by a second successful attempt with the use of a pediatric resectoscope. After a one-year follow-up, our patient is doing well, with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the management of recurrent urethral strictures following an artificial urinary sphincter implantation. Minimal invasive techniques with the use of small caliber instruments may offer efficient treatment options, diminishing the danger of urethral corrosion.



Studies on the mechanism of esophagitis-induced lower esophageal sphincter hypotension in cats.  


Perfusion of 0.1 n HC1 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) in cats for 30 min on 4 consecutive days produced biopsy-documented esophagitis and marked decreases in LES pressure. Using this model the effects of experimental esophagitis on the LES response to edrophonium, pentagastrin, and bethanechol were determined. The sphincter response to both edrophonium and pentagastrin after esophagitis was induced was significantly less than preperfusion responses. When the esophagitis had resolved, the pressure response to edrophonium and pentagastrin returned to preperfusion levels. In contrast, the sphincter response to bethanechol during esophagitis was not different from the preperfusion response and remained unchanged after resolution of the esophagitis. Lower esophageal smooth muscle taken from cats with active esophagitis appeared normal by both light and electron microscopy. These studies indicate that besides decreasing resting LES tone, esophageal inflammation causes functional impairment of a cholinergic mechanism regulating LES pressure. In contrast, the smooth muscle appears to be unaffected by inflammation despite the LES hypotension. PMID:1278649

Higgs, R H; Castell, D O; Eastwood, G L



Specific Movement of Esophagus During Transient Lower Esophageal Sphincter Relaxation in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease  

PubMed Central

Background/Aims Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) is the main mechanism of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of transient lower esophageal sphincter movement in patients with or without gastroesophageal reflux by high-resolution manometry (HRM). Methods From June 2010 to July 2010, we enrolled 9 patients with GERD (GERD group) and 9 subjects without GERD (control group), prospectively. The manometry test was performed in a semi-recumbent position for 120 minutes following ingestion of a standardized, mixed liquid and solid meal. HRM was used to identify the frequency and duration of TLESR, esophageal shortening length from incomplete TLESR, upper esophageal sphincter (UES) response, and the related esophageal motor responses during TLESR. Results TLESR occurred in 33 in the GERD group and 34 in the control group after 120 minutes following food ingestion. Duration of TLESR and length of esophageal shortening did not differ between 2 groups. UES pressure increase during TLESR was mostly detected in patients with GERD, and UES relaxation was observed frequently in the control group during TLESR. TLESR-related motor responses terminating in TLESR were predominantly observed in the control group. Conclusions Increased UES pressure was noted frequently in the GERD group, suggesting a mechanism for preventing harmful reflux, which may be composed mainly of fluid on the larynx or pharynx. However, patients with GERD lacked the related motor responses terminating in TLESR to promote esophageal emptying of refluxate.

Kim, Hoon Il; Han, Jae Pil; Seo, Jung Yeon; Hwang, Kyoung Hwa; Maeng, Hyo Jin; Lee, Tae Hee; Lee, Joon Seong



Female sexual dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction is a common problem with detrimental effects on woman’s quality of life. It also has an economical\\u000a and societal impact. It is defined as disorders of sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and sexual pain, which lead to personal\\u000a distress. The etiology of sexual dysfunction is frequently multifactorial as it relates to general physical and mental well-being,\\u000a quality of

Erdogan Aslan; Michelle Fynes



Sexual Dysfunction in Women  

PubMed Central

Sexual dysfunction takes place in the context of women's lives and affects their sexuality and self-esteem. Awareness of these influences are vital to the management of the dysfunction and the promotion of positive sexuality. The family physician's contribution to both the prevention and management of sexual concerns includes an awareness of societal influences and facilitation of a woman's sense of her own power and control over her life.

Brown, Pamela



Glutamatergic Dysfunction in OCD  

Microsoft Academic Search

The role of glutamatergic dysfunction in the pathophysiology of OCD has hardly been explored despite recent reports implicating glutamatergic dysfunction in OCD. We decided to investigate CSF glutamate levels in adult OCD probands compared to psychiatrically normal controls. In total, 21 consenting psychotropic drug-naïve adult OCD patients, diagnosed using SCID-IV-CV, and 18 consenting psychiatrically normal controls with age within 10

Kaushik Chakrabarty; Sagnik Bhattacharyya; Rita Christopher; Sumant Khanna



Managing neurogenic bowel dysfunction.  


This series of articles for rehabilitation in practice aims to cover a knowledge element of the rehabilitation medicine curriculum. Nevertheless they are intended to be of interest to a multidisciplinary audience. The competency addressed in this article is 'The trainee consistently demonstrates a knowledge of the pathophysiology of various specific impairments including bowel dysfunction' and 'management approaches for specific impairments including bowel dysfunction'. PMID:20511302

Emmanuel, Anton



Neurologic erectile dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Because erection is a neurovascular event, any disease or dysfunction affecting the brain, spinal cord, cavernosus and pudendal\\u000a nerves, or receptors in the terminal arterioles and cavernosus muscles can induce erectile dysfunction (ED). The medial preoptic\\u000a area with the paraventricular nucleus has been regarded as an important integration centre for sexual drive and penile erection\\u000a in animal studies [1]. Pathological

Michael Miintener; Brigitte Schurch


Oculomotor dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a comprehensive review.  


Although traditionally regarded as spared, a range of oculomotor dysfunction has been recorded in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Most frequent is ophthalmoparesis, particularly in patients with prolonged survival; however, pursuit, nystagmus, and saccadic impairments have also been reported. The apparent resistance to pathologic involvement of oculomotor (and sphincter) control pathways in most patients with ALS has prompted comparative study to establish the key pathways that underlie motor neuronal vulnerability, with the hope of generating novel therapeutic strategies. Developments in the assessment of oculomotor function, including portable eye-tracking devices, have revealed more subtle impairments in ALS in relation to phenotype, which can now be better understood through parallel elucidation of the normal cerebral oculomotor control network. Given the clinicopathologic overlap between ALS and some types of frontotemporal dementia, the study of oculomotor function has particular value in probing the variable but consistent cognitive impairment seen in ALS and that reflects frontotemporal extramotor cerebral abnormalities. By transcending the requirement to write or speak, loss of which precludes standard neuropsychological testing in some patients with advanced ALS, cognitive tests performed using only oculomotor functions offer additional potential, allowing the study of patients much later in their disease course. The study of oculomotor dysfunction holds significant promise as an additional source of much needed prognostic, monitoring, and mechanistic biomarkers for ALS. PMID:21747027

Sharma, Rakesh; Hicks, Stephen; Berna, Claire M; Kennard, Christopher; Talbot, Kevin; Turner, Martin R



Prolonged prostaglandin E1 therapy in a neonate with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect and the development of antral foveolar hyperplasia and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis.  


Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) is widely used for maintaining the patency of ductus arteriosus in ductus-dependent congenital heart defects in neonates to improve oxygenation. Among more common side effects are fever, rash, apnoea, diarrhoea, jitteriness, and flushing. More severe side effects are brown fat necrosis, cortical hyperostosis, and gastric outlet obstruction, most commonly the result of antral foveolar hyperplasia or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We report on an infant with a ductus-dependent congenital heart defect who developed symptoms and sonographic evidence of focal foveolar hyperplasia and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after prolonged treatment with prostaglandin E1. Gastrointestinal symptoms persisted after corrective cardiac surgery, and pyloromyotomy was required. Study of the case and of available literature showed an association between the total dose of prostaglandin E1 administered and duration of treatment and the development of gastric outlet obstruction. We conclude that if patients are treated with a prostaglandin E1 infusion, careful monitoring for symptoms and signs of gastric outlet obstruction is required. PMID:23521358

Perme, Tina; Mali, Senja; Vidmar, Ivan; Gvardijan?i?, Diana; Blumauer, Robert; Mishaly, David; Grabnar, Iztok; Nemec, Gregor; Grosek, Stefan



Prolonged prostaglandin E1 therapy in a neonate with pulmonary atresia and ventricular septal defect and the development of antral foveolar hyperplasia and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis  

PubMed Central

Prostaglandin E1 (alprostadil) is widely used for maintaining the patency of ductus arteriosus in ductus-dependent congenital heart defects in neonates to improve oxygenation. Among more common side effects are fever, rash, apnoea, diarrhoea, jitteriness, and flushing. More severe side effects are brown fat necrosis, cortical hyperostosis, and gastric outlet obstruction, most commonly the result of antral foveolar hyperplasia or hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We report on an infant with a ductus-dependent congenital heart defect who developed symptoms and sonographic evidence of focal foveolar hyperplasia and hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after prolonged treatment with prostaglandin E1. Gastrointestinal symptoms persisted after corrective cardiac surgery, and pyloromyotomy was required. Study of the case and of available literature showed an association between the total dose of prostaglandin E1 administered and duration of treatment and the development of gastric outlet obstruction. We conclude that if patients are treated with a prostaglandin E1 infusion, careful monitoring for symptoms and signs of gastric outlet obstruction is required.

Perme, Tina; Mali, Senja; Vidmar, Ivan; Gvardijancic, Diana; Blumauer, Robert; Mishaly, David; Grabnar, Iztok; Nemec, Gregor



The cone dysfunction syndromes.  


The cone dystrophies comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders characterised by visual loss, abnormalities of colour vision, central scotomata, and a variable degree of nystagmus and photophobia. They may be stationary or progressive. The stationary cone dystrophies are better described as cone dysfunction syndromes since a dystrophy often describes a progressive process. These different syndromes encompass a wide range of clinical and psychophysical findings. The aim is to review current knowledge relating to the cone dysfunction syndromes, with discussion of the various phenotypes, the currently mapped genes, and genotype-phenotype relations. The cone dysfunction syndromes that will be discussed are complete and incomplete achromatopsia, oligocone trichromacy, cone monochromatism, blue cone monochromatism, and Bornholm eye disease. Disorders with a progressive cone dystrophy phenotype will not be discussed. PMID:14736794

Michaelides, M; Hunt, D M; Moore, A T



DNA strand breaks, cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenase system activity and levels of chlorinated biphenyl congeners in the pyloric caeca of the seastar (Asterias rubens) from the North Sea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seastars (Asterias rubens L.) were collecte d at sampling locations in different areas along transects radiating into the southern North Sea, representing areas impacted by contaminants to different degrees. Strand breakage in DNA isolated from tissue of the pyloric caeca was measured by the alkaline unwinding assay, modified to allow for the isolation of highly intact DNA. The interpretation of

J. M. Everaarts; P. J. Den Besten; M. Th. J. Hillebrand; R. S. Halbrook; L. R. Shugart



Controlled, randomized trial of island flap anoplasty for treatment of trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano: early results.  


Treatment of trans-sphincteric fistula is usually a compromise between recurrence and incontinence. Dermal island flap anoplasty has been found to be useful in the treatment of these fistulas. We performed a randomized trial to compare dermal island flap anoplasty with conventional treatment for trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano. Seventy nine patients with fistula-in-ano were recruited; twenty patients with trans-sphincteric fistula confirmed by endoanal ultrasound were prospectively randomized to receive either dermal island flap anoplasty (IFA) or conventional treatment (CVN) for trans-sphincteric fistula-inano. Conventional treatment consisted of lay open fistulotomy or seton insertion if deemed unsuitable for fistulotomy. Dermal island flap anoplasty involved a cutaneous advancement flap into the rectum. Pain scores, fecal incontinence scores, operative complications, wound healing and recurrence rates were charted. Two patients in the CVN group required seton insertions, which were still intact at the 9-month follow-up. Two patients with similar high trans-sphincteric fistula in the IFA group avoided having a long-term seton. There were no differences in the postoperative pain score, incontinence score, complications, wound healing and recurrence rates between the two groups. IFA is a safe and useful method for treating transsphincteric fistula. It can be considered when a suprasphincteric extension is suspected, thus avoiding risk of incontinence or the discomfort of a long-term seton. PMID:16007352

Ho, K S; Ho, Y H



Effect of N-butylscopolamine on sphincter of Oddi motility in patients during routine ERCP--a manometric study.  


N-butylscopolamine is a generally accepted drug for the suppression of gut motility. Although it is used during routine ERCP, only few systematic studies have been carried out in patients to investigate its action on sphincter of Oddi motility. In the present study the effect of N-butylscopolamine on the motility of the sphincter of Oddi region has been evaluated in 17 patients undergoing routine diagnostic ERCP. The pressure parameters of these patients were compared with "normal values" obtained in 23 volunteers. A dose of 40 mg of N-butylscopolamine bromide (Buscopan) i.v. significantly reduced the contraction frequency of the sphincter of Oddi from 5.4 +/- 1.2/min to 1.0 +/- 1.4/min (p less than 0.001), the contraction amplitude from 106.3 +/- 27.8 mmHg to 55.2 +/- 23.5 (p less than 0.01) mmHg, and the basal sphincter of Oddi pressure from 13.9 +/- 3.0 mmHg to 11.0 +/- 3.5 mmHg (p less than 0.05), but had no effect on the pressure gradient between the common bile duct and the duodenum. These results clearly demonstrate that N-butylscopolamine inhibits contractions of the sphincter of Oddi, and may thus facilitate the intubation of the papilla. PMID:2209497

Allescher, H D; Neuhaus, H; Hagenmüller, F; Classen, M



Post-pyloric feeding  

PubMed Central

Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

Niv, Eva; Fireman, Zvi; Vaisman, Nachum



Internal Anal Sphincter Function Following Lateral Internal Sphincterotomy for Anal Fissure  

PubMed Central

Background: Anal fissure is a common and painful disorder. Its relation to hypertonic anal sphincter is controversial. The most common surgical treatment of chronic anal fissure is lateral internal sphincterotomy. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term manometric results of sphincter healing following lateral internal sphincterotomy. Patients and Methods: Between 2000 and 2003, 50 patients with anal fissure were included in this study and underwent sphincterotomy; 12 healthy patients served as controls. All patients with anal fissure underwent manometric evaluation using a 6-channel perfusion catheter. All patients were examined 1 month before surgery and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months following surgery. The control group had 3 manometric evaluations 6 months apart. Results: The mean basal resting pressure before surgery was 138 ± 28 mm Hg. One month after surgery, the pressure dropped to 86 ± 15 mm Hg (P < 0.0001) and gradually rose to a plateau at 12 months (110 ± 18 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). At 12 months, the manometric pressure was significantly lower than the baseline (P < 0.0001). However, manometric measurements in the fissure group were still significantly higher than in the control group (110 ± 18 versus 73 ± 4.8 mm Hg, P < 0.0001). All patients were free of symptoms at the 12-month follow-up. Conclusion: Lateral internal sphincterotomy caused a significant decline in the resting anal pressure. During the first year following surgery, the tone of the internal anal sphincter gradually increased, indicating recovery, but still remained significantly lower than before surgery. However, postoperative resting pressures were higher than those in the control, and no patient suffered any permanent problems with incontinence, so this decrease may not be clinically significant.

Ram, Edward; Alper, Dan; Stein, Gideon Y.; Bramnik, Zachar; Dreznik, Zeev



Is there a nitrergic modulation of the rat external anal sphincter?  


Nitric oxide is known to relax the internal anal sphincter, but its effect on the external anal sphincter (EAS) is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a nitrergic nerve plexus that modulates the EAS, similar to that found in oesophageal striated muscle. An in vitro ring preparation of rat anal canal was used to evaluate the effects of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(?)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) and the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on the EAS in conditions of neuromuscular blockade and the effect of SNP on nerve-evoked contractions. Immunohistological experiments were conducted to determine whether the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is present in the EAS. During direct muscle stimulation neither L-NNA (P = 0.32) nor SNP (P = 0.19) significantly changed the EF(50), which is the frequency at which 50% of maximal contraction is reached, compared with a time-dependent control. Nerve-evoked contractions were also not altered by addition of SNP to the tissue bath. Immunohistohistological experiments clearly showed co-localization of nNOS-positive nerve fibres at motor endplates of the oesophagus but not in the EAS. The internal anal sphincter was richly innervated by nitrergic fibres, but these did not extend into the EAS. In conclusion, there are no nitrergic motor fibres innervating the EAS, neurotransmission at the motor endplates is not affected by NO, and NO does not affect muscle force directly in conditions of neuromuscular blockade. There is, therefore, no evidence that EAS contraction is directly modulated by NO or by pudendal nitrergic fibres or diffusion from neighbouring nitrergic plexuses of the anal canal. PMID:22872659

Evers, J; Buffini, M; Craven, S; O'Connell, P R; Jones, J F X



Neuroplasticity in vision dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adaptation is critical to the survival of any species and is present in many systems within the brain. Rehabilitation can evoke neuroplasticity through adaptive mechanisms. Four subjects with the vision dysfunction of convergence insufficiency where two have mild traumatic brain injury and two were congenital participated in 18 hours of vision training. Clinical, behavioral, functional imaging and diffusion tensor imaging

Tara L. Alvarez; Yelda Alkan; Eun Kim; Rajbir Jaswal; Diana Ludlam; Phillipe Moinot; Bharat B. Biswal; Vincent R. Vicci



Augmentation of lower esophageal sphincter pressure and gastric yield pressure after radiofrequency energy delivery to the gastroesophageal junction: A porcine model  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: An endoscopic technique that eliminates gastroesophageal reflux disease would be of benefit to patients. The endoscopic delivery of radiofrequency energy to the porcine gastroesophageal junction was investigated and its effect on lower esophageal sphincter pressure, gastric yield pressure, and histology was assessed. Methods: Twenty pigs underwent esophageal manometry and endoscopic injection of botulinum toxin (100 units) into the lower esophageal sphincter.

David S. Utley; Michael Kim; Mark A. Vierra; George Triadafilopoulos



Quantitative evaluation of electrodes for external urethral sphincter electromyography during bladder-to-urethral guarding reflex  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Accuracy in the recording of external urethral sphincter (EUS) electromyography (EMG) is an important goal in the quantitative\\u000a evaluation of urethral function. The aim of this study was to quantitatively compare electrode recordings taken during tonic\\u000a activity and leak point pressure (LPP) testing.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Several electrodes, including the surface electrode (SE), concentric electrode (CE), and wire electrode (WE), were placed\\u000a on

James E. Steward; Jessica D. Clemons; Paul J. Zaszczurynski; Robert S. Butler; Margot S. Damaser; Hai-Hong Jiang



Experience with staged mucosal advancement anoplasty for high trans-sphincteric fistula-in-ano.  


Successful eradication of a complicated, recurrent fistula-in-ano with maintenance of anal continence, requires a specialized surgical approach. Mucosal advancement anoplasty is associated with acceptably low rates of recurrence and continence and is reported in this small series of 11 patients where it followed preliminary deployment of a loose guiding and drainage seton. The technique was also supplemented by internal anal sphincter repair at the time of the advancement anoplasty. Success was achieved in nine cases without any effect on reported continence. PMID:18303758

Zbar, A P



Anal sphincter lacerations and upright delivery postures—a risk analysis from a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  To evaluate obstetric sphincter lacerations after a kneeling or sitting position at second stage of labor in a multivariate\\u000a risk analysis model.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  Two hundred and seventy-one primiparous women with normal pregnancies and spontaneous labor were randomized, 138 to a kneeling\\u000a position and 133 to a sitting position. Medical data were retrieved from delivery charts and partograms. Risk factors

Daniel Altman; Inga Ragnar; Åsa Ekström; Tanja Tydén; Sven-Eric Olsson



Stomach (image)  


... responsible for breaking down food. The lower esophageal sphincter at the top of the stomach regulates food ... the stomach from reentering the esophagus. The pyloric sphincter at the bottom of the stomach governs the ...


Effects of botulinum toxin A on the sphincter of Oddi: an in vivo and in vitro study  

PubMed Central

Background—Botulinum toxin A is a potent inhibitor of the release of acetylcholine from nerve endings. Local injection of botulinum toxin has recently been suggested to be helpful in sphincter of Oddi dyskinesia by decreasing sphincter of Oddi pressure. ?Aims—To explore the mechanism of action of botulinum toxin A on sphincter of Oddi (SO) muscle. ?Methods—Four piglets underwent duodenoscopy and SO manometry was performed. After obtaining a baseline pressure, the SO was injected with normal saline and the experiment repeated after one week. The SO was then injected endoscopically with botulinum toxin (40 U) with follow up manometry one week later. The sphincter of Oddi was removed from 10 pigs, cut into three rings, and placed in an organ bath. The force of contraction was measured and registered on a polygraph. Rings were stimulated by 70 V (10 Hz, 0.5 ms) electrical field stimulation for 20 seconds, exogenous acetylcholine (100 µM), and KCl (125 mM). Botulinum toxin (0.1 U/ml) or atropine (1 µM) was added to the incubation medium and the stimulation was repeated. ?Results—Mean basal SO pressure in the pigs remained unchanged after saline injection but decreased to about 50% of baseline value following botulinum toxin injection (p=0.04). The contractions induced by direct stimulation of SO smooth muscle with KCl were not significantly affected by either atropine or botulinum toxin. In all rings exogenous acetylcholine induced contractions, which were totally blocked by atropine, but not by botulinum toxin. Electrical field stimulation induced contractions that were inhibited by both atropine and botulinum toxin. ?Conclusion—Botulinum toxin inhibits pig sphincter of Oddi smooth muscle contractions by a presynaptic cholinergic mechanism, similar to that described in skeletal muscle. ?? Keywords: sphincter of Oddi; botulinum toxin; pig; ex vivo

Sand, J; Nordback, I; Arvola, P; Porsti, I; Kalloo, A; Pasricha, P



Chemokine upregulation in response to anal sphincter and pudendal nerve injury: potential signals for stem cell homing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Stromal derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and monocyte chemotactic protein-3 (MCP-3) are signals forcing the migration of bone marrow-derived\\u000a stem cells to ischemic tissue. This study investigates SDF-1 and MCP-3 expression following direct injury to the anal sphincter\\u000a and pudendal nerve and to determine if these same mechanisms have any role.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Chemokine expression was studied after anal sphincter injury in female rats

Levilester Salcedo; Nikolai Sopko; Hai-Hong Jiang; Margot Damaser; Marc Penn; Massarat Zutshi


Long-Term Outcome of Delayed Primary or Early Secondary Reconstruction of the Anal Sphincter after Obstetrical Injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Traditionally sphincter repair has not been performed during the puerperium. This prospective study was designed to determine\\u000a the long-term outcome of delayed primary or early secondary sphincteroplasty in the puerperium.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1991 and 2005, 22 females underwent delayed primary or early secondary repair after third-degree or fourth-degree\\u000a anal sphincter rupture. Delayed primary reconstruction was performed more than 72 hours after delivery.

Mette M. Soerensen; Karl M. Bek; Steen Buntzen; Karen-Elise Højberg; Søren Laurberg



Mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

A potential pivotal role for mitochondrial dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases is gaining increasing acceptance. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a number of deleterious consequences including impaired calcium buffering, generation of free radicals, activation of the mitochondrial permeability transition and secondary excitotoxicity. Neurodegenerative diseases of widely disparate genetic etiologies may share mitochondrial dysfunction as a final common pathway. Recent studies using cybrid

M. Flint Beal



Palliation of Pyloric Stenosis Caused by Gastric Cancer Using an Endoscopically Placed Covered Ultraflex Stent: Covered Stent Inside an Occluded Uncovered Stent  

SciTech Connect

A 71-year-old man developed pyloric stenosis caused by gastric cancer. Vomiting and nausea resolved after the insertion of an uncovered Ultraflex stent (length 10 cm, inner diameter 18u23 mm) through a 7-cm-long stenosis, and the patient was able to eat a soft diet. After 6 weeks, stent occlusion occurred due to tumor ingrowth and accumulation of food residue. Endoscopic observation showed a very narrow residual lumen. A covered Ultraflex stent (length 10 cm, inner diameter 18u23 mm) was inserted through the first stent and expanded to its maximum diameter over the next 2 days. The patient's vomiting and nausea improved rapidly. He died 6 months after the second stenting procedure, from metastatic tumor spread, having remained free of nausea and vomiting. In this case, a covered metallic stent prevented tumor ingrowth and maintained gastrointestinal patency.

Nakamura, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Mutsuo; Takehira, Yasunori; Yamada, Masami [Department of Gastroenterology, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8580 (Japan); Nishiwaki, Yoshiro [Department of Surgery, Hamamatsu Medical Center, 328 Tomitsuka-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 432-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Hirotoshi [Second Department of Internal Medicine, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 3600 Handa-cho, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192 (Japan)



Morphology and lectin-binding sites of pyloric caeca epithelium in normal and GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Linnaeus 1758.  


Mucosal epithelium of pyloric caeca was studied in normal and in GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus L., using morphological analysis, conventional and lectin glycohistochemistry. The lining epithelium consisted of columnar (absorptive) cells, goblet cells and intraepithelial leucocytes. The epithelium from normal animals was significantly taller than GnRH-treated samples. Conventional histochemistry displayed the same staining pattern in normal and hormone-treated specimens which showed a mixture of neutral and sulphated acidic glycoconjugates in the luminal surface and goblet cells, and neutral glycans in apical granules of enterocytes. Lectin histochemistry revealed a different glycoconjugate pattern in normal and GnRH-treated tunas. In normal specimens the luminal surface expressed sialoglycoconjugates which bound MAL II, SNA, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-SBA as well as asialoglycans stained with HPA, SBA, GSA I-B4 , LTA. N-linked glycans were highlighted by Con A and KOH-sialidase-WGA. In GnRH-treated tunas the luminal surface did not react with SNA, SBA and LTA. The columnar cells of normal tunas bound KOH-sialisase-PNA in the apical region, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, HPA, SBA, KOH-sialidase-SBA and KOH-sialidase-WGA in apical granules, GSA I-B? and LTA in the supranuclear region. GnRH-treated specimens showed some columnar cells that stained with KOH-sialidase-WGA in the apical granules and with GSA I-B4 in the supranuclear region. The goblet cells of normal animals produced mucins positive to PNA, HPA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, SBA, GSA II. The latter three binding sites lacked in GnRH-treated tunas. The results suggest that the mucosal epithelium of Thunnus thynnus L. pyloric caeca expresses a complex glycan pattern that is affected by GnRH-treatment. PMID:23939675

Zizza, Sara; Desantis, Salvatore



Morphology and lectin-binding sites of pyloric caeca epithelium in normal and GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) Linnaeus 1758.  


Mucosal epithelium of pyloric caeca was studied in normal and in GnRH-treated Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus L., using morphological analysis, conventional and lectin glycohistochemistry. The lining epithelium consisted of columnar (absorptive) cells, goblet cells and intraepithelial leucocytes. The epithelium from normal animals was significantly taller than GnRH-treated samples. Conventional histochemistry displayed the same staining pattern in normal and hormone-treated specimens which showed a mixture of neutral and sulphated acidic glycoconjugates in the luminal surface and goblet cells, and neutral glycans in apical granules of enterocytes. Lectin histochemistry revealed a different glycoconjugate pattern in normal and GnRH-treated tunas. In normal specimens the luminal surface expressed sialoglycoconjugates which bound MAL II, SNA, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-SBA as well as asialoglycans stained with HPA, SBA, GSA I-B(4), LTA. N-linked glycans were highlighted by Con A and KOH-sialidase-WGA. In GnRH-treated tunas the luminal surface did not react with SNA, SBA and LTA. The columnar cells of normal tunas bound KOH-sialisase-PNA in the apical region, KOH-sialidase-PNA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, HPA, SBA, KOH-sialidase-SBA and KOH-sialidase-WGA in apical granules, GSA I-B(4) and LTA in the supranuclear region. GnRH-treated specimens showed some columnar cells that stained with KOH-sialidase-WGA in the apical granules and with GSA I-B(4) in the supranuclear region. The goblet cells of normal animals produced mucins positive to PNA, HPA, KOH-sialidase-DBA, SBA, GSA II. The latter three binding sites lacked in GnRH-treated tunas. The results suggest that the mucosal epithelium of Thunnus thynnus L. pyloric caeca expresses a complex glycan pattern that is affected by GnRH-treatment. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21165985

Zizza, Sara; Desantis, Salvatore



[Sphincter preservation in rectal cancer: possibilities and limits of anterior resection].  


The feasibility of sphincter preservation was studied in surgery of tumours in the upper, middle and lower third of the rectum. All patients operated on for rectal cancer between January 1977 and May 1980 were included in the investigation. Preoperative localization of the tumours was performed with the rigid sigmoidoscope. Every patient was scheduled for post-operative follow up. Altogether 211 patients were operated on for rectal cancer. 111 were treated by anterior resection, 90 by abdominoperineal excision, and 10 by other sphincter-saving methods. All of the 59 tumours located in the upper third of the rectum (12 to 16 cm from the anus) were treated by anterior resection. 62 tumours were located in the middle third (8 to 12 cm). In these cases anterior resection was carried out in 60% of the men and in 82% of the women, whereas the other patients underwent abdominoperineal excision. 80 tumours were located in the lower third (4 to 8 cm). Anterior resection was possible in only 4.4% of the men and in 14% of the women. Irrespective of their localization on sigmoidoscopy, 37% of the tumours which were within reach of the finger on rectal palpation could be removed by anterior resection. Local recurrence after anterior resection occurred in 18.3%, the median follow-up time being 50 months. The cumulative probable survival for all stages was more than 5 years for 60% of the patients. PMID:6673368

Schiessel, R; Wunderlich, M; Kovats, E; Rauhs, R



LINX(™) Reflux Management System: magnetic sphincter augmentation in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease.  


Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), commonly manifested by heartburn or regurgitation, is a chronic, progressive condition in which failed sphincter function allows the contents of the stomach to reflux into the esophagus, the airways and the mouth. Chronic GERD affects 10% of Western society. The majority of patients receive adequate relief from proton pump inhibitors, but up to 40% have incomplete relief of symptoms that cannot be addressed by increasing the dose of medications. The laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication is the surgical gold standard; however, the level of technical difficulty and its side effects have limited its use to less than 1% of the GERD population. These factors have contributed to the propensity of patients to persist with medical therapy, even when inadequate to control symptoms and complications of the disease. Consequently, a significant gap in the treatment continuum for GERD remains evident in current clinical practice. The LINX(™) Reflux Management System (Torax Medical) is designed to provide a permanent solution to GERD by augmenting the physiologic function of the sphincter barrier with a simple and reproducible laparoscopic procedure that does not alter gastric anatomy and can be easily reversed if necessary. PMID:23237251

Bonavina, Luigi; DeMeester, Tom R; Ganz, Robert A



Electromagnetic assessment of embedded micro antenna for a novel sphincter in the human body.  


This paper presents a wireless, miniaturized, bi-directional telemetric artificial anal sphincter system that can be used for controlling patients' anal incontinence. The artificial anal sphincter system is mainly composed of an executive mechanism, a wireless power supply system and a wireless communication system. The wireless communication system consists of an internal RF transceiver, an internal RF antenna, a data transmission pathway, an external RF antenna and an external RF control transceiver. A micro NMHA (Normal Mode Helical Antenna) has been used for the transceiver of the internal wireless communication system and a quarter wave-length whip antenna of 7.75 cm has been used for the external wireless communication system. The RF carrier frequency of wireless communication is located in a license-free 433.1 MHz ISM (Industry, Science, and Medical) band. The radiation characteristics and SAR (Specific Absorption Rate) are evaluated using the finite difference time-domain method and 3D human body model. Results show that the SAR values of the antenna satisfy the ICNIRP (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection) limitations. PMID:23706019

Zan, Peng; Liu, Jinding; Ai, Yutao; Jiang, Enyu



Automatic localisation of innervation zones: a simulation study of the external anal sphincter.  


Traumas of the innervation zone (IZ) of the external anal sphincter (EAS), e.g. during delivery, can promote the development of faecal incontinence. Recently developed probes allow high-resolution detection of EMG signals from the EAS. The analysis of pelvic floor muscles by surface EMG (in particular, the estimation of the location of the IZ) has potential applications in the diagnosis and investigation of the mechanisms of incontinence. An automatic method (based on matched filter approach) for the estimation of the IZ distribution of EAS from surface EMG is discussed and tested using an analytical model of generation of EMG signals from sphincter muscles. Simulations are performed varying length of the fibres, thickness of the mucosa, position of the motor units, and force level. Different distributions of IZs are simulated. The performance of the proposed method in the estimation of the IZ distribution is affected by surface MUAP amplitude (as the estimation made by visual inspection), by mucosa thickness (performance decreases when fibre length is higher) and by different MU distributions. However, in general the method is able to identify the position of two IZ locations and can measure asymmetry of the IZ distribution. This strengthens the potential applications of high density surface EMG in the prevention and investigation of incontinence. PMID:19269857

Mesin, Luca; Gazzoni, Marco; Merletti, Roberto



Impact of pregnancy and parturition on the anal sphincters and pelvic floor.  


Incontinence and defecatory difficulties are commonly reported among women and are often ascribed to traumas sustained during childbirth. Specifically, injuries to the anal sphincters (tears) and conformational changes in the various structures that comprise the pelvic floor (prolapse and perineal descent) have been considered as important contributors to the development of anal incontinence, or difficult defaecation (straining, incomplete evacuation), in later life. An understanding of both the effects of pregnancy and parturition on these structures and the natural history of any traumas sustained are, therefore, of key importance. Unfortunately, the literature on these issues, though vast, is far from complete. While it is evident that pregnancy, per se, imposes changes, primarily through hormonal influences, on colonic, ano-rectal and pelvic floor physiology, the long-term impact of such effects is far from clear. Risk factors for the occurrence of significant, though often occult, anal sphincter injuries during birth have been identified and the role of these tears in the etiology of post-partum incontinence has been well delineated. In contrast, the contribution of such intra-partum events to the later onset of incontinence is far from clear and may well have been over-estimated. PMID:17889813

Quigley, Eamonn M M



Neural pathways of somatic and visceral reflexes of the external urethral sphincter in female rats.  


The external urethral sphincter (EUS) plays a crucial role in maintaining urinary continence. The activity of the EUS is modulated by bladder and urethra sensory neurons. However, a complete understanding of the somatic or visceral sources that modulate the EUS is lacking. The aims of the present study were to characterize the response of the EUS to perineal skin, genital, rectal, and urethral mechanical stimulation, as well as to determine the peripheral neural pathways of the reflex. EUS reflex electromyographic activity (EMG), innervation of pelvic and perineal structures, and the anatomy of afferent and efferent nerves were determined in anesthetized female rats. The EUS responds to cutaneous as well as genital and rectal stimuli. However, the EUS EMG response is significantly larger when induced by genital stimulation. The dorsal nerve of the clitoris and the cavernous nerve both innervate the distal urethra and the distal vagina, as well as the clitoris and perigenital skin and are the main afferent pathways for the genito-sphincteric reflex. Efferent axons travel through the pudendal nerve and the lumbosacral trunk and converge in the motor branch of the lumbosacral plexus, which innervates the EUS. Because the nerves are located on the vaginal walls, they are susceptible to damage during childbirth. Physiology and anatomy of the different neural pathways that regulate EUS activity are important to consider when inducing nerve damage to create models of urinary incontinence. PMID:22886730

Pastelín, C F; Juárez, R; Damaser, M S; Cruz, Y



Effects of various selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on relaxation and cyclic nucleotide contents in porcine iris sphincter.  


The effects of various selective phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors on muscle contractility and cyclic nucleotide contents in porcine iris sphincter were investigated. Forskolin and sodium nitroprusside inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Various selective PDE inhibitors, vinpocetine (type 1), erythro -9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA, type 2), milrinone (type 3), Ro20-1724 (type 4) and zaprinast (type 5), also inhibited CCh-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. The rank order of potency of IC(50) was zaprinast > Ro20-1724 > EHNA >/= milrinone > vinpocetine. In the presence of CCh (0.3 muM), vinpocetine, milrinone and Ro20-1724 increased cAMP, but not cGMP, contents. In contrast, zaprinast and EHNA both increased cGMP, but not cAMP, contents. This indicates that vinpocetine-, milrinone- and Ro20-1724-induced relaxation is correlated with cAMP, while EHNA- and zaprinast- induced relaxation is correlated with cGMP in porcine iris sphincter. PMID:19959894

YOGO, Takuya; KANEDA, Takeharu; NEZU, Yoshinori; HARADA, Yasuji; HARA, Yasushi; TAGAWA, Masahiro; URAKAWA, Norimoto; SHIMIZU, Kazumasa



Manometry of the Normal Upper Esophageal Sphincter and its Alterations in Laryngectomy  

PubMed Central

Rapid pull-through pressure profiles of the normal human upper esophageal sphincter (UES) were simultaneously studied with a conventional three-orifice Honeywell solid-state probe, an eight lumen radially perfused (RP) probe, and a circumferentially sensitive (CS) probe designed to measure UES pressure (UESP) without regard to probe orientation. Pressure curves were digitized and analyzed by computer. The Honeywell probe recorded significantly lower peak pressures than the other two methods, and had wide intrasubject pressure variations (average coefficient of variation, 53%). In contrast, UESP measured with the CS probe was constant for each subject (mean peak UESP, 121 mm Hg; average coefficient of variation, 15%). Anteroposterior RP probe UESP were identical to CS probe pressures. Thus, peak perfused anteroposterior UESP correlates with circumferentially measured sphincter squeeze. Computer programs were written that allowed RP probe pressures to be mapped in three dimensions. Normal three-dimensional maps were characterized by anteroposterior accentuation of peak pressures and also by consistent axial asymmetry with anterior peak pressures occurring 0.8±0.2 cm closer to the pharynx. After defining the normal two- and three-dimensional UESP configuration, patients who had undergone laryngectomy were studied. Peak pressures measured with the RP probe decreased to ?50 mm Hg and radial pressure asymmetry vanished. Like normals, CS probe pressures corresponded to peak RP probe pressures. UES length did not change significantly. Three-dimensional mapping showed that axial asymmetry also vanished. It therefore appears that the anatomic alterations produced by laryngectomy abolishes UESP asymmetry. Images

Welch, Richard W.; Luckmann, Kenneth; Ricks, Phillip M.; Drake, Samuel T.; Gates, George A.



Anorectal atresia treated with non-continent pull through and artificial bowel sphincter: a case report.  


Anorectal atresia, which is classified as a low anorectal malformation, is characterised by the absence of the anal verge and by variable rectal atresia. In some cases, which have been classified as rectal agenesis, the atresia is associated with the absence of the internal sphincter. The therapeutic options are definitely surgical, aiming to relieve the bowel occlusion and to restore faecal continence by lowering the cul-de-sac to the perineum. We present the case of an adult patient with congenital rectal agenesis, double fistula (cul-de-sac-urethra and cul-de-sac-perineum) and caecostomy since birth. The patient was treated with a resection of sigmoid-rectum for the presence of a 20-cm faecaloma in the cul-de-sac, with a non-continent pull-through, and with implantation of an artificial bowel sphincter. Despite some difficulties in managing the device and a slight symptomatic mucosal prolapse, the results after 30 months have so far satisfied both the patient and the medical staff, especially in consideration of the limited number of alternative therapies. PMID:15868499

Bracale, U; Nastro, P; Beral, D L; Romano, G; Renda, A



Mitochondrial dysfunction and glaucoma.  


Glaucoma is increasingly recognized as a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the accelerated loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons. Open angle glaucoma prevalence and incidence increase exponentially with increasing age, yet the pathophysiology underlying increasing age as a risk factor for glaucoma is not well understood. Accumulating evidence points to age-related mitochondrial dysfunction playing a key role in the etiology of other neurodegenerative disorders including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. The 2 major functions of mitochondria are the generation of ATP through oxidative phosphorylation and the regulation of cell death by apoptosis. This review details evidence to support our hypothesis that age-associated mitochondrial dysfunction renders RGCs susceptible to glaucomatous injury by reducing the energy available for repair processes and predisposing RGCs to apoptosis. Eliciting the role of mitochondria in glaucoma pathogenesis may uncover novel therapeutic targets for protecting the optic nerve and preventing vision loss in glaucoma. PMID:19225343

Kong, George Y X; Van Bergen, Nicole J; Trounce, Ian A; Crowston, Jonathan G



Curing erectile dysfunction: Pro  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the hypothesis that sildenafil daily for 1 year can cure vascular erectile dysfunction (ED). In a prospective,\\u000a randomized controlled trial, patients were assigned to two groups: group I, 50 mg of sildenafil daily at bedtime; group II,\\u000a 50 to 100 mg of sildenafil on demand. The primary efficacy measures were International Index of Erectile Function domain score

Frank Sommer



Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The focus of this book is men and their sexual function and dysfunction, however, many women will also develop some degree\\u000a of sexual health problems concerned with sexual desire, arousal, orgasm, and\\/or pain. The goal is to make relevant evidence-based\\u000a clinical information to help identify and treat specific biologically based pathophysiologies available to the motivated health\\u000a care professional. The prevalence

Irwin Goldstein


Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a complex set of conditions associated with multiple anatomical, physiological, biological,\\u000a medical, and psychological factors. It can be age-related and appears to be highly prevalent, affecting 20 to 50% of women\\u000a (1). Data from the National Health and Social Life Survey (NHSLS), a large representative sample of US women, reported that\\u000a one-third of women experienced

Ridwan Shabsigh; Anne R. Davis; Aristotelis G. Anastasiadis; Nawras Makhsida; Grace Yan


Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy- specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.

El Baba, Khalid A; Azar, Sami T



The potential of hormones and selective oestrogen receptor modulators in preventing voiding dysfunction in rats  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE To investigate whether oestrogen, selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and growth hormone (GH) can prevent the development of voiding dysfunction in a postpartum postmenopausal rat model of voiding dysfunction. MATERIALS AND METHODS Immediately after spontaneous delivery, nine primiparous Sprague-Dawley rats served as uninjured controls (sham group) and 54 underwent intravaginal balloon dilation. On day 7, the 54 subject rats underwent bilateral ovariectomy. A week later, six treatment groups of nine rats were randomized to receive: normal saline (injured control group), 17?-oestradiol (E2), raloxifene, levormeloxifene, GH, or GH + E2. The treatment groups received daily subcutaneous injections for 3 weeks. The effects of hormone treatment were examined by conscious cystometry at the end of the study. Voiding dysfunction was defined to include overactive bladder and sphincter deficiency. RESULTS The sham rats had a mean (SD) voiding frequency of 3 (0.87) times in 10 min and a bladder capacity of 0.43 (0.13) mL with smooth cystometry curves. The number of rats in each treatment group (each group contained nine rats) that had voiding dysfunction was as follows: E2, three; raloxifene, six; levormeloxifene, four; and controls, four (P > 0.05 among the groups). Only one rat in the GH-treated group and no rats in the GH + E2-treated group had voiding dysfunction, which was significantly less in the GH + E2-treated group than in the controls (P = 0.041). CONCLUSION This functional data suggest that the development of voiding dysfunction can be prevented by short-term administration of GH and GH + E2 in our rat model. SERMs and E2 alone seem to have no therapeutic effect.

Tantiwongse, Kavirach; Fandel, Thomas M.; Wang, Guifang; Breyer, Benjamin N.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Bella, Anthony J.; Lue, Tom F.



Artificial Urinary Sphincter in Patients Following Major Pelvic Surgery and\\/or Radiotherapy: Are They Less Favorable Candidates?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Between January 1988 and December 1992 the AMS800**American Medical Systems, Minnetonka, Minnesota. artificial urinary sphincter was inserted in 81 men with urinary incontinence due to major pelvic surgery and\\/or radiation therapy. Radical retropubic prostatectomy had been performed in 38 men, radical retropubic prostatectomy with adjuvant radiation in 28, definitive radiation therapy for prostatic carcinoma in 5, abdominoperineal resection with adjuvant

Francisco E. Martins; Stuart D. Boyd



Effects of electrical stimulation of the thoracic spinal cord on bladder and external urethral sphincter activity in the decerebrate cat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord above the sacral segments was used to produce coordinated micturition in the paralysed decerebrate cat. Stimulation of the superficial aspect of the dorsolateral funiculus (DLF) within the lower thoracic (T9-T13) segments produced a bladder contraction coordinated with decreased activity in the external urethral sphincter (EUS) branch of the pudendal nerve during which time fluid

B. Fedirchuk; S. J. Shefchyk



GABA receptors in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus influence feline lower esophageal sphincter and gastric function  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) antagonist (bicuculline methiodide, BIC; picrotoxin, PIC) or agonist (muscimol, MUS) microinjections were made into the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (DMV), and effects on lower esophageal sphincter pressure (LESP), gastric motility, and gastric acid secretion were determined in chloralose-anesthetized cats. Right or left DMV sites were microinjected with BIC, PIC, MUS, or isotonic saline (140

Robert J. Washabau; Melinda Fudge; William J. Price; Frank C. Barone



Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy causing proctalgia fugax and constipation: further clinical and histological characterization in a patient.  


Hereditary internal anal sphincter myopathy is a very rare condition, only three families have so far been described in the literature. In this case report further clinical and histological findings of one affected member of one of the above families are presented. PMID:10656223

König, P; Ambrose, N S; Scott, N



Absence of effect of nicotine on rectal sensation, rectal compliance, and anal sphincter pressures in healthy subjects.  


We examined the effect of nicotine on rectal sensation, rectal compliance, and anorectal sphincter function in healthy volunteers. Eleven healthy (ex-smoker) subjects were randomized in a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study of 12 mg nicotine-containing chewing gum. All treatment periods (nicotine or placebo chewing gum) were preceded by a control period without chewing gum. Crossover study was done after a washout period of more than seven days. The following measurements were made: highest anorectal sphincter tone, highest anorectal sphincter squeeze tone, percentage relaxation of the anorectal sphincter with rectal balloon distension, threshold of rectal sensation, maximal tolerable volume of air inflation of a rectal balloon, and rectal compliance. There was no significant difference in the two control periods. Chewing placebo gum had no significant effect on any of the measurements when compared with control. Compared with placebo, nicotine did not significantly affect on any of the measurements. We conclude that neither nicotine nor the sham-feeding effect of chewing placebo gum appear to have any effect on anorectal sensorimotor function or on rectal compliance in healthy ex-smokers. PMID:7587796

Kavin, H; Shivley, S



Human amniotic fluid stem cell injection therapy for urethral sphincter regeneration in an animal model  

PubMed Central

Background Stem cell injection therapies have been proposed to overcome the limited efficacy and adverse reactions of bulking agents. However, most have significant limitations, including painful procurement, requirement for anesthesia, donor site infection and a frequently low cell yield. Recently, human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) have been proposed as an ideal cell therapy source. In this study, we investigated whether periurethral injection of hAFSCs can restore urethral sphincter competency in a mouse model. Methods Amniotic fluids were collected and harvested cells were analyzed for stem cell characteristics and in vitro myogenic differentiation potency. Mice underwent bilateral pudendal nerve transection to generate a stress urinary incontinence (SUI) model and received either periurethral injection of hAFSCs, periurethral injection of Plasma-Lyte (control group), or underwent a sham (normal control group). For in vivo cell tracking, cells were labeled with silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles containing rhodamine B isothiocyanate (MNPs@SiO2 (RITC)) and were injected into the urethral sphincter region (n = 9). Signals were detected by optical imaging. Leak point pressure and closing pressure were recorded serially after injection. Tumorigenicity of hAFSCs was evaluated by implanting hAFSCs into the subcapsular space of the kidney, followed two weeks later by retrieval and histologic analysis. Results Flow activated cell sorting showed that hAFSCs expressed mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) markers, but no hematopoietic stem cell markers. Induction of myogenic differentiation in the hAFSCs resulted in expression of PAX7 and MYOD at Day 3, and DYSTROPHIN at Day 7. The nanoparticle-labeled hAFSCs could be tracked in vivo with optical imaging for up to 10 days after injection. Four weeks after injection, the mean LPP and CP were significantly increased in the hAFSC-injected group compared with the control group. Nerve regeneration and neuromuscular junction formation of injected hAFSCs in vivo was confirmed with expression of neuronal markers and acetylcholine receptor. Injection of hAFSCs caused no in vivo host CD8 lymphocyte aggregation or tumor formation. Conclusions hAFSCs displayed MSC characteristics and could differentiate into cells of myogenic lineage. Periurethral injection of hAFSCs into an SUI animal model restored the urethral sphincter to apparently normal histology and function, in absence of immunogenicity and tumorigenicity.



Outlet dysfunction constipation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a The diagnosis of outlet dysfunction constipation in patients with idiopathic constipation that responds poorly or not at all\\u000a to conservative measures, such as fiber supplements, fluids, and stimulant laxatives, is based upon diagnostic testing. These\\u000a tests include colonic transit of radio-opaque markers, anorectal manometry or electromyography, barium defecography, and expulsion\\u000a of a water-filled balloon. The literature suggests

Arnold Wald



Dysfunctional voiding in adults.  


Dysfunctional voiding is characterized by an intermittent and/or fluctuating flow rate due to involuntary intermittent contractions of the periurethral striated or levator muscles during voiding in neurologically normal women (International Continence Society definition). Due to the variable etiology, the diagnosis and treatment of DV is problematic. Frequently, the diagnosis is done at a late stage mainly due to non-specific symptoms and lack of awareness. The objectives of treatment are to normalize micturition patterns and prevent complications such as renal failure and recurrent infections. Treatment should be started as early as possible and a multidisciplinary approach is beneficial. PMID:23841248

Haifler, Miki; Stav, Kobi



Opioid-induced bowel dysfunction: pathophysiology and management.  


Opioids are the most commonly prescribed medications to treat severe pain in the Western world. It has been estimated that up to 90% of American patients presenting to specialized pain centres are treated with opioids. Along with their analgesic properties, opioids have the potential to produce substantial side effects, such as nausea, cognitive impairment, addiction and urinary retention. In the gut, opioids exert their action on the enteric nervous system, where they bind to the myenteric and submucosal plexuses, causing dysmotility, decreased fluid secretion and sphincter dysfunction, which all leads to opioid-induced bowel dysfunction (OIBD). In the clinic, this is reported as nausea, vomiting, gastro-oesophageal reflux-related symptoms, constipation, etc. One of the most severe symptoms is constipation, which can be assessed using different scales for subjective assessment. Objective methods such as radiography and colonic transit time can also be used, together with manometry and evaluation of anorectal function to explore the pathophysiology. Dose-limiting adverse symptoms of OIBD can lead to insufficient pain treatment. Even though several treatment strategies are available, the side effects are still a major challenge. Traditional laxatives are normally prescribed but they are often insufficient to alleviate symptoms, especially those from the upper gastrointestinal tract. Newer prokinetics, such as prucalopride and lubiprostone, may be more effective in alleviating OIBD. Another treatment approach is co-administration of opioid antagonists, which either cannot cross the blood-brain barrier or selectively target opioid receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. However, although these new agents have proved to be more efficacious than placebo, clinical trials still need to prove their superiority to standard co-prescribed laxative regimes. PMID:22950533

Brock, Christina; Olesen, Søren Schou; Olesen, Anne Estrup; Frøkjaer, Jens Brøndum; Andresen, Trine; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr



VACTERL Association and Mitochondrial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Summary BACKGROUND VACTERL association includes the presence of malformations affecting the vertebrae, anus, heart, trachea and esophagus, kidneys, and limbs. The causes remain largely unknown, but rare patients with mitochondrial dysfunction have been reported. Although clinical signs and symptoms consistent with possible mitochondrial disease are not uncommon in patients with VACTERL association, the necessary testing to confirm mitochondrial dysfunction is infrequently performed. METHODS We describe a patient with relatively classic signs of VACTERL association who had an onset of clinical signs of mitochondrial dysfunction at 13 months of age. These signs included progressive muscle weakness, autonomic dysregulation, episodic hypoglycemia, and exocrine pancreatic dysfunction. The patient was later shown to have evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction (cytochrome c oxidase deficiency). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal mitochondrial function may be associated with VACTERL association, and clinicians who encounter patients with VACTERL association should have a low threshold for considering mitochondrial dysfunction.

Solomon, Benjamin D.; Patel, Ankita; Cheung, Sau Wai; Pineda-Alvarez1, Daniel E.



Disturbed Colonic Motility Contributes to Anorectal Symptoms and Dysfunction After Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT. Results: Whole and distal colonic transit increased 1 month after RT, with faster distal colonic transit only persisting at 1 year. Frequency and urgency of defecation, fecal incontinence, and rectal bleeding increased 1 month after RT and persisted at 1 year. Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Rectal compliance decreased progressively in the patients, although no changes in anorectal sensory function ensued. Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters. Distal colonic retention was weakly related to rectal compliance at 1 month, but both faster colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance were more frequent with increased fecal urgency. At 1 year, a weak inverse relationship existed between colonic half-clearance time and frequency of defecation, although both faster whole-colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance occurred more often with increased stool frequency. Conclusion: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate. This has implications for improving the management of anorectal radiation sequelae.

Yeoh, Eric K., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Bartholomeusz, Dylan L. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Holloway, Richard H. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Fraser, Robert J. [Gastrointestinal Investigation Unit, Repatriation General Hospital, Daw Park, SA (Australia); Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Moore, James W. [Department of Colorectal Surgery, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Schoeman, Mark N. [Department of Gastroenterology, Royal Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide, SA (Australia)



Ventricular Dysfunction: Tachycardia induced Cardiomyopathy  

PubMed Central

Tachycardia induced cardiomyopathy (TIC) is defined as atrial or ventricular dysfunction as a result of prolonged elevated heart rate that is reversible upon control of the arrhythmia. There may be no underlying structural heart disease primarily responsible for the cardiac dysfunction. We present some examples of arrhythmias causing TIC and the resolution of the ventricular dysfunction following their appropriate management. Included in the review are also the pathophysiology, clinical spectrum, diagnosis and appropriate management of the condition.

Ramesh Iyer, V



The mechanism of action of bombesin on cat lower esophageal sphincter.  


The effect of bombesin on the tone and the responses of strips from the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) to field electrical stimulation (FES) (2 Hz, 0.2 ms, supramaximal current intensity, 20 s duration) was studied. Bombesin dose-dependently increased the LES tone. The threshold for this effect was 10(-14) M and was particularly pronounced with a concentration of 10(-8) M. The response reached maximum between the 3rd and the 5th min after application, persisted for 15-20 min, and was followed by a slight time-dependent decrease. Bombesin increased FES-produced relaxation of LES by 39% as compared to the control. The potentiating effect of bombesin on the LES relaxation was also observed after cholinergic and adrenergic receptor blockade. It is concluded that bombesin may modulate the release of cholinergic, adrenergic and noncholinergic, nonadrenergic inhibitory neurotransmitters. PMID:2217907

Kortesova, N I; Kimova, V S; Bagaev, V A; Papasova, M P



Reversal of lower esophageal sphincter hypotension and esophageal aperistalsis after treatment for hypothyroidism.  


A 65-year-old woman suffered from both chronic gastroesophageal reflux, which was complicated by columnar metaplasia (Barrett's epithelium), and profound hypothyroidism. An esophageal motility tracing showed absence of peristalsis in the lower esophagus and the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) could not be identified. Thyroid replacement therapy, in conjunction with antacid and cimetidine treatment, was associated not only with improvement in the gastroesophageal reflux symptoms, but also with a return of esophageal peristalsis and LES pressure to normal. To support our clinical observations, we rendered four cats hypothyroid with 131I and documented a fall in LES pressure. We propose that abnormal smooth-muscle function of the esophagus may be another manifestation of the gastrointestinal motility disturbances which are associated with hypothyroidism. PMID:7119407

Eastwood, G L; Braverman, L E; White, E M; Vander Salm, T J



Mechanisms of lower oesophageal sphincter incompetence in patients with symptomatic gastrooesophageal reflux.  

PubMed Central

Patterns of lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) function associated with the onset of 644 reflux episodes were recorded and analysed in 67 patients referred for evaluation of gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR). Patients were studied recumbent, for one hour before and four hours after a standard meal. Transient LOS relaxation was the most prevalent mechanism and overall accounted for 82% of reflux episodes. With increasing severity of oesophagitis, absent basal LOS pressure became a progressively more common mechanism, accounting for 23% of episodes in the patients with severe oesophagitis. Patients commonly exhibited more than one mechanism. The timing of most (69%) LOS relaxations associated with reflux was not compatible with triggering by swallowing. Prolonged transient LOS relaxations were associated with inhibition of oesophageal peristalsis suggesting that this response is produced by neural inhibition. This study suggests the primary importance of transient LOS relaxations as the cause of GOR across the spectrum of severity of reflux disease.

Dent, J; Holloway, R H; Toouli, J; Dodds, W J



Investigation of the distribution and function of ?-adrenoceptors in the sheep isolated internal anal sphincter  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We have investigated the distribution of ?-adrenoceptors in sheep internal anal sphincter (IAS), as a model for the human tissue, and evaluated various imidazoline derivatives for potential treatment of faecal incontinence. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Saturation and competition binding with 3H-prazosin and 3H-RX821002 were used to confirm the presence and density of ?-adrenoceptors in sheep IAS, and the affinity of imidazoline compounds at these receptors. A combination of in vitro receptor autoradiography and immunohistochemistry was used to investigate the regional distribution of binding sites. Contractile activity of imidazoline-based compounds on sheep IAS was assessed by isometric tension recording. KEY RESULTS Saturation binding confirmed the presence of both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors, and subsequent characterization with sub-type-selective agents, identified them as ?1A- and ?2D-adrenoceptor sub-types. Autoradiographic studies with 3H-prazosin showed a positive association of ?1-adrenoceptors with immunohistochemically identified smooth muscle fibres. Anti-?1-adrenoceptor immunohistochemistry revealed similar distributions of the receptor in sheep and human IAS. The imidazoline compounds caused concentration-dependent contractions of the anal sphincter, but the maximum responses were less than those elicited by l-erythro-methoxamine, a standard non-imidazoline ?1-adrenoceptor agonist. Prazosin (selective ?1-adrenoceptor antagonist) significantly reduced the magnitude of contraction to l-erythro-methoxamine at the highest concentration used. Both prazosin and RX811059 (a selective ?2-adrenoceptor antagonist) reduced the potency (pEC50) of clonidine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS This study shows that both ?1- and ?2-adrenoceptors are expressed in the sheep IAS, and contribute (perhaps synergistically) to contractions elicited by various imidazoline derivatives. These agents may prove useful in the treatment of faecal incontinence.

Rayment, SJ; Eames, T; Simpson, JAD; Dashwood, MR; Henry, Y; Gruss, H; Acheson, AG; Scholefield, JH; Wilson, VG



GABAB receptor-mediated effects on vagal pathways to the lower oesophageal sphincter and heart  

PubMed Central

GABAB receptors influencing vagal pathways to the lower oesophageal sphincter and heart were investigated. In urethane-anaesthetized ferrets, the GABAB agonist baclofen (7??mol?kg?1 i.v.) increased basal lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) pressure. This was reversed by antagonism with CGP35348 (100??mol?kg?1 i.v.). Baclofen's effect was abolished by vagotomy, suggesting a central action, yet it was ineffective when given centrally (3–6?nmol i.c.v.). Peripheral vagal stimulation (10?Hz, 5?s duration) caused LOS inhibition, followed by excitation, then prolonged inhibition. Bradycardia was also evoked during stimulation. Bradycardia and LOS responses were abolished after chronic supranodose vagotomy, indicating that they were due to stimulation of vagal pre-ganglionic neurones, not antidromic stimulation of afferents. Baclofen (1–10??mol?kg?1) reduced bradycardia and enhanced LOS excitation, which was also seen in animals pretreated with atropine (400??g?kg?1 i.v.) and guanethidine (5?mg?kg?1 i.v.), but not in those pretreated with L-NAME (100?mg?kg?1 i.v.). Effects of baclofen (7??mol?kg?1 i.v.) on vagal stimulation-induced LOS and cardiac responses were unchanged by the GABAB antagonists CGP35348 or CGP36742 (up to 112??mol?kg?1 i.v.), but were reversed by CGP62349 (ED50 37?nmol?kg?1 i.v.) or CGP54626 (ED50 100?nmol?kg?1 i.v.). Responses of isolated LOS strips to electrical stimulation, capsaicin, NK-1, NK-2 and nicotinic receptor agonists were all unaffected by baclofen (?200???M). We conclude that baclofen reduces vagal output at two peripheral sites: one presynaptically on pre-ganglionic neurones (CGP35348-insensitive), and another (CGP35348-sensitive) that could not be identified. This demonstrates heterogeneity of GABAB receptors through differential sensitivity to antagonists.

Blackshaw, L Ashley; Smid, Scott D; O'Donnell, Tracey A; Dent, John



Manometry of the normal upper esophageal sphincter and its alterations in laryngectomy.  


Rapid pull-through pressure profiles of the normal human upper esophageal sphincter (UES) were simultaneously studied with a conventional three-orifice Honeywell solid-state probe, an eight lumen radially perfused (RP) probe, and a circumferentially sensitive (CS) probe designed to measure UES pressure (UESP) without regard to probe orientation. Pressure curves were digitized and analyzed by computer. The Honeywell probe recorded significantly lower peak pressures than the other two methods, and had wide intrasubject pressure variations (average coefficient of variation, 53%). In contrast, UESP measured with the CS probe was constant for each subject (mean peak UESP, 121 mm Hg; average coefficient of variation, 15%). Anteroposterior RP probe UESP were identical to CS probe pressures. Thus, peak perfused anteroposterior UESP correlates with circumferentially measured sphincter squeeze.Computer programs were written that allowed RP probe pressures to be mapped in three dimensions. Normal three-dimensional maps were characterized by anteroposterior accentuation of peak pressures and also by consistent axial asymmetry with anterior peak pressures occurring 0.8+/-0.2 cm closer to the pharynx. After defining the normal two- and three-dimensional UESP configuration, patients who had undergone laryngectomy were studied. Peak pressures measured with the RP probe decreased to congruent with50 mm Hg and radial pressure asymmetry vanished. Like normals, CS probe pressures corresponded to peak RP probe pressures. UES length did not change significantly. Three-dimensional mapping showed that axial asymmetry also vanished. It therefore appears that the anatomic alterations produced by laryngectomy abolishes UESP asymmetry. PMID:447825

Welch, R W; Luckmann, K; Ricks, P M; Drake, S T; Gates, G A



Urethral sphincter EMG-controlled dorsal penile/clitoral nerve stimulation to treat neurogenic detrusor overactivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The goal of this study was to investigate whether real-time external urethral sphincter (EUS) EMG-controlled dorsal genital nerve (DGN) stimulation can suppress undesired detrusor bladder contractions in patients with both neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) and detrusor sphincter dyssynergia (DSD). Detrusor pressure (Pdet) and EUS EMG were recorded in 12 neurogenic patients who underwent two filling cystometries. The first one was without stimulation and was intended to confirm the NDO and DSD and to set the EMG detection threshold. The second one was with real-time EMG-controlled stimulation of DGNs. Two detection methods were analyzed to detect bladder contractions. The first method was a Kurtosis-scaled root mean square (RMS) detector and was used on-line. The second was a simple RMS detector and was used off-line. Of 12 patients included, 10 patients showed both NDO and DSD. In nine of these ten patients relevant EMG concomitant to detrusor activity was detected and stimulation could suppress at least one detrusor contraction. The second filling compared to the first one showed an increase of 84% in bladder capacity (p = 0.002) and a decrease of 106% in Pdet (p = 0.002). Nine false-positive detections occurred during the ten fillings with electrical stimulation. The mean increases of both time and Pdet between stimulation and bladder contraction onsets for method 1 were 1.8 s and 4 cmH2O and for method 2 were 0.9 s and 2 cmH2O, respectively. This study shows that EUS EMG can be used in real time to detect the onset of a bladder contraction. In combination with DGN stimulation has been shown to be feasible to suppress undesired bladder contractions and in turn to increase bladder capacity in subjects with both NDO and DSD.

Opisso, E.; Borau, A.; Rijkhoff, N. J. M.



Managing female sexual dysfunction.  


Female sexual dysfunctions (FSDs) range from short-term aggravations to major emotional disturbances adversely affecting family and workplace. This review highlights diagnosis and management of the four most widely diagnosed FSDs. It initially focuses on hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) as a driving force at the heart of all other FSDs; nothing happens without sexual desire. Successful resolution of HSDD frequently facilitates resolution of other disorders. Central to understanding HSDD is the impact of aging female sexual endocrinology and its effect on both prevalence and expression patterns of FSD. Advances in this field have enabled introduction of some the most effective treatments yet described for HSDD. Sexual arousal disorder, though commonly affected by the same factors as HSDD, is heavily associated with psychotropic drugs and mood elevators. Orgasmic disorder is frequently the downstream result of other sexual dysfunctions, particularly HSDD, or the result of a major psychosexual trauma. Successful management of the underlying disorder often resolves orgasmic disorder. Sexual pain disorder is frequently the result of a gynecologic disorder, such as endometriosis, that can be substantially managed through successful treatment of that disorder. This article ends with the article's most important note: how to initiate the conversation. PMID:24074537

Buster, John E



Mitochondrial dysfunction during sepsis.  


Sepsis and multiple organ failure remain leading causes of death in intensive care patients. Recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of these syndromes include a likely prominent role for mitochondria. Patient studies have shown that the degree of mitochondrial dysfunction is related to the eventual outcome. Associated mechanisms include damage to mitochondria or inhibition of the electron transport chain enzymes by nitric oxide and other reactive oxygen species (the effects of which are amplified by co-existing tissue hypoxia), hormonal influences that decrease mitochondrial activity, and downregulation of mitochondrial protein expression. Notably, despite these findings, there is minimal cell death seen in most affected organs, and these organs generally regain reasonably normal function should the patient survive. It is thus plausible that multiple organ failure following sepsis may actually represent an adaptive state whereby the organs temporarily 'shut down' their normal metabolic functions in order to protect themselves from an overwhelming and prolonged insult. A decrease in energy supply due to mitochondrial inhibition or injury may trigger this hibernation/estivation-like state. Likewise, organ recovery may depend on restoration of normal mitochondrial respiration. Data from animal studies show histological recovery of mitochondria after a septic insult that precedes clinical improvement. Stimulation of mitochondrial biogenesis could offer a new therapeutic approach for patients in multi-organ failure. This review will cover basic aspects of mitochondrial function, mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction in sepsis, and approaches to prevent, mitigate or speed recovery from mitochondrial injury. PMID:20509844

Azevedo, Luciano Cesar Pontes



The discrete nature and distinguishing molecular features of pancreatic intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the gastric type, pyloric gland variant.  


Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasms (ITPNs) are composed of tubulopapillary glands with high-grade dysplasia in the pancreatic duct. Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the gastric type, pyloric gland variant (IPMN-PGs) are composed of tubular glands mimicking pyloric glands with low-grade dysplasia and were formerly called intraductal tubular adenomas. Because of their apparent common tubular morphology, IPMN-PGs and ITPNs could be associated. While the former might progress to the latter, this has not been fully assessed. In this study, we compared the molecular features of ITPNs and IPMN-PGs to determine their association using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 14 ITPNs and 15 IPMN-PGs. Somatic mutations in PIK3CA, GNAS, KRAS, and BRAF were determined by Sanger sequencing. Expression of phosphorylated AKT was examined by immunohistochemistry. Somatic PIK3CA mutations were found in 3 of 14 ITPNs (21.4%) but in none of the IPMN-PGs (p = 0.0996). In contrast, GNAS mutations were found in none of the ITPNs but in 9 of 15 IPMN-PGs (60.0%; p < 0.001). KRAS mutations were detected in 1 of 14 ITPNs (7.1%) and 12 of 15 IPMN-PGs (80.0%; p < 0.001). BRAF mutation was found in one ITPN but in none of the IPMN-PGs. Phosphorylated AKT expression in ITPNs was significantly more evident than that in IPMN-PGs (p = 0.0401). These results indicate that ITPNs and IPMN-PGs are molecularly distinct, suggesting that IPMN-PG does not progress to ITPN. Furthermore, the molecular features of IPMN-PGs are confirmed to be identical to those of IPMNs reported elsewhere. These results validate the current World Health Organization system that classifies pancreatic intraductal neoplasms into IPMN and ITPN and confirm that IPMN-PG is not a benign counterpart of ITPN. The term 'intraductal tubular adenoma' should be eliminated and replaced with IPMN-PG. Copyright © 2013 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23893889

Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Kuboki, Yuko; Hatori, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Shimizu, Kyoko; Shiratori, Keiko; Shibata, Noriyuki; Shimizu, Michio; Furukawa, Toru



[The colonosphincterometrogram (CSMG). An original method of simultaneous study of the motility of the left colon and of the anal sphincters].  


Colonsphinctorometrography (CSMG) is a new, original method for the simultaneous investigation of the motility of the descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectosigmoid junction, rectum, and internal and external anal sphincters. A 60 cm open-ended tip sound with an external diameter of 10 mm is used. Three 3 cm long stimulating balloons are located at points 15 cm, 30 cm, and 50 cm along its length. A basal recording is taken for about 15 min with the patient absolutely at rest. The balloons are then inflated to measure the kinetic responses of colon and anal sphincters to stimuli of different volume. In addition to offering a pressure recording for the left colon and internal sphincter, the method also provides an EMG for the external sphincter and a pneumogram. PMID:7366870

Reboa, G; Giusto, F; Secco, G B; Terrizzi, A; Berti Riboli, E



Post-Prostatectomy incontinence and the Artificial Urinary Sphincter: A Long-Term Study of Patient Satisfaction and Criteria for Success  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeWe investigated patient satisfaction with the artificial urinary sphincter and established criteria for a successful outcome by inquiring about patient perceived satisfaction, continence achieved and comparison with the surgeon office records.

Scott E. Litwiller; Kap B. Kim; Patricia D. Fone; Ralph W. deVere White; Anthony R. Stone



Bladder Dysfunction and Vesicoureteral Reflux  

PubMed Central

In this overview the influence of functional bladder disturbances and of its treatment on the resolution of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is discussed. Historically both bladder dysfunction entities, the overactive bladder (OAB) and the dysfunctional voiding (DV), have been described in conjunction with VUR. Treatment of the dysfunction was also considered to influence spontaneous resolution in a positive way. During the last decades, however, papers have been published which could not support these results. Regarding the OAB, a prospective study with treatment of the bladder overactivity with anticholinergics, did not influence spontaneous resolution rate in children with a dysfunction including also the voiding phase, DV and DES (dysfunctional elimination syndrome), most studies indicate a negative influence on the resolution rate of VUR in children, both before and after the age for bladder control, both with and without treatment. However, a couple of uncontrolled studies indicate that there is a high short-term resolution rate after treatment with flow biofeedback. It should be emphasized that the voiding phase dysfunctions (DV and DES) are more severe than the genuine filling phase dysfunction (OAB), with an increased frequency of UTI and renal damage in the former groups. To be able to answer the question if treatment of bladder dysfunction influence the resolution rate of VUR in children, randomized controlled studies must be performed.

Sillen, Ulla



Working with Chronically Dysfunctional Families.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews family therapy with chronically dysfunctional families including the development of family therapy and current trends which appear to give little guidance toward working with severely dysfunctional families. A theoretical stance based upon the systems approach to family functioning and pathology is presented which suggests: (1)…

Younger, Robert; And Others


Hyperhomocysteinemia and Endothelial Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a significant and independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction (ED) is the earliest indicator of atherosclerosis and vascular diseases. We and others have shown that HHcy induced ED in human and in animal models of HHcy induced by either high-methionine load or genetic deficiency. Six mechanisms have been suggested explaining HHcy-induced ED. These include 1) nitric oxide inhibition, 2) prostanoids regulation, 3) endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factors suppression, 4) angiotensin II receptor-1 activation, 5) endothelin-1 induction, and 6) oxidative stress. The goal of this review is to elaborate these mechanisms and to discuss biological and molecular events related to HHcy-induced ED.

Cheng, Zhongjian; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong



Amiodarone and thyroid dysfunction.  


Amiodarone is a potent antiarrhythmic drug associated with thyroid dysfunction. Its high iodine content causes inhibition of 5'-deiodinase activity. Most patients remain euthyroid. Amiodarone-induced thyrotoxicosis (AIT) or amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism (AIH) may occur depending on the iodine status of individuals and prior thyroid disease. AIT is caused by excess iodine-induced thyroid hormone synthesis (type I AIT) or by destructive thyroiditis (type II AIT). If the medical condition allows it, discontinuation of the drug is recommended in type I AIT. Otherwise, large doses of thioamides are required. Type II AIT is treated with corticosteroids. Mixed cases require a combination of both drugs. Potassium perchlorate has been used to treat resistant cases of type I AIT but use is limited by toxicity. Thyroidectomy, plasmapheresis, lithium, and radioiodine are used in select cases of AIT. AIH is successfully treated with levothyroxine. Screening for thyroid disease before starting amiodarone and periodic monitoring of thyroid function tests are advocated. PMID:20689491

Padmanabhan, Hema



Investigation of erectile dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Erectile dysfunction (ED) represents a common and debilitating condition with a wide range of organic and non-organic causes. Physical aetiologies can be divided into disorders affecting arterial inflow, the venous occlusion mechanism or the penile structure itself. Various imaging modalities can be utilised to investigate the physical causes of ED, but penile Doppler sonography (PDS) is the most informative technique, indicated in those patients with ED who do not respond to oral pharmacological agents (e.g. phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). This review will examine the anatomical and physiological basis of penile erection, the method for performing PDS and features of specific causes of ED, and will also consider the alternative imaging modalities available.

Patel, D V; Halls, J; Patel, U



Dysfunctional uterine bleeding.  

PubMed Central

Abnormal uterine bleeding is a common, debilitating condition. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) is the diagnosis given to women with abnormal uterine bleeding in whom no clear etiology can be identified. DUB has been observed in both ovulatory and anovulatory cycles. Medical treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, oral contraceptive pills, progestins, danazol (a synthetic androgen), GnRH agonists, and antifibrinolytic drugs. The drawback to medical therapy, in addition to side effects, is that the benefit lasts only while the patient takes the medication. Surgical options have concentrated mainly on endometrial ablation and hysterectomy, and it is unclear whether one is superior to the other in terms of long-term outcome and patient satisfaction. Newer and less invasive ablation techniques, such as thermal balloon ablation, offer more treatment alternatives.

Chen, B H; Giudice, L C



Erectile Dysfunction Following Intravitreal Bevacizumab  

PubMed Central

Despite initial concerns regarding systemic complications, the use of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) agents for ocular disease is rapidly expanding worldwide, in terms of both the number of patients injected and its indications. To our knowledge, there are no cases in the literature reporting erectile dysfunction following the use of intravitreal bevacizumab. We postulate an organic mechanism for impaired erectile function due to systemically absorbed intravitreal bevacizumab. We describe a case of erectile dysfunction following intravitreal bevacizumab administration. Color fundus photos, fluorescein angiogram and optical coherence tomography images are presented. A 40-year-old male underwent intravitreal bevacizumab therapy for macular edema secondary to a branch retinal vein occlusion. He subsequently developed transient erectile dysfunction after each of his two bevacizumab injections. His only comorbidity was mild hypertension. Erectile dysfunction may be a side effect of intravitreal bevacizumab. The erectile dysfunction could be organic and/or psychogenic in etiology.

Yohendran, Jayshan; Chauhan, Devinder



Complications of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Role of the lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and duodenogastric reflux.  

PubMed Central

The factors contributing to the development of esophageal mucosal injury in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are unclear. The lower esophageal sphincter, esophageal acid and acid/alkaline exposure, and the presence of excessive duodenogastric reflux (DGR) was evaluated in 205 consecutive patients with GERD and various degrees of mucosal injury (no mucosal injury, n = 92; esophagitis, n = 66; stricture, n = 19; Barrett's esophagus, n = 28). Manometry and 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring showed that the prevalence and severity of esophageal mucosal injury was higher in patients with a mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter (p less than 0.01) or increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01) as compared with those with a normal sphincter or only increased esophageal acid exposure. Complications of GERD were particularly frequent and severe in patients who had a combination of a defective sphincter and increased esophageal acid/alkaline exposure (p less than 0.01). Combined esophageal and gastric pH monitoring showed that esophageal alkaline exposure was increased only in GERD patients with DGR (p less than 0.05) and that DGR was more frequent in GERD patients with a stricture or Barrett's esophagus. A mechanically defective lower esophageal sphincter and reflux of acid gastric juice contaminated with duodenal contents therefore appear to be the most important determinants for the development of mucosal injury in GERD. This explains why some patients fail medical therapy and supports the surgical reconstruction of the defective sphincter as the most effective therapy.

Stein, H J; Barlow, A P; DeMeester, T R; Hinder, R A



Does topical GTN on the sphincter of Oddi facilitate ERCP? A double-blind randomized control trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography (ERCP) is a technically challenging procedure. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) has been shown to reduce tone in the sphincter of Oddi (SO), cannulation of which is a rate-limiting factor. A double-blind randomized control trial was performed to assess whether topical GTN on the SO would facilitate cholangiography and\\/or bile duct cannulation. Methods: 104 patients requiring ERCP

A. Talwar; C. Dare; J. Pain



New evidence on the mechanisms underlying bradykinin-mediated contraction of the pig iris sphincter in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have reported previously that bradykinin (BK) induces potent and reproducible concentration-dependent contractions of the pig iris sphincter (PIS) muscle in vitro through the activation of BK B2 receptors. Here we attempted to investigate additional mechanisms by which BK induces contraction of the PIS in vitro. BK-mediated contraction of the PIS relied largely on the external Ca2+ influx by a

Mariem El Sayah; João B. Calixto



St. Mark’s incontinence score for assessment of anal incontinence following obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to assess the correlation between St. Mark’s incontinence score (SMIS) for anal incontinence and\\u000a impact on quality of life (QoL), following primary repair of obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS). Three hundred sixty-eight\\u000a women who sustained OASIS completed a Manchester Health Questionnaire (MHQ) and the clinician calculated a SMIS. Spearman’s\\u000a correlation coefficients were calculated, and

Anne-Marie Roos; Abdul H. Sultan; Ranee Thakar



[Does dysfunctional swallowing influence posture?].  


Swallowing is one of the first functions to be set up in utero for vital reasons. Physiological and psychic maturation then occur to lead from a dysfunctional to a functional state. Nevertheless, for certain individuals, maturation is incomplete, and swallowing remains dysfunctional. The clinical literature has already proven the incidence of a dental change of occlusion and the consequences of a lingual dysfunction upon posture. This work proposes to show that the posture can be affected by dysfunctional deglutition because of the lack of dental contacts during this function and because of the lingual dysfunction which characterizes it. We studied a population of 20 young adults, divided into two groups: a group of subjects presenting with a functional swallowing, and a group of subjects presenting with a dysfunctional swallowing. The experimental protocol includes four conditions: mandibular rest, cognitive task of articulation, functional swallowing, dysfunctional swallowing. Their effect on the posture is evaluated by means of a standardized stabilometric platform, and is supplemented by an electromyographic study of a manducator muscle (the masseter) and of a muscle of the cephalic posture (the sternocleidomastoid). The results show that swallowing would have the same postural effects as the cognitive task by increasing the postural oscillations and the energy spent by the postural system. Furthermore, the deglutition would have increased effects when it corresponds to a forced deglutition for the subject. PMID:18505674

Bocquet, Emmanuelle; Moreau, Alexis; Honoré, Jacques; Doual, Arlette



Understanding brain dysfunction in sepsis  

PubMed Central

Sepsis often is characterized by an acute brain dysfunction, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Its pathophysiology is highly complex, resulting from both inflammatory and noninflammatory processes, which may induce significant alterations in vulnerable areas of the brain. Important mechanisms include excessive microglial activation, impaired cerebral perfusion, blood–brain-barrier dysfunction, and altered neurotransmission. Systemic insults, such as prolonged inflammation, severe hypoxemia, and persistent hyperglycemia also may contribute to aggravate sepsis-induced brain dysfunction or injury. The diagnosis of brain dysfunction in sepsis relies essentially on neurological examination and neurological tests, such as EEG and neuroimaging. A brain MRI should be considered in case of persistent brain dysfunction after control of sepsis and exclusion of major confounding factors. Recent MRI studies suggest that septic shock can be associated with acute cerebrovascular lesions and white matter abnormalities. Currently, the management of brain dysfunction mainly consists of control of sepsis and prevention of all aggravating factors, including metabolic disturbances, drug overdoses, anticholinergic medications, withdrawal syndromes, and Wernicke’s encephalopathy. Modulation of microglial activation, prevention of blood–brain-barrier alterations, and use of antioxidants represent relevant therapeutic targets that may impact significantly on neurologic outcomes. In the future, investigations in patients with sepsis should be undertaken to reduce the duration of brain dysfunction and to study the impact of this reduction on important health outcomes, including functional and cognitive status in survivors.



Lack of nitrate tolerance in isosorbide dinitrate- and sodium nitroprusside-induced relaxation of rabbit internal anal sphincter  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate the tolerance development against the relaxant effect of nitric oxide donating drug isosorbide dinitrate (ISDN) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in internal anal sphincter (IAS) smooth muscle. METHODS: Relaxation responses of ISDN, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) were obtained before and after tolerance induction by ISDN incubation. RESULTS: ISDN (10-7-10-4 mol/L) and SNP (10-8-10-4 mol/L) caused a concentration-dependent relaxation on the basal tonus of the isolated rabbit IAS strips. After a period of 2 h incubation of the 6 x 10-4 mol/L ISDN the relaxation effects of ISDN and SNP did not change compared to control strips. EFS evoked frequency-dependent relaxation in internal anal sphincter smooth muscle and Emax obtained from control strips were not changed in ISDN tolerance-inducing condition. In this study nitrate tolerance was not observed in rabbit IAS smooth muscle. CONCLUSION: This result shows that nitric oxide donating drugs relaxes the internal anal sphincter of the rabbits without the development of tolerance.

Koyuncu, Ayhan; Bagcivan, Ihsan; Sarac, Bulent; Aydin, Cengiz; Yildirim, Sahin; Sarioglu, Yusuf



Early results of fissurectomy and advancement flap for resistant chronic anal fissure without hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter.  


The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of fissurectomy with skin advancement flap in healing chronic anal fissures without hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter. Twenty-six consecutive patients who failed healing after well-practiced topical medical therapy were enrolled. Anorectal manometry was performed preoperative and 6 months postoperatively. All patients were treated with fissurectomy and advancement flap through healthy skin tissue. All patients healed completely within 30 days from operation. The intensity and the duration of pain post-defecation was reduced significantly with respect to the preoperative values starting from the first defecation. One patient suffered urinary retention, two patients suffered infections, and two partial breakdowns were recorded. At 6 months the maximum resting pressure values were similar to those were detected preoperatively. One month after surgery, anal incontinence was reported in seven patients, four of whom complained about it preoperatively. At 12 months, only three subjects reported incontinence. No patients needed reoperation and no recurrences were detected. The fissurectomy, in combination with advancement flap, is a safe sphincter-saving procedure for the treatment of chronic anal fissures without hypertonia of internal anal sphincter that fails medical conservative treatment. PMID:20336902

Patti, Rosalia; Famà, Fausto; Tornambè, Antonino; Restivo, Margherita; Di Vita, Gaetano



Morphological and functional characterization of a rat vaginal smooth muscle sphincter.  


The aim of the present study was to gain information about adrenergic-, cholinergic- and non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic (NANC)- transmitter systems/mediators in the rat vagina, and to characterize its smooth muscles functionally. Tissue sections from vagina of Sprague Dawley rats were immunolabelled with antibodies against protein gene product 9.5 (PGP), synaptophysin (Syn), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Circularly cut vaginal smooth muscle preparations from the distal vagina were studied in organ baths. In the paravaginal tissue, a large number of PGP-, NOS-, TH-, VIP-immunoreactive (IR) and few CGRP-IR nerve trunks were observed, giving off branches to the smooth muscle wall. The smooth muscle wall was supplied by a large number of PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NPY-, NOS- and TH- IR nerve terminals, whilst only a moderate to few numbers of CGRP-, VIP- and PACAP-IR terminals were identified. Especially the distal part of the vaginal wall, where the circularly running smooth muscle was thickened into a distinct sphincter structure, was very richly innervated, predominantly by PGP- and NOS-IR terminals. Below and within the basal parts of the epithelium in the distal half of the vagina, a large number of PGP- and few NOS- and PACAP-IR varicose terminals were observed. The vaginal arteries were encircled by plexuses of nerve terminals. A large number of these were PGP-, Syn-, VAChT-, NOS-, TH-, NPY- and VIP-IR, and few were CGRP- and PACAP-IR. In isolated preparations of the distal vagina, electrical field stimulation (EFS) caused frequency-dependent contractions, which were reduced by sildenafil, tetrodotoxin (TTX) and phentolamine. In preparations contracted by norepinephrine (NA), EFS produced frequency-dependent relaxations. Pretreatment with the NOS-inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine, TTX, or the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, ODQ, abolished the EFS relaxations. In NE precontracted preparations, cumulative addition of sildenafil caused concentration-dependent relaxation. Carbachol contracted the strips concentration-dependently from baseline. It can be concluded that the distal part of the rat vagina forms a distinct smooth muscle sphincter, which is richly innervated by adrenergic, cholinergic and NANC nerves. The present studies suggest that in the rat the L-arginine/NO-system not only plays an important role in the regulation of vaginal smooth muscle tone, but also affects blood flow, and may have sensory functions. PMID:12152117

Giraldi, A; Alm, P; Werkström, V; Myllymäki, L; Wagner, G; Andersson, K E



Adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy  

PubMed Central

Extracellular levels of the brain’s endogenous anticonvulsant and neuroprotectant adenosine largely depend on an astrocyte-based adenosine cycle, comprised of ATP release, rapid degradation of ATP into adenosine, and metabolic reuptake of adenosine through equilibrative nucleoside transporters and phosphorylation by adenosine kinase (ADK). Changes in ADK expression and activity therefore rapidly translate into changes of extracellular adenosine, which exerts its potent anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activation of pre- and postsynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Increases in ADK increase neuronal excitability, whereas decreases in ADK render the brain resistant to seizures and injury. Importantly, ADK was found to be overexpressed and associated with astrogliosis and spontaneous seizures in rodent models of epilepsy, as well as in human specimen resected from patients with hippocampal sclerosis and temporal lobe epilepsy. Several lines of evidence indicate that overexpression of astroglial ADK and adenosine deficiency are pathological hallmarks of the epileptic brain. Consequently, adenosine augmentation therapies constitute a powerful approach for seizure prevention, which is effective in models of epilepsy that are resistant to conventional antiepileptic drugs. The adenosine kinase hypothesis of epileptogenesis suggests that adenosine dysfunction in epilepsy undergoes a biphasic response: An acute surge of adenosine that can be triggered by any type of injury might contribute to the development of astrogliosis via adenosine receptor –dependent and –independent mechanisms. Astrogliosis in turn is associated with overexpression of ADK, which was shown to be sufficient to trigger spontaneous recurrent electrographic seizures. Thus, ADK emerges as a promising target for the prediction and prevention of epilepsy.

Boison, Detlev



Primary graft dysfunction.  


Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a syndrome encompassing a spectrum of mild to severe lung injury that occurs within the first 72 hours after lung transplantation. PGD is characterized by pulmonary edema with diffuse alveolar damage that manifests clinically as progressive hypoxemia with radiographic pulmonary infiltrates. In recent years, new knowledge has been generated on risks and mechanisms of PGD. Following ischemia and reperfusion, inflammatory and immunological injury-repair responses appear to be key controlling mechanisms. In addition, PGD has a significant impact on short- and long-term outcomes; therefore, the choice of donor organ is impacted by this potential adverse consequence. Improved methods of reducing PGD risk and efforts to safely expand the pool are being developed. Ex vivo lung perfusion is a strategy that may improve risk assessment and become a promising platform to implement treatment interventions to prevent PGD. This review details recent updates in the epidemiology, pathophysiology, molecular and genetic biomarkers, and state-of-the-art technical developments affecting PGD. PMID:23821506

Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Cantu, Edward; Christie, Jason D



[Memory and its dysfunction].  


In the last decades interdisciplinary research of memory takes place and it connects regions as cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Learning and memory are theoretical concepts, which enable to explain the fact that personal experience influences the behavior of the particular person. Memory has neuronal representation, which enables recollection of obtained experiences and information, and subsequently enables changes in behavior. The review describes events as registration, formation of memory trace as well as memory retrieval. Memory classification is possible according to many criteria, e.g. according to the length, its conscious recollection and the character of deposited information. Main types of memories are episodic memory (for facts and events), semantic memory (for general knowledge) and procedural memory (the ability to learn behavioral and cognitive abilities and algorithms). At present it is generally accepted that memory is a complicated process, which utilizes several brain structures at the same time that are called memory systems; according to the type of memory the experiences and information are deposited in various brain regions. The present research enables many approaches for determination of the sites of memory deposition. In the present period important role in memory localization have the brain imaging techniques. Together with the study of memory under physiological conditions, in the center of interest there is the study of memory during various life periods, under pathological conditions and diseases. The review is closed by the list of most important diseases in which we observe memory dysfunctions, including the retrograde and anterograde amnesias. PMID:21254663

Klenerová, V; Hynie, S



Causes of sexual dysfunction (image)  


Female sexual dysfunction describes women who are indifferent or hostile to sexual intercourse, who have no response to sexual advances or stimulation, or who are unable to have an orgasm during sexual intercourse.


Long-Term Results of External Upper Esophageal Sphincter Myotomy for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia  

PubMed Central

The aim of this work was to assess the efficacy of external myotomy of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) for oropharyngeal dysphagia. In the period 1991–2006, 28 patients with longstanding dysphagia and/or aspiration problems of different etiologies underwent UES myotomy as a single surgical treatment. The main symptoms were difficulties in swallowing of a solid-food bolus, aspiration, and recurrent incidents of solid-food blockages. Pre- and postoperative manometry and videofluoroscopy were used to assess deglutition and aspiration. Outcome was defined as success in the case of complete relief or marked improvement of dysphagia and aspiration and as failure in the case of partial improvement or no improvement. Initial results showed success in 21 and failure in 7 patients. The best outcomes were observed in patients with dysphagia of unknown origin, noncancer-related iatrogenic etiology, and neuromuscular disease. No correlation was found between preoperative constrictor pharyngeal muscle activity and success rate. After follow-up of more than 1 year, 20 patients were marked as success and 3 as failure. All successful patients had full oral intake with a normal bolus consistency without clinically significant aspiration. We conclude that in select cases of oropharyngeal dysphagia success may be achieved by UES myotomy with restoration of oral intake of normal bolus consistency.

David, Eric F.; Klinkenberg-Knol, Elly C.; Mahieu, Hans F.



[Significance of nontraumatic anal sphincter relaxation for the success of plastic and miniinvasive interventions in coloproctology].  


The investigation objective was to estimate the role of nontraumatic anal sphincter (AS) stretching, as a leading factor of success in minimally invasive and/or plastic proctological interventions. One-centre randomized investigation was performed in 83 patients: In 22 of them the AS fissura was revealed (in 16), suprasphincteric fistula (in 3) and coexistent rectocele 2-3 Ap (according to POP-Q classification) with thinning of the AS anterior segment, the degree III hemorrhoids and anterior AS fissure presence. Ninety units of botulotoxin preparation (Disport) were injected between internal and external AS portions 5-15 days preoperatively. The treatment results without botulotoxin injection were compared retrospectively. After botulotoxin injection performance the AS spasm elimination was noted, leading to the pain subsiding promotion before and postoperatively in all the patients observed. The spasm elimination have permitted to escape the anal high fistula recurrence as a result of the mucosal flap shift after intraluminal closure of the fistula or because of the fistula intermuscular electrowelding "suture" rupture, also have guaranteed the plastic sutures on AS, even while the stage II-III rectocele presence, not depending of performance of its simultant surgica correction. PMID:23718024

Podpriatov, S S; Korchak, V P; Ivanenko, S V; Stupak, M I; Zubariev, O V; Ivakha, V V; Sydorenko, O V; Shtaier, A A; Perekhrest, O V; Shchepetov, V V; Rostunov, V K; Bryzhatiuk, S V; Kozlov, V V



Opening vesical pressure: a new test to discriminate urethral sphincter deficiency?  


Urethral sphincter deficiency (USD) is not standardised. Opening vesical pressure could reflect the pressure exerted to overcome urethral resistance during void; thus, we evaluated if it could discriminate USD. Women with urinary symptoms were prospectively assessed with a questionnaire and urodynamics and divided into three groups: urodynamic stress incontinence with USD (group 1), urodynamic stress incontinence related to urethral hypermobility without USD (group 2) and normal urodynamic (group 3). USD was defined as the concomitant presence of severe urodynamic stress incontinence, VLPP <60 cm H2O, MUCP <20 cm H2O and urethral mobility <30 degrees . A total of 145 women were enrolled: 56 in group 1, 50 in group 2 and 39 in group 3. The three groups did not differ for demographics, obstetric and surgical history. The median values for opening vesical pressures were 17.5 (15.6-22.2 95%CI), 30 (27.0-37.3 95%CI) and 30 (30.6-44.2 95% CI) for the groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. A p value <0.0001 was found when comparing group 1 either with group 2 or 3. Opening vesical pressure is a promising parameter to detect USD. PMID:17479203

Salvatore, Stefano; Serati, Maurizio; Khullar, Vik; Ghezzi, Fabio; Triacca, Paola; Digesù, Alessandro; Beretta, Paolo; Bolis, Pier Francesco



Brachytherapy and Local Excision for Sphincter Preservation in T1 and T2 Rectal Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To report long-term results of brachytherapy after local excision (LE) in the treatment of T1 and T2 rectal cancer at risk of recurrence due to residual subclinical disease. Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2007, 32 patients undergoing LE and brachytherapy were followed prospectively for a mean of 6.2 years. Estimates of local recurrence (LR), disease-specific survival (DSS), and overall survival (OS) were generated. Treatment-related toxicity and the effect of known prognostic factors were determined. Results: There were 8 LR (3 T1, 5 T2), of which 5 were salvaged surgically. Median time to the 8 LR was 14 months, and the 5-year rate of local control was 76%. Although there have been 9 deaths to date, only 5 were from disease. Five-year DSS and OS rates were 85% and 78%, respectively. There were 4 cases of Grade 2-3 radionecrosis and 1 case of mild stool incontinence. The sphincter was preserved in 27 of 32 patients. Conclusion: Local excision and adjuvant brachytherapy for T1 and T2 rectal cancer is an appealing treatment alternative to immediate radical resection, particularly in the frail and elderly who are unable to undergo major surgery, as well as for patients wanting to avoid a permanent colostomy.

Grimard, Laval [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail:; Stern, Hartley [Department of Surgery, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Spaans, Johanna N. M.Sc. [Division of Radiation Oncology, Ottawa Hospital, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)



Lubrication Theory Model to Evaluate Surgical Alterations in Flow Mechanics of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surgery is commonly used to rebuild a weak lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and reduce reflux. Because the driving pressure (DP) is proportional to muscle tension generated in the esophagus, we developed models using lubrication theory to evaluate the consequences of surgery on muscle force required to open the LES and drive the flow. The models relate time changes in DP to lumen geometry and trans-LES flow with a manometric catheter. Inertial effects were included and found negligible. Two models, direct (opening specified) and indirect (opening predicted), were combined with manometric pressure and imaging data from normal and post-surgery LES. A very high sensitivity was predicted between the details of the DP and LES opening. The indirect model accurately captured LES opening and predicted a 3-phase emptying process, with phases I and III requiring rapid generation of muscle tone to open the LES and empty the esophagus. Data showed that phases I and III are adversely altered by surgery causing incomplete emptying. Parametric model studies indicated that changes to the surgical procedure can positively alter LES flow mechanics and improve clinical outcomes.

Ghosh, Sudip K.; Brasseur, James G.; Zaki, Tamer; Kahrilas, Peter J.



Effect of hydrogen peroxide on VIP-induced relaxation of the cat lower esophageal sphincter.  


We investigated the effects of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on relaxation of the cat lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) caused dose-dependent relaxation of LES, and H2O2 reduced VIP-induced relaxation. Relaxation was also attenuated by pertussis toxin (PTX), indicating a Gi/o component. VIP treatment increased [35S]GTPgammaS binding to Gs and Gi3 protein, but not to Go, Gq, Gil or Gi2. This increase in Gs or Gi3 binding was reduced by H2O2. However, the relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP), 3-morpholino sydnomine (SIN-1), 8-br cGMP (cGMP analog), forskolin (adenylate cyclase activator), and dibutyryl-cAMP (a stable cAMP analog) was not reduced by H2O2. These data suggest that H202 inhibits VIP-induced relaxation via a Gi-dependent pathway, perhaps by inhibiting the activation of G(i3) or Gs downstream of the VIP receptor and independent of cAMP or NO-cGMP signaling. PMID:18087810

Kim, Sung Hyo; Youm, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Kyu; Park, Sun Young; Shin, Chang Yell; Ryu, Jung Su; La, Hyen O; Song, Hyun Ju; Min, Young Sil; Sohn, Uy Dong



Effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter pressure in Thai healthy volunteers.  


Caffeine affects many aspects of body function including the gastrointestinal system. A single-blinded experimental study was performed to evaluate the effect of caffeine on lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and esophageal peristaltic contractions in healthy Thai adults. The volunteers were six men and six women aged 19-31 years. Subjects drank 100 mL of water. Five wet swallows were performed 30 min after the drink. The basal LES pressure was continuously measured using esophageal manometric technique. They then consumed another 100 mL of water containing caffeine at the dose of 3.5 mg/kg body weight. The swallows and basal LES pressure monitoring were repeated. The results showed no change in basal LES pressure after a water drink while caffeine consumption significantly lowered the pressure at 10, 15, 20 and 25 min. The mean amplitude of contractions and peristaltic velocity were decreased at the distal esophagus at 3 and 8 cm above LES. The mean duration of contraction was decreased at the distal part but increased at the more proximal esophagus. The heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were increased significantly at 10-20 min after caffeine ingestion. This study indicated that caffeine 3.5 mg/kg affected esophageal function, resulting in a decrease in basal LES pressure and distal esophageal contraction, which is known to promote the reflux of gastric contents up into the esophagus. PMID:16722996

Lohsiriwat, S; Puengna, N; Leelakusolvong, S



[Effect of drugs on endoscopic manometry of the sphincter of Oddi].  


We used a catheter passing through the papilla duodeni under the view of endoscope, with persistent perfusion system and transducer, to measure the pressure and contraction frequency of sphincter of Oddi (SO) in 10 healthy persons and 20 patients. Meanwhile, we compared the effect of Buscopan, Nitrostat and Vitamin K3 on the pressure and contraction frequency (CF). SO basal pressure (BP) in healthy group was 5.21 +/- 1.61 kPa (mean +/- s), SO peak pressure (PP) 8.21 +/- 1.34 kPa and CF 6.14 waves/min. In the group of peripapillary fistula, SO pressure decreased significantly and CF slowed down greatly. In comparison with the healthy group, SO pressure and CF in the group of gallbladder stone, choledocholithiasis and pancreatic diseases did not show any change of statistic significance. Intravenous injection of Buscopan could decrease SO peak pressure and BP remarkably. Sublingual administration of Nitrostat and intramuscular injection of Vit K3 could reduce SO PP markedly, SO BP didn't change statistically. It was also showed that spheric and semi-spheric papillae had higher pressure than the flat ones (P less than 0.001). PMID:1815874

Huang, J Q; Lu, X H; Mai, C R



Metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of metabolic syndrome is rapidly increasing in the United States. Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased\\u000a cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and endothelial dysfunction is an early pathogenetic event in the metabolic syndrome.\\u000a Endothelial dysfunction of either the coronary, the peripheral, or the cerebral vasculature is a predictor of vascular events\\u000a and appears to be a marker of uncontrolled

Alessia Fornoni; Leopoldo Raij



Evaluation of Male Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The management of male sexual dysfunction and specifically erectile dysfunction (ED) has seen major changes in each decade\\u000a since the 1970s thanks to the discovery that a papaverine injection could produce erection, the NIH Consensus Statement which\\u000a defined ED in 1992, advances in minimally invasive diagnostics, and the development of orally effective erectogenic class\\u000a of drugs, the phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors

Gregory A. Broderick


Sexual Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sexual dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD). We investigated the premorbid and present sexual functioning of 75 people with PD (32 women and 43 men). Women reported difficulties with arousal (87.5%), with reaching orgasm (75.0%), with low sexual desire (46.9%), and wih sexual dissatisfaction (37.5%). Men reported erectile dysfunction (68.4%), sexual dissatisfaction (65.1%), premature ejaculation (40.6%), and difficulties reaching




Dysfunctional uterine bleeding in adolescents.  


Between 1970 and 1984 89 patients under 18 years of age were treated for dysfunctional premenarchal or postmenarchal bleeding. Patients' age varied from 8 to 18 years (average age 12.2 years). 12 cases were of dysfunctional bleeding in menarche and 68 were of menorrhagic or menometorrhagic menstruation after a period of 2 months to 6 years after menarche. Medical therapy was successful in all cases. PMID:3454726

Pepe, F; Iachello, R; Panella, M; Pepe, G; Sanfilippo, R; Cernuto, A; Abela, C; Pepe, P



The impact of an intervention programme employing a hands-on technique to reduce the incidence of anal sphincter tears: interrupted time-series reanalysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To re-evaluate previously published findings from an uncontrolled before–after evaluation of an intervention programme to reduce the incidence of anal sphincter tears. A key component of the programme was the use of a hands-on technique where the birth attendant presses the neonate's head during the final stage of delivery while simultaneously supporting the woman's perineum with the other hand. Design Interrupted time-series analysis using segmented regression modelling. Setting Obstetric departments of five Norwegian hospitals. Participants All women giving births vaginally in the study hospitals, 2002–2008. Methods The main data source was the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. We estimated the change in incidence of anal sphincter tears before and after implementation of the intervention in the five intervention hospitals, taking into account the trends in incidence before and after implementation. Main outcome measures Incidence of anal sphincter tears and episiotomies. Results There were 75?543 registered births at the five included hospitals. We found a 2% absolute reduction in incidence of anal sphincter tears associated with the hospital intervention programme, representing almost a halving in the number of women experiencing serious anal sphincter tears. This is a substantially smaller estimate than previously reported. However, it does represent a highly significant decrease in anal sphincter injuries. The programme was also associated with a significant increase in episiotomies. Conclusions The intervention programme was associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of obstetric anal sphincter tears. Still, the findings should be interpreted with caution as they seem to contradict the findings from randomised controlled studies of similar interventions.

Fretheim, Atle; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; R?ttingen, John-Arne; Reinar, Liv Merete; Vangen, Siri; Tanbo, Tom



Accelerated Progression of Gastritis to Dysplasia in the Pyloric Antrum of TFF2?/? C57BL6 x Sv129 Helicobacter pylori-Infected Mice  

PubMed Central

Trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) is up-regulated in Helicobacter spp.-infected gastric tissues of both humans and mice. To ascertain the biological effects of TFF2 in vivo, TFF2?/? C57BL/6 × Sv129 and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 × Sv129 mice were orally infected with Helicobacter pylori SS1. Mice were evaluated for gastric H. pylori colonization, pathology, and cytokine profiles at 6 and 19 months post inoculation (pi). At 6 months pi, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) for epithelial criteria (mucosal defects, atrophy, hyperplasia, pseudopyloric metaplasia, and dysplasia) in the corpus of TFF2?/? versus WT mice. At 19 months pi, a similar statistical difference in epithelial parameters was noted in the antrum of TFF2?/? versus WT mice (P < 0.01). All of the TFF2?/? H. pylori-infected mice had high-grade antral dysplasia, including gastric intraepithelial neoplasia, which was statistically significant (P < 0.05) compared with the infected WT mice. Levels of interferon-? were markedly elevated in the gastric mucosa of infected TFF2?/? mice at both 6 and 19 months pi. TFF2 provided a cytoprotective and/or anti-inflammatory effect against the progression of premalignant lesions of the gastric corpus at 6 months pi and in the pyloric antrum in H. pylori-infected mice at 19 months pi. These data support a protective role for TFF2 in part by modulating levels of gastric interferon-? in the development of H. pylori-associated premalignancy of the distal stomach.

Fox, James G.; Rogers, Arlin B.; Whary, Mark T.; Ge, Zhongming; Ohtani, Masa; Jones, Evelyn Kurt; Wang, Timothy C.



The clinical pattern of duodenogastric bile reflux in the Kenyan Africans.  


Forty consecutive African patients found to have duodenogastric bile reflux at endoscopy were studied. Bile reflux was found more commonly among males than females, giving a male/female ratio of 2.3:1, with a peak age at 41-60 years. ABO blood groups had no significant influence on duodenogastric bile reflux. Flatulence and borborygmi were the most consistent symptoms other than the classical dyspeptic pain pattern. Bilious vomiting was a rare finding. Duodenogastric bile reflux was more commonly associated with endoscopic gastritis (67.5%), gastric ulcer (35%) and oesophagitis (30%) than with duodenal ulcer (22.5%), deformed pyloric ring (5%) or distorted duodenal bulb (2.5%). The dysfunction in the pyloric sphincter in people with duodenogastric bile reflux appears to be more of a physiological defect than structural. PMID:2917497

Ogutu, E O; Lule, G N; Okoth, F; Mwai, S J



Olfactory dysfunction in Parkinson disease.  


Olfactory dysfunction is among the earliest nonmotor features of Parkinson disease (PD). Such dysfunction is present in approximately 90% of early-stage PD cases and can precede the onset of motor symptoms by years. The mechanisms responsible for olfactory dysfunction are currently unknown. As equivalent deficits are observed in Alzheimer disease, Down syndrome, and the Parkinson-dementia complex of Guam, a common pathological substrate may be involved. Given that olfactory loss occurs to a lesser extent or is absent in disorders such as multiple system atrophy, corticobasal degeneration, and progressive supranuclear palsy, olfactory testing can be useful in differential diagnosis. The olfactory dysfunction in PD and a number of related diseases with smell loss correlates with decreased numbers of neurons in structures such as the locus coeruleus, the raphe nuclei, and the nucleus basalis of Meynart. These neuroanatomical findings, together with evidence for involvement of the autonomic nervous system in numerous PD-related symptoms, suggest that deficits in cholinergic, noradrenergic and serotonergic function may contribute to the olfactory loss. This Review discusses the current understanding of olfactory dysfunction in PD, including factors that may be related to its cause. PMID:22584158

Doty, Richard L



[Trastuzumab-associated cardiac dysfunction].  


We analyzed 127 consecutive patients who received trastuzumab-based chemotherapy from December, 2003 to February, 2009 in our hospital. Of 127 patients, cardiac dysfunction appeared in 6 patients(4. 7%). Cardiac dysfunction was defined as a decline in left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) < or =55% with absolute reduction of at least 10% from baseline. Among the 6 patients with cardiac dysfunction, one patient suffered symptomatic heart failure. Other patients were asymptomatic. The 4 patients of the 5 patients recovered their cardiac dysfunction after withdrawal of trastuzumab. Patients with trastuzumab-associated cardiac dysfunction had a history of administration of epirubicin or taxane, lower registration LVEF, and larger LV end-diastolic dimension (> or =49 mm). We recommend that LV function be assessed by echocardiography or multigated radionuclide angiography scans prior to instituting trastuzumab therapy and at three-month intervals during therapy. Trastuzumab should be discontinued in patients who develop a decrease in LVEF below 45% or congestive heart failure. PMID:20414023

Okada, Yoshinobu; Kanbayashi, Chizuko; Sato, Nobuaki



Risk factors for obstetric anal sphincter injury after a successful multicentre interventional programme.  


OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and compare the risk profile of sustaining obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) and associated risks in five risk groups (low to high), after the OASIS rate was reduced from 4.6% to 2.0% following an interventional programme. The main focus of the intervention was on manual assistance during the final part of second stage of labour. DESIGN: A multicentre interventional cohort study with before and after comparison. SETTING: Four Norwegian obstetric departments. SAMPLE: A total of 40 154 vaginal deliveries in 2003-09. METHODS: Pre-intervention and postintervention analyses. The associations of OASIS with possible risk factors were estimated using odds ratios obtained by logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Risk factors of OASIS. RESULTS: The risk of sustaining OASIS decreased by 59% (odds ratio [OR] 0.41; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.36-0.46) after the intervention. Associations with obstetric risks for OASIS were largely unchanged after the intervention, including first vaginal delivery (OR 3.84; 95% CI 2.90-5.07), birthweight ?4500 g (OR 4.42; 95% CI 2.68-7.27), forceps delivery (OR 3.54; 95% CI 1.99-6.29) and mediolateral episiotomy (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.70-1.12). However, the highest reduction of OASIS, (65%), was observed in group 0 (low-risk) (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.24-0.51), and a 57% (OR 0.43; 95% CI 0.35-0.52), 61% (OR 0.39; 95% CI 0.31-0.48), and 58% (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.30-0.60) reduction in groups with one, two and three risk factors, respectively. No change was observed in the group with four risk factors. CONCLUSION: After the intervention the most significant decrease of OASIS was observed in low-risk births, although the main risk factors for OASIS remained unchanged. PMID:23682573

Stedenfeldt, M; Oian, P; Gissler, M; Blix, E; Pirhonen, J



Effect of Atilmotin, a Motilin Receptor Agonist, on Esophageal, Lower Esophageal Sphincter, and Gastric Pressures  

PubMed Central

Background Motilin, an endogenous gastrointestinal (GI) hormone, increases upper gastrointestinal tract motility and is associated with phase III of the gastric migrating motor complex. The motilin receptor agonist, atilmotin, at doses of 6, 30 or 60 µg intravenously (IV), increases the early phase of gastric emptying. Prior studies at higher doses of 100–450 µg IV demonstrated that some subjects developed noncardiac chest pain. Aims The aim of this study is to determine the effects of atilmotin on esophageal, lower esophageal sphincter (LES), and gastric contractility and the development of esophageal-related symptoms. Methods Ten healthy volunteers underwent esophageal manometry to study the effects of atilmotin on upper GI motility. Five subjects were studied on three separate days following administration of saline placebo and subsequent IV bolus dose of atilmotin (6, 30 or 150 µg). Another five subjects were studied at the highest dose (150 µg). Results Atilmotin at 150 µg increased proximal gastric pressure by 6.5 mmHg (P = 0.001 compared with placebo). Atilmotin increased LES pressure at all studied doses; LES pressure increased from 24 ± 2 mmHg following placebo injection to 34 ± 4 mmHg following a 30 µg dose of atilmotin (P = 0.007). In the esophagus, atilmotin increased the percentage of failed swallows at the highest dose studied. Failed swallows increased from 17 ± 7% following placebo injection to 36 ± 7% following a 150 µg dose of atilmotin (P = 0.016). Atilmotin decreased distal esophageal contractile amplitude only at the highest dose studied, from 69 ± 8 mmHg (placebo) to 50 ± 5 mmHg following 150 µg atilmotin (P = 0.018). There were no serious adverse effects or episodes of chest pain with atilmotin. Conclusions Atilmotin affects esophageal, LES, and gastric motility. LES and gastric pressures were increased, whereas there was disruption of esophageal peristalsis characterized by lower amplitude and failed contractions.

Korimilli, Annapurna



Episiotomy characteristics and risks for obstetric anal sphincter injuries: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between the geometrical properties of episiotomy and obstetric anal sphincter injuries (OASIS) because episiotomies angled at 40–60° are associated with fewer OASIS than episiotomies with more acute angles. Design Case–control study. Setting University Hospital of North Norway, Tromsø and Nordland Hospital, Bodø, Norway. Sample Seventy-four women who had one vaginal birth and episiotomy. Cases (n = 37) have sustained OASIS at birth, while controls (n = 37) had not. The groups were matched for instrumental delivery. Methods Two groups of women with history of only one vaginal birth were compared. Episiotomy scar was identified and photographed and relevant measures were taken. Data were analysed using conditional logistic analysis. Main outcome measures Mean episiotomy angle, length, depth, incision point. Results The risk of sustaining OASIS decreased by 70% (odds ratio [OR] 0.30; 95% CI 0.14–0.66) for each 5.5-mm increase in episiotomy depth, decreased by 56% (OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.23–0.86) for each 4.5-mm increase in the distance from the midline to the incision point of the episiotomy, and decreased by 75% (OR 0.25; 95% CI 0.10–0.61) for each 5.5-mm increase in episiotomy length. Lastly, there was no difference in mean angle between groups but there was a “U-shaped” association between angle and OASIS (OR 2.09; 95% CI 1.02–4.28) with an increased risk (OR 9.00; 95% CI 1.1–71.0) of OASIS when the angle was either smaller than 15°or >60°. Conclusion The present study showed that scarred episiotomies with depth > 16 mm, length > 17 mm, incision point > 9 mm lateral of midpoint and angle range 30–60° are significantly associated with less risk of OASIS. Shrinkage of tissue must be considered.

Stedenfeldt, M; Pirhonen, J; Blix, E; Wilsgaard, T; Vonen, B; ?ian, P



Esophageal wall blood perfusion during contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in humans  

PubMed Central

We recently reported that esophageal contraction reduces esophageal wall perfusion in an animal study. Our aim was to determine esophageal wall blood perfusion (EWBP) during esophageal contraction and transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs) in humans. We studied 12 healthy volunteers. A custom-designed laser Doppler probe was anchored to the esophageal wall, 4–6 cm above the LES, by use of the Bravo pH system so that the laser light beam stay directed toward the esophageal mucosa. A high-resolution manometry equipped with impedance electrodes recorded esophageal pressures and reflux events. Synchronized pressure, impedance, pH, and EWBP recordings were obtained during dry and wet swallows and following a meal. Stable recordings of laser Doppler EWBP were only recorded when the laser Doppler probe was firmly anchored to the esophageal wall. Esophageal contractions induced by dry and wet swallows resulted in 46 ± 9% and 60 ± 10% reduction in the EWBP, respectively (compared to baseline). Reduction in EWBP was directly related to the amplitude (curvilinear fit) and duration of esophageal contraction. Atropine reduced the esophageal contraction amplitude and decreased the EWBP reduction associated with esophageal contraction. TLESRs were also associated with reduction in the EWBP, albeit of smaller amplitude (29 ± 3%) but longer duration (19 ± 2 s) compared with swallow-induced esophageal contractions. We report 1) an innovative technique to record EWBP for extended time periods in humans and 2) contraction of circular and longitudinal muscle during peristalsis and selective longitudinal muscle contraction during TLESR causes reduction in the EWBP; 3) using our innovative technique, future studies may determine whether esophageal wall ischemia is the cause of esophageal pain/heartburn.

Jiang, Yanfen; Bhargava, Valmik; Kim, Young Sun



Globus sensation and increased upper esophageal sphincter pressure with distal esophageal acid perfusion.  


The aim of the present study was to determine whether acid perfusion into the distal esophagus causes a globus sensation and an increase in upper esophageal sphincter (UES) pressure. UES pressures were measured using a sleeve-type sensor in 20 healthy volunteers. A 0.1-N HCl solution, the same as gastric acid, was perfused into the distal esophagus at a rate of 20 mL/min. During perfusion, 4-channel pH monitoring was performed to determine whether the HCl reached the hypopharynx. The following parameters were measured: (1) changes in UES pressure before and during acid perfusion, (2) presence or absence of a globus sensation or heartburn, (3) the time at which a globus sensation or heartburn was noted by the patient and (4) the position of the electrode at which the pH drop was recorded. Ten subjects enrolled as the control group received perfusions of distilled water. Acid perfusion raised the UES pressure in 13 of the 20 subjects. All 13 complained of globus at about the same time as the UES pressure increased. Twelve of the 13 subjects who experienced globus also complained of heartburn, which preceded the globus sensation in ten such cases. None of the control subjects reported globus or had elevated UES pressure. In the acid perfusion group, no pH reduction at the two most cranial electrodes was observed in any subject. In conclusion, the globus sensation is due to elevated UES pressure, resulting from gastroesophageal reflux and does not require direct exposure of the hypopharynx to gastric acid. The incidence of heartburn in combination with a globus sensation would be much higher if the cause of the latter were acid reflux. PMID:19882344

Tokashiki, Ryoji; Funato, Nobutoshi; Suzuki, Mamoru



External urethral sphincter motoneuron properties in adult female rats studied in vitro.  


The external urethral sphincter (EUS) muscle plays a crucial role in lower urinary tract function: its activation helps maintain continence, whereas its relaxation contributes to micturition. To determine how the intrinsic properties of its motoneurons contribute to its physiological function, we have obtained intracellular current-clamp recordings from 49 EUS motoneurons in acutely isolated spinal cord slices from adult female rats. In all, 45% of EUS motoneurons fired spontaneously and steadily (average rate = 12-27 pulses/s). EUS motoneurons were highly excitable, having lower rheobase, higher input resistance, and smaller threshold depolarization than those of rat hindlimb motoneurons recorded in vitro. Correlations between these properties and afterhyperpolarization half-decay time are consistent with EUS motoneurons having characteristics of both fast and slow motor unit types. EUS motoneurons with a slow-like spectrum of properties exhibited spontaneous firing more often than those with fast-like characteristics. During triangular current ramp-induced repetitive firing, recruitment typically occurred at lower current levels than those at derecruitment, although the opposite pattern occurred in 10% of EUS motoneurons. This percentage was likely underestimated due to firing rate adaptation. These findings are consistent with the presence of a basal level of persistent inward current (PIC) in at least some EUS motoneurons. The low EUS motoneuron current and voltage thresholds make them readily recruitable, rendering them well suited to their physiological role in continence. The expression of firing behaviors consistent with PIC activation in this highly reduced preparation raises the possibility that in the intact animal, PICs contribute to urinary function not only through neuromodulator-dependent but also through neuromodulator-independent mechanisms. PMID:20573976

Carp, Jonathan S; Tennissen, Ann M; Liebschutz, Jennifer E; Chen, Xiang Yang; Wolpaw, Jonathan R



Lower esophageal sphincter relaxation reflex kinetics: effects of peristaltic reflexes and maturation in human premature neonates  

PubMed Central

We defined the sensory-motor characteristics of the lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (LESR) (stimulus threshold volume, response onset, and relaxation period, relaxation magnitude, nadir) during maturation in human neonates. We hypothesized that LESR kinetics differs during maturation and with peristaltic reflex type. Basal and adaptive esophageal motility testing was performed (N = 20 premature neonates) at 34.7 and 39.1 wk (time 1 and time 2). Effects of midesophageal provocation with graded stimuli (N = 1,267 stimuli, air and liquids) on LESR kinetics during esophagodeglutition response (EDR) and secondary peristalsis (SP) were analyzed by mixed models. Frequency of LESR with basal primary peristalsis were different during maturation (P = 0.03). During adaptive responses with maturation, 1) the frequencies of peristaltic reflexes and LESR were similar; 2) liquid stimuli resulted in a shorter LESR response latency and LESR nadir and greater LESR magnitude (all P < 0.05); 3) media differences were noted with LESR response latency (air vs. liquids, P < 0.02); and 4) infusion flow rate-LESR were different (P < 0.01 for air and liquids). Mechanistically, 1) frequency of LESR was greater during peristaltic reflexes at both times (vs. none, P < 0.0001); 2) LESR response latency, duration, and time to complete LESR were longer with EDR (all P < 0.05, vs. SP at time 2); and 3) graded stimulus volume LESR were different for air and liquids (P < 0.01). In conclusion, sensory-motor characteristics of LESR depend on the mechanosensitive properties of the stimulus (media, volume, flow), type of peristaltic reflex, and postnatal maturation. Maturation modulates an increased recruitment of inhibitory pathways that favor LESR.

Pena, Eneysis M.; Parks, Vanessa N.; Peng, Juan; Fernandez, Soledad A.; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Shaker, Reza



A questionnaire on pelvic floor dysfunction postpartum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction and hypothesis  The incidence of obstetric anal sphincter injuries is used in Sweden as a measurement of quality of care and this might influence\\u000a the reporting. However, the correlation between reported diagnosis of pelvic floor injury at delivery and pelvic floor symptoms\\u000a a year later is unknown. A questionnaire could identify such symptoms and provide beneficial feedback to obstetrical practices.

Charlotte Luthander; Thomas Emilsson; Gunnar Ljunggren; Margareta Hammarström



The gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers reduces anal tone when injected in the anal sphincter of healthy adults.  


The primary clinical symptom of Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning is acute paralytic illness produced by paralyzing toxins. Paralytic shellfish poison is formed by a mixture of phycotoxins and their toxicity is due to its reversible binding to a receptor site on the voltage-gated sodium channel on excitable cells, thus blocking neuronal transmission. We studied the effect of the gonyautoxin 2/3 epimers by local infiltration in the anal internal sphincter of healthy voluntary adults in order to reduce anal tone. The toxin was injected after prior clinical evaluation, anoscopy and anorectal manometry. Post injection clinical examination, electromyography and anorectal manometry were performed. Resting and voluntary contraction pressures were measured and the anorectal inhibitory and anocortical reflexes were tested by manometry. Blood and urine samples were obtained from each participant, and hemogram, basic metabolic panel, and urinalysis were done both before and one week after the injection. This study shows, for the first time, that gonyautoxin 2/3 reduces the anal tone by relaxing the anal sphincters in 100 % of the participants. Manometric recordings showed a significant decrease in anal maximal voluntary contraction pressure after the toxin injection, dropping to 55.2+/-6.2 % and 47.0+/-6.8% (Mean Value+/-Std.Dev.) of the baseline values at 2 minutes and at 24 hours respectively after the injection. Post-injection electromyography showed that activity of the muscle was abolished. We conclude that local administration of gonyautoxin 2/3 to the anal sphincter produces immediate relaxation and a statistically significant decrease in the anal tone (p <0.001). PMID:15515965

Garrido, Rogelio; Lagos, Néstor; Lattes, Karinna; Azolas, Carlos García Rodrigo; Bocic, Gunther; Cuneo, Aldo; Chiong, Hector; Jensen, Cristian; Henríquez, Ana I; Fernández, Cristian



Manometric evaluation of internal anal sphincter after fissurectomy and anoplasty for chronic anal fissure: a prospective study.  


Chronic anal fissure (CAF) is a common painful clinical disease and its pathogenesis remains poorly understood. After failure of pharmacological therapy, that is the first-line treatment, surgical sphincterotomy remains the treatment of choice although it is followed by a high rate of anal incontinence resulting from the sphincter damage; therefore, the research of a sphincter-saving surgical option has become an important goal. The aim of this study was to evaluate the manometric modifications and the incidence of anal incontinence after fissurectomy and anoplasty with advancement skin flap in patients affected by CAF with hypertonia of the internal anal sphincter (IAS). Fifteen patients affected by CAF with hypertonia of IAS, unresponsive to medical therapy, were enrolled. All subjects underwent fissurectomy and anoplasty with advancement skin flap. Anorectal manometry was performed preoperatively and after 6 and 12 months from surgery. Maximum resting pressure (MRP), maximum squeeze pressure (MSP), ultraslow wave activity (USWA), fissure healing, anal continence, and postoperative complications were recorded. All patients healed within 30 days from surgery. No intra- or postoperative complications were recorded except for a case of partial donor site break. No significant modifications of MSP were detected. Six months after surgery, MRP was higher with respect to healthy subjects but significantly reduced in comparison to baseline levels. At 12 months, it was higher have versus 6-month values but significantly lower versus preoperative values. USWA was significantly represented in patients with CAF versus healthy subject. Both at 6 and 12 months, they decreased significantly with respect to preoperative values without significant differences versus healthy subjects. Both at 6 and 12 months, anal continence did not differ with respect to preoperative time. The fissurectomy with anoplasty resulted in a high healing rate without surgical sequelae or anal incontinence. Also, it was able to reduce IAS pressure in the same manner as surgical sphincterotomy or forceful dilatation. PMID:22546122

Patti, Rosalia; Territo, Valentina; Aiello, Paolo; Angelo, Giuseppe Livio; Di Vita, Gaetano



Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative condition that has increasingly been linked with mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibition of the electron transport chain. This inhibition leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of cellular energy levels, which can consequently cause cellular damage and death mediated by oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. A number of genes that have been shown to have links with inherited forms of PD encode mitochondrial proteins or proteins implicated in mitochondrial dysfunction, supporting the central involvement of mitochondria in PD. This involvement is corroborated by reports that environmental toxins that inhibit the mitochondrial respiratory chain have been shown to be associated with PD. This paper aims to illustrate the considerable body of evidence linking mitochondrial dysfunction with neuronal cell death in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD patients and to highlight the important need for further research in this area.

Keane, P. C.; Kurzawa, M.; Blain, P. G.; Morris, C. M.



Cognitive Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis  

PubMed Central

In Multiple Sclerosis (MS) prevalence studies of community and clinical samples, indicate that 45–60% of patients are cognitively impaired. These cognitive dysfunctions have been traditionally described as heterogeneous, but more recent studies suggest that there is a specific pattern of MS-related cognitive dysfunctions. With the advent of disease-modifying medications for MS and emphasis on early intervention and treatment, detection of cognitive impairment at its earliest stage becomes particularly important. In this review the authors address: the cognitive domains most commonly impaired in MS (memory, attention, executive functions, speed of information processing, and visual–spatial abilities); the pathophysiological mechanism implied in MS cognitive dysfunction and correlated brain MRI features; the importance of neuropsychological assessment of MS patients in different stages of the disease and the influence of its course on cognitive performance; the most used tests and batteries for neuropsychological assessment; therapeutic strategies to improve cognitive abilities.

Guimaraes, Joana; Sa, Maria Jose



Experimental Models of Neuropathic Fecal Incontinence: An Animal Model of Childbirth Injury to the Pudendal Nerve and External Anal Sphincter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  Childbirth is the most common cause of fecal incontinence and damage to the pudendal nerve is a major component of childbirth\\u000a injury. This study was designed to develop an acute animal model of injury to the innervation of the external anal sphincter.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Forty-eight female virgin wistar rats were studied. Two models of neuropathic injury were developed. Bilateral inferior rectal\\u000a nerve

C. F. Healy; C. O’Herlihy; C. O’Brien; P. R. O’Connell; J. F. X. Jones



Intrinsic Sphincter Deficiency: Do the Maximum Urethral Closure Pressure and the Valsalva Leak-Point Pressure Identify Different Pathogenic Mechanisms?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   A prospective analysis of 166 women with genuine stress incontinence was performed comparing Valsalva leak-point pressure\\u000a (VLPP) and maximum urethral closure pressure (MUCP) with age, previous urogynecologic surgery and\\/or hysterectomy, poor urethral\\u000a mobility, weight, menopause and vaginal deliveries, to find correlations with intrinsic sphincter deficiency (ISD). Cut-off\\u000a value for VLPP were 60 cmH2O and for MUCP 30 cmH2O. MUCP

C. Pajoncini; E. Costantini; F. Guercini; M. Porena



Emotional Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

In addition to motor symptomatology, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is characterized by emotional dysfunction. Depression affects some 30 to 40 percent of Parkinson patients and other psychiatric co-morbidities include anxiety and apathy. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies of emotional dysfunction in Parkinson patients suggest abnormalities involving mesolimbic and mesocortical dopaminergic pathways. There is also evidence suggesting that the interaction between serotonin and dopamine systems is important in the understanding and treatment of mood disorders in Parkinson's disease. In this review we discuss the neuropsychiatric abnormalities that accompany Parkinson's disease and describe their neuropsychological, neuropharmacologic, and neuroimaging concomitants.

Blonder, Lee X.; Slevin, John T.



Dual implantation of penile and sphincter implants in the post-prostatectomy patient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite major improvement in surgical techniques for radical pelvic surgery, including radical prostatectomy, major quality-of-life\\u000a issues persist, such as postoperative erectile dysfunction and urinary incontinence. These two conditions have many common\\u000a etiologies and often occur in the same patient. Patients with either of these conditions fail initial conservative or minimally\\u000a invasive therapy and become candidates for prosthetic implants, such as

Rajeev Kumar; Ajay Nehra



[Management of male urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy (CTMH AFU 2006 - 4/5): place of intraurethral macroplastique injection, artificial urinary sphincter and cell therapy].  


The management of moderate urinary incontinence after radical prostatectomy may require the use of an artificial sphincter, which remains the reference technique although it requires implantation of material, sometimes involving redo operations. Submucosal macroplastique injections have been proposed, but the results do not appear to be maintained over time. Cell therapy, consisting of the injection of stem cells into or close to the sphincter, probably represents the approach of the future, but in 2006, studies were still only at the evaluation phase. PMID:18396234

Fourmarier, M; de la Taille, A; Azzouzi, A-R; Ballereau, C; Desgranchamps, F; Devonec, M; Haillot, O; Lukacs, B; Castel, E; Saussine, C



Dysfunctional assumptions in bipolar disorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Despite the initial encouraging outcome in developing CBT for bipolar affective disorder [Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 2002 (in press); Psychol. Med. 31 (2001) 459–467], very little is known about whether there are any differences in dysfunctional attitudes between unipolar and bipolar patients. Both the behavioural activation system theory [J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 67 (1994) 488–498; Major Theories of Personality Disorder,

Dominic Lam; Kim Wright; Neil Smith



Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction in cells  

PubMed Central

Assessing mitochondrial dysfunction requires definition of the dysfunction to be investigated. Usually, it is the ability of the mitochondria to make ATP appropriately in response to energy demands. Where other functions are of interest, tailored solutions are required. Dysfunction can be assessed in isolated mitochondria, in cells or in vivo, with different balances between precise experimental control and physiological relevance. There are many methods to measure mitochondrial function and dysfunction in these systems. Generally, measurements of fluxes give more information about the ability to make ATP than do measurements of intermediates and potentials. For isolated mitochondria, the best assay is mitochondrial respiratory control: the increase in respiration rate in response to ADP. For intact cells, the best assay is the equivalent measurement of cell respiratory control, which reports the rate of ATP production, the proton leak rate, the coupling efficiency, the maximum respiratory rate, the respiratory control ratio and the spare respiratory capacity. Measurements of membrane potential provide useful additional information. Measurement of both respiration and potential during appropriate titrations enables the identification of the primary sites of effectors and the distribution of control, allowing deeper quantitative analyses. Many other measurements in current use can be more problematic, as discussed in the present review.

Brand, Martin D.; Nicholls, David G.



The Physiology of Erectile Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male erectile dysfunction is a common urologic disorder which can have a profound detrimental impact on a patient's quality of life. Normal erectile function represents a complex physiologic process requiring integrated synchronized function of vascular, neurologic, and musculoskeletal body systems, with significant psychologic factors playing a role as well. A breakdown in any one of these body systems can contribute

Shane Russell; Ajay Nehra



Current Concepts in Ejaculatory Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Although erectile dysfunction has recently become the most well-known aspect of male sexual dysfunction, the most prevalent male sexual disorders are ejaculatory dysfunctions. Ejaculatory disorders are divided into 4 categories: premature ejaculation (PE), delayed ejaculation, retrograde ejaculation, and anejaculation/anorgasmia. Pharmacologic treatment for certain ejaculatory disorders exists, for example the off-label use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors for PE. Unfortunately, the other ejaculatory disorders are less studied and not as well understood. This review revisits the physiology of the normal ejaculatory response, specifically explores the mechanisms of anejaculation, and presents emerging data. The neurophysiology of the ejaculatory reflex is complex, making classification of the role of individual neurotransmitters extremely difficult. However, recent research has elucidated more about the role of serotonin and dopamine at the central level in the physiology of both arousal and orgasm. Other recent studies that look at differing pharmacokinetic profiles and binding affinities of the ?1-antagonists serve as an indication of the centrally mediated role of ejaculation and orgasm. As our understanding of the interaction between central and peripheral modulations and regulation of the process of ejaculation increases, the probability of developing centrally acting pharmaceutical agents for the treatment of sexual dysfunction approaches reality.

Wolters, Jeffrey P; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G



Olfactory Dysfunction in Allergic Rhinitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Olfactory dysfunction in patients with allergic rhinitis has long been thought to be secondary to coexisting chronic rhinosinusitis and polyposis with obstruction of airflow over the olfactory epithelium. Recent evidence suggests that the allergic inflammatory infiltrate may itself affect olfaction in the absence of mucosal hypertrophy. Objective: We undertook a study to determine olfactory function in patients with allergic

Joel Guss; Laurel Doghramji; Christine Reger; Alexander G. Chiu



Dysfunctional attention in autistic savants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A dysfunctional attention hypothesis of the basis of savant skills was tested with a series of computerized tasks that assessed the ability to divide, shift, direct, and sustain attention. Ten healthy men with pervasive developmental disorders and unusual calendar-calculating skill, and 10 age- and sex-matched controls were tested. There were four general findings. First, the savants and controls did not

B. J. Casey; C. T. Gordon; Glenn B. Mannheim; Judith M. Rumsey



Does Uremia Cause Vascular Dysfunction?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vascular dysfunction induced by uremia has 4 main aspects. (1) Atherosclerosis is increased. Intima-media thickness is increased, and animal studies have established that uremia accelerates atherosclerosis. Uremic toxins are involved in several steps of atherosclerosis. Leukocyte activation is stimulated by guanidines, advanced glycation end products (AGE), p-cresyl sulfate, platelet diadenosine polyphosphates, and indoxyl sulfate. Endothelial adhesion molecules are stimulated by

Philippe Brunet; Bertrand Gondouin; Ariane Duval-Sabatier; Laetitia Dou; Claire Cerini; Françoise Dignat-George; Noémie Jourde-Chiche; Angel Argiles; Stéphane Burtey



Bowel dysfunction in fibromyalgia syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fibromyalgia and irritable bowel syndrome frequently coexist. In this study, we utilized a previously validated self-administered questionnaire to assess the prevalence of symptoms of bowel dysfunction and irritable bowel syndrome in 123 patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 54 patients with degenerative joint disease (DJD) and 46 normal controls. Ninety (73%) of the fibromyalgia patients reported altered bowel function as

George Triadafilopoulos; Robert W. Simms; Don L. Goldenberg



GABAergic dysfunction in mood disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors review the available literature on the preclinical and clinical studies involving GABAergic neurotransmission in mood disorders. ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter present almost exclusively in the central nervous system (CNS), distributed across almost all brain regions, and expressed in interneurons modulating local circuits. The role of GABAergic dysfunction in mood disorders was first proposed 20 years

P Brambilla; J Perez; F Barale; G Schettini; J C Soares



JAMA Patient Page: Male Sexual Dysfunction  


... sexual dysfunction can be caused by physical or psychological problems. The June 23/30, 2004, issue of JAMA includes an article about the various types of male sexual dysfunction and treatments for them. ...


Synthesis of Facial Image with Expression Based on Muscular Contraction Parameters Using Linear Muscle and Sphincter Muscle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We aim to synthesize individual facial image with expression based on muscular contraction parameters. We have proposed a method of calculating the muscular contraction parameters from arbitrary face image without using learning for each individual. As a result, we could generate not only individual facial expression, but also the facial expressions of various persons. In this paper, we propose the muscle-based facial model; the facial muscles define both the linear and the novel sphincter. Additionally, we propose a method of synthesizing individual facial image with expression based on muscular contraction parameters. First, the individual facial model with expression is generated by fitting using the arbitrary face image. Next, the muscular contraction parameters are calculated that correspond to the expression displacement of the input face image. Finally, the facial expression is synthesized by the vertex displacements of a neutral facial model based on calculated muscular contraction parameters. Experimental results reveal that the novel sphincter muscle can synthesize facial expressions of the facial image, which corresponds to the actual face image with arbitrary and mouth or eyes expression.

Ahn, Seonju; Ozawa, Shinji


Patterns of gas and liquid reflux during transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation: a study using intraluminal electrical impedance  

PubMed Central

Background—Belching has been proposed as a major mechanism underlying acid gastro-oesophageal reflux in normal subjects. However, the presence of oesophageal gas has not been measured directly but only inferred from manometry. ?Aims—To investigate, using intraluminal electrical impedance, the patterns of gas and liquid reflux during transient lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) relaxations, the main mechanism of acid reflux in normal subjects. ?Methods—Impedance changes associated with the passage of gas were studied in vitro, and in vivo in cats. Oesophageal manometry, pH, and intraluminal electrical impedance measurements were performed in 11 normal subjects after a meal. ?Results—Gas reflux caused a sudden increase in impedance that propagated rapidly to the proximal oesophagus whereas liquid reflux induced a retrogressively propagated fall in impedance. Impedance showed gas or liquid reflux during most (102/141) transient LOS relaxations. When acid reflux occurred, impedance showed evidence of intraoesophageal retrograde flow of liquid in the majority (78%) of events. Evidence of gas retroflow was found in almost half (47%) of acid reflux episodes. When present together, however, liquid preceded gas on 44% of occasions. Overall, gas reflux occurred as the initial event in only 25% of acid reflux episodes. ?Conclusions—These findings suggest that in upright normal subjects, although belching can precipitate acid reflux, most acid reflux occurs as a primary event. ?? Keywords: belching; gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; oesophageal manometry; intraluminal electrical impedance; lower oesophageal sphincter

Sifrim, D; Silny, J; Holloway, R; Janssens, J



A novel pattern of longitudinal muscle contraction with subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus: a possible mechanism of lower esophageal sphincter relaxation  

PubMed Central

A subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induces lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation and inhibits progression of ongoing peristaltic contraction in the esophagus. Recent studies show that longitudinal muscle contraction of the esophagus may play a role in LES relaxation. Our goal was to determine whether a subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induces contraction of the longitudinal muscle of the esophagus and to determine the nature of this contraction. Studies were conducted in 16 healthy subjects. High resolution manometry (HRM) recorded pressures, and high frequency intraluminal ultrasound (HFIUS) images recorded longitudinal muscle contraction at various locations in the esophagus. Subthreshold pharyngeal stimulation was induced by injection of minute amounts of water in the pharynx. A subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus induced strong contraction and caudal descent of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) along with relaxation of the LES. HFIUS identified longitudinal muscle contraction of the proximal (3–5 cm below the UES) but not the distal esophagus. Pharyngeal stimulus, following a dry swallow, blocked the progression of dry swallow-induced peristalsis; this was also associated with UES contraction and descent along with the contraction of longitudinal muscle of the proximal esophagus. We identify a unique pattern of longitudinal muscle contraction of the proximal esophagus in response to subthreshold pharyngeal stimulus, which we propose may be responsible for relaxation of the distal esophagus and LES through the stretch sensitive activation of myenteric inhibitory motor neurons.

Leslie, Eric; Bhargava, Valmik



Personality dysfunction and employment dysfunction: double, double, toil and trouble.  


According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, personality disorders are characterized by functional impairment, which may unfold in the work environment. A number of empirical studies convincingly suggest that the presence of personality dysfunction has substantial negative and diffuse effects on work functioning. However, not all studies are in agreement. In addition, there may be specific mediating variables that modulate the likelihood that an individual with a personality disorder will experience work difficulties. These include the type of personality disorder, degree of neuroticism and disagreeableness, extent of social dysfunction, and severity of symptoms-all of which appear to be interrelated. Because employment generally promotes an individual's stability, further research into these variables is essential. PMID:20436770

Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A



Risk factors associated with anal sphincter tear: A comparison of primiparous patients, vaginal births after cesarean deliveries, and patients with previous vaginal delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was conducted to identify obstetric risk factors for anal sphincter tear in primiparous patients, patients with a previous cesarean delivery (VBAC), and patients with a previous vaginal delivery (PVD). Study Design: An obstetrics automated record system was accessed to retrospectively review records of all singleton vaginal deliveries at greater than 36 weeks' gestation (excluding breech and stillbirth)

Holly E. Richter; Cynthia G. Brumfield; Suzanne P. Cliver; Kathryn L. Burgio; Cherry L. Neely; R. Edward Varner



Pudendal neuropathy and severity of incontinence but not presence of an anal sphincter defect may determine the response to biofeedback therapy in fecal incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: It has been suggested that the severity of fecal incontinence, the presence of pudendal neuropathy, or an external anal sphincter defect does not preclude clinical improvement with biofeedback therapy. A discrepancy, however, is frequently found between subjective improvement and objective results after biofeedback therapy. Our aim was to assess whether severity of fecal incontinence, presence of pudendal neuropathy, or

Anne-Marie Leroi; Marie-Paule Dorival; Marie-Françoise Lecouturier; Christine Saiter; Marie-Laure Welter; Jean-Yves Touchais; Philippe Denis



A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial of Placement of the Artificial Bowel Sphincter (Acticon Neosphincter) for the Control of Fecal Incontinence  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND Severe fecal incontinence remains a disabling condition for the patient and a major therapeutic challenge for the physician. A series of observational studies have indicated that placement of an artificial bowel sphincter is associated with marked improvement of continence and quality of life. We have performed a prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the effect of placement of an

Paul E. O’Brien; John B. Dixon; Stewart Skinner; Cheryl Laurie; Angela Khera; David Fonda



Prospective study of the influence of parity and operative technique on the outcome of primary anal sphincter repair following obstetrical injury  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the influence of parity and method of primary anal sphincter repair on outcome following obstetrical third degree perineal tear. Study design: Prospective study of 154 women after primary repair following third degree tear conducted over 2 years. Postpartum evaluation included a continence questionnaire, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. Results: Third degree tears occurred in 1.6% primiparae and

Myra Fitzpatrick; Michelle Fynes; Mary Cassidy; Michael Behan; P. Ronan O’Connell; Colm O’Herlihy




PubMed Central

Huntington's disease (HD) is a fatal inherited neurodegenerative disorder that gradually robs affected individuals of memory, cognitive skills, and normal movements. While research has identified a single faulty gene, the huntingtin gene, as the cause of the disease, a cure remains elusive. Strong evidence indicates that mitochondrial impairment plays a key role in HD pathogenesis. Here, we highlight how mtHtt might cause mitochondrial dysfunction by either perturbing transcription of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins or by direct interaction with the organelle and modulation of respiration, membrane potential and Ca2+ buffering. In addition, we propose that mtHtt might convey its neurotoxicity by evoking defects in mitochondrial dynamics, organelle trafficking and fission and fusion, which in turn might result in bioenergetic failure and HD-linked neuronal dysfunction and cell death. Finally, we speculate how mitochondria may dictate selective vulnerability of long projection neurons, such as medium spiny neurons, which are particularly affected in HD.

Bossy-Wetzel, Ella; Petrilli, Alejandra; Knott, Andrew B.



Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions.  


The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes. PMID:22101346

Busi, Maria V; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F



Mitochondrial dysfunction affects chloroplast functions  

PubMed Central

The transcriptomic response of A9:u-ATP9 and apetala3:u-ATP9 lines carrying a mitochondrial dysfunction in flower tissues has been characterized. Both lines showed an alteration in the transcription of several genes involved in carbon and nitrogen metabolism, stress responses, transcription factors and DNA binding proteins. Interestingly, several transcripts of photosynthetic-related genes were also affected in their expression such as the mRNAs encoding for chlorophyllase, chlorophyll binding proteins and a PSII. Moreover, chlorophyll levels were reduced and the Mg-dechelatase activity was increased, indicating an alteration in chlorophyll metabolism. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may also affect chloroplastic functions, and that our model could be useful to uncover retrograde signaling mechanisms operating between the three different plant genomes.

Busi, Maria V.; Gomez-Lobato, Maria E.; Araya, Alejandro; Gomez-Casati, Diego F.



[Male sexual dysfunction and obesity].  


Obesity concerns more than 200 million people in the world, with an increasing prevalence in western countries. It is closely related to multiple medical conditions, such as diabetes and hypertension. It was recently shown that testosterone deficiency syndrome and erectile dysfunction (ED) are also linked to male obesity. In this group of patients, ED may be due to defects in corpus cavernosum relaxation, endocrine modifications and nerve signal alterations. Weight loss and increased physical activities can improve erectile function in 30% of obese patients. Additional medical treatments of ED enhance erectile function in more than 80% of patients. Self image improvement associated with appropriate erectile dysfunction medical treatment allow better sexual life and potentially increased motivation for weight loss. PMID:23330231

Lucca, Ilaria; Paduch, Darius A; Pralong, François; Vaucher, Laurent



Mitochondria: Redox Metabolism and Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Mitochondria are the main intracellular location for fuel generation; however, they are not just power plants but involved in a range of other intracellular functions including regulation of redox homeostasis and cell fate. Dysfunction of mitochondria will result in oxidative stress which is one of the underlying causal factors for a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In this paper, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the mitochondria, redox regulatory roles of certain mitochondrial proteins, and the impact on cell fate will be discussed. The current state of our understanding in mitochondrial dysfunction in pathological states and how we could target them for therapeutic purpose will also be briefly reviewed.

Kang, Jia; Pervaiz, Shazib



Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Oxidative stress is a hallmark of all cardiovascular risk states (e.g. hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia, cigarette\\u000a smoking) and a major underlying cause of endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and blood vessel pathology. Under\\u000a physiological conditions, cells of the vessel wall produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide (O2•–) and hydrogen\\u000a peroxide (H2O2) in a deliberate and tightly regulated manner for use

Stephanie T. de Dios; Christopher G. Sobey; Grant R. Drummond


Thyroid dysfunction from antineoplastic agents.  


Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%-50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient's quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents. PMID:22010182

Hamnvik, Ole-Petter Riksfjord; Larsen, P Reed; Marqusee, Ellen



Cognitive dysfunction in sleep disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifty-six studies were reviewed that explored cognitive dysfunctions in people with sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD, 24 studies), insomnia (18 studies), or narcolepsy (14 studies). Individual study outcomes were grouped according to neuropsychological functions. Available evidence was reviewed separately for SRBD, insomnia and narcolepsy. Consistent evidence was found for impaired driving simulation performance in SRBD patients (92.9% of comparisons with control

S. Fulda; H. Schulz



Thyroid Dysfunction from Antineoplastic Agents  

PubMed Central

Unlike cytotoxic agents that indiscriminately affect rapidly dividing cells, newer antineoplastic agents such as targeted therapies and immunotherapies are associated with thyroid dysfunction. These include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, bexarotene, radioiodine-based cancer therapies, denileukin diftitox, alemtuzumab, interferon-?, interleukin-2, ipilimumab, tremelimumab, thalidomide, and lenalidomide. Primary hypothyroidism is the most common side effect, although thyrotoxicosis and effects on thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion and thyroid hormone metabolism have also been described. Most agents cause thyroid dysfunction in 20%–50% of patients, although some have even higher rates. Despite this, physicians may overlook drug-induced thyroid dysfunction because of the complexity of the clinical picture in the cancer patient. Symptoms of hypothyroidism, such as fatigue, weakness, depression, memory loss, cold intolerance, and cardiovascular effects, may be incorrectly attributed to the primary disease or to the antineoplastic agent. Underdiagnosis of thyroid dysfunction can have important consequences for cancer patient management. At a minimum, the symptoms will adversely affect the patient’s quality of life. Alternatively, such symptoms can lead to dose reductions of potentially life-saving therapies. Hypothyroidism can also alter the kinetics and clearance of medications, which may lead to undesirable side effects. Thyrotoxicosis can be mistaken for sepsis or a nonendocrinologic drug side effect. In some patients, thyroid disease may indicate a higher likelihood of tumor response to the agent. Both hypothyroidism and thyrotoxicosis are easily diagnosed with inexpensive and specific tests. In many patients, particularly those with hypothyroidism, the treatment is straightforward. We therefore recommend routine testing for thyroid abnormalities in patients receiving these antineoplastic agents.

Larsen, P. Reed; Marqusee, Ellen



Progress in Female Sexual Dysfunction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Female sexual dysfunction (FSD) is a significant age-related, progressive and highly prevalent problem that affects a substantial number of women that causes personal distress and has negative effects on quality of life and interpersonal relationships. Definitions: The female sexual response cycle consists of three phases: desire, arousal, and orgasm, and is initiated by non-adrenergic\\/non-cholinergic, e.g. vasoactive intestinal polypeptide and

Fatma Ferda Verit; Ercan Yeni; Hasan Kafali



Telomere dysfunction and genome instability.  


The nucleoprotein complexes that cap the very ends of the eukaryotic chromosomes, named telomeres, are indispensable for cell viability. Telomeric DNA shortens in each cell division until it cannot exert end-protective functions in human somatic cells. Additionally, several proteins have been described to play a key role in telomere homeostasis preventing chromosome extremities to be recognized as double-stranded breaks (DSBs). When telomeres become dysfunctional, either through excessive shortening or due to defects in the proteins that form its structure, they trigger p53/pRb pathways what limits proliferative lifespan. Impairment of telomere function together with a compromised senescence/apoptosis response leads to chromosome instability. Fusions between dysfunctional telomeres or even between dysfunctional telomeres and DSBs can initiate breakage-fusion-bridge (BFB) cycles. Initially, telomere fusions were proposed to cause only structural abnormalities. Nevertheless, changes in chromosome number have also emerged as a possible consequence of alterations in end capping. Here we review the main aspects of telomeres and telomere-based chromosome instability, highlighting why they have been proposed as a driving force for tumourigenesis. PMID:22652771

Frias, Cristina; Pampalona, Judit; Genesca, Anna; Tusell, Laura



Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver: A clinical test to diagnose intrinsic sphincter deficiency in women suffering from genuine urinary stress incontinence.  


OBJECTIVES: To assess the predictive value of a simple clinical test (posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver) in the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency. METHODS: The present prospective study included 62 women suffering from stress urinary incontinence. Every patient underwent a urogynecological examination including multichannel urodynamic testing (cystometry, urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) and a clinical examination including posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was carried out with the bladder filled with 400?mL of saline in a supine position, and was obtained by means of a split speculum allowing gentle pull down traction of the posterior vaginal wall. Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver was considered as positive when a urine leak was observed during the manoeuvre. Intrinsic sphincter deficiency was urodynamically defined by maximum urethral closure pressure ?20?cmH2 O. Correlations between positive/negative posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver and urodynamic intrinsic sphincter deficiency were calculated. RESULTS: There was a statistical correlation between age and low maximum urethral closure pressure (P?sphincter deficiency diagnosis, the posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver positive predictive value was 94.67% and the negative predictive value was 95.4%, with a specificity of 97.6% and sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSION: Posterior vaginal wall pull down maneuver is a reliable clinical test, easy to carry out, inexpensive and without significant risk. This test allows the diagnosis of intrinsic sphincter deficiency in women suffering from stress urinary incontinence, thus avoiding further invasive urodynamic testing (urethral pressure profile, Valsalva Leak Point Pressure measurement) in women with genuine stress urinary incontinence. Furthermore, it is helpful when choosing the type of sling procedure (retropubic vs transobturator) when a surgery is planned. PMID:23600798

Thubert, Thibault; Deffieux, Xavier; Jousse, Marylène; Guinet-Lacoste, Amandine; Ismael, Samer Sheikh; Amarenco, Gerard



Development of a three-dimensional physiological model of the internal anal sphincter bioengineered in vitro from isolated smooth muscle cells.  


Fecal incontinence affects people of all ages and social backgrounds and can have devastating psychological and economic consequences. This disorder is largely attributed to decreased mechanical efficiency of the internal anal sphincter (IAS), yet little is known about the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the malfunction of sphincteric smooth muscle at the cellular level. The object of this study was to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) physiological model of the IAS bioengineered in vitro from isolated smooth muscle cells. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the IAS of rabbits were seeded in culture on top of a loose fibrin gel, where they migrated and self-assembled in circumferential alignment. As the cells proliferated, the fibrin gel contracted around a 5-mm-diameter SYLGARD mold, resulting in a 3-D cylindrical ring of sphincteric tissue. We found that 1) the bioengineered IAS rings generated a spontaneous basal tone, 2) stimulation with 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) caused a sustained decrease in the basal tone (relaxation) that was calcium-independent, 3) upon stimulation with ACh, bioengineered IAS rings showed a calcium- and concentration-dependent peak contraction at 30 s that was sustained for 4 min, 4) addition of 8-Br-cAMP induced rapid relaxation of ACh-induced contraction and force generation of IAS rings, and 5) bioengineered sphincter rings show striking functional differences when compared with bioengineered rings made from isolated colonic smooth muscle cells. This is the first report of a 3-D in vitro model of a gastrointestinal smooth muscle IAS. Bioengineered IAS rings demonstrate physiological functionality and may be used in the elucidation of the mechanisms causing sphincter malfunction. PMID:15774939

Hecker, Louise; Baar, Keith; Dennis, Robert G; Bitar, Khalil N



Psychological profile of dysfunctional dysphonia.  


A high degree of emotional maladjustment can be detected in dysfunctional dysphonia. In these patients, it is not rare to observe an immediate resolution of the phoniatric disorder, but it is equally as common to identify a significant rate of recurrence (> 10%) in the short and long term. This phenomenon may be due to poor adaptive ability in the presence of mood disorders. Aims of this study were: a. selection of a suitable instrument to identify "minor" and "major" symptoms of psychiatric nature in dysphonic subjects; b. evaluation of profile of mood disorders in dysfunctional dysphonic adults. Hopkins Symptom Check List 90 was chosen. This is a scale of self-evaluation, adapted in Italian, complete (9 dimensions) and easy to use. It is employed to evaluate the following dimensions: somatization, obsessive compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, sleep disorders. Three groups were studied: group 1:40 patients (36 female, 4 male; aged 18-62 years, mean 42) with dysfunctional dysphonia; group 2: 20 patients (18 female, 2 male; aged 19-61 years, mean 43) with ENT disorders; group 3: 20 subjects (18 female, 2 male; aged 18-62 years, mean 42.2) as controls. In the statistical analysis, a one-way variance between the three groups and a post-hoc analysis using Schiffé test (level of significance 0.05) were carried out. Results showed significant differences between group 1 and groups 2 and 3 as far as concerns anxiety, phobia, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity and somatization variables. A significant difference was found only between groups 1 and 3 as far as concerns the variables: sleep disorders, depression and paranoid ideation. No significant difference emerged between the groups regarding psychoticism and anger/hostility dimensions. The present study identified a definite profile of minor personality disorders, of an anxious nature, with evidence of somatization, interpersonal sensitivity and obsessive-compulsive type traits, significantly prevailing in dysfunctional dysphonic subjects. Symptom Check List-90 has, therefore, proven to be an adequate instrument in the more complete definition of subjects affected by dysfunctional dysphonia aiming at referral to an integrated protocol which focuses on phoniatric treatment using an approach which acts upon the behavioural aspects of communication. PMID:15198050

Lauriello, M; Cozza, K; Rossi, A; Di Rienzo, L; Coen Tirelli, G



Asthma: vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and other dysfunctional breathing disorders.  


Vocal cord dysfunction (VCD) and dysfunctional breathing (DB) disorders may mimic or coexist with asthma, leading to overtreatment with corticosteroids with consequent morbidity. Iatrogenic complications can be averted by early and correct diagnosis. VCD, also termed paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (PVFMD), is characterized by intermittent paradoxical adduction of the vocal cords, mainly during inspiration, leading to airflow obstruction and dyspnea. Patients with VCD may have repetitive emergency room visits due to acute dyspnea (mimicking exacerbations of asthma). In the seminal descriptions of VCD, young women (often with psychiatric issues) predominated; however, other groups at increased risk for developing VCD include elite athletes, military recruits, and individuals exposed to irritants (inhaled or aspirated). Chronic postnasal drip, laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR), and gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may lead to laryngeal hyperresponsiveness. The diagnosis of VCD may be difficult because physical exam and spirometry may be normal between episodes. During symptomatic episodes, spirometry typically reveals variable extrathoracic airway obstruction (truncated inspiratory flow volume loop). The gold standard for identifying VCD is flexible fiberoptic rhinolaryngoscopy. Management of VCD includes identification and treatment of underlying disorders (eg, chronic postnasal drip, LPR, GER, anxiety, depression) and a multidisciplinary approach (including highly trained speech therapists). Speech therapy and biofeedback play a critical role in teaching techniques to override various dysfunctional breathing habits. When postnasal drip, LPR, or GER coexist, these disorders should be aggressively treated. With successful therapy, corticosteroids can often be discontinued. During severe, acute episodes of VCD, therapeutic strategies include heliox (80% helium/20% oxygen), topical lidocaine, anxiolytics, and superior laryngeal blocks with Clostridium botulinum toxin. DB is a poorly understood disorder with features that overlap with VCD and asthma. The dysfunctional pattern may reflect abnormalities in the rate or depth of breathing or in breathing mechanics that may involve the nasal passages, oropharynx, larynx, or chest wall muscles. Not unlike VCD, patients with DB are often diagnosed with asthma, and their symptoms do not improve on asthma medicines. There is no consensus regarding diagnostic criteria or appropriate testing for DB. The pathophysiology of DB is poorly understood, but psychological or physiological stress may precipitate episodes in some patients. Treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach (including speech therapy and psychological support). Prognosis is usually good. PMID:23047311

Balkissoon, Ron; Kenn, Klaus



Damage to the innervation of the voluntary anal and periurethral sphincter musculature in incontinence: an electrophysiological study.  

PubMed Central

In 40 women with idiopathic (neurogenic) faecal incontinence, 20 of whom also had stress urinary incontinence, single fibre EMG studies showed an increased fibre density in the external anal sphincter muscle. All these patients showed excessive descent of the pelvic floor on straining. The mean terminal motor latencies in the pudendal and perineal nerves, measured by a digitally-directed intrarectal stimulating technique, were increased when compared with 20 control subjects (p less than 0.01). The perineal nerve terminal motor latency was more markedly increased in the 20 patients with double incontinence than in those with faecal incontinence alone (p less than 0.01). These results provide direct electrophysiological evidence of damage to the innervation of the pelvic floor musculature in idiopathic faecal and double incontinence, and imply that idiopathic stress urinary incontinence may have a similar cause.

Snooks, S J; Barnes, P R; Swash, M



Clinical evaluation of a single daily dose of phenylpropanolamine in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence in the bitch  

PubMed Central

The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the efficacy of a single daily oral dose of phenylpropanolamine (PPA) in the treatment of urethral sphincter mechanism incompetence (USMI) in bitches. Nine bitches diagnosed with USMI were treated with a single daily dose [1.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)] of PPA for at least 1 month. Urethral pressure prof