Sample records for qpcr reference genes

  1. Comparison of predictive methods and biological validation for qPCR reference genes in sunflower leaf senescence transcript analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula FernandezJulio; Julio A. Di Rienzo; Sebastián Moschen; Guillermo A. A. Dosio; Luis A. N. Aguirrezábal; H. Esteban Hopp; Norma Paniego; Ruth A. Heinz

    2011-01-01

    The selection and validation of reference genes constitute a key point for gene expression analysis based on qPCR, requiring\\u000a efficient normalization approaches. In this work, the expression profiles of eight genes were evaluated to identify novel\\u000a reference genes for transcriptional studies associated to the senescence process in sunflower. Three alternative strategies\\u000a were applied for the evaluation of gene expression stability

  2. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli in Carrot Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4?, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1?, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions. PMID:25658122

  3. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli in Carrot Leaves.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4?, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1?, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions. PMID:25658122

  4. Evaluation of reference genes for RT qPCR analyses of structure-specific and hormone regulated gene expression in Physcomitrella patens gametophytes.

    PubMed

    Le Bail, Aude; Scholz, Sebastian; Kost, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    The use of the moss Physcomitrella patens as a model system to study plant development and physiology is rapidly expanding. The strategic position of P. patens within the green lineage between algae and vascular plants, the high efficiency with which transgenes are incorporated by homologous recombination, advantages associated with the haploid gametophyte representing the dominant phase of the P. patens life cycle, the simple structure of protonemata, leafy shoots and rhizoids that constitute the haploid gametophyte, as well as a readily accessible high-quality genome sequence make this moss a very attractive experimental system. The investigation of the genetic and hormonal control of P. patens development heavily depends on the analysis of gene expression patterns by real time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR). This technique requires well characterized sets of reference genes, which display minimal expression level variations under all analyzed conditions, for data normalization. Sets of suitable reference genes have been described for most widely used model systems including e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, but not for P. patens. Here, we present a RT qPCR based comparison of transcript levels of 12 selected candidate reference genes in a range of gametophytic P. patens structures at different developmental stages, and in P. patens protonemata treated with hormones or hormone transport inhibitors. Analysis of these RT qPCR data using GeNorm and NormFinder software resulted in the identification of sets of P. patens reference genes suitable for gene expression analysis under all tested conditions, and suggested that the two best reference genes are sufficient for effective data normalization under each of these conditions. PMID:23951063

  5. Quantifying mRNA and MicroRNA with qPCR in Cervical Carcinogenesis: A Validation of Reference Genes to Ensure Accurate Data

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Maria da Conceição Gomes; Coimbra, Eliane Campos; de Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Guimarães, Mariléa de Lima; Heráclio, Sandra de Andrade; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have catalogued global gene expression patterns in a panel of normal, tumoral cervical tissues so that potential biomarkers can be identified. The qPCR has been one of the most widely used technologies for detecting these potential biomarkers. However, few studies have investigated a correct strategy for the normalization of data in qPCR assays for cervical tissues. The aim of this study was to validate reference genes in cervical tissues to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA and miRNA levels in cervical carcinogenesis. For this purpose, some issues for obtaining reliable qPCR data were evaluated such as the following: geNorm analysis with a set of samples which meet all of the cervical tissue conditions (Normal + CIN1 + CIN2 + CIN3 + Cancer); the use of individual Ct values versus pooled Ct values; and the use of a single (or multiple) reference genes to quantify mRNA and miRNA expression levels. Two different data sets were put on the geNorm to assess the expression stability of the candidate reference genes: the first dataset comprised the quantities of the individual Ct values; and the second dataset comprised the quantities of the pooled Ct values. Moreover, in this study, all the candidate reference genes were analyzed as a single “normalizer”. The normalization strategies were assessed by measuring p16INK4a and miR-203 transcripts in qPCR assays. We found that the use of pooled Ct values, can lead to a misinterpretation of the results, which suggests that the maintenance of inter-individual variability is a key factor in ensuring the reliability of the qPCR data. In addition, it should be stressed that a proper validation of the suitability of the reference genes is required for each experimental setting, since the indiscriminate use of a reference gene can also lead to discrepant results. PMID:25365304

  6. Validation of Potential Reference Genes for qPCR in Maize across Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments, and Tissue Types

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Hai; Gao, Shibin; Liu, Hailan; Liu, Jian; Cao, Moju; Pan, Guangtang; Rong, Tingzhao; Zhang, Suzhi

    2014-01-01

    The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG), phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins), and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?), tubulin beta (?-TUB), cyclophilin (CYP), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A) were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein), GLU1(beta-glucosidase), and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9) were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1?, ?-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types. PMID:24810581

  7. Real-Time qPCR Identifies Suitable Reference Genes for Borna Disease Virus-Infected Rat Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lujun; Liu, Siwen; Zhang, Liang; You, Hongmin; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; He, Peng; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most commonly-used technique to identify gene expression profiles. The selection of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite to properly evaluating gene expression. Here, the suitability of commonly-used reference genes in normalizing RT-qPCR assays of mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons infected with Borna disease virus (BDV) was assessed. The expressions of eight commonly-used reference genes were comparatively analyzed in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons and non-infected control neurons mainly across 9 and 12 days post-infection. These reference genes were validated by RT-qPCR and separately ranked by four statistical algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. Then, the RankAggreg package was used to construct consensus rankings. ARBP was found to be the most stable internal control gene at Day 9, and ACTB at Day 12. As the assessment of the validity of the selected reference genes confirms the suitability of applying a combination of the two most stable references genes, combining the two most stable genes for normalization of RT-qPCR studies in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons is recommended at each time point. This study can contribute to improving BDV research by providing the means by which to obtain more reliable and accurate gene expression measurements. PMID:25431926

  8. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for the normalisation of qPCR gene expression data in human post mortem tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antje Koppelkamm; Benedikt Vennemann; Tony Fracasso; Sabine Lutz-Bonengel; Ulrike Schmidt; Marielle Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    Gene expression analyses based on messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling require accurate data normalisation. When using endogenous\\u000a reference genes, these have to be validated carefully. Therefore, we examined the transcript stability of 10 potential reference\\u000a genes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction: beta actin, 18S rRNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase,\\u000a TATA box-binding protein, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase I, beta-2-microglobulin, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, succinate\\u000a dehydrogenase complex, subunit

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for qPCR- and ddPCR-Based Analyses of Gene Expression in Senescing Barley Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zmienko, Agnieszka; Samelak-Czajka, Anna; Goralski, Michal; Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a tightly regulated developmental or stress-induced process. It is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell metabolism and structure, eventually leading to the disintegration of chloroplasts, the breakdown of leaf proteins, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA and ultimately cell death. In light of the global and intense reorganization of the senescing leaf transcriptome, measuring time-course gene expression patterns in this model is challenging due to the evident problems associated with selecting stable reference genes. We have used oligonucleotide microarray data to identify 181 genes with stable expression in the course of dark-induced senescence of barley leaf. From those genes, we selected 5 candidates and confirmed their invariant expression by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). We used the selected reference genes to normalize the level of the expression of the following senescence-responsive genes in ddPCR assays: SAG12, ICL, AGXT, CS and RbcS. We were thereby able to achieve a substantial reduction in the data variability. Although the use of reference genes is not considered mandatory in ddPCR assays, our results show that it is advisable in special cases, specifically those that involve the following conditions: i) a low number of repeats, ii) the detection of low-fold changes in gene expression or iii) series data comparisons (such as time-course experiments) in which large sample variation greatly affects the overall gene expression profile and biological interpretation of the data. PMID:25723393

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for qPCR- and ddPCR-Based Analyses of Gene Expression in Senescing Barley Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Zmienko, Agnieszka; Samelak-Czajka, Anna; Goralski, Michal; Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, Ewa; Kozlowski, Piotr; Figlerowicz, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Leaf senescence is a tightly regulated developmental or stress-induced process. It is accompanied by dramatic changes in cell metabolism and structure, eventually leading to the disintegration of chloroplasts, the breakdown of leaf proteins, internucleosomal fragmentation of nuclear DNA and ultimately cell death. In light of the global and intense reorganization of the senescing leaf transcriptome, measuring time-course gene expression patterns in this model is challenging due to the evident problems associated with selecting stable reference genes. We have used oligonucleotide microarray data to identify 181 genes with stable expression in the course of dark-induced senescence of barley leaf. From those genes, we selected 5 candidates and confirmed their invariant expression by both reverse transcription quantitative PCR and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). We used the selected reference genes to normalize the level of the expression of the following senescence-responsive genes in ddPCR assays: SAG12, ICL, AGXT, CS and RbcS. We were thereby able to achieve a substantial reduction in the data variability. Although the use of reference genes is not considered mandatory in ddPCR assays, our results show that it is advisable in special cases, specifically those that involve the following conditions: i) a low number of repeats, ii) the detection of low-fold changes in gene expression or iii) series data comparisons (such as time-course experiments) in which large sample variation greatly affects the overall gene expression profile and biological interpretation of the data. PMID:25723393

  11. Getting real with real-time qPCR: a case study of reference gene selection for morphological variation in Drosophila melanogaster wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruna P. Matta; Blanche C. Bitner-Mathé; Marcio Alves-Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of gene expression differences during development requires sensitive techniques combined with gold-standard\\u000a normalization procedures. This is particularly true in the case of quantitative traits, where expression changes might be\\u000a small. Nevertheless, systematic selection and validation of reference genes has been overlooked, even in Drosophila studies. Here, we tested the stability of six traditional reference genes across samples of

  12. Methods for qPCR gene expression profiling applied to 1440 lymphoblastoid single cells

    PubMed Central

    Livak, Kenneth J.; Wills, Quin F.; Tipping, Alex J.; Datta, Krishnalekha; Mittal, Rowena; Goldson, Andrew J.; Sexton, Darren W.; Holmes, Chris C.

    2013-01-01

    The stochastic nature of generating eukaryotic transcripts challenges conventional methods for obtaining and analyzing single-cell gene expression data. In order to address the inherent noise, detailed methods are described on how to collect data on multiple genes in a large number of single cells using microfluidic arrays. As part of a study exploring the effect of genotype on Wnt pathway activation, data were collected for 96 qPCR assays on 1440 lymphoblastoid cells. The description of methods includes preliminary data processing steps. The methods used in the collection and analysis of single-cell qPCR data are contrasted with those used in conventional qPCR. PMID:23079396

  13. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Kang

    Background: Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. ...

  14. Comparison of TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR methods for quantitative gene expression in tung tree tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis due to its large dynamic range, tremendous sensitivity, high sequence-specificity, little to no post-amplification processing, and sample throughput. TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are two frequently used methods. However, dir...

  15. Comprehensive qPCR profiling of gene expression in single neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Citri, Ami; Pang, Zhiping P.; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius; Malenka, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in neuronal stem cell biology lies in characterization of lineage-specific reprogrammed human neuronal cells, a process that necessitates the use of an assay sensitive to the single-cell level. Single-cell gene profiling can provide definitive evidence regarding the conversion of one cell type into another at a high level of resolution. The protocol we describe employs Fluidigm Biomark dynamic arrays for high-throughput expression profiling from single neuronal cells, assaying up to 96 independent samples with up to 96 qPCR probes (equivalent to 9216 reactions) in a single experiment, which can be completed within 2–3 days. The protocol enables simple and cost-effective profiling of several hundred transcripts from a single cell, and could have numerous utilities. PMID:22193304

  16. Selection and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in gene expression studies in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), a sensitive and commonly used technique for gene expression analysis, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalization of gene expression. Up to now, only one reference gene for qPCR analysis, corresponding to 40S Ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), was available for the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, the only source of the commercial anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we screened for additional reference genes for this plant species by mining C. roseus RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and qualified as superior reference genes for this model plant species. Based on this, eight candidate C. roseus reference genes were identified and, together with RPS9, evaluated by performing qPCR on a series of different C. roseus explants and tissue cultures. NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper analyses of the resulting qPCR data revealed that the orthologs of At2g28390 (SAND family protein, SAND), At2g32170 (N2227-like family protein, N2227) and At4g26410 (Expressed protein, EXP) had the highest expression stability across the different C. roseus samples and are superior as reference genes as compared to the traditionally used RPS9. Analysis of publicly available C. roseus RNA-Seq data confirmed the expression stability of SAND and N2227, underscoring their value as reference genes for C. roseus qPCR analysis. PMID:25058454

  17. Reference genes in real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Kozera, Bart?omiej; Rapacz, Marcin

    2013-11-01

    This paper aims to discuss various aspects of the use of reference genes in qPCR technique used in the thousands of present studies. Most frequently, these are housekeeping genes and they must meet several criteria so that they can lay claim to the name. Lots of papers report that in different conditions, for different organisms and even tissues the basic assumption—the constant level of the expression is not maintained for many genes that seem to be perfect candidates. Moreover, their transcription can not be affected by experimental factors. Sounds simple and clear but a great number of designed protocols and lack of consistency among them brings confusion on how to perform experiment properly. Since during selection of the most stable normalizing gene we can not use any reference gene, different ways and algorithms for their selection were developed. Such methods, including examples of best normalizing genes in some specific cases and possible mistakes are presented based on available sources. Numerous examples of reference genes applications, which are usually in too few numbers in relevant articles not allowing to make a solid fundament for a reader, will be shown along with instructive compilations to make an evidence for presented statements and an arrangement of future qPCR experiments. To include all the pitfalls and problems associated with the normalization methods there is no way not to begin from sample preparation and its storage going through candidate gene selection, primer design and statistical analysis. This is important because numerous short reviews available cover the topic only in lesser extent at the same time giving the reader false conviction of complete topic recognition. PMID:24078518

  18. Differential gene expression identified by RNA-Seq and qPCR in two sizes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; He, Maoxian

    2014-04-01

    Differential growth of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata still exists in the aquaculture production. There is no systematic study of the entire transcriptome of differential gene expression in P. fucata in the literature. In this study, high-throughput Illumina/HiSeq™ 2000 RNA-Seq was used to examine the differences of gene expression in large (L) and small oysters (S). In total, 74,293 and 76,635 unigenes were generated from L and S oysters, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression pattern of 19 out of 34 selected genes was consistent with the results of RNA-Seq analysis: 14 genes (11 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 2 for shell formation) were expressed more highly in S, 5 genes (1 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 3 for the immune system) were expressed more highly in L; 3 genes associated with the immune system were opposite to it; and no difference was found for the remaining 12 genes. Another 9 shell formation-related genes in L and S were examined by qPCR: 1 gene was expressed more highly in L, 5 genes were expressed more highly in S and no difference was found for the remaining 3 genes. Some genes related to growth and development, shell formation and reproduction were expressed more highly in S compared to L. This phenomenon could be explained by "catch-up growth". The results of this study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of differential growth between P. fucata individuals and provide valuable information for future research. PMID:24440293

  19. Detection of pathogenic Leptospira spp. through real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the LipL32 gene.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Robyn Anne

    2013-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of leptospirosis, through culture and/or serology, can be difficult without proper expertise and is often delayed due to the length of time required to obtain results. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), more specifically the real-time detection of the amplified PCR product, is a methodology that can provide a diagnosis in a timelier manner compared to culture and serology. There are a limited number of real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for detecting Leptospira and not all of these assays are able to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic species. In addition, there are a variety of probe technologies and qPCR instruments that are utilized with these assays. This chapter presents a qPCR assay that targets lipL32, a gene which is present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp. This assay utilizes a TaqMan probe and instructions for use on either the Lightcycler 1.2 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) or the ABI 7500 (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) are provided. PMID:23104295

  20. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

  1. Apparent Polyploidization after Gamma Irradiation: Pitfalls in the Use of Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) for the Estimation of Mitochondrial and Nuclear DNA Gene Copy Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Winnie W. Y.; Lake, Vanessa; Banos, Connie; Davies, Justin; Banati, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has been widely used to quantify changes in gene copy numbers after radiation exposure. Here, we show that gamma irradiation ranging from 10 to 100 Gy of cells and cell-free DNA samples significantly affects the measured qPCR yield, due to radiation-induced fragmentation of the DNA template and, therefore, introduces errors into the estimation of gene copy numbers. The radiation-induced DNA fragmentation and, thus, measured qPCR yield varies with temperature not only in living cells, but also in isolated DNA irradiated under cell-free conditions. In summary, the variability in measured qPCR yield from irradiated samples introduces a significant error into the estimation of both mitochondrial and nuclear gene copy numbers and may give spurious evidence for polyploidization. PMID:23722662

  2. The Renilla luciferase gene as a reference gene for normalization of gene expression in transiently transfected cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The importance of appropriate normalization controls in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) experiments has become more apparent as the number of biological studies using this methodology has increased. In developing a system to study gene expression from transiently transfected plasmids, it became clear that normalization using chromosomally encoded genes is not ideal, at it does not take into account the transfection efficiency and the significantly lower expression levels of the plasmids. We have developed and validated a normalization method for qPCR using a co-transfected plasmid. Results The best chromosomal gene for normalization in the presence of the transcriptional activators used in this study, cadmium, dexamethasone, forskolin and phorbol-12-myristate 13-acetate was first identified. qPCR data was analyzed using geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper. Each software application was found to rank the normalization controls differently with no clear correlation. Including a co-transfected plasmid encoding the Renilla luciferase gene (Rluc) in this analysis showed that its calculated stability was not as good as the optimised chromosomal genes, most likely as a result of the lower expression levels and transfection variability. Finally, we validated these analyses by testing two chromosomal genes (B2M and ActB) and a co-transfected gene (Rluc) under biological conditions. When analyzing co-transfected plasmids, Rluc normalization gave the smallest errors compared to the chromosomal reference genes. Conclusions Our data demonstrates that transfected Rluc is the most appropriate normalization reference gene for transient transfection qPCR analysis; it significantly reduces the standard deviation within biological experiments as it takes into account the transfection efficiencies and has easily controllable expression levels. This improves reproducibility, data validity and most importantly, enables accurate interpretation of qPCR data. PMID:21194418

  3. Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

  4. An examination of MS candidate genes identified as differentially regulated in multiple sclerosis plaque tissue, using absolute and comparative real-time Q-PCR analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Tajouri; A. S. Mellick; A. Tourtellotte; R. M. Nagra; L. R. Griffiths

    2005-01-01

    In our laboratory, we have developed methods in real-time detection and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to analyse the relative levels of gene expression in post mortem brain tissues. We have then applied this method to examine differences in gene activity between normal white matter (NWM) and plaque tissue from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Genes were selected based on their association

  5. Identification of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Experiments in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Proust, Hélène; Dolan, Liam; Langdale, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widely used as a method to compare gene transcript levels across different conditions. However, selection of suitable reference genes to normalize qPCR data is required for accurate transcript level analysis. Recently, Marchantia polymorpha has been adopted as a model for the study of liverwort development and land plant evolution. Identification of appropriate reference genes has therefore become a necessity for gene expression studies. In this study, transcript levels of eleven candidate reference genes have been analyzed across a range of biological contexts that encompass abiotic stress, hormone treatment and different developmental stages. The consistency of transcript levels was assessed using both geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, and a consensus ranking of the different candidate genes was then obtained. MpAPT and MpACT showed relatively constant transcript levels across all conditions tested whereas the transcript levels of other candidate genes were clearly influenced by experimental conditions. By analyzing transcript levels of phosphate and nitrate starvation reporter genes, we confirmed that MpAPT and MpACT are suitable reference genes in M. polymorpha and also demonstrated that normalization with an inappropriate gene can lead to erroneous analysis of qPCR data. PMID:25798897

  6. Identification of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Experiments in the Liverwort Marchantia polymorpha

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Liam; Langdale, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widely used as a method to compare gene transcript levels across different conditions. However, selection of suitable reference genes to normalize qPCR data is required for accurate transcript level analysis. Recently, Marchantia polymorpha has been adopted as a model for the study of liverwort development and land plant evolution. Identification of appropriate reference genes has therefore become a necessity for gene expression studies. In this study, transcript levels of eleven candidate reference genes have been analyzed across a range of biological contexts that encompass abiotic stress, hormone treatment and different developmental stages. The consistency of transcript levels was assessed using both geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, and a consensus ranking of the different candidate genes was then obtained. MpAPT and MpACT showed relatively constant transcript levels across all conditions tested whereas the transcript levels of other candidate genes were clearly influenced by experimental conditions. By analyzing transcript levels of phosphate and nitrate starvation reporter genes, we confirmed that MpAPT and MpACT are suitable reference genes in M. polymorpha and also demonstrated that normalization with an inappropriate gene can lead to erroneous analysis of qPCR data. PMID:25798897

  7. Normalization of gene expression using SYBR green qPCR: a case for paraoxonase 1 and 2 in Alzheimer's disease brains.

    PubMed

    Leduc, Valérie; Legault, Véronique; Dea, Doris; Poirier, Judes

    2011-08-30

    Validating the expression stability of reference genes is crucial for reliable normalization of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) data, but relatively few studies have investigated this issue in brain human tissues. The present study thus aimed at identifying in human post-mortem brain tissues a set of suitable endogenous reference genes (ERG) for the expression analysis of potential candidate genes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The mRNA levels of ten common ERGs (ACTB, GAPDH, GPS1, GUSB, M-RIP, PGK1, POL2RF, PPIA, UBE2D2, and YES1) were determined in the frontal cortex of autopsy-confirmed AD and non-demented control cases (n=20) using SYBR Green technology. Then, these levels were ranked according to their expression stability using three software applications: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Whereas PPIA and UBE2D2 were among the ERGs with the most reliable expression, ACTB was the worst. Subsequently, using PPIA and UBE2D2 as ERGs for normalization, the mRNA levels of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) and paraoxonase 2 (PON2) were quantified in the frontal cortex of AD and control cases (n=80) and analyzed using the REST 2009 program. Our results indicate that both paraoxonases are expressed in the human frontal cortex and that PON2 but not PON1 mRNA levels are up-regulated in AD relative to non-demented controls. However, re-analysis of the results by ANCOVA indicated that the significance of the difference between AD and control groups depended upon the ERG used for normalization. The use of a computational method allowing the inclusion of possible confounding factors is thus recommended for the analysis of data. PMID:21672555

  8. Validation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies during Craniofacial Development in Arctic Charr

    PubMed Central

    Ahi, Ehsan Pashay; Guðbrandsson, Jóhannes; Kapralova, Kalina H.; Franzdóttir, Sigríður R.; Snorrason, Sigurður S.; Maier, Valerie H.; Jónsson, Zophonías O.

    2013-01-01

    Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) is a highly polymorphic species and in Lake Thingvallavatn, Iceland, four phenotypic morphs have evolved. These differences in morphology, especially in craniofacial structures are already apparent during embryonic development, indicating that genes important in the formation of the craniofacial features are expressed differentially between the morphs. In order to generate tools to examine these expression differences in Arctic charr, the aim of the present study was to identify reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The specific aim was to select reference genes which are able to detect very small expression differences among different morphs. We selected twelve candidate reference genes from the literature, identified corresponding charr sequences using data derived from transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and examined their expression using qPCR. Many of the candidate reference genes were found to be stably expressed, yet their quality-rank as reference genes varied considerably depending on the type of analysis used. In addition to commonly used software for reference gene validation, we used classical statistics to evaluate expression profiles avoiding a bias for reference genes with similar expression patterns (co-regulation). Based on these analyses we chose three reference genes, ACTB, UB2L3 and IF5A1 for further evaluation. Their consistency was assessed in an expression study of three known craniofacially expressed genes, sparc (or osteonectin), matrix metalloprotease 2 (mmp2) and sox9 (sex-determining region Y box 9 protein) using qPCR in embryo heads derived from four charr groups at three developmental time points. The three reference genes were found to be very suitable for studying expression differences between the morphotypes, enabling robust detection of small relative expression changes during charr development. Further, the results showed that sparc and mmp2 are differentially expressed in embryos of different Arctic charr morphotypes. PMID:23785496

  9. Evaluation of candidate reference genes in Clostridium difficile for gene expression normalization.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, Devon; Sharif, Shayan; Weese, J Scott

    2010-08-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a sensitive, efficient and reproducible technique for studying gene expression. Identification of stably expressed reference genes is required to avoid bias in these studies yet mostly unvalidated reference genes are used in studying gene expression in Clostridium difficile. Here, we sought to identify a set of stable reference genes used to normalize C. difficile expression data comparing exponential versus stationary phases of growth. Eight candidate reference genes (rpoA, rrs, gyrA, gluD, adk, rpsJ, tpi, and rho) were assessed in 3 C. difficile genotypes (ribotypes 027, 078, and 001). The primers were analyzed for efficiency and the 8 genes were ranked according to their stability. Overall, the genes rrs, adk, and rpsJ ranked among the most stable. Identification of the most stable genes was, however, strain dependent and suggests that selection of reference genes in a heterogeneous species, such as C. difficile, requires multiple genes to be assessed to confirm their stability within the strains being studied. PMID:20599622

  10. Selection of reference genes in Hedysarum coronarium under various stresses and stages of development.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, E M; Die, J V; González-Verdejo, C I; Nadal, S; Román, B

    2011-02-15

    The cultivation of Hedysarum coronarium has generated interest recently for its high yield as a fodder crop, its high protein content, and the presence of condensed tannins in its leaf and stem tissues. Gene expression studies can lead to a better understanding of the biological processes of live organisms. Specifically, reverse transcription followed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) represents the most powerful technology for comparing the expression profiles of target genes. The use of reference genes as internal controls to normalize messenger RNA (mRNA) levels is a requirement of quantitative PCR (qPCR). Few studies on reference genes have been performed in plants, and no studies have been performed in H. coronarium. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify and evaluate reference genes to use in qPCR in H. coronarium. Sulla tissues under two conditions of abiotic stress and at various stages of development were studied to determine adequate reference genes. To optimize the identity and number of reference genes, geNorm and BestKeeper software programs were employed. Based on the results of both analyses, TUA1, TUA2, and UBQ were found to be the most suitable reference genes, and the combination of these three genes was suggested for the accurate normalization of gene expression in sulla tissues. PMID:21036135

  11. Reliable Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Cucumber Grown under Different Nitrogen Nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EF? proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

  12. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction normalization in “Swingle” citrumelo under drought stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Carvalho; M. K. F. de Campos; L. F. P. Pereira; L. G. E. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first systematic evaluation of reference genes for use in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for water deficit stress studies in the citrus rootstock “Swingle” citrumelo. The expression levels of seven reference genes—cyclophilin (CYP), cathepsin (CtP), actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1? (EF1?), ?-tubulin (TUB), and ADP ribosylation factor (ADP)—during drought stress were tested using

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Capra hircus Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development. PMID:25794179

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Capra hircus Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development. PMID:25794179

  15. Validation of a set of reference genes to study response to herbicide stress in grasses

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Non-target-site based resistance to herbicides is a major threat to the chemical control of agronomically noxious weeds. This adaptive trait is endowed by differences in the expression of a number of genes in plants that are resistant or sensitive to herbicides. Quantification of the expression of such genes requires normalising qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied as internal standards. The aim of this study was to validate reference genes in Alopecurus myosuroides, a grass (Poaceae) weed of economic and agronomic importance with no genomic resources. Results The stability of 11 candidate reference genes was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to herbicides subjected or not to herbicide stress using the complementary statistical methods implemented by NormFinder, BestKeeper and geNorm. Ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified as the best reference genes. The reference gene set accuracy was confirmed by analysing the expression of the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a major herbicide target enzyme, and of an herbicide-induced gene encoding a glutathione-S-transferase. Conclusions This is the first study describing a set of reference genes (ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) with a stable expression under herbicide stress in grasses. These genes are also candidate reference genes of choice for studies seeking to identify stress-responsive genes in grasses. PMID:22233533

  16. An examination of MS candidate genes identified as differentially regulated in multiple sclerosis plaque tissue, using absolute and comparative real-time Q-PCR analysis.

    PubMed

    Tajouri, L; Mellick, A S; Tourtellotte, A; Nagra, R M; Griffiths, L R

    2005-07-01

    In our laboratory, we have developed methods in real-time detection and quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) to analyse the relative levels of gene expression in post mortem brain tissues. We have then applied this method to examine differences in gene activity between normal white matter (NWM) and plaque tissue from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Genes were selected based on their association with pathology and through identification by previously conducted global gene expression analysis. Plaque tissue was obtained from secondary progressive (SP) patients displaying chronic active, as well as acute pathologies; while NWM from the same location was obtained from age- and sex-matched controls (normal patients). In this study, we used both SYBR Green I supplementation and commercially available mixes to assess both comparative and absolute levels of gene activity. The results of both methods compared favourably for four of the five genes examined (P < 0.05, Pearsons), while differences in gene expression between chronic active and acute pathologies were also identified. For example, a >50-fold increase in osteopontin (Spp1) and inositol 1-4-5 phosphate 3 kinase B (Itpkb) levels in acute plaques contrasted with the 5-fold or less increase in chronic active plaques (P < 0.05, unpaired t test). By contrast, there was no significant difference in the levels of the MS marker and calcium-dependent protease (Calpain, Capns1) in MS plaque tissue. In summary, Q-PCR analysis using SYBR Green I has allowed us to economically obtain what may be clinically significant information from small amounts of the CNS, providing an opportunity for further clinical investigations. PMID:15905117

  17. Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Virus-Infected Nicotiana benthamiana Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2012-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant–pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate normalisation of gene expression against an appropriate internal control is required. Yet there has been little systematic investigation of reference gene stability in N. benthamiana under conditions of viral infections. In this study, the expression profiles of 16 commonly used housekeeping genes (GAPDH, 18S, EF1?, SAMD, L23, UK, PP2A, APR, UBI3, SAND, ACT, TUB, GBP, F-BOX, PPR and TIP41) were determined in N. benthamiana and those with acceptable expression levels were further selected for transcript stability analysis by qPCR of complementary DNA prepared from N. benthamiana leaf tissue infected with one of five RNA plant viruses (Tobacco necrosis virus A, Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus and Potato virus X). Gene stability was analysed in parallel by three commonly-used dedicated algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Statistical analysis revealed that the PP2A, F-BOX and L23 genes were the most stable overall, and that the combination of these three genes was sufficient for accurate normalisation. In addition, the suitability of PP2A, F-BOX and L23 as reference genes was illustrated by expression-level analysis of AGO2 and RdR6 in virus-infected N. benthamiana leaves. This is the first study to systematically examine and evaluate the stability of different reference genes in N. benthamiana. Our results not only provide researchers studying these viruses a shortlist of potential housekeeping genes to use as normalisers for qPCR experiments, but should also guide the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression studies of N. benthamiana under other biotic and abiotic stress conditions. PMID:23029521

  18. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Deshui; Shi, Lindan; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2012-01-01

    Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant-pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate normalisation of gene expression against an appropriate internal control is required. Yet there has been little systematic investigation of reference gene stability in N. benthamiana under conditions of viral infections. In this study, the expression profiles of 16 commonly used housekeeping genes (GAPDH, 18S, EF1?, SAMD, L23, UK, PP2A, APR, UBI3, SAND, ACT, TUB, GBP, F-BOX, PPR and TIP41) were determined in N. benthamiana and those with acceptable expression levels were further selected for transcript stability analysis by qPCR of complementary DNA prepared from N. benthamiana leaf tissue infected with one of five RNA plant viruses (Tobacco necrosis virus A, Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus and Potato virus X). Gene stability was analysed in parallel by three commonly-used dedicated algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Statistical analysis revealed that the PP2A, F-BOX and L23 genes were the most stable overall, and that the combination of these three genes was sufficient for accurate normalisation. In addition, the suitability of PP2A, F-BOX and L23 as reference genes was illustrated by expression-level analysis of AGO2 and RdR6 in virus-infected N. benthamiana leaves. This is the first study to systematically examine and evaluate the stability of different reference genes in N. benthamiana. Our results not only provide researchers studying these viruses a shortlist of potential housekeeping genes to use as normalisers for qPCR experiments, but should also guide the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression studies of N. benthamiana under other biotic and abiotic stress conditions. PMID:23029521

  19. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during latex regeneration in rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Gao, Xinsheng; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-06-01

    In rubber tree, latex regeneration is one of the decisive factors influencing the rubber yield, although its molecular regulation is not well known. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of latex regeneration. However, the suitable reference genes required for qPCR are not available to investigate the expressions of target genes during latex regeneration. In this study, 20 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability across the samples during the process of latex regeneration. All reference genes showed a relatively wide range of the threshold cycle values, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (comparative delta Ct method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm). Three softwares (comparative delta Ct method, NormFinder and GeNorm) exported similar results that identify UBC4, ADF, UBC2a, eIF2 and ADF4 as the top five suitable references, and 18S as the least suitable one. The application of the screened references would improve accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in latex regeneration experiments. PMID:25791491

  20. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  1. Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Multiple Avian Species

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  2. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during Chinese wolfberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Yancai; Zhou, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a woody bush that grows in Eurasia and North Africa, is an ornamental and medicinal plant. Its fruits have been used for centuries in China as a traditional herbal medicine and as a valuable nourishing tonic. There has been no report describing the selection of reference genes for stringent normalization for quantitative PCR (qPCR) in L. barbarum. The present study identified reliable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in L. barbarum during fruit development from among eight candidate genes (GAPDH, TEF G, EF 1a, UBQ, TUB a, SAMS, EF2 and Hsp80) using the geNorm and NormFinder statistical algorithms. The results showed that the best-ranked references genes differed across the samples. A combination of GAPDH and EF1a would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across fruit developmental stages. A combination of EF 1a and SAMS would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data at the stage A tested, whereas the combination of TUB a, and TEF G was the most suitable for stage B. EF2 and Hsp80 exhibited the most stable expression under stage C and stage D. NormFinder ranking of reference gene candidates was slightly different from that determined by geNorm. These results provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes under different development stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in L. barbarum gene analysis. PMID:23811043

  3. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

  4. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

  5. Nitrogen starvation, salt and heat stress in coffee (Coffea arabica L.): identification and validation of new genes for qPCR normalization.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Bespalhok Filho, João Carlos; dos Santos, Tiago Benedito; de Souza, Silvia Graciele Hülse; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luis Filipe Protasio; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2013-03-01

    Abiotic stresses are among the most important factors that affect food production. One important step to face these environmental challenges is the transcriptional modulation. Quantitative real-time PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the detection of mRNAs and it has become a powerful tool to mitigate plant stress tolerance; however, suitable reference genes are required for data normalization. Reference genes for coffee plants during nitrogen starvation, salinity and heat stress have not yet been reported. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes using geNorm PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares, in plants submitted to nitrogen starvation, salt and heat stress. EF1, EF1?, GAPDH, MDH, and UBQ10 were ranked as the most stable genes in all stresses and software analyses, while RPL39 and RPII were classified as the less reliable references. For reference gene validation, the transcriptional pattern of a Coffea non-symbiotic hemoglobin (CaHb1) was analyzed using the two new recommended and the most unstable gene references for normalization. The most unstable gene may lead to incorrect interpretation of CaHb1 transcriptional analysis. Here, we recommend two new reference genes in Coffea for use in data normalization in abiotic stresses: MDH and EF1. PMID:22421886

  6. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Expression Normalization in Echinococcus spp. Larval Stages

    PubMed Central

    Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (?TUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1?, ?ACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1? and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, ?ACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1? as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1? was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1? reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the Taenia genus. PMID:25014071

  7. Importance of Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Special Reference to Mouse Myocardial Infarction Studies

    PubMed Central

    Everaert, Bert R.; Boulet, Gaëlle A.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. Its reliability is highly dependent upon selection of the appropriate reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization. In this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes in a mouse myocardial infarction model. Methods & Results The expression stability of the 10 reference genes (Actb, B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt, Polr2a, Ppia, Rpl13a, Tbp, Tpt1) was analyzed using the geNorm software. Overall, the combination of Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 was the most stable reference gene set in our experiments. Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb consistently showed the highest gene expression variability and the expression levels of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 were found to be selectively up- or downregulated after myocardial infarction. We normalized the expression of Nppb and Vcam1, using different reference gene strategies and demonstrated that their induction after myocardial infarction was most clearly revealed with the optimal reference gene combination. However, the use of suboptimal reference gene combinations resulted in detrimental effects on gene expression levels and variability with a gradual loss of the expression differences and a significant reduction in statistical power. Conclusions Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 are a set of stably expressed reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies in mice. We found that Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb display high expression variability in mouse myocardial infarction tissues and that loss of statistical power and increase in sample size are the evident consequences of choosing suboptimal combinations of reference genes. We furthermore caution against the use of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 for gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies because of selective up- or downregulation after myocardial infarction, which could potentially lead to biased study outcomes. PMID:21858224

  8. Identification of two putative reference genes from grapevine suitable for gene expression analysis in berry and related tissues derived from RNA-Seq data

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data normalization is a key step in gene expression analysis by qPCR. Endogenous control genes are used to estimate variations and experimental errors occurring during sample preparation and expression measurements. However, the transcription level of the most commonly used reference genes can vary considerably in samples obtained from different individuals, tissues, developmental stages and under variable physiological conditions, resulting in a misinterpretation of the performance of the target gene(s). This issue has been scarcely approached in woody species such as grapevine. Results A statistical criterion was applied to select a sub-set of 19 candidate reference genes from a total of 242 non-differentially expressed (NDE) genes derived from a RNA-Seq experiment comprising ca. 500 million reads obtained from 14 table-grape genotypes sampled at four phenological stages. From the 19 candidate reference genes, VvAIG1 (AvrRpt2-induced gene) and VvTCPB (T-complex 1 beta-like protein) were found to be the most stable ones after comparing the complete set of genotypes and phenological stages studied. This result was further validated by qPCR and geNorm analyses. Conclusions Based on the evidence presented in this work, we propose to use the grapevine genes VvAIG1 or VvTCPB or both as a reference tool to normalize RNA expression in qPCR assays or other quantitative method intended to measure gene expression in berries and other tissues of this fruit crop, sampled at different developmental stages and physiological conditions. PMID:24330674

  9. Validation of Miniaturized One-Step Reverse Transcription qPCR Assays for High-Throughput Screening and Comparison to a Reporter Gene Methodology.

    PubMed

    Bardelle, Catherine; McWilliams, Lisa; Mounfield, Susan; Wigglesworth, Mark; Rich, Kirsty

    2015-03-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is regarded as the gold standard for molecular profiling and target identification, but not in the context of high-throughput screening owing to limitations on workflow, cost of reagents, and miniaturization opportunities. Recent advances have moved reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) forward, such as improvements in liquid handling, the launch of higher throughput platforms, and the release of one-step products. These one-step reagents enable the user to go straight from a cellular assay format to qPCR without the need for cumbersome and potentially expensive multistep RNA purification protocols. Our aim was to investigate the use of a one-step accelerated workflow to measure the levels of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression using lysates generated by the RealTime ready Cell Lysis kit in downstream quantitative RT-qPCR. We present, for the first time, data from a vendor-independent one-step 1536 workflow that compares reporter gene and RT-qPCR screening approaches for oncology drug discovery. We also demonstrate a miniaturized and high-throughput workflow that could enable future application of this sensitive assay technology, with particular impact against phenotypic assays and those using rare cell types. PMID:25785772

  10. Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time rt-PCR in four lepidopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ?Ct analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2(-??Ct) method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR. PMID:22938136

  11. Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis by Real-Time RT-PCR in Four Lepidopteran Insects

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ?Ct analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2-??Ct method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR. PMID:22938136

  12. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in the dentate gyrus after experimental febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Validated normalization is essential to obtain reliable qPCR data. In that context, normalizing to multiple reference genes has become the most popular method. However, expression of reference genes may vary per tissue type, developmental stage and in response to experimental treatment. It is therefore imperative to determine stable reference genes for a specific sample set and experimental model. The present study was designed to validate potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue from rats that had experienced early-life febrile seizures (FS). To this end, we applied an established model in which FS were evoked by exposing 10-day old rat pups to heated air. One week later, we determined the expression stability of seven frequently used reference genes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results Gene expression stability of 18S rRNA, ActB, GusB, Arbp, Tbp, CycA and Rpl13A was tested using geNorm and Normfinder software. The ranking order of reference genes proposed by geNorm was not identical to that suggested by Normfinder. However, both algorithms indicated CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp as the most stable genes, whereas 18S rRNA and ActB were found to be the least stably expressed genes. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the geometric averaging of at least CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp allows reliable interpretation of gene expression data in this experimental set-up. The results also show that ActB and 18S rRNA are not suited as reference genes in this model. PMID:23237195

  13. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Reaumuria soongorica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Yin, Hengxia; Xiao, Honglang; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2014-01-01

    Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and potential genetic resources for arid agronomy, it is important to analyze gene function. However, systematic evaluation of stable reference genes should be performed prior to such analyses. In this study, the stabilities of 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed under 4 kinds of abiotic stresses (drought, salt, dark, and heat) within 4 accessions (HG010, HG020, XGG030, and XGG040) from 2 different habitats using 3 algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). After validation of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (rbcL) expression pattern, our data suggested that histone H2A (H2A) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-2 (EIF4A2) were the most stable reference genes, cyclophilin (CYCL) was moderate, and elongation factor 1? (EF1?) was the worst choice. This first systematic analysis for stably expressed genes will facilitate future functional analyses and deep mining of genetic resources in R. soongorica and other species of the Reaumuria genus. PMID:25117551

  14. Selection and Expression Profiles of Reference Genes in Mouse Preimplantation Embryos of Different Ploidies at Various Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yanli; Shen, Xinghui; Zhou, Dongjie; Wang, Zhendong; Zhang, Na; Shan, Zhiyan; Jin, Lianhong; Lei, Lei

    2014-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become the most frequently used system for studies of gene expression. Manystudies have provided reliable evidence that the transcription levels of reference genes are not constant at different developmental stages and in different experimental conditions. However, suitable reference genes which are stably expressed in polyploid preimplantation embryos of different developmental stages have not yet been identified. Therefore, it is critical to verify candidate reference genes to analyze gene expression accurately in both diploid and polyploid embryos. We examined the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes in preimplantation embryos of four different ploidies at six developmental stages. Stability analysis of the reference genes was performed by four independent software programs, and the stability of three genes was evaluated by comparison with the Oct4 expression level during preimplantation development in diploid embryos. The expression levels of most genes in the polyploid embryos were higher than that in the diploid embryos, but the increasing degree were disproportionate with the ploidies. There were no significant difference in reference gene expressions among embryos of different ploidies when they reached the morula stage, and the expression level remained flat until the blastocyst stage. Ubc, Ppia, and Pgk1 were the three most stable reference genes in diploid and polyploid embryos. PMID:24927500

  15. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction normalization in "Swingle" citrumelo under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K; de Campos, M K F; Pereira, L F P; Vieira, L G E

    2010-07-15

    We describe the first systematic evaluation of reference genes for use in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for water deficit stress studies in the citrus rootstock "Swingle" citrumelo. The expression levels of seven reference genes-cyclophilin (CYP), cathepsin (CtP), actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1alpha (EF1alpha), beta-tubulin (TUB), and ADP ribosylation factor (ADP)-during drought stress were tested using geNorm and NormFinder programs. Results from four experimental conditions indicated that EF1alpha and ADP were the most stable reference genes. Relative expression levels of Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) was used for reference gene validation. PMID:20363209

  16. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  17. Reference Gene Screening for Analyzing Gene Expression Across Goat Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  18. Reference Gene Selection and Validation for the Early Responses to Downy Mildew Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pais, Maria Salomé; Figueiredo, Andreia

    2013-01-01

    The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1?, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1? and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1?, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1?, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola. PMID:24023800

  19. Reference Genes for Real-Time PCR Quantification of MicroRNAs and Messenger RNAs in Rat Models of Hepatotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lardizábal, María N.; Nocito, Ana L.; Daniele, Stella M.; Ornella, Leonardo A.; Palatnik, Javier F.; Veggi, Luis M.

    2012-01-01

    Hepatotoxicity is associated with major changes in liver gene expression induced by xenobiotic exposure. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical for its clinical diagnosis and treatment. MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression that control mRNA stability and translation, during normal development and pathology. The canonical technique to measure gene transcript levels is Real-Time qPCR, which has been successfully modified to determine the levels of microRNAs as well. However, in order to obtain accurate data in a multi-step method like RT-qPCR, the normalization with endogenous, stably expressed reference genes is mandatory. Since the expression stability of candidate reference genes varies greatly depending on experimental factors, the aim of our study was to identify a combination of genes for optimal normalization of microRNA and mRNA qPCR expression data in experimental models of acute hepatotoxicity. Rats were treated with four traditional hepatotoxins: acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, D-galactosamine and thioacetamide, and the liver expression levels of two groups of candidate reference genes, one for microRNA and the other for mRNA normalization, were determined by RT-qPCR in compliance with the MIQE guidelines. In the present study, we report that traditional reference genes such as U6 spliceosomal RNA, Beta Actin and Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase altered their expression in response to classic hepatotoxins and therefore cannot be used as reference genes in hepatotoxicity studies. Stability rankings of candidate reference genes, considering only those that did not alter their expression, were determined using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software packages. The potential candidates whose measurements were stable were further tested in different combinations to find the optimal set of reference genes that accurately determine mRNA and miRNA levels. Finally, the combination of MicroRNA-16/5S Ribosomal RNA and Beta 2 Microglobulin/18S Ribosomal RNA were validated as optimal reference genes for microRNA and mRNA quantification, respectively, in rat models of acute hepatotoxicity. PMID:22563491

  20. Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

  1. Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

  2. Genetics Home Reference: What is gene therapy?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Work Mutations and Health Inheritance Consultation Testing Therapy Human Genome Project Genomic Research Next Handbook > Gene Therapy > What is ... offers a list of links to information about genes and gene therapy . Educational resources related to gene therapy are available ...

  3. Real-Time Quantitative PCR (QPCR) and Reverse Transcription-QPCR for Detection and Enumeration of Total Yeasts in Wine?

    PubMed Central

    Hierro, Núria; Esteve-Zarzoso, Braulio; González, Ángel; Mas, Albert; Guillamón, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    Real-time PCR, or quantitative PCR (QPCR), has been developed to rapidly detect and quantify the total number of yeasts in wine without culturing. Universal yeast primers were designed from the variable D1/D2 domains of the 26S rRNA gene. These primers showed good specificity with all the wine yeasts tested, and they did not amplify the most representative wine species of acetic acid bacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Numerous standard curves were constructed with different strains and species grown in yeast extract-peptone-dextrose medium or incubated in wine. The small standard errors with these replicas proved that the assay is reproducible and highly robust. This technique was validated with artificially contaminated and natural wine samples. We also performed a reverse transcription-QPCR (RT-QPCR) assay from rRNA for total viable yeast quantification. This technique had a low detection limit and was more accurate than QPCR because the dead cells were not quantified. As far as we know, this is the first time that RT-QPCR has been performed to quantify viable yeasts from rRNA. RT-QPCR is a rapid and accurate technique for enumerating yeasts during industrial wine fermentation and controlling the risk of wine spoilage. PMID:17088381

  4. A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.

    PubMed

    Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

    2014-09-15

    mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, ?-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. PMID:25037875

  5. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs and mRNAs in Barley under Various Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ferdous, Jannatul; Li, Yuan; Reid, Nicolas; Langridge, Peter; Shi, Bu-Jun; Tricker, Penny J.

    2015-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. Additionally, we found that miR168 was a suitable reference gene for expression analysis in barley. Finally, we validated the performance of our stable and unstable candidate reference genes for both mRNA and miRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress conditions and demonstrated the superiority of the stable candidates. Our data demonstrate the suitability of barley snoRNAs and miRNAs as potential reference genes for miRNA and mRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress treatments. PMID:25793505

  6. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis of MicroRNAs and mRNAs in Barley under Various Stress Conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Jannatul; Li, Yuan; Reid, Nicolas; Langridge, Peter; Shi, Bu-Jun; Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. Additionally, we found that miR168 was a suitable reference gene for expression analysis in barley. Finally, we validated the performance of our stable and unstable candidate reference genes for both mRNA and miRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress conditions and demonstrated the superiority of the stable candidates. Our data demonstrate the suitability of barley snoRNAs and miRNAs as potential reference genes for miRNA and mRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress treatments. PMID:25793505

  7. Evaluating reference genes to normalize gene expression in human epileptogenic brain tissues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Wierschke; Sylvain Gigout; Peter Horn; Thomas-Nicolas Lehmann; Christoph Dehnicke; Anja U. Bräuer; Rudolf A. Deisz

    2010-01-01

    Several reference genes have been used to quantify gene expression in human epilepsy surgery tissue. However, their reliability has not been validated in detail, although this is crucial in interpreting epilepsy-related changes of gene expression. We evaluated 12 potential reference genes in neocortical tissues resected from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with either few or many seizures (n=6 each)

  8. Identification and validation of suitable endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in human peripheral blood

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boryana S Stamova; Michelle Apperson; Wynn L Walker; Yingfang Tian; Huichun Xu; Peter Adamczy; Xinhua Zhan; Da-Zhi Liu; Bradley P Ander; Isaac H Liao; Jeffrey P Gregg; Renee J Turner; Glen Jickling; Lisa Lit; Frank R Sharp

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gene expression studies require appropriate normalization methods. One such method uses stably expressed reference genes. Since suitable reference genes appear to be unique for each tissue, we have identified an optimal set of the most stably expressed genes in human blood that can be used for normalization. METHODS: Whole-genome Affymetrix Human 2.0 Plus arrays were examined from 526 samples

  9. Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection Garth Brown Craig Wallin Tatiana Tatusova Kim Pruitt Terence Murphy Donna Maglott Introduction Gene supplies gene. Unique identifiers are assigned to genes with defining sequences, genes with known map positions

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Panax ginseng at Different Stages of Growth and in Different Organs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1? were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng. PMID:25393243

  11. Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-01-01

    Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene. PMID:25345678

  12. On non-detects in qPCR data

    PubMed Central

    McCall, Matthew N.; McMurray, Helene R.; Land, Hartmut; Almudevar, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is one of the most widely used methods to measure gene expression. Despite extensive research in qPCR laboratory protocols, normalization and statistical analysis, little attention has been given to qPCR non-detects—those reactions failing to produce a minimum amount of signal. Results: We show that the common methods of handling qPCR non-detects lead to biased inference. Furthermore, we show that non-detects do not represent data missing completely at random and likely represent missing data occurring not at random. We propose a model of the missing data mechanism and develop a method to directly model non-detects as missing data. Finally, we show that our approach results in a sizeable reduction in bias when estimating both absolute and differential gene expression. Availability and implementation: The proposed algorithm is implemented in the R package, nondetects. This package also contains the raw data for the three example datasets used in this manuscript. The package is freely available at http://mnmccall.com/software and as part of the Bioconductor project. Contact: mccallm@gmail.com PMID:24764462

  13. Assessment of reference gene stability influenced by extremely divergent disease symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Przemys?aw; Wrzesi?ska, Barbara; Obr?palska-St?plowska, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables of great worldwide economic value. The scientific importance of the vegetable results from the fact that the genome of S. lycopersicum has been sequenced. This allows researchers to study fundamental mechanisms playing an essential role during tomato development and response to environmental factors contributing significantly to cell metabolism alterations. Parallel with the development of contemporary genetics and the constant increase in sequencing data, progress has to be aligned with improvement of experimental methods used for studying genes functions and gene expression levels, of which the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is still the most reliable. As well as with other nucleic acid-based methods used for comparison of the abundance of specific RNAs, the RT-qPCR data have to be normalised to the levels of RNAs represented stably in a cell. To achieve the goal, the so-called housekeeping genes (i.e., RNAs encoding, for instance, proteins playing an important role in the cell metabolism or structure maintenance), are used for normalisation of the target gene expression data. However, a number of studies have indicated the transcriptional instability of commonly used reference genes analysed in different situations or conditions; for instance, the origin of cells, tissue types, or environmental or other experimental conditions. The expression of ten common housekeeping genes of S. lycopersicum, namely EF1?, TUB, CAC, EXP, RPL8, GAPDH, TBP, ACT, SAND and 18S rRNA were examined during viral infections of tomato. Changes in the expression levels of the genes were estimated by comparison of the non-inoculated tomato plants with those infected with commonly known tomato viral pathogens, Tomato torrado virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus, inducing a diverse range of disease symptoms on the common host, ranging from mild leaves chlorosis to very severe stem necrosis. It is emphasised that despite the wide range of diverse disease symptoms it is concluded that ACT, CAC and EF1? could be used as the most suitable reference genes in studies of host-virus interactions in tomato. PMID:23994079

  14. IPO8 and FBXL10: New Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Human Adipose Tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carmen Hurtado del Pozo; Rosa M. Calvo; Gregorio Vesperinas-García; Javier Gómez-Ambrosi; Gema Frühbeck; Ramón Corripio-Sánchez; Miguel A. Rubio; Maria-Jesus Obregon; Maria J. Obregon

    2010-01-01

    Housekeeping genes frequently used in gene expression studies are highly regulated in human adipose tissue. To ensure a correct interpretation of results, it is critical to select appropriate reference genes. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue expression was analyzed from lean and obese subjects using whole genome complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to identify stably expressed genes and commercial TaqMan

  15. Analysis of reference gene expression for real-time PCR based on relative quantitation and dual spike-in strategy in the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Peng, Ran; Zhai, Yuanfen; Ding, Hua; Di, Tianyuan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Bing; Shen, Weide; Wei, Zhengguo

    2012-07-01

    In general, for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), normalization strategies use a reference gene as a control and to avoid the introduction of experimental errors expression of this gene should not vary in response to changing conditions. However, the expression of many reference genes has been reported to vary considerably and, without appropriate normalization, the expression profile of a target gene can be misinterpreted. In this study, the expression levels of seven commonly used reference genes (ACT, GAPDH, 28srRNA, RPL3, ?-tubulin, UBC, and TBP) were detected at different development time points and in response to treatment with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and with rutin. The expression stability was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. Significant variations were found among normal tissues and between experimentally treated tissues. The dual spike-in strategy also revealed significant variations of the expression levels of the reference genes among normal tissues and between experimentally treated tissues. Glutathione-S-transferase sigma 1 (GSTs1), which has a high expression level in fat body and is related to the mechanism of resistance, was used as a target gene to validate the feasibility and difference of these two approaches. PMID:22623504

  16. MicroRNA detection in prostate tumors by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR).

    PubMed

    Gordanpour, Aida; Nam, Robert K; Sugar, Linda; Bacopulos, Stephanie; Seth, Arun

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single-stranded, 18-24 nucleotide long, non-coding RNA molecules. They are involved in virtually every cellular process including development, apoptosis, and cell cycle regulation. MiRNAs are estimated to regulate the expression of 30% to 90% of human genes by binding to their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Widespread dysregulation of miRNAs has been reported in various diseases and cancer subtypes. Due to their prevalence and unique structure, these small molecules are likely to be the next generation of biomarkers, therapeutic agents and/or targets. Methods used to investigate miRNA expression include SYBR green I dye-based as well as Taqman-probe based qPCR. If miRNAs are to be effectively used in the clinical setting, it is imperative that their detection in fresh and/or archived clinical samples be accurate, reproducible, and specific. qPCR has been widely used for validating expression of miRNAs in whole genome analyses such as microarray studies. The samples used in this protocol were from patients who underwent radical prostatectomy for clinically localized prostate cancer; however other tissues and cell lines can be substituted in. Prostate specimens were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen after resection. Clinical variables and follow-up information for each patient were collected for subsequent analysis. Quantification of miRNA levels in prostate tumor samples. The main steps in qPCR analysis of tumors are: Total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and detection of qPCR products using miRNA-specific primers. Total RNA, which includes mRNA, miRNA, and other small RNAs were extracted from specimens using TRIzol reagent. Qiagen's miScript System was used to synthesize cDNA and perform qPCR (Figure 1). Endogenous miRNAs are not polyadenylated, therefore during the reverse transcription process, a poly(A) polymerase polyadenylates the miRNA. The miRNA is used as a template to synthesize cDNA using oligo-dT and Reverse Transcriptase. A universal tag sequence on the 5' end of oligo-dT primers facilitates the amplification of cDNA in the PCR step. PCR product amplification is detected by the level of fluorescence emitted by SYBR Green, a dye which intercalates into double stranded DNA. Specific miRNA primers, along with a Universal Primer that binds to the universal tag sequence will amplify specific miRNA sequences. The miScript Primer Assays are available for over a thousand human-specific miRNAs, and hundreds of murine-specific miRNAs. Relative quantification method was used here to quantify the expression of miRNAs. To correct for variability amongst different samples, expression levels of a target miRNA is normalized to the expression levels of a reference gene. The choice of a gene on which to normalize the expression of targets is critical in relative quantification method of analysis. Examples of reference genes typically used in this capacity are the small RNAs RNU6B, RNU44, and RNU48 as they are considered to be stably expressed across most samples. In this protocol, RNU6B is used as the reference gene. PMID:22643910

  17. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Carina; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC) in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially HPRT1 and B2M, is a reliable method for evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. PMID:25122470

  18. Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the “gold standard” for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data. Results Here we undertook a systematic approach to identify highly stable miRNAs in different stress conditions such as low oxygen (hypoxia), UV-stress and high temperature (heat-stress) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We conducted genome-wide RNA-seq for small RNAs and selected abundant miRNAs with minimal variation of expression between the different conditions. We further validated the stable expression of a selection of those constitutively expressed candidates in the different stress conditions by SYBR Green qPCR. The selected miRNA candidates were analyzed for stability by applying the widely used geNorm logarithm. With this approach, we were able to successfully identify suitable reference miRNAs for each stress condition. Interestingly, we also found that 3 miRNAs, namely mir-2-5p, mir-46-3p and mir-47-3p, are stable in all the above-mentioned conditions suggesting that they might have general functions independent of stress. Conclusions Our analysis offers a comprehensive list of stably expressed miRNAs in different stress conditions that can be confidently used as reference miRNAs for qPCR analysis in C. elegans. PMID:24656064

  19. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Findings Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Conclusion Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation. PMID:24083672

  20. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

  1. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

  2. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    PubMed

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. PMID:25637570

  3. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  4. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1?g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  5. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1?g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  6. Arbitrary Multi-gene Reference for Normalization of Real-Time PCR Gene Expression Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Conn; Charlotte Davidson

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) requires reference genes\\u000a to normalize expression values between samples. We have developed a novel reference for real-time RT-PCR using an arbitrary\\u000a primer to amplify a random set of genes. The arbitrary primer amplifies over 30 genes, whose cumulative expression as measured\\u000a by real-time RT-PCR closely follows that of

  7. IPO8 and FBXL10: new reference genes for gene expression studies in human adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hurtado del Pozo, Carmen; Calvo, Rosa M; Vesperinas-García, Gregorio; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Frühbeck, Gema; Corripio-Sánchez, Ramón; Rubio, Miguel A; Obregon, Maria-Jesus

    2010-05-01

    Housekeeping genes frequently used in gene expression studies are highly regulated in human adipose tissue. To ensure a correct interpretation of results, it is critical to select appropriate reference genes. Subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissue expression was analyzed from lean and obese subjects using whole genome complementary DNA (cDNA) microarrays to identify stably expressed genes and commercial TaqMan low density arrays (LDAs), with 16 common control genes. The best candidate gene from microarrays analysis was F-box and leucine-rich repeat protein-10 (FBXL10) (fold-change 10(-3) P < 0.01), an ubiquitous nucleolar protein evolutionarily conserved. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and importin 8 (IPO8), were the best reference genes among the 16 genes in the LDAs with coefficient of variation (CV) of 4.51 and 4.55%, respectively. However, when the LDAs data were further analyzed by the geNorm and NormFinder softwares, IPO8, a nuclear protein mediating import of proteins, was the first and the third better reference gene, respectively. IPO8 and FBXL10 were further validated by real-time PCR in additional OM and SC fat samples and primary cultured preadipocytes. According to their CV, IPO8 resulted more suitable than FBXL10 in both adipose tissue depots and SC preadipocytes, whereas FBXL10 performed better than IPO8 in OM cultured preadipocytes. Both genes expression levels did not change throughout adipogenesis. Thus, we provide clear evidence that IPO8 and FBXL10 are good candidates to use as reference genes in gene expression studies in human OM and SC adipose tissues as well as differentiated primary preadipocytes. PMID:19876011

  8. Genomic selection of reference genes for real-time PCR in human myocardium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna P Pilbrow; Leigh J Ellmers; Michael A Black; Christine S Moravec; Wendy E Sweet; Richard W Troughton; A Mark Richards; Chris M Frampton; Vicky A Cameron

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reliability of real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data is dependent on the use of appropriate reference gene(s) for normalization. To date, no validated reference genes have been reported for normalizing gene expression in human myocardium. This study aimed to identify validated reference genes for use in gene expression studies of failed and non-failed human myocardium. METHODS: Bioinformatic analysis of published human

  9. Validation of internal reference genes for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies in the tick, Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Koci, Juraj; Simo, Ladislav; Park, Yoonseong

    2013-01-01

    Obtaining reliable gene expression data using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is highly dependent on the choice of normalization method. We tested the expression stability of multiple candidate genes in the salivary glands (SG) and synganglia (SYN) of female Ixodes scapularis (Say) ticks in multiple blood-feeding phases. We found that the amount of total RNA in both the SG and SYN increases dramatically during tick feeding, with 34x and 5.8x increases from 62 and 7.1 ng of unfed tick, respectively. We tested candidate genes that were predicted from I. scapularis genome data to encode glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh), ribosomal protein L13A (l13a), TATA box-binding protein (tbp), ribosomal protein S4 (rps4), glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdh), and beta-glucuronidase (gusb). The geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to analyze data from different feeding phases (i.e., daily samples from unfed to fully engorged females over a 7-d period in three replicate experiments). We found that the rps4 and l13a genes showed highly stable expression patterns over the feeding duration in both the SG and SYN. Furthermore, the highly expressed rps4 gene makes it useful as a normalization factor when we perform studies using minute amounts of dissected tissue for qPCR. We conclude that rps4 and l13a, whether individually or as a pair, serve as suitable internal reference genes for qRT-PCR studies in the SG and SYN of I. scapularis. PMID:23427655

  10. Suitable reference gene selection for different strains and developmental stages of the carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Sun, W; Jin, Y; He, L; Lu, W-C; Li, M

    2010-01-01

    Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (?-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ?-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ?-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages. PMID:21265619

  11. Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Different Strains and Developmental Stages of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Sun, W.; Jin, Y.; He, L; Lu, W-C.; Li, M.

    2010-01-01

    Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (??-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ??-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ??-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages. PMID:21265619

  12. Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

  13. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in qRT-PCR Analysis in Watermelon

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT–PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT–PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1? and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT–PCR analyses involving watermelon. PMID:24587403

  14. Identification of suitable reference genes for investigating gene expression in human gallbladder carcinoma using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Jing Hui; Du, Zhenwu; Zhang, Guizhen

    2015-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) has become a frequently used strategy in gene expression studies. The relative quantification method is an important and commonly used method for the evaluation of RT?qPCR data. The key aim of this method is to identify an applicable internal reference gene, however, there are currently no suitable reference genes for gene analysis in gallbladder carcinoma. In the present study, screening was performed using 12 common reference genes, which were selected in order to provide an experimental basis for the investigation of gene expression in gallbladder carcinoma. A total of 16 tissue samples of gallbladder carcinoma and their matched normal gallbladder tissues were used. The gene expression stability and applicability of the 12 reference gene candidates were determined using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Following comparison of the results of the three software programs, HPRT1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene. In the normal gallbladder group, the relative stably expressed reference gene was PPIA and in the entire sample group, the relatively stably expressed reference gene was PPIA. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of the three reference genes was the most appropriate. The recommended combinations were PPIA + PUM1 + ACTB for the total sample group, GAPDH + PBGD + ALAS1 for the gallbladder carcinoma group and PPIA + PUM1 + TBP for the paired normal gallbladder group. PMID:25434674

  15. Evaluating reference genes to normalize gene expression in human epileptogenic brain tissues.

    PubMed

    Wierschke, Stephan; Gigout, Sylvain; Horn, Peter; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Dehnicke, Christoph; Bräuer, Anja U; Deisz, Rudolf A

    2010-12-17

    Several reference genes have been used to quantify gene expression in human epilepsy surgery tissue. However, their reliability has not been validated in detail, although this is crucial in interpreting epilepsy-related changes of gene expression. We evaluated 12 potential reference genes in neocortical tissues resected from patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) with either few or many seizures (n=6 each) and post mortem controls (n=6) using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. For all candidate reference genes threshold cycle (C(T)) values were measured. geNorm analysis revealed that the expression of e.g. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase (HPRT) is unstable, whereas synaptophysin (SYP) and neuron-specific enolase (NSE)/mitochondrial 39S ribosomal protein L28 (MRPL) are most stably expressed. The geometric mean of SYP, NSE and MRPL levels is recommended as normalization factor (NF). NormFinder analysis, in contrast, indicated HPRT as the most stable single gene and recommended the geometric mean of TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and NSE levels as NF. Different values of upregulation of glial fibrillary protein (GFAP) expression were found in TLE tissue compared to control tissue depending on the NF used: 4.5-fold (geNorm-NF), 4.7-fold (NormFinder-NF), 4.2-fold (vs. GAPDH) and 7.8-fold (vs. HPRT). The expression of GABA(A) receptor subunit ?5 (GAR?5) was unaltered in the TLE groups compared to controls (geNorm-NF, NormFinder-NF, vs. GAPDH). However, normalization to HPRT suggests an apparent increase of GAR?5 expression. In conclusion, the geNorm-NF (SYP/NSE/MRPL) and the NormFinder-NF (TBP/NSE) are equally suitable for normalization of gene expression in the human epileptogenic neocortex. In contrast, normalization to single and probably less stably expressed genes may not deliver accurate results. PMID:21081112

  16. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and NormFinder-designated-reference genes. Conclusions The use of 2 different statistical algorithms results in the identification of different combinations of flax HKGs for expression data normalization. Despite such differences, the use of geNorm-designated- and NormFinder-designated-reference genes enabled us to accurately compare the expression levels of a flax MYB gene in different organs and tissues. Our identification and validation of suitable flax HKGs will facilitate future developmental transcriptomic studies in this economically-important plant. PMID:20403198

  18. Selection of candidate reference genes for real-time PCR studies in lettuce under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Borowski, Joyce Moura; Galli, Vanessa; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Buss, Julieti Hugh; dos Anjos e Silva, Sérgio Delmar; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2014-06-01

    The process of selection and validation of reference genes is the first step in studies of gene expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The genome of lettuce, the most popular leaf vegetable cultivated worldwide, has recently been sequenced; therefore, suitable reference genes for reliable results in RT-qPCR analyses are required. In the present study, 17 candidate reference genes were selected, and their expression stability in lettuce leaves under drought, salt, heavy metal, and UV-C irradiation conditions and under the application of abscisic acid (ABA) was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder software. The candidate reference genes included protein-coding traditional and novel reference genes and microRNAs (miRNAs). The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The novel protein-coding reference genes were more suitable than the traditional reference genes under drought, UV-C irradiation, and heavy metal conditions and under the application of ABA. Only under salinity conditions were the traditional protein-coding reference genes more stable than the novel genes. In addition, the miRNAs, mainly MIR169, MIR171/170 and MIR172, were stably expressed under the abiotic stresses evaluated, representing a suitable alternative approach for gene expression data normalization. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) was used to further confirm the validated protein-coding reference genes, and the expression of MIR172 and MIR398 was used to confirm the validated miRNA genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene induces erroneous results. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in lettuce and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in lettuce studies. PMID:24573225

  19. Identification of valid reference genes for gene expression studies of human stomach cancer by reverse transcription-qPCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Wook Rho; Byoung-Chan Lee; Eun-Seok Choi; Il-Ju Choi; Yeon-Su Lee; Sung-Ho Goh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful method for the analysis of gene expression. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a consistently expressed reference gene also known as internal standard, in the same sample. However, much effort has not been expended thus far in the search for reference genes suitable for the study

  20. Real-Time PCR (qPCR) Primer Design Using Free Online Software

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2011-01-01

    Real-time PCR (quantitative PCR or qPCR) has become the preferred method for validating results obtained from assays which measure gene expression profiles. The process uses reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), coupled with fluorescent chemistry, to measure variations in transcriptome levels between samples. The four most…

  1. Reference Genes for Accurate Transcript Normalization in Citrus Genotypes under Different Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Mafra, Valéria; Kubo, Karen S.; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Ribeiro-Alves, Marcelo; Stuart, Rodrigo M.; Boava, Leonardo P.; Rodrigues, Carolina M.; Machado, Marcos A.

    2012-01-01

    Real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and widely used technique for expression profiling of selected genes. However, obtaining reliable measurements depends on the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. The aim of this work was to assess the expression stability of 15 candidate genes to determine which set of reference genes is best suited for transcript normalization in citrus in different tissues and organs and leaves challenged with five pathogens (Alternaria alternata, Phytophthora parasitica, Xylella fastidiosa and Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus). We tested traditional genes used for transcript normalization in citrus and orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes described as superior reference genes based on transcriptome data. geNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to find the best reference genes to normalize all samples and conditions tested. Additionally, each biotic stress was individually analyzed by geNorm. In general, FBOX (encoding a member of the F-box family) and GAPC2 (GAPDH) was the most stable candidate gene set assessed under the different conditions and subsets tested, while CYP (cyclophilin), TUB (tubulin) and CtP (cathepsin) were the least stably expressed genes found. Validation of the best suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression level of the WRKY70 transcription factor in leaves infected with Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus showed that arbitrary use of reference genes without previous testing could lead to misinterpretation of data. Our results revealed FBOX, SAND (a SAND family protein), GAPC2 and UPL7 (ubiquitin protein ligase 7) to be superior reference genes, and we recommend their use in studies of gene expression in citrus species and relatives. This work constitutes the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for transcript normalization in different citrus organs and under biotic stress. PMID:22347455

  2. Validation of reference housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera).

    PubMed

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (?-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1?) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, ?-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  3. Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    PubMed Central

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (?-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1?) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, ?-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  4. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Using Real-Time PCR in Tung Tree during Seed Development

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaojiao; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Yicun; Zhan, Zhiyong; Cui, Qinqin; Wang, Yangdong

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an accurate and widely used technique to analyze expression levels of selected genes. It is very necessary to select appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of 11 reference genes including eight traditional housekeeping genes and three novel genes in different tissues/organs and developing seeds from four cultivars of tung tree. All 11 reference genes showed a wide range of Ct values in all samples, indicating that they differently expressed. Three softwares – geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper – were used to determine the stability of these references except for ALB (2S albumin), which presented a little divergence. The results from the three softwares showed that ACT7 (Actin7a), UBQ (Ubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and EF1? (elongation factor 1-?) were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested tung samples and tung developing seeds, while ALB (2S albumin) was unsuitable as internal controls. ACT7, EF1? (elongation factor1-beta), GAPDH and TEF1 (transcription elongation factor 1) were the top four choices for different tissues/organs whereas LCR69 did not favor normalization of RT-qPCR in these tissues/organs. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of FAD2 and FADX were realized using stable reference genes. The relative quantification of the FAD2 and FADX genes varied according to the internal controls and the number of internal controls. The results further proved the importance of the choice of reference genes in the tung tree. These stable reference genes will be employed in normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future expression studies of tung genes. PMID:22912794

  5. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Transcript Normalization in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate’s suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1? and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies. PMID:23940602

  6. Identifying reference genes with stable expression from high throughput sequence data.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Harriet; Jenkins, Bethany D; Rynearson, Tatiana A; Saito, Mak A; Mercier, Melissa L; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2012-01-01

    Genes that are constitutively expressed across multiple environmental stimuli are crucial to quantifying differentially expressed genes, particularly when employing quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) assays. However, the identification of these potential reference genes in non-model organisms is challenging and is often guided by expression patterns in distantly related organisms. Here, transcriptome datasets from the diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana grown under replete, phosphorus-limited, iron-limited, and phosphorus and iron co-limited nutrient regimes were analyzed through literature-based searches for homologous reference genes, k-means clustering, and analysis of sequence counts (ASC) to identify putative reference genes. A total of 9759 genes were identified and screened for stable expression. Literature-based searches surveyed 18 generally accepted reference genes, revealing 101 homologs in T. pseudonana with variable expression and a wide range of mean tags per million. k-means analysis parsed the whole transcriptome into 15 clusters. The two most stable clusters contained 709 genes, but still had distinct patterns in expression. ASC analyses identified 179 genes that were stably expressed (posterior probability < 0.1 for 1.25 fold change). Genes known to have a stable expression pattern across the test treatments, like actin, were identified in this pool of 179 candidate genes. ASC can be employed on data without biological replicates and was more robust than the k-means approach in isolating genes with stable expression. The intersection of the genes identified through ASC with commonly used reference genes from the literature suggests that actin and ubiquitin ligase may be useful reference genes for T. pseudonana and potentially other diatoms. With the wealth of transcriptome sequence data becoming available, ASC can be easily applied to transcriptome datasets from other phytoplankton to identify reference genes. PMID:23162540

  7. Selection of low-variance expressed Malus x domestica (apple) genes for use as quantitative PCR reference genes (housekeepers)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accurately measure gene expression using PCR-based approaches, there is the need for reference genes that have low variance in expression (housekeeping genes) to normalise the data for RNA quantity and quality. For non-model species such as Malus x domestica (apples), previously, the selection of...

  8. Expression profiling in Bemisia tabaci under insecticide treatment: indicating the necessity for custom reference gene selection.

    PubMed

    Liang, Pei; Guo, Yajie; Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable reference gene is the key for qRT-PCR analysis. However, none of the reference gene discovered thus far can be utilized universally under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions. In this study, we further examine the stability of candidate reference genes under a single abiotic factor, insecticide treatment. After being exposed to eight commercially available insecticides, which belong to five different classes, the expression profiles of eight housekeeping genes in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, one of the most invasive and destructive pests in the world, were investigated using qRT-PCR analysis. In summary, elongation factor 1? (EF1?), ?-tubulin (TUB1?) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were identified as the most stable reference genes under the insecticide treatment. The initial assessment of candidate reference genes was further validated with the expression of two target genes, a P450 (Cyp6cm1) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, ranking of reference genes varied substantially among intra- and inter-classes of insecticides. These combined data strongly suggested the necessity of conducting custom reference gene selection designed for each and every experimental condition, even when examining the same abiotic or biotic factor. PMID:24498122

  9. Expression Profiling in Bemisia tabaci under Insecticide Treatment: Indicating the Necessity for Custom Reference Gene Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable reference gene is the key for qRT-PCR analysis. However, none of the reference gene discovered thus far can be utilized universally under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions. In this study, we further examine the stability of candidate reference genes under a single abiotic factor, insecticide treatment. After being exposed to eight commercially available insecticides, which belong to five different classes, the expression profiles of eight housekeeping genes in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, one of the most invasive and destructive pests in the world, were investigated using qRT-PCR analysis. In summary, elongation factor 1? (EF1?), ?-tubulin (TUB1?) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were identified as the most stable reference genes under the insecticide treatment. The initial assessment of candidate reference genes was further validated with the expression of two target genes, a P450 (Cyp6cm1) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, ranking of reference genes varied substantially among intra- and inter-classes of insecticides. These combined data strongly suggested the necessity of conducting custom reference gene selection designed for each and every experimental condition, even when examining the same abiotic or biotic factor. PMID:24498122

  10. Comprehensive selection of reference genes for gene expression normalization in sugarcane by real time quantitative rt-PCR.

    PubMed

    Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4? were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1? in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

  11. Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Sugarcane by Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4? were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1? in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

  12. Identification of Novel Reference Genes Based on MeSH Categories

    PubMed Central

    Can, Tolga; Konu, Ozlen; Atalay, Volkan; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul

    2014-01-01

    Transcriptome experiments are performed to assess protein abundance through mRNA expression analysis. Expression levels of genes vary depending on the experimental conditions and the cell response. Transcriptome data must be diverse and yet comparable in reference to stably expressed genes, even if they are generated from different experiments on the same biological context from various laboratories. In this study, expression patterns of 9090 microarray samples grouped into 381 NCBI-GEO datasets were investigated to identify novel candidate reference genes using randomizations and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The analysis demonstrated that cell type specific reference gene sets display less variability than a united set for all tissues. Therefore, constitutively and stably expressed, origin specific novel reference gene sets were identified based on their coefficient of variation and percentage of occurrence in all GEO datasets, which were classified using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). A large number of MeSH grouped reference gene lists are presented as novel tissue specific reference gene lists. The most commonly observed 17 genes in these sets were compared for their expression in 8 hepatocellular, 5 breast and 3 colon carcinoma cells by RT-qPCR to verify tissue specificity. Indeed, commonly used housekeeping genes GAPDH, Actin and EEF2 had tissue specific variations, whereas several ribosomal genes were among the most stably expressed genes in vitro. Our results confirm that two or more reference genes should be used in combination for differential expression analysis of large-scale data obtained from microarray or next generation sequencing studies. Therefore context dependent reference gene sets, as presented in this study, are required for normalization of expression data from diverse technological backgrounds. PMID:24682035

  13. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in porcine PBMCs in response to LPS and LTA

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As an in vitro model porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is frequently used as for immunogenetic research with the stimulation of bacterial antigens. To investigate the immunocompetence of PBMCs for recognition of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and in order to dissect the pathogenesis of diseases, gene expression assay is most commonly used. The gene expressions are required to normalize for reference genes which have tremendous effect on the results of expression study. The reference genes should be stably expressed between different cells under a variety of experimental conditions, but recent influx of data showed that expression stability of reference genes are varied under different experimental conditions. But data regarding the expression stability of reference genes in porcine PBMCs are limited. Therefore, this study was aimed to know whether the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in PBMCs is affected by various bacterial antigens under different experimental conditions in pigs. Results The mRNA expression stability of nine commonly used reference genes (B2M, BLM, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) was determined by RT-qPCR in PBMCs that were stimulated by LPS and LTA in vitro as well as cells un-stimulated control and non-cultured were also consider for this experiment. mRNA expression levels of all genes were found to be affected by the type of stimulation and duration of the stimulation (P?reference genes in PBMCs; in case of the control group, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes. PPIA, B2M and RPL4 were the most stable reference genes in LPS stimulated PBMCs; and YWHAZ, RPL4 and PPIA were the most stably expressed reference genes in the case of LTA stimulated PBMCs. When LPS was used combined with LTA for the stimulation, YWHAZ, B2M and SDHA remained the most stable genes. PPIA, BLM and GAPDH were found to be most stably expressed reference genes when PBMCs were not cultured. NormFinder revealed different sets of stably expressed reference genes in PBMCs under different experimental conditions. Moreover, geNorm software suggested that the geometric mean of the three most stable genes would be the suitable combination for accurate normalization of gene expression study. Conclusion There was discrepancy in the ranking order of reference genes obtained by different analysing algorithms (geNorm and NormFinder). In conclusion, the geometric mean of the RPL4, B2M and PPIA seemed to be the most appropriate combination of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data in porcine PBMCs without knowing the type of bacterial pathogenic status of the animals and in the case of mixed infection with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In case of PBMCs without any stimulation, PPIA, BLM and GAPDH could be suggested as suitable reference genes. PMID:23394600

  14. Identification of Internal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization between the Two Sexes in Dioecious White Campion

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species. PMID:24675788

  15. Identification of internal reference genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species. PMID:24675788

  16. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in tendons from patients with rotator cuff tear.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common causes of shoulder dysfunction. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding tendon tears and the failure of cuff healing, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluate the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using samples from the rotator cuff tendons of 28 individuals with tendon tears (3 tendons regions) and 8 controls (2 tendon regions); for the tear patients, we evaluated ruptured and non-ruptured tendon samples. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist software packages. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1+TBP composed the best pair and HPRT1+TBP+ACTB composed the best trio of reference genes from the analysis of different groups, including the simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1 and COL3A1, and no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes for most of the analyses. However, COL3A1 expression differed between ruptured and non-ruptured (posterior superior region) tendons of patients only when normalized by HPRT1+TBP+B2M and HPRT1+TBP. On the other hand, the comparison between these two groups using the best trio of reference genes (HPRT1+TBP+ACTB) and 4 reference genes did not revealed a significant difference in COL3A1 expression. Consequently, the use of suitable reference genes for a reliable gene expression evaluation by RT-qPCR should consider the type of tendon samples investigated. HPRT1+TBP+ACTB seems to be the best combination of reference genes for the analysis of involving different tendon samples of individuals with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25768100

  17. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Tendons from Patients with Rotator Cuff Tear

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Cohen, Carina; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; de Castro Pochini, Alberto; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    Rotator cuff tear is one of the most common causes of shoulder dysfunction. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding tendon tears and the failure of cuff healing, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluate the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1 and TBP) using samples from the rotator cuff tendons of 28 individuals with tendon tears (3 tendons regions) and 8 controls (2 tendon regions); for the tear patients, we evaluated ruptured and non-ruptured tendon samples. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist software packages. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1+TBP composed the best pair and HPRT1+TBP+ACTB composed the best trio of reference genes from the analysis of different groups, including the simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1 and COL3A1, and no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes for most of the analyses. However, COL3A1 expression differed between ruptured and non-ruptured (posterior superior region) tendons of patients only when normalized by HPRT1+TBP+B2M and HPRT1+TBP. On the other hand, the comparison between these two groups using the best trio of reference genes (HPRT1+TBP+ACTB) and 4 reference genes did not revealed a significant difference in COL3A1 expression. Consequently, the use of suitable reference genes for a reliable gene expression evaluation by RT-qPCR should consider the type of tendon samples investigated. HPRT1+TBP+ACTB seems to be the best combination of reference genes for the analysis of involving different tendon samples of individuals with rotator cuff tears. PMID:25768100

  18. Identification of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1) as a reference gene for quantitative gene expression measurements in human blood RNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Quantitative gene expression measurements require normalization of target genes to reference genes that are stable and independent from variables being tested in the experiment. Because there are no genes that are useful for all situations, reference gene selection is an essential step to any quantitative reverse transcription-PCR protocol. Many publications have described appropriate genes for a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions, however, reference genes that may be suitable for the analysis of CFS, or human blood RNA derived from whole blood as well as isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), have not been described. Findings Literature review and analyses of our unpublished microarray data were used to narrow down the pool of candidate reference genes to six. We assayed whole blood RNA from Tempus tubes and cell preparation tube (CPT)-collected PBMC RNA from 46 subjects, and used the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms to select the most stable reference genes. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) was one of the optimal normalization genes for both whole blood and PBMC RNA, however, additional genes differed for the two sample types; Ribosomal protein large, P0 (RPLP0) for PBMC RNA and Peptidylprolyl isomerase B (PPIB) for whole blood RNA. We also show that the use of a single reference gene is sufficient for normalization when the most stable candidates are used. Conclusions We have identified PGK1 as a stable reference gene for use with whole blood RNA and RNA derived from PBMC. When stable genes are selected it is possible to use a single gene for normalization rather than two or three. Optimal normalization will improve the ability of results from PBMC RNA to be compared with those from whole blood RNA and potentially allows comparison of gene expression results from blood RNA collected and processed by different methods with the intention of biomarker discovery. Results of this study should facilitate large-scale molecular epidemiologic studies using blood RNA as the target of quantitative gene expression measurements. PMID:21896205

  19. Analysis of fungal gene expression by Real Time quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Ish-Shalom, Shahar; Lichter, Amnon

    2010-01-01

    The Real-Time quantitative PCR (qPCR) method has become central for the quantification of gene expression as well as other applications. The major advantages of qPCR are the utilization of small amount of template, high sensitivity and the ability to detect products during the reaction. After selecting qPCR among other options (northern blot, semi-quantitative PCR), one should consider several factors. The first and critical step in qPCR of fungi is the selection of an appropriate growth medium and RNA extraction method, which will avoid accumulation of inhibitors. In this chapter, we focus on detection of the accumulating product with the Syber Green dye, but other detection technologies, such as hybridization probes, might be considered as well. Accurate qPCR analysis with Syber Green depends mainly on optimal PCR reaction, and therefore it is important to design primers that will avoid formation of interfering structures. It is possible to use absolute quantification of the template in the sample, or to conduct a relative analysis, as described in this protocol. In the relative analysis method, expression of the gene of interest is compared with expression of a reference gene. According to our experience as well as according to the literature, it is recommended to use at least three reference genes in order to obtain reliable results. PMID:20238263

  20. Genomic selection of reference genes for real-time PCR in human myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Pilbrow, Anna P; Ellmers, Leigh J; Black, Michael A; Moravec, Christine S; Sweet, Wendy E; Troughton, Richard W; Richards, A Mark; Frampton, Chris M; Cameron, Vicky A

    2008-01-01

    Background Reliability of real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data is dependent on the use of appropriate reference gene(s) for normalization. To date, no validated reference genes have been reported for normalizing gene expression in human myocardium. This study aimed to identify validated reference genes for use in gene expression studies of failed and non-failed human myocardium. Methods Bioinformatic analysis of published human heart gene expression arrays (195 failed hearts, 16 donor hearts) was used to identify 10 stable and abundant genes for further testing. The expression stability of these genes was investigated in 28 failed and 28 non-failed human myocardium samples by RT-qPCR using geNorm software. Results Signal recognition particle 14 kDa (SRP14), tumor protein, translationally-controlled 1 (TPT1) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1A1 (EEF1A1) were ranked the most stable genes. The commonly used reference gene, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was ranked the least stable of the genes tested. The normalization strategy was tested by comparing RT-qPCR data of both normalized and raw expression levels of brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NPPB), a gene known to be up-regulated in heart failure. Non-normalized levels of NPPB exhibited a marginally significant difference between failed and non-failed samples (p = 0.058). In contrast, normalized NPPB expression levels were significantly higher in heart-failed patients compared with controls (p = 0.023). Conclusion This study used publicly available gene array data to identify a strategy for normalization involving two reference genes in combination that may have broad application for accurate and reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data in failed and non-failed human myocardium. PMID:19114010

  1. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in a Wide Cohort of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Chiara; Calza, Stefano; Todeschini, Paola; Tassi, Renata A.; Zanotti, Laura; Bandiera, Elisabetta; Sartori, Enrico; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella; Santin, Alessandro D.; Bignotti, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A) belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees. PMID:25473950

  2. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in lung cancer in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan; Du, Zhenwu; Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Zhang, Yu Cheng; Wu, Mei; Li, Yi; Zhang, Guizhen

    2015-05-01

    The present study aimed to examine 10 housekeeping genes (HKGs), including 18s ribosomal RNA (18S), glyceraldehyde?3?phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein large P0 (RPLP0), ??actin (ACTB), peptidylprolyl isomerase A (PPIA), phosphoglycerate kinase?1 (PGK1), ??2?microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal protein LI3a (RPL13A), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase?1 (HPRT1) and TATA box binding protein (TBP) in order to identify the most stable and suitable reference genes for use in expression studies in non?small cell lung cancer. The mRNA expression encoding the panel of the 10 HKGs was determined using reverse transcription?quantitative PCR (RT?qPCR) in human lung cancer cell lines. Three software programs, BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, were used to ascertain the most suitable reference genes to normalize the RNA input. The present study examined three lung cancer cell lines (A549, NCI?H446 and NCI?H460). The analysis of the experimental data using BestKeeper software revealed that all 10 HKGs were stable, with GADPH, followed by 18S being the most stable genes and PPIA and HPRT1 being the least stable genes. The NormFinder software results demonstrated that PPIA followed by ACTB were the most stable and B2M and RPLP0 were the least stable. The geNorm software results revealed that ACTB and PGK1, followed by PPIA were the most stable genes and B2M and RPLP0 were identified as the least stable genes. Due to discrepancies in the ranking orders of the reference genes obtained by different analyzing software programs, it was not possible to determine a single universal reference gene. The suitability of selected reference genes requires unconditional validation prior to each study. Based on the three analyzing programs, ACTB, PPIA and PGK1 were the most stable reference genes in lung cancer cell lines. PMID:25573171

  3. Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

  4. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Xu, ZhiChao; Zhu, YingJie; Luo, HongMei; Qian, Jun; Ji, AiJia; Hu, YuanLei; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Song, JingYuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, ShiLin

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable technique for gene expression studies. The accuracy and reliability of qRT-PCR results depend on the stability of the reference genes used for gene normalization. Therefore, a systematic process of reference gene evaluation is needed. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom in East Asia. In the current study, 10 potential reference genes were selected from the G. lucidum genomic data. The sequences of these genes were manually curated, and primers were designed following strict criteria. The experiment was conducted using qRT-PCR, and the stability of each candidate gene was assessed using four commonly used statistical programs-geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. According to our results, PP2A was expressed at the most stable levels under different fermentation conditions, and RPL4 was the most stably expressed gene in different tissues. RPL4, PP2A, and ?-tubulin are the most commonly recommended reference genes for normalizing gene expression in the entire sample set. The current study provides a foundation for the further use of qRT-PCR in G. lucidum gene analysis. PMID:24013612

  5. Identification of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Yesso Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Liying; Yu, Qian; Li, Xue; Ning, Xianhui; Wang, Jing; Zou, Jiajun; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2013-01-01

    Background Bivalves comprise around 30,000 extant species and have received much attention for their importance in ecosystems, aquaculture and evolutionary studies. Despite the increasing application of real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in gene expression studies on bivalve species, little research has been conducted on reference gene selection which is critical for reliable and accurate qRT-PCR analysis. For scallops, systematic evaluation of reference genes that can be used among tissues or embryo/larva stages is lacking, and ?-actin (ACT) is most frequently used as qRT-PCR reference gene without validation. Results In this study, 12 commonly used candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome data of Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis) for suitable qRT-PCR reference genes identification. The expression of these genes in 36 tissue samples and 15 embryo/larva samples under normal physiological conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and their expression stabilities were evaluated using three statistic algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, and comparative ?Ct method. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and the least stably expressed genes. Final comprehensive ranking for the 12 genes combing the results from the three programs showed that, for different tissues, DEAD-box RNA helicase (HELI), ubiquitin (UBQ), and 60S ribosomal protein L16 (RPL16) were the optimal reference genes combination, while for different embryo/larva stages, gene set containing Cytochrome B (CB), Cytochrome C (CC), Histone H3.3 (His3.3), and Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were recommended for qRT-PCR normalization. ACT was among the least stable genes for both adult tissues and embryos/larvae. Conclusions This work constitutes the first systematic analysis on reference genes selection for qRT-PCR normalization in scallop under normal conditions. The suitable reference genes we recommended will be useful for the identification of genes related to biological processes in Yesso scallop, and also in the reference gene selection for other scallop or bivalve species. PMID:24069432

  6. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the ?-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was ?-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was ?-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 ? subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  7. Identification of a Novel Reference Gene for Apple Transcriptional Profiling under Postharvest Conditions.

    PubMed

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference-ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)-along with two novel candidates-HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest. PMID:25774904

  8. Identification of a Novel Reference Gene for Apple Transcriptional Profiling under Postharvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference—ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)—along with two novel candidates—HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest. PMID:25774904

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chunjie; Ma, Jinmin; Guo, Qirong; Li, Xiaotie; Wang, Hui; Lu, Mengzhu

    2013-01-01

    Background The Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the most important forestry resources and plays essential ecological roles in southern China. A draft nuclear genome sequence is expected to be publicly available in the near future; an explosion of gene expression data related to the unique traits of Moso bamboo will undoubtedly follow. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR ((RT-)qPCR) is a widely used method for gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. Result In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression levels were assessed by (RT-)qPCR in a set of six tissue samples (root, stem, mature stem, leaf, flower, and leaf sheath) and at two developmental stages (before and after flowering) in bamboo specimens obtained in three locations. The stability and suitability of the candidate reference genes were validated using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. The results showed that TIP41 and NTB were suitable reference genes across all the tissues and at the different developmental stages examined in this study. While the expression of the NTB, TIP41 and UBQ were the mostly stable in different plant tissues samples, the expression of the TIP41, NTB and CAC were ranked the most stable in bamboo plants at various developmental stages. AP2-like gene was further assessed by using the reference genes TIP41 and NTB in comparison to ACT. Significant difference of the expression profile of AP2-like demonstrated the importance of choosing adequate reference genes in bamboo. Conclusion TIP41 and NTB were found to be homogeneously expressed and were adequate for normalization purposes, showing equivalent transcript levels in different samples. They are therefore the recommended reference genes for measuring gene expression in P. edulis. PMID:23437174

  10. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

  11. Reference Genes Selection and Normalization of Oxidative Stress Responsive Genes upon Different Temperature Stress Conditions in Hypericum perforatum L

    PubMed Central

    Velada, Isabel; Ragonezi, Carla; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Cardoso, Hélia

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial) has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide valuable information about the roles of genes associated with temperature stress responses. PMID:25503716

  12. Validation of suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the halophyte Salicornia europaea by real-time quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinlong; Ma, Jinbiao; Wang, Junru; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Pengbo; Yao, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, ?-Tub (?-tubulin), ?-Tub (?-tubulin), EF1-? (Elongation factor 1-?), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and ?-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) ?-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions. PMID:25653658

  13. Characterization of reference gene expression in tung tree (Vernicia fordii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tung oil from tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is widely used as a drying ingredient in paints, varnishes, and other coatings and finishes. Recent research has focused on the understanding of the biosynthesis of oil in tung trees. Many oil biosynthetic genes have been identified in tung tree but little...

  14. Selection of optimal reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Changjun; He, Lian; Peng, Wenpei; Ding, Li; Tang, Keyi; Fang, Donghui; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Reference genes can be used to normalize mRNA levels across different samples for the exact comparison of the mRNA expression level. It is important to select reference genes with high quality for the accurate interpretation of qRT-PCR data. Although several studies have attempted to validate reference genes in pigs, no validation studies have been performed on spermatozoa samples frozen with different cryoprotectants. In this study, 11 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, RPL4, SDHA, YWHAZ, PPIA, PGK1, S18, and BLM) were investigated in boar spermatozoa frozen with six different cryoprotectants using qRT-PCR. The expression stability of these reference genes in different samples was evaluated using geNorm (qbase(plus) software), NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The geNorm results revealed that PGK1, ACTB, and RPL4 exhibit high expression stability in all of the samples, and the NormFinder results indicated that GAPDH is the most stable gene. Furthermore, the BestKeeper results indicated that the three most stable genes are PPIA, GAPDH, and RPL4 and that S18, B2M and BLM are the three least stable genes. There are a number of differences in the ranking order of the reference genes obtained using the different algorithms. In conclusion, GAPDH, RPL4, and PPIA were the three most stable genes in frozen boar spermatozoa, as determined based on the cycle threshold coefficient of variation (Ct CV%) and the comprehensive ranking order, and this finding is consistent with the BestKeeper results. PMID:24440873

  15. Selection of plastid- and nuclear-encoded reference genes to study the effect of altered endogenous cytokinin content on photosynthesis genes in Nicotiana   tabacum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne Cortleven; Tony Remans; Wolfram G. Brenner; Roland Valcke

    2009-01-01

    Selection and use of appropriate reference genes as internal controls in real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) assays\\u000a is highly important for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Since some photosynthetic genes are encoded in\\u000a the nuclear genome and others in the chloroplast genome, we evaluated both nuclear- and plastid-encoded candidate reference\\u000a genes. Six plastid-encoded candidate reference genes were derived from

  16. New in-depth rainbow trout transcriptome reference and digital atlas of gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the rainbow trout genome is underway and a transcriptome reference sequence is required to help in genome assembly and gene discovery. Previously, we reported a transcriptome reference sequence using a 19X coverage of 454-pyrosequencing data. Although this work added a great wealth of ann...

  17. Selection of suitable reference genes for mRNA quantification studies using common marmoset tissues.

    PubMed

    Shimamoto, Yoshinori; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Niimi, Kimie; Yoshikawa, Yasunaga; Hoshi, Fumio; Ishizuka, Mayumi; Takahashi, Eiki

    2013-12-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) is increasingly being used as a non-human primate animal model in biomedical research. To perform accurate quantitative analysis of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, reliable reference genes should be selected. In this study, we evaluated the expressions of 11 widely used reference genes: ACTB, ATP5F1, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, PGK1, PPIA, RN18S1, RPLP0, TBP and UBC in 12 tissues and five brain areas of healthy common marmosets. NormFinder and geNorm indicated that the most suitable reference genes for cross-sectional studies of the 17 tissues were RN18S1 and RPLP0. Conversely, ACTB and PPIA were the most suitable for analyzing brain samples; however, the expression of PGK1 fluctuated among brain areas. These results indicate that suitable reference genes differ between the tissues examined. This study provides fundamental information for gene expression studies of the common marmoset and highlights the importance of validating reference genes before quantification of target mRNAs. PMID:24068436

  18. Renal Tissue Thawed for 30 Minutes Is Still Suitable for Gene Expression Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Wen-Bin; Yang, Hao-Zheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yi-Ran; Dai, Hui-Li

    2014-01-01

    Some biosamples obtained from biobanks may go through thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the effects of thawing at room temperature for different time periods on gene expression analysis. A time course study with four time points was conducted to investigate the expression profiling on 10 thawed normal mice renal tissue samples through Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 2.0 st array. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on 6 candidate reference genes and 11 target genes. Additionally, we used geNorm plus and NormFinder to identify the most stably expressed reference genes over time. The results showed RNA degraded more after longer incubation at room temperature. However, microarray results showed only 240 genes (0.91%) altered significantly in response to thawing at room temperature. The signal of majority altered probe sets decreased with thawing time, and the crossing point (Cp) values of all candidate reference genes correlated positively with the thawing time (p<0.05). The combination of B2M, ACTB and PPIA was identified as the best choice for qPCR normalization. We found most target genes were stable by using this normalization method. However, serious gene quantification errors were resulted from improper reference genes. In conclusion, thirty minutes of thawing at room temperature has a limited impact on microarray and qPCR analysis, gene expression variations due to RNA degradation in early period after thawing can be largely reduced by proper normalization. PMID:24687048

  19. Reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR data in gastric tissues and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wisnieski, Fernanda; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Caires; Gigek, Carolina de Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Assumpção, Mônica Barauna; Demachki, Sâmia; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the suitability of reference genes in gastric tissue samples and cell lines. METHODS: The suitability of genes ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, RPL29, and 18S rRNA was assessed in 21 matched pairs of neoplastic and adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 27 normal gastric tissues from patients without cancer, and 4 cell lines using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The ranking of the best single and combination of reference genes was determined by NormFinder, geNorm™, BestKeeper, and DataAssist™. In addition, GenEx software was used to determine the optimal number of reference genes. To validate the results, the mRNA expression of a target gene, DNMT1, was quantified using the different reference gene combinations suggested by the various software packages for normalization. RESULTS: ACTB was the best reference gene for all gastric tissues, cell lines and all gastric tissues plus cell lines. GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M was the best combination of reference genes for all the gastric tissues. On the other hand, ACTB + B2M was the best combination for all the cell lines tested and was also the best combination for analyses involving all the gastric tissues plus cell lines. According to the GenEx software, 2 or 3 genes were the optimal number of references genes for all the gastric tissues. The relative quantification of DNMT1 showed similar patterns when normalized by each combination of reference genes. The level of expression of DNMT1 in neoplastic, adjacent non-neoplastic and normal gastric tissues did not differ when these samples were normalized using GAPDH + B2M (P = 0.32), ACTB + B2M (P = 0.61), or GAPDH + B2M + ACTB (P = 0.44). CONCLUSION: GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M is the best combination of reference gene for all the gastric tissues, and ACTB + B2M is the best combination for the cell lines tested. PMID:24222956

  20. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in Lolium perenne

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR provides an important tool for analyzing gene expression if proper internal standards are used. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate reference genes for use in real-time quantitative RT-PCR in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) during plant developmen...

  1. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1?, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks. PMID:22529976

  2. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-time PCR Normalization in Quercus suber

    PubMed Central

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P.; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1?, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks. PMID:22529976

  3. Evaluation and Validation of Housekeeping Genes as Reference for Gene Expression Studies in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Under Drought Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K.; Suryanarayana, V.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1?, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4?, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4? and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4? and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions. PMID:25849964

  4. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  5. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  6. Detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi using a triplex qPCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Katy; Barker, Colin; Harrison, Tihana; Heather, Zoe; Steward, Karen F.; Robinson, Carl; Newton, J. Richard; Waller, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing data for Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and zooepidemicus were used to develop a novel diagnostic triplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting two genes specific to S. equi (eqbE and SEQ2190) and a unique 100 base pair control DNA sequence (SZIC) inserted into the SZO07770 pseudogene of S. zooepidemicus strain H70. This triplex strangles qPCR assay can provide results within 2 h of sample receipt, has an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and specificity of 96.6% relative to the eqbE singlex assay and detects S. equi at levels below the threshold of the culture assay, even in the presence of contaminating bacteria. PMID:22884566

  7. Selection of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analysis of Edible Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples. PMID:25830330

  8. Reference Gene Validation for RT-qPCR, a Note on Different Available Software Packages

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Dern-Wieloch, Jutta; Weigel, Roswitha; Schumacher, Valérie; Schorle, Hubert; Nettersheim, Daniel; Bergmann, Martin; Brehm, Ralph; Kliesch, Sabine; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Fink, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background An appropriate normalization strategy is crucial for data analysis from real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR). It is widely supported to identify and validate stable reference genes, since no single biological gene is stably expressed between cell types or within cells under different conditions. Different algorithms exist to validate optimal reference genes for normalization. Applying human cells, we here compare the three main methods to the online available RefFinder tool that integrates these algorithms along with R-based software packages which include the NormFinder and GeNorm algorithms. Results 14 candidate reference genes were assessed by RT-qPCR in two sample sets, i.e. a set of samples of human testicular tissue containing carcinoma in situ (CIS), and a set of samples from the human adult Sertoli cell line (FS1) either cultured alone or in co-culture with the seminoma like cell line (TCam-2) or with equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBM-MSC). Expression stabilities of the reference genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and least stably expressed genes. The R-based packages NormqPCR, SLqPCR and the NormFinder for R script gave identical gene rankings. Interestingly, different outputs were obtained between the original software packages and the RefFinder tool, which is based on raw Cq values for input. When the raw data were reanalysed assuming 100% efficiency for all genes, then the outputs of the original software packages were similar to the RefFinder software, indicating that RefFinder outputs may be biased because PCR efficiencies are not taken into account. Conclusions This report shows that assay efficiency is an important parameter for reference gene validation. New software tools that incorporate these algorithms should be carefully validated prior to use. PMID:25825906

  9. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate normalisation strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Reference genes that have stable expression at different biological and physiological states can be effectively used for normalisation; however, their expression stability must be validated before use. Results Existing Serial Analysis of Gene Expression data were queried to identify six moderately expressed genes that had relatively stable gene expression throughout the year. These six candidate reference genes (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, eEF1A; TAT-binding protein homolog 1, TBP-1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 alpha, eIF4A; YT521-B-like protein family protein, YT521-B; histone 3, H3; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2) were validated for qRT-PCR normalisation in 442 diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) samples sourced from field- and laboratory-grown plants under a wide range of experimental conditions. Eukaryotic EF1A is encoded by members of a multigene family exhibiting differential expression and necessitated the expression analysis of different eEF1A encoding genes; a highly expressed eEF1A (h), a moderately, but stably expressed eEF1A (s), and combined expression of multigene eEF1A (m). NormFinder identified eEF1A (s) and YT521-B as the best combination of two genes for normalisation of gene expression data in perennial ryegrass following different defoliation management in the field. Conclusions This study is unique in the magnitude of samples tested with the inclusion of numerous field-grown samples, helping pave the way to conduct gene expression studies in perennial biomass crops under field-conditions. From our study several stably expressed reference genes have been validated. This provides useful candidates for reference gene selection in perennial ryegrass under conditions other than those tested here. PMID:20089196

  10. A brain region-specific predictive gene map for autism derived by profiling a reference gene set.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Johnson, Nicole; Menashe, Idan; Basu, Saumyendra N; Bales, Michael E; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84), we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1) neurogenesis/projection, 2) cell adhesion, and 3) ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe), executive function (prefrontal cortex), and hormone secretion (pituitary). Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research. PMID:22174805

  11. A Brain Region-Specific Predictive Gene Map for Autism Derived by Profiling a Reference Gene Set

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ajay; Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Johnson, Nicole; Menashe, Idan; Basu, Saumyendra N.; Bales, Michael E.; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84), we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1) neurogenesis/projection, 2) cell adhesion, and 3) ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe), executive function (prefrontal cortex), and hormone secretion (pituitary). Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research. PMID:22174805

  12. Evaluation of putative reference genes for gene expression normalization in soybean by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruibo Hu; Chengming Fan; Hongyu Li; Qingzhu Zhang; Yong-Fu Fu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) data needs to be normalized for its proper interpretation. Housekeeping genes are routinely employed for this purpose, but their expression level cannot be assumed to remain constant under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, a systematic validation of reference genes is required to ensure proper normalization. For soybean, only a small number of validated

  13. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in porcine oocytes and preimplantation embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kuijk, Ewart W; du Puy, Leonie; van Tol, Helena TA; Haagsman, Henk P; Colenbrander, Ben; Roelen, Bernard AJ

    2007-01-01

    Background In the developing embryo, total RNA abundance fluctuates caused by functional RNA degradation and zygotic genome activation. These variations in the transcriptome in early development complicate the choice of good reference genes for gene expression studies by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. Results In order to identify stably expressed genes for normalisation of quantitative data, within early stages of development, transcription levels were examined of 7 frequently used reference genes (B2M, BACT, GAPDH, H2A, PGK1, SI8, and UBC) at different stages of early porcine embryonic development (germinal vesicle, metaphase-2, 2-cell, 4-cell, early blastocyst, expanded blastocyst). Analysis of transcription profiling by geNorm software revealed that GAPDH, PGK1, S18, and UBC showed high stability in early porcine embryonic development, while transcription levels of B2M, BACT, and H2A were highly regulated. Conclusion Good reference genes that reflect total RNA content were identified in early embryonic development from oocyte to blastocyst. A selection of either GAPDH or PGK1, together with ribosomal protein S18 (S18), and UBC is proposed as reference genes, but the use of B2M, BACT, or H2A is discouraged. PMID:17540017

  14. The ‘PREXCEL-Q Method’ for qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Jack M.; Ackermann, Mark R.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a reliable approach to quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay development and project management, which is currently embodied in the Excel 2003-based software program named “PREXCEL-Q” (P-Q) (formerly known as “FocusField2-6Gallup-qPCRSet-upTool-001,” “FF2-6-001 qPCR set-up tool” or “Iowa State University Research Foundation [ISURF] project #03407”). Since its inception from 1997-2007, the program has been well-received and requested around the world and was recently unveiled by its inventor at the 2008 Cambridge Healthtech Institute’s Fourth Annual qPCR Conference in San Diego, CA. P-Q was subsequently mentioned in a review article by Stephen A. Bustin, an acknowledged leader in the qPCR field. Due to its success and growing popularity, and the fact that P-Q introduces a unique/defined approach to qPCR, a concise description of what the program is and what it does has become important. Sample-related inhibitory problems of the qPCR assay, sample concentration limitations, nuclease-treatment, reverse transcription (RT) and master mix formulations are all addressed by the program, enabling investigators to quickly, consistently and confidently design uninhibited, dynamically-sound, LOG-linear-amplification-capable, high-efficiency-of-amplification reactions for any type of qPCR. The current version of the program can handle an infinite number of samples. PMID:19759920

  15. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and ?-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

  16. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers.

    PubMed

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  17. Correlation and Variation-Based Method for Identifying Reference Genes from Large Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Oliver Yuan Wei; Keng, Bryan Ming Hsun; Ling, Maurice Han Tong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Reference genes are assumed to be stably expressed under most circumstances. Previous studies have shown that identification of potential reference genes using common algorithms, such as NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper, are not suitable for microarray-sized datasets. The aim of this study was to evaluate existing methods and develop methods for identifying reference genes from microarray datasets. Methods: We evaluated the correlation between outputs from 7 published methods for identifying reference genes, including NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper, using subsets of published microarray data. From these results, seven novel combinations of published methods for identifying reference genes were evaluated. Results: Our results showed that NormFinder’s and geNorm’s indices had high correlations (R2 = 0.987, P < 0.0001), which is consistent with the findings of previous studies. However, NormFinder’s and BestKeeper’s indices (R2 = 0.489, 0.01 < P < 0.05) and NormFinder’s coefficient of variance (CV) suggested a lower correlation (R2 = 0.483, 0.01 < P < 0.05). We developed two novel methods with high correlations with NormFinder (R2 values of both methods were 0.796, P < 0.0001). In addition, computational times required by the two novel methods were linear with the size of the dataset. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that both of our novel methods can be used as alternatives to NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper for identifying reference genes from large datasets. These methods were implemented as a tool, OLIgonucleotide Variable Expression Ranker (OLIVER), which can be downloaded from http://sourceforge.net/projects/bactome/files/OLIVER/OLIVER_1.zip.

  18. Investigating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis across four chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Bagés, S; Estany, J; Tor, M; Pena, R N

    2015-04-25

    Accurate normalization of data is required to correct for different efficiencies and errors during the processing of samples in reverse transcription PCR analysis. The chicken is one of the main livestock species and its genome was one of the first reported and used in large scale transcriptomic analysis. Despite this, the chicken has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the quantitative PCR analysis of growth and fattening genes. In this study, five candidate reference genes (B2M, RPL32, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in the two main commercial muscles (pectoralis major (breast) and biceps femoris (thigh)), liver and abdominal fat. Four statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, CV and BestKeeper) were used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes. Additionally, a comprehensive ranking was established with the RefFinder tool. This analysis identified YWHAZ and TBP as the recommended combination for the analysis of biceps femoris and liver, YWHAZ and RPL32 for pectoralis major and RPL32 and B2M for abdominal fat and across-tissue studies. The final ranking for each tool changed slightly but overall the results, and most particularly the ability to discard the least robust candidates, were consistent between tools. The selection and number of reference genes were validated using SCD, a target gene related to fat metabolism. Overall, the results can be directly used to quantitate target gene expression in different tissues or in validation studies from larger transcriptomic experiments. PMID:25680290

  19. Improved group-specific primers based on the full SILVA 16S rRNA gene reference database.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Stefan; Pastar, Milica; Mitter, Birgit; Lippert, Kathrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Lojan, Paul; Oswald, Andreas; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and community fingerprinting methods, such as the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis,are well-suited techniques for the examination of microbial community structures. The use of phylum and class-specific primers can provide enhanced sensitivity and phylogenetic resolution as compared with domain-specific primers. To date, several phylum- and class-specific primers targeting the 16S ribosomal RNA gene have been published. However, many of these primers exhibit low discriminatory power against non-target bacteria in PCR. In this study, we evaluated the precision of certain published primers in silico and via specific PCR. We designed new qPCR and T-RFLP primer pairs (for the classes Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and the phyla Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) by combining the sequence information from a public dataset (SILVA SSU Ref 102 NR) with manual primer design. We evaluated the primer pairs via PCR using isolates of the above-mentioned groups and via screening of clone libraries from environmental soil samples and human faecal samples. As observed through theoretical and practical evaluation, the primers developed in this study showed a higher level of precision than previously published primers, thus allowing a deeper insight into microbial community dynamics. PMID:25229098

  20. A Novel Strategy for Selection and Validation of Reference Genes in Dynamic Multidimensional Experimental Design in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cankorur-Cetinkaya, Ayca; Dereli, Elif; Eraslan, Serpil; Karabekmez, Erkan; Dikicioglu, Duygu; Kirdar, Betul

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding the dynamic mechanism behind the transcriptional organization of genes in response to varying environmental conditions requires time-dependent data. The dynamic transcriptional response obtained by real-time RT-qPCR experiments could only be correctly interpreted if suitable reference genes are used in the analysis. The lack of available studies on the identification of candidate reference genes in dynamic gene expression studies necessitates the identification and the verification of a suitable gene set for the analysis of transient gene expression response. Principal Findings In this study, a candidate reference gene set for RT-qPCR analysis of dynamic transcriptional changes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was determined using 31 different publicly available time series transcriptome datasets. Ten of the twelve candidates (TPI1, FBA1, CCW12, CDC19, ADH1, PGK1, GCN4, PDC1, RPS26A and ARF1) we identified were not previously reported as potential reference genes. Our method also identified the commonly used reference genes ACT1 and TDH3. The most stable reference genes from this pool were determined as TPI1, FBA1, CDC19 and ACT1 in response to a perturbation in the amount of available glucose and as FBA1, TDH3, CCW12 and ACT1 in response to a perturbation in the amount of available ammonium. The use of these newly proposed gene sets outperformed the use of common reference genes in the determination of dynamic transcriptional response of the target genes, HAP4 and MEP2, in response to relaxation from glucose and ammonium limitations, respectively. Conclusions A candidate reference gene set to be used in dynamic real-time RT-qPCR expression profiling in yeast was proposed for the first time in the present study. Suitable pools of stable reference genes to be used under different experimental conditions could be selected from this candidate set in order to successfully determine the expression profiles for the genes of interest. PMID:22675547

  1. A universal reference sample derived from clone vector for improved detection of differential gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Rishi L; Gonye, Gregory E; Gao, Guang; Schwaber, James S

    2006-01-01

    Background Using microarrays by co-hybridizing two samples labeled with different dyes enables differential gene expression measurements and comparisons across slides while controlling for within-slide variability. Typically one dye produces weaker signal intensities than the other often causing signals to be undetectable. In addition, undetectable spots represent a large problem for two-color microarray designs and most arrays contain at least 40% undetectable spots even when labeled with reference samples such as Stratagene's Universal Reference RNAs™. Results We introduce a novel universal reference sample that produces strong signal for all spots on the array, increasing the average fraction of detectable spots to 97%. Maximizing detectable spots on the reference image channel also decreases the variability of microarray data allowing for reliable detection of smaller differential gene expression changes. The reference sample is derived from sequence contained in the parental EST clone vector pT7T3D-Pac and is called vector RNA (vRNA). We show that vRNA can also be used for quality control of microarray printing and PCR product quality, detection of hybridization anomalies, and simplification of spot finding and segmentation tasks. This reference sample can be made inexpensively in large quantities as a renewable resource that is consistent across experiments. Conclusion Results of this study show that vRNA provides a useful universal reference that yields high signal for almost all spots on a microarray, reduces variation and allows for comparisons between experiments and laboratories. Further, it can be used for quality control of microarray printing and PCR product quality, detection of hybridization anomalies, and simplification of spot finding and segmentation tasks. This type of reference allows for detection of small changes in differential expression while reference designs in general allow for large-scale multivariate experimental designs. vRNA in combination with reference designs enable systems biology microarray experiments of small physiologically relevant changes. PMID:16677381

  2. Identification of TL-Om1, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, as reference material for quantitative PCR for human T-lymphotropic virus 1.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Momose, Haruka; Mizukami, Takuo; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Sugamura, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold difference in their results. To standardize HTLV-1 qPCR, preparation of a well-defined reference material is needed. We analyzed the integrated HTLV-1 genome and the internal control (IC) genes of TL-Om1, a cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia, to confirm its suitability as a reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that HTLV-1 provirus was monoclonally integrated in chromosome 1 at the site of 1p13 in the TL-Om1 genome. HTLV-1 proviral genome was not transferred from TL-Om1 to an uninfected T-cell line, suggesting that the HTLV-1 proviral copy number in TL-Om1 cells is stable. To determine the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus and IC genes in TL-Om1 cells, we used FISH, digital PCR, and qPCR. HTLV-1 copy numbers obtained by these three methods were similar, suggesting that their results were accurate. Also, the ratio of the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus to one of the IC genes, RNase P, was consistent for all three methods. These findings indicate that TL-Om1 cells are an appropriate reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. PMID:25502533

  3. [Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in six oil-tea camellia based on RNA].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C F; Lin, P; Yao, X H; Wang, K L; Chang, J; Han, X J

    2013-01-01

    qRT-PCR is becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study gene expression. It is nec- essary to find stable reference genes when performing qRT-PCR. The expression of genes cloned in oil-tea camellia currently can't be accurately analyzed because of a lack of suitable reference genes. We collected different tissues (including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) from six oil-tea camellia species to determine stable reference genes. Five novel and ten traditional reference gene sequences were selected from the RNA-seq database of Camellia oleifera C. Abel seeds and specific PCR primers were designed for each. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from each reaction for all samples. Three different software tools, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were applied to calculate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes according to the Ct values. The results were similar between analyzed by the three software packages, and indicated that the traditional gene TUBa-3, AC17a and the novel gene CESA were relatively stable in all species and tissues. However, no genes were sufficiently stable across all species and tissues, thus the optimal number of reference genes required for accurate normalization varied from two to six. Finally, the relative expression ofsqualene synthase (SQS) and squalene epoxidase (SQE) genes related to important ingredients squalene and tea saponin in oil-tea camellia seeds were compared by using stable to less stable reference genes. The comparison results validated the selection of reference genes in the current study. In summary, different optimal numbers of suitable reference genes were found for the different tissues of six oil-tea camellia species. PMID:25509858

  4. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization and its applications in lycium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1? for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  5. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization and Its Applications in Lycium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1? for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  6. qPCR analysis of carbon, nitrogen, and arsenic cycling in Zetaproteobacteria-dominated microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jesser, K. J.; Fullerton, H.; Hilton, T. S.; Kimber, J.; Hager, K.; Moyer, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The recently discovered Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) to fix CO2 at hydrothermal vents. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at Lo'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast of the big island of Hawai'i and characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal vents. The hydrothermal vents at Lo'ihi are surrounded by luxuriant iron-rich microbial mats dominated by Zetaproteobacteria. We aim to use real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify functional genes associated with the microbial carbon, nitrogen, and arsenic cycles in complex Zetaproteobacteria- dominated iron mat communities. Unique qPCR primer sets have been developed based on Illumina next-generation sequence data from an iron mat collected in 2009 at Lo'ihi. These primers target the sequences for arsenate reductase and nitrite reductase, genes associated with arsenic detoxification and denitrification, respectively. Additionally, we are utilizing published primer sets to quantify genes associated with autotrophic carbon and nitrogen fixation pathways. Genomic DNA was isolated from microbial mats at multiple vent sites with varying temperatures and fluid flow during our 2013 expedition to Lo'ihi. The qPCR data for these samples can be used to draw correlations among fine scale mat structures and nutrient cycling processes across diverse mat morphologies, as previous research has identified unique microbial communities and metabolic strategies associated with distinct mat morphologies. This work will enable us to better identify samples for further molecular analysis, and may provide insights into the evolutionary history and metabolic functionality of various mat morphotypes. We hypothesize that Zetaproteobacteria act as ecosystem engineers, driving the structure and function of iron mat ecosystems.

  7. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ?70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n?=?24, dilated n?=?11; bicuspid undilated n?=?6, dilated n?=?15; unicuspid dilated n?=?4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue. PMID:23326585

  8. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)?0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton. PMID:24929128

  9. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yifan; Lin, Qingcai; Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

  10. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

  11. Sampling Daphnia's expressed genes: preservation, expansion and invention of crustacean genes with reference to insect genomes

    PubMed Central

    Colbourne, John K; Eads, Brian D; Shaw, Joseph; Bohuski, Elizabeth; Bauer, Darren J; Andrews, Justen

    2007-01-01

    Background Functional and comparative studies of insect genomes have shed light on the complement of genes, which in part, account for shared morphologies, developmental programs and life-histories. Contrasting the gene inventories of insects to those of the nematodes provides insight into the genomic changes responsible for their diversification. However, nematodes have weak relationships to insects, as each belongs to separate animal phyla. A better outgroup to distinguish lineage specific novelties would include other members of Arthropoda. For example, crustaceans are close allies to the insects (together forming Pancrustacea) and their fascinating aquatic lifestyle provides an important comparison for understanding the genetic basis of adaptations to life on land versus life in water. Results This study reports on the first characterization of cDNA libraries and sequences for the model crustacean Daphnia pulex. We analyzed 1,546 ESTs of which 1,414 represent approximately 787 nuclear genes, by measuring their sequence similarities with insect and nematode proteomes. The provisional annotation of genes is supported by expression data from microarray studies described in companion papers. Loci expected to be shared between crustaceans and insects because of their mutual biological features are identified, including genes for reproduction, regulation and cellular processes. We identify genes that are likely derived within Pancrustacea or lost within the nematodes. Moreover, lineage specific gene family expansions are identified, which suggest certain biological demands associated with their ecological setting. In particular, up to seven distinct ferritin loci are found in Daphnia compared to three in most insects. Finally, a substantial fraction of the sampled gene transcripts shares no sequence similarity with those from other arthropods. Genes functioning during development and reproduction are comparatively well conserved between crustaceans and insects. By contrast, genes that were responsive to environmental conditions (metal stress) and not sex-biased included the greatest proportion of genes with no matches to insect proteomes. Conclusion This study along with associated microarray experiments are the initial steps in a coordinated effort by the Daphnia Genomics Consortium to build the necessary genomic platform needed to discover genes that account for the phenotypic diversity within the genus and to gain new insights into crustacean biology. This effort will soon include the first crustacean genome sequence. PMID:17612412

  12. Optimisation of Reference Genes for Gene-Expression Analysis in a Rabbit Model of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nachar, Walid; Busseuil, David; Shi, Yanfen; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Mélanie; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is characterized by the disturbance of ventricle’s performance due to its abnormal relaxation or to its increased stiffness during the diastolic phase. The molecular mechanisms underlying LVDD remain unknown. We aimed to identify normalization genes for accurate gene-expression analysis of LVDD using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in a new rabbit model of LVDD. Eighteen rabbits were fed with a normal diet (n?=?7) or a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with vitamin D2 (n?=?11) for an average of 14.5 weeks. We validated the presence of LVDD in this model using echocardiography for diastolic function assessment. RT-PCR was performed using cDNA derived from left ventricle samples to measure the stability of 10 genes as candidate reference genes (Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Sdha, Rpl5, Actb, Eef1e1, Ywhaz, Pgk1, and G6pd). Using geNorm analysis, we report that Sdha, Gapdh and Hprt1 genes had the highest stability (M <0.2). By contrast, Hprt1 and Rpl5 genes were found to represent the best combination for normalization when using the Normfinder algorithm (stability value of 0.042). Comparison of both normalization strategies highlighted an increase of natriuretic peptides (Bnp and Anp), monocytes chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1) and NADPH oxidase subunit (Nox-2) mRNA expressions in ventricle samples of the hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to controls (P<0.05). This increase correlates with LVDD echocardiographic parameters and most importantly it molecularly validates the presence of the disease in our model. This is the first study emphasizing the selection of stable reference genes for RT-PCR normalization in a rabbit model of LVDD. PMID:24558494

  13. Selection of endogenous reference genes for gene expression analysis in Leishmania major developmental stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meriam Ouakad; Narges Bahi-Jaber; Mehdi Chenik; Koussay Dellagi; Hechmi Louzir

    2007-01-01

    At the era of post-genomics, gene expression analysis constitutes an important step for understanding the biological functions\\u000a of genes. For this, reverse transcription and real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is one of the most accurate techniques\\u000a available to date. Normalization with a proper internal control is critical for the generation of reliable results with biological\\u000a significance. This is particularly true

  14. Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudy Huis; Simon Hawkins; Godfrey Neutelings

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs\\/tissues

  15. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, ?-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + ?-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + ?-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, ?-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; ?-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the same tissues taking the sexual differences into consideration. This work not only formed a solid basis for future gene expression study in B. dorsalis, but also will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other insects. PMID:20923571

  16. An integrated catalog of reference genes in the human gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Li, Junhua; Jia, Huijue; Cai, Xianghang; Zhong, Huanzi; Feng, Qiang; Sunagawa, Shinichi; Arumugam, Manimozhiyan; Kultima, Jens Roat; Prifti, Edi; Nielsen, Trine; Juncker, Agnieszka Sierakowska; Manichanh, Chaysavanh; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Wenwei; Levenez, Florence; Wang, Juan; Xu, Xun; Xiao, Liang; Liang, Suisha; Zhang, Dongya; Zhang, Zhaoxi; Chen, Weineng; Zhao, Hailong; Al-Aama, Jumana Yousuf; Edris, Sherif; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jian; Hansen, Torben; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn; Brunak, Søren; Kristiansen, Karsten; Guarner, Francisco; Pedersen, Oluf; Doré, Joel; Ehrlich, S Dusko; Bork, Peer; Wang, Jun

    2014-08-01

    Many analyses of the human gut microbiome depend on a catalog of reference genes. Existing catalogs for the human gut microbiome are based on samples from single cohorts or on reference genomes or protein sequences, which limits coverage of global microbiome diversity. Here we combined 249 newly sequenced samples of the Metagenomics of the Human Intestinal Tract (MetaHit) project with 1,018 previously sequenced samples to create a cohort from three continents that is at least threefold larger than cohorts used for previous gene catalogs. From this we established the integrated gene catalog (IGC) comprising 9,879,896 genes. The catalog includes close-to-complete sets of genes for most gut microbes, which are also of considerably higher quality than in previous catalogs. Analyses of a group of samples from Chinese and Danish individuals using the catalog revealed country-specific gut microbial signatures. This expanded catalog should facilitate quantitative characterization of metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and metaproteomic data from the gut microbiome to understand its variation across populations in human health and disease. PMID:24997786

  17. Identification of Reference Genes for Relative Quantification of Circulating MicroRNAs in Bovine Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Seon; Chung, Ki Yong; Yi, Jongmin; Kim, Tae Il; Choi, Hwa-Sik; Cho, Young-Moo; Choi, Inho; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle. PMID:25826387

  18. SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

    2011-01-01

    Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

  19. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp.

    PubMed

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-Hua; Jiang, Shan-Xiang

    2014-09-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  20. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-hua; Jiang, Shan-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  1. Identification of suitable reference genes for the relative quantification of microRNAs in pleural effusion

    PubMed Central

    HAN, HYE-SUK; JO, YEONG NANG; LEE, JIN YONG; CHOI, SONG-YI; JEONG, YUSOOK; YUN, JIEUN; LEE, OK-JUN

    2014-01-01

    Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers of cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used in miRNA expression studies. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs were investigated in 10 benign pleural effusion (BPE) and 10 lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (LA-MPE) samples using miRNA microarrays. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs, together with those of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), RNU6B, RNU44 and RNU48 small RNAs, in 46 BPE and 45 LA-MPE samples were validated by RT-qPCR, and were analyzed using the NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The impact of different normalization approaches on the detection of differential expression levels of miR-198 in BPE and LA-MPE samples was also assessed. As determined by the miRNA microarray data, five candidate reference miRNAs were identified. Following RT-qPCR validation, U6 snRNA, miR-192, miR-20a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-16 were evaluated using the NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. U6 snRNA and miR-192 were identified as single reference genes and the combination of these genes was preferred for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. Normalization of miR-98 expression levels to those of U6 snRNA, miR-192 or a combination of these genes enabled the detection of a significant difference between BPE and LA-MPE samples. Therefore, U6 snRNA and miR-192 are recommended as reference genes for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. PMID:25202432

  2. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Mao Shen; Hong-Bo Jiang; Xiao-Na Wang; Jin-Jun Wang

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several

  3. Identification of valid reference genes during the differentiation of human myoblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Stern-Straeter; Gabriel A Bonaterra; Karl Hörmann; Ralf Kinscherf; Ulrich R Goessler

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of RNA expression using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) traditionally includes reference genes (RG) as an internal control. This practice is being questioned as it becomes increasingly clear that RG may vary considerably under certain experimental conditions. Thus, the validity of a particular RG must be determined for each experimental setting. We used qRT-PCR to measure the levels of six

  4. A comparison of DNA methylation specific droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and real time qPCR with flow cytometry in characterizing human T cells in peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Wiencke, John K; Bracci, Paige M; Hsuang, George; Zheng, Shichun; Hansen, Helen; Wrensch, Margaret R; Rice, Terri; Eliot, Melissa; Kelsey, Karl T

    2014-01-01

    Quantitating the copy number of demethylated CpG promoter sites of the CD3Z gene can be used to estimate the numbers and proportions of T cells in human blood and tissue. Quantitative methylation specific PCR (qPCR) is useful for studying T cells but requires extensive calibration and is imprecise at low copy numbers. Here we compared the performance of a new digital PCR platform (droplet digital PCR or ddPCR) to qPCR using bisulfite converted DNA from 157 blood specimens obtained from ambulatory care controls and patients with primary glioma. We compared both ddPCR and qPCR with conventional flow cytometry (FACS) evaluation of CD3 positive T cells. Repeated measures on the same blood sample revealed ddPCR to be less variable than qPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR correlated significantly with FACS evaluation of peripheral blood CD3 counts and CD3/total leukocyte values. However, statistical measures of agreement showed that linear concordance was stronger for ddPCR than for qPCR and the absolute values were closer to FACS for ddPCR. Both qPCR and ddPCR could distinguish clinically significant differences in T cell proportions and performed similarly to FACS. Given the higher precision, greater accuracy, and technical simplicity of ddPCR, this approach appears to be a superior DNA methylation based method than conventional qPCR for the assessment of T cells. PMID:25437051

  5. Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs), have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq) now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome. Methods We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Results Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%. We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal samples and 9 lung cancer cell lines. Conclusions Deep transcriptional sequencing and analysis with targeted and spliced alignment methods can effectively identify TIC events across the genome in individual tissues. Prostate and reference samples exhibit a wide range of TIC events, involving more genes than estimated previously using ESTs. Tissue specificity of TIC events is correlated with expression patterns of the upstream gene. Some TIC events, such as MSMB-NCOA4, may play functional roles in cancer. PMID:21261984

  6. Reference genes for quantitative, reverse-transcription PCR in Bacillus cereus group strains throughout the bacterial life cycle.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Lillian; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Piehler, Armin P

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a major tool to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of bacteria. One prerequisite of valid RT-qPCR data is their proper normalization to stably expressed reference genes. To identify and evaluate reference genes suitable for normalization of gene expression data in Bacillus cereus group strains, mRNA levels of eleven candidate reference genes (rpsU, nifU, udp (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase), BT9727_5154/BC_5475, BT9727_4034/BC_4293, BT9727_4549/BC_4813, pspA, gatB_Yqey (gatB_Yqey domain containing protein), helicase (SWF/SNF family protein), adk and pta) and a target gene (BT9727_3305/BC3547+BC3546) were quantified by RT-qPCR at different time points throughout the entire life cycle of the wild-type B. cereus ATCC 14579 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. konkukian 97-27, a phylogenetically closely related strain to Bacillus anthracis. The programs geNorm and Normfinder were used to calculate expression stabilities and identified the genes gatB_Yqey, rpsU and udp as the most stably expressed reference genes. Compared to this combination or the sets of reference genes as recommended by geNorm or Normfinder, normalization using a traditional housekeeping gene (adk) alone resulted in significantly different gene expression results and in a significant overestimation of the target gene transcription. Normalization of the data to the reference gene gatB_Yqey alone showed no or only small differences to the reference gene combinations indicating that gatB_Yqey may be used as a single reference gene when investigating rather large changes in mRNA transcription. Otherwise, a combination of the stably expressed reference genes is recommended. In conclusion, the present study underlines the importance of normalization to stably expressed reference genes and presents valid endogenous controls suitable for normalization of transcriptional data throughout the life cycle of B. cereus group strains. PMID:21620905

  7. Identification of Candidate Reference Genes in Perennial Ryegrass for Quantitative RT-PCR under Various Abiotic Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xiaomei; Yin, Guohua; Zhang, Xinquan; Qi, Xiao; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is an important technique for analyzing differences in gene expression due to its sensitivity, accuracy and specificity. However, the stability of the expression of reference genes is necessary to ensure accurate qRT-PCR assessment of expression in genes of interest. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is important forage and turf grass species in temperate regions, but the expression stability of its reference genes under various stresses has not been well-studied. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were evaluated for use as controls in qRT-PCR to quantify gene expression in perennial ryegrass under drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and ABA (abscisic acid) treatments. Four approaches – Delta CT, geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder were used to determine the stability of expression in these reference genes. The results are consistent with the idea that the best reference genes depend on the stress treatment under investigation. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4 alpha (eIF4A), Transcription elongation factor 1 (TEF1) and Tat binding protein-1 (TBP-1) were the three most stably expressed genes under drought stress and were also the three best genes for studying salt stress. eIF4A, TBP-1, and Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) were the most suitable reference genes to study heat stress, while eIF4A, TEF1, and E2 were the three best reference genes for studying the effects of ABA. Finally, Ubiquitin (UBQ), TEF1, and eIF4A were the three best reference genes for waterlogging treatments. Conclusions/Significance These results will be helpful in choosing the best reference genes for use in studies related to various abiotic stresses in perennial ryegrass. The stability of expression in these reference genes will enable better normalization and quantification of the transcript levels for studies of gene expression in such studies. PMID:24699822

  8. Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

  9. Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time RT-PCR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Teste, Marie-Ange; Duquenne, Manon; François, Jean M; Parrou, Jean-Luc

    2009-01-01

    Background Real-time RT-PCR is the recommended method for quantitative gene expression analysis. A compulsory step is the selection of good reference genes for normalization. A few genes often referred to as HouseKeeping Genes (HSK), such as ACT1, RDN18 or PDA1 are among the most commonly used, as their expression is assumed to remain unchanged over a wide range of conditions. Since this assumption is very unlikely, a geometric averaging of multiple, carefully selected internal control genes is now strongly recommended for normalization to avoid this problem of expression variation of single reference genes. The aim of this work was to search for a set of reference genes for reliable gene expression analysis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Results From public microarray datasets, we selected potential reference genes whose expression remained apparently invariable during long-term growth on glucose. Using the algorithm geNorm, ALG9, TAF10, TFC1 and UBC6 turned out to be genes whose expression remained stable, independent of the growth conditions and the strain backgrounds tested in this study. We then showed that the geometric averaging of any subset of three genes among the six most stable genes resulted in very similar normalized data, which contrasted with inconsistent results among various biological samples when the normalization was performed with ACT1. Normalization with multiple selected genes was therefore applied to transcriptional analysis of genes involved in glycogen metabolism. We determined an induction ratio of 100-fold for GPH1 and 20-fold for GSY2 between the exponential phase and the diauxic shift on glucose. There was no induction of these two genes at this transition phase on galactose, although in both cases, the kinetics of glycogen accumulation was similar. In contrast, SGA1 expression was independent of the carbon source and increased by 3-fold in stationary phase. Conclusion In this work, we provided a set of genes that are suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis by real-time RT-PCR in yeast biological samples covering a large panel of physiological states. In contrast, we invalidated and discourage the use of ACT1 as well as other commonly used reference genes (PDA1, TDH3, RDN18, etc) as internal controls for quantitative gene expression analysis in yeast. PMID:19874630

  10. Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica. PMID:24770781

  11. A De Novo Transcriptome and Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li; Li, Yi; Liu, Wen; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi Baly is a serious insect pest of crucifers and undergoes reproductive diapause in soil. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diapause regulation, insecticide resistance, and other physiological processes is helpful for developing new management strategies for this beetle. However, the lack of genomic information and valid reference genes limits knowledge on the molecular bases of these physiological processes in this species. Results Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained more than 57 million sequence reads derived from C. bowringi, which were assembled into 39,390 unique sequences. A Clusters of Orthologous Groups classification was obtained for 9,048 of these sequences, covering 25 categories, and 16,951 were assigned to 255 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Eleven candidate reference gene sequences from the transcriptome were then identified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among these candidate genes, EF1?, ACT1, and RPL19 proved to be the most stable reference genes for different reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments in C. bowringi. Conversely, aTUB and GAPDH were the least stable reference genes. Conclusion The abundant putative C. bowringi transcript sequences reported enrich the genomic resources of this beetle. Importantly, the larger number of gene sequences and valid reference genes provide a valuable platform for future gene expression studies, especially with regard to exploring the molecular mechanisms of different physiological processes in this species. PMID:25692689

  12. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR in orchardgrass subjected to various abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Linkai; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Zeng, Bing; Xu, Bin; Yin, Guohua; Lee, Samantha; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

    2014-12-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool for the measurement of gene expression; however, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The objective of the present study was to identify the stable reference genes in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), a principal cool-season forage grass in the world. Ten candidate reference genes were selected in this study including ATP-binding [ABC], actin [ACTIN], cyclophilin [CYP2], glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-amylase 4 [BAM4], zeitlupe [ZTL], MAP Kinase 4 [MPK4], ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [UBC], S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [SAMDC], and translationally controlled tumor protein [TCTP]. The candidate genes were assessed in orchardgrass leaves and roots under conditions of drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. We used GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and RefFinder for qRT-PCR normalization and validation to determine that the expression of these reference genes was stress-dependent. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were found to be the most stably expressed genes for drought stress while ACTIN, TCTP, and ABC were the most stable under salt stress. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were all found to be good reference genes for studying heat stress. Likewise, CYP2, MPK4, and ABC were most suitable to study waterlogging, and ACTIN, CYP2, and MPK4 were determined as the three best reference genes for ABA studies. Our study identified and validated the possible reference genes in orchardgrass that may be used for quantification of target gene expression under various abiotic stresses. PMID:25307767

  13. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts. PMID:25445290

  14. Validation of Novel Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Drought-Stressed Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Roberta Lane de Oliveira; Silva, Manassés Daniel; Ferreira Neto, José Ribamar Costa; de Nardi, Claudia Huerta; Chabregas, Sabrina Moutinho; Burnquist, William Lee; Kahl, Günter; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; Kido, Ederson Akio

    2014-01-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of RT-qPCR data analysis is the identification of reliable reference genes. Ideally, they should be neither induced nor repressed under different experimental conditions. To date, few reference genes have been adequately studied for sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) using statistical approaches. In this work, six candidate genes (?TUB, GAPDH, H1, SAMDC, UBQ, and 25S rRNA) were tested for gene expression normalization of sugarcane root tissues from drought-tolerant and -sensitive accessions after continuous dehydration (24?h). By undergoing different approaches (GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), it was shown that most of them could be used in combinations for normalization purposes, with the exception of SAMDC. Nevertheless three of them (H1, ?TUB, and GAPDH) were considered the most reliable reference genes. Their suitability as reference genes validated the expression profiles of two targets (AS and PFP?1), related to SuperSAGE unitags, in agreement with results revealed by previous in silico analysis. The other two sugarcane unitags (ACC oxidase and PIP1-1), after salt stress (100?mM NaCl), presented their expressions validated in the same way. In conclusion, these reference genes will be useful for dissecting gene expression in sugarcane roots under abiotic stress, especially in transcriptomic studies using SuperSAGE or RNAseq approaches. PMID:24987730

  15. Identification of the Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Annual Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) under Salt Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2015-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a cool-season annual grass cultivated worldwide for its high yield and quality. With the areas of saline soil increasing, investigation of the molecular mechanisms of annual ryegrass tolerance under salt stress has become a significant topic. qRT-PCR has been a predominant assay for determination of the gene expression, in which selecting a valid internal reference gene is a crucial step. The objective of present study was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR in annual ryegrass under salt stress. The results calculated by RefFinder indicated that eEF1A(s) was the most stable reference gene in leaves, whereas EF1-a was the least stable; meanwhile, TBP-1 was the most optimal in roots and in all samples, and the eIF-5A shouldn't be utilized for normalization of the gene expression. eEF1A(s) is more suitable than TBP-1 as reference gene in leaves when verified with P5CS1 and Cyt-Cu/Zn SOD genes. We should choose optimal reference genes in specific tissues instead of the most stable one selected from different conditions and tissues. PMID:25786166

  16. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during leaf and flower development in Petunia hybrida

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Identification of genes with invariant levels of gene expression is a prerequisite for validating transcriptomic changes accompanying development. Ideally expression of these genes should be independent of the morphogenetic process or environmental condition tested as well as the methods used for RNA purification and analysis. Results In an effort to identify endogenous genes meeting these criteria nine reference genes (RG) were tested in two Petunia lines (Mitchell and V30). Growth conditions differed in Mitchell and V30, and different methods were used for RNA isolation and analysis. Four different software tools were employed to analyze the data. We merged the four outputs by means of a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. The genes identified as optimal for transcriptomic analysis of Mitchell and V30 were EF1? in Mitchell and CYP in V30, whereas the least suitable gene was GAPDH in both lines. Conclusions The least adequate gene turned out to be GAPDH indicating that it should be rejected as reference gene in Petunia. The absence of correspondence of the best-suited genes suggests that assessing reference gene stability is needed when performing normalization of data from transcriptomic analysis of flower and leaf development. PMID:20056000

  17. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real time RT-PCR during dimorphism in the zygomycete Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Valle-Maldonado, Marco I; Jácome-Galarza, Irvin E; Gutiérrez-Corona, Félix; Ramírez-Díaz, Martha I; Campos-García, Jesús; Meza-Carmen, Víctor

    2015-03-01

    Mucor circinelloides is a dimorphic fungal model for studying several biological processes including cell differentiation (yeast-mold transitions) as well as biodiesel and carotene production. The recent release of the first draft sequence of the M. circinelloides genome, combined with the availability of analytical methods to determine patterns of gene expression, such as quantitative Reverse transcription-Polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and the development of molecular genetic tools for the manipulation of the fungus, may help identify M. circinelloides gene products and analyze their relevance in different biological processes. However, no information is available on M. circinelloides genes of stable expression that could serve as internal references in qRT-PCR analyses. One approach to solve this problem consists in the use of housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is a fundamental step prior to initiating qRT-PCR assays. This work evaluates expression of several constitutive genes by qRT-PCR throughout the morphological differentiation stages of M. circinelloides; our results indicate that tfc-1 and ef-1 are the most stable genes for qRT-PCR assays during differentiation studies and they are proposed as reference genes to carry out gene expression studies in this fungus. PMID:25391770

  18. Evaluation of Four Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for Common Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735

  19. Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus

    PubMed Central

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  20. Reference genes for QRT-PCR tested under various stress conditions in Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta (Insecta, Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Muriel E; de Boer, Tjalf E; Mariën, Janine; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Nota, Benjamin; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha; Roelofs, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of quantification when key standards, such as normalization, are carefully set. In this study, we validated potential reference genes for their use as endogenous controls under different chemical and physical stresses in two species of soil-living Collembola, Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta. Treatments for F. candida were cadmium exposure, phenanthrene exposure, desiccation, heat shock and pH stress, and for O. cincta cadmium, desiccation, heat shock and starvation. Results Eight potential reference genes for F. candida and seven for O. cincta were ranked by their stability per stress factor using the programs geNorm and Normfinder. For F. candida the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA) and eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 1A (ETIF) genes were found the most stable over the different treatments, while for O. cincta, the beta actin (ACTb) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) genes were the most stable. Conclusion We present a panel of reference genes for two emerging ecological genomic model species tested under a variety of treatments. Within each species, different treatments resulted in differences in the top stable reference genes. Moreover, the two species differed in suitable reference genes even when exposed to similar stresses. This might be attributed to dissimilarity of physiology. It is vital to rigorously test a panel of reference genes for each species and treatment, in advance of relative quantification of QRT-PCR gene expression measurements. PMID:19486513

  1. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Results Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), ?-Tubulin (?-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-? (Ef-1?), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1? are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1? as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. Conclusion This study proposes a first broad collection of teak tissue and organ mRNA expression data for nine selected candidate qRT-PCR reference genes. NormFinder, Bestkeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct analyses suggested that TgUbq and TgEf-1? have the highest expression stability and provided similar results when evaluating TgCAD gene expression, while the commonly used Act should be avoided. PMID:25048176

  2. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1?, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression profile of the target candidate genes. PMID:25793735

  3. Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V.; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1? (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and ?-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

  4. Selection of reference genes from two leafhopper species challenged by phytoplasma infection, for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytoplasmas are phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria and represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. For gene expression studies based on mRNA quantification by RT-qPCR, stability of housekeeping genes is crucial. The aim of this study was the identification of reference genes to study the effect of phytoplasma infection on gene expression of two leafhopper vector species. The identified reference genes will be useful tools to investigate differential gene expression of leafhopper vectors upon phytoplasma infection. Results The expression profiles of ribosomal 18S, actin, ATP synthase ?, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tropomyosin were determined in two leafhopper vector species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), both healthy and infected by “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” (chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma strain, CYP). Insects were analyzed at three different times post acquisition, and expression stabilities of the selected genes were evaluated with BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder algorithms. In Euscelidius variegatus, all genes under all treatments were stable and could serve as reference genes. In Macrosteles quadripunctulatus, BestKeeper and Normfinder analysis indicated ATP synthase ?, tropomyosin and GAPDH as the most stable, whereas geNorm identified reliable genes only for early stages of infection. Conclusions In this study a validation of five candidate reference genes was performed with three algorithms, and housekeeping genes were identified for over time transcript profiling of two leafhopper vector species infected by CYP. This work set up an experimental system to study the molecular basis of phytoplasma multiplication in the insect body, in order to elucidate mechanisms of vector specificity. Most of the sequences provided in this study are new for leafhoppers, which are vectors of economically important plant pathogens. Phylogenetic indications were also drawn from sequence analysis of these genes. PMID:24119747

  5. Validation of a Tomato-Specific Gene, LAT52, Used as an Endogenous Reference Gene in Qualitative and Real-Time Quantitative PCR Detection of Transgenic Tomatoes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Litao Yang; AIHU PAN; JUNWEI JIA; JIAYU DING; JIANXIU CHEN; Cheng Huang; CHENGMEI ZHANG; Da-Bing Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Toward the development of reliable qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection methods of transgenic tomatoes, one tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) species specific gene, LAT52, was selected and validated as suitable for using as an endogenous reference gene in transgenic tomato PCR detection. Both qualitative and quantitative PCR methods were assayed with 16 different tomato varieties, and identical amplified products

  6. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantification of Target Gene Expression with Quantitative Real-time PCR for Tall Fescue under Four Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species. PMID:25786207

  7. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; He, Liang-Liang; Fu, Qian-Tang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel and bio-jet fuel production. To study gene expression in Jatropha in different tissues throughout development and under stress conditions, we examined a total of 11 typical candidate reference genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, which is widely used for validating transcript levels in gene expression studies. The expression stability of these candidate reference genes was assessed across a total of 20 samples, including various tissues at vegetative and reproductive stages and under desiccation and cold stress treatments. The results obtained using software qBasePLUS showed that the top-ranked reference genes differed across the sample subsets. The combination of actin, GAPDH, and EF1? would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples at different developmental stages; the combination of actin, GAPDH, and TUB5 should be used as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples under various abiotic stress treatments. With regard to different developmental stages, we recommend the use of actin and TUB8 for normalization at the vegetative stage and GAPDH and EF1? for normalization at the reproductive stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we recommend the use of TUB5 and TUB8 for normalization under desiccation stress and GAPDH and actin for normalization under cold stress. These results are valuable for future research on gene expression during development or under abiotic stress in Jatropha. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of reference genes in Jatropha. PMID:24351820

  8. Selection and Evaluation of Potential Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Using Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Wan, Hu; Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhan, Sha; Jin, Byung-Rae; Li, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is one of the most important rice pests. Abundant genetic studies on BPH have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Using qRT-PCR, the expression levels of target genes are calculated on the basis of endogenous controls. These genes need to be appropriately selected by experimentally assessing whether they are stably expressed under different conditions. However, such studies on potential reference genes in N. lugens are lacking. In this paper, we presented a systematic exploration of eight candidate reference genes in N. lugens, namely, actin 1 (ACT), muscle actin (MACT), ribosomal protein S11 (RPS11), ribosomal protein S15e (RPS15), alpha 2-tubulin (TUB), elongation factor 1 delta (EF), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), and arginine kinase (AK) and used four alternative methods (BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, and the delta Ct method) to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. We examined their expression levels among different experimental factors (developmental stage, body part, geographic population, temperature variation, pesticide exposure, diet change, and starvation) following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guidelines. Based on the results of RefFinder, which integrates four currently available major software programs to compare and rank the tested candidate reference genes, RPS15, RPS11, and TUB were found to be the most suitable reference genes in different developmental stages, body parts, and geographic populations, respectively. RPS15 was the most suitable gene under different temperature and diet conditions, while RPS11 was the most suitable gene under different pesticide exposure and starvation conditions. This work sheds light on establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure in N. lugens, and serves as a starting point for screening for reference genes for expression studies of related insects. PMID:24466124

  9. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR expression studies in the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum

    PubMed Central

    Takle, Gunnhild W; Toth, Ian K; Brurberg, May B

    2007-01-01

    Background Real-time RT-PCR has become a powerful technique to monitor low-abundance mRNA expression and is a useful tool when examining bacterial gene expression inside infected host tissues. However, correct evaluation of data requires accurate and reliable normalisation against internal standards. Thus, the identification of reference genes whose expression does not change during the course of the experiment is of paramount importance. Here, we present a study where manipulation of cultural growth conditions and in planta experiments have been used to validate the expression stability of reference gene candidates for the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of twelve reference gene candidates tested, four proved to be stably expressed both in six different cultural growth conditions and in planta. Two of these genes (recA and ffh), encoding recombinase A and signal recognition particle protein, respectively, proved to be the most stable set of reference genes under the experimental conditions used. In addition, genes proC and gyrA, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and DNA gyrase, respectively, also displayed relatively stable mRNA expression levels. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest recA and ffh as suitable candidates for accurate normalisation of real-time RT-PCR data for experiments investigating the plant pathogen P. atrosepticum and potentially other related pathogens. PMID:17888160

  10. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) Germplasm Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Li, Peixue; Wang, Libing; Dai, Huitang; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Ha, Denglong; Zhao, Haiyan; Lin, Shanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been applied in a vast range of studies of gene expression analysis. However, real-time PCR data must be normalized with one or more reference genes. In this study, eleven putative consistently expressed genes (ACT, TUA, TUB, CYP, DNAj, ELFA, F-box27, RPL12, GAPDH, UBC and UBQ) in nine Siberian Apricot Germplasms (including much variability) were evaluated for their potential as references for the normalization of gene expression by NormFinder and geNorm programs. From our studies, ACT, UBC, CYP, UBQ and RPL12 as suitable for normalization were identified by geNorm, while UBC and CYP as the best pair by NormFinder. Moreover, UBC was selected as the most stably expressed gene by both algorithms in different Siberian Apricot seed samples. We also detected that a set of three genes (ACT, CYP and UBC) by geNorm as control for normalization could lead to accurate results. Furthermore, the expression levels of oleosin gene were analyzed to validate the suitability of the selected reference genes. These obtained experimental results could make an important contribution to normalize real-time PCR data for gene expression analysis in Siberian Apricot Germplasm. PMID:25105495

  11. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Real-time qRT-PCR Analysis of Zi Geese (Anser anser domestica) Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Hong; Wang, Jianfa; Liu, Juxiong; Guo, Jingru; Wang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Li; Yang, Huanmin

    2013-01-01

    Zi geese (Anser anser domestica) belong to the white geese and are excellent layers with a superior feed-to-egg conversion ratio. Quantitative gene expression analysis, such as Real-time qRT-PCR, will provide a good understanding of ovarian function during egg-laying and consequently improve egg production. However, we still don’t know what reference genes in geese, which show stable expression, should be used for such quantitative analysis. In order to reveal such reference genes, the stability of seven genes were tested in five tissues of Zi geese. Methodology/Principal Findings: The relative transcription levels of genes encoding hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), ?-actin (ACTB), ?-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (SDH), 28S rRNA (28S) and 18S rRNA (18S) have been quantified in heart, liver, kidney, muscle and ovary in Zi geese respectively at different developmental stages (1 d, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months). The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. Conclusions: The expression of 28S in heart, GAPDH in liver and ovary, ACTB in kidney and HPRT1 in muscle are the most stable genes as identified by the three different analysis methods. Thus, these genes are recommended for use as candidate reference genes to compare mRNA transcription in various developmental stages of geese. PMID:25049806

  12. Selection and Assessment of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR Normalization in Migratory Locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Huaijiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1?, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His) were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1?, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1? and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts. PMID:24887329

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ?Ct method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  14. Evaluation and Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative RT-PCR in Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Varinder; Kaul, Sunil C.; Wadhwa, Renu; Pati, Pratap Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is now globally used for accurate analysis of transcripts levels in plants. For reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes is a prerequisite in qRT-PCR analysis. Recently, Withania somnifera has attracted lot of attention due to its immense therapeutic potential. At present, biotechnological intervention for the improvement of this plant is being seriously pursued. In this background, it is important to have comprehensive studies on finding suitable reference genes for this high valued medicinal plant. In the present study, 11 candidate genes were evaluated for their expression stability under biotic (fungal disease), abiotic (wounding, salt, drought, heat and cold) stresses, in different plant tissues and in response to various plant growth regulators (methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, abscisic acid). The data as analyzed by various software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper and ?Ct method) suggested that cyclophilin (CYP) is a most stable gene under wounding, heat, methyl jasmonate, different tissues and all stress conditions. T-SAND was found to be a best reference gene for salt and salicylic acid (SA) treated samples, while 26S ribosomal RNA (26S), ubiquitin (UBQ) and beta-tubulin (TUB) were the most stably expressed genes under drought, biotic and cold treatment respectively. For abscisic acid (ABA) treated samples 18S-rRNA was found to stably expressed gene. Finally, the relative expression level of the three genes involved in the withanolide biosynthetic pathway was detected to validate the selection of reliable reference genes. The present work will significantly contribute to gene analysis studies in W. somnifera and facilitate in improving the quality of gene expression data in this plant as well as and other related plant species. PMID:25769035

  15. A novel qPCR assay for the detection of African animal trypanosomosis in trypanotolerant and trypanosusceptible cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Silbermayr, Katja; Li, Fuyong; Soudré, Albert; Müller, Simone; Sölkner, Johann

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to (i) determine the prevalence of African Animal Trypanosomosis (AAT) in tsetse challenged areas, (ii) compare conventional with qPCR detection systems and (iii) evaluate the host genetic background and biology as risk factors. AAT prevalence studies are often confronted with low levels of parasitaemia. Hence, we designed a novel qPCR assay using primers and species specific probes amplifying the Internal Transcribed Spacer 1 (ITS1) gene. Thereby all three AAT species could be detected simultaneously. 368 individuals from three cattle types (Baoulé, Zebu and hybrids) originating from 72 farms in Burkina Faso were analysed. Farmers were interviewed and morphometric measurements of the cattle taken. A chi-squared test and a logistic regression model were calculated to detect associations with infection. In our study, the overall rate of prevalence detected with the novel qPCR assay was 11.14%. Compared to conventional PCR we identified a concordance of 91.30%. We tested 41 animals positive for trypanosome DNA, five animals showed multiple infections. Zebus were twice as often infected (21.74%) compared to Baoulé (9.70%) and hybrids (9.57%). Trypanosoma vivax is the dominant species (9.24%), as compared to T. congolense (2.44%) and T. brucei (0.82%). The chi-squared tests linking the infection events to the breeds (Zebu vs. Baoulé and Zebu vs. hybrids) were on the border of significance. No significant association with other tested parameters could be detected. We introduce a novel qPCR technique for the fast, sensitive and simultaneous detection of the three AAT species. Our results suggest that associations with breed and infection exist since Zebu cattle are more likely to be infected compared to Baoulé and hybrids. Indigenous taurine cattle breeds, like the Baoulé, therefore provide a unique and valuable genetic resource. PMID:23967357

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions. PMID:25474086

  17. RefPrimeCouch—a reference gene primer CouchApp

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, Jascha; Wernicke, Catrin; Pospisil, Heike; Frohme, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    To support a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction standardization project, a new reference gene database application was required. The new database application was built with the explicit goal of simplifying not only the development process but also making the user interface more responsive and intuitive. To this end, CouchDB was used as the backend with a lightweight dynamic user interface implemented client-side as a one-page web application. Data entry and curation processes were streamlined using an OpenRefine-based workflow. The new RefPrimeCouch database application provides its data online under an Open Database License. Database URL: http://hpclife.th-wildau.de:5984/rpc/_design/rpc/view.html PMID:24368831

  18. Selection and evaluation of novel reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) based on genome and transcriptome data in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongli; Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Guo, Tingting; Deng, Linbin; Hua, Wei

    2014-03-15

    Selection of reference genes in Brassica napus, a tetraploid (4×) species, is a very difficult task without information on genome and transcriptome. By now, only several traditional reference genes which show significant expression differentiation under different conditions are used in B. napus. In the present study, based on genome and transcriptome data of the rapeseed Zhongshuang-11 cultivar, 14 candidate reference genes were screened for investigation in different tissues, cultivars, and treated conditions of B. napus. These genes were as follows: ELF5, ENTH, F-BOX7, F-BOX2, FYPP1, GDI1, GYF, MCP2d, OTP80, PPR, SPOC, Unknown1, Unknown2 and UBA. Among them, excluding GYF and FYPP1, another 12 genes, were identified to perform better than traditional reference genes ACTIN7 and GAPDH. To further validate the accuracy of the newly developed reference genes in normalization, expression levels of BnCAT1 (B. napus catalase 1) in different rapeseed tissues and seedlings under stress conditions were normalized by the three most stable reference genes PPR, GDI1, and ENTH and little difference existed in normalization results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time B. napus reference genes have been provided with the help of complete genome and transcriptome information. The new reference genes provided in this study are more accurate than previously reported reference genes in quantifying expression levels of B. napus genes. PMID:24406618

  19. Effective Alu Repeat Based RT-Qpcr Normalization in Cancer Cell Perturbation Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rihani, Ali; Van Maerken, Tom; Pattyn, Filip; Van Peer, Gert; Beckers, Anneleen; De Brouwer, Sara; Kumps, Candy; Mets, Evelien; Van der Meulen, Joni; Rondou, Pieter; Leonelli, Carina; Mestdagh, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    Background Measuring messenger RNA (mRNA) levels using the reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is common practice in many laboratories. A specific set of mRNAs as internal control reference genes is considered as the preferred strategy to normalize RT-qPCR data. Proper selection of reference genes is a critical issue, especially in cancer cells that are subjected to different in vitro manipulations. These manipulations may result in dramatic alterations in gene expression levels, even of assumed reference genes. In this study, we evaluated the expression levels of 11 commonly used reference genes as internal controls for normalization of 19 experiments that include neuroblastoma, T-ALL, melanoma, breast cancer, non small cell lung cancer (NSCL), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, and cervical cancer cell lines subjected to various perturbations. Results The geNorm algorithm in the software package qbase+ was used to rank the candidate reference genes according to their expression stability. We observed that the stability of most of the candidate reference genes varies greatly in perturbation experiments. Expressed Alu repeats show relatively stable expression regardless of experimental condition. These Alu repeats are ranked among the best reference assays in all perturbation experiments and display acceptable average expression stability values (M<0.5). Conclusions We propose the use of Alu repeats as a reference assay when performing cancer cell perturbation experiments. PMID:23977142

  20. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

    2014-01-01

    Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate reference genes in other oil palm tissues and in the expression profiling of genes relating to yield, biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:24927412

  1. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    PubMed

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-01

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed. PMID:19902949

  2. Stable internal reference genes for normalization of real-time RT-PCR in tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum ) during development and abiotic stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregor W. Schmidt; Sven K. Delaney

    2010-01-01

    Real-time RT-PCR is a powerful technique for the measurement of gene expression, but its accuracy depends on the stability\\u000a of the internal reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) is an important model in studies of plant gene expression, but stable reference genes have not been well-studied in the\\u000a tobacco system. We address this problem by analysing the

  3. Quantitative evaluation and selection of reference genes in mouse oocytes and embryos cultured in vivo and in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Solomon; Gal, Arpad Baji; Bodo, Szilard; Dinnyes, Andras

    2007-01-01

    Background Real-time PCR is an efficient tool to measure transcripts and provide valuable quantitative information on gene expression of preimplantation stage embryos. Finding valid reference genes for normalization is essential to interpret the real-time PCR results accurately, and understand the biological dynamics during early development. The use of reference genes also known as housekeeping genes is the most widely applied approach. However, the different genes are not systematically compared, and as a result there is no uniformity between studies in selecting the reference gene. The goals of this study were to compare a wide selection of the most commonly used housekeeping genes in mouse oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos produced under different culture conditions, and select the best stable genes for normalization of gene expression data. Results Quantitative real time PCR method was used to evaluate 12 commonly used housekeeping genes (Actb, Gapdh, H2afz, Hprt, Ppia, Ubc, Eef1e1, Tubb4, Hist2h2aa1, Tbp, Bmp7, Polr2a) in multiple individual embryos representing six different developmental stages. The results were analysed, and stable genes were selected using the geNorm software. The expression pattern was almost similar despite differences in the culture system; however, the transcript levels were affected by culture conditions. The genes have showed various stabilities, and have been ranked accordingly. Conclusion Compared to earlier studies with similar objectives, we used a unique approach in analysing larger number of genes, comparing embryo samples derived in vivo or in vitro, analysing the expression in the early and late maternal to zygote transition periods separately, and using multiple individual embryos. Based on detailed quantification, pattern analyses and using the geNorm application, we found Ppia, H2afz and Hprt1 genes to be the most stable across the different stages and culture conditions, while Actb, the classical housekeeping gene, showed the least stability. We recommend the use of the geometric averages of those three genes for normalization in mouse preimplantation-stage gene expression studies. PMID:17341302

  4. Detection of a Bacteriophage Gene Encoding a Mu-like Portal Protein in Haemophilus parasuis Reference Strains and Field Isolates by Nested Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A nested PCR assay was developed to determine the presence of a gene encoding a bacteriophage Mu-like portal protein, gp29, in 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of Haemophilus parasuis. Specific primers, based on the gene’s sequence, were utilized. A majority of the virulent reference strai...

  5. Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.

    PubMed

    Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

    2012-06-01

    A SYBR Green(®)-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and ?-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR. PMID:23730001

  6. Manual annotation and analysis of the defensin gene cluster in the C57BL\\/6J mouse reference genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Clara Amid; Linda M Rehaume; Kelly L Brown; James GR Gilbert; Gordon Dougan; Robert EW Hancock; Jennifer L Harrow

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Host defense peptides are a critical component of the innate immune system. Human alpha- and beta-defensin genes are subject to copy number variation (CNV) and historically the organization of mouse alpha-defensin genes has been poorly defined. Here we present the first full manual genomic annotation of the mouse defensin region on Chromosome 8 of the reference strain C57BL\\/6J, and

  7. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR expression studies in the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gunnhild W Takle; Ian K Toth; May B Brurberg

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-time RT-PCR has become a powerful technique to monitor low-abundance mRNA expression and is a useful tool when examining bacterial gene expression inside infected host tissues. However, correct evaluation of data requires accurate and reliable normalisation against internal standards. Thus, the identification of reference genes whose expression does not change during the course of the experiment is of paramount

  8. Reference Genes for Real-Time PCR Quantification of Messenger RNAs and MicroRNAs in Mouse Model of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Matoušková, Petra; Bártíková, Hana; Boušová, Iva; Hanušová, Veronika; Szotáková, Barbora; Skálová, Lenka

    2014-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome is increasing health problem worldwide. Among other ways, nutritional intervention using phytochemicals is important method for treatment and prevention of this disease. Recent studies have shown that certain phytochemicals could alter the expression of specific genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) that play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of obesity. For study of the obesity and its treatment, monosodium glutamate (MSG)-injected mice with developed central obesity, insulin resistance and liver lipid accumulation are frequently used animal models. To understand the mechanism of phytochemicals action in obese animals, the study of selected genes expression together with miRNA quantification is extremely important. For this purpose, real-time quantitative PCR is a sensitive and reproducible method, but it depends on proper normalization entirely. The aim of present study was to identify the appropriate reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in MSG mice treated with green tea catechins, potential anti-obesity phytochemicals. Two sets of reference genes were tested: first set contained seven commonly used genes for normalization of messenger RNA, the second set of candidate reference genes included ten small RNAs for normalization of miRNA. The expression stability of these reference genes were tested upon treatment of mice with catechins using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. Selected normalizers for mRNA quantification were tested and validated on expression of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, biotransformation enzyme known to be modified by catechins. The effect of selected normalizers for miRNA quantification was tested on two obesity- and diabetes- related miRNAs, miR-221 and miR-29b, respectively. Finally, the combinations of B2M/18S/HPRT1 and miR-16/sno234 were validated as optimal reference genes for mRNA and miRNA quantification in liver and 18S/RPlP0/HPRT1 and sno234/miR-186 in small intestine of MSG mice. These reference genes will be used for mRNA and miRNA normalization in further study of green tea catechins action in obese mice. PMID:24465854

  9. Identification of Valid Reference Genes for the Normalization of RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Treated with and without Transient Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng-Fei; Ge, Fei; Chen, Ce-Shi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfection, we identified appropriate and reliable reference genes from thirteen candidates in a panel of 10 normal and cancerous human breast cell lines under experimental conditions with/without transfection treatments with two transfection reagents. Reference gene expression stability was calculated using four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct), and the recommended comprehensive ranking was provided using geometric means of the ranking values using the RefFinder tool. GeNorm analysis revealed that two reference genes should be sufficient for all cases in this study. A stability analysis suggests that 18S rRNA-ACTB is the best reference gene combination across all cell lines; ACTB-GAPDH is best for basal breast cancer cell lines; and HSPCB-ACTB is best for ER+ breast cancer cells. After transfection, the stability ranking of the reference gene fluctuated, especially with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent in two subtypes of basal and ER+ breast cell lines. Comparisons of relative target gene (HER2) expression revealed different expressional patterns depending on the reference genes used for normalization. We suggest that identifying the most stable and suitable reference genes is critical for studying specific cell lines under certain circumstances. PMID:25617865

  10. Selection of endogenous reference microRNA genes for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies of boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Chang-Jun; He, Lian; Ding, Li; Tang, Ke-Yi; Peng, Wen-Pei

    2015-03-01

    It is important to select high-quality reference genes for the accurate interpretation of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data, in particular for certain miRNAs that may demonstrate unstable expression. Although several studies have attempted to validate reference miRNA genes in the porcine testis, spermatozoa, and other tissues, no validation studies have been carried out on cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. In this study, 15 commonly used reference miRNA genes (5S, let-7c-5p, ssc-miR-16-5p, ssc-miR-17-5p, ssc-miR-20a, ssc-miR-23a, ssc-miR-24-3p, ssc-miR-26a, ssc-miR-27a-3p, ssc-miR-92a, ssc-miR-103-3p, ssc-miR-106a, ssc-miR-107-3p, ssc-miR-186, and ssc-miR-221-3p) were selected to evaluate the expression stability of target miRNAs in boar spermatozoa under different experimental conditions and concentrations. The stability of the expression of these reference miRNAs across each sample was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. The results showed that ssc-miR-186 (mean rank value = 5.00), ssc-miR-23a (5.33), and ssc-miR-27a (5.33) were the most suitable reference genes using three different statistical algorithms and comprehensive ranking. The identification of these reference miRNAs will allow for more accurate quantification of the changes in miRNA expression during cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. PMID:25464866

  11. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia M Lee; John R Roche; Danny J Donaghy; Anthony Thrush; Puthigae Sathish

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate

  12. Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR studies in gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wenjing ZhaoYan; Yan Li; Pengfei Gao; Zhihong Sun; Tiansong Sun; Heping Zhang

    Lactobacillus casei Zhang, a potential probiotic strain isolated from homemade koumiss in Inner Mongolia of China, has been sequenced and deposited\\u000a in GenBank. Real-time quantitative PCR is one of the most widely used methods to study related gene expression levels of Lactobacillus casei Zhang. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data using one or more

  13. Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, Kohei [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Taminishi, Sanae [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan)

    2008-09-12

    The liver has an intrinsic ability to undergo active proliferation and recover functional liver mass in response to an injury response. This regenerative process involves a complex yet well orchestrated change in the gene expression profile. To produce accurate and reliable gene expression of target genes during various stages of liver regeneration, the determination of internal control housekeeping genes (HKGs) those are uniformly expressed is required. In the present study, the gene expression of 8 commonly used HKGs, including GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, GUSB, PPIA, TBP, TFRC, and RPL4, were studied using mouse livers that were quiescent and actively regenerating induced by partial hepatectomy. The amplification of the HKGs was statistically analyzed by two different mathematical algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Using this method, PPIA and TBP gene expression found to be relatively stable regardless of the stages of liver regeneration and would be ideal for normalization to target gene expression.

  14. Evaluation and selection of reference genes for ecotoxicogenomic study of the green alga Closterium ehrenbergii using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah; Guo, Ruoyu; Ebenezer, Vinitha; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2015-05-01

    The green alga Closterium ehrenbergii occurs in fresh water environments and has been suggested as a model for ecotoxicological assessment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), with its high sensitivity and specificity, is a preferred method for reliable quantification of gene expression levels. qRT-PCR requires reference genes to normalize the transcription level of the target gene, and selection of appropriate references is crucial. Here, we evaluated nine housekeeping genes, that is, 18S rRNA, ACT, TUA, TUB, eIF, H4, UBQ, rps4, and GAPDH, using 34 RNA samples of C. ehrenbergii cultured in various environments (e.g. exposure to heat shock, UV, metals, and non-metallic chemicals). Each housekeeping gene tested displayed different ranges of C T values for each experimental condition. The gene stability was determined using the descriptive statistic software geNorm, which showed that ACT, H4, and TUA were the most suitable reference genes for all the conditions tested. In addition, at least three genes were required for proper normalization. With these references, we assessed the expression level of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene in C. ehrenbergii cells exposed to thermal and toxic contaminant stress and found that it was significantly up-regulated by these stressors. This study provides potential reference genes for gene expression studies on C. ehrenbergii with qRT-PCR. PMID:25724346

  15. NEW TARGET AND CONTROL ASSAYS FOR QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCI IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci are frequently monitored in water samples as indicators of fecal pollution. Attention is now shifting from culture based methods for enumerating these organisms to more rapid molecular methods such as QPCR. Accurate quantitative analyses by this method requires highly...

  16. 3' tag digital gene expression profiling of human brain and universal reference RNA using Illumina Genome Analyzer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan W Asmann; Eric W Klee; E Aubrey Thompson; Edith A Perez; Sumit Middha; Ann L Oberg; Terry M Therneau; David I Smith; Gregory A Poland; Eric D Wieben; Jean-Pierre A Kocher

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Massive parallel sequencing has the potential to replace microarrays as the method for transcriptome profiling. Currently there are two protocols: full-length RNA sequencing (RNA-SEQ) and 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE). In this preliminary effort, we evaluated the 3' DGE approach using two reference RNA samples from the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium (MAQC). RESULTS: Using Brain RNA sample from multiple

  17. Automated high multiplex qPCR platform for simultaneous detection and quantification of multiple nucleic acid targets.

    PubMed

    Hlousek, Louis; Voronov, Sergey; Diankov, Vesselin; Leblang, Amy B; Wells, Patrick J; Ford, Donna M; Nolling, Jork; Hart, Kyle W; Espinoza, Patricio A; Bristol, Michael R; Tsongalis, Gregory J; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Slepnev, Vladimir I; Kong, Lilly I; Lee, Ming-Chou

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) using real-time detection of amplification is limited to a small number of targets within a single reaction. The ICEPlex system, using our scalable target analysis routine (STAR) technology, was developed to provide an automated, high multiplexing PCR solution. ICEPlex combines PCR thermal cycling with dynamic, sequential amplicon separation by capillary electrophoresis and two-color quantitative detection in a single integrated system. In contrast to probe-based qPCR, ICEPlex directly measures amplicon accumulation through incorporation of labeled primers. Three orders of magnitude of optical detection range and at least 7 logs of detectable target concentration range are demonstrated. The system can separate more than 50 amplicons per color channel, ranging from 100 to 500 bases, providing broad multiplexing capabilities for a wide spectrum of nucleic acid amplification applications. ICEPlex can be used for analysis of viral DNA or RNA targets, detection of genetic variants, and for reverse-transcriptase PCR gene expression panels. PMID:22578124

  18. Wheat-specific gene, ribosomal protein l21, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of transgenes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Ke; Li, He-Ping; Huang, Tao; Cheng, Wei; Gao, Chun-Sheng; Zuo, Dong-Yun; Zhao, Zheng-Xi; Liao, Yu-Cai

    2014-10-29

    Wheat-specific ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) is an endogenous reference gene suitable for genetically modified (GM) wheat identification. This taxon-specific RPL21 sequence displayed high homogeneity in different wheat varieties. Southern blots revealed 1 or 3 copies, and sequence analyses showed one amplicon in common wheat. Combined analyses with sequences from common wheat (AABBDD) and three diploid ancestral species, Triticum urartu (AA), Aegilops speltoides (BB), and Aegilops tauschii (DD), demonstrated the presence of this amplicon in the AA genome. Using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the limit of detection was 2 copies of wheat haploid genome per reaction. In the quantitative real-time PCR assay, limits of detection and quantification were about 2 and 8 haploid genome copies, respectively, the latter of which is 2.5-4-fold lower than other reported wheat endogenous reference genes. Construct-specific PCR assays were developed using RPL21 as an endogenous reference gene, and as little as 0.5% of GM wheat contents containing Arabidopsis NPR1 were properly quantified. PMID:25325387

  19. Analysis of natural and induced variation in tomato glandular trichome flavonoids identifies a gene not present in the reference genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3'/5' myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3' or 3'/5' O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3' O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3' O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3'-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3'-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

  20. De novo characterization of the gene-rich transcriptomes of two color-polymorphic spiders, Theridion grallator and T. californicum (Araneae: Theridiidae), with special reference to pigment genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A number of spider species within the family Theridiidae exhibit a dramatic abdominal (opisthosomal) color polymorphism. The polymorphism is inherited in a broadly Mendelian fashion and in some species consists of dozens of discrete morphs that are convergent across taxa and populations. Few genomic resources exist for spiders. Here, as a first necessary step towards identifying the genetic basis for this trait we present the near complete transcriptomes of two species: the Hawaiian happy-face spider Theridion grallator and Theridion californicum. We mined the gene complement for pigment-pathway genes and examined differential expression (DE) between morphs that are unpatterned (plain yellow) and patterned (yellow with superimposed patches of red, white or very dark brown). Results By deep sequencing both RNA-seq and normalized cDNA libraries from pooled specimens of each species we were able to assemble a comprehensive gene set for both species that we estimate to be 98-99% complete. It is likely that these species express more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, perhaps 4.5% (ca. 870) of which might be unique to spiders. Mining for pigment-associated Drosophila melanogaster genes indicated the presence of all ommochrome pathway genes and most pteridine pathway genes and DE analyses further indicate a possible role for the pteridine pathway in theridiid color patterning. Conclusions Based upon our estimates, T. grallator and T. californicum express a large inventory of protein-coding genes. Our comprehensive assembly illustrates the continuing value of sequencing normalized cDNA libraries in addition to RNA-seq in order to generate a reference transcriptome for non-model species. The identification of pteridine-related genes and their possible involvement in color patterning is a novel finding in spiders and one that suggests a biochemical link between guanine deposits and the pigments exhibited by these species. PMID:24314324

  1. RPL13A as a reference gene for normalizing mRNA transcription of ovarian cancer cells with paclitaxel and 10-hydroxycamptothecin treatments.

    PubMed

    Bian, Zehua; Yu, Yang; Quan, Chao; Guan, Rongwei; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jie; Xu, Lidan; Chen, Feng; Bai, Jing; Sun, Wenjing; Fu, Songbin

    2015-04-01

    Gene transcription analysis is important in cancer research, and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) has been demonstrated to be an effective method to evaluate gene transcription in cancer. RT?qPCR requires an internal reference gene with a consistent level of mRNA transcription across various experimental conditions. However, it has been suggested that different treatments, including anticancer therapy, may influence the transcriptional stability of internal reference genes. Paclitaxel (PTX) and 10?hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) are widely used to treat various types of cancer, and a suitable internal reference gene is required in order to analyze the transcription profiles of the cells following treatment. In the current study, the transcriptional stability of 30 candidate reference genes was investigated in cancer cells following treatment with PTX and HCPT. The two ovarian cancer cell lines, UACC?1598 and SKOV3, were treated with PTX and HCPT for 24 and 48 h, and the transcriptional levels of the candidate reference genes were subsequently evaluated by RT?qPCR analysis. The transcriptional stability of the selected genes was then analyzed using qbase+ and NormFinder software. A total of 9 genes were demonstrated to exhibit high transcriptional stability and one of these genes, ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was identified to exhibit high transcriptional stability in every group. The current study identified various reference genes suitable under different circumstances, while RPL13A was indicated to be the most suitable reference gene for analyzing the transcription profile of ovarian cancer cells following treatment with PTX and HCPT. PMID:25523336

  2. Proteomic and targeted qPCR analyses of subsurface microbial communities for presence of methane monooxygenase

    SciTech Connect

    Andrzej J. Paszczynski; Ravindra Paidisetti; Andrew K. Johnson; Ronald L. Crawford; Frederick S. Colwell; Tonia Green; Mark Delwiche; Hope Lee; Deborah Newby; Eoin L. Brodie; Mark Conrad

    2011-11-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, USA, sits over a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant plume in the Snake River Plain fractured basalt aquifer. Past observations have provided evidence that TCE at TAN is being transformed by biological natural attenuation that may be primarily due to co-metabolism in aerobic portions of the plume by methanotrophs. TCE co-metabolism by methanotrophs is the result of the broad substrate specificity of microbial methane monooxygenase which permits non-specific oxidation of TCE in addition to the primary substrate, methane. Arrays of experimental approaches have been utilized to understand the biogeochemical processes driving intrinsic TCE co-metabolism at TAN. In this study, aerobic methanotrophs were enumerated by qPCR using primers targeting conserved regions of the genes pmoA and mmoX encoding subunits of the particulate MMO (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) enzymes, respectively, as well as the gene mxa encoding the downstream enzyme methanol dehydrogenase. Identification of proteins in planktonic and biofilm samples from TAN was determined using reverse phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QToF) mass spectrometer to separate and sequence peptides from trypsin digests of the protein extracts. Detection of MMO in unenriched water samples from TAN provides direct evidence of intrinsic methane oxidation and TCE co-metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial population. Mass spectrometry is also well suited for distinguishing which form of MMO is expressed in situ either soluble or particulate. Using this method, pMMO proteins were found to be abundant in samples collected from wells within and adjacent to the TCE plume at TAN.

  3. Proteomic and targeted qPCR analyses of subsurface microbial communities for presence of methane monooxygenase.

    PubMed

    Paszczynski, Andrzej J; Paidisetti, Ravindra; Johnson, Andrew K; Crawford, Ronald L; Colwell, Frederick S; Green, Tonia; Delwiche, Mark; Lee, Hope; Newby, Deborah; Brodie, Eoin L; Conrad, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, USA, sits over a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant plume in the Snake River Plain fractured basalt aquifer. Past observations have provided evidence that TCE at TAN is being transformed by biological natural attenuation that may be primarily due to co-metabolism in aerobic portions of the plume by methanotrophs. TCE co-metabolism by methanotrophs is the result of the broad substrate specificity of microbial methane monooxygenase which permits non-specific oxidation of TCE in addition to the primary substrate, methane. Arrays of experimental approaches have been utilized to understand the biogeochemical processes driving intrinsic TCE co-metabolism at TAN. In this study, aerobic methanotrophs were enumerated by qPCR using primers targeting conserved regions of the genes pmoA and mmoX encoding subunits of the particulate MMO (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) enzymes, respectively, as well as the gene mxa encoding the downstream enzyme methanol dehydrogenase. Identification of proteins in planktonic and biofilm samples from TAN was determined using reverse phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QToF) mass spectrometer to separate and sequence peptides from trypsin digests of the protein extracts. Detection of MMO in unenriched water samples from TAN provides direct evidence of intrinsic methane oxidation and TCE co-metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial population. Mass spectrometry is also well suited for distinguishing which form of MMO is expressed in situ either soluble or particulate. Using this method, pMMO proteins were found to be abundant in samples collected from wells within and adjacent to the TCE plume at TAN. PMID:21360114

  4. The feline oral microbiome: a provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

    2015-02-25

    The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:25523504

  5. Gene environment interaction in preterm delivery with special reference to organochlorine pesticide: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Tusha; Banerjee, Basu Dev; Mustafa, Md; Guleria, Kiran; Ahmed, Rafat S; Tripathi, Ashok K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the Gene-Environmental interaction between maternal organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) level and CYP17 gene polymorphism with the risk of preterm delivery (PTD). Materials and methods: Maternal blood samples of hundred cases (n = 100) of PTD and of equal number of healthy controls were collected at the time of delivery. OCPs levels were estimated by Gas chromatography system equipped with electron capture detector and PCR-RFLP was used for polymorphic analysis of CYP17 gene. Results: Significantly (p < 0.05) higher levels of ?-HCH, ?-HCH, and ?-HCH were found in maternal blood samples of PTD cases as compared to controls. We did not found any significant difference in the frequency genotype distribution CYP17 gene in PTD cases as compared to controls. When gene environmental interaction between the CYP17 gene polymorphism and OCPs level was considered, a significant interaction was observed between ? 50th percentile of ?-HCH and CYP17 A1A1 (wild type) genotype. Conclusions: Higher levels of OCPs along with wild type state of CYP17 gene (A1A1) in women may be considered as an important etiological factor in ‘idiopathic’ PTD. The present study provides evidence that genetic variation and its interaction with the environmental exposure may increase the risk of PTD. PMID:24380025

  6. Assessing Reference Genes for Accurate Transcript Normalization Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.], a close relative of Panicoideae food crops and bioenergy grasses, offers an ideal system to perform functional genomics studies related to C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) provides a sensitive platform to conduct such gene expression analyses. However, the lack of suitable internal control reference genes for accurate transcript normalization during qRT-PCR analysis in pearl millet is the major limitation. Here, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of 18 reference genes on 234 samples which included an array of different developmental tissues, hormone treatments and abiotic stress conditions from three genotypes to determine appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Analyses of Ct values using Stability Index, BestKeeper, ?Ct, Normfinder, geNorm and RefFinder programs ranked PP2A, TIP41, UBC2, UBQ5 and ACT as the most reliable reference genes for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, we validated the specificity of these genes for precise quantification of relative gene expression and provided evidence that a combination of the best reference genes are required to obtain optimal expression patterns for both endogeneous genes as well as transgenes in pearl millet. PMID:25170776

  7. A critique of widely used normalization software tools and an alternative method to identify reliable reference genes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).

    PubMed

    Mehdi Khanlou, Khosro; Van Bockstaele, Erik

    2012-11-01

    Determination of appropriate reference genes is crucial to normalization of gene expression data and prevention of biased results in qRT-PCR studies. This study is the first attempt to systematically compare potential reference genes to detect the most constitutively expressed reference genes for accurate normalization in red clover tissues including leaves, stems and roots. To identify the best-suited reference gene(s) for normalization, several statistical algorithms such as geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder have been developed. All these algorithms are based on the key assumption that none of the investigated candidate reference genes show systematic variation in their expression profile across the samples being considered. However, this assumption is likely to be violated in practice. The authors therefore suggest a simple and novel stability index based on the analysis of variance model which is free from the assumption made by the algorithms. We assessed the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes including actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1?), translation initiation factor (EIF-4a), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC2), polyubiquitin (UBQ10), sand family protein (SAND) and yellow-leaf-specific protein 8 (YLS8). Our results indicated that UBC2 and UBQ10 ranked as the two most stably expressed genes in leaf tissue. UBC2 and YLS8 were defined as optimal control genes for stem tissue. EIF-4a and UBC2 were found to be the most stable reference gene for root tissue. GAPDH and SAND showed relatively low stability in expression study of red clover. When all tested tissues were considered, we observed that YLS8 and UBC2 showed remarkable stability in their expression level across tissues. PMID:22718310

  8. Lessons from Genome-Wide Search for Disease-Related Genes with Special Reference to HLA-Disease Associations

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, Katsushi

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between diseases and genetic factors are by no means uniform. Single-gene diseases are caused primarily by rare mutations of specific genes. Although each single-gene disease has a low prevalence, there are an estimated 5000 or more such diseases in the world. In contrast, multifactorial diseases are diseases in which both genetic and environmental factors are involved in onset. These include a variety of diseases, such as diabetes and autoimmune diseases, and onset is caused by a range of various environmental factors together with a number of genetic factors. With the astonishing advances in genome analysis technology in recent years and the accumulation of data on human genome variation, there has been a rapid progress in research involving genome-wide searches for genes related to diseases. Many of these studies have led to the recognition of the importance of the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) gene complex. Here, the current state and future challenges of genome-wide exploratory research into variations that are associated with disease susceptibilities and drug/therapy responses are described, mainly with reference to our own experience in this field. PMID:24705288

  9. Characterizing differential gene expression in polyploid grasses lacking a reference transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal transcriptome characterization and differential gene expression in response to varying conditions are often addressed through next generation sequencing (NGS) and data analysis techniques. While these strategies are commonly used, there are countless tools, pipelines, data analysis methods an...

  10. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction reference genes in the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain: validation and literature search

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a widely used, highly sensitive laboratory technique to rapidly and easily detect, identify and quantify gene expression. Reliable RT-qPCR data necessitates accurate normalization with validated control genes (reference genes) whose expression is constant in all studied conditions. This stability has to be demonstrated. We performed a literature search for studies using quantitative or semi-quantitative PCR in the rat spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain to verify whether any reference genes had previously been validated. We then analyzed the stability over time of 7 commonly used reference genes in the nervous system – specifically in the spinal cord dorsal horn and the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). These were: Actin beta (Actb), Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal proteins 18S (18S), L13a (RPL13a) and L29 (RPL29), hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1) and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS). We compared the candidate genes and established a stability ranking using the geNorm algorithm. Finally, we assessed the number of reference genes necessary for accurate normalization in this neuropathic pain model. Results We found GAPDH, HMBS, Actb, HPRT1 and 18S cited as reference genes in literature on studies using the SNI model. Only HPRT1 and 18S had been once previously demonstrated as stable in RT-qPCR arrays. All the genes tested in this study, using the geNorm algorithm, presented gene stability values (M-value) acceptable enough for them to qualify as potential reference genes in both DRG and spinal cord. Using the coefficient of variation, 18S failed the 50% cut-off with a value of 61% in the DRG. The two most stable genes in the dorsal horn were RPL29 and RPL13a; in the DRG they were HPRT1 and Actb. Using a 0.15 cut-off for pairwise variations we found that any pair of stable reference gene was sufficient for the normalization process. Conclusions In the rat SNI model, we validated and ranked Actb, RPL29, RPL13a, HMBS, GAPDH, HPRT1 and 18S as good reference genes in the spinal cord. In the DRG, 18S did not fulfill stability criteria. The combination of any two stable reference genes was sufficient to provide an accurate normalization. PMID:23841944

  11. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

  12. 3' tag digital gene expression profiling of human brain and universal reference RNA using Illumina Genome Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Massive parallel sequencing has the potential to replace microarrays as the method for transcriptome profiling. Currently there are two protocols: full-length RNA sequencing (RNA-SEQ) and 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE). In this preliminary effort, we evaluated the 3' DGE approach using two reference RNA samples from the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium (MAQC). Results Using Brain RNA sample from multiple runs, we demonstrated that the transcript profiles from 3' DGE were highly reproducible between technical and biological replicates from libraries constructed by the same lab and even by different labs, and between two generations of Illumina's Genome Analyzers. Approximately 65% of all sequence reads mapped to mitochondrial genes, ribosomal RNAs, and canonical transcripts. The expression profiles of brain RNA and universal human reference RNA were compared which demonstrated that DGE was also highly quantitative with excellent correlation of differential expression with quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, one lane of 3' DGE sequencing, using the current sequencing chemistry and image processing software, had wider dynamic range for transcriptome profiling and was able to detect lower expressed genes which are normally below the detection threshold of microarrays. Conclusion 3' tag DGE profiling with massive parallel sequencing achieved high sensitivity and reproducibility for transcriptome profiling. Although it lacks the ability of detecting alternative splicing events compared to RNA-SEQ, it is much more affordable and clearly out-performed microarrays (Affymetrix) in detecting lower abundant transcripts. PMID:19917133

  13. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Soichi [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Utoh, Rie [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2008-12-26

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  14. Transients in chloroplast gene transcription Sujith Puthiyaveetil, John F. Allen *

    E-print Network

    Allen, John F.

    genes is demonstrated by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). These genes encode apoproteins.01.167 Abbreviations: qPCR, Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction; PS I, photosystem I; PS II, photosystem II of the reaction centres of photosystem I and photosystem II. Their transcription is regulated by changes in wave

  15. Identification and de novo sequencing of housekeeping genes appropriate for gene expression analyses in farmed maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena) during crowding stress.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Simone; Rebl, Alexander; Kühn, Carsten; Goldammer, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Maraena whitefish (Coregonus maraena; synonym Coregonus lavaretus f. balticus) is a high-quality food fish in the Southern Baltic Sea belonging to the group of salmonid fishes. Coregonus sp. is successfully kept in aquaculture throughout northern Europe (e.g. in Finland, Germany, Russia) and North America. In this regard, the molecular and immunological characterisation of stress response in maraena whitefish contributes to the development of robust and fast-growing maraena whitefish breeding strains for aquaculture. Thus, in the present study, the potential housekeeping genes beta actin (ACTB), elongation factor 1 alpha (EEF1A1), glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein 9 (RPL9), ribosomal protein 32 (RPL32) and ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20) were de novo sequenced and tested concerning their applicability as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) in maraena whitefish under different stocking densities. For this purpose, tissue samples of liver, kidney, gills, head kidney, skin, adipose tissue, heart and dorsal fin were investigated. qPCR data were analysed with Normfinder tool to determine gene expression stability. DNA sequencing exposed transcribed paralogous EEF1A1A and EEF1A1B genes differing in their putative protein structure. Normfinder analysis revealed RPL9 and RPL32 as most stable, GAPDH and ACTB as least stable genes for qPCR analyses, respectively. This is the first study that provides a subset of seven de novo sequenced housekeeping genes usable as reference genes in studies of stress response in maraena whitefish. PMID:25249196

  16. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies with Quantitative PCR in the Model Fungus Neurospora crassa under Different Environmental Conditions in Continuous Culture

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen D.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Pirlo, Russell K.; Cockrell, Allison L.; Petersen, Emily R.; Biffinger, Justin C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene expression changes during growth in bioreactors. PMID:25474155

  17. Validation of reference genes for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background L. decemlineata is an exotic invasive insect pest, and invaded in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China in the 1990s from Kazakhstan. It is a notorious defoliator of potato throughout most of the northern Xinjiang in current, and often causes extremely large yield losses of potato. Results The expression stability of nine L. decemlineata house-keeping genes (Actin, ACT1 and ACT2; ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1 and ARF4; TATA box binding protein, TBP1 and TBP2; ribosomal protein RP4 and RP18; translation elongation factor 1? EF1?) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in seven developmental stages, three larval tissues and two insecticide treatments. The results were analyzed using three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the house-keeping genes across the samples, the overall analysis revealed that RP18, RP4, ARF1, and ARF4 were the four most stable house-keeping genes. In contrast, ACT1 and ACT2, two of the most widely used reference genes, had the least stability. Our results suggest that the combined use of the four most stably expressed genes may produce optimal normalization for qRT-PCR. Conclusions The expression stability of the house-keeping genes varies among different developing stages, in different tissues and under different experimental conditions. Our results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. decemlineata. PMID:23497596

  18. Identification and validation of reference genes for Populus euphratica gene expression analysis during abiotic stresses by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou-Ling; Chen, Jinhuan; Tian, Qianqian; Wang, Shu; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-11-01

    Populus euphratica is the only arboreal species that is established in the world's largest shifting-sand desert in China and is well-adapted to the extreme desert environment, so it is widely considered a model system for researching into abiotic stress resistance of woody plants. However, few P. euphratica reference genes (RGs) have been identified for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) until now. Validation of suitable RGs is essential for gene expression normalization research. In this study, we screened 16 endogenous candidate RGs in P. euphratica leaves in six abiotic stress treatments, including abscisic acid (ABA), cold, dehydration, drought, short-duration salt (SS) and long-duration salt (LS) treatments, each with 6 treatment gradients. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software tools, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper, were employed to analyze the qRT-PCR data systematically, and the outputs were merged by means of a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. The genes selected as optimal for gene expression analysis of the six treatments were RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17) in ABA, EF1? (elongation factor-1 alpha) in cold, HIS (histone superfamily protein H3) in dehydration, GII? in drought and SS, and TUB (tubulin) in LS. The expression of 60S (the 60S ribosomal protein) varied the least during all treatments. To illustrate the suitability of these RGs, the relative quantifications of three stress-inducible genes, PePYL1, PeSCOF-1 and PeSCL7 were investigated with different RGs. The results, calculated using qBasePlus software, showed that compared with the least-appropriate RGs, the expression profiles normalized by the recommended RGs were closer to expectations. Our study provided an important RG application guideline for P. euphratica gene expression characterization. PMID:24720378

  19. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in Iris. lactea var. chinensis Roots under Cadmium, Lead, and Salt Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-qin; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Yan-hai; Zhu, Xu-dong; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and sensitive method to measure the gene expression. However, obtaining reliable result depends on the selection of reference genes which normalize differences among samples. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes, namely, ubiquitin-protein ligase UBC9 (UBC), tubulin alpha-5 (TUBLIN), eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF-5A), translation elongation factor EF1A (EF1?), translation elongation factor EF1B (EF1b), actin11 (ACTIN), and histone H3 (HIS), in Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) root when the plants were subjected to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and salt stress conditions. All seven reference genes showed a relatively wide range of threshold cycles (Ct) values in different samples. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the suitable reference genes. The results from the two software units showed that EIF-5A and UBC were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested samples, while TUBLIN was unsuitable as internal controls. I. lactea var. chinensis is tolerant to Cd, Pb, and salt. Our results will benefit future research on gene expression in response to the three abiotic stresses. PMID:24977206

  20. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp. PMID:25362073

  1. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-02-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp. PMID:25362073

  2. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis is a powerful analytical technique that requires the use of stable reference genes. Using available S. caninervis transcriptome data, we selected 15 candidate reference genes and analyzed their relative expression stabilities in S. caninervis gametophores exposed to a range of abiotic stresses or a hydration-desiccation-rehydration cycle. The programs geNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder were used to assess and rank the expression stability of the 15 candidate genes. The stability ranking results of reference genes under each specific experimental condition showed high consistency using different algorithms. For abiotic stress treatments, the combination of two genes (?-TUB2 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the hydration-desiccation-rehydration process, the combination of two genes (?-TUB1 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. 18S was among the least stable genes in all of the experimental sets and was unsuitable as reference gene in S. caninervis. This is the first systematic investigation and comparison of reference gene selection for RT-qPCR work in S. caninervis. This research will facilitate gene expression studies in S. caninervis, related moss species from the Syntrichia complex and other mosses. PMID:25699066

  3. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) during Infection with Vascular Pathogen Verticillium albo-atrum

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Nataša; Cregeen, Sara; Javornik, Branka

    2013-01-01

    Hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), cultivated primarily for its use in the brewing industry, is faced with a variety of diseases, including severe vascular diseases, such as Verticillium wilt, against which no effective protection is available. The understanding of disease resistance with tools such as differentially expressed gene studies is an important objective of plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated twenty-three reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on hop under biotic stress conditions. The candidate genes were validated on susceptible and resistant hop cultivars sampled at three different time points after infection with Verticillium albo-atrum. The stability of expression and the number of genes required for accurate normalization were assessed by three different Excel-based approaches (geNorm v.3.5 software, NormFinder, and RefFinder). High consistency was found among them, identifying the same six best reference genes (YLS8, DRH1, TIP41, CAC, POAC and SAND) and five least stably expressed genes (CYCL, UBQ11, POACT, GAPDH and NADH). The candidate genes in different experimental subsets/conditions resulted in different rankings. A combination of the two best reference genes, YLS8 and DRH1, was used for normalization of RT-qPCR data of the gene of interest (PR-1) implicated in biotic stress of hop. We outlined the differences between normalized and non-normalized values and the importance of RT-qPCR data normalization. The high correlation obtained among data standardized with different sets of reference genes confirms the suitability of the reference genes selected for normalization. Lower correlations between normalized and non-normalized data may reflect different quantity and/or quality of RNA samples used in RT-qPCR analyses. PMID:23874551

  4. Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis is a powerful analytical technique that requires the use of stable reference genes. Using available S. caninervis transcriptome data, we selected 15 candidate reference genes and analyzed their relative expression stabilities in S. caninervis gametophores exposed to a range of abiotic stresses or a hydration-desiccation-rehydration cycle. The programs geNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder were used to assess and rank the expression stability of the 15 candidate genes. The stability ranking results of reference genes under each specific experimental condition showed high consistency using different algorithms. For abiotic stress treatments, the combination of two genes (?-TUB2 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the hydration-desiccation-rehydration process, the combination of two genes (?-TUB1 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. 18S was among the least stable genes in all of the experimental sets and was unsuitable as reference gene in S. caninervis. This is the first systematic investigation and comparison of reference gene selection for RT-qPCR work in S. caninervis. This research will facilitate gene expression studies in S. caninervis, related moss species from the Syntrichia complex and other mosses. PMID:25699066

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies in hop (Humulus lupulus L.) during infection with vascular pathogen verticillium albo-atrum.

    PubMed

    Štajner, Nataša; Cregeen, Sara; Javornik, Branka

    2013-01-01

    Hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), cultivated primarily for its use in the brewing industry, is faced with a variety of diseases, including severe vascular diseases, such as Verticillium wilt, against which no effective protection is available. The understanding of disease resistance with tools such as differentially expressed gene studies is an important objective of plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated twenty-three reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on hop under biotic stress conditions. The candidate genes were validated on susceptible and resistant hop cultivars sampled at three different time points after infection with Verticillium albo-atrum. The stability of expression and the number of genes required for accurate normalization were assessed by three different Excel-based approaches (geNorm v.3.5 software, NormFinder, and RefFinder). High consistency was found among them, identifying the same six best reference genes (YLS8, DRH1, TIP41, CAC, POAC and SAND) and five least stably expressed genes (CYCL, UBQ11, POACT, GAPDH and NADH). The candidate genes in different experimental subsets/conditions resulted in different rankings. A combination of the two best reference genes, YLS8 and DRH1, was used for normalization of RT-qPCR data of the gene of interest (PR-1) implicated in biotic stress of hop. We outlined the differences between normalized and non-normalized values and the importance of RT-qPCR data normalization. The high correlation obtained among data standardized with different sets of reference genes confirms the suitability of the reference genes selected for normalization. Lower correlations between normalized and non-normalized data may reflect different quantity and/or quality of RNA samples used in RT-qPCR analyses. PMID:23874551

  6. Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aina-Cathrine Øvergård; Audun Helge Nerland; Sonal Patel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate reference genes for low copy mRNA transcripts at the earliest developmental stages have not been identified. No attempts have been reported to identify suitable reference genes in halibut infected with NNV

  7. Gastric adenoma — carcinoma sequence with special reference to p53 and Ki ras gene alterations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Sakurai; T. Sano; A. Maeshima; K. Kashiwabara; T. Oyama; T. Fukuda; T. Nakajima

    1995-01-01

    With the aim of detecting the timing of p53 and Ki-ras gene alterations in the gastric adenoma-carcinoma sequence, 19 early gastric adenocarcinomas arising from adenomas were studied. Immunohistochemically, 5 adenocarcinomas were positive for p53; 3 focally and 2 diffusely. The p53 point mutations were detected in a focal area with p53 immunoreactivity in 2 of the 5 p53-positive adenocarcinomas. This

  8. Quantification of B16 Melanoma Cells in Lungs Using Triplex Q-PCR - A New Approach to Evaluate Melanoma Cell Metastasis and Tumor Control

    PubMed Central

    Lindkvist, Annika; Christensen, Jan P.; Thomsen, Allan R.

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is the most common type of all cancers. However, it comprises several different types of cancers, one of which is malignant melanoma. Even though melanomas only make up about 5% of skin cancers, they are responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths due to the poor chance of survival once the tumor has metastasized. In the present study, we have developed a new assay for quantitative analysis of B16 melanoma metastasis in the lungs. We have used a triplex Q-PCR to determine the expression of the melanoma genes GP100/Pmel and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2), and found that B16.F10gp cells were detectable in the lungs as early as 2 hours after intravenous challenge with ?104 tumor cells. When investigating the gene expression as a function of time, we observed a gradual decrease from 2–24 hours post tumor challenge followed by an increase of approximately 2 log10 on day 11. The early decrease was accelerated in the presence of activated NK cells. To further evaluate our assay, we also investigated the level of metastasis in the context of vaccination with replication defective adenoviral vectors, Ad-Ii-GP and Ad-GP, previously found to significantly delay the outgrowth of subcutaneous melanomas. Results obtained using Q-PCR were compared to conventional counting of metastatic foci under a dissection microscope. A marked reduction in gene expression was observed in the lungs after vaccination with both vectors; however, Ad-Ii-GP showed the highest protection, and matching results were obtained by enumeration of visible tumor nodules on the lung surfaces. Finally, we could show that inhibition of tumor metastasis required antigen-specific CD8 T cells and IFN?, but not perforin. In conclusion, the presented results validate triplex Q-PCR as a fast, objective, and quantitative method for analysis of melanoma metastasis in the lungs. PMID:24498205

  9. Altered neuronal gene expression in brain regions differentially affected by Alzheimer's disease: a reference data set.

    PubMed

    Liang, Winnie S; Dunckley, Travis; Beach, Thomas G; Grover, Andrew; Mastroeni, Diego; Ramsey, Keri; Caselli, Richard J; Kukull, Walter A; McKeel, Daniel; Morris, John C; Hulette, Christine M; Schmechel, Donald; Reiman, Eric M; Rogers, Joseph; Stephan, Dietrich A

    2008-04-22

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most widespread form of dementia during the later stages of life. If improved therapeutics are not developed, the prevalence of AD will drastically increase in the coming years as the world's population ages. By identifying differences in neuronal gene expression profiles between healthy elderly persons and individuals diagnosed with AD, we may be able to better understand the molecular mechanisms that drive AD pathogenesis, including the formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. In this study, we expression profiled histopathologically normal cortical neurons collected with laser capture microdissection (LCM) from six anatomically and functionally discrete postmortem brain regions in 34 AD-afflicted individuals, using Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays. These regions include the entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, middle temporal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, and primary visual cortex. This study is predicated on previous parallel research on the postmortem brains of the same six regions in 14 healthy elderly individuals, for which LCM neurons were similarly processed for expression analysis. We identified significant regional differential expression in AD brains compared with control brains including expression changes of genes previously implicated in AD pathogenesis, particularly with regard to tangle and plaque formation. Pinpointing the expression of factors that may play a role in AD pathogenesis provides a foundation for future identification of new targets for improved AD therapeutics. We provide this carefully phenotyped, laser capture microdissected intraindividual brain region expression data set to the community as a public resource. PMID:18270320

  10. Addressing fluorogenic real-time qPCR inhibition using the novel custom Excel file system 'FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001' to attain consistently high fidelity qPCR reactions

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventy-two samples at a time – calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have named this custom Excel-based file system "FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001" (FF2-6-001 qPCR set-up tool), and are in the process of transforming it into professional qPCR set-up software to be made available in 2007. The current prototype is already fully functional. PMID:17033699

  11. METHODS TO CLASSIFY ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES BASED ON MOLD ANALYSES BY QPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) analysis of molds in indoor environmental samples produces highly accurate speciation and enumeration data. In a number of studies, eighty of the most common or potentially problematic indoor molds were identified and quantified in dust samples from homes...

  12. Development and Use of Fluorescent Antibody and qPCR Protocols for the Electrostatic Spore Trap

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluorescent antibody (FA) and qPCR protocols were evaluated for the newly developed aerobiological sampler (Ionic Spore Trap), which depends upon electrostatic deposition of particulates onto a 25 mm aluminum disk (stub). This device was originally designed for assessment of captured particulates by...

  13. Effect of Environmental Parameters on the qPCR Signal of Enterococci in Tropical Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fecal contamination is the major source of pathogens in recreational waters. The need for quick public notifications has expanded the interest in the use of a rapid, quantitative polymerase chain reaction method (qPCR) to determine enterococci density. However, very little info...

  14. Evaluation of RNA isolation methods and reference genes for RT-PCR analyses of rare target RNA.

    PubMed

    Mannhalter, C; Koizar, D; Mitterbauer, G

    2000-02-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis is increasingly becoming part of the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation for hematologic and oncologic disorders. Currently, different RNA isolation methods are used in the diagnostic laboratories. No data are available on their suitability for sensitive detection of breakpoint cluster region-abelson (BCR-ABL) gene transcripts. We have extracted RNA from mononuclear cell (MNC) fractions and from lysed blood samples of 4 patients (1 with leukocytosis, 1 with chronic myelogeneous leukemia (CML) under interferon treatment, and 2 CML patients after bone marrow transplantation) with 3 RNA isolation reagents (TRIzol, RNAzol, FastTube reagent). RNA yield was slightly higher with RNAzol than with TRIzol as indicated by agarose gel electrophoresis and spectrophotometric measurement at 260 nm. The FastTube reagent was unsuitable for RNA isolation from MNC, and was not evaluated for lysed blood. Quantitative competitive RT-PCR amplification of the ABL gene showed comparable results for RNA isolated with RNAzol and TRIzol. In RNA samples extracted from lysed whole blood, the presence of amplifiable RNA/cDNA was confirmed by amplification of 4 selected reference genes (porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD), ABL, the gene spanning the BCR on chromosome 22 and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA)) in a multiplex PCR. High quality, DNA-free RNA was obtained with RNAzol, and 1 BCR-ABL-positive (specific for translocation t [9; 221) cell among 2x10(4) normal cells was successfully detectable by single step RT-PCR. In RNA isolated with TRIzol, major contaminations with genomic DNA were observed which significantly impaired the interpretation of the results of RT-PCR analysis. PMID:10834406

  15. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using qRT-PCR in the Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Sha; Kang, Tinghao; Li, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. The most common method for analyzing qRT-PCR data is to normalize mRNA levels of target genes to internal reference genes. Evaluating and selecting stable reference genes on a case-by-case basis is critical. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression in qRT-PCR analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). For this purpose, three software tools (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to investigate 10 candidate reference genes in nine developmental stages and five different tissues (epidermis, head, midgut, fat body and hemolymph) in three larval physiological stages (molting, feeding and wandering stages) of, S. exigua. With the exception of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), all other candidate genes evaluated, ?-actin1(ACT1), ?-actin2 (ACT2), elongation factor1(EF1), elongation factor 2 (EF2), Glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (L10), ribosomal protein L17A (L17A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ?-tubulin (TUB),proved to be acceptable reference genes. However, their suitability partly differed between physiological stages and different tissues. L10, EF2 and L17A ranked highest in all tissue sample sets. SOD, ACT2, GAPDH, EF1 and ACT1 were stably expressed in all developmental stage sample sets; ACT2, ACT1 and L10 for larvae sample sets; GAPDH, ACT1 and ACT2 for pupae and adults; SOD and L17A for males; and EF2 and SOD for females. The expression stability of genes varied in different conditions. The findings provided here demonstrated, with a few exceptions, the suitability of most of the 10 reference genes tested in tissues and life developmental stages. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in S. exigua. PMID:24454743

  16. Avoiding Pitfalls of Internal Controls: Validation of Reference Genes for Analysis by qRT-PCR and Western Blot throughout Rat Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as reference to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of reference genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various reference genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of internal controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative internal controls (?-actin, cyclophilin b, ?-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Conclusion Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of internal controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of reference genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot. PMID:22916200

  17. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  18. Expression stability of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR of healthy and diseased pituitary tissue samples varies between humans, mice, and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Riemers, Frank M; van den Heuvel, Douwe; Wolfswinkel, Jeannette; Hofland, Leo; Meij, Björn P; Penning, Louis C

    2014-04-01

    Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out mice, often by means of quantitative reversed-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). A precondition of such analyses is that so-called reference genes are stably expressed regardless of changes in disease status or treatment. In this study, the expression of six frequently used reference genes, namely, tata box binding protein (tbp), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (ywhaz), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (sdha), and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (gapdh), was studied in pituitary tissue (normal and adenoma) from three species (humans, mice, and dogs). The stability of expression of these reference genes differed between species and between healthy and diseased tissue within one species. Quantitative analysis based on a single reference gene that is assumed to be stably expressed might lead to wrong conclusions. This cross-species analysis clearly emphasizes the need to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes as a standard and integral aspect of study design and data analysis, in order to improve the validity of the conclusions drawn on the basis of quantitative molecular analyses. PMID:24135907

  19. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii under different heavy metals stresses.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jian; Han, Xiaojiao; Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Zhuo, Renying

    2013-01-01

    Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii. PMID:24340067

  20. Sample-ready multiplex qPCR assay for detection of malaria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Microscopy and antigen detecting rapid diagnostic tests are the diagnostic tests of choice in management of clinical malaria. However, due to their limitations, the need to utilize more sensitive methods such as real-time PCR (qPCR) is evident as more studies are now utilizing molecular methods in detection of malaria. Some of the challenges that continue to limit the widespread utilization of qPCR include lack of assay standardization, assay variability, risk of contamination, and the need for cold-chain. Lyophilization of molecular assays can overcome some of these limitations and potentially enable widespread qPCR utilization. Methods A recently published multiplex malaria qPCR assay was lyophilized by freezing drying into Sample-Ready™ format (MMSR). MMSR assay contained all the required reagents for qPCR including primers and probes, requiring only the addition of water and sample to perform qPCR. The performance of the MMSR assay was compared to the non-freeze dried, “wet” assay. Stability studies were done by maintaining the MMSR assays at four different ambient temperatures of 4°C, room temperature (RT), 37°C and 42°C over a period of 42 days, tested at seven-day intervals. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax DNAs were used for analysis of the MMSR assay either as single or mixed parasites, at two different concentrations. The CT values and the standard deviations (SD) were used in the analysis of the assay performance. Results The limit of detection for the MMSR assay was 0.244 parasites/?L for Plasmodium spp. (PLU) and P. falciparum (FAL) assay targets compared to “wet” assay which was 0.39 and 3.13 parasites/?L for PLU and FAL assay targets, respectively. The MMSR assay performed with high efficiencies similar to those of the “wet” assay and was stable at 37°C for 42 days, with estimated shelf-life of 5 months. When used to analyse field clinical samples, MMSR assay performed with 100% sensitivity and specificity compared to the “wet” assay. Conclusion The MMSR assay has the same robust performance characteristics as the “wet” assay and is highly stable. Availability of MMSR assay allows flexibility and provides an option in choosing assay for malaria diagnostics depending on the application, needs and budget. PMID:24767409

  1. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or ‘housekeeping’) gene for normalization of data. Thus, it is essential to use reference genes that have been verified to be stably expressed within the specific experimental setting. Here, we have analysed the expression stability of 12 commonly used reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt, Pgk1, Rn18s, Rpl13a, Rps18, Rps29, Sdha, Tbp and Ubc) across several juvenile and adult rat tissues (liver, adrenal, prostate, fat pad, testis and ovaries), both under normal conditions and following exposure to various chemicals during development. Employing NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, we found Hprt and Sdha to be amongst the most stable genes across normal and manipulated tissues, with several others also being suitable for most tissues. Tbp and B2m displayed highest variability in transcript levels between tissues and developmental stages. It was also observed that the reference genes were most unstable in liver and testis following toxicological exposure. For future studies, we propose the use of more than one verified reference gene and the continuous monitoring of their suitability under various experimental conditions, including toxicological studies, based on changes in threshold (Ct) values from cDNA samples having been reverse-transcribed from a constant input concentration of RNA. PMID:25825680

  2. Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.

    PubMed

    Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

    2013-01-01

    RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the algorithms' precision, bias, and resolution. While large differences exist between methods when considering the technical performance experiments, most methods perform relatively well on the biomarker data. The data and the analysis results per method are made available to serve as benchmark for further development and evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods (http://qPCRDataMethods.hfrc.nl). PMID:22975077

  3. A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

  4. Interlaboratory comparison of three microbial source tracking quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays from fecal-source and environmental samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stelzer, Erin A.; Strickler, Kriston M.; Schill, William B.

    2012-01-01

    During summer and early fall 2010, 15 river samples and 6 fecal-source samples were collected in West Virginia. These samples were analyzed by three laboratories for three microbial source tracking (MST) markers: AllBac, a general fecal indicator; BacHum, a human-associated fecal indicator; and BoBac, a ruminant-associated fecal indicator. MST markers were analyzed by means of the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method. The aim was to assess interlaboratory precision when the three laboratories used the same MST marker and shared deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracts of the samples, but different equipment, reagents, and analyst experience levels. The term assay refers to both the markers and the procedure differences listed above. Interlaboratory precision was best for all three MST assays when using the geometric mean absolute relative percent difference (ARPD) and Friedman's statistical test as a measure of interlaboratory precision. Adjustment factors (one for each MST assay) were calculated using results from fecal-source samples analyzed by all three laboratories and applied retrospectively to sample concentrations to account for differences in qPCR results among labs using different standards and procedures. Following the application of adjustment factors to qPCR results, ARPDs were lower; however, statistically significant differences between labs were still observed for the BacHum and BoBac assays. This was a small study and two of the MST assays had 52 percent of samples with concentrations at or below the limit of accurate quantification; hence, more testing could be done to determine if the adjustment factors would work better if the majority of sample concentrations were above the quantification limit.

  5. Target gene approaches: Gene expression in Daphnia magna exposed to predator-borne kairomones or to microcystin-producing and microcystin-free Microcystis aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Two major biological stressors of freshwater zooplankton of the genus Daphnia are predation and fluctuations in food quality. Here we use kairomones released from a planktivorous fish (Leucaspius delineatus) and from an invertebrate predator (larvae of Chaoborus flavicans) to simulate predation pressure; a microcystin-producing culture of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa and a microcystin-deficient mutant are used to investigate effects of low food quality. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) allows quantification of the impact of biotic stressors on differential gene activity. The draft genome sequence for Daphnia pulex facilitates the use of candidate genes by precisely identifying orthologs to functionally characterized genes in other model species. This information is obtained by constructing phylogenetic trees of candidate genes with the knowledge that the Daphnia genome is composed of many expanded gene families. Results We evaluated seven candidate reference genes for QPCR in Daphnia magna after exposure to kairomones. As a robust approach, a combination normalisation factor (NF) was calculated based on the geometric mean of three of these seven reference genes: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, TATA-box binding protein and succinate dehydrogenase. Using this NF, expression of the target genes actin and alpha-tubulin were revealed to be unchanged in the presence of the tested kairomones. The presence of fish kairomone up-regulated one gene (cyclophilin) involved in the folding of proteins, whereas Chaoborus kairomone down-regulated the same gene. We evaluated the same set of candidate reference genes for QPCR in Daphnia magna after exposure to a microcystin-producing and a microcystin-free strain of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. The NF was calculated based on the reference genes 18S ribosomal RNA, alpha-tubulin and TATA-box binding protein. We found glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme to be up-regulated in the presence of microcystins in the food of D. magna. These findings demonstrate that certain enzymes of glycolysis and protein catabolism are significantly upgregulated when daphnids ingest microcystins. Each differentially regulated gene is a member of an expanded gene family in the D. pulex genome. The cyclophilin, GapDH and UBC genes show moderately large sequence divergence from their closest paralogs. Yet actin and alpha-tubulin genes targeteted by our study have nearly identical paralogs at the amino acid level. Conclusion Gene expression analysis using a normalisation factor based on three reference genes showed that transcription levels of actin and alpha-tubulin were not substantially changed by predator-borne chemical cues from fishes or invertebrates, although changes in expression on the protein level were shown elsewhere. These changes in protein level could be caused by others than the investigated paralogs, showing the importance of the construction of phylogenetic trees for candidate gene approaches. However, fish kairomones caused an up-regulation, and Chaoborus kairomone caused a down-regulation of cyclophylin, which proved to be a potential target gene for further analysis of kairomone effects on the life history of daphnids. Changes in food quality required a different set of reference genes compared to the kairomone experiment. The presence of dietary microcystins led to an up-regulation of two genes involved in the basic metabolism of D. magna, i.e. glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, which suggests that microcystins in cyanobacteria have more general effects on the metabolism of D. magna than previously thought. Phylogenetic trees resolving relationships among paralogs that share the same gene name are shown to be important for determining the identity of the candidate genes under investigation. PMID:19917101

  6. Comparison of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and ELISA for detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in sheep showing pathology of Johne's disease.

    PubMed

    Sonawane, Ganesh G; Tripathi, Bhupendra N

    2013-12-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay employing IS900 gene specific primers of Mycobacterium avium subsp. parartuberculosis (MAP) was compared with conventional PCR, bacterial culture and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 38 sheep showing granulomatous enteritis and lymphadenitis with and without demonstration of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The lesions were classified as multibacillary (MB) (n?=?23), which had diffuse granulomatous lesions with abundant AFB, and paucibacillary (PB) (n?=?15), which had focal or multifocal granulomatous lesions with few or no AFB. In the multibacillary group (MB), IS900 PCR detected 19 (82.6%), and qPCR detected all 23 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in the intestine and lymph node tissues. In the paucibacillary group (PB), IS900 PCR detected 2 (13.3%), and qPCR detected all 15 (100%) sheep positive for MAP in tissues. When results of both groups were taken together, IS900 PCR detected 21(55.2%), and qPCR detected all 38 (100%) animals positive for MAP genome either in the intestine or lymph node tissues. On Herrold egg yolk medium, tissues of 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep were found to be positive for MAP. Out of 27 sheep (PB?=?8, MB?=?19) tested by an ELISA, 21 (77.7%) were found to be positive for MAP antibody, of which 25% (2/8) and 100% (19/19) sheep were from PB and MB sheep, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that qPCR was a highly sensitive test in comparison to conventional PCR, ELISA and bacterial culture for the diagnosis of paratuberculosis on infected tissues especially from paucibacillary sheep. PMID:23539663

  7. A novel procedure for absolute real-time quantification of gene expression patterns

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Temporal and tissue-specific patterns of gene expression play important roles in functionality of a biological system. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) technique has been widely applied to single gene expressions, but its potential has not been fully released as most results have been obtained as fold changes relative to control conditions. Absolute quantification of transcripts as an alternative method has yet to gain popularity because of unresolved issues. Results We propose a solution here with a novel procedure, which may accurately quantify the total cDNA conventionally prepared from a biological sample at the resolution of ~70 pg/?l, and reliably estimate the absolute numbers of transcripts in a picogram of cDNA. In comparison to the relative quantification, cDNA-based absolute (CBA) qPCR method is found to be more sensitive to gene expression variations caused by factors such as developmental and environmental variations. If the number of target transcript copies is further normalized by reference transcripts, cell-level variation pattern of the target gene expression may also be detectable during a developmental process, as observed here in cases across species (Ipomoea purpurea, Nicotiana benthamiana) and tissues (petals and leaves). Conclusion By allowing direct comparisons of results across experiments, the new procedure opens a window to make inferences of gene expression patterns across a broad spectrum of living systems and tissues. Such comparisons are urgently needed for biological interpretations of gene expression variations in diverse cells. PMID:22404915

  8. Validation of an rpoB Gene PCR Assay for Detection of Tropheryma whipplei: 10 Years' Experience in a National Reference Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    Schmiedel, Dinah; Petrich, Annett; Wiessner, Alexandra; Kikhney, Judith; Schneider, Thomas; Moos, Verena; Göbel, Ulf B.; Reischl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The performance of a real-time PCR assay targeting the Tropheryma whipplei rpoB gene was evaluated using test strains and 1,236 clinical specimens in a national reference laboratory. The novel rpoB-PCR assay proved to be specific, revealed improved analytical sensitivity, and substantially accelerated detection of T. whipplei DNA in clinical specimens. PMID:23966507

  9. Expressed Repeat Elements Improve RT-qPCR Normalization across a Wide Range of Zebrafish Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Van Peer, Gert; Rihani, Ali; Janssens, Els; Rondou, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J.; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Willaert, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes is a critical issue for proper RT-qPCR data normalization. In zebrafish expression studies, many commonly used reference genes are not generally applicable given their variability in expression levels under a variety of experimental conditions. Inappropriate use of these reference genes may lead to false interpretation of expression data and unreliable conclusions. In this study, we evaluated a novel normalization method in zebrafish using expressed repetitive elements (ERE) as reference targets, instead of specific protein coding mRNA targets. We assessed and compared the expression stability of a number of EREs to that of commonly used zebrafish reference genes in a diverse set of experimental conditions including a developmental time series, a set of different organs from adult fish and different treatments of zebrafish embryos including morpholino injections and administration of chemicals. Using geNorm and rank aggregation analysis we demonstrated that EREs have a higher overall expression stability compared to the commonly used reference genes. Moreover, we propose a limited set of ERE reference targets (hatn10, dna15ta1 and loopern4), that show stable expression throughout the wide range of experiments in this study, as strong candidates for inclusion as reference targets for qPCR normalization in future zebrafish expression studies. Our applied strategy to find and evaluate candidate expressed repeat elements for RT-qPCR data normalization has high potential to be used also for other species. PMID:25310091

  10. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  11. Construction of Genetically Engineered Streptococcus gordonii Strains to Provide Control in QPCR Assays for Assessing Microbiological Quality in Recreational Water.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantitative PCR (QPCR) methods for beach monitoring by estimating abundance of Enterococcus spp. in recreational waters use internal, positive controls which address only the amplification of target DNA. In this study two internal, positive controls were developed to control for...

  12. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 ? (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), ?-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ?Ct method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

  13. The High Polyphenol Content of Grapevine Cultivar Tannat Berries Is Conferred Primarily by Genes That Are Not Shared with the Reference Genome[W

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Cecilia; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Ferrarini, Alberto; Minio, Andrea; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Tononi, Paola; Avanzato, Carla; Zago, Elisa; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Gaggero, Carina; Pezzotti, Mario; Carrau, Francisco; Delledonne, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Tannat is cultivated mainly in Uruguay for the production of high-quality red wines. Tannat berries have unusually high levels of polyphenolic compounds, producing wines with an intense purple color and remarkable antioxidant properties. We investigated the genetic basis of these important characteristics by sequencing the genome of the Uruguayan Tannat clone UY11 using Illumina technology, followed by a mixture of de novo assembly and iterative mapping onto the PN40024 reference genome. RNA sequencing data for genome reannotation were processed using a combination of reference-guided annotation and de novo transcript assembly, allowing 5901 previously unannotated or unassembled genes to be defined and resulting in the discovery of 1873 genes that were not shared with PN40024. Expression analysis showed that these cultivar-specific genes contributed substantially (up to 81.24%) to the overall expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds that contribute to the unique characteristics of the Tannat berries. The characterization of the Tannat genome therefore indicated that the grapevine reference genome lacks many genes that appear to be relevant for the varietal phenotype. PMID:24319081

  14. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

  15. Comparative evaluation of rumen metagenome community using qPCR and MG-RAST

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Microbial profiling of metagenome communities have been studied extensively using MG-RAST and other related metagenome annotation databases. Although, database based taxonomic profiling provides snapshots of the metagenome architecture, their reliability needs to be validated through more accurate methods. Here, we performed qPCR based absolute quantitation of selected rumen microbes in the liquid and solid fraction of the rumen fluid of river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to green or dry roughages and compared with the MG-RAST based annotation of the metagenomes sequences of 16S r-DNA amplicons and high throughput shotgun sequencing. Animals were adapted to roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the proportion of 50:50, 75:25 and 100:00, respectively for six weeks. At the end of each treatment, rumen fluid was collected at 3 h post feeding. qPCR revealed that the relative abundance of Prevotella bryantii was higher, followed by the two cellulolytic bacteria Fibrobacter succinogens and Ruminococcus flavefaciens that accounted up to 1.33% and 0.78% of the total rumen bacteria, respectively. While, Selenomonas ruminantium and archaea Methanomicrobiales were lower in microbial population in the rumen of buffalo. There was no statistically significant difference between the enumerations shown by qPCR and analysis of the shotgun sequencing data by MG-RAST except for Prevotella. These results indicate the variations in abundance of different microbial species in buffalo rumen under varied feeding regimes as well as in different fractions of rumen liquor, i.e. solid and the liquid. The results also present the reliability of shotgun sequencing to describe metagenome and analysis/annotation by MG-RAST. PMID:24025701

  16. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR studies in the non-model species Delomys sublineatus, an endemic Brazilian rodent.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis. A critical factor for creating reliable data in relative quantification is the normalization of the expression data of genes of interest. Therefore the needed normalization factor is calculated out of the expression data of co-amplified genes that are stable expressed in the certain sample material, the so-called reference genes. In this study, we demonstrate the important process of validating potential reference genes using a non-model species. As there are almost no sequences known of the Pallid Atlantic Forest Rat (Delomys sublineatus), a rodent used as indicator species in conservation studies of the endangered Brazilian rainforest, suitable primer sets are more problematic to find than in model species. Out of nine tested primer sets designed for the fully sequenced Mus musculus, five could be used for the establishment of a proper running SYBR-Green assay and validation of their constant expression. qRT-PCR results of 12 cDNAs of Delomys livers were analyzed with three different validation software programs: BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Our approach showed that out of the five (Sdha, Canx, Pgk1, Actb and Actg1) potential reference genes, the first four should be used for accurate normalization in further relative quantification analyses. Transferring data from close-by model organisms makes high sensitive real-time RT-PCR applicable even to free-ranging non-model organisms. Our approach might be suitable for other non-model organisms. PMID:20059981

  17. SISH/CISH or qPCR as alternative techniques to FISH for determination of HER2 amplification status on breast tumors core needle biopsies: a multicenter experience based on 840 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Until now, FISH has been the gold standard technique to identify HER2 amplification status in ambiguous cases of breast cancer. Alternative techniques have been developed to increase the capacities of investigating HER2 amplification status. The aims of this multicenter study in a large series of breast cancer patients were to prospectively compare the level of performance of CISH, SISH, and qPCR alternative techniques on paraffin-embedded core biopsies with “gold standard FISH” for evaluation of HER2 amplification status. Methods This study was performed on 840 cases scored by immunohistochemistry (IHC): 0=317 (38%), 1+=183 (22%), 2+=109 (13%), 3+=231 (27%). Each of the 15 French centers participating in the study analyzed 56 breast carcinoma cases diagnosed on fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsies. HER2 amplification status was determined by commercially available FISH used as the reference technique with determination of the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number status. The alternative techniques performed on the same cases were commercially available SISH or CISH and a common qPCR method especially designed for the study including a set of 10 primer pairs: 2 for HER2 (exons 8 and 26), 5 to evaluate chromosome 17 polysomy TAOK1, UTP6, MRM1, MKS1, SSTR2 and 3 for diploidy control TSN, LAP3 and ADAMTS16. Results The concordance between IHC and FISH was 96% to 95% based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio (n=766) or HER2 copy number (n=840), respectively. The concordance of the alternative techniques with FISH was excellent: 97% and 98% for SISH (498 and 587 cases), 98% and 75% for CISH (108 and 204 cases) and 95% and 93% (699 and 773 cases) for qPCR based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number, respectively. Similarly, sensitivity ranged from 99% to 95% for SISH, 100% to 99% for CISH and 89% to 80% for qPCR. The concordance with FISH (ratio) in the 2+ cases was 89% for SISH, 100% for CISH and 93% for qPCR. Conclusion These alternative techniques showed an excellent concordance with FISH in core biopsies allowing their use in routine clinical practice. This newly designed qPCR on paraffin-embedded core biopsies deserves special attention, as it is reliable, easy to perform and less expensive than ISH tests. PMID:23875536

  18. Gene Content and Diversity of the Loci Encoding Biosynthesis of Capsular Polysaccharides of the 15 Serovar Reference Strains of Haemophilus parasuis

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Lucy A.; Luan, Shi-Lu; Peters, Sarah E.; Chaudhuri, Roy R.; Harris, David; Angen, Øystein; Aragon, Virginia; Parkhill, Julian; Langford, Paul R.; Rycroft, Andrew N.; Wren, Brendan W.; Tucker, Alexander W.; Maskell, Duncan J.

    2013-01-01

    Haemophilus parasuis is the causative agent of Glässer's disease, a systemic disease of pigs, and is also associated with pneumonia. H. parasuis can be classified into 15 different serovars. Here we report, from the 15 serotyping reference strains, the DNA sequences of the loci containing genes for the biosynthesis of the group 1 capsular polysaccharides, which are potential virulence factors of this bacterium. We contend that these loci contain genes for polysaccharide capsule structures, and not a lipopolysaccharide O antigen, supported by the fact that they contain genes such as wza, wzb, and wzc, which are associated with the export of polysaccharide capsules in the current capsule classification system. A conserved region at the 3? end of the locus, containing the wza, ptp, wzs, and iscR genes, is consistent with the characteristic export region 1 of the model group 1 capsule locus. A potential serovar-specific region (region 2) has been found by comparing the predicted coding sequences (CDSs) in all 15 loci for synteny and homology. The region is unique to each reference strain with the exception of those in serovars 5 and 12, which are identical in terms of gene content. The identification and characterization of this locus among the 15 serovars is the first step in understanding the genetic, molecular, and structural bases of serovar specificity in this poorly studied but important pathogen and opens up the possibility of developing an improved molecular serotyping system, which would greatly assist diagnosis and control of Glässer's disease. PMID:23873912

  19. Evaluation of potential reference genes for real time RT-PCR studies in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.); during development, in tissues of healthy and NNV-injected fish, and in anterior kidney leucocytes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Real time RT-PCR has become an important tool for analyzing gene expression in fish. Although several housekeeping genes have been evaluated in Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.), appropriate reference genes for low copy mRNA transcripts at the earliest developmental stages have not been identified. No attempts have been reported to identify suitable reference genes in halibut infected with NNV or in stimulated halibut leucocytes. In this study, ?-actin1 (ACTB1), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A1), hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7), tubulin beta 2C (Tubb2C), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UbcE) were evaluated as reference genes for normalization of real time RT-PCR data during Atlantic halibut development, in tissue of healthy and NNV-infected fish, and in in vivo and in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. Results The expression of all six genes was relatively stable from the unfertilized egg until 12 day degrees post fertilization (ddpf). However, none of the selected genes were found to be stably expressed throughout halibut development. The mRNA levels of the six genes increased from 18 ddpf, when zygotic transcription is likely to be activated, and stabilized at different time points. The Excel-based software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder ranked EF1A1 and UbcE as the best candidate reference genes before activation of zygotic transcription, and RPL7 and EF1A1 as the best candidates after hatching. EF1A1 and RPL7 were also listed as the best reference genes when exploring the expression levels of the six genes in various halibut organs, both in non-injected fish and in mock- and NNV-injected fish. None of the reference genes were found optimal for normalization of real time RT-PCR data from in vitro stimulated anterior kidney leucocytes. Conclusion Generally, it was found that EF1A1 and RPL7 were the genes that showed least variation, with HPRT1 and UbcE as intermediate genes, and ACTB1 and Tubb2C as the least stable ones. None of the six reference genes can be recommended as reference gene candidates in ConA-PMA stimulated leucocytes. However, UbcE can be a good candidate in other experimental setups. This study emphasizes the need for reference gene evaluation, as universal reference genes have not been identified. PMID:20459764

  20. Multiplex qPCR for reliable detection and differentiation of Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Burkholderia mallei and B. pseudomallei are two closely related species of highly virulent bacteria that can be difficult to detect. Pathogenic Burkholderia are endemic in many regions worldwide and cases of infection, sometimes brought by travelers from unsuspected regions, also occur elsewhere. Rapid, sensitive methods for identification of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei are urgently needed in the interests of patient treatment and epidemiological surveillance. Methods Signature sequences for sensitive, specific detection of pathogenic Burkholderia based on published genomes were identified and a qPCR assay was designed and validated. Results A single-reaction quadruplex qPCR assay for the detection of pathogenic Burkholderia, which includes a marker for internal control of DNA extraction and amplification, was developed. The assay permits differentiation of B. mallei and B. pseudomallei strains, and probit analysis showed a very low detection limit. Use of a multicopy signature sequence permits detection of less than 1 genome equivalent per reaction. Conclusions The new assay permits rapid detection of pathogenic Burkholderia and combines enhanced sensitivity, species differentiation, and inclusion of an internal control for both DNA extraction and PCR amplification. PMID:23409683

  1. Normalizing RT-qPCR Data: Are We Getting the Right Answers? An Appraisal of Normalization Approaches and Internal Reference Genes from a Case Study in the Finfish Lates calcarifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian De Santis; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

    2011-01-01

    Commonly used normalization approaches for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses include (a)\\u000a input nucleic acids standardization (?C\\u000a q method), (b) normalizing target gene transcript abundance against a single internal reference gene (??C\\u000a q method), and (c) geometric averaging of multiple reference gene abundance using the geNorm software. We compared these three\\u000a approaches to examine expression of a negative

  2. Construction of an adult barnacle (Balanus amphitrite) cDNA library and selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies

    PubMed Central

    Bacchetti De Gregoris, Tristano; Borra, Marco; Biffali, Elio; Bekel, Thomas; Burgess, J Grant; Kirby, Richard R; Clare, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    Background Balanus amphitrite is a barnacle commonly used in biofouling research. Although many aspects of its biology have been elucidated, the lack of genetic information is impeding a molecular understanding of its life cycle. As part of a wider multidisciplinary approach to reveal the biogenic cues influencing barnacle settlement and metamorphosis, we have sequenced and annotated the first cDNA library for B. amphitrite. We also present a systematic validation of potential reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) data obtained from different developmental stages of this animal. Results We generated a cDNA library containing expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from adult B. amphitrite. A total of 609 unique sequences (comprising 79 assembled clusters and 530 singlets) were derived from 905 reliable unidirectionally sequenced ESTs. Bioinformatics tools such as BLAST, HMMer and InterPro were employed to allow functional annotation of the ESTs. Based on these analyses, we selected 11 genes to study their ability to normalize qRT-PCR data. Total RNA extracted from 7 developmental stages was reverse transcribed and the expression stability of the selected genes was compared using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder. These software programs produced highly comparable results, with the most stable gene being mt-cyb, while tuba, tubb and cp1 were clearly unsuitable for data normalization. Conclusion The collection of B. amphitrite ESTs and their annotation has been made publically available representing an important resource for both basic and applied research on this species. We developed a qRT-PCR assay to determine the most reliable reference genes. Transcripts encoding cytochrome b and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 were expressed most stably, although other genes also performed well and could prove useful to normalize gene expression studies. PMID:19552808

  3. Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher J. Linton; Andrew M. Borman; Grace Cheung; Ann D. Holmes; Adrien Szekely; Michael D. Palmer; Paul D. Bridge; Colin K. Campbell; Elizabeth M. Johnson

    Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1\\/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period.

  4. Evaluation of normalization reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of spo0A and four sporulation sigma factor genes in Clostridium botulinum Group I strain ATCC 3502.

    PubMed

    Kirk, David G; Palonen, Eveliina; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia

    2014-04-01

    Heat-resistant spores of Clostridium botulinum can withstand the pasteurization processes in modern food processing. This poses a risk to food safety as spores may germinate into botulinum neurotoxin-producing vegetative cells. Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis, the model organism for sporulation, is regulated by the transcription factor Spo0A and four alternative sigma factors, SigF, SigE, SigG, and SigK. While the corresponding regulators are found in available genomes of C. botulinum, little is known about their expression. To accurately measure the expression of these genes using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) during the exponential and stationary growth phases, a suitable normalization reference gene is required. 16S rrn, adK, alaS, era, gluD, gyrA, rpoC, and rpsJ were selected as the candidate reference genes. The most stable candidate reference gene was 16S ribosomal RNA gene (rrn), based on its low coefficient of variation (1.81%) measured during the 18-h study time. Using 16S rrn as the normalization reference gene, the relative expression levels of spo0A, sigF, sigE, sigG, and sigK were measured over 18h. The pattern of expression showed spo0A expression during the logarithmic growth phase, followed by a drop in expression upon entry to the stationary phase. Expression levels of sigF, sigE, and sigG peaked simultaneously at the end of the exponential growth phase. Peak expression of sigK occurred at 18h, however low levels of expression were detected during the exponential phase. These findings suggest these sigma factors play a role in C. botulinum sporulation that is similar, but not equal, to their role in the B. subtilis model. PMID:24389585

  5. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices. PMID:23052591

  6. Detection of Legionella by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for monitoring and risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for the detection of Legionella were compared on samples from a residential area before and after two interventions. A total of 84 samples were collected from shower hoses and taps as first flush samples and at constant temperature. Samples were grouped according to the origin of the sample, a) circulation water b) water from empty apartments c) water from shower hoses. The aims were to investigate the usefulness of qPCR compared to culture for monitoring remedial actions for elimination of Legionella bacteria and as a tool for risk assessment. Results In water collected from the apartments Legionella spp were detected by qPCR in the concentration range from LOQ to 9.6*105GU/L while L. pneumophila were detected in a range from LOQ to 6.8*105 GU/L. By culturing, the legionellae were detected in the range from below detection limit (> 10 CFU/L) to 1.6*106 CFU/L. In circulating water and in first flush water from shower hoses, culture and qPCR showed the same tendencies. The overall correlation between the bacteria number detected by culture and the two developed qPCR assays (L. spp and L. pneumophila) was relatively poor (r2 = 0.31 for culture and Legionella spp. assay, r2 = 0.20 for culture and L. pneumophila assay). Conclusion Detection by qPCR was suitable for monitoring changes in the concentration of Legionella but the precise determination of bacteria is difficult. Risk assessment by qPCR only on samples without any background information regarding treatment, timing, etc is dubious. However, the rapid detection by qPCR of high concentrations of Legionella - especially Legionella pneumophila - is valuable as an indicator of risk, although it may be false positive compared to culture results. On the other hand, the detection of a low number of bacteria by qPCR is a strong indication for the absence of risk. PMID:22103438

  7. Comparisons of statistical models to predict fecal indicator bacteria concentrations enumerated by qPCR- and culture-based methods.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Raul A; Noble, Rachel T

    2014-01-01

    Recently, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) revised their recreational water quality criteria, in which adjustments were made by approving enterococci (ENT) quantitative PCR (qPCR) as an alternative, rapid method and advocating the use of predictive models for water quality management. The implementation of qPCR-based methods and prediction models are meant to decrease the time between sample collection and public advisories and notifications. To date, few studies have compared qPCR-based models to culture-based prediction models and none of these studies have been conducted in coastal estuarine systems. In this study, we created prediction models using qPCR-based fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) data in dual-use recreational and shellfish harvesting waters and compared them to published ENT and Escherichia coli (EC) culture-based prediction models in eastern North Carolina estuaries. Furthermore, an empirical statistical model was created to predict qPCR inhibition levels so that proper remediation techniques can be applied when it is a problem. Predictor variable selection in both qPCR- and culture-based ENT models was very similar; both models included 14-day rain total, dissolved oxygen, and salinity/conductivity, with 89 and 90% of qPCR and culture data described, respectively. Using ENT management action thresholds, qPCR- and culture-based models showed high accuracy in management decisions. The qPCR model had 92 and 96% accuracy using the 110 and 1000 cell equivalents (CE)/100 ml thresholds, respectively, and the culture model had 90% accuracy in management decisions with the 110 MPN/100 ml threshold. EC models for qPCR- and culture-based concentrations used similar independent variables (14-day humidity, salinity/conductivity, a rain/storm variable, and a measure of air temperature), with each model explaining 26 and 55% of the data variation, respectively. When using different thresholds that were logs apart for management decisions, the two EC models accurately predicted management decisions; qPCR models correctly predicted management decisions 96 and 77% of the time (using 31 and 320 CE/100 ml, respectively) while culture models correctly predicted management decisions 96 and 88% percent of the time (with 31 and 320 MPN/100 ml, respectively). Equivalency between models was shown in our non-point source impacted estuaries, with ENT models performing slightly better than EC models. In addition, inhibition of the qPCR was a major issue that had to be addressed. An inhibition model was created with easily obtained meteorological data and accounted for a high level of data variability (adjusted R(2) = 0.82). PMID:24139103

  8. Quantitative PCR for glucose transporter and tristetraprolin family gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes and macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) such as TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are widely used for gene expression analysis. The drawbacks of SYBR Green assay are that the dye binds to any double-stranded DNA which can generate falsepositive signals and that the length of the amplicon affects the intensity of...

  9. Analysis of Natural and Induced Variation in Tomato Glandular Trichome Flavonoids Identifies a Gene Not Present in the Reference Genome[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3?/5? myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3? or 3?/5? O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3? O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3? O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3?-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3?-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

  10. A Gene-Based Linkage Map for Bicyclus anynana Butterflies Allows for a Comprehensive Analysis of Synteny with the Lepidopteran Reference Genome

    PubMed Central

    Beldade, Patrícia; Saenko, Suzanne V.; Pul, Nicolien; Long, Anthony D.

    2009-01-01

    Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns) and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of the loci contributing to color pattern evolution in butterflies. PMID:19197358

  11. Direct Comparison of Flow-FISH and qPCR as Diagnostic Tests for Telomere Length Measurement in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2?=?0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2?=?0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2?=?0.20; p?=?0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2?=?0.1, p?=?0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p?=?0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p?=?0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the measurement of human leukocyte's telomere length in comparison to qPCR. In conclusion, flow-FISH appears to be a more appropriate method for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25409313

  12. Quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum in natural soil matrices and soil solutions using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Koken, Emre; Darnault, Christophe J G; Jacobson, Astrid R; Powelson, David; Hendrickson, William

    2013-02-15

    Traditional microscopy methods for the detection and quantification of Cryptosporidium parvum in soil matrices are time-consuming, labor-intensive, and lack sensitivity and specificity. This research focused on developing a qPCR protocol for the sensitive and specific detection and quantification of C. parvum in natural soil matrices and soil-water extracts. The physico-chemical parameters - lysis media, number of thermal shocks and thawing temperatures - controlling DNA extraction efficiency were investigated. Experimental results identified oocyst age as a critical parameter affecting oocyst disruption and quantification. The most efficient oocyst disruption method for C. parvum oocysts regardless of their age was established as 5 thermal shocks with thawing at 65°C in Tris-EDTA (TE) buffer. In addition to the purification columns used to remove PCR inhibitors present in environmental matrices, a combination of 3mM MgCl(2) and 600ng/?l BSA yielded the highest amplicon yield for both young and aged oocysts. Sucrose flotation was determined to be a better oocyst isolation method than two-phase flotation. The optimized parameters for DNA extraction and the qPCR assay resulted in very specific and sensitive detection of C. parvum. Minimum detection limits were 0.667 for young C. parvum oocysts and 6.67 for aged C. parvum oocysts per PCR reaction. The accuracy of the detections and quantifications was 0.999. Protocol performance was tested in contrasting soil samples and soil-water extract samples on the basis of percentage of recovery (PR) values. Depending on the number of oocysts used to inoculate the samples, the average PR values ranged from 7.2 to 43.5%, 29.3-52.5%, and 11.5-60.8% for Trenton, Greenson, and Sparta soil-water extracts, respectively, and 12.1-77% for DI water. PR values ranged from 4.3% to 107.8% for Trenton, Greenson and Sparta soil samples. PMID:23201484

  13. Establishment of a quantitative PCR system for discriminating chitinase-like proteins: catalytically inactive breast regression protein-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in mouse lung

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mice and humans produce chitinase-like proteins (CLPs), which are highly homologous to chitinases but lack chitinolytic activity. Mice express primarily three CLPs, including breast regression protein-39 (BRP-39) [chitinase 3-like-1 (Chi3l1) or 38-kDa glycoprotein (gp38k)], Ym1 (Chi3l3) and Ym2 (Chi3l4). Recently, CLPs have attracted considerable attention due to their increased expression in a number of pathological conditions, including asthma, allergies, rheumatoid arthritis and malignant tumors. Although the exact functions of CLPs are largely unknown, the significance of their increased expression levels during pathophysiological states needs to be determined. The quantification of BRP-39, Ym1 and Ym2 is an important step in gaining insight into the in vivo regulation of the CLPs. Methods We constructed a standard DNA for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) by containing three CLPs target fragments and five reference genes cDNA in a one-to-one ratio. We evaluated this system by analyzing the eight target cDNA sequences. Tissue cDNAs obtained by reverse transcription from total RNA from four embryonic stages and eight adult tissues were analyzed using the qPCR system with the standard DNA. Results We established a qPCR system detecting CLPs and comparing their expression levels with those of five reference genes using the same scale in mouse tissues. We found that BRP-39 and Ym1 were abundant in the mouse lung, whereas Ym2 mRNA was abundant in the stomach, followed by lung. The expression levels of BRP-39 and Ym1 in the mouse lung were higher than those of two active chitinases and were comparable to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, a housekeeping gene which is constitutively expressed in all tissues. Conclusion Our results indicate that catalytically inactive BRP-39 and Ym1 are constitutive genes in normal mouse lung. PMID:25294623

  14. Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences of old world monkeys: With special reference on evolution of Asian colobines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ya-ping Zhang; Oliver A. Ryder

    1998-01-01

    The classification and phylogenetic relationships of the Old World monkeys are still controversial. For Asian colobines, from\\u000a three to nine genera were recognized by different primatologists. In the present study, we have sequenced a 424 bp mitochondrial\\u000a tRNAThr gene and cytochrome b gene fragment fromMacaca mulatta, Mandrillus sphinx, Mandrillus leucophaeus, Semnopithecus entellus, Trachypithecus vetulus, T. johnii, T. phayrei,\\u000a T. francoisi,

  15. Novel reference gene, PKABA1, used in a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction for detection and quantitation of wheat- and barley-derived DNA.

    PubMed

    Rønning, Sissel B; Berdal, Knut G; Andersen, Charlotte Bøydler; Holst-Jensen, Arne

    2006-02-01

    We report the development of a duplex real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of wheat- and barley-derived DNA. We used a single primer pair to amplify the single-copy gene PKABA1 from wheat and barley, using minor-groove-binding probes to distinguish between the two cereals. The assay was fully specific, and different wheat and barley cultivars exhibited similar Ct values, indicating stability across cultivars with respect to allelic and copy number composition. The limits of detection were 5 and 10 PCR-forming units for wheat and barley, respectively, making the duplex assay as sensitive as other singleplex reference gene systems published. We were able to detect both wheat and barley simultaneously in real food samples, and the duplex assay is considered to be suitable as an endogenous reference gene system for the detection and quantification of wheat and barley in genetically modified organisms (GMO) and other food and feed analyses. PMID:16448168

  16. Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).

    PubMed

    López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

    2014-10-10

    The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ng?L(-1) to 0.39 ng?L(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ? 0.56% and between groups ? 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone. PMID:25101866

  17. Relationship and Variation of qPCR and Culturable Enterococci Estimates in Ambient Surface Waters Are Predictable

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method provides rapid estimates of fecal indicator bacteria densities that have been indicated to be useful in the assessment of water quality. Primarily because this method provides faster results than standard culture-based meth...

  18. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments -

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is currently considering a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method, targeting Enterococcus spp., for beach monitoring. Improvements in the method?s cost-effectiveness may be realized by the use of newer instrumentation such as the Applied Biosystems StepOneTM a...

  19. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine waters on two real-tme instruments

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitativ e polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this o...

  20. FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS IN FRESH ARCHIVED DNA EXTRACT OF WATER SAMPLE FILTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has initiated a new recreational water study to evaluate the correlation between illness rates in swimmers and Enterococcus concentrations determined by the mEI agar membrane filter (MF) method and several new technologies including QPCR analysis. Results of this stu...

  1. The Reference Transcriptome of the Adult Female Biting Midge (Culicoides sonorensis) and Differential Gene Expression Profiling during Teneral, Blood, and Sucrose Feeding Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Nayduch, Dana; Lee, Matthew B.; Saski, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike other important vectors such as mosquitoes and sandflies, genetic and genomic tools for Culicoides biting midges are lacking, despite the fact that they vector a large number of arboviruses and other pathogens impacting humans and domestic animals world-wide. In North America, female Culicoides sonorensis midges are important vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), orbiviruses that cause significant disease in livestock and wildlife. Libraries of tissue-specific transcripts expressed in response to feeding and oral orbivirus challenge in C. sonorensis have previously been reported, but extensive genome-wide expression profiling in the midge has not. Here, we successfully used deep sequencing technologies to construct the first adult female C. sonorensis reference transcriptome, and utilized genome-wide expression profiling to elucidate the genetic response to blood and sucrose feeding over time. The adult female midge unigene consists of 19,041 genes, of which less than 7% are differentially expressed during the course of a sucrose meal, while up to 52% of the genes respond significantly in blood-fed midges, indicating hematophagy induces complex physiological processes. Many genes that were differentially expressed during blood feeding were associated with digestion (e.g. proteases, lipases), hematophagy (e.g., salivary proteins), and vitellogenesis, revealing many major metabolic and biological factors underlying these critical processes. Additionally, key genes in the vitellogenesis pathway were identified, which provides the first glimpse into the molecular basis of anautogeny for C. sonorensis. This is the first extensive transcriptome for this genus, which will serve as a framework for future expression studies, RNAi, and provide a rich dataset contributing to the ultimate goal of informing a reference genome assembly and annotation. Moreover, this study will serve as a foundation for subsequent studies of genome-wide expression analyses during early orbivirus infection and dissecting the molecular mechanisms behind vector competence in midges. PMID:24866149

  2. Allelic variation in porcine resistin (RETN) gene is associated with fatness traits in a Wild Boar x Meishan reference family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cloning and comparative sequencing of the porcine resistin (RETN) gene and 5’ flanking region, located at 64 cM on SSC2, revealed 9 SNPs and 2 indels. A European Wild Boar x Meishan family encompassing 335 F2 animals measured for 46 traits including growth, fat deposition and muscle accretion was sc...

  3. DNA-Based Faecal Dietary Analysis: A Comparison of qPCR and High Throughput Sequencing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dáithí C.; Bunce, Michael; Cannell, Belinda L.; Oliver, Rebecca; Houston, Jayne; White, Nicole E.; Barrero, Roberto A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Haile, James

    2011-01-01

    The genetic analysis of faecal material represents a relatively non-invasive way to study animal diet and has been widely adopted in ecological research. Due to the heterogeneous nature of faecal material the primary obstacle, common to all genetic approaches, is a means to dissect the constituent DNA sequences. Traditionally, bacterial cloning of PCR amplified products was employed; less common has been the use of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Currently, with the advent of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) technologies and indexed primers it has become possible to conduct genetic audits of faecal material to a much greater depth than previously possible. To date, no studies have systematically compared the estimates obtained by HTS with that of qPCR. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each technique and how quantitative are deep-sequencing approaches that employ universal primers? Using the locally threatened Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as a model organism, it is shown here that both qPCR and HTS techniques are highly correlated and produce strikingly similar quantitative estimates of fish DNA in faecal material, with no statistical difference. By designing four species-specific fish qPCR assays and comparing the data to the same four fish in the HTS data it was possible to directly compare the strengths and weaknesses of both techniques. To obtain reproducible quantitative data one of the key, and often overlooked, steps common to both approaches is ensuring that efficient DNA isolation methods are employed and that extracts are free of inhibitors. Taken together, the methodology chosen for long-term faecal monitoring programs is largely dependent on the complexity of the prey species present and the level of accuracy that is desired. Importantly, these methods should not be thought of as mutually exclusive, as the use of both HTS and qPCR in tandem will generate datasets with the highest fidelity. PMID:21998697

  4. CopyRighter: a rapid tool for improving the accuracy of microbial community profiles through lineage-specific gene copy number correction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Culture-independent molecular surveys targeting conserved marker genes, most notably 16S rRNA, to assess microbial diversity remain semi-quantitative due to variations in the number of gene copies between species. Results Based on 2,900 sequenced reference genomes, we show that 16S rRNA gene copy number (GCN) is strongly linked to microbial phylogenetic taxonomy, potentially under-representing Archaea in amplicon microbial profiles. Using this relationship, we inferred the GCN of all bacterial and archaeal lineages in the Greengenes database within a phylogenetic framework. We created CopyRighter, new software which uses these estimates to correct 16S rRNA amplicon microbial profiles and associated quantitative (q)PCR total abundance. CopyRighter parses microbial profiles and, because GCN estimates are pre-computed for all taxa in the reference taxonomy, rapidly corrects GCN bias. Software validation with in silico and in vitro mock communities indicated that GCN correction results in more accurate estimates of microbial relative abundance and improves the agreement between metagenomic and amplicon profiles. Analyses of human-associated and anaerobic digester microbiomes illustrate that correction makes tangible changes to estimates of qPCR total abundance, ? and ? diversity, and can significantly change biological interpretation. For example, human gut microbiomes from twins were reclassified into three rather than two enterotypes after GCN correction. Conclusions The CopyRighter bioinformatic tools permits rapid correction of GCN in microbial surveys, resulting in improved estimates of microbial abundance, ? and ? diversity. PMID:24708850

  5. Molecular cloning, tissue expression of gene Muc2 in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and regulation after re-feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chunyu; Xi, Bingwen; Ren, Mingchun; Dong, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2014-10-01

    Mucins are important components of mucus, which form a natural, physical, biochemical and semipermeable mucosal layer on the epidermis of fish gills, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step towards characterizing the function of Muc2, we cloned a partial Megalobrama amblycephala Muc2 cDNA of 2 175 bp, and analyzed its tissue-specific expression pattern by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The obtained sequence comprised 41 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), 2 134 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 711 amino acids. BLAST searching and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted protein contained several common secreted mucin-module domains (VWD-C8-TIL-VWD-C8) and had high homology with mucins from other vertebrates. Among four candidate reference genes (?-Actin, RPI13?, RPII, 18S) for the qPCR, RPII was chosen as an appropriate reference gene because of its lowest variation in different tissues. M. amblycephala Muc2 was mainly expressed in the intestine, in the order (highest to lowest) middle-intestine > fore-intestine > hind-intestine. Muc2 was expressed relatively poorly in other organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, skin and gill). Furthermore, after 20-days of starvation, M. amblycephala Muc2 expressions after refeeding for 0 h, 3 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 10 d were significantly decreased in the three intestinal segments (P <0.05) at 16 h, and were then upregulated to near the initial level at 10 d.

  6. Molecular cloning, tissue expression of gene Muc2 in blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala and regulation after re-feeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Chunyu; Xi, Bingwen; Ren, Mingchun; Dong, Jingjing; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2015-03-01

    Mucins are important components of mucus, which form a natural, physical, biochemical and semipermeable mucosal layer on the epidermis of fish gills, skin, and the gastrointestinal tract. As the first step towards characterizing the function of Muc2, we cloned a partial Megalobrama amblycephala Muc2 cDNA of 2 175 bp, and analyzed its tissue-specific expression pattern by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). The obtained sequence comprised 41 bp 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR), 2 134 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 711 amino acids. BLAST searching and phylogenetic analysis showed that the predicted protein contained several common secreted mucin-module domains (VWD-C8-TIL-VWD-C8) and had high homology with mucins from other vertebrates. Among four candidate reference genes ( ?- Actin, RPI13?, RPII, 18S) for the qPCR, RPII was chosen as an appropriate reference gene because of its lowest variation in different tissues. M. amblycephala Muc2 was mainly expressed in the intestine, in the order (highest to lowest) middle-intestine > fore-intestine > hind-intestine. Muc2 was expressed relatively poorly in other organs (brain, liver, kidney, spleen, skin and gill). Furthermore, after 20-days of starvation, M. amblycephala Muc2 expressions after refeeding for 0 h, 3 h, 16 h, 3 d, and 10 d were significantly decreased in the three intestinal segments ( P<0.05) at 16 h, and were then upregulated to near the initial level at 10 d.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dementia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease Alzheimer disease cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Seizures

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Dwarfism

    MedlinePLUS

    ... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dwarfism Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome achondrogenesis achondroplasia asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy atelosteogenesis ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

  11. Identification and validation of reference genes for the detection of serum microRNAs by reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction in patients with bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lishui; Liu, Yimin; Du, Lutao; Li, Juan; Jiang, Xiumei; Zheng, Guixi; Qu, Ailin; Wang, Haiyan; Wang, Lili; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Hui; Pan, Hongwei; Yang, Yongmei; Wang, Chuanxin

    2015-07-01

    Serum microRNAs (miRNAs) have been proposed as novel non?invasive biomarkers for the early detection of cancer. Reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) is the most commonly used method for investigating miRNA expression levels, however, the interpretation of RT?qPCR results depends largely on normalization to an appropriate endogenous control. The present study involved 129 patients with non?muscle?invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), 121 patients with muscle?invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) and 158 healthy controls. The aim of the present study was to determine the most stable reference genes for the investigations of serum miRNA in bladder cancer (BC). MiSeq sequencing was performed and the expression levels of 10 miRNAs and U6 were then measured using RT?qPCR. Following RT?qPCR, five genes (hsa?miR?193a?5p, hsa?miR?16?5p, U6, hsa?miR?191?5p and hsa?let?7d?3p) were selected for stability analysis using geNorm and NormFinder software. These algorithms identified hsa?miR?193a?5p and hsa?miR?16?5p as the most stably expressed reference genes. The availability of hsa?miR?193a?5p and hsa?miR?16?5p was confirmed in an additional cohort. One?way analysis of variance indicated that no significant differences were present in the expression levels among the three groups. Furthermore, miR?148b?3p was selected as a target miRNA to determine the effect of hsa?miR?193a?5p and hsa?miR?16?5p on miRNA quantification. The combined use of hsa?miR?193a?5p and hsa?miR?16?5p enabled the detection of a significant upregulation of miR?148b?3p in the BC serum. The results of the present study demonstrated that normalization of miRNA data, using a combination of hsa?miR?193a?5p and hsa?miR?16?5p as reference genes, may produce reliable and accurate results for the detection of serum miRNAs in BC. PMID:25738263

  12. Quantitative real-time PCR with SYBR Green detection to assess gene duplication in insects: study of gene dosage in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolanda Bel; Juan Ferré; Baltasar Escriche

    2011-01-01

    Background  The accurate determination of the number of copies of a gene in the genome (gene dosage) is essential for a number of genetic\\u000a analyses. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) with TaqMan detection has shown advantages over traditional Southern-blot and\\u000a FISH techniques, however the high costs of the required labeled probes is an important limitation of this method. qPCR with\\u000a SYBR

  13. Study of rumen metagenome community using qPCR under different diets

    PubMed Central

    Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Tripathi, A.K.; Patel, G.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the major bacteria present in rumen microbiota. Here, we performed qPCR based absolute quantitation of selected rumen microbes in rumen fluid of river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to roughage diets. Animals were adapted to roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the proportion of 100:00 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3) and 25:75 (T4) respectively for 30 days. At the end of each treatment, rumen fluid was collected at 0 h and 2 h after feeding. It was found that among fibrolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens (2.22 × 108 copies/ml) were highest in T2 group and followed by 1.11 × 108 copies/ml for Fibrobacter succinogenes (T2), 2.56 × 107 copies/ml for Prevotella ruminicola (T1) and 1.25 × 107 copies/ml for Ruminococcus albus (T4). In non-fibrolytic bacteria, the Selenomonas ruminantium (2.62 × 107 copies/ml) was predominant in group T3 and followed by Treponema bryantii (2.52 × 107copies/ml) in group T1, Ruminobacter amylophilus (1.31 × 107copies/ml) in group T1 and Anaerovibrio lipolytica (2.58 × 106 copies/ml) in group T4. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens were the highest in population in the rumen of Surti buffalo fed wheat straw as roughage source. PMID:25606402

  14. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. PMID:24056072

  15. Comparison of Gull Feces-specific Assays Targeting the 16S rRNA Gene of Catellicoccus Marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two novel gull-specific qPCR assays were developed using 16S rRNA gene sequences from gull fecal clone libraries: a SYBR-green-based assay targeting Streptococcus spp. (i.e., gull3) and a TaqMan qPCR assay targeting Catellicoccus marimammalium (i.e., gull4). The main objectives ...

  16. Renal cells exposed to cadmium in vitro and in vivo: normalizing gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Nair, A R; Smeets, K; Keunen, E; Lee, W-K; Thévenod, F; Van Kerkhove, E; Cuypers, A

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal with a long half-life in biological systems. This half-life is partly as a result of metallothioneins (MTs), metal-binding proteins with a high affinity for Cd. The high retention properties of the kidneys reside in proximal tubular cells that possess transport mechanisms for Cd-MT uptake, ultimately leading to more Cd accumulation. Researchers have studied MT-metal interactions using various techniques including quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), an efficient tool for quantifying gene expression. Often a poor choice of reference genes, which is represented by their instability and condition dependency, leads to inefficient normalization of gene expression data and misinterpretations. This study demonstrates the importance of an efficient normalization strategy in toxicological research. A selection of stable reference genes was proposed in order to acquire reliable and reproducible gene quantification under metal stress using MT expression as an example. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo setups were compared to identify the influence of toxicological compounds in function of the experimental design. This study shows that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), tyrosine monooxygenase/tryptophan5-monooxygenase activation-protein, zeta polypeptide (Ywhaz) and beta-actin (Actb) are the most stable reference genes in a kidney proximal tubular cell line exposed to moderate and high Cd concentrations, applied as CdCl2 . A slightly different sequence in reference gene stability was found in renal cells isolated from rats in vivo exposed to Cd. It was further shown that three reference genes are required for efficient normalization in this experimental setup. This study demonstrates the importance of an efficient normalization strategy in toxicological research. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25042840

  17. Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

  18. Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

  19. Quantitative analysis of gene expression in a single

    E-print Network

    Cai, Long

    Quantitative analysis of gene expression in a single cell by qPCR Kiyomi Taniguchi, TomoharuDNA library immobilized on beads for measuring the expression of multiple genes in a single cell. We used roles1. There have recently been several attempts to investigate the heterogeneity of gene expression

  20. Comparison of manual and automated DNA purification for measuring TREC in dried blood spot (DBS) samples with qPCR.

    PubMed

    Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Govind, Sheila; Dramé, Moustapha; Aspinall, Richard

    2012-10-31

    Automated nucleic acid extractions from dried blood spot (DBS) samples promises standardized sample treatment, low error rates, avoidance of contamination and requirement of less hands-on time. In the present study, non-automated and automated column based extraction processes using the QIAamp Investigator procedure were compared for the extraction of DNA from DBS samples. The concentration and the purity of DNA generated were determined by optical density readings. Furthermore qPCR downstream applications using the nucleic acids extracted with the two processes and albumin and T-cell receptor excision circles (TREC) copy numbers were measured and compared. The influence of the time of storage was also investigated by analyzing samples freshly dried and stored up to 11weeks at -20°C from the same individual. Finally, we provide arguments of preferentially choosing the automated procedure for extracting DNAs from DBS samples when downstream qPCR applications are required. PMID:22867745

  1. qPCR standard operating procedure for measuring microorganisms in dust from dwellings in large cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Scherer, Emeline; Rocchi, Steffi; Reboux, Gabriel; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Roussel, Sandrine; Vacheyrou, Mallory; Raherison, Chantal; Millon, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess performance, feasibility and relevance of a Standard Operational Procedure (SOP) for large-scale use in the microbial analysis of children's indoor environments. We analyzed dust settled on Electrostatic Dust Fall Collectors (EDCs) by using qPCR which targeted 6 molds, 3 bacteria and 1 mite, chosen for their involvement in allergic or inflammatory processes. Six types of commercialized electrostatic wipes were tested for their releasing capacity of fungal DNA from fungal spores captured by the wipes. Specificity, repeatability and detection limits of the qPCR procedure were tested using calibrated microbial suspensions. The feasibility and relevance of this sampling and analysis method were assessed in a 75-home pilot study. Our result showed that one specific make of wipe was more effective than the others in releasing fungal DNA. qPCR procedure showed good repeatability. The quantification limit was about 5 fg DNA/?L for all species except Penicillium chrysogenum (0.5 fg DNA/?L) and Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus (10 fg DNA/?L). No cross-reactivity was observed. DNA concentrations in the 53/75 homes participating in the pilot study were between 0 and 24 625, 0 and 69 738 equivalent cells per cm(2) for the fungi and bacteria, and between 0 and 1 equivalent mites per cm(2) for D. pteronyssinus. Using the SOP described, we were able to classify the 53 dwellings from the least to the most contaminated according to the quantity of DNA measured for each species. Our SOP measured fungi, bacteria and mites using a cost-efficient, discreet and well-accepted sampling method with just one qPCR tool. The whole procedure can be used for microbial analysis in large cohort studies such as the ELFE study ("Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance") and could help improve our understanding of the interactions between the environment, allergic diseases and child development. PMID:23973537

  2. A TaqMan qPCR for quantitation of Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 validated in several matrices.

    PubMed

    Streck, André Felipe; Hergemöller, Francine; Rüster, Dana; Speck, Stephanie; Truyen, Uwe

    2015-06-15

    Ungulate protoparvovirus 1 (UPV1) is one of the major causes of reproductive disorders in swine. Recently, the rapid viral evolution of UPV1 and its viral persistence in several tissues has been described. Based upon this, a real-time qPCR method using upgraded primers targeting VP1 and applying the TaqMan technology was developed in this study for UPV1, and it was validated in feces, serum and tissue. Within the results, the limit of detection of the qPCR was 100copies of the viral genome per reaction of serum and feces and 1000copies of the viral genome per reaction of the grinded tissue (pre-inoculated matrices with diluted serially viruses). No cross reactivity was observed with other viruses associated with reproductive disorders. The assay was specific and reproducible, presenting low intra- and inter-assay variation (0.93% and 1.06%, respectively). In 50 clinical samples, the method was found to be more sensitive than immunofluorescence and a SYBR Green PCR. In conclusion, this qPCR represents an upgraded and useful tool to quantify UPV1 in different sample matrices for diagnostic and research purposes. PMID:25779824

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: analysis of clinical isolates and standard reference strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of four mammalian cell entry (mce) operons in Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests the essentiality of the functions of the genes in these operons. The differential expression of the four mce operons in different phases of in vitro growth and in infected animals reported earlier from our laboratory further justifies the apparent redundancy for these genes in the genome. Here we investigate the extent of polymorphism in eight genes in the mce1 and mce4 operons of M. tuberculosis from four standard reference strains (H37Rv, H37Ra, LVS (Low Virulent Strain) and BCG) and 112 clinical isolates varying in their drug susceptibility profile, analysed by direct sequencing and Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Results We discovered 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two operons. The comparative analysis of the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons revealed that yrbE1A [Rv0167] was most polymorphic in mce1 operon while yrbE4A [Rv3501c] and lprN [Rv3495c] had the highest number of SNPs in the mce4 operon. Of 20 SNPs, 12 were found to be nonsynonymous and were further analysed for their pathological relevance to M. tuberculosis using web servers PolyPhen and PMut, which predicted five deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs. A mutation from proline to serine at position 359 of the native Mce1A protein was most deleterious as predicted by both PolyPhen and PMut servers. Energy minimization of the structure of native Mce1A protein and mutated protein was performed using InsightII. The mutated Mce1A protein showed structural changes that could account for the effects of this mutation. Conclusions Our results show that SNPs in the coding sequences of mce1 and mce4 operons in clinical isolates can be significantly high. Moreover, mce4 operon is significantly more polymorphic than mce1 operon (p < 0.001). However, the frequency of nonsynonymous substitutions is higher in mce1 operon and synonymous substitutions are more in mce4 operon. In silico modeling predict that nonsynonymous SNP at mce1A [Rv0169], a virulence gene could play a pivotal role in causing functional changes in M. tuberculosis that may reflect upon the biology of the bacteria. PMID:21345183

  4. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in the Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) at Different Developmental Stages, in Various Tissue Types and on Exposure to Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Conghui; Xin, Nian; Zhai, Yi; Jiang, Liming; Zhai, Jieming; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time RT-PCR has been described as the most sensitive method for the detection of low abundance mRNA. To date, no reference genes have been screened in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The aim of this study was to select the most stable genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Eight housekeeping genes (18S, TUBA, B2M, ACTB, EF1A, GAPDH, RPL17 and UBCE) were tested at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and following exposure to the drug SB-431542. Using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software, GAPDH/B2M, GAPDH/18S and UBCE/GAPDH were identified as the most suitable genes from samples taken of different developmental stages while 18S/RPL17 were consistently ranked as the best reference genes for different tissue types. Furthermore, TUBA/B2M, TUBA/UBCE and B2M/TUBA were found to be the most suitable genes in samples treated with the drug, SB-431542 by geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder respectively. Across both different developmental stages and tissue types, the combination of 18S and GAPDH was the most stable reference gene analyzed by Ref-Finder. To test and verify the screened reference genes, the expression profiles of LEFTY-normalized to the combination of GAPDH/18S and ACTB were presented. These results will be useful for future gene-expression studies in the half-smooth tongue sole. PMID:24667563

  5. Monitoring Subsurface Microbial Biomass, Community Composition and Physiological Status during Biological Uranium Reduction with Acetate Addition using Lipid Analysis, DNA Arrays and q-PCR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peacock, A. D.; Long, P. E.; N'Guessan, L.; Williams, K. H.; Chandler, D.

    2011-12-01

    Our objectives for this effort were to investigate microbial community dynamics during each of the distinct terminal electron accepting phases that occur during long-term acetate addition for the immobilization of Uranium. Groundwater was collected from four wells (one up gradient and three down gradient) at three different depths and at four different times (pre-acetate injection, peak iron reduction, iron/sulfate reduction transition and during heavy sulfate reduction). Phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) results from ground water showed that microbial biomass was highest during Iron reduction and then lower during the transition from Iron reduction to Sulfate reduction and lowest during Sulfate reduction. Microbial community composition parameters as measured by PLFA showed distinct differences with terminal electron accepting status. Monounsaturated PLFA that have been shown to correspond with Gram-negative bacteria and Geobacteracea increased markedly with Iron reduction and then decreased with the onset of sulfate reduction. Bacterial physiological stress levels as measured by PLFA fluctuated with terminal electron acceptor status. Low bacterial stress levels coincided with pre-donor addition and Iron reduction but were much higher during Iron to Sulfate transition and during Sulfate reduction. Microarray results showed the expected progression of microbial signatures from Iron to Sulfate -reducers with changes in acetate amendment and in situ field conditions. The microarray response for Geobacter was highly correlated with qPCR for the same target gene (R2 = 0.84). Probes targeting Desulfobacter and Desulfitobacterium were the most reactive during the Iron to Sulfate transition and into Sulfate reduction, with a consistent Desulfotomaculum signature throughout the field experiment and a general decrease in Geobacter signal to noise ratios during the onset of Sulfate reducing conditions. Nitrate reducers represented by Dechloromonas and Dechlorosoma signatures were consistently detected throughout the field experiment. The intensity of the microarray signature(s) were correlated with depth, where the 12- and 15-ft intervals showed a more pronounced response than the 20-ft interval. In general the q-PCR, PLFA and array data from the experiment were complimentary and have provided a very complete picture of microbial dynamics during donor addition. Results are being compiled with specific attention to the microbial community dynamics during the onset of sulfate reduction and the relationship between ground water and sediment associated communities.

  6. Cross-Species Comparison of Genes Related to Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms Expressed along the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    van der Wielen, Nikkie; van Avesaat, Mark; de Wit, Nicole J. W.; Vogels, Jack T. W. E.; Troost, Freddy; Masclee, Ad; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; van der Meulen, Jan; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Müller, Michael; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal chemosensory receptors and transporters are able to detect food-derived molecules and are involved in the modulation of gut hormone release. Gut hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the control of gastrointestinal functioning. This mechanism is often referred to as “nutrient sensing”. Knowledge of the distribution of chemosensors along the intestinal tract is important to gain insight in nutrient detection and sensing, both pivotal processes for the regulation of food intake. However, most knowledge is derived from rodents, whereas studies in man and pig are limited, and cross-species comparisons are lacking. Aim To characterize and compare intestinal expression patterns of genes related to nutrient sensing in mice, pigs and humans. Methods Mucosal biopsy samples taken at six locations in human intestine (n?=?40) were analyzed by qPCR. Intestinal scrapings from 14 locations in pigs (n?=?6) and from 10 locations in mice (n?=?4) were analyzed by qPCR and microarray, respectively. The gene expression of glucagon, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, taste receptor T1R3, sodium/glucose cotransporter, peptide transporter-1, GPR120, taste receptor T1R1, GPR119 and GPR93 was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used to compare the intestinal expression pattern between the three species. Results and conclusion The studied genes were found to display specific expression patterns along the intestinal tract. PLS analysis showed a high similarity between human, pig and mouse in the expression of genes related to nutrient sensing in the distal ileum, and between human and pig in the colon. The gene expression pattern was most deviating between the species in the proximal intestine. Our results give new insights in interspecies similarities and provide new leads for translational research and models aiming to modulate food intake processes in man. PMID:25216051

  7. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique’s inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not an appropriate method for discriminating between live and dead cells to enumerate Legionella for regulatory purposes. PMID:25288885

  8. Cross-Platform Microarray Meta-Analysis for the Mouse Jejunum Selects Novel Reference Genes with Highly Uniform Levels of Expression

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Florian R. L.; Grausgruber, Heinrich; Binter, Claudia; Mair, Georg E.; Guelly, Christian; Vogl, Claus; Steinborn, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes (RGs) with uniform expression are used for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data. Their optimization for a specific biological context, e.g. a specific tissue, has been increasingly considered. In this article, we compare RGs identified by expression data meta-analysis restricted to the context tissue, the jejunum of Mus musculus domesticus, i) to traditional RGs, ii) to expressed interspersed repeated DNA elements, and iii) to RGs identified by meta-analysis of expression data from diverse tissues and conditions. To select the set of candidate RGs, we developed a novel protocol for the cross-platform meta-analysis of microarray data. The expression stability of twenty-four putative RGs was analysed by RT-qPCR in at least 14 jejunum samples of the mouse strains C57Bl/6N, CD1, and OF1. Across strains, the levels of expression of the novel RGs Plekha7, Zfx, and Ube2v1 as well as of Oaz1 varied less than two-fold irrespective of genotype, sex or their combination. The gene set consisting of Plekha7 and Oaz1 showed superior expression stability analysed with the tool RefFinder. The novel RGs are functionally diverse. This facilitates expression studies over a wide range of conditions. The highly uniform expression of the optimized RGs in the jejunum points towards their involvement in tightly regulated pathways in this tissue. We also applied our novel protocol of cross-microarray platform meta-analysis to the identification of RGs in the duodenum, the ileum and the entire small intestine. The selection of RGs with improved expression stability in a specific biological context can reduce the number of RGs for the normalization step of RT-qPCR expression analysis, thus reducing the number of samples and experimental costs. PMID:23671661

  9. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chicken feces are vectors of human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a pre...

  10. lolB gene, a valid alternative for qPCR detection of Vibrio cholerae in food and environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Maestu, Alejandro; Chapela, María-José; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

    2015-04-01

    In recent years a new genetic target for Vibrio cholerae detection has been reported, but its application was limited to clinical samples. This target, lolB, has never been applied to either food or environmental samples. In the present study the development, as well as the evaluation and pre-validation, of a real-time PCR method based on lolB, is described. The method included a newly designed hydrolysis probe to enhance its specificity. After comparison against other molecular and traditional methods, similar results were obtained regarding relative sensitivity, relative specificity, relative accuracy, positive and negative predictive values and index kappa of concordance (all higher than 91%), as well as a very low limit of detection (2 cfu/25 g). Additionally, after the analysis of more than 160 different food and environmental samples, its applicability in the food industry was completely demonstrated. PMID:25475326

  11. Genes

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    BEGIN:VCARD VERSION:2.1 FN:Access Excellence N:Excellence; Access REV:2005-03-12 END:VCARD

    2005-03-12

    Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

  12. Determination of specific types and relative levels of QPCR inhibitors in environmental water samples using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC.

    PubMed

    Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Wang, Angela; Cory, Rose M; Stewart, Jill R

    2013-06-15

    Assays that utilize PCR offer powerful tools to detect pathogens and other microorganisms in environmental samples. However, PCR inhibitors present in nucleic acid extractions can increase a sample's limit of detection, skew calculated marker concentrations, or cause false-negative results. It would be advantageous to predict which samples contain various types and levels of PCR inhibitors, especially the humic and fulvic acids that are frequently cited as PCR inhibitors in natural water samples. This study investigated the relationships between quantitative PCR (qPCR) inhibition and the humic and fulvic content of dissolved organic matter (DOM), as well as several other measures of DOM quantity and quality, in water samples. QPCR inhibition was also compared to water quality parameters, precipitation levels, and land use adjacent to the sampling location. Results indicate that qPCR inhibition in the tested water samples was correlated to several humic substance-like, DOM components, most notably terrestrially-derived, humic-like DOM and microbially-derived, fulvic-like DOM. No correlation was found between qPCR inhibition and water quality parameters or land use, but a relationship was noted between inhibition and antecedent rainfall. This study suggests that certain fractions of humic substances are responsible for PCR inhibition from temperate, freshwater systems. PARAFAC modeling of excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy provides insight on the components of the DOM pool that impact qPCR success and may be useful in evaluating methods to remove PCR inhibitors present in samples. PMID:23601829

  13. Palynology References

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A& M University

    As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

  14. Reference Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

  15. Reference Revolutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Marilyn Gell

    1998-01-01

    Describes developments in Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) electronic reference services. Presents a background on networked cataloging and the initial implementation of reference services by OCLC. Discusses the introduction of OCLC FirstSearch service, which today offers access to over 65 databases, future developments in integrated…

  16. Real-time qPCR for chimerism assessment in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplants from unrelated adult and double umbilical cord blood.

    PubMed

    Frankfurt, Olga; Zitzner, Jennifer R; Tambur, Anat R

    2015-03-01

    Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the standard therapy for patients with various malignant hematologic disorders. A successful treatment results in complete engraftment of donor cells in the absence of the patient's own hematopoietic system. Chimerism analysis, aimed at determining the coexistence of genetically different cell populations, is considered a useful method to measure treatment success. A new, qPCR based, commercially available chimerism assay was recently introduced. Here we report our results of comparing STR with qPCR-based chimerism analysis, and assessment of sensitivity and reproducibility of the qPCR chimerism assay. A specific emphasis is put on analyzing chimerism in recipients of double cord blood transplantation. We conclude that the qPCR chimerism assay for engraftment monitoring is a reliable and sensitive assay. Advantages and limitations of the assay in its current format are summarized. PMID:25636574

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Essential pentosuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cell ; deficiency ; dehydrogenase ; gene ; glucose ; inherited ; metabolism ; molecule ; population ; protein ; recessive You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Lynch syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... familial ; gallbladder ; gene ; hereditary ; inherit ; inherited ; intestine ; neoplasms ; population ; rectum ; stomach ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  19. A model freed from endogenous reference gene for quantification of genetically modified DNA by real-time PCR. 1. Quantification of DNA from genetically modified organisms in haplo-species materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pingjian Deng; Dongyan Yang; Yongcun Yang; Xiaoke Yang; Liangrang Guo; Xiangyang Zhou; Xueling Wang

    2008-01-01

    This paper is the first part of a serial study investigating a quantification model freed from endogenous reference gene for\\u000a genetically modified (GM) content by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The serial study involves two parts: (1) quantitative\\u000a determination of GM DNA in haplo-species plant samples; (2) quantitative determination of GM DNA in multi-species plant samples.\\u000a The paper describes a

  20. DNA barcoding of freshwater fishes and the development of a quantitative qPCR assay for the species-specific detection and quantification of fish larvae from plankton samples.

    PubMed

    Loh, W K W; Bond, P; Ashton, K J; Roberts, D T; Tibbetts, I R

    2014-08-01

    The barcoding of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coI) gene was amplified and sequenced from 16 species of freshwater fishes found in Lake Wivenhoe (south-eastern Queensland, Australia) to support monitoring of reservoir fish populations, ecosystem function and water health. In this study, 630-650 bp sequences of the coI barcoding gene from 100 specimens representing 15 genera, 13 families and two subclasses of fishes allowed 14 of the 16 species to be identified and differentiated. The mean ± s.e. Kimura 2 parameter divergence within and between species was 0.52 ± 0.10 and 23.8 ± 2.20% respectively, indicating that barcodes can be used to discriminate most of the fish species accurately. The two terapontids, Amniataba percoides and Leiopotherapon unicolor, however, shared coI DNA sequences and could not be differentiated using this gene. A barcoding database was established and a qPCR assay was developed using coI sequences to identify and quantify proportional abundances of fish species in ichthyoplankton samples from Lake Wivenhoe. These methods provide a viable alternative to the time-consuming process of manually enumerating and identifying ichthyoplankton samples. PMID:24963726

  1. Comparison of Enterococcus qPCR analysis results from fresh and marine water samples on two real-time instruments - poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will be recommending a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method targeting Enterococcus spp. as an option for monitoring recreational beach water quality. A practical consideration for widespread implementation of this or ...

  2. Evaluation of Commercial Cell Preparations as Sources of Calibration Standards for Real-Time qPCR Analysis of Enterococci in Recreational Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    In response to the Beach Act, the U.S. EPA has developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for enterococci that meets requirements for rapid, risk-based water quality assessments of recreational waters. Widespread implementation of this method will require that different laborator...

  3. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  4. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to ...

  5. Genetics Home Reference: 21-hydroxylase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    21-hydroxylase deficiency Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions and rare diseases ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy

    MedlinePLUS

    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia

    MedlinePLUS

    Progressive external ophthalmoplegia Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information ...

  8. Getting the measure of syphilis: qPCR to better understand early infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Mariam O F; Hill, Samantha; Daniel, Jessica; Goldmeier, David; McClure, Myra O; Taylor, Graham P

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Until recently, PCR had been used to detect but not quantify Treponema pallidum. To understand infection kinetics of this uncultivable organism, a real-time PCR assay was developed to quantify 47?kDa membrane lipoprotein gene DNA (tpp47). Methods Assay specificity was determined against DNA from humans, skin organisms and sexually transmitted pathogens. tpp47 DNA (Nichols strain) was used to construct a standard curve for T pallidum quantification. Blood and ulcer samples were obtained from 99 patients being investigated or screened for syphilis and tpp47 was quantified. Results The assay was specific, not cross-reactive with other organisms tested and sensitive, with a detection limit of a single copy of tpp47 DNA. For ulcer samples, the assay was 100% sensitive and 97.14% specific. Sensitivity fell to 34.1% for blood samples but specificity remained high (100%). tpp47 DNA was more commonly detected, and at a higher copy number, in blood of patients with secondary infection (sensitivity 57.89%) compared with primary infection. Quantity of tpp47 DNA was higher in primary infection ulcers, especially in HIV-1-positive patients, than in ulcers persisting into secondary disease. Conclusions Quantifying T pallidum provides insight into syphilis infection kinetics: Ulcers of primary disease in HIV-1-positive patients are perhaps more infectious and the presence and load of T pallidum bacteraemia is variable, with a peak in the secondary stage. Quantitative PCR has the potential to map T pallidum infection and to highlight the impact of HIV on syphilis. PMID:21752804

  9. SARS Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Drosten, Christian.

    Amedeo.com, the online Medical Literature Guide, has recently made available the SARS reference -- a "comprehensive and up-to-date overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome" edited by Christian Drosten and Wolfgang Preiser. Offered free of charge to any user, the SARS reference will be updated monthly for the duration of the epidemic. Content includes SARS virology, epidemiology, treatment, a timeline, and a number of other timely and important topics. Users may view chapters individually within their browser, or download the entire publication. Also available in Spanish and Chinese.

  10. Development of a Dry-Reagent-Based qPCR to Facilitate the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Babonneau, Jérémie; Bernard, Christian; Marion, Estelle; Chauty, Annick; Kempf, Marie; Robert, Raymond; Marsollier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This skin disease is the third most common mycobacterial disease and its rapid diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered to be the most sensitive method for the laboratory confirmation of Buruli ulcer. However, PCR remains expensive and involves reagents unsuitable for use in tropical countries with poor storage conditions, hindering the development of reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) diagnosis. We aimed to overcome this problem by developing a ready-to-use dry qPCR mix for the diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the efficiency of three different dry qPCR mixes, lyophilized with various concentrations of cryoprotectants, with that of a freshly prepared mixture, for the detection of a standard range of M. ulcerans DNA concentrations. We evaluated the heat resistance of the dry mixes, comparing them with the fresh mix after heating. We also evaluated one of the dry mixes in field conditions, by analyzing 93 specimens from patients with suspected Buruli ulcers. The dry mix was (i) highly resistant to heat; (ii) of similar sensitivity and efficiency to the fresh mix and (iii) easier to use than the fresh mix. Conclusions Dry qPCR mixes are suitable for use in the diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection in endemic countries. The user-friendly format of this mix makes it possible for untrained staff to perform diagnostic tests with a limited risk of contamination. The possibility of using this mix in either vial or strip form provides considerable flexibility for the management of small or large amounts of sample. Thus, dry-mix qPCR could be used as a reliable tool for the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer in the field. PMID:25830546

  11. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer

    Christina Morency

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  12. Poroelastic references

    SciTech Connect

    Christina Morency

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  13. A novel gene cluster in Fusarium graminearum expressed under mycotoxin induction conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified a cluster of eight genes (gene loci fg08077 - fg08084) in Fusarium graminearum that is concomitantly up-regulated (Northern and qPCR analysis) under growth conditions that promote mycotoxin production. Proteomics experiments (iTRAQ analysis) have confirmed the up-regulation of pr...

  14. Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

  15. Abundant proteorhodopsin genes in the North Atlantic Ocean

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara J. Campbell; Lisa A. Waidner; Matthew T. Cottrell; David L. Kirchman

    2007-01-01

    Summary Proteorhodopsin (PR) is a light-driven proton pump that has been found in a variety of marine bacteria, including Pelagibacter ubique, a member of the ubiquitous SAR11 clade. The goals of this study were to explore the diversity of PR genes and to estimate their abundance in the North Atlantic Ocean using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR). We found that

  16. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis : analysis of clinical isolates and standard reference strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rashmi Pasricha; Amita Chandolia; Prija Ponnan; Neeraj Kumar Saini; Sangeeta Sharma; Madhu Chopra; Mandira Varma Basil; Vani Brahmachari; Mridula Bose

    2011-01-01

    Background  The presence of four mammalian cell entry (mce) operons in Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests the essentiality of the functions of the genes in these operons. The differential expression of the four mce operons in different phases of in vitro growth and in infected animals reported earlier from our laboratory further justifies the apparent redundancy for these genes\\u000a in the genome.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Here

  17. Validation of Candidate Reference Genes for the Accurate Normalization of Real-Time Quantitative RT-PCR Data in Rice During Seed Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qian-Feng Li; Samuel S. M. Sun; Ding-Yang Yuan; Heng-Xiu Yu; Ming-Hong Gu; Qiao-Quan Liu

    2010-01-01

    Rice seed, a natural storage organ for starch and protein, is also an ideal bioreactor for the production of valuable proteins.\\u000a Increasingly, studies focused on rice have tried to determine the functions of its genes and also to improve its yield and\\u000a quality. Real-time RT-PCR is the best available choice at present for gene expression analysis due to its accuracy,

  18. Reference Gene Selection for Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction of mRNA Transcript Levels in Chinese Cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiani Qi; Shuancang Yu; Fenglan Zhang; Xiangqun Shen; Xiuyun Zhao; Yangjun Yu; Deshuang Zhang

    2010-01-01

    The Chinese cabbage is a crop belonging to the family Cruciferae; very few studies have focused on the analysis of gene expression\\u000a in this economically important crop. In this study, we used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify the\\u000a control genes that are the most stably expressed in a given set of tissues and under conditions of drought stress

  19. Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp., with special reference to Lutzomyia peruensis, a main vector of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kento; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2013-05-01

    The genetic divergence caused by genetic drift and/or selection is suggested to affect the vectorial capacity and insecticide susceptibility of sand flies, as well as other arthropods. In the present study, cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences were determined in 13 species circulating in Peru to establish a basis for analysis of the genetic structure, and the intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed in the Lutzomyia (Lu.) peruensis, a main vector species of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in Peruvian Andes. Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity in the cyt b gene sequences from 36 Lu. peruensis identified 3 highly polymorphic sites in the middle region of the gene. Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on the cyt b gene sequences of 130 Lu. peruensis in 9 Andean areas from 3 Departments (Ancash, Lima and La Libertad). The results showed that the populations of La Libertad were highly polymorphic and that their haplotypes were distinct from those of Ancash and Lima, where dominant haplotypes were observed, suggesting that a population bottleneck may have occurred in Ancash and Lima, but not in La Libertad. The present study indicated that the middle region of the cyt b gene is useful for the analysis of genetic structure in sand fly populations. PMID:23416127

  20. References: Grundlagen.

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    7. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 7­1 Chapter 7: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2003 7. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

  1. References: Grundlagen.

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2011 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

  2. References: Grundlagen.

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2004 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

  3. References: Grundlagen.

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images, Tables, Frames 9­1 Chapter 9: HTML/XHTML II References: . Erik Ladd, Jim O'Donnell, et al.: Using HTML 4, XML, and Java 1.2, Platinum Edition. QUE, 1999, ISBN 0://www.ncsa.uiuc.edu/General/Internet/WWW/] Stefan Brass: Grundlagen des World Wide Web UniversitË? at Halle, 2006 9. HTML/XHTML II: Links, Images

  4. Molecular evolution and phylogenetic utility of Wolbachia ftsZ and wsp gene sequences with special reference to the origin of male-killing.

    PubMed

    Schulenburg, J H; Hurst, G D; Huigens, T M; van Meer, M M; Jiggins, F M; Majerus, M E

    2000-04-01

    A detailed assessment of the evolution and phylogenetic utility of two genes, ftsZ and wsp, was used to investigate the origin of male-killing Wolbachia, previously isolated from the ladybird Adalia bipunctata and the butterfly Acraea encedon. The analysis included almost all available sequences of B-group Wolbachia and two outgroup taxa and showed that (1) the two gene regions differ in phylogenetic utility, (2) sequence variation is here correlated with phylogenetic information content, (3) both genes show significant rate heterogeneity between lineages, (4) increased substitution rates are associated with homoplasy in the data, (5) wsp sequences of some taxa appear to be subject to positive selection, and (6) only a limited number of clades can be inferred with confidence due to either lack of phylogenetic information or the presence of homoplasy. With respect to the evolution of male-killing, the two genes nevertheless seemed to provide unbiased information. However, they consistently produce contradictory results. Current data therefore do not permit clarification of the origin of this behavior. In addition, A. bipunctata was found to be a host to two recently diverged strains of male-killing Wolbachia that showed increased substitution rates for both genes. Moreover, the wsp gene, which codes for an outer membrane protein, was found to be subject to positive selection in these taxa. These findings were postulated to be the product of high selection pressures due to antagonistic host-symbiont interactions in this ladybird species. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that the results of a detailed phylogenetic analysis, including characterization of the limitations of such an approach, can serve as a valuable basis for an understanding of the evolution of Wolbachia bacteria. Moreover, particular features of gene evolution, such as elevated substitution rates or the presence of positive selection, may provide information about the dynamics of Wolbachia-host associations. PMID:10742050

  5. Probabilistic PCA of censored data: accounting for uncertainties in the visualization of high-throughput single-cell qPCR data

    PubMed Central

    Buettner, Florian; Moignard, Victoria; Göttgens, Berthold; Theis, Fabian J.

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: High-throughput single-cell quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a promising technique allowing for new insights in complex cellular processes. However, the PCR reaction can be detected only up to a certain detection limit, whereas failed reactions could be due to low or absent expression, and the true expression level is unknown. Because this censoring can occur for high proportions of the data, it is one of the main challenges when dealing with single-cell qPCR data. Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool for visualizing the structure of high-dimensional data as well as for identifying subpopulations of cells. However, to date it is not clear how to perform a PCA of censored data. We present a probabilistic approach that accounts for the censoring and evaluate it for two typical datasets containing single-cell qPCR data. Results: We use the Gaussian process latent variable model framework to account for censoring by introducing an appropriate noise model and allowing a different kernel for each dimension. We evaluate this new approach for two typical qPCR datasets (of mouse embryonic stem cells and blood stem/progenitor cells, respectively) by performing linear and non-linear probabilistic PCA. Taking the censoring into account results in a 2D representation of the data, which better reflects its known structure: in both datasets, our new approach results in a better separation of known cell types and is able to reveal subpopulations in one dataset that could not be resolved using standard PCA. Availability and implementation: The implementation was based on the existing Gaussian process latent variable model toolbox (https://github.com/SheffieldML/GPmat); extensions for noise models and kernels accounting for censoring are available at http://icb.helmholtz-muenchen.de/censgplvm. Contact: fbuettner.phys@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24618470

  6. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress conditions. PMID:24358142

  7. Effectiveness of onsite wastewater reuse system in reducing bacterial contaminants measured with human-specific IMS/ATP and qPCR.

    PubMed

    Agidi, Senyo; Vedachalam, Sridhar; Mancl, Karen; Lee, Jiyoung

    2013-01-30

    Water shortages and the drive to recycle is increasing interest in reuse of reclaimed wastewater. Timely and cost-effective ways to detect fecal pollutants prior to reuse increases confidence of residents and neighbors concerned about reuse of reclaimed wastewater. The on-site wastewater treatment and reuse systems (OWTRS) used in this study include a septic tank, peat bioreactor, ClO(2) disinfection and land spray irrigation system. Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., were tested with immunomagnetic separation/ATP bioluminescence (IMS/ATP), qPCR and culture-based methods. The results displayed a 2-log reduction in fecal bacteria in the peat bioreactor and a 5-log reduction following chloride dioxide disinfection. The fecal bacteria levels measured by IMS/ATP correlated with qPCR results: HuBac 16S (R(2) = 0.903), Bf-group 16S (R(2) = 0.956), gyrB (R(2) = 0.673), and Ent 23S (R(2) = 0.724). This is the first study in which the newly developed human-specific IMS/ATP and previously developed IMS/ATP were applied for determining OWTRS efficiency. Results of the study revealed that IMS/ATP is a timely and cost-effective way to detect fecal contaminants, and results were validated with qPCR and culture based methods. The new IMS/ATP can also be applied broadly in the detection of human-originated fecal contamination. PMID:23254156

  8. Responses to water withdrawal of tobacco plants genetically engineered with the AtTPS1 gene: a special reference to photosynthetic parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André M. Almeida; Anabela B. Silva; Susana S. Araújo; Luís A. Cardoso; Dulce M. Santos; José M. Torné; Jorge M. Silva; Matthew J. Paul; Pedro S. Fevereiro

    2007-01-01

    We have previously obtained several lines of tobacco transformed with a trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of plant origin\\u000a (Arabidopsis thaliana), involved in the first step of the biosynthesis of trehalose, a known osmoprotectant. Two showed distinct intensity of expression:\\u000a high (B5H) and low (B1F). Such lines were analyzed for trehalose-6-phosphate content and the obtained results demonstrated\\u000a to be in accordance with

  9. Differentiation of Salmonella strains from the SARA, SARB and SARC reference collections by using three genes PCR-RFLP and the 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer

    PubMed Central

    Soler-García, Ángel A.; De Jesús, Antonio J.; Taylor, Kishana; Brown, Eric W.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid molecular typing methods are important tools in surveillance and outbreak investigations of human Salmonella infections. Here we described the development of a three-genes PCR-RFLP typing method for the differentiation of Salmonella species, subspecies and serovars using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. The fliC, gnd, and mutS genes were PCR-amplified in 160 Salmonella strains representing the two Salmonella species, six subspecies, and 41 different serovars of S. enterica subspecies enterica. PCR products were individually cut with two different restriction enzymes and the resulting 930 restriction patterns were collected using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer followed by cluster analysis. Both species of Salmonella were differentiated by conventional PCR. All of S. bongori tested were gnd PCR negative due to a mismatch at the 3?-end in one the PCR primers. Salmonella subspecies were differentiated into third-teen homogeneous groups representing each of the six subspecies by cluster analysis of restriction patterns generated from the mutS gene cut with AciI. S. enterica subspecies enterica serovars were further differentiated by the combination of the three target genes and five out the six sets of restriction patterns with a discriminatory power of 0.9725 by cluster analysis. The combined RFLP results of five sets of restriction patterns allowed us to assign each of the 160 strains to one of 128 restriction types. During inoculation studies we were able to identify S. Saintpaul and Typhimurium from 24 h pre-enrichment samples using the described method. The use of fliC, gnd, and mutS PCR-RFLP with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer can provide an accessible and automated alternative method for differentiation of Salmonella pathogens. PMID:25157247

  10. Promoter methylation analysis of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase in glioblastoma: detection by locked nucleic acid based quantitative PCR using an imprinted gene (SNURF) as a reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca Morandi; Enrico Franceschi; Dario de Biase; Gianluca Marucci; Alicia Tosoni; Mario Ermani; Annalisa Pession; Giovanni Tallini; Alba Brandes

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Epigenetic silencing of the MGMT gene by promoter methylation is associated with loss of MGMT expression, diminished DNA-repair activity and longer overall survival in patients with glioblastoma who, in addition to radiotherapy, received alkylating chemotherapy with carmustine or temozolomide. We describe and validate a rapid methylation sensitive quantitative PCR assay (MS-qLNAPCR) using Locked Nucleic Acid (LNA) modified primers and

  11. Gene expression patterns in hypoxic and post-hypoxic adult rat retina with special reference to the NMDA receptor and its interactome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lori Anne Crosson; Roger A. Kroes; Joseph R. Moskal; Robert A. Linsenmeier

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: A gene expression analysis of hypoxic rat retina was undertaken to gain a deeper understanding of the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-induced retinal pathologies and identify possible therapeutic targets. Methods: Rats were made severely hypoxic (6%-7% O2) for 3 h. Some rats were sacrificed at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 24 h under normoxic

  12. [Estimating the gene pool condition in natural populations of invertebrates in the fragmented landscape of Moscow and Moscow district with special reference to shrub snail Bradybaena fruticum Müll].

    PubMed

    Makeeva, V M; Belokon', M M; Maliuchenko, O P

    2005-11-01

    Using shrub snail Bradybaena fruticum Müll (20 populations) as a model, we were the first in Russia and in the world to develop a system of urban ecological genetic monitoring of the gene pool of an invertebrate species. The results of isozyme polymorphism studies in shrub snail populations showed a dramatic (up to 70%) reduction in genetic diversity in small isolates from the urbanized environment as compared to large natural populations. In urban populations, genetic diversity parameters were demonstrated to be lower than in natural ones: the mean heterozygosity per locus was reduced up to 0.08 (0.15-0.20 in natural populations); the mean allele number, to 1.9 (2.7 in natural populations); and the number of polymorphic loci, to four, i.e., 2.2-fold (nine in natural populations). In Moscow district, the number of polymorphic loci also decreased to five in the population subjected to anthropogenic pressure. The changes in the population gene pool (as shown by the number of polymorphic loci) were different in Moscow and Moscow district. The percentage of populations with the number of polymorphic loci as low as four to six was 76.9 in Moscow and 23.1% in Moscow district. The gene pool quality of 80% of the urban snail populations was estimated as unsatisfactory, and in half of them, as critical. The main reason for these changes seems to be genetic drift accompanied by inbreeding, caused by fragmentation of the range and reduction in the abundance of populations of the species, due to the anthropogenic pressure. The results of the study were employed in the program of the Moscow government for restoring the gene pools of endangered animals species on the preserved territories of the city. PMID:16358717

  13. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND USE OF TWO VARIATIONS OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STREPTOCOCCUS GORDONIL AS LYSIS CONTROLS IN A QPCR ASSAY FOR ASSESSING SANITARY QUALITY OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Joseph B. James and Fred J. Genthner United States Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL Background: Methods using rapid cycle, real-time, quantitative (QPCR) are being developed for detecting and quantifying Enterococcus spp. as well as other aquatic b...

  15. Quantitative real-time PCR with SYBR Green detection to assess gene duplication in insects: study of gene dosage in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The accurate determination of the number of copies of a gene in the genome (gene dosage) is essential for a number of genetic analyses. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) with TaqMan detection has shown advantages over traditional Southern-blot and FISH techniques, however the high costs of the required labeled probes is an important limitation of this method. qPCR with SYBR Green I detection is a simple and inexpensive alternative, but it has never been applied to the determination of the copy number of low copy number genes in organisms with high allelic variability (as some insects), where a very small margin of error is essential. Findings We have tested the suitability of the qPCR with SYBR Green I detection methodology for the detection of low copy number genes in two insects: the genetically well characterized Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and the poor genetically characterized Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera). The system was applied to determine the copy number of: (1) the O. nubilalis cadherin gene, involved in the mode of action of Bacillus thuringiensis toxins, which showed indirect evidence of duplication, and (2) the D. melanogaster BarH1 and BarH2 genes, located within the Bar region of the X chromosome, to clearly determine whether they both are covered by the tandem duplication in the classical Bar (B1) mutant. Our results showed that the O. nubilalis cadherin gene is an autosomal single copy gene and that BarH1, but not BarH2, is duplicated in the Drosophila B1 mutant. Conclusions This work shows that qPCR with SYBR Green I detection can be specific and accurate enough to distinguish between one and two gene copies per haploid genome of genes with high allelic variability. The technique is sensitive enough to give reliable results with a minimum amount of sample (DNA from individual thoraxes) and to detect gene duplications in tandem. PMID:21443764

  16. High-power white LED-based system incorporating a CCD Offner imaging spectrometer for real-time fluorescence qPCR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaruri, Sami D.

    2014-12-01

    An optical system for qPCR fluorescence measurements which incorporates high-power white LEDs, PMMA plastic lenses and an Offner multichannel (imaging) CCD-based spectrometer has been developed and validated. The optical system can detect twenty reaction vessels in an asynchronous manner and up to seven different fluorescent dyes (7?plex) at 1?nM dye concentrations in each of the reaction vessels. Furthermore, PCR curves obtained using the optical measurement system for a genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) template containing HEX and Texas Red fluorescent probes (fluorophores) are discussed. The spectral resolution, dynamic range and repeatability of the measurement system are < 15?nm, > 3 decades and < 1% CV, respectively.

  17. PrimerBank: a PCR primer database for quantitative gene expression analysis, 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Spandidos, Athanasia; Wang, Huajun; Seed, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Optimization of primer sequences for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) and reaction conditions remains an experimental challenge. We have developed a resource, PrimerBank, which contains primers that can be used for PCR and qPCR under stringent and allele-invariant amplification conditions. A distinguishing feature of PrimerBank is the experimental validation of primer pairs covering most known mouse genes. Here, we describe a major update of PrimerBank that includes the design of new primers covering 17,076 and 18,086 genes for the human and mouse species, respectively. As a result of this update, PrimerBank contains 497,156 primers (an increase of 62% from the previous version) that cover 36,928 human and mouse genes, corresponding to around 94% of all known protein-coding gene sequences. An updated algorithm based on our previous approach was used to design new primers using current genomic information available from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). PrimerBank primers work under uniform PCR conditions, and can be used for high-throughput or genome-wide qPCR. Because of their broader linear dynamic range and greater sensitivity, qPCR approaches are used to reanalyze changes in expression suggested by exploratory technologies such as microarrays and RNA-Seq. The primers and all experimental validation data can be freely accessed from the PrimerBank website, http://pga.mgh.harvard.edu/primerbank/. PMID:22086960

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gene ; inherited ; joint ; muscle cells ; mutation ; myalgia ; nucleotide ; population ; prevalence ; recessive ; skeletal muscle You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . ...

  19. 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of reference and clinical samples and investigation of the temperature stability of microbiome profiles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Sample storage conditions, extraction methods, PCR primers, and parameters are major factors that affect metagenomics analysis based on microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most published studies were limited to the comparison of only one or two types of these factors. Systematic multi-factor explorations are needed to evaluate the conditions that may impact validity of a microbiome analysis. This study was aimed to improve methodological options to facilitate the best technical approaches in the design of a microbiome study. Three readily available mock bacterial community materials and two commercial extraction techniques, Qiagen DNeasy and MO BIO PowerSoil DNA purification methods, were used to assess procedures for 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and pyrosequencing-based analysis. Primers were chosen for 16S rDNA quantitative PCR and amplification of region V3 to V1. Swabs spiked with mock bacterial community cells and clinical oropharyngeal swabs were incubated at respective temperatures of -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, and 37°C for 4 weeks, then extracted with the two methods, and subjected to pyrosequencing and taxonomic and statistical analyses to investigate microbiome profile stability. Results The bacterial compositions for the mock community DNA samples determined in this study were consistent with the projected levels and agreed with the literature. The quantitation accuracy of abundances for several genera was improved with changes made to the standard Human Microbiome Project (HMP) procedure. The data for the samples purified with DNeasy and PowerSoil methods were statistically distinct; however, both results were reproducible and in good agreement with each other. The temperature effect on storage stability was investigated by using mock community cells and showed that the microbial community profiles were altered with the increase in incubation temperature. However, this phenomenon was not detected when clinical oropharyngeal swabs were used in the experiment. Conclusions Mock community materials originated from the HMP study are valuable controls in developing 16S metagenomics analysis procedures. Long-term exposure to a high temperature may introduce variation into analysis for oropharyngeal swabs, suggestive of storage at 4°C or lower. The observed variations due to sample storage temperature are in a similar range as the intrapersonal variability among different clinical oropharyngeal swab samples. PMID:25228989

  20. Screening biological stains with qPCR versus lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips: a quantitative comparison using analytical figures of merit.

    PubMed

    Oechsle, Crystal Simson; Haddad, Sandra; Sgueglia, Joanne B; Grgicak, Catherine M

    2014-01-01

    Biological fluid identification is an important facet of evidence examination in forensic laboratories worldwide. While identifying bodily fluids may provide insight into which downstream DNA methods to employ, these screening techniques consume a vital portion of the available evidence, are usually qualitative, and rely on visual interpretation. In contrast, qPCR yields information regarding the amount and proportion of amplifiable genetic material. In this study, dilution series of either semen or male saliva were prepared in either buffer or female blood. The samples were subjected to both lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips and qPCR analysis. Analytical figures of merit-including sensitivity, minimum distinguishable signal (MDS) and limit of detection (LOD)-were calculated and compared between methods. By applying the theory of the propagation of random errors, LODs were determined to be 0.05 ?L of saliva for the RSID™ Saliva cards, 0.03 ?L of saliva for Quantifiler(®) Duo, and 0.001 ?L of semen for Quantifiler(®) Duo. In conclusion, quantitative PCR was deemed a viable and effective screening method for subsequent DNA profiling due to its stability in different matrices, sensitivity, and low limits of detection. PMID:24117798

  1. Quantification of predation using qPCR: Effect of elapsed time, chaser diet, quantity of prey eggs, and sample preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using quantitative PCR with a prey-specific mtDNA 214 bp amplicon from COI and cds mitochondrial genes of Colorado potato beetle, we fed prey eggs of known age and number to larvae of the generalist coccinelid predator Coleomegilla maculata, to elucidate the effects of time and diet since consumptio...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Treacher Collins syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gene ; inheritance ; micrognathia ; molecule ; mutation ; neural crest ; palate ; pattern of inheritance ; protein ; recessive ; respiratory ; ribosomal RNA ; RNA ; syndrome You may find definitions for these and many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (8 ...

  3. Genetics Home Reference: Acatalasemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genes are related to acatalasemia? Mutations in the CAT gene can cause acatalasemia. This gene provides instructions ... DNA, proteins, and cell membranes. Mutations in the CAT gene greatly reduce the activity of catalase. A ...

  4. Transients in chloroplast gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Allen, John F. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.f.allen@qmul.ac.uk

    2008-04-18

    Transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes is demonstrated by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). These genes encode apoproteins of the reaction centres of photosystem I and photosystem II. Their transcription is regulated by changes in wavelength of light selectively absorbed by photosystem I and photosystem II, and therefore by the redox state of an electron carrier located between the two photosystems. Chloroplast transcriptional redox regulation is shown to have greater amplitude, and the kinetics of transcriptional changes are more complex, than suggested by previous experiments using only DNA probes in Northern blot experiments. Redox effects on chloroplast transcription appear to be superimposed on an endogenous rhythm of mRNA abundance. The functional significance of these transients in chloroplast gene transcription is discussed.

  5. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  6. The Great Reference Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Myla Stokes Kelly; Jeff Siddons; Lawrence Jenkins

    2002-01-01

    The article by Anhang and Coffman entitled “The Great Reference Debate” (American Libraries, March 2002) is a challenge for reference librarians in all types of libraries. Three community college reference librarians respond to the issues raised in “The Great Reference Debate” and address the fundamental question, “Are reference librarians toast?”

  7. Quantitative PCR Targeting 16S rRNA and Reductive Dehalogenase Genes Simultaneously Monitors Multiple Dehalococcoides Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsti M. Ritalahti; Benjamin K. Amos; Youlboong Sung; Qingzhong Wu; Stephen S. Koenigsberg; Frank E. Loffler

    2006-01-01

    The 16S rRNA gene provides insufficient information to infer the range of chloroorganic electron acceptors used by different Dehalococcoides organisms. To overcome this limitation and provide enhanced diagnostic tools for growth measurements, site assessment, and bioremediation monitoring, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) approach targeting 16S rRNA genes and three Dehalococcoides reductive dehalogenase (RDase) genes with assigned function (i.e., tceA, bvcA,

  8. Monitoring gene expression to evaluate oxygen infusion at a gasoline-contaminated site.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Brett R; Biernacki, Anita; Blair, Joel; Purchase, Michael P; Baker, Jeffrey M; Sublette, Kerry; Davis, Greg; Ogles, Dora

    2010-09-01

    Increasingly, molecular biological tools, most notably quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), are being employed to provide a more comprehensive assessment of bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and fuel oxygenates. While qPCR enumeration of key organisms or catabolic genes can aid in site management decisions, evaluation of site activities conducted to stimulate biodegradation would ideally include a direct measure of gene expression to infer activity. In the current study, reverse-transcriptase (RT) qPCR was used to monitor gene expression to evaluate the effectiveness of an oxygen infusion system to promote biodegradation of BTEX and MTBE. During system operation, dissolved oxygen (DO) levels at the infusion points were greater than 30 mg/L, contaminant concentrations decreased, and transcription of two aromatic oxygenase genes and Methylibium petroleiphilum PM1-like 16S rRNA copies increased by as many as 5 orders of magnitude. Moreover, aromatic oxygenase gene transcription and PM1 16s rRNA increased at downgradient locations despite low DO levels even during system operation. Conversely, target gene expression substantially decreased when the system was deactivated. RT-qPCR results also corresponded to increases in benzene and MTBE attenuation rates. Overall, monitoring gene expression complemented traditional groundwater analyses and conclusively demonstrated that the oxygen infusion system promoted BTEX and MTBE biodegradation. PMID:20681521

  9. Sample References Business Student

    E-print Network

    and follow-up to share updates Additional Resources Making the Best Use of References http://www.wetfeet.com/advice-tools/resume-cover-letter/how-to-make-the-best-use-of-references Obtaining References http

  10. Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

  11. Characterizing Microbial Denitrification nirS Gene Abundance and Biogeochemical Processes Up-Gradient, Within and Down-Gradient

    E-print Network

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    installed and began monitoring a wood-chip based NITREXTM permeable reactive barrier (PRB) designed, nirS gene, PCR, qPCR, permeable reactive barrier, sulfate-reducing bacteria Introduction: Nitrate Reactive Barrier in Waquoit Bay, MA Collin Knauss1 December 19, 2011 Advisors: Drs. Kenneth Foreman2

  12. Efficacy of corn silage inoculants on the fermentation quality under farm conditions and their influence on Aspergillus parasitucus, A. flavus and A. fumigatus determined by q-PCR.

    PubMed

    Dogi, Cecilia A; Pellegrino, Matías; Poloni, Valeria; Poloni, Luis; Pereyra, Carina M; Sanabria, Analía; Pianzzola, María Julia; Dalcero, Ana; Cavaglieri, Lilia

    2015-02-01

    Laboratory-scale silos were prepared to evaluate the efficacy of two different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation quality and mycobiota of corn silage. Their influence on Aspergillus species' variability by using the q-PCR technique was studied. Silage inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 or L. plantarum RC009 were compared with uninoculated silage. Silos were opened after 1, 7, 45, 90 and 120 days after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, silos were left open for 7 days to evaluate aerobic stability. Rapid lactic acid production and decline in pH values were seen in the early stages of fermentation in silage inoculated with L. rhamnosus RC007. After aerobic exposure, a significant decline in lactic acid content was observed in untreated and L. plantarum RC009-inoculated silages. Counts for yeasted and toxigenic fungus remained lower, after aerobic exposure, in L. rhamnosus RC007-inoculated silage, in comparison with L. plantarum RC009 and uninoculated silages. Comparing the influence exerted by both BAL, it was observed that L. rhamnosus RC007 was more efficient at inhibiting the three fungal species tested whose DNA concentrations, determined by q-PCR, oscillated near the initial value (pre-ensiling maize). The ability of L. rhamnosus RC007 to produce lactic acid rapidly and the decline in pH values in the early stages of the fermentation along with the reduction of yeast and mycotoxicogenic fungus after aerobic exposure shows its potential as a bio-control inoculant agent in animal feed. PMID:25421370

  13. Enumeration of bacteriophage particles: Comparative analysis of the traditional plaque assay and real-time QPCR- and nanosight-based assays.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Bradley; Rashid, Mohammed H; Carter, Chandi; Pasternack, Gary; Rajanna, Chythanya; Revazishvili, Tamara; Dean, Timothy; Senecal, Andre; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    Bacteriophages are increasingly being utilized and considered for various practical applications, ranging from decontaminating foods and inanimate surfaces to human therapy; therefore, it is important to determine their concentrations quickly and reliably. Traditional plaque assay (PA) is the current "gold standard" for quantitating phage titers. However, it requires at least 18 h before results are obtained, and they may be significantly influenced by various factors. Therefore, two alternative assays based on the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) and NanoSight Limited (NS) technologies were recently proposed for enumerating phage particles. The present study compared the three approaches' abilities to quantitate Listeria monocytogenes-, Escherichia coli O157:H7- and Yersinia pestis-specific lytic phages quickly and reproducibly. The average coefficient of variation (CVS) of the PA method including all three phages was 0.15. The reproducibility of the PA method decreased dramatically when multiple investigators performed the assays, and mean differences of as much as 0.33 log were observed. The QPC R method required costly equipment and the synthesis of phage-specific oligonucleotide primers, but it determined phage concentrations faster (within about 4 h) and more precisely than did PA (CVS = 0.13). NS technology required costly equipment, was less precise (CVS = 0.28) than the PA and QPCR methods, and only worked when the phages were suspended in clear medium. However, it provided results within 5 min. After the overall correlation is established with the PA method, either of the two assays may be useful for quickly and reproducibly determining phage concentrations. PMID:22334864

  14. Statistical Reference Datasets

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

  15. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  16. American Indian Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1976

    Designed to aid librarians, school teachers, and others in need of American Indian references and reference sources, this compilation covers a wide variety of material which has generally been scattered throughout various individual references. Specifically, this reference book includes: (1) Location of Tribes by State; (2) Locations of Tribes by…

  17. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  18. Specific qPCR assays for the detection of orf virus, pseudocowpox virus and bovine papular stomatitis virus.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hui; Wilkins, Kimberly; Damon, Inger K; Li, Yu

    2013-12-01

    The genus Parapoxvirus (PAPV) is comprised traditionally of orf virus (ORFV), pseudocowpox virus (PCPV) and bovine papular stomatitis virus (BPSV), which cause infections of ruminants and their handlers in the U.S. and worldwide. Unlike orthopoxvirus infections, which can cause systemic or localized infections, PAPV infections present normally as benign, self-limited and localized skin lesions; infections do not confer lifelong immunity. In recent years, related potentially to enhanced awareness and the availability of diagnostic methods, there has been an observed increase in reported cases of PAPV in animals and humans. This study describes TaqMan based real-time PCR assays for both generic and specific detection of PAPV species for surveillance and outbreak investigations. These assays target highly conserved PAPV RNA polymerase gene sequences and are capable of detecting three known species of PAPVs (ORFV, PCPV, and BPSV). The assays were evaluated using a panel of PAPV DNA derived from human infections or animal specimen remainders. The sensitivities of all four assays were determined using droplet digital PCR; fewer than 10 copies of clinical PAPV DNA can be detected consistently. These assays provide a reliable and sensitive method for rapid confirmation and characterization PAPV infections with varying clinical presentations. PMID:24035807

  19. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.

    PubMed

    Ebadzad, Ghazal; Cravador, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    cDNA-AFLP methodology was used to gain insight into gene fragments differentially present in the mRNA profiles of Quercus suber roots infected with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi at different post challenge time points. Fifty-three transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and sequenced. Six candidate genes were selected based on their expression patterns and homology to genes known to play a role in defence. They encode a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase2 (QsCAD2), a protein disulphide isomerase (QsPDI), a CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein (QsRPc), a thaumatin-like protein (QsTLP), a chitinase (QsCHI) and a 1,3-?-glucanase (QsGlu). Evaluation of the expression of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that transcript levels of QsRPc, QsCHI, QsCAD2 and QsPDI increased during the first 24 h post-inoculation, while those of thaumatin-like protein decreased. No differential expression was observed for 1,3-?-glucanase (QsGlu). Four candidate reference genes, polymerase II (QsRPII), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (QsEIF-5A), ?-tubulin (QsTUB) and a medium subunit family protein of clathrin adaptor complexes (QsCACs) were assessed to determine the most stable internal references for qRT-PCR normalization in the Phytophthora-Q. suber pathosystem in root tissues. Those found to be more stable, QsRPII and QsCACs, were used as internal reference in the present work. Knowledge on the Quercus defence mechanisms against biotic stress is scarce. This study provides an insight into the gene profiling of a few important genes of Q. suber in response to P. cinnamomi infection contributing to the knowledge of the molecular interactions involving Quercus and root pathogens that can be useful in the future to understand the mechanisms underlying oak resistance to soil-borne oomycetes. PMID:25392784

  20. Introduction The COMT gene

    E-print Network

    Maddox, W. Todd

    Introduction The COMT gene References Dopamine-Related Genetic Influences on Exploratory Decision: The goal of the present work is to explore the role of the prefrontal dopamine gene (COMT) in exploratory.D., Oas-Terpstra, J., Moreno, F. (2009). Prefrontal and Striatal Dopaminergic Genes Predict Individual

  1. Molecular detection of antibiotic resistance genes from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Hindiyeh, Musa Y; Smollan, Gill; Gefen-Halevi, Shiraz; Mendelson, Ella; Keller, Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Rapid detection of the bacterial causative agent causing sepsis must be coupled with rapid identification of the antibiotic resistant mechanism that the pathogen might possess. Real-time PCR (qPCR)-based assays have been extensively utilized in the clinical microbiology field as diagnostic tools for the rapid detection of specific nucleic acid (NA) targets. In this chapter, we will discuss the technical aspects of using an internally controlled qPCR assay for the rapid detection of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase gene (bla KPC) in positive Bactec blood culture bottles. The multiplex qPCR (bla KPC/RNase P) utilizes specific primers and probes for the detection of the bacterial carbapenem resistance mechanism, bla KPC gene, and the internal control RNase P. The internal control of the qPCR assay is vital for detecting any inhibitors that are well known to be present in the blood culture bottles. Rapid detection of the antibiotic resistant mechanism present in the bacterial pathogen causing sepsis can help in better managing patients' infection. PMID:25319783

  2. Quantitative PCR Analysis of Functional Genes in Iron-Rich Microbial Mats at an Active Hydrothermal Vent System (L?'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i).

    PubMed

    Jesser, Kelsey J; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W; Moyer, Craig L

    2015-05-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at L?'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at L?'ihi Seamount. PMID:25681182

  3. RAS Reference Reagents

    Cancer.gov

    Posted: September 22, 2014 Posted: September 22, 2014 RAS Reference Reagents Reference Reagents Group An important priority of the RAS Initiative is to distribute highly validated materials and methods to the world-wide community of RAS researchers.

  4. The Floating Reference Librarian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernon, Peter; Pastine, Maureen

    1972-01-01

    The floating librarian'' is one who interprets and adjusts the formal library structure to meet legitimate needs. This is one of the ways the academic reference librarian can gain greater acceptance with students and faculty. (9 references) (Author/NH)

  5. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    Directory for Referring Veterinarians Equine Emergency, Specialty, and General Care www new evening continuing education events for veterinarians and technicians. This past year we have continued to focus on client and referring veterinarian service. Among other initiatives, we instituted

  6. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Directory for Referring Veterinarians Companion Animal Emergency, Specialty & General care www Administration 2 Client & Referring Veterinarian Coordinator 3 Medical Records 3 The Admissions and Discharge new evening continu- ing education events for veterinarians and technicians. This past year we have

  7. NCI: Resources & References

    Cancer.gov

    Reference Services NIH Library Online National Library of Medicine Library Resources NCI Library Reference Center Publications Locator Journals Online In the Loop The NCI Administrative Newsletter Intramural Resources Intramural Organizational and Principal

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Pilomatricoma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pilomatricoma? benign ; carcinoma ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

  9. Quick Reference Contents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

  10. QuickReferenceContents

    Cancer.gov

    Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

  11. Physics Resource Reference Sheet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physics reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, force diagrams, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

  12. Physical Science Reference Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physical science reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

  13. Chemistry Reference Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

  14. Biology Reference Sheets

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable list biology reference material for high school students in the life sciences. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

  15. Teachers Reference: Introduction

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is the introduction to the teacher's reference designed to accompany the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. It compares the roles of teachers to that of the mentor in the book (Grampa) and states some of the reference's intended goals, as well as describing the primary content of the reference (text annotations), their arrangements, and their uses.

  16. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  17. GeneCARD-FISH: Detection of tceA and vcrA reductive dehalogenase genes in Dehalococcoides mccartyi by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Matturro, B; Rossetti, S

    2015-03-01

    Due to the direct involvement in the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, reductive dehalogenase genes (RDase) are considered biomarkers of the metabolic potential of different strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc). This is known to be the only microbe able to completely reduce toxic chlorinated solvents to harmless ethene. In the last years, several Molecular Biological Tools (MBTs) have been developed to optimize the detectability of Dhc cells and/or the RDase genes, with particular attention to the most important indicators of ethene formation, namely tceA and vcrA genes. Despite qPCR has been indicated as the MBT of choice, the use of CARD-FISH recently demonstrated to provide a more accurate quantification of Dhc cells in a wide concentration range, overcoming the drawbacks of loosing nucleic acids during the preparation of the sample associated with qPCR. CARD-FISH assays usually target 16S rRNA and up to date no protocol able to discriminate different Dhc strains by detecting RDase genes has been developed. This study reports the first evidence of in situ detection of tceA and vcrA genes into Dhc cells by applying a new procedure named geneCARD-FISH. Dhc strains carrying tceA and vcrA genes were identified and quantified in a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating microbial enrichment and overall they represented 58.63%±2.45% and 40.46%±1.86% of the total Dhc cells, respectively. These values were markedly higher than those obtained by qPCR, which strongly underestimated the actual concentration of vcrA gene (0.08%±0.01% of Dhc 16S rRNA gene copies). The assay was successfully applied also for the analysis of environmental samples and remarkably strengthens the biomonitoring activities at field scale by providing the specific in situ discrimination of Dhc cells carrying the key-RDase genes. PMID:25595619

  18. First detection of Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA in hair of wild mammals: application of qPCR method to determine potential parasite reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Madrid, Rubén; Belinchón-Lorenzo, Silvia; Iniesta, Virginia; Fernández-Cotrina, Javier; Parejo, Juan Carlos; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Monroy, Isabel; Baz, Victora; Gómez-Luque, Adela; Gómez-Nieto, Luis Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The data presented in this paper describe the application of a method for a reliable and non-invasive diagnosis of leishmaniosis in wild reservoirs, based on the detection of Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) in hair samples by Real Time PCR (qPCR). The study has been performed on 68 ear/leg hair samples from 5 different wild species (Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus, Martes foina, Rattus norvegicus and Erinaceus europaeus) from several geographic areas of West and North Spain. The presence of Leishmania kDNA was detected in 14 of the 68 analyzed samples, being the highest quantity of DNA observed in foxes. This is the first report of the presence of Leishmania in a hedgehog. The kDNA remained stable under the exposure of hair to different environmental conditions (freezing or high temperature, ultraviolet rays or treatment with tanning salts). This detection method could constitute a suitable alternative for the search of the parasite in wild hosts, due to the numerous advantages that hair samples present for collection, transport and storage processes. PMID:23973736

  19. Cultivation of PCV2 in swine testicle cells using the shell vial technique and monitoring of viral replication by qPCR and RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Taís F; Araujo, João P

    2014-02-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is difficult to isolate. Currently, no published articles have used the shell vial technique to isolate PCV2. In addition, the action of d-glucosamine on swine testicle cells (ST) has not been evaluated properly. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine an optimal concentration of d-glucosamine and to test the shell vial technique for PCV2 propagation in ST cells. The optimal concentration of d-glucosamine was determined to be 100mM. Because PCV2 is noncytopathic, the traditional adsorption was compared to the shell vial technique for 15 passages by qPCR, and RT-qPCR for passages 12 through 15. The quantities of viral DNA (P=0.013) and ORF1-mRNA detected with the shell vial technique were two-fold higher than the obtained with traditional adsorption. The levels of ORF2-mRNA were similar for both methods; however, by passage 15, a six-fold increase in levels was observed with the shell vial technique. Therefore, the shell vial technique was more efficient for the cultivation of PCV2, and qPCR/RT-qPCR can be used to monitor viral replication. In addition, a high viral load (>2.7×10(10) DNA copies/ml) and high levels of viral mRNA expression indicated that the ST cells were persistently infected. PMID:24183921

  20. Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437