Sample records for qpcr reference genes

  1. Optimal reference genes for qPCR in resting and activated human NK cells-Flow cytometric data correspond to qPCR gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Wierzbicki, Piotr Mieczys?aw; Karsznia, Sylwia; Damska, Marta; ?lebioda, Tomasz Jerzy; Foerster, Jerzy; Kmie?, Zbigniew

    2015-07-01

    Natural killer cells (NK cells) are cytotoxic lymphocytes critical to the innate immune system engaged in rapid response against tumor or virus infected cells. After activation NK cells acquire enhanced cytotoxicity and are capable of producing cytokines to stimulate other immune cells. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a method of choice for gene expression analysis but the usage of reliable reference genes for the normalization process is critical. Commonly used reference genes may vary in expression level between different experimental conditions providing wrong quantitative results of the studied genes' expression levels. Fourteen potential endogenous control genes were analyzed by qPCR method in NK-92 cell line that shows characteristics of human natural killer cells and is often used in studies on biology of NK lymphocytes. NK-92 cells were stimulated with IL-2 or TNF for 2, 24 or 72h. Results were analyzed with RefFinder, a program which enables evaluation and screening of reference genes and integrates the currently available major computational programs (Genorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct). The most stable gene in activated and non-activated NK cells was B2M, followed by IPO-8 and GAPDH and the least stable were HPRT1, PPIA and RPL32. The normalization process was performed on SOD2 gene and the results of qPCR experiments were confirmed by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric data corresponded to the results of qPCR gene expression analysis performed for the reference genes qualified by RefFinder as the most stable. PMID:25914089

  2. Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli in Carrot Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4?, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1?, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions. PMID:25658122

  3. Selection of suitable reference genes for qPCR normalization under abiotic stresses and hormone stimuli in carrot leaves.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4?, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1?, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions. PMID:25658122

  4. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT qPCR Analyses of Structure-Specific and Hormone Regulated Gene Expression in Physcomitrella patens Gametophytes

    PubMed Central

    Le Bail, Aude; Scholz, Sebastian; Kost, Benedikt

    2013-01-01

    The use of the moss Physcomitrella patens as a model system to study plant development and physiology is rapidly expanding. The strategic position of P. patens within the green lineage between algae and vascular plants, the high efficiency with which transgenes are incorporated by homologous recombination, advantages associated with the haploid gametophyte representing the dominant phase of the P. patens life cycle, the simple structure of protonemata, leafy shoots and rhizoids that constitute the haploid gametophyte, as well as a readily accessible high-quality genome sequence make this moss a very attractive experimental system. The investigation of the genetic and hormonal control of P. patens development heavily depends on the analysis of gene expression patterns by real time quantitative PCR (RT qPCR). This technique requires well characterized sets of reference genes, which display minimal expression level variations under all analyzed conditions, for data normalization. Sets of suitable reference genes have been described for most widely used model systems including e.g. Arabidopsis thaliana, but not for P. patens. Here, we present a RT qPCR based comparison of transcript levels of 12 selected candidate reference genes in a range of gametophytic P. patens structures at different developmental stages, and in P. patens protonemata treated with hormones or hormone transport inhibitors. Analysis of these RT qPCR data using GeNorm and NormFinder software resulted in the identification of sets of P. patens reference genes suitable for gene expression analysis under all tested conditions, and suggested that the two best reference genes are sufficient for effective data normalization under each of these conditions. PMID:23951063

  5. Quantifying mRNA and MicroRNA with qPCR in Cervical Carcinogenesis: A Validation of Reference Genes to Ensure Accurate Data

    PubMed Central

    Leitão, Maria da Conceição Gomes; Coimbra, Eliane Campos; de Lima, Rita de Cássia Pereira; Guimarães, Mariléa de Lima; Heráclio, Sandra de Andrade; Silva Neto, Jacinto da Costa; de Freitas, Antonio Carlos

    2014-01-01

    A number of recent studies have catalogued global gene expression patterns in a panel of normal, tumoral cervical tissues so that potential biomarkers can be identified. The qPCR has been one of the most widely used technologies for detecting these potential biomarkers. However, few studies have investigated a correct strategy for the normalization of data in qPCR assays for cervical tissues. The aim of this study was to validate reference genes in cervical tissues to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA and miRNA levels in cervical carcinogenesis. For this purpose, some issues for obtaining reliable qPCR data were evaluated such as the following: geNorm analysis with a set of samples which meet all of the cervical tissue conditions (Normal + CIN1 + CIN2 + CIN3 + Cancer); the use of individual Ct values versus pooled Ct values; and the use of a single (or multiple) reference genes to quantify mRNA and miRNA expression levels. Two different data sets were put on the geNorm to assess the expression stability of the candidate reference genes: the first dataset comprised the quantities of the individual Ct values; and the second dataset comprised the quantities of the pooled Ct values. Moreover, in this study, all the candidate reference genes were analyzed as a single “normalizer”. The normalization strategies were assessed by measuring p16INK4a and miR-203 transcripts in qPCR assays. We found that the use of pooled Ct values, can lead to a misinterpretation of the results, which suggests that the maintenance of inter-individual variability is a key factor in ensuring the reliability of the qPCR data. In addition, it should be stressed that a proper validation of the suitability of the reference genes is required for each experimental setting, since the indiscriminate use of a reference gene can also lead to discrepant results. PMID:25365304

  6. Identification of appropriate reference genes for qPCR studies in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and preliminary assessment of icaA gene expression in biofilm-embedded bacteria

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative PCR is rapidly becoming the standard method for analyzing gene expression in a wide variety of biological samples however it can suffer from significant error if stably expressed reference genes are not identified on which to base the analysis. Suitable reference genes for qPCR experiments on Staphylococcus pseudintermedius have yet to be identified. Results Three reference genes in S. pseudintermedius were identified and validated from a set of eight potential genes (proC, gyrB, rplD, rho, rpoA, ftsZ, recA, sodA). Two strains of S. pseudintermedius were used, and primer specificity and efficiency were confirmed and measured. Ranking of the genes with respect to expression stability revealed gyrB, rho and recA as the best reference genes. This combination was used to quantify expression of a single biofilm associated gene, icaA, in logarithmic, stationary and biofilm growth phases, revealing that expression was significantly upregulated in the biofilm growth phase in both strains. Conclusion Three reference genes, gyrB, rho and recA, were identified and validated for use as reference genes for quantitative PCR experiments in S. pseudintermedius. Also, the biofilm associated gene icaA was shown to be significantly upregulated in biofilm samples, consistent with its role in biofilm production. PMID:25023435

  7. Validation of potential reference genes for qPCR in maize across abiotic stresses, hormone treatments, and tissue types.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yueai; Zhang, Chenlu; Lan, Hai; Gao, Shibin; Liu, Hailan; Liu, Jian; Cao, Moju; Pan, Guangtang; Rong, Tingzhao; Zhang, Suzhi

    2014-01-01

    The reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful and widely used technique for the measurement of gene expression. Reference genes, which serve as endogenous controls ensure that the results are accurate and reproducible, are vital for data normalization. To bolster the literature on reference gene selection in maize, ten candidate reference genes, including eight traditionally used internal control genes and two potential candidate genes from our microarray datasets, were evaluated for expression level in maize across abiotic stresses (cold, heat, salinity, and PEG), phytohormone treatments (abscisic acid, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene, and gibberellins), and different tissue types. Three analytical software packages, geNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper, were used to assess the stability of reference gene expression. The results revealed that elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1?), tubulin beta (?-TUB), cyclophilin (CYP), and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A (EIF4A) were the most reliable reference genes for overall gene expression normalization in maize, while GRP (Glycine-rich RNA-binding protein), GLU1(beta-glucosidase), and UBQ9 (ubiquitin 9) were the least stable and most unsuitable genes. In addition, the suitability of EF1?, ?-TUB, and their combination as reference genes was confirmed by validating the expression of WRKY50 in various samples. The current study indicates the appropriate reference genes for the urgent requirement of gene expression normalization in maize across certain abiotic stresses, hormones, and tissue types. PMID:24810581

  8. Validation of adequate endogenous reference genes for the normalisation of qPCR gene expression data in human post mortem tissue.

    PubMed

    Koppelkamm, Antje; Vennemann, Benedikt; Fracasso, Tony; Lutz-Bonengel, Sabine; Schmidt, Ulrike; Heinrich, Marielle

    2010-09-01

    Gene expression analyses based on messenger RNA (mRNA) profiling require accurate data normalisation. When using endogenous reference genes, these have to be validated carefully. Therefore, we examined the transcript stability of 10 potential reference genes using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction: beta actin, 18S rRNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, TATA box-binding protein, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl-transferase I, beta-2-microglobulin, hydroxymethylbilane synthase, succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, cyclophilin A and ubiquitin C. The aim of the current study was to assess which reference genes show stable mRNA levels in human post mortem cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and brain tissue. Considering cardiac muscle tissue, CYCA and TBP were identified as the most stable while in skeletal muscle tissue, SDHA and TBP, and in brain tissue, SDHA and HMBS turned out to be the most stable. Furthermore, we recommend a minimum of four carefully validated endogenous control genes for reliable data normalisation in human post mortem tissue. Parameters influencing the stability of transcript amounts were found to be mainly the post mortem interval in cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle tissue and the donor's cause of death in skeletal muscle and brain samples. Further parameters like gender, age at death and body mass index were found to influence mRNA quantities in skeletal muscle only. The set of stable control genes identified in this study may be used in further studies if the composition of the samples is similar to the one used here. PMID:20300940

  9. Determination and validation of reference gene stability for qPCR analysis in polysaccharide hydrogel-based 3D chondrocytes and mesenchymal stem cell cultural models.

    PubMed

    Chooi, Wai Hon; Zhou, Ruijie; Yeo, Suan Siong; Zhang, Feng; Wang, Dong-An

    2013-06-01

    Gene expression study is widely used to obtain information of the cell activities and phenotypes. To quantify gene expression, measurement of the mRNA copy number is commonly done by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). However, proper reference gene is needed for different tissues to normalize the expression level of different genes accurately. In this study, reference gene determination was done for three-dimensional (3D) artificial tissue constructs in hydrogel. Porcine synovium-derived mesenchymal stem cells (SMSCs) and rabbit chondrocytes were cultured in both alginate and agarose hydrogels to set up four different 3D culture systems to form the artificial tissue constructs. The gene expression levels of candidate genes were determined by RT-qPCR and then analyzed by geNorm, Bestkeeper, and Normfinder. For porcine SMSCs, PPIA, and TBP were selected for tissue in alginate scaffold whereas HPRT and TBP were selected for the agarose scaffold system. On the other hand, HPRT, PPIA, and RPL18 were the stable reference genes for rabbit chondrocytes in alginate scaffold while TBP, RPL5, and RPL18 were selected for rabbit chondrocytes in agarose scaffold. This study has further indicated that suitable reference genes are different for each tissue and study purpose. The reference genes are expressed in different stability when a scaffold of different material is used. PMID:23054629

  10. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Kang

    Background: Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. ...

  11. Comparison of TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR methods for quantitative gene expression in tung tree tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time-PCR (qPCR) is widely used for gene expression analysis due to its large dynamic range, tremendous sensitivity, high sequence-specificity, little to no post-amplification processing, and sample throughput. TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are two frequently used methods. However, dir...

  12. A pipeline to determine RT-QPCR control genes for evolutionary studies: application to primate gene expression across multiple tissues.

    PubMed

    Fedrigo, Olivier; Warner, Lisa R; Pfefferle, Adam D; Babbitt, Courtney C; Cruz-Gordillo, Peter; Wray, Gregory A

    2010-01-01

    Because many species-specific phenotypic differences are assumed to be caused by differential regulation of gene expression, many recent investigations have focused on measuring transcript abundance. Despite the availability of high-throughput platforms, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-QPCR) is often the method of choice because of its low cost and wider dynamic range. However, the accuracy of this technique heavily relies on the use of multiple valid control genes for normalization. We created a pipeline for choosing genes potentially useful as RT-QPCR control genes for measuring expression between human and chimpanzee samples across multiple tissues, using published microarrays and a measure of tissue-specificity. We identified 13 genes from the pipeline and from commonly used control genes: ACTB, USP49, ARGHGEF2, GSK3A, TBP, SDHA, EIF2B2, GPDH, YWHAZ, HPTR1, RPL13A, HMBS, and EEF2. We then tested these candidate genes and validated their expression stability across species. We established the rank order of the most preferable set of genes for single and combined tissues. Our results suggest that for at least three tissues (cerebral cortex, liver, and skeletal muscle), EIF2B2, EEF2, HMBS, and SDHA are useful genes for normalizing human and chimpanzee expression using RT-QPCR. Interestingly, other commonly used control genes, including TBP, GAPDH, and, especially ACTB do not perform as well. This pipeline could be easily adapted to other species for which expression data exist, providing taxonomically appropriate control genes for comparisons of gene expression among species. PMID:20824057

  13. Comprehensive qPCR profiling of gene expression in single neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Citri, Ami; Pang, Zhiping P.; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius; Malenka, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    A major challenge in neuronal stem cell biology lies in characterization of lineage-specific reprogrammed human neuronal cells, a process that necessitates the use of an assay sensitive to the single-cell level. Single-cell gene profiling can provide definitive evidence regarding the conversion of one cell type into another at a high level of resolution. The protocol we describe employs Fluidigm Biomark dynamic arrays for high-throughput expression profiling from single neuronal cells, assaying up to 96 independent samples with up to 96 qPCR probes (equivalent to 9216 reactions) in a single experiment, which can be completed within 2–3 days. The protocol enables simple and cost-effective profiling of several hundred transcripts from a single cell, and could have numerous utilities. PMID:22193304

  14. Comprehensive qPCR profiling of gene expression in single neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Citri, Ami; Pang, Zhiping P; Südhof, Thomas C; Wernig, Marius; Malenka, Robert C

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in neuronal stem cell biology lies in characterization of lineage-specific reprogrammed human neuronal cells, a process that necessitates the use of an assay sensitive to the single-cell level. Single-cell gene profiling can provide definitive evidence regarding the conversion of one cell type into another at a high level of resolution. The protocol we describe uses Fluidigm Biomark dynamic arrays for high-throughput expression profiling from single neuronal cells, assaying up to 96 independent samples with up to 96 quantitative PCR (qPCR) probes (equivalent to 9,216 reactions) in a single experiment, which can be completed within 2-3 d. The protocol enables simple and cost-effective profiling of several hundred transcripts from a single cell, and it could have numerous utilities. PMID:22193304

  15. Selection and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in gene expression studies in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), a sensitive and commonly used technique for gene expression analysis, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalization of gene expression. Up to now, only one reference gene for qPCR analysis, corresponding to 40S Ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), was available for the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, the only source of the commercial anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we screened for additional reference genes for this plant species by mining C. roseus RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and qualified as superior reference genes for this model plant species. Based on this, eight candidate C. roseus reference genes were identified and, together with RPS9, evaluated by performing qPCR on a series of different C. roseus explants and tissue cultures. NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper analyses of the resulting qPCR data revealed that the orthologs of At2g28390 (SAND family protein, SAND), At2g32170 (N2227-like family protein, N2227) and At4g26410 (Expressed protein, EXP) had the highest expression stability across the different C. roseus samples and are superior as reference genes as compared to the traditionally used RPS9. Analysis of publicly available C. roseus RNA-Seq data confirmed the expression stability of SAND and N2227, underscoring their value as reference genes for C. roseus qPCR analysis. PMID:25058454

  16. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

    2013-01-01

    Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

  17. Differential gene expression identified by RNA-Seq and qPCR in two sizes of pearl oyster (Pinctada fucata).

    PubMed

    Shi, Yu; He, Maoxian

    2014-04-01

    Differential growth of the pearl oyster Pinctada fucata still exists in the aquaculture production. There is no systematic study of the entire transcriptome of differential gene expression in P. fucata in the literature. In this study, high-throughput Illumina/HiSeq™ 2000 RNA-Seq was used to examine the differences of gene expression in large (L) and small oysters (S). In total, 74,293 and 76,635 unigenes were generated from L and S oysters, respectively. RT quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis showed that the differential expression pattern of 19 out of 34 selected genes was consistent with the results of RNA-Seq analysis: 14 genes (11 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 2 for shell formation) were expressed more highly in S, 5 genes (1 for growth, 1 for reproduction and 3 for the immune system) were expressed more highly in L; 3 genes associated with the immune system were opposite to it; and no difference was found for the remaining 12 genes. Another 9 shell formation-related genes in L and S were examined by qPCR: 1 gene was expressed more highly in L, 5 genes were expressed more highly in S and no difference was found for the remaining 3 genes. Some genes related to growth and development, shell formation and reproduction were expressed more highly in S compared to L. This phenomenon could be explained by "catch-up growth". The results of this study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of differential growth between P. fucata individuals and provide valuable information for future research. PMID:24440293

  18. Quantification of Las gene by qPCR from orange juice extracted from Huanglongbing infected fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...

  19. Superior Cross-Species Reference Genes: A Blueberry Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Die, Jose V.; Rowland, Lisa J.

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well. PMID:24058469

  20. Identification of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR experiments in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Saint-Marcoux, Denis; Proust, Hélène; Dolan, Liam; Langdale, Jane A

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become widely used as a method to compare gene transcript levels across different conditions. However, selection of suitable reference genes to normalize qPCR data is required for accurate transcript level analysis. Recently, Marchantia polymorpha has been adopted as a model for the study of liverwort development and land plant evolution. Identification of appropriate reference genes has therefore become a necessity for gene expression studies. In this study, transcript levels of eleven candidate reference genes have been analyzed across a range of biological contexts that encompass abiotic stress, hormone treatment and different developmental stages. The consistency of transcript levels was assessed using both geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, and a consensus ranking of the different candidate genes was then obtained. MpAPT and MpACT showed relatively constant transcript levels across all conditions tested whereas the transcript levels of other candidate genes were clearly influenced by experimental conditions. By analyzing transcript levels of phosphate and nitrate starvation reporter genes, we confirmed that MpAPT and MpACT are suitable reference genes in M. polymorpha and also demonstrated that normalization with an inappropriate gene can lead to erroneous analysis of qPCR data. PMID:25798897

  1. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in rat oligodendrocytes using quantitative real time PCR.

    PubMed

    Nelissen, Katherine; Smeets, Karen; Mulder, Monique; Hendriks, Jerome J A; Ameloot, Marcel

    2010-03-15

    Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has become a widely used tool to examine gene expression levels. Reliable quantification, however, depends on a proper normalization strategy. Normalization with multiple reference genes is becoming the standard, although the most suitable reference genes depend on the applied treatment as well as the tissue or cell type studied. In this study the stability of various reference genes was investigated in cultures of oligodendrocytes derived from either mature or neonatal rats, the latter also in the presence of the liver X receptor (LXR) agonist. The expression stability of ten commonly used reference genes (HPRT, GAPDH, 18S, ActB, CycA, Tbp, Rpl13A, YWHAZ, HMBS, Pgk1) was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder. When comparing the different types of cell cultures, Rpl13A, CycA, Pgk1 and YWHAZ were identified as most stable genes. After LXR agonist treatment, CycA, Pgk1 and Rpl13A were found to be the most stable by both geNorm and NormFinder. HMBS and the commonly used housekeeping genes GAPDH and 18S turned out to be the most variable according to geNorm and NormFinder. In conclusion, the use of multiple reference genes, instead of only one, in qPCR experiments with rat oligodendrocytes is strongly advised and standard housekeeping genes such as GAPDH and 18S are not recommended as they appear to be relatively unstable under the experimental conditions used. Reference gene selection should always be performed for each individual experiment, since useful reference genes are very specific for every situation. PMID:20036692

  2. qPCR for second year undergraduates: A short, structured inquiry to illustrate differential gene expression.

    PubMed

    McCauslin, Christine Seitz; Gunn, Kathryn Elaine; Pirone, Dana; Staiger, Jennifer

    2015-07-01

    We describe a structured inquiry laboratory exercise that examines transcriptional regulation of the NOS2 gene under conditions that simulate the inflammatory response in macrophages. Using quantitative PCR and the comparative CT method, students are able determine whether transcriptional activation of NOS2 occurs and to what degree. The exercise is aimed at second year undergraduates who possess basic knowledge of gene expression events. It requires only 4-5 hr of dedicated laboratory time and focuses on use of the primary literature, data analysis, and interpretation. Importantly, this exercise provides a mechanism to introduce the concept of differential gene expression and provides a starting point for development of more complex guided or open inquiry projects for students moving into upper level molecular biology, immunology, and biochemistry course work. © 2015 by the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 43(4):273-282, 2015. PMID:26148025

  3. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in the brain, pituitary, and gonads of songbirds.

    PubMed

    Zinzow-Kramer, Wendy M; Horton, Brent M; Maney, Donna L

    2014-07-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is becoming a popular tool for the quantification of gene expression in the brain and endocrine tissues of songbirds. Accurate analysis of qPCR data relies on the selection of appropriate reference genes for normalization, yet few papers on songbirds contain evidence of reference gene validation. Here, we evaluated the expression of ten potential reference genes (18S, ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, PPIA, RPL4, RPL32, TFRC, and UBC) in brain, pituitary, ovary, and testis in two species of songbirds: zebra finch and white-throated sparrow. We used two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, to assess the stability of these reference genes in our samples. We found that the suitability of some of the most popular reference genes for target gene normalization in mammals, such as 18S, depended highly on tissue type. Thus, they are not the best choices for brain and gonad in these songbirds. In contrast, we identified alternative genes, such as HPRT, RPL4 and PPIA, that were highly stable in brain, pituitary, and gonad in these species. Our results suggest that the validation of reference genes in mammals does not necessarily extrapolate to other taxonomic groups. For researchers wishing to identify and evaluate suitable reference genes for qPCR in songbirds, our results should serve as a starting point and should help increase the power and utility of songbird models in behavioral neuroendocrinology. PMID:24780145

  4. Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. coli. However, the choice of reliable reference genes has not been systematically validated. The objective of this study is to identify a set of reliable reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein over-expression studies in E. coli. Results In this study, the meta-analysis of 240 sets of single-channel Affymetrix microarray data representing over-expressions of 63 distinct recombinant proteins in various E. coli strains identified twenty candidate reference genes that were stably expressed across all conditions. The expression of these twenty genes and two commonly used reference genes, rrsA encoding ribosomal RNA 16S and ihfB, was quantified by qPCR in E. coli cells over-expressing four genes of the 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate pathway. From these results, two independent statistical algorithms identified three novel reference genes cysG, hcaT, and idnT but not rrsA and ihfB as highly invariant in two E. coli strains, across different growth temperatures and induction conditions. Transcriptomic data normalized by the geometric average of these three genes demonstrated that genes of the lycopene synthetic pathway maintained steady expression upon enzyme overexpression. In contrast, the use of rrsA or ihfB as reference genes led to the mis-interpretation that lycopene pathway genes were regulated during enzyme over-expression. Conclusion This study identified cysG/hcaT/idnT to be reliable novel reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein producing E. coli. PMID:21513543

  5. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies related to intramuscular fat deposition in Capra hircus skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development. PMID:25794179

  6. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies Related to Intramuscular Fat Deposition in Capra hircus Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wuzheng; Lin, Yaqiu; Liao, Honghai; Wang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    The identification of suitable reference genes is critical for obtaining reliable results from gene expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) because the expression of reference genes may vary considerably under different experimental conditions. In most cases, however, commonly used reference genes are employed in data normalization without proper validation, which may lead to incorrect data interpretation. Here, we aim to select a set of optimal reference genes for the accurate normalization of gene expression associated with intramuscular fat (IMF) deposition during development. In the present study, eight reference genes (PPIB, HMBS, RPLP0, B2M, YWHAZ, 18S, GAPDH and ACTB) were evaluated by three different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) in two types of muscle tissues (longissimus dorsi muscle and biceps femoris muscle) across different developmental stages. All three algorithms gave similar results. PPIB and HMBS were identified as the most stable reference genes, while the commonly used reference genes 18S and GAPDH were the most variably expressed, with expression varying dramatically across different developmental stages. Furthermore, to reveal the crucial role of appropriate reference genes in obtaining a reliable result, analysis of PPARG expression was performed by normalization to the most and the least stable reference genes. The relative expression levels of PPARG normalized to the most stable reference genes greatly differed from those normalized to the least stable one. Therefore, evaluation of reference genes must be performed for a given experimental condition before the reference genes are used. PPIB and HMBS are the optimal reference genes for analysis of gene expression associated with IMF deposition in skeletal muscle during development. PMID:25794179

  7. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Functional Studies in the Calliphoridae Family

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann. The expression stability of six genes (Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, ?-tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. PMID:25373149

  8. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction normalization in “Swingle” citrumelo under drought stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Carvalho; M. K. F. de Campos; L. F. P. Pereira; L. G. E. Vieira

    2010-01-01

    We describe the first systematic evaluation of reference genes for use in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for water deficit stress studies in the citrus rootstock “Swingle” citrumelo. The expression levels of seven reference genes—cyclophilin (CYP), cathepsin (CtP), actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1? (EF1?), ?-tubulin (TUB), and ADP ribosylation factor (ADP)—during drought stress were tested using

  9. Diversity and Distribution of Marine Synechococcus: Multiple Gene Phylogenies for Consensus Classification and Development of qPCR Assays for Sensitive Measurement of Clades in the Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Ahlgren, Nathan A.; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2012-01-01

    Marine Synechococcus is a globally significant genus of cyanobacteria that is comprised of multiple genetic lineages or clades. These clades are thought to represent ecologically distinct units, or ecotypes. Because multiple clades often co-occur together in the oceans, Synechococcus are ideal microbes to explore how closely related bacterial taxa within the same functional guild of organisms co-exist and partition marine habitats. Here we sequenced multiple gene loci from cultured strains to confirm the congruency of clade classifications between the 16S–23S rDNA internally transcribed spacer (ITS), 16S rDNA, narB, ntcA, and rpoC1 loci commonly used in Synechococcus diversity studies. We designed quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays that target the ITS for 10 Synechococcus clades, including four clades, XV, XVI, CRD1, and CRD2, not covered by previous assays employing other loci. Our new qPCR assays are very sensitive and specific, detecting down to tens of cells per ml. Application of these qPCR assays to field samples from the northwest Atlantic showed clear shifts in Synechococcus community composition across a coastal to open-ocean transect. Consistent with previous studies, clades I and IV dominated cold, coastal Synechococcus communities. Clades II and X were abundant at the two warmer, off-shore stations, and at all stations multiple Synechococcus clades co-occurred. qPCR assays developed here provide valuable tools to further explore the dynamics of microbial community structure and the mechanisms of co-existence. PMID:22723796

  10. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species. PMID:24926893

  11. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during latex regeneration in rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Gao, Xinsheng; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-06-01

    In rubber tree, latex regeneration is one of the decisive factors influencing the rubber yield, although its molecular regulation is not well known. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of latex regeneration. However, the suitable reference genes required for qPCR are not available to investigate the expressions of target genes during latex regeneration. In this study, 20 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability across the samples during the process of latex regeneration. All reference genes showed a relatively wide range of the threshold cycle values, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (comparative delta Ct method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm). Three softwares (comparative delta Ct method, NormFinder and GeNorm) exported similar results that identify UBC4, ADF, UBC2a, eIF2 and ADF4 as the top five suitable references, and 18S as the least suitable one. The application of the screened references would improve accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in latex regeneration experiments. PMID:25791491

  12. Identification of optimal reference genes for quantitative PCR studies on human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Yang, Yanyan; Zhong, Lingzhi; Wang, Yimin

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis is a commonly used method for the study of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research. This technology is simple and sensitive; however the results may vary significantly due to the use of various reference genes (RGs) as normalizers. Therefore, the reliable use of RGs is vital for obtaining accurate results. The present study focuses on ten putative RGs for the normalization of qPCR data between human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and fetal tissue-derived MSCs (FT-MSCs). The total RNA from these two types of MSC was isolated using TRIzol reagent. cDNA was generated from the RNA via reverse transcription and subsequently analyzed by qPCR using ten common RGs as normalizers. These RGs included 18S, ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, GAPDH, TBP, PPIA, RPLP0, PGK1 and RPL13A. GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software were used to analyze the qPCR results by evaluating the expression stabilities of the ten candidate RGs in BM-MSCs and FT-MSCs. Consequently, several of the commonly used RGs, including 18S, ACTB and TBP, were demonstrated to be unsuitable for normalization in these two MSCs, whereas RPL13A, B2M and PPIA were the most stable RGs and were therefore reliable for use in qPCR studies. Combining multiple RGs had no contribution towards increasing their stabilities. In conclusion, the present study revealed that RPL13A, B2M and PPIA were the optimal RGs for qPCR studies comparing BM-MSCs and FT-MSCs. PMID:25369870

  13. Evaluation and Selection of Appropriate Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during Vaccination and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Erlong; Wang, Kaiyu; Chen, Defang; Wang, Jun; He, Yang; Long, Bo; Yang, Lei; Yang, Qian; Geng, Yi; Huang, Xiaoli; Ouyang, Ping; Lai, Weimin

    2015-01-01

    qPCR as a powerful and attractive methodology has been widely applied to aquaculture researches for gene expression analyses. However, the suitable reference selection is critical for normalizing target genes expression in qPCR. In the present study, six commonly used endogenous controls were selected as candidate reference genes to evaluate and analyze their expression levels, stabilities and normalization to immune-related gene IgM expression during vaccination and infection in spleen of tilapia with RefFinder and GeNorm programs. The results showed that all of these candidate reference genes exhibited transcriptional variations to some extent at different periods. Among them, EF1A was the most stable reference with RefFinder, followed by 18S rRNA, ACTB, UBCE, TUBA and GAPDH respectively and the optimal number of reference genes for IgM normalization under different experiment sets was two with GeNorm. Meanwhile, combination the Cq (quantification cycle) value and the recommended comprehensive ranking of reference genes, EF1A and ACTB, the two optimal reference genes, were used together as reference genes for accurate analysis of immune-related gene expression during vaccination and infection in Nile tilapia with qPCR. Moreover, the highest IgM expression level was at two weeks post-vaccination when normalized to EF1A, 18S rRNA, ACTB, and EF1A together with ACTB compared to one week post-vaccination before normalizing, which was also consistent with the IgM antibody titers detection by ELISA. PMID:25941937

  14. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during Chinese wolfberry fruit development.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Yancai; Zhou, Ping

    2013-09-01

    Lycium barbarum L., a woody bush that grows in Eurasia and North Africa, is an ornamental and medicinal plant. Its fruits have been used for centuries in China as a traditional herbal medicine and as a valuable nourishing tonic. There has been no report describing the selection of reference genes for stringent normalization for quantitative PCR (qPCR) in L. barbarum. The present study identified reliable reference genes for normalization of qPCR data in L. barbarum during fruit development from among eight candidate genes (GAPDH, TEF G, EF 1a, UBQ, TUB a, SAMS, EF2 and Hsp80) using the geNorm and NormFinder statistical algorithms. The results showed that the best-ranked references genes differed across the samples. A combination of GAPDH and EF1a would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across fruit developmental stages. A combination of EF 1a and SAMS would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data at the stage A tested, whereas the combination of TUB a, and TEF G was the most suitable for stage B. EF2 and Hsp80 exhibited the most stable expression under stage C and stage D. NormFinder ranking of reference gene candidates was slightly different from that determined by geNorm. These results provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes under different development stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in L. barbarum gene analysis. PMID:23811043

  15. Identification of superior reference genes for data normalisation of expression studies via quantitative PCR in hybrid roses (Rosa hybrida)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene expression studies are a prerequisite for understanding the biological function of genes. Because of its high sensitivity and easy use, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the gold standard for gene expression quantification. To normalise qPCR measurements between samples, the most prominent technique is the use of stably expressed endogenous control genes, the so called reference genes. However, recent studies show there is no universal reference gene for all biological questions. Roses are important ornamental plants for which there has been no evaluation of useful reference genes for gene expression studies. Results We used three different algorithms (BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder) to validate the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes in different rose tissues from three different genotypes of Rosa hybrida and in leaves treated with various stress factors. The candidate genes comprised the classical "housekeeping genes" (Actin, EF-1?, GAPDH, Tubulin and Ubiquitin), and genes showing stable expression in studies in Arabidopsis (PP2A, SAND, TIP and UBC). The programs identified no single gene that showed stable expression under all of the conditions tested, and the individual rankings of the genes differed between the algorithms. Nevertheless the new candidate genes, specifically, PP2A and UBC, were ranked higher as compared to the other traditional reference genes. In general, Tubulin showed the most variable expression and should be avoided as a reference gene. Conclusions Reference genes evaluated as suitable in experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were stably expressed in roses under various experimental conditions. In most cases, these genes outperformed conventional reference genes, such as EF1-? and Tubulin. We identified PP2A, SAND and UBC as suitable reference genes, which in different combinations may be used for normalisation in expression analyses via qPCR for different rose tissues and stress treatments. However, the vast genetic variation found within the genus Rosa, including differences in ploidy levels, might also influence expression stability of reference genes, so that future research should also consider different genotypes and ploidy levels. PMID:22123042

  16. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of grapholitini (lepidoptera: tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae. PMID:26030743

  17. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Larvae of Three Species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

    PubMed Central

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A.; Timm, Alicia E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae. PMID:26030743

  18. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

  19. TqPCR: A Touchdown qPCR Assay with Significantly Improved Detection Sensitivity and Amplification Efficiency of SYBR Green qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jing; Deng, Fang; Yan, Zhengjian; Xia, Yinglin; Wang, Zhongliang; Ye, Jixing; Deng, Youlin; Zhang, Zhonglin; Qiao, Min; Li, Ruifang; Denduluri, Sahitya K.; Wei, Qiang; Zhao, Lianggong; Lu, Shun; Wang, Xin; Tang, Shengli; Liu, Hao; Luu, Hue H.; Haydon, Rex C.; He, Tong-Chuan; Jiang, Li

    2015-01-01

    The advent of fluorescence-based quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has revolutionized the quantification of gene expression analysis in many fields, including life sciences, agriculture, forensic science, molecular diagnostics, and medicine. While SYBR Green-based qPCR is the most commonly-used platform due to its inexpensive nature and robust chemistry, quantifying the expression of genes with low abundance or RNA samples extracted from highly restricted or limited sources can be challenging because the detection sensitivity of SYBR Green-based qPCR is limited. Here, we develop a novel and effective touchdown qPCR (TqPCR) protocol by incorporating a 4-cycle touchdown stage prior to the quantification amplification stage. Using the same cDNA templates, we find that TqPCR can reduce the average Cq values for Gapdh, Rps13, and Hprt1 reference genes by 4.45, 5.47, and 4.94 cycles, respectively, when compared with conventional qPCR; the overall average Cq value reduction for the three reference genes together is 4.95. We further find that TqPCR can improve PCR amplification efficiency and thus increase detection sensitivity. When the quantification of Wnt3A-induced target gene expression in mesenchymal stem cells is analyzed, we find that, while both conventional qPCR and TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the relatively abundant target Axin2, only TqPCR can detect the up-regulation of the lowly-expressed targets Oct4 and Gbx2. Finally, we demonstrate that the MRQ2 and MRQ3 primer pairs derived from mouse reference gene Tbp can be used to validate the RNA/cDNA integrity of qPCR samples. Taken together, our results strongly suggest that TqPCR may increase detection sensitivity and PCR amplification efficiency. Overall, TqPCR should be advantageous over conventional qPCR in expression quantification, especially when the transcripts of interest are lowly expressed, and/or the availability of total RNA is highly restricted or limited. PMID:26172450

  20. Importance of Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR: Special Reference to Mouse Myocardial Infarction Studies

    PubMed Central

    Everaert, Bert R.; Boulet, Gaëlle A.; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Vrints, Christiaan J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. Its reliability is highly dependent upon selection of the appropriate reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization. In this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes in a mouse myocardial infarction model. Methods & Results The expression stability of the 10 reference genes (Actb, B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt, Polr2a, Ppia, Rpl13a, Tbp, Tpt1) was analyzed using the geNorm software. Overall, the combination of Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 was the most stable reference gene set in our experiments. Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb consistently showed the highest gene expression variability and the expression levels of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 were found to be selectively up- or downregulated after myocardial infarction. We normalized the expression of Nppb and Vcam1, using different reference gene strategies and demonstrated that their induction after myocardial infarction was most clearly revealed with the optimal reference gene combination. However, the use of suboptimal reference gene combinations resulted in detrimental effects on gene expression levels and variability with a gradual loss of the expression differences and a significant reduction in statistical power. Conclusions Hprt, Rpl13a and Tpt1 are a set of stably expressed reference genes for accurate gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies in mice. We found that Gapdh, Polr2a and Actb display high expression variability in mouse myocardial infarction tissues and that loss of statistical power and increase in sample size are the evident consequences of choosing suboptimal combinations of reference genes. We furthermore caution against the use of Gapdh, Polr2a, Actb, B2m and Eef1a1 for gene expression normalization in myocardial infarction studies because of selective up- or downregulation after myocardial infarction, which could potentially lead to biased study outcomes. PMID:21858224

  1. Selection of reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction studies in purified B cells from B cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients.

    PubMed

    Valceckiene, Vilma; Kontenyte, Rima; Jakubauskas, Arturas; Griskevicius, Laimonas

    2010-11-01

    The clinical heterogeneity of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) makes it necessary to identify potent prognostic indicators to predict individual clinical course and select risk-adapted therapy. In recent years, numerous gene expression models have been suggested as prognostic factors of B-CLL. Today, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a preferred method for rapid quantification of gene expression and validation of microarray data. The reliability of qPCR data is highly dependent on the use of appropriate reference genes for normalization. To date, no validated reference genes have been reported for the normalization of gene expression in B-CLL. Therefore, the present study was conducted to identify suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in CD19(+) B cells isolated from B-CLL patients' peripheral blood. The stability of ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, MRPL19, TBP and UBC genes was determined by three different descriptive statistics, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper-1, which produced highly comparable results. Based on our results, B2M, HPRT1, and GUSB were found to be the most suitable reference genes for qPCR studies in B-CLL patients' peripheral blood B cells. PMID:20813001

  2. Nitrogen starvation, salt and heat stress in coffee (Coffea arabica L.): identification and validation of new genes for qPCR normalization.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kenia; Bespalhok Filho, João Carlos; dos Santos, Tiago Benedito; de Souza, Silvia Graciele Hülse; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves; Pereira, Luis Filipe Protasio; Domingues, Douglas Silva

    2013-03-01

    Abiotic stresses are among the most important factors that affect food production. One important step to face these environmental challenges is the transcriptional modulation. Quantitative real-time PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method for the detection of mRNAs and it has become a powerful tool to mitigate plant stress tolerance; however, suitable reference genes are required for data normalization. Reference genes for coffee plants during nitrogen starvation, salinity and heat stress have not yet been reported. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes using geNorm PLUS, NormFinder, and BestKeeper softwares, in plants submitted to nitrogen starvation, salt and heat stress. EF1, EF1?, GAPDH, MDH, and UBQ10 were ranked as the most stable genes in all stresses and software analyses, while RPL39 and RPII were classified as the less reliable references. For reference gene validation, the transcriptional pattern of a Coffea non-symbiotic hemoglobin (CaHb1) was analyzed using the two new recommended and the most unstable gene references for normalization. The most unstable gene may lead to incorrect interpretation of CaHb1 transcriptional analysis. Here, we recommend two new reference genes in Coffea for use in data normalization in abiotic stresses: MDH and EF1. PMID:22421886

  3. Evaluation of coffee reference genes for relative expression studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fernanda Cruz; Samara Kalaoun; Paula Nobile; Carlos Colombo; Juliana Almeida; Leila M. G. Barros; Eduardo Romano; Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sá; Maité Vaslin; Marcio Alves-Ferreira

    2009-01-01

    Accuracy in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) requires the use of stable endogenous controls. Normalization\\u000a with multiple reference genes is the gold standard, but their identification is a laborious task, especially in species with\\u000a limited sequence information. Coffee (Coffea ssp.) is an important agricultural commodity and, due to its economic relevance, is the subject of increasing research in\\u000a genetics

  4. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in the dentate gyrus after experimental febrile seizures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a commonly used technique to quantify gene expression levels. Validated normalization is essential to obtain reliable qPCR data. In that context, normalizing to multiple reference genes has become the most popular method. However, expression of reference genes may vary per tissue type, developmental stage and in response to experimental treatment. It is therefore imperative to determine stable reference genes for a specific sample set and experimental model. The present study was designed to validate potential reference genes in hippocampal tissue from rats that had experienced early-life febrile seizures (FS). To this end, we applied an established model in which FS were evoked by exposing 10-day old rat pups to heated air. One week later, we determined the expression stability of seven frequently used reference genes in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Results Gene expression stability of 18S rRNA, ActB, GusB, Arbp, Tbp, CycA and Rpl13A was tested using geNorm and Normfinder software. The ranking order of reference genes proposed by geNorm was not identical to that suggested by Normfinder. However, both algorithms indicated CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp as the most stable genes, whereas 18S rRNA and ActB were found to be the least stably expressed genes. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that the geometric averaging of at least CycA, Rpl13A and Tbp allows reliable interpretation of gene expression data in this experimental set-up. The results also show that ActB and 18S rRNA are not suited as reference genes in this model. PMID:23237195

  5. Widespread expression of SAA and Hp RNA in bovine tissues after evaluation of suitable reference genes.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Dilda, Francesca; Sartorelli, Paola; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2012-01-15

    The serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are the most prominent acute phase proteins (APPs) in cow. Liver mainly produces APPs, but extra hepatic expression has also been demonstrated in some tissues. The major aim of the present study was to assess the constitutive SAA and Hp mRNA expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in a wide panel of 33 bovine tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urogenital system, mammary gland, hematopoietic system, central nervous system, eye, thyroid and heart. Normalization of gene expression in different samples requires reference genes, which are stably expressed. Therefore, seven reference genes were investigated (ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, SDHA, YWHAZ, SF3A1, EEF1A2) and three genes, namely SF3A1, HMBS and ACTB, were selected after assessing their stability with geNorm™ and NormFinder(©) softwares. The qPCR analysis confirmed liver as the principal source of SAA and Hp, but also identified both APPs' mRNA in almost all tissues. The highest expression rate of SAA was found in thyroid, followed by pancreas and submandibulary gland. Hp mRNA expression was detected at high concentration in pancreas and submandibulary gland. The present data indicated a widespread expression of SAA and Hp also in non pathological conditions, thus envisaging a possible role as immunomodulatory and protective molecules. To understand where SAA and Hp come from is the prerequisite to their utilization as Acute Phase Reaction biomarkers. PMID:22230385

  6. Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time PCR of Reproductive System in the Black Tiger Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Leelatanawit, Rungnapa; Klanchui, Amornpan; Uawisetwathana, Umaporn; Karoonuthaisiri, Nitsara

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression of reproductive system of the black tiger shrimp (Peneaus monodon) has been widely studied to address poor maturation problem in captivity. However, a systematic evaluation of reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for P. monodon reproductive organs is lacking. In this study, the stability of four potential reference genes (18s rRNA, GAPDH, ?-actin, and EF1-?) was examined in the reproductive tissues in various conditions using bioinformatic tools: NormFinder and geNorm. For NormFinder, EF1-? and GAPDH ranked first and second as the most stable genes in testis groups whereas GAPDH and EF1-? were for ovaries from wild-caught broodstock and domesticated groups. EF1-? and ?-actin ranked first and second for the eyestalk ablated ovaries. For geNorm, EF1-? and GAPDH had the best stability in all testis and ovaries from domesticated groups whereas EF1-? and ?-actin were the best for ovaries from wild-caught and eyestalk ablated groups. Moreover, the expression levels of two well-known reproductive genes, Dmc1 and Vitellogenin, were used to validate these reference genes. When normalized to EF1-?, the expected expression patterns were obtained in all cases. Therefore, this work suggests that EF1-? is more versatile as reference genes in qPCR analysis for reproductive system in P. monodon. PMID:23285145

  7. Rapid and simple method of qPCR primer design.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Brenda; Basu, Chhandak

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful tool for analysis and quantification of gene expression. It is advantageous compared to traditional gel-based method of PCR, as gene expression can be visualized "real-time" using a computer. In qPCR, a reporter dye system is used which intercalates with DNA's region of interest and detects DNA amplification. Some of the popular reporter systems used in qPCR are the following: Molecular Beacon(®), SYBR Green(®), and Taqman(®). However, success of qPCR depends on the optimal primers used. Some of the considerations for primer design are the following: GC content, primer self-dimer, or secondary structure formation. Freely available software could be used for ideal qPCR primer design. Here we have shown how to use some freely available web-based software programs (such as Primerquest(®), Unafold(®), and Beacon designer(®)) to design qPCR primers. PMID:25697660

  8. Reference gene selection for real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction normalization in "Swingle" citrumelo under drought stress.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, K; de Campos, M K F; Pereira, L F P; Vieira, L G E

    2010-07-15

    We describe the first systematic evaluation of reference genes for use in real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for water deficit stress studies in the citrus rootstock "Swingle" citrumelo. The expression levels of seven reference genes-cyclophilin (CYP), cathepsin (CtP), actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1alpha (EF1alpha), beta-tubulin (TUB), and ADP ribosylation factor (ADP)-during drought stress were tested using geNorm and NormFinder programs. Results from four experimental conditions indicated that EF1alpha and ADP were the most stable reference genes. Relative expression levels of Delta1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) was used for reference gene validation. PMID:20363209

  9. Reference gene screening for analyzing gene expression across goat tissue.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Xing; Li, Yun-Sheng; Ding, Jian-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Zhang, Yun-Hai

    2013-12-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is one of the important methods for investigating the changes in mRNA expression levels in cells and tissues. Selection of the proper reference genes is very important when calibrating the results of real-time quantitative PCR. Studies on the selection of reference genes in goat tissues are limited, despite the economic importance of their meat and dairy products. We used real-time quantitative PCR to detect the expression levels of eight reference gene candidates (18S, TBP, HMBS, YWHAZ, ACTB, HPRT1, GAPDH and EEF1A2) in ten tissues types sourced from Boer goats. The optimal reference gene combination was selected according to the results determined by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper software packages. The analyses showed that tissue is an important variability factor in genes expression stability. When all tissues were considered, 18S, TBP and HMBS is the optimal reference combination for calibrating quantitative PCR analysis of gene expression from goat tissues. Dividing data set by tissues, ACTB was the most stable in stomach, small intestine and ovary, 18S in heart and spleen, HMBS in uterus and lung, TBP in liver, HPRT1 in kidney and GAPDH in muscle. Overall, this study provided valuable information about the goat reference genes that can be used in order to perform a proper normalisation when relative quantification by qRT-PCR studies is undertaken. PMID:25049756

  10. Identification of appropriate reference genes for human mesenchymal stem cell analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Xuan, Yali; Wang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Normalization to a reference gene is the method of choice for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stability of reference genes is critical for accurate experimental results and conclusions. We have evaluated the expression stability of eight commonly used reference genes found in four different human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we show that beta-2-microglobulin and peptidyl-prolylisomerase A were the optimal reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data obtained from MSC, whereas the TATA box binding protein was not suitable due to its extensive variability in expression. Our findings emphasize the significance of validating reference genes for qPCR analyses. We offer a short list of reference genes to use for normalization and recommend some commercially-available software programs as a rapid approach to validate reference genes. We also demonstrate that the two reference genes, ?-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are frequently used are not always successful in many cases. PMID:25179824

  11. The Use of Laser Microdissection in the Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Human FFPE Epithelial Ovarian Tissue Samples

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene. PMID:24776823

  12. Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping gene have been carried on plants. Therefore qPCR studies on important crops such as cotton has been hampered by the lack of suitable reference genes. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, implemented by geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed the gene expression of nine candidate reference genes in cotton: GhACT4, GhEF1?5, GhFBX6, GhPP2A1, GhMZA, GhPTB, GhGAPC2, Gh?TUB3 and GhUBQ14. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in 23 experimental samples consisting of six distinct plant organs, eight stages of flower development, four stages of fruit development and in flower verticils. The expression of GhPP2A1 and GhUBQ14 genes were the most stable across all samples and also when distinct plants organs are examined. GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 present more stable expression during flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 in the floral verticils and GhMZA and GhPTB during fruit development. Our analysis provided the most suitable combination of reference genes for each experimental set tested as internal control for reliable qPCR data normalization. In addition, to illustrate the use of cotton reference genes we checked the expression of two cotton MADS-box genes in distinct plant and floral organs and also during flower development. Conclusion We have tested the expression stabilities of nine candidate genes in a set of 23 tissue samples from cotton plants divided into five different experimental sets. As a result of this evaluation, we recommend the use of GhUBQ14 and GhPP2A1 housekeeping genes as superior references for normalization of gene expression measures in different cotton plant organs; GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 for flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 for the floral organs and GhMZA and GhPTB for fruit development. We also provide the primer sequences whose performance in qPCR experiments is demonstrated. These genes will enable more accurate and reliable normalization of qPCR results for gene expression studies in this important crop, the major source of natural fiber and also an important source of edible oil. The use of bona fide reference genes allowed a detailed and accurate characterization of the temporal and spatial expression pattern of two MADS-box genes in cotton. PMID:20302670

  13. Identification of cell-specific patterns of reference gene stability in quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies of embryonic, placental and neural stem models of prenatal ethanol exposure.

    PubMed

    Carnahan, Mindy N; Veazey, Kylee J; Muller, Daria; Tingling, Joseph D; Miranda, Rajesh C; Golding, Michael C

    2013-03-01

    Identification of the transcriptional networks disrupted by prenatal ethanol exposure remains a core requirement to better understanding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis. In this regard, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has emerged as an essential technique in our efforts to characterize alterations in gene expression brought on by exposure to alcohol. However, many publications continue to report the utilization of inappropriate methods of qPCR normalization, and for many in vitro models, no consistent set of empirically tested normalization controls have been identified. In the present study, we sought to identify a group of candidate reference genes for use within studies of alcohol exposed embryonic, placental, and neurosphere stem cells under both conditions maintaining stemness as well as throughout in vitro differentiation. To this end, we surveyed the recent literature and compiled a short list of fourteen candidate genes commonly used as normalization controls in qPCR studies of gene expression. This list included: Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Gusb, H2afz, Hk2, Hmbs, Hprt, Mrpl1, Pgk1, Ppia, Sdha, Tbp, and Ywhaz. From these studies, we find no single candidate gene was consistently refractory to the influence of alcohol nor completely stable throughout in vitro differentiation. Accordingly, we propose normalizing qPCR measurements to the geometric mean C(T) values obtained for three independent reference mRNAs as a reliable method to accurately interpret qPCR data and assess alterations in gene expression within alcohol treated cultures. Highlighting the importance of careful and empirical reference gene selection, the commonly used reference gene Actb was often amongst the least stable candidate genes tested. In fact, it would not serve as a valid normalization control in many cases. Data presented here will aid in the design of future experiments using stem cells to study the transcriptional processes driving differentiation, and model the developmental impact of teratogens. PMID:23317542

  14. A new reliable reference gene UBA52 for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in pyloric cecal tissues of the starfish Asterias rubens.

    PubMed

    Sadritdinova, A F; Dmitriev, A A; Snezhkina, A V; Belenikin, M S; Krasnov, G S; Manylov, O G; Kudryavtsev, A A; Melnikova, N V; Speranskaya, A S; Darii, M V; Lakunina, V A; Uroshlev, L A; Smurov, A O; Stepanov, O A; Kudryavtseva, A V

    2014-01-01

    The starfish Asterias rubens is one of the most abundant echinoderm species in the White, Barents, North, and Baltic Seas. This species is an important component of marine ecosystems and a model object for certain biological studies, in particular those requiring quantitative estimation of gene expression. As a rule, expression at the transcriptional level is estimated by real-time qPCR using the ??Ct method, which allows the comparison of the copy number of target gene transcripts in samples with unknown mRNA/cDNA concentration. Application of this method requires normalization of the results relative to genes with stable expression levels (reference genes). The identification of reference genes is still a challenging task since data of this kind are missing for certain taxa, whereas the use of "standard" endogenous control genes without additional tests might lead to erroneous conclusions. We performed a preliminary analysis of the expression of many housekeeping genes in the pyloric ceca of A. rubens by high-throughput sequencing under normal and heat shock conditions. For one of them, the ubiquitin gene UBA52, low variation of expression (not greater than 2-fold) was shown using real-time qPCR. Tissues of pyloric ceca of normal adults and underyearlings and of adults after heat shock were used. The data obtained suggest that the UBA52 gene may be used as reference for normalization of gene expression at the mRNA level in the starfish A. rubens and probably in closely related species. PMID:24938608

  15. Identification of Endogenous Reference Genes for the Analysis of microRNA Expression in the Hippocampus of the Pilocarpine-Induced Model of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    de Araújo, Mykaella Andrade; Marques, Thalita Ewellyn Batista Sales; Taniele-Silva, Jamile; Souza, Fernanda Maria de Araújo; de Andrade, Tiago Gomes; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Paçó-Larson, Maria Luisa; Gitaí, Daniel Leite Góes

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qPCR) is one of the most powerful techniques for analyzing miRNA expression because of its sensitivity and specificity. However, in this type of analysis, a suitable normalizer is required to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by the experimental condition. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reported studies that performed a detailed identification and validation of suitable reference genes for miRNA qPCR during the epileptogenic process. Here, using a pilocarpine (PILO) model of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), we investigated five potential reference genes, performing a stability expression analysis using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. As a validation strategy, we used each one of the candidate reference genes to measure PILO-induced changes in microRNA-146a levels, a gene whose expression pattern variation in the PILO injected model is known. Our results indicated U6SnRNA and SnoRNA as the most stable candidate reference genes. By geNorm analysis, the normalization factor should preferably contain at least two of the best candidate reference genes (snoRNA and U6SnRNA). In fact, when normalized using the best combination of reference genes, microRNA-146a transcripts were found to be significantly increased in chronic stage, which is consistent with the pattern reported in different models. Conversely, when reference genes were individually employed for normalization, we failed to detect up-regulation of the microRNA-146a gene in the hippocampus of epileptic rats. The data presented here support that the combination of snoRNA and U6SnRNA was the minimum necessary for an accurate normalization of gene expression at the different stages of epileptogenesis that we tested. PMID:24964029

  16. Combining qPCR and functional gene microarrays to directly link changes in the expression of the nirS gene to denitrification rates in aquatic sediment mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, J. L.; Babbin, A. R.; Ward, B. B.

    2010-12-01

    Molecular methods for the investigation of biogeochemical processes, including denitrification, are being developed at an astonishing rate, but it remains difficult to use the molecular information to understand the regulation and variation in biogeochemical transformation rates. By combining information on gene abundance and expression for nirS, a key gene in denitrification, with quantitative modeling of nitrogen fluxes, we can begin to understand the scales on which genetic signals vary in space and time, and how they relate to biogeochemical function. We used quantitative PCR, a functional gene microarray, and biogeochemical modeling to assess how denitrifier community composition (evaluated by DNA and cDNA of the nirS gene) changed over time in estuarine sediment mesocosms. Sediments and water were collected from coastal Massachusetts and maintained in replicated 20 L mesocosm experiments for 45 days. Sediments were collected for microbial analysis at weekly intervals throughout the experiment. Concentrations of all major nitrogen species were measured daily and used to derive rates of nitrification and denitrification from a Monte Carlo-based nonnegative least-squares analysis of finite difference equations. Denitrification rates peaked between day 18 and day 22, slightly after the peaks in nitrite concentration that were generated from oxidization of remineralized ammonium. In most mesocosms the peak in denitrification rates coincided with the peak in nirS gene abundance (DNA). Peaks in the expression of the nirS gene (cDNA), however, did not always correlate with peaks in the denitrification rates. The nirS microarray contained 39 archetype probes, three of which accounted for more than 60% of the DNA hybridization signal. Two of these clades also dominated the hybridization signal in cDNA, indicating that those organisms that are actively expressing nirS are not always the dominant members of the community. Fifteen of the 39 probes accounted for less than 1% of the hybridization signal, but the number of probes that accounted for more than 1% of the DNA hybridization signal decreased during the mesocosm experiments while the number of probes with significant cDNA hybridization signals increased through the experiment. This suggests that as nitrate supply became more available a greater diversity of denitrifiers were able to upregulate their gene expression and actively engage in denitrification. Among the clades that represented more than 60% of the hybridization signal in either the DNA or the cDNA, none are available in pure culture so nothing is known of their ecology or physiology. This approach provides a powerful way to examine the fine-scale connections between nirS gene abundance and expression and the biogeochemical fluxes that result.

  17. Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao-Shuang; Yang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Wood, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. (E. songoricum) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Es?-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species. PMID:22837673

  18. Identification of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis of microRNAs and mRNAs in barley under various stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Ferdous, Jannatul; Li, Yuan; Reid, Nicolas; Langridge, Peter; Shi, Bu-Jun; Tricker, Penny J

    2015-01-01

    For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), the selection of appropriate reference genes as an internal control for normalization is crucial. We hypothesized that non-coding, small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) would be stably expressed in different barley varieties and under different experimental treatments, in different tissues and at different developmental stages of plant growth and therefore might prove to be suitable reference genes for expression analysis of both microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs. In this study, we examined the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in six barley genotypes under five experimental stresses, drought, fungal infection, boron toxicity, nutrient deficiency and salinity. We compared four commonly used housekeeping genes; Actin (ACT), alpha-Tubulin (?-TUB), Glycolytic glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ADP-ribosylation factor 1-like protein (ADP), four snoRNAs; (U18, U61, snoR14 and snoR23) and two microRNAs (miR168, miR159) as candidate reference genes. We found that ADP, snoR14 and snoR23 were ranked as the best of these candidates across diverse samples. Additionally, we found that miR168 was a suitable reference gene for expression analysis in barley. Finally, we validated the performance of our stable and unstable candidate reference genes for both mRNA and miRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress conditions and demonstrated the superiority of the stable candidates. Our data demonstrate the suitability of barley snoRNAs and miRNAs as potential reference genes for miRNA and mRNA qPCR data normalization under different stress treatments. PMID:25793505

  19. Careful Selection of Reference Genes Is Required for Reliable Performance of RT-qPCR in Human Normal and Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Francis; Guertler, Rea; Naim, Stephanie; Nixdorf, Sheri; Fedier, André; Hacker, Neville F.; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Reverse Transcription - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories. The selection of reference genes is essential for data normalization and the selection of suitable reference genes remains critical. Our aim was to 1) review the literature since implementation of the MIQE guidelines in order to identify the degree of acceptance; 2) compare various algorithms in their expression stability; 3) identify a set of suitable and most reliable reference genes for a variety of human cancer cell lines. A PubMed database review was performed and publications since 2009 were selected. Twelve putative reference genes were profiled in normal and various cancer cell lines (n?=?25) using 2-step RT-qPCR. Investigated reference genes were ranked according to their expression stability by five algorithms (geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, comparative ?Ct, and RefFinder). Our review revealed 37 publications, with two thirds patient samples and one third cell lines. qPCR efficiency was given in 68.4% of all publications, but only 28.9% of all studies provided RNA/cDNA amount and standard curves. GeNorm and Normfinder algorithms were used in 60.5% in combination. In our selection of 25 cancer cell lines, we identified HSPCB, RRN18S, and RPS13 as the most stable expressed reference genes. In the subset of ovarian cancer cell lines, the reference genes were PPIA, RPS13 and SDHA, clearly demonstrating the necessity to select genes depending on the research focus. Moreover, a cohort of at least three suitable reference genes needs to be established in advance to the experiments, according to the guidelines. For establishing a set of reference genes for gene normalization we recommend the use of ideally three reference genes selected by at least three stability algorithms. The unfortunate lack of compliance to the MIQE guidelines reflects that these need to be further established in the research community. PMID:23554992

  20. Careful selection of reference genes is required for reliable performance of RT-qPCR in human normal and cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Francis; Guertler, Rea; Naim, Stephanie; Nixdorf, Sheri; Fedier, André; Hacker, Neville F; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola

    2013-01-01

    Reverse Transcription - quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-qPCR) is a standard technique in most laboratories. The selection of reference genes is essential for data normalization and the selection of suitable reference genes remains critical. Our aim was to 1) review the literature since implementation of the MIQE guidelines in order to identify the degree of acceptance; 2) compare various algorithms in their expression stability; 3) identify a set of suitable and most reliable reference genes for a variety of human cancer cell lines. A PubMed database review was performed and publications since 2009 were selected. Twelve putative reference genes were profiled in normal and various cancer cell lines (n = 25) using 2-step RT-qPCR. Investigated reference genes were ranked according to their expression stability by five algorithms (geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, comparative ?Ct, and RefFinder). Our review revealed 37 publications, with two thirds patient samples and one third cell lines. qPCR efficiency was given in 68.4% of all publications, but only 28.9% of all studies provided RNA/cDNA amount and standard curves. GeNorm and Normfinder algorithms were used in 60.5% in combination. In our selection of 25 cancer cell lines, we identified HSPCB, RRN18S, and RPS13 as the most stable expressed reference genes. In the subset of ovarian cancer cell lines, the reference genes were PPIA, RPS13 and SDHA, clearly demonstrating the necessity to select genes depending on the research focus. Moreover, a cohort of at least three suitable reference genes needs to be established in advance to the experiments, according to the guidelines. For establishing a set of reference genes for gene normalization we recommend the use of ideally three reference genes selected by at least three stability algorithms. The unfortunate lack of compliance to the MIQE guidelines reflects that these need to be further established in the research community. PMID:23554992

  1. Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection

    E-print Network

    Levin, Judith G.

    Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection Garth Brown Craig Wallin Tatiana Tatusova Kim Pruitt Terence Murphy Donna Maglott Introduction Gene supplies gene. Unique identifiers are assigned to genes with defining sequences, genes with known map positions

  2. Identification of reference genes suitable for qRT-PCR in grapevine and application for the study of the expression of genes involved in pterostilbene synthesis.

    PubMed

    Gamm, Magdalena; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Kelloniemi, Jani; Poinssot, Benoît; Wendehenne, David; Adrian, Marielle

    2011-04-01

    The recent publication of the grapevine genome sequence facilitates the use of qRT-PCR to study gene expression changes. For this approach, reference genes are commonly used to normalize data and their stability of expression should be systematically validated. Among grapevine defenses is the production of the antimicrobial stilbenic phytoalexins, notably the highly fungitoxic pterostilbene, which plays a crucial role in grapevine interaction with Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea. As a resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) gene involved in pterostilbene synthesis was recently identified, we investigated the accumulation of the corresponding transcripts to those of two other stilbene biosynthesis related genes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and stilbene synthase (STS) in response to pathogen infection. Using three computer-based statistical methods and C(t) values or LRE method generated values as input data, we have first identified two reference genes (VATP16 and 60SRP) suitable for normalization of qPCR expression data obtained in grapevine leaves and berries infected by P. viticola and B. cinerea, respectively. Next, we have highlighted that the expression of ROMT is induced in P. viticola-infected leaves and also in B. cinerea-infected berries, confirming the involvement of pterostilbene in grapevine defenses. PMID:21340517

  3. Assessment of reference gene stability influenced by extremely divergent disease symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    PubMed

    Wieczorek, Przemys?aw; Wrzesi?ska, Barbara; Obr?palska-St?plowska, Aleksandra

    2013-12-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables of great worldwide economic value. The scientific importance of the vegetable results from the fact that the genome of S. lycopersicum has been sequenced. This allows researchers to study fundamental mechanisms playing an essential role during tomato development and response to environmental factors contributing significantly to cell metabolism alterations. Parallel with the development of contemporary genetics and the constant increase in sequencing data, progress has to be aligned with improvement of experimental methods used for studying genes functions and gene expression levels, of which the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is still the most reliable. As well as with other nucleic acid-based methods used for comparison of the abundance of specific RNAs, the RT-qPCR data have to be normalised to the levels of RNAs represented stably in a cell. To achieve the goal, the so-called housekeeping genes (i.e., RNAs encoding, for instance, proteins playing an important role in the cell metabolism or structure maintenance), are used for normalisation of the target gene expression data. However, a number of studies have indicated the transcriptional instability of commonly used reference genes analysed in different situations or conditions; for instance, the origin of cells, tissue types, or environmental or other experimental conditions. The expression of ten common housekeeping genes of S. lycopersicum, namely EF1?, TUB, CAC, EXP, RPL8, GAPDH, TBP, ACT, SAND and 18S rRNA were examined during viral infections of tomato. Changes in the expression levels of the genes were estimated by comparison of the non-inoculated tomato plants with those infected with commonly known tomato viral pathogens, Tomato torrado virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus, inducing a diverse range of disease symptoms on the common host, ranging from mild leaves chlorosis to very severe stem necrosis. It is emphasised that despite the wide range of diverse disease symptoms it is concluded that ACT, CAC and EF1? could be used as the most suitable reference genes in studies of host-virus interactions in tomato. PMID:23994079

  4. Selection of reference genes for normalisation of specific gene quantification data of Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Bohle, K; Jungebloud, A; Göcke, Y; Dalpiaz, A; Cordes, C; Horn, H; Hempel, D C

    2007-12-01

    Aspergillus niger is a widely used expression host for homologous and heterologous protein production in biotechnological processes. In order to increase product yields, a thorough optimisation of these cultivation processes is necessary. Considering mRNA as the key molecule, which transports the genetic information between DNA and protein production side, the quantification of product specific gene expression provides useful information about product formation already on the level of transcription. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool to obtain data about gene transcription. However, using this technique the choice of an appropriate reference system is a crucial aspect to provide optimal data normalisation. A prominent approach is the use of so called housekeeping genes as internal references. However, validation of the usability of these reference genes is the fundamental step before starting with qRT-PCR experiments. Adequate reference genes for A. niger have not been published so far. Therefore, 10 possible candidate genes from different functional classes were selected and their applicability as internal references validated. Transcript levels of these genes were compared in sets of 9, 41 and 19 samples from diverse cultivations of A. niger. Under the chosen experimental conditions, the genes act, sarA and cox5 have been identified as genes with the most stable gene expression. The three reference genes were used to normalise qRT-PCR data for glaA gene expression which showed a high correlation with glucoamylase production in continuous cultivations. PMID:17868942

  5. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes in a Rat Model of Extended Liver Resection

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Wei; Deng, Meihong; Zhang, Jinyan; Huang, Hai; Dirsch, Olaf; Dahmen, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Partial hepatectomy (PHx) is a frequently used experimental model for the study of liver regeneration. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the one of the methods of choice for expression profiling of selected genes in order to elucidate the regulation of liver function and regeneration. The expression of five commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs; Alb, UBC, Hprt, Ywhaz, and GAPDH) were evaluated by qPCR in 70% and 90% rat PHx model at 1, 2, and 7 d after PHx. We set up a closely controlled qPCR procedure validating each critical step and the gene expression stability was statistically evaluated by linear regression and analysis of variance. Our results showed the HKG best suited for the evaluation of gene expression in the extended 90% PHx model is Hprt. The amplification of an HKG can be omitted when the same amount of cDNA from all samples is introduced into the amplification reaction. Determination of cDNA concentration employing the bioanalyzer proved to be an easy and reproducible approach. Using this technique the potential regulation of the transcription level of the HKG in response to the experimental condition tested or the stability of a housekeeping gene becomes irrelevant. PMID:19503622

  6. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), ?-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology. PMID:26110539

  7. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of Shoulder Instability

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Carina; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC) in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially HPRT1 and B2M, is a reliable method for evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. PMID:25122470

  8. Expression of reference genes and T helper 17 associated cytokine genes in the equine intestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hjertner, Bernt; Olofsson, Karin M; Lindberg, Ronny; Fuxler, Lisbeth; Fossum, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence for the involvement of pro-inflammatory cytokines associated with a T helper 17 response in intestinal disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in humans. The involvement of interleukin (IL)-17 or IL-23 in equine IBD has not been studied and most gene expression studies in the equine intestine have been limited to the use of a single non-validated reference gene. In this study, expression of the reference gene candidates ?2 microglobulin (?2M), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone H2A type 1, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), 60S ribosomal protein L32 (RPL32), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA) and transferrin receptor 1 protein coding (TFRC)in the equine intestine was evaluated by quantitative PCR. Three to four reference genes were adequate for normalisation of gene expression in the healthy duodenum, mid-jejunum, colon and rectum, although each segment required a unique combination of reference genes. No combination of the evaluated genes was optimal for the caecum and ileum. Another combination of reference genes (GAPDH, HPRT, RPL32 and SDHA) was optimal for normalisation of rectal samples from healthy and IBD-affected horses, indicating that reference genes should be re-evaluated if material from diseased specimens is analysed. Basal expression of IL-12p40, IL-17A and IL-23p19 was detected in each segment, which will enable gene expression studies of these cytokines by relative quantification. PMID:23810185

  9. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Findings Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Conclusion Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation. PMID:24083672

  10. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses. PMID:25391499

  11. In search of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human renal cell carcinoma by real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Monika Jung; Azizbek Ramankulov; Jan Roigas; Manfred Johannsen; Martin Ringsdorf; Glen Kristiansen; Klaus Jung

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Housekeeping genes are commonly used as endogenous reference genes for the relative quantification of target genes in gene expression studies. No conclusive systematic study comparing the suitability of different candidate reference genes in clear cell renal cell carcinoma has been published to date. To remedy this situation, 10 housekeeping genes for normalizing purposes of RT-PCR measurements already recommended in

  12. Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the “gold standard” for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data. Results Here we undertook a systematic approach to identify highly stable miRNAs in different stress conditions such as low oxygen (hypoxia), UV-stress and high temperature (heat-stress) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We conducted genome-wide RNA-seq for small RNAs and selected abundant miRNAs with minimal variation of expression between the different conditions. We further validated the stable expression of a selection of those constitutively expressed candidates in the different stress conditions by SYBR Green qPCR. The selected miRNA candidates were analyzed for stability by applying the widely used geNorm logarithm. With this approach, we were able to successfully identify suitable reference miRNAs for each stress condition. Interestingly, we also found that 3 miRNAs, namely mir-2-5p, mir-46-3p and mir-47-3p, are stable in all the above-mentioned conditions suggesting that they might have general functions independent of stress. Conclusions Our analysis offers a comprehensive list of stably expressed miRNAs in different stress conditions that can be confidently used as reference miRNAs for qPCR analysis in C. elegans. PMID:24656064

  13. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in bovine muscular tissue

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Raquel; Tupac-Yupanqui, Isabel; Dunner, Susana

    2008-01-01

    Background Real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RTqPCR) is a technique used to measure mRNA species copy number as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. However, the expression level of these key genes may vary among tissues or cells not only as a consequence of differential expression but also due to different factors, including choice of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of the target genes; thus the selection of reference genes is critical for expression studies. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in bovine muscular tissue. Results The value of stability of ten candidate reference genes included in three groups was estimated: the so called 'classical housekeeping' genes (18S, GAPDH and ACTB), a second set of genes used in expression studies conducted on other tissues (B2M, RPII, UBC and HMBS) and a third set of novel genes (SF3A1, EEF1A2 and CASC3). Three different statistical algorithms were used to rank the genes by their stability measures as produced by geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. The three methods tend to agree on the most stably expressed genes and the least in muscular tissue. EEF1A2 and HMBS followed by SF3A1, ACTB, and CASC3 can be considered as stable reference genes, and B2M, RPII, UBC and GAPDH would not be appropriate. Although the rRNA-18S stability measure seems to be within the range of acceptance, its use is not recommended because its synthesis regulation is not representative of mRNA levels. Conclusion Based on geNorm algorithm, we propose the use of three genes SF3A1, EEF1A2 and HMBS as references for normalization of real-time RTqPCR in muscle expression studies. PMID:18786244

  14. Accuracy and sensitivity of residual DNA detection by QPCR is not predicted by target copy number.

    PubMed

    Verardo, Megan L; Carvalho, Juliane G; Delgado, Dora N; Kuhns, Scott T

    2012-01-01

    A major issue in the use of mammalian cell culture in biopharmaceutical manufacturing is the removal of process related impurities, such as residual host cell DNA, during the product purification process. To ensure that sufficient DNA removal is achieved during purification, it is essential to have an accurate and sensitive assay for host cell DNA. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) is widely used for this purpose; however, the extent to which the choice of QPCR gene target can have an impact on final results requires further understanding. In the present study, we examined the relationship between the genomic copy number of eight different Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) gene targets and the sensitivity and accuracy afforded by those targets in a residual host cell DNA QPCR assay. We also evaluated the use of each gene target for accurate measurement of residual DNA clearance using in-process purification samples from two CHO production cell lines. Our results revealed a correlation between gene target abundance and the potential sensitivity for use in a QPCR assay. However, we found that higher copy number gene targets do not provide the highest measurement or reveal the largest clearance of residual host cell DNA from purification samples. These findings suggest that different DNA sequences may clear or degrade at differential rates and highlight unexpected considerations that must be made in the choice of QPCR gene target when designing QPCR assays. PMID:22095674

  15. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    PubMed

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained. PMID:25637570

  16. A qPCR Assay to Detect and Quantify Shiga Toxin-Producing E. coli (STEC) in Cattle and on Farms: A Potential Predictive Tool for STEC Culture-Positive Farms

    PubMed Central

    Verstraete, Karen; Van Coillie, Els; Werbrouck, Hadewig; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Herman, Lieve; Del-Favero, Jurgen; De Rijk, Peter; De Zutter, Lieven; Joris, Maria-Adelheid; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Reu, Koen

    2014-01-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), of various serogroups harboring the intimin gene, form a serious threat to human health. They are asymptomatically carried by cattle. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was developed as a molecular method to detect and quantify Shiga toxin genes stx1 and stx2 and the intimin gene eae. Subsequently, 59 fecal samples from six farms were tested using qPCR and a culture method as a reference. Three farms had contaminated animals as demonstrated by the culture method. Culture-positive farms showed moderate significantly higher stx prevalences than culture-negative farms (p = 0.05). This is the first study which showed preliminary results that qPCR can predict STEC farm contamination, with a specificity of 77% and a sensitivity of 83%, as compared with the culture method. Furthermore, the presence or quantity of stx genes in feces was not correlated to the isolation of STEC from the individual animal. Quantitative data thus did not add value to the results. Finally, the detection of both stx and eae genes within the same fecal sample or farm using qPCR was not correlated with the isolation of an eae-harboring STEC strain from the respective sample or farm using the culture method. PMID:24681714

  17. A qPCR assay to detect and quantify Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) in cattle and on farms: a potential predictive tool for STEC culture-positive farms.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Karen; Van Coillie, Els; Werbrouck, Hadewig; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Herman, Lieve; Del-Favero, Jurgen; De Rijk, Peter; De Zutter, Lieven; Joris, Maria-Adelheid; Heyndrickx, Marc; De Reu, Koen

    2014-04-01

    Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), of various serogroups harboring the intimin gene, form a serious threat to human health. They are asymptomatically carried by cattle. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method was developed as a molecular method to detect and quantify Shiga toxin genes stx1 and stx2 and the intimin gene eae. Subsequently, 59 fecal samples from six farms were tested using qPCR and a culture method as a reference. Three farms had contaminated animals as demonstrated by the culture method. Culture-positive farms showed moderate significantly higher stx prevalences than culture-negative farms (p = 0.05). This is the first study which showed preliminary results that qPCR can predict STEC farm contamination, with a specificity of 77% and a sensitivity of 83%, as compared with the culture method. Furthermore, the presence or quantity of stx genes in feces was not correlated to the isolation of STEC from the individual animal. Quantitative data thus did not add value to the results. Finally, the detection of both stx and eae genes within the same fecal sample or farm using qPCR was not correlated with the isolation of an eae-harboring STEC strain from the respective sample or farm using the culture method. PMID:24681714

  18. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1?g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  19. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1?g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  20. Reliable reference gene selection for Cordyceps militaris gene expression studies under different developmental stages and media.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Yang, Tao; Liu, Guijun; Sun, Junde; Dong, Caihong

    2014-07-01

    Cordyceps militaris is considered a model organism for the study of Cordyceps species, which are highly prized in traditional Chinese medicine. Gene expression analysis has become more popular and important in studies of this fungus. Reference gene validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, actin, cox5, gpd, rpb1, tef1, try, tub, and ubi, were selected and their expression stability was evaluated in C. militaris samples using four algorithms, genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method. Three sets of samples, five different developmental stages cultured in wheat medium and pupae, and all the samples pool were included. The results showed that rpb1 was the best reference gene during all developmental stages examined, while the most common reference genes, actin and tub, were not suitable internal controls. Cox5 also performed poorly and was less stable in our analysis. The ranks of ubi and gpd were inconsistent in different sample sets by different methods. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection at different developmental stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in C. militaris gene expression analysis. PMID:24953133

  1. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in banana fruit under different experimental conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei ChenHai-ying; Hai-ying Zhong; Jian-fei Kuang; Jian-guo Li; Wang-jin Lu; Jian-ye Chen

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, but its\\u000a success depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Only a few studies on validation of\\u000a reference genes have been conducted in fruit trees and none in banana yet. In the present work, 20 candidate reference genes\\u000a were selected, and

  2. Reference gene selection for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Lallemant, Benjamin; Evrard, Alexandre; Combescure, Christophe; Chapuis, Heliette; Chambon, Guillaume; Raynal, Caroline; Reynaud, Christophe; Sabra, Omar; Joubert, Dominique; Hollande, Frédéric; Lallemant, Jean-Gabriel; Lumbroso, Serge; Brouillet, Jean-Paul

    2009-01-01

    Background It is no longer adequate to choose reference genes blindly. We present the first study that defines the suitability of 12 reference genes commonly used in cancer studies (ACT, ALAS, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, KALPHA, RPS18, RPL27, RPS29, SHAD and TBP) for the normalization of quantitative expression data in the field of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Results Raw expression levels were measured by RT-qPCR in HNSCC and normal matched mucosa of 46 patients. We analyzed the expression stability using geNorm and NormFinder and compared the expression levels between subgroups. In HNSCC and/or normal mucosa, the four best normalization genes were ALAS, GAPDH, RPS18 and SHAD and the most stable combination of two genes was GAPDH-SHAD. We recommend using KALPHA-TBP for the study of T1-T2 tumors, RPL27-SHAD for T3-T4 tumors, KALPHA-SHAD for N0 tumors, and ALAS-TBP for N+ tumors. ACT, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, KALPHA, RPS18, RPS29, SHAD and TBP were slightly misregulated (<1.7-fold) between tumor and normal mucosa but can be used for normalization, depending on the resolution required for the assay. Conclusion In the field of HNSCC, this study will guide researchers in selecting the most appropriate reference genes from among 12 potentially suitable reference genes, depending on the specific setting of their experiments. PMID:19650912

  3. Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-01-01

    To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

  4. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1?2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies. PMID:24057254

  5. Identification and testing of reference genes for Sesame gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Libin; Miao, Hongmei; Zhao, Ruihong; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Tide; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop. However, few sesame reference genes have been selected for quantitative real-time PCR until now. Screening and validating reference genes is a requisite for gene expression normalization in sesame functional genomics research. In this study, ten candidate reference genes, i.e., SiACT, SiUBQ6, SiTUB, Si18S rRNA, SiEF1?, SiCYP, SiHistone, SiDNAJ, SiAPT and SiGAPDH, were chosen and examined systematically in 32 sesame samples. Three qRT-PCR analysis methods, i.e., geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were evaluated systematically. Results indicated that all ten candidate reference genes could be used as reference genes in sesame. SiUBQ6 and SiAPT were the optimal reference genes for sesame plant development; SiTUB was suitable for sesame vegetative tissue development, SiDNAJ for pathogen treatment, SiHistone for abiotic stress, SiUBQ6 for bud development and SiACT for seed germination. As for hormone treatment and seed development, SiHistone, SiCYP, SiDNAJ or SiUBQ6, as well as SiACT, SiDNAJ, SiTUB or SiAPT, could be used as reference gene, respectively. To illustrate the suitability of these reference genes, we analyzed the expression variation of three functional sesame genes of SiSS, SiLEA and SiGH in different organs using the optimal qRT-PCR system for the first time. The stability levels of optimal and worst reference genes screened for seed development, anther sterility and plant development were validated in the qRT-PCR normalization. Our results provided a reference gene application guideline for sesame gene expression characterization using qRT-PCR system. PMID:23229061

  6. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Mellerup, Anders; Ståhl, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  7. Sampling and Pooling Methods for Capturing Herd Level Antibiotic Resistance in Swine Feces using qPCR and CFU Approaches.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Gunilla Veslemøy; Mellerup, Anders; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Ståhl, Marie; Olsen, John Elmerdahl; Angen, Øystein

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to define the sampling level and method combination that captures antibiotic resistance at pig herd level utilizing qPCR antibiotic resistance gene quantification and culture-based quantification of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria. Fourteen qPCR assays for commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes were developed, and used to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA from swine fecal samples that were obtained using different sampling and pooling methods. In parallel, the number of antibiotic resistant coliform indicator bacteria was determined in the same swine fecal samples. The results showed that the qPCR assays were capable of detecting differences in antibiotic resistance levels in individual animals that the coliform bacteria colony forming units (CFU) could not. Also, the qPCR assays more accurately quantified antibiotic resistance genes when comparing individual sampling and pooling methods. qPCR on pooled samples was found to be a good representative for the general resistance level in a pig herd compared to the coliform CFU counts. It had significantly reduced relative standard deviations compared to coliform CFU counts in the same samples, and therefore differences in antibiotic resistance levels between samples were more readily detected. To our knowledge, this is the first study to describe sampling and pooling methods for qPCR quantification of antibiotic resistance genes in total DNA extracted from swine feces. PMID:26114765

  8. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Brassica juncea Using Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Chandna, Ruby; Augustine, Rehna; Bisht, Naveen C.

    2012-01-01

    The real time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is becoming increasingly important to gain insight into function of genes. Given the increased sensitivity, ease and reproducibility of qRT-PCR, the requirement of suitable reference genes for normalization has become important and stringent. It is now known that the expression of internal control genes in living organism vary considerably during developmental stages and under different experimental conditions. For economically important Brassica crops, only a couple of reference genes are reported till date. In this study, expression stability of 12 candidate reference genes including ACT2, ELFA, GAPDH, TUA, UBQ9 (traditional housekeeping genes), ACP, CAC, SNF, TIPS-41, TMD, TSB and ZNF (new candidate reference genes), in a diverse set of 49 tissue samples representing different developmental stages, stress and hormone treated conditions and cultivars of Brassica juncea has been validated. For the normalization of vegetative stages the ELFA, ACT2, CAC and TIPS-41 combination would be appropriate whereas TIPS-41 along with CAC would be suitable for normalization of reproductive stages. A combination of GAPDH, TUA, TIPS-41 and CAC were identified as the most suitable reference genes for total developmental stages. In various stress and hormone treated samples, UBQ9 and TIPS-41 had the most stable expression. Across five cultivars of B. juncea, the expression of CAC and TIPS-41 did not vary significantly and were identified as the most stably expressed reference genes. This study provides comprehensive information that the new reference genes selected herein performed better than the traditional housekeeping genes. The selection of most suitable reference genes depends on the experimental conditions, and is tissue and cultivar-specific. Further, to attain accuracy in the results more than one reference genes are necessary for normalization. PMID:22606308

  9. Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    PubMed Central

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (?-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1?) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, ?-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  10. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies using real-time PCR in tung tree during seed development.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiaojiao; Lu, Mengzhu; Chen, Yicun; Zhan, Zhiyong; Cui, Qinqin; Wang, Yangdong

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an accurate and widely used technique to analyze expression levels of selected genes. It is very necessary to select appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of 11 reference genes including eight traditional housekeeping genes and three novel genes in different tissues/organs and developing seeds from four cultivars of tung tree. All 11 reference genes showed a wide range of Ct values in all samples, indicating that they differently expressed. Three softwares--geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper--were used to determine the stability of these references except for ALB (2S albumin), which presented a little divergence. The results from the three softwares showed that ACT7 (Actin7a), UBQ (Ubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and EF1? (elongation factor 1-?) were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested tung samples and tung developing seeds, while ALB (2S albumin) was unsuitable as internal controls. ACT7, EF1? (elongation factor1-beta), GAPDH and TEF1 (transcription elongation factor 1) were the top four choices for different tissues/organs whereas LCR69 did not favor normalization of RT-qPCR in these tissues/organs. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of FAD2 and FADX were realized using stable reference genes. The relative quantification of the FAD2 and FADX genes varied according to the internal controls and the number of internal controls. The results further proved the importance of the choice of reference genes in the tung tree. These stable reference genes will be employed in normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future expression studies of tung genes. PMID:22912794

  11. Evaluation and identification of reliable reference genes for pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics, and small RNA expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dongliang; Pan, Xiaoping; Xiao, Peng; Farwell, Mary A; Zhang, Baohong

    2011-10-01

    Pharmacogenomics, toxicogenomics, and small RNA expression analysis are three of the most active research topics in the biological, biomedical, pharmaceutical, and toxicological fields. All of these studies are based on gene expression analysis, which requires reference genes to reduce the variations derived from different amounts of starting materials and different efficiencies of RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis. Thus, accurate normalization to one or several constitutively expressed reference genes is a prerequisite to valid gene expression studies. Although selection of reliable reference genes has been conducted in previous studies in several animals and plants, no research has been focused on pharmacological targets, and very few studies have had a toxicological context. More interestingly, no studies have been performed to identify reference genes for small RNA analysis although small RNA, particularly microRNA (miRNA)-related research is currently one of the fastest-moving topics. In this study, using MCF-7 breast cancer cells as a model, we employed quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), one of the most reliable methods for gene expression analysis in many research fields, to evaluate and to determine the most reliable reference genes for pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics studies as well as for small RNA expression analysis. We tested the transcriptional expression of five protein-coding genes as well as five non-coding genes in MCF-7 cells treated with five different pharmaceuticals or toxicants [paclitaxel (PTX), gossypol (GOS), methyl jasmonate (JAS), L-nicotine (NIC), and melamine (mela)] and analyzed the stability of the selected reference genes by four different methods: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method. According to our analysis, a protein-coding gene, hTBCA and four non-coding genes, hRNU44, hRNU48, hU6, and hRNU47, appear to be the most reliable reference genes for the five chemical treatments. Similar results were also obtained in dose-response and time-course assays with gossypol (GOS) treatment. Our results demonstrated that traditionally used reference genes, such as 18s RNA, ?-actin, and GAPDH, are not reliable reference genes for pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics studies. In contrast, hTBCA and small RNAs are more stable during drug treatment, and they are better reference genes for pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics studies. To widely use these genes as reference genes, these results should be corroborated by studies with other human cell lines and additional drugs classes and hormonal treatments. PMID:21412770

  12. Selection of valid reference genes for expression studies of hepatic cell lines under IFN-? treatment.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Atieh; Roohvand, Farzin; Ghahremani, Mohammad-Hossein

    2012-10-01

    The proper selection of reference genes to normalize the quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) results under particular experimental conditions is crucial for validation of the gene quantification data. Herein, using SYBR green RT-qPCR, five reference genes (GAPDH, ACTB, HMBS, HPRT-1 and TBP) were evaluated to determine the most stable reference genes in hepatic cell lines (Huh-7 and HepG(2)) under IFN-? treatment conditions. Analyses by geNorm program ranked GAPDH and HPRT-1 in Huh-7 and that of ACTB and HMBS in HepG(2) cells as the most stable reference genes under IFN-? treatment. While, same reference gene pairs were ranked by NormFinder program in Huh-7 cells, GAPDH was assessed as the most stable gene in HepG(2) group by this program, implying the importance of the employed algorithm in comparative interpretation of the data. Finally, cumulative analyses by one-way ANOVA, geNorm and NormFinder programs indicated that use of two reference genes (HMBS and GAPDH) in Huh-7 and three (HMBS, ACTB and GAPDH) in HepG(2) cells would greatly improve the normalization of the RT-qPCR data under IFN-?. Data presented in this paper will aid the selection of the most stable reference genes in RT-qPCR studies on evaluation of hepatic viral proteins and IFN pathway. PMID:22982679

  13. Identification of internal reference genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species. PMID:24675788

  14. Identification of Internal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization between the Two Sexes in Dioecious White Campion

    PubMed Central

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species. PMID:24675788

  15. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR in Caragana korshinskii Kom. under different stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Yin, Jiajia; Li, Gao; Qi, Liwang; Yang, Feiyun; Wang, Ruigang; Li, Guojing

    2014-01-01

    Caragana korshinskii Kom., which is widely distributed in the northwest China and Mongolia, is an important forage bush belonging to the legume family with high economic and ecological value. Strong tolerance ability to various stresses makes C. korshinskii Kom. a valuable species for plant stress research. In this study, suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened from 11 candidate reference genes, including ACT, GAPDH, EF1?, UBQ, TUA, CAP, TUB, TUB3, SKIP1, SKIP5-1 and SKIP5-2. A total of 129 samples under drought, heat, cold, salt, ABA and high pH treatment were profiled, and software such as geNORM, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used for reference gene evaluation and selection. Different suitable reference genes were selected under different stresses. Across all 129 samples, GAPDH, EF1? and SKIP5-1 were found to be the most stable reference genes, and EF1?+SKIP5-1 is the most stable reference gene combination. Conversely, TUA, TUB and SKIP1 were not suitable for using as reference genes owing to their great expression variation under some stress conditions. The relative expression levels of CkWRKY1 were detected using the stable and unstable reference genes and their applicability was confirmed. These results provide some stable reference genes and reference gene combinations for qRT-PCR under different stresses in C. korshinskii Kom. for future research work, and indicate that CkWRKY1 plays essential roles in response to stresses in C. korshinskii. PMID:24452712

  16. Expression profiles of the pluripotency marker gene POU5F1 and validation of reference genes in rabbit oocytes and preimplantation stage embryos

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solomon Mamo; Arpad Baji Gal; Zsuzsanna Polgar; Andras Dinnyes

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The surge in the number of gene expression studies and tendencies to increase the quality of analysis have necessitated the identification of stable reference genes. Although rabbits are classical experimental model animals, stable reference genes have not been identified for normalization. The aims of this study were to compare the expression profiles of the widely used reference genes in

  17. Quantification of E. coli O157 and STEC in feces of farm animals using direct multiplex real time PCR (qPCR) and a modified most probable number assay comprised of immunomagnetic bead separation and qPCR detection.

    PubMed

    Guy, Rebecca A; Tremblay, Donald; Beausoleil, Louise; Harel, Josée; Champagne, Marie-Josée

    2014-04-01

    To better understand Escherichia coli O157:H7 on-farm transmission dynamics requires sensitive methods for quantification of a broad range of concentrations of target organisms. For this purpose, a multiplex real time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed for quantification of O157 E. coli from 1g fecal samples of cattle and other animal species, targeting the Shiga toxin genes (stx1 and stx2) and the O157 somatic antigen gene, per. The multiplex qPCR assay provided specific detection across a broad range of bacterial concentrations with a lower limit of detection (LOD) of 10(1) genome copies which is equivalent to 10(1) bacteria. However, the LOD, when direct qPCR was applied to quantification of the targets in the feces of dairy cattle, was 10(3) genome copies per gram of feces. Enumeration below the threshold for direct qPCR was performed using a modified most probable number (mMPN) method whereby E. coli O157 in enriched samples was isolated using immunomagnetic bead separation (IMS) and detected using qPCR, thus reducing the time and logistic constraints of biochemical/serological/gel analysis. Application of the mMPN (IMS/qPCR) assay to samples that were negative when tested using direct qPCR alone permitted quantification of low levels of E. coli O157 below levels detectable with direct qPCR. The direct qPCR and mMPN (IMS/qPCR) assays were applied to fecal samples from dairy, beef, swine and poultry feces. This approach can be employed to gain a better understanding of the patterns of infection in animals for analysis of on-farm transmission dynamics, for evaluating the effects of on-farm control strategies and for risk assessment in public health. PMID:24530484

  18. Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in a Wide Cohort of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Chiara; Calza, Stefano; Todeschini, Paola; Tassi, Renata A.; Zanotti, Laura; Bandiera, Elisabetta; Sartori, Enrico; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella; Santin, Alessandro D.; Bignotti, Eliana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A) belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees. PMID:25473950

  19. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the ?-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was ?-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was ?-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 ? subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  20. Screening for Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Nanjing; Li, Ling; Lin, Lingxiao; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a globally distributed harmful alga that has been associated with fish kills in coastal waters. To understand the mechanisms of H. akashiwo bloom formation, gene expression analysis is often required. To accurately characterize the expression levels of a gene of interest, proper reference genes are essential. In this study, we assessed ten of the previously reported algal candidate genes (rpL17-2, rpL23, cox2, cal, tua, tub, ef1, 18S, gapdh, and mdh) for their suitability as reference genes in this species. We used qRT-PCR to quantify the expression levels of these genes in H. akashiwo grown under different temperatures, light intensities, nutrient concentrations, and time points over a diel cycle. The expression stability of these genes was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Although none of these genes exhibited invariable expression levels, cal, tub, rpL17-2 and rpL23 expression levels were the most stable across the different conditions tested. For further validation, these selected genes were used to normalize the expression levels of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (HrbcL) over a diel cycle. Results showed that the expression of HrbcL normalized against each of these reference genes was the highest at midday and lowest at midnight, similar to the diel patterns typically documented for this gene in algae. While the validated reference genes will be useful for future gene expression studies on H. akashiwo, we expect that the procedure used in this study may be helpful to future efforts to screen reference genes for other algae. PMID:26133173

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chunjie; Ma, Jinmin; Guo, Qirong; Li, Xiaotie; Wang, Hui; Lu, Mengzhu

    2013-01-01

    Background The Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the most important forestry resources and plays essential ecological roles in southern China. A draft nuclear genome sequence is expected to be publicly available in the near future; an explosion of gene expression data related to the unique traits of Moso bamboo will undoubtedly follow. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR ((RT-)qPCR) is a widely used method for gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. Result In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression levels were assessed by (RT-)qPCR in a set of six tissue samples (root, stem, mature stem, leaf, flower, and leaf sheath) and at two developmental stages (before and after flowering) in bamboo specimens obtained in three locations. The stability and suitability of the candidate reference genes were validated using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. The results showed that TIP41 and NTB were suitable reference genes across all the tissues and at the different developmental stages examined in this study. While the expression of the NTB, TIP41 and UBQ were the mostly stable in different plant tissues samples, the expression of the TIP41, NTB and CAC were ranked the most stable in bamboo plants at various developmental stages. AP2-like gene was further assessed by using the reference genes TIP41 and NTB in comparison to ACT. Significant difference of the expression profile of AP2-like demonstrated the importance of choosing adequate reference genes in bamboo. Conclusion TIP41 and NTB were found to be homogeneously expressed and were adequate for normalization purposes, showing equivalent transcript levels in different samples. They are therefore the recommended reference genes for measuring gene expression in P. edulis. PMID:23437174

  2. Identification of a Novel Reference Gene for Apple Transcriptional Profiling under Postharvest Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference—ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)—along with two novel candidates—HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest. PMID:25774904

  3. Identification and validation of reference genes for expression studies in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guoqiang; Yang, Kai; Lim, Qing 'en; Zhou, Lihan; He, Bei Ping; Wong, Hee Kit; Too, Heng-Phon

    2010-10-01

    Neuropathic pain is triggered by damage to or as a result of the dysfunction of the somatosensory nervous system. Gene expression profiling using DNA microarray and real-time PCR have emerged as powerful tools for the elucidation of pain-specific pathways and identification of candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Proper normalization of the gene expression data with stable reference genes is a prerequisite to obtaining accurate gene expression changes. We have evaluated the stability of six candidate reference genes which include three commonly used housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH and HMBS) and three ribosomal protein genes (RPL3, RPL19 and RPL29) using real-time PCR in a rat model of neuropathic pain. Unexpectedly, ACTB but not GAPDH was stably expressed. In addition, we have identified RPL29 and RPL3 as novel reference genes. Normalization of expression data using GAPDH or HMBS led to overestimation of transcriptional changes. Using RPL29/RPL3/ACTB as reference genes, a number of transcripts were found to be specifically and significantly regulated in injured dorsal root ganglia. These genes may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain pathology and may serve as candidate biomarkers for potential diagnosis. PMID:20804730

  4. Selection of suitable reference genes for expression analysis in human glioma using RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Grube, Susanne; Göttig, Tatjana; Freitag, Diana; Ewald, Christian; Kalff, Rolf; Walter, Jan

    2015-05-01

    In human glioma research, quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR is a frequently used tool. Considering the broad variation in the expression of candidate reference genes among tumor stages and normal brain, studies using quantitative RT-PCR require strict definition of adequate endogenous controls. This study aimed at testing a panel of nine reference genes [beta-2-microglobulin, cytochrome c-1 (CYC1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase, hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1, ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), succinate dehydrogenase, TATA-box binding protein and 14-3-3 protein zeta] to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for expression studies in human glioma of different grades (World Health Organization grades II-IV). After analysis of the stability values calculated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper algorithms, GAPDH, RPL13A, and CYC1 can be indicated as reference genes applicable for accurate normalization of gene expression in glioma compared with normal brain and anaplastic astrocytoma or glioblastoma alone within this experimental setting. Generally, there are no differences in expression levels and variability of candidate genes in glioma tissue compared to normal brain. But stability analyses revealed just a small number of genes suitable for normalization in each of the tumor subgroups and across these groups. Nevertheless, our data show the importance of validation of adequate reference genes prior to every study. PMID:25862007

  5. Validation of suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the halophyte Salicornia europaea by real-time quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xinlong; Ma, Jinbiao; Wang, Junru; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Pengbo; Yao, Yinan

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, ?-Tub (?-tubulin), ?-Tub (?-tubulin), EF1-? (Elongation factor 1-?), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and ?-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) ?-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions. PMID:25653658

  6. Identification of stable reference genes in differentiating human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Gustav; Ghosheh, Nidal; Zeng, Xianmin; Bogestål, Yalda; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Reference genes, often referred to as housekeeping genes (HKGs), are frequently used to normalize gene expression data based on the assumption that they are expressed at a constant level in the cells. However, several studies have shown that there may be a large variability in the gene expression levels of HKGs in various cell types. In a previous study, employing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) subjected to spontaneous differentiation, we observed that the expression of commonly used HKG varied to a degree that rendered them inappropriate to use as reference genes under those experimental settings. Here we present a substantially extended study of the HKG signature in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), including nine global gene expression datasets from both hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells, obtained during directed differentiation toward endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm derivatives. Sets of stably expressed genes were compiled, and a handful of genes (e.g., EID2, ZNF324B, CAPN10, and RABEP2) were identified as generally applicable reference genes in hPSCs across all cell lines and experimental conditions. The stability in gene expression profiles was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. Taken together, the current results suggest that differentiating hPSCs have a distinct HKG signature, which in some aspects is different from somatic cell types, and underscore the necessity to validate the stability of reference genes under the actual experimental setup used. In addition, the novel putative HKGs identified in this study can preferentially be used for normalization of gene expression data obtained from differentiating hPSCs. PMID:25852171

  7. SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels.

    PubMed

    Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine

    2013-11-01

    In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility evaluations of the seven SYBR®Green qPCR assays. Each detection level displayed a selectivity of 100 %. This combinatory SYBR®Green qPCR system was also compared with three commercially available Salmonella qPCR detection kits. This comparison highlighted the importance of using a multi-gene detection system to be able to detect every target strain, even those with deletion or mutation of important genes. PMID:24113820

  8. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

    2013-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ?Ct method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

  9. Critical selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression study in the HepaRG cell line.

    PubMed

    Ceelen, Liesbeth; De Spiegelaere, Ward; David, Michael; De Craene, Jurgen; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2011-05-15

    The human HepaRG cell line has shown to be a valuable in vitro tool for repeated exposure to chemical compounds and to evaluate their potential toxic outcome. Seen the importance given by the actual EU legislation of cosmetics and chemical substances to the use of in vitro methods in human safety evaluation, one can expect that HepaRG cells will gain importance as human-relevant cell source. At the transcriptional level, RT-qPCR assays are often used to obtain quantitative results. The choice of internal control is important since it may affect the study outcome. Indeed, it is well-known that expression levels of traditional reference genes can vary across tissue types and across experimental settings within one specific tissue type. From a review of the scientific literature, it appears that, for HepaRG cells, S18 often is used as internal control, but without any evidence of its expression stability in this cell line. Therefore, we aimed to select the most optimal reference genes for gene expression studies in HepaRG cells and to check whether S18 is a suitable reference gene. Twelve candidate genes' expression stability level was analyzed by three algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper, Normfinder), which identified the optimal single reference gene (TBP) and the most suitable set of reference genes (TBP, UBC, SDHA, RLP13, YHWAZ, HMBS, B2M and HPRT1) for HepaRG transcriptional profiling. This study provides a new set of reference genes that is suitable for testing whenever RT-qPCR data for HepaRG cells are generated. The most stable ones can then be selected for further normalization. PMID:21414303

  10. Evaluation and validation of housekeeping genes as reference for gene expression studies in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K; Suryanarayana, V; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, Rachit K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1?, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4?, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4? and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4? and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions. PMID:25849964

  11. Reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR data in gastric tissues and cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wisnieski, Fernanda; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; dos Santos, Leonardo Caires; Gigek, Carolina de Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; de Assumpção, Mônica Barauna; Demachki, Sâmia; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez; Smith, Marília de Arruda Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the suitability of reference genes in gastric tissue samples and cell lines. METHODS: The suitability of genes ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, RPL29, and 18S rRNA was assessed in 21 matched pairs of neoplastic and adjacent non-neoplastic gastric tissues from patients with gastric adenocarcinoma, 27 normal gastric tissues from patients without cancer, and 4 cell lines using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The ranking of the best single and combination of reference genes was determined by NormFinder, geNorm™, BestKeeper, and DataAssist™. In addition, GenEx software was used to determine the optimal number of reference genes. To validate the results, the mRNA expression of a target gene, DNMT1, was quantified using the different reference gene combinations suggested by the various software packages for normalization. RESULTS: ACTB was the best reference gene for all gastric tissues, cell lines and all gastric tissues plus cell lines. GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M was the best combination of reference genes for all the gastric tissues. On the other hand, ACTB + B2M was the best combination for all the cell lines tested and was also the best combination for analyses involving all the gastric tissues plus cell lines. According to the GenEx software, 2 or 3 genes were the optimal number of references genes for all the gastric tissues. The relative quantification of DNMT1 showed similar patterns when normalized by each combination of reference genes. The level of expression of DNMT1 in neoplastic, adjacent non-neoplastic and normal gastric tissues did not differ when these samples were normalized using GAPDH + B2M (P = 0.32), ACTB + B2M (P = 0.61), or GAPDH + B2M + ACTB (P = 0.44). CONCLUSION: GAPDH + B2M or ACTB + B2M is the best combination of reference gene for all the gastric tissues, and ACTB + B2M is the best combination for the cell lines tested. PMID:24222956

  12. New in-depth rainbow trout transcriptome reference and digital atlas of gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the rainbow trout genome is underway and a transcriptome reference sequence is required to help in genome assembly and gene discovery. Previously, we reported a transcriptome reference sequence using a 19X coverage of 454-pyrosequencing data. Although this work added a great wealth of ann...

  13. Immunome: A reference set of genes and proteins for systems biology of the human immune system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Csaba Ortutay; Mauno Vihinen

    2006-01-01

    The function of the immune system requires coordinated expression and action of many genes and proteins. With the emergence of high throughput technologies it has become possible to target human immunity from a systems biology point of view. To perform systems biology studies with comparable results we need not just a reference gene and protein set but also useful and

  14. Quantification of Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), tissues by qPCR.

    PubMed

    Orieux, N; Bourdineaud, J P; Douet, D-G; Daniel, P; Le Hénaff, M

    2011-11-01

    A qPCR assay was developed for rapid and sensitive detection of Flavobacterium psychrophilum, the aetiological agent of bacterial cold-water disease and rainbow trout fry syndrome in salmonid fish worldwide. A set of F. psychrophilum-specific primers based on 16S rRNA gene sequences was designed and validated for specific detection and quantification of DNA isolated from representative strains of F. psychrophilum. The qPCR assay exhibited a high specificity for the 16S rRNA gene of F. psychrophilum (from 4 × 10(8) down to 11 copies per reaction) but not for other Flavobacterium species or other bacteria including fish pathogens. This qPCR-based method proved to be useful in the quantification of the F. psychrophilum titre present within organs dissected out from diseased fish. As the F. psychrophilum genome contains six copies of the 16S rRNA gene, we could infer a limit of detection corresponding to two bacteria per reaction, corresponding to 800 bacteria per fish tissue sample, and therefore 20 F. psychrophilum cells mg(-1) of tissue (for sample weighing 40 mg). The qPCR assay reported here could be a useful tool for veterinary diagnostic laboratories to monitor the F. psychrophilum infection level in fish farms. PMID:21988353

  15. Tuber aestivum Vittad. mycelium quantified: advantages and limitations of a qPCR approach.

    PubMed

    Gryndler, Milan; Tril?ová, Jana; Hršelová, Hana; Streiblová, Eva; Gryndlerová, Hana; Jansa, Jan

    2013-07-01

    A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) marker Ta0 with hydrolysis probe ("TaqMan"), targeted to the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, has been developed for quantification of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) mycelium. Gene copy concentrations determined by the qPCR were calibrated against pure culture mycelium of T. aestivum, enabling quantification of the mycelium in soil and in host roots from the fields. Significant concentrations of the fungus were observed not only in the finest roots with ectomycorrhizae but also in other root types, indicating that the fungus is an important component of the microbial film at the root surface. The concentration of T. aestivum in soil is relatively high compared to other ectomycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate the reliability of the measurement of the soil mycelium density using qPCR, the steady basal extracellular concentration of the stabilized T. aestivum DNA should be known and taken into account. Therefore, we addressed the stability of the qPCR signal in soil subjected to different treatments. After the field soil was sieved, regardless of whether it was dried/rewetted or not, the T. aestivum DNA was quickly decomposed. It took just about 4 days to reach a steady concentration. This represents a conserved pool of T. aestivum DNA and determines detection limit of the qPCR quantification in our case. When the soil was autoclaved and recolonized by saprotrophic microorganisms, this conserved DNA pool was eliminated and the soil became free of T. aestivum DNA. PMID:23271632

  16. Impact of thawing on reference gene expression stability in renal cell carcinoma samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Dai, HuiLi; Kong, XianMing; Wang, LiMin

    2012-09-01

    More and more samples are obtained from biobanks for biomedical research; however, some of these samples may undergo thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the reference gene expression stability in thawed renal cell carcinoma samples. Sixteen matched malignant and nonmalignant renal tissue samples were obtained and each sample was divided into 4 aliquots before being snap frozen and stored at -80°C. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, a time-course study was conducted on the thawed tissue to evaluate the expression stability of a panel of the 10 most frequently used reference genes in renal cell carcinom samples: ACTB, ALAS1, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, PPIA, RPLP0,TBP, and TUBB. As shown by geNorm M values, PPIA was the most stable gene at the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute time points (M=0.82, 0.85, and 0.76, respectively), whereas GAPDH was ranked last at the 5-, 15-, and 30-minute time points (M=1.38, 1.44, and 1.39, respectively). A positive correlation was found by linear regression between the thawing time and 2 to the power of crossing point values of all candidate reference genes (P<0.05). The mean coefficient of variance of all reference genes increased significantly at time points 5, 15, and 30 minutes compared with 0 minutes (P<0.01). In conclusion, using the geNorm algorithm, PPIA was identified as the most stably expressed gene between malignant and nonmalignant renal tissue samples that were thawed for similar time periods. All the reference genes showed high variations along with the thawing time; it should be recommended to use a combination of several candidate reference genes when comparing samples thawed for different time periods. PMID:22847160

  17. Reference Gene Validation for RT-qPCR, a Note on Different Available Software Packages

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Dern-Wieloch, Jutta; Weigel, Roswitha; Schumacher, Valérie; Schorle, Hubert; Nettersheim, Daniel; Bergmann, Martin; Brehm, Ralph; Kliesch, Sabine; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Fink, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background An appropriate normalization strategy is crucial for data analysis from real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR). It is widely supported to identify and validate stable reference genes, since no single biological gene is stably expressed between cell types or within cells under different conditions. Different algorithms exist to validate optimal reference genes for normalization. Applying human cells, we here compare the three main methods to the online available RefFinder tool that integrates these algorithms along with R-based software packages which include the NormFinder and GeNorm algorithms. Results 14 candidate reference genes were assessed by RT-qPCR in two sample sets, i.e. a set of samples of human testicular tissue containing carcinoma in situ (CIS), and a set of samples from the human adult Sertoli cell line (FS1) either cultured alone or in co-culture with the seminoma like cell line (TCam-2) or with equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBM-MSC). Expression stabilities of the reference genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and least stably expressed genes. The R-based packages NormqPCR, SLqPCR and the NormFinder for R script gave identical gene rankings. Interestingly, different outputs were obtained between the original software packages and the RefFinder tool, which is based on raw Cq values for input. When the raw data were reanalysed assuming 100% efficiency for all genes, then the outputs of the original software packages were similar to the RefFinder software, indicating that RefFinder outputs may be biased because PCR efficiencies are not taken into account. Conclusions This report shows that assay efficiency is an important parameter for reference gene validation. New software tools that incorporate these algorithms should be carefully validated prior to use. PMID:25825906

  18. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection. PMID:19722561

  19. Allele diversity for abiotic stress responsive candidate genes in chickpea reference set using gene based SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Roorkiwal, Manish; Nayak, Spurthi N.; Thudi, Mahendar; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Brunel, Dominique; Mournet, Pierre; This, Dominique; Sharma, Prakash C.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2014-01-01

    Chickpea is an important food legume crop for the semi-arid regions, however, its productivity is adversely affected by various biotic and abiotic stresses. Identification of candidate genes associated with abiotic stress response will help breeding efforts aiming to enhance its productivity. With this objective, 10 abiotic stress responsive candidate genes were selected on the basis of prior knowledge of this complex trait. These 10 genes were subjected to allele specific sequencing across a chickpea reference set comprising 300 genotypes including 211 genotypes of chickpea mini core collection. A total of 1.3 Mbp sequence data were generated. Multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed 79 SNPs and 41 indels in nine genes while the CAP2 gene was found to be conserved across all the genotypes. Among 10 candidate genes, the maximum number of SNPs (34) was observed in abscisic acid stress and ripening (ASR) gene including 22 transitions, 11 transversions and one tri-allelic SNP. Nucleotide diversity varied from 0.0004 to 0.0029 while polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.01 (AKIN gene) to 0.43 (CAP2 promoter). Haplotype analysis revealed that alleles were represented by more than two haplotype blocks, except alleles of the CAP2 and sucrose synthase (SuSy) gene, where only one haplotype was identified. These genes can be used for association analysis and if validated, may be useful for enhancing abiotic stress, including drought tolerance, through molecular breeding. PMID:24926299

  20. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and ?-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (?8, ?6, ?4, ?2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

  1. Detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi using a triplex qPCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Katy; Barker, Colin; Harrison, Tihana; Heather, Zoe; Steward, Karen F.; Robinson, Carl; Newton, J. Richard; Waller, Andrew S.

    2013-01-01

    Genome sequencing data for Streptococcus equi subspecies equi and zooepidemicus were used to develop a novel diagnostic triplex quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay targeting two genes specific to S. equi (eqbE and SEQ2190) and a unique 100 base pair control DNA sequence (SZIC) inserted into the SZO07770 pseudogene of S. zooepidemicus strain H70. This triplex strangles qPCR assay can provide results within 2 h of sample receipt, has an overall sensitivity of 93.9% and specificity of 96.6% relative to the eqbE singlex assay and detects S. equi at levels below the threshold of the culture assay, even in the presence of contaminating bacteria. PMID:22884566

  2. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Clonostachys rosea 67-1 under sclerotial induction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Reference genes are important to precisely quantify gene expression by real-time PCR. In order to identify stable and reliable expressed genes in mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea in different modes of nutrition, seven commonly used housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, actin, ?-tubulin, elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, from the effective biocontrol isolate C. rosea 67-1 were tested for their expression under sclerotial induction and during vegetative growth on PDA medium. Analysis by three software programs showed that differences existed among the candidates. Elongation factor 1 was most stable; the M value in geNorm, SD value in Bestkeeper and stability value in Normfinder analysis were 0.405, 0.450 and 0.442, respectively, indicating that the gene elongation factor 1 could be used to normalize gene expression in C. rosea in both vegetative growth and parasitic process. By using elongation factor 1, the expression of a serine protease gene, sep, in different conditions was assessed, which was consistent with the transcriptomic data. This research provides an effective method to quantitate expression changes of target genes in C. rosea, and will assist in further investigation of parasitism-related genes of this fungus. PMID:25960431

  3. Investigating reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis across four chicken tissues.

    PubMed

    Bagés, S; Estany, J; Tor, M; Pena, R N

    2015-04-25

    Accurate normalization of data is required to correct for different efficiencies and errors during the processing of samples in reverse transcription PCR analysis. The chicken is one of the main livestock species and its genome was one of the first reported and used in large scale transcriptomic analysis. Despite this, the chicken has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the quantitative PCR analysis of growth and fattening genes. In this study, five candidate reference genes (B2M, RPL32, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in the two main commercial muscles (pectoralis major (breast) and biceps femoris (thigh)), liver and abdominal fat. Four statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, CV and BestKeeper) were used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes. Additionally, a comprehensive ranking was established with the RefFinder tool. This analysis identified YWHAZ and TBP as the recommended combination for the analysis of biceps femoris and liver, YWHAZ and RPL32 for pectoralis major and RPL32 and B2M for abdominal fat and across-tissue studies. The final ranking for each tool changed slightly but overall the results, and most particularly the ability to discard the least robust candidates, were consistent between tools. The selection and number of reference genes were validated using SCD, a target gene related to fat metabolism. Overall, the results can be directly used to quantitate target gene expression in different tissues or in validation studies from larger transcriptomic experiments. PMID:25680290

  4. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression in Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Various Sources along with Differentiation into Multilineages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Park, Ji-Sung; Lee, Seung-Chan; Baregundi Subbarao, Raghavendra; Lee, Sung-Lim; Park, Bong-Wook; King, William Allan; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The identification of stable reference genes is a prerequisite for ensuring accurate validation of gene expression, yet too little is known about stable reference genes of porcine MSCs. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess the stability of reference genes in porcine MSCs derived from bone marrow (BMSCs), adipose (AMSCs), and skin (SMSCs) with their in vitro differentiated cells into mesenchymal lineages such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Twelve commonly used reference genes were investigated for their threshold cycle (Ct) values by qRT-PCR. The Ct values of candidate reference genes were analyzed by geNorm software to clarify stable expression regardless of experimental conditions. Thus, Pearson's correlation was applied to determine correlation between the three most stable reference genes (NF3) and optimal number of reference genes (NFopt). In assessment of stability of reference gene across experimental conditions by geNorm analysis, undifferentiated MSCs and each differentiated status into mesenchymal lineages showed slightly different results but similar patterns about more or less stable rankings. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation revealed high correlation (r > 0.9) between NF3 and NFopt. Overall, the present study showed that HMBS, YWHAZ, SDHA, and TBP are suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR in porcine MSCs. PMID:25972899

  5. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression in Porcine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Various Sources along with Differentiation into Multilineages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Won-Jae; Jeon, Ryoung-Hoon; Jang, Si-Jung; Park, Ji-Sung; Lee, Seung-Chan; Baregundi Subbarao, Raghavendra; Lee, Sung-Lim; Park, Bong-Wook; King, William Allan; Rho, Gyu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The identification of stable reference genes is a prerequisite for ensuring accurate validation of gene expression, yet too little is known about stable reference genes of porcine MSCs. The present study was, therefore, conducted to assess the stability of reference genes in porcine MSCs derived from bone marrow (BMSCs), adipose (AMSCs), and skin (SMSCs) with their in vitro differentiated cells into mesenchymal lineages such as adipocytes, osteocytes, and chondrocytes. Twelve commonly used reference genes were investigated for their threshold cycle (Ct) values by qRT-PCR. The Ct values of candidate reference genes were analyzed by geNorm software to clarify stable expression regardless of experimental conditions. Thus, Pearson's correlation was applied to determine correlation between the three most stable reference genes (NF3) and optimal number of reference genes (NFopt). In assessment of stability of reference gene across experimental conditions by geNorm analysis, undifferentiated MSCs and each differentiated status into mesenchymal lineages showed slightly different results but similar patterns about more or less stable rankings. Furthermore, Pearson's correlation revealed high correlation (r > 0.9) between NF3 and NFopt. Overall, the present study showed that HMBS, YWHAZ, SDHA, and TBP are suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR in porcine MSCs. PMID:25972899

  6. Identification of TL-Om1, an adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) cell line, as reference material for quantitative PCR for human T-lymphotropic virus 1.

    PubMed

    Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Momose, Haruka; Mizukami, Takuo; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Sugamura, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

    2015-02-01

    Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold difference in their results. To standardize HTLV-1 qPCR, preparation of a well-defined reference material is needed. We analyzed the integrated HTLV-1 genome and the internal control (IC) genes of TL-Om1, a cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia, to confirm its suitability as a reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that HTLV-1 provirus was monoclonally integrated in chromosome 1 at the site of 1p13 in the TL-Om1 genome. HTLV-1 proviral genome was not transferred from TL-Om1 to an uninfected T-cell line, suggesting that the HTLV-1 proviral copy number in TL-Om1 cells is stable. To determine the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus and IC genes in TL-Om1 cells, we used FISH, digital PCR, and qPCR. HTLV-1 copy numbers obtained by these three methods were similar, suggesting that their results were accurate. Also, the ratio of the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus to one of the IC genes, RNase P, was consistent for all three methods. These findings indicate that TL-Om1 cells are an appropriate reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. PMID:25502533

  7. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses in liver of rats with impaired glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alfonso H; Curi, Rui; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic gene expression studies are vital for identification of molecular factors involved in insulin resistance. However, the need of normalized gene expression data has led to the search of stable genes which are useful as a reference in specific experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression stability of potential reference genes for real-time PCR gene expression studies, in rats with insulin resistance, early programmed in intrauterine environment of maternal insulin resistance and triggered by exposure to a high sucrose and fat diet in adult life. Male rats coming from insulin resistant (F1IR) mothers or normal (F1N) mothers were fed a standard rodent diet from postnatal day 21 to day 56, and then divided in two groups each. One of each subgroups were fed a high sucrose and fat diet (groups F1IR + HSFD and F1N + HSFD respectively), the rest were fed a control diet (groups F1IR + CD and F1N + CD) for 14 days. Glucose metabolism related tests were later performed. After liver extraction, RNA was isolated and gene expression analyzes of seven potential reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, Gusb, Hprt1, Ldha, Rpl13a and Rplp1) were carried out. LinRegPCR software was used to analyze raw data and determinate baseline corrections, threshold lines, efficiency of PCR reactions and corrected Cq values. Evaluations of gene expression stabilities as well as the number of necessary genes for normalization were assessed with geNorm tool. All samples from all groups showed acceptable PCR amplification efficiencies. The most stable genes were Rplp1, Ldha, Hprt1 and Rpl13a and the less stable was Gapdh. For all groups, just 2 to 3 of the most stable genes were necessary for optimal gene expression data normalization in rat liver. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins are the most appropriated for normalization of expression data in the presented animal model. By contrast, Gapdh, one of the most used genes in normalization, is not recommendable due to its high intergroup variation.

  8. Selecting reference genes in the white blood cells of buffalos treated with recombinant growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Castigliego, Lorenzo; Armani, Andrea; Li, Xiaoning; Grifoni, Goffredo; Gianfaldoni, Daniela; Guidi, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we assessed the expression stability of eight genes (GADPH, ACTB, 18S, YWHAZ, SDHA, HMBS, SF3A1, and EEF1A) in the white blood cells of lactating buffalos and their possible use as reference genes for studies on growth hormone (GH)-treated animals. All of the genes showed acceptable stability according to the threshold values suggested by some of the software that was used to analyze them, although the differences between the most stable (SF3A1 and ACTB) and the least stable (18S) were considerable. GH treatment did not influence their expression levels. PMID:20371358

  9. [Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in six oil-tea camellia based on RNA].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C F; Lin, P; Yao, X H; Wang, K L; Chang, J; Han, X J

    2013-01-01

    qRT-PCR is becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study gene expression. It is nec- essary to find stable reference genes when performing qRT-PCR. The expression of genes cloned in oil-tea camellia currently can't be accurately analyzed because of a lack of suitable reference genes. We collected different tissues (including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) from six oil-tea camellia species to determine stable reference genes. Five novel and ten traditional reference gene sequences were selected from the RNA-seq database of Camellia oleifera C. Abel seeds and specific PCR primers were designed for each. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from each reaction for all samples. Three different software tools, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were applied to calculate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes according to the Ct values. The results were similar between analyzed by the three software packages, and indicated that the traditional gene TUBa-3, AC17a and the novel gene CESA were relatively stable in all species and tissues. However, no genes were sufficiently stable across all species and tissues, thus the optimal number of reference genes required for accurate normalization varied from two to six. Finally, the relative expression ofsqualene synthase (SQS) and squalene epoxidase (SQE) genes related to important ingredients squalene and tea saponin in oil-tea camellia seeds were compared by using stable to less stable reference genes. The comparison results validated the selection of reference genes in the current study. In summary, different optimal numbers of suitable reference genes were found for the different tissues of six oil-tea camellia species. PMID:25509858

  10. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization and its applications in lycium.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1? for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  11. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization and Its Applications in Lycium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1? for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  12. Unification of gene expression data applying standard mRNA quantification references for comparable analyses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High throughput quantitative measurements of gene expression data have problems of reproducibility and comparability due to a lack of standard mRNA quantification references. Efforts have been made to safeguard data fidelity, yet generating quality expression data of inherent value remains a challe...

  13. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ?70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n?=?24, dilated n?=?11; bicuspid undilated n?=?6, dilated n?=?15; unicuspid dilated n?=?4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue. PMID:23326585

  14. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)?0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton. PMID:24929128

  15. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).

    PubMed

    Zhai, Yifan; Lin, Qingcai; Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

  16. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

    2014-01-01

    To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

  17. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

  18. Optimisation of Reference Genes for Gene-Expression Analysis in a Rabbit Model of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Nachar, Walid; Busseuil, David; Shi, Yanfen; Mihalache-Avram, Teodora; Mecteau, Mélanie; Rhéaume, Eric; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-01-01

    Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is characterized by the disturbance of ventricle’s performance due to its abnormal relaxation or to its increased stiffness during the diastolic phase. The molecular mechanisms underlying LVDD remain unknown. We aimed to identify normalization genes for accurate gene-expression analysis of LVDD using quantitative real-time PCR (RT-PCR) in a new rabbit model of LVDD. Eighteen rabbits were fed with a normal diet (n?=?7) or a 0.5% cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with vitamin D2 (n?=?11) for an average of 14.5 weeks. We validated the presence of LVDD in this model using echocardiography for diastolic function assessment. RT-PCR was performed using cDNA derived from left ventricle samples to measure the stability of 10 genes as candidate reference genes (Gapdh, Hprt1, Ppia, Sdha, Rpl5, Actb, Eef1e1, Ywhaz, Pgk1, and G6pd). Using geNorm analysis, we report that Sdha, Gapdh and Hprt1 genes had the highest stability (M <0.2). By contrast, Hprt1 and Rpl5 genes were found to represent the best combination for normalization when using the Normfinder algorithm (stability value of 0.042). Comparison of both normalization strategies highlighted an increase of natriuretic peptides (Bnp and Anp), monocytes chemotactic protein-1 (Mcp-1) and NADPH oxidase subunit (Nox-2) mRNA expressions in ventricle samples of the hypercholesterolemic rabbits compared to controls (P<0.05). This increase correlates with LVDD echocardiographic parameters and most importantly it molecularly validates the presence of the disease in our model. This is the first study emphasizing the selection of stable reference genes for RT-PCR normalization in a rabbit model of LVDD. PMID:24558494

  19. Identification of Importin 8 (IPO8) as the most accurate reference gene for the clinicopathological analysis of lung specimens

    PubMed Central

    Nguewa, Paul A; Agorreta, Jackeline; Blanco, David; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Sanchez, Blas A; Valles, Iñaki; Pajares, Maria J; Pio, Ruben; Rodriguez, Maria Jose; Montuenga, Luis M; Calvo, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Background The accurate normalization of differentially expressed genes in lung cancer is essential for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers by real time RT-PCR and microarrays. Although classical "housekeeping" genes, such as GAPDH, HPRT1, and beta-actin have been widely used in the past, their accuracy as reference genes for lung tissues has not been proven. Results We have conducted a thorough analysis of a panel of 16 candidate reference genes for lung specimens and lung cell lines. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR and expression stability was analyzed with the softwares GeNorm and NormFinder, mean of |?Ct| (= |Ct Normal-Ct tumor|) ± SEM, and correlation coefficients among genes. Systematic comparison between candidates led us to the identification of a subset of suitable reference genes for clinical samples: IPO8, ACTB, POLR2A, 18S, and PPIA. Further analysis showed that IPO8 had a very low mean of |?Ct| (0.70 ± 0.09), with no statistically significant differences between normal and malignant samples and with excellent expression stability. Conclusion Our data show that IPO8 is the most accurate reference gene for clinical lung specimens. In addition, we demonstrate that the commonly used genes GAPDH and HPRT1 are inappropriate to normalize data derived from lung biopsies, although they are suitable as reference genes for lung cell lines. We thus propose IPO8 as a novel reference gene for lung cancer samples. PMID:19014639

  20. Identification of appropriate reference genes for normalizing transcript expression by quantitative real-time PCR in Litsea cubeba.

    PubMed

    Lin, Liyuan; Han, Xiaojiao; Chen, Yicun; Wu, Qingke; Wang, Yangdong

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR has emerged as a highly sensitive and widely used method for detection of gene expression profiles, via which accurate detection depends on reliable normalization. Since no single control is appropriate for all experimental treatments, it is generally advocated to select suitable internal controls prior to use for normalization. This study reported the evaluation of the expression stability of twelve potential reference genes in different tissue/organs and six fruit developmental stages of Litsea cubeba in order to screen the superior internal reference genes for data normalization. Two softwares-geNorm, and NormFinder-were used to identify stability of these candidate genes. The cycle threshold difference and coefficient of variance were also calculated to evaluate the expression stability of candidate genes. F-BOX, EF1?, UBC, and TUA were selected as the most stable reference genes across 11 sample pools. F-BOX, EF1?, and EIF4? exhibited the highest expression stability in different tissue/organs and different fruit developmental stages. Besides, a combination of two stable reference genes would be sufficient for gene expression normalization in different fruit developmental stages. In addition, the relative expression profiles of DXS and DXR were evaluated by EF1?, UBC, and SAMDC. The results further validated the reliability of stable reference genes and also highlighted the importance of selecting suitable internal controls for L. cubeba. These reference genes will be of great importance for transcript normalization in future gene expression studies on L. cubeba. PMID:24162560

  1. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in bovine muscular tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raquel Pérez; Isabel Tupac-Yupanqui; Susana Dunner

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-time reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time RTqPCR) is a technique used to measure mRNA species copy number as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. However, the expression level of these key genes may vary among tissues or cells not only as a consequence of differential expression but also due to different factors,

  2. Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Gimeno, Jacinta; Eattock, Nicholas; Van Deynze, Allen; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1?, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1?, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass. PMID:24621568

  3. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, Jacinta; Eattock, Nicholas; Van Deynze, Allen; Blumwald, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1?, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1?, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass. PMID:24621568

  4. Identification of reference genes for qRT-PCR in human lung squamous-cell carcinoma by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Cheng; Zhang, Yongxing; Ma, Jun; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Wei; Shi, Yu; Wang, Qun

    2014-04-01

    Although the accuracy of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is highly dependent on the reliable reference genes, many commonly used reference genes are not stably expressed and as such are not suitable for quantification and normalization of qRT-PCR data. The aim of this study was to identify novel reliable reference genes in lung squamous-cell carcinoma. We used RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) to survey the whole genome expression in 5 lung normal samples and 44 lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples. We evaluated the expression profiles of 15 commonly used reference genes and identified five additional candidate reference genes. To validate the RNA-Seq dataset, we used qRT-PCR to verify the expression levels of these 20 genes in a separate set of 100 pairs of normal lung tissue and lung squamous-cell carcinoma samples, and then analyzed these results using geNorm and NormFinder. With respect to 14 of the 15 common reference genes (B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT1, IPO8, PGK1, POLR2A, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TFRC, UBC, and YWHAZ), the expression levels were either too low to be easily detected, or exhibited a high degree of variability either between lung normal and squamous-cell carcinoma samples, or even among samples of the same tissue type. In contrast, 1 of the 15 common reference genes (ACTB) and the 5 additional candidate reference genes (EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14) were stably and constitutively expressed at high levels in all the samples tested. ACTB, EEF1A1, FAU, RPS9, RPS11, and RPS14 are ideal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of lung squamous-cell carcinoma, while 14 commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes are less appropriate in this context. PMID:24457517

  5. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of CYP4T expression in crucian carp

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Fei; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Na; Cao, Li-hua; Jiang, Shan-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Reference genes are commonly used for normalization of target gene expression during RT-qPCR analysis. However, no housekeeping genes or reference genes have been identified to be stable across different tissue types or under different experimental conditions. To identify the most suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of target gene expression in the hepatopancreas of crucian carp (Carassius auratus) under various conditions (sex, age, water temperature, and drug treatments), seven reference genes, including beta actin (ACTB), beta-2 microglobulin (B2M), embryonic elongation factor-1 alpha (EEF1A), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), alpha tubulin (TUBA), ribosomal protein l8 (RPL8) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), were evaluated in this study. The stability and ranking of gene expression were analyzed using three different statistical programs: GeNorm, Normfinder and Bestkeeper. The expression errors associated with selection of the genes were assessed by the relative quantity of CYP4T. The results indicated that all the seven genes exhibited variability under the experimental conditions of this research, and the combination of ACTB/TUBA/EEF1A or of ACTB/EEF1A was the best candidate that raised the accuracy of quantitative analysis of gene expression. The findings highlighted the importance of validation of housekeeping genes for research on gene expression under different conditions of experiment and species. PMID:25249772

  6. Selection of reference genes for reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR normalization in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli).

    PubMed

    Liman, Ma; Wenji, Wang; Conghui, Liu; Haiyang, Yu; Zhigang, Wang; Xubo, Wang; Jie, Qi; Quanqi, Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a technique widely used for quantification of mRNA transcription. Data normalization is an indispensable process for RT-qPCR and reference genes are most commonly used to normalize RT-qPCR and to reduce possible errors generated in the quantification of genes among several proposed methods. To date, RT-qPCR has been used in terms of gene expression studies in black rockfish (Sebastes schlegeli) but the majority of published RT-qPCR studies still lack proper validation of the reference genes. In the present study, mRNA transcription profiles of eight putative reference genes (18S rRNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TUBA, RPL17, EF1A, HPRT, and B2M) were examined using RT-qPCR in different tissues and larvae developmental stages of black rockfish. Three common statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were used to assess expression stability and select the most stable genes for gene normalization. Two reference genes, RPL17 and EF1A showed high stability in black rockfish tissue analysis, while GAPDH was the least stable gene. During larvae developmental stages, EF1A, RPL17 and ACTB were identified as the optimal reference genes for data normalization, whereas B2M appeared unsuitable as the reference gene. In summary, our results could provide a useful guideline for reference gene selection and enable more accurate normalization of gene expression data in gene expression studies of black rockfish. PMID:24007945

  7. Identification of Reference Genes for Relative Quantification of Circulating MicroRNAs in Bovine Serum

    PubMed Central

    Bae, In-Seon; Chung, Ki Yong; Yi, Jongmin; Kim, Tae Il; Choi, Hwa-Sik; Cho, Young-Moo; Choi, Inho; Kim, Sang Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs in body fluids have been implicated as promising biomarkers for physiopathology disorders. Currently, the expression levels of circulating microRNAs are estimated by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Use of appropriate reference microRNAs for normalization is critical for accurate microRNA expression analysis. However, no study has systematically investigated reference genes for evaluating circulating microRNA expression in cattle. In this study, we describe the identification and characterization of appropriate reference microRNAs for use in the normalization of circulating microRNA levels in bovine serum. We evaluated the expression stability of ten candidate reference genes in bovine serum by using reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper statistical algorithms. The results consistently showed that a combination of miR-93 and miR-127 provided the most stably expressed reference. The suitability of these microRNAs was validated, and even when compared among different genders or breeds, the combination of miR-93 and miR-127 was ranked as the most stable microRNA reference. Therefore, we conclude that this combination is the optimal endogenous reference for reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based detection of microRNAs in bovine serum. The data presented in this study are crucial to successful biomarker discovery and validation for the diagnosis of physiopathological conditions in cattle. PMID:25826387

  8. Quantification of gene expression after painful nerve injury: validation of optimal reference genes.

    PubMed

    Bangaru, Madhavi Latha Yadav; Park, Frank; Hudmon, Andy; McCallum, J Bruce; Hogan, Quinn H

    2012-03-01

    Stably expressed housekeeping genes (HKGs) are necessary for standardization of transcript measurement by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Peripheral nerve injury disrupts expression of numerous genes in sensory neurons, but the stability of conventional HKGs has not been tested in this context. We examined the stability of candidate HKGs during nerve injury, including the commonly used 18S ribosomal RNA, ?-tubulin I and ?-tubulin III, actin, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1), and mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MAPK6). Total RNA for cDNA synthesis was isolated from dorsal root ganglia of rats at 3, 7, and 21 days following either skin incision alone or spinal nerve ligation, after which the axotomized and adjacent ganglia were analyzed separately. Relative stability of HKGs was determined using statistical algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. Both analyses identified MAPK6 and GAPDH as the two most stable HKGs for normalizing gene expression for qRT-PCR analysis in the context of peripheral nerve injury. Our findings indicate that a prior analysis of HKG expression levels is important for accurate normalization of gene expression in models of nerve injury. PMID:21863315

  9. Selection and validation of reference genes for target gene analysis with quantitative RT-PCR in leaves and roots of bermudagrass under four different abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Tan, Zhiqun; Hu, Baoyun; Yang, Zhimin; Xu, Bin; Zhuang, Lili; Huang, Bingru

    2014-10-21

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is an effective method for quantifying expression levels of target genes. The accuracy of qRT-PCR results is largely dependent on the selection of stable reference genes. The stability of reference gene expression may vary with plant species and environmental conditions. The objective of this study was to select stable reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of target genes in different organs under different abiotic stresses for a perennial grass species, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). The stability of eight potential reference genes (TUB, ACT, GAPDH, EF1?, TIP41, PP2A, CACS and UPL7) was evaluated under four different abiotic stresses (salt, drought, cold and heat) and in leaves and roots of bermudagrass. Four programs (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and RefFinder) were employed to evaluate the stability of reference gene expression and to identify the most stable reference genes for bermudagrass. Eight potential reference genes exhibited differential expression stability in leaves and roots under salt, drought, cold and heat stress. The expression levels of PP2A and CACS were stable in roots and leaves under salt stress, in leaves under drought stress and in roots exposed to cold and heat stress. EF1? and TIP41 expression was stable in roots of drought-stressed plants. UPL7, TUB and GAPDH were stably expressed in leaves under cold stress. Expression levels of PP2A and TIP41 were stable in leaves under heat stress. The use of the reference genes identified as internal controls for examination of gene expression patterns and quantification of expression levels of target genes will enable accurate qRT-PCR analysis in bermudagrass. PMID:25331743

  10. Identification of valid reference genes during the differentiation of human myoblasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jens Stern-Straeter; Gabriel A Bonaterra; Karl Hörmann; Ralf Kinscherf; Ulrich R Goessler

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Analysis of RNA expression using real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) traditionally includes reference genes (RG) as an internal control. This practice is being questioned as it becomes increasingly clear that RG may vary considerably under certain experimental conditions. Thus, the validity of a particular RG must be determined for each experimental setting. We used qRT-PCR to measure the levels of six

  11. [Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in cotton bollworm, Helicoverna armigera].

    PubMed

    Chandra, G Sharath; Asokan, R; Manamohan, M; Kumar, N K K; Sita, T

    2014-01-01

    Reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), a sensitive technique is being extensively employed in quantification of gene expression. However this requires normalization with suitable reference gene (RG) which is crucial in minimizing inter sample variations. Information regarding suitable RG is scarce in general and more so in insects, including the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, an economically important pest. In management of this pest RNA interference (RNAi), is perceived as a potential tool, which is achieved by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) delivery. These studies demand accurate quantification of gene silencing. In this study we assessed the suitability of five RGs viz. ?-actin (ACTB), 18S rRNA (18S), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ?-tubulin (TUB) and elongation fator-1-alfa (EF1-?) for gene expression studies in dsRNA treatment and across different developmental stages of H. armigera and ranked using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Data analysis revealed that best ranked RGs were varied in dsRNA treatment and in developmental stages. Under dsRNA treatment, 18S and GAPDH were more stable whereas, TUB and GAPDH were more stable across developmental stages. We also demonstrate that inappropriate selection of RG led to erroneous estimation of the target gene, chymotrypsin, expression. These results facilitate accurate quantification of gene expression in H. armigera. PMID:25845233

  12. Reference genes for quantitative, reverse-transcription PCR in Bacillus cereus group strains throughout the bacterial life cycle.

    PubMed

    Reiter, Lillian; Kolstø, Anne-Brit; Piehler, Armin P

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a major tool to better understand the biology and pathogenesis of bacteria. One prerequisite of valid RT-qPCR data is their proper normalization to stably expressed reference genes. To identify and evaluate reference genes suitable for normalization of gene expression data in Bacillus cereus group strains, mRNA levels of eleven candidate reference genes (rpsU, nifU, udp (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 2-epimerase), BT9727_5154/BC_5475, BT9727_4034/BC_4293, BT9727_4549/BC_4813, pspA, gatB_Yqey (gatB_Yqey domain containing protein), helicase (SWF/SNF family protein), adk and pta) and a target gene (BT9727_3305/BC3547+BC3546) were quantified by RT-qPCR at different time points throughout the entire life cycle of the wild-type B. cereus ATCC 14579 and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. konkukian 97-27, a phylogenetically closely related strain to Bacillus anthracis. The programs geNorm and Normfinder were used to calculate expression stabilities and identified the genes gatB_Yqey, rpsU and udp as the most stably expressed reference genes. Compared to this combination or the sets of reference genes as recommended by geNorm or Normfinder, normalization using a traditional housekeeping gene (adk) alone resulted in significantly different gene expression results and in a significant overestimation of the target gene transcription. Normalization of the data to the reference gene gatB_Yqey alone showed no or only small differences to the reference gene combinations indicating that gatB_Yqey may be used as a single reference gene when investigating rather large changes in mRNA transcription. Otherwise, a combination of the stably expressed reference genes is recommended. In conclusion, the present study underlines the importance of normalization to stably expressed reference genes and presents valid endogenous controls suitable for normalization of transcriptional data throughout the life cycle of B. cereus group strains. PMID:21620905

  13. Selection and validation of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula).

    PubMed

    Chao, Wun S; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Foley, Michael E; Horvath, David P; Anderson, James V

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4) were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1) 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100) identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2) 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis "general purpose" traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC); and (3) 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box) identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the C(T) values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?C(T) method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes from other plant species. PMID:22916167

  14. Selection and Validation of Endogenous Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis in Leafy Spurge (Euphorbia esula)

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Wun S.; Do?ramaci, Münevver; Foley, Michael E.; Horvath, David P.; Anderson, James V.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most important tool in measuring levels of gene expression due to its accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity. However, the accuracy of qRT-PCR analysis strongly depends on transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes. The aim of this study was to find internal reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in various experimental conditions for seed, adventitious underground bud, and other organs of leafy spurge. Eleven candidate reference genes (BAM4, PU1, TRP-like, FRO1, ORE9, BAM1, SEU, ARF2, KAPP, ZTL, and MPK4) were selected from among 171 genes based on expression stabilities during seed germination and bud growth. The other ten candidate reference genes were selected from three different sources: (1) 3 stably expressed leafy spurge genes (60S, bZIP21, and MD-100) identified from the analyses of leafy spurge microarray data; (2) 3 orthologs of Arabidopsis “general purpose” traditional reference genes (GAPDH_1, GAPDH_2, and UBC); and (3) 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis stably expressed genes (UBC9, SAND, PTB, and F-box) identified from Affymetrix ATH1 whole-genome GeneChip studies. The expression stabilities of these 21 genes were ranked based on the CT values of 72 samples using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?CT method. Our analyses revealed SAND, PTB, ORE9, and ARF2 to be the most appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression data. Since SAND and PTB were obtained from 4 orthologs of Arabidopsis, while ORE9 and ARF2 were selected from 171 leafy spurge genes, it was more efficient to identify good reference genes from the orthologs of other plant species that were known to be stably expressed than that of randomly testing endogenous genes. Nevertheless, the two newly identified leafy spurge genes, ORE9 and ARF2, can serve as orthologous candidates in the search for reference genes from other plant species. PMID:22916167

  15. Direct qPCR quantification of unprocessed forensic casework samples.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jason Yingjie

    2014-07-01

    The current short tandem repeat (STR) typing workflow for forensic casework samples involves sample collection, sample screening, DNA extraction, DNA qPCR quantification and STR amplification. Although very effective and powerful, this workflow still has room for improvements. For example, the screening assays in practice do not provide DNA related information and also do not work with touch DNA samples, which make up of the majority of the property crime samples. It is known that not all DNA samples have equal probative values. Considering the DNA backlog situation crime laboratories face today, an effective screening tool would be highly desirable. It would allow forensic scientists to prioritize the DNA samples so that the limited resources would be first spent on samples that would have better chances of producing informative STR profiles. qPCR assay does provide DNA quantity and gender information and would be an ideal screening tool. However, prior to quantification, sample extraction and purification are required. By the time a DNA sample is ready for qPCR quantification, time and resources have already been spent on samples that should have been given low priority or excluded from further processing if DNA quantity and gender information were known. To overcome this problem, a direct quantification technology is developed to allow qPCR quantification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction and purification. The key to a direct qPCR assay is the PE-Swab, a novel sample collection device. A small sample punch can be generated from a PE-Swab and placed in a qPCR reaction for quantification. After optimizing the punch size and the quantification software baseline setting, accurate DNA quantification can be obtained from a sample without the need to carry out DNA extraction and purification. Proof of concept studies were done with low lever touch samples as well as blood samples. The PE-Swab also allows direct STR amplification of casework samples without the need for DNA extraction. Besides its potential as a screening tool, the direct qPCR assay can also be used to normalize the DNA input for a direct STR amplification reaction. The feasibility of the direct qPCR/direct STR amplification workflow was demonstrated with touch DNA samples and blood stain samples. PMID:24705062

  16. A De Novo Transcriptome and Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Colaphellus bowringi

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qian-Qian; Zhu, Li; Li, Yi; Liu, Wen; Ma, Wei-Hua; Lei, Chao-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background The cabbage beetle Colaphellus bowringi Baly is a serious insect pest of crucifers and undergoes reproductive diapause in soil. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms of diapause regulation, insecticide resistance, and other physiological processes is helpful for developing new management strategies for this beetle. However, the lack of genomic information and valid reference genes limits knowledge on the molecular bases of these physiological processes in this species. Results Using Illumina sequencing, we obtained more than 57 million sequence reads derived from C. bowringi, which were assembled into 39,390 unique sequences. A Clusters of Orthologous Groups classification was obtained for 9,048 of these sequences, covering 25 categories, and 16,951 were assigned to 255 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Eleven candidate reference gene sequences from the transcriptome were then identified through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Among these candidate genes, EF1?, ACT1, and RPL19 proved to be the most stable reference genes for different reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction experiments in C. bowringi. Conversely, aTUB and GAPDH were the least stable reference genes. Conclusion The abundant putative C. bowringi transcript sequences reported enrich the genomic resources of this beetle. Importantly, the larger number of gene sequences and valid reference genes provide a valuable platform for future gene expression studies, especially with regard to exploring the molecular mechanisms of different physiological processes in this species. PMID:25692689

  17. Validation of suitable reference genes for quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in rabbit bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hecheng; Yang, Qiwei; Li, Dongsong; Liu, Jianguo

    2015-08-01

    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are considered as multipotent cells, representing a multi-lineage potential to differentiate into mesodermal lineages of mesenchymal tissues, including cartilage, bone, fat, muscle and tendon. Tissue engineering in BMSCs has made great advances in the regeneration of cartilage and bone defects. To uncover the mechanisms of the multipotent differentiation process, the molecular changes in gene expression profiles during chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation need to be evaluated with reliable, accurate, fast and sensitive methods. Reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a commonly used technology for analyzing gene expression, depending on an appropriate reference gene to normalize the errors. The commonly used reference genes vary, and no ideal and universal reference genes suitable for all conditions exist; therefore validation of the stability of gene expression is required. In the present study, three common statistical algorithms, geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper, were used to identify the expression stability of 12 genes, and the target differentiation markers during the differentiation of BMSCs were evaluated accurately. Our results demonstrated that YWHAZ, PPIA and GAPDH were suitable as reference genes for chondrogenic differentiation, while RPL13a allowed an efficient normalization expression value of interest genes for osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. By contrast, the most unstable reference genes were 18s rRNA, B2M and HPRT1 in all studies, and these should be avoided when investigating the differentiation of BMSCs. Our results demonstrate validation of the appropriate reference genes for accurate gene expression in chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. PMID:25976103

  18. An evaluation and recommendation of the optimal methodologies to detect RET gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianwei; Lu, Yachao; Ye, Qingqing; Zhang, Meizhuo; Zheng, Li; Yin, Xiaolu; Gavine, Paul; Sun, Zhongsheng; Ji, Qunsheng; Zhu, Guanshan; Su, Xinying

    2015-03-01

    To recommend a reliable and clinically realistic RET/PTC rearrangement detection assay for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), we compared multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RET/PTC rearrangement was detected using either RET break-apart FISH followed by multicolor FISH to confirm CCDC6/RET or NCOA4/RET fusions, or by multiplex qPCR to detect 14 RET/PTC subtypes with simultaneous RET mRNA expression. RET protein expression was detected by IHC. The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex qPCR and IHC were calculated using break-apart FISH as a reference. Among 73 PTC patients with sufficient tissue available for FISH and multiplex qPCR, 10 cases were defined as RET/PTC positive by both assays, including eight CCDC6/RET and two NCOA4/RET fusions with relatively high RET mRNA. In addition, multiplex qPCR identified another two CCDC6/RET fusion positive cases, but with low RET mRNA expression. IHC staining identified 11 RET positive cases among 39 patients with available samples. In comparison to FISH, multiplex qPCR displayed 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity to detect RET/PTC fusions, while IHC was neither sensitive nor specific. Our data reveal that both multiplex qPCR and FISH assays are equally applicable for detection of RET/PTC rearrangements. Break-apart FISH methodology is highly recommended for the wider screening of RET rearrangements (regardless of partner genes), while multiplex qPCR is preferred to identify all known fusion types using one assay, provided mRNA expression is also measured. IHC analysis could potentially provide an additional method of fusion detection dependent on further optimization of assay conditions and scoring cutoffs. PMID:25407564

  19. Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

    2005-01-01

    Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

  20. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans for Analysis of Nanotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Chen, Dongliang; Smith, Michael A.; Zhang, Baohong; Pan, Xiaoping

    2012-01-01

    Despite rapid development and application of a wide range of manufactured metal oxide nanoparticles (NPs), the understanding of potential risks of using NPs is less completed, especially at the molecular level. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C.elegans) has been emerging as an environmental model to study the molecular mechanism of environmental contaminations, using standard genetic tools such as the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). The most important factor that may affect the accuracy of RT-qPCR is to choose appropriate genes for normalization. In this study, we selected 13 reference gene candidates (act-1, cdc-42, pmp-3, eif-3.C, actin, act-2, csq-1, Y45F10D.4, tba-1, mdh-1, ama-1, F35G12.2, and rbd-1) to test their expression stability under different doses of nano-copper oxide (CuO 0, 1, 10, and 50 µg/mL) using RT-qPCR. Four algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method, were employed to evaluate these 13 candidates expressions. As a result, tba-1, Y45F10D.4 and pmp-3 were the most reliable, which may be used as reference genes in future study of nanoparticle-induced genetic response using C.elegans. PMID:22438870

  1. Identification of suitable reference genes in buffalo grass for accurate transcript normalization under various abiotic stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Qian, Yong-Qiang; Han, Lei; Liu, Jun-Xiang; Sun, Zhen-Yuan

    2014-08-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for normalization of the gene expression level of target genes. Buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides), a warm-season turfgrass with strong abiotic stress resistance, is widely used in North China. Up to now, no work was performed to evaluate the reference genes in buffalograss. In this study, the expression profiles of ten potential reference genes were examined by qRT-PCR in 24 buffalograss samples, which were subjected to a different treatment (salt, osmotic, cold and heat). Three qRT-PCR analysis methods (GeNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper) were used to evaluate the stability of gene expression. The results indicated that DNAJ and ?-ACTIN were the optimal reference genes for salt-treated leaves, and the combination of PP2A and GAPDH was better reference genes for PEG-treated leaves. Under cold stress, DNAJ and ?-ACTIN showed less variety of expression level in leaves. DNAJ and GAPDH exhibited the most stable expression in heat-treated samples. To sum up, glyceral-dehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ?-ACTIN, DNAJ-like protein (DNAJ) and protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) were selected as the most stable reference gene among all tested samples. To further validate the suitability of these reference genes, the expression levels of DREB2 (homologs of AtDREB2) were analyzed in parallel. Our results show that the best reference genes differed across different experimental conditions, and these results should enable better normalization and quantification of transcript levels in buffalograss in the future. PMID:24914494

  2. Identification of the valid reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xia; Ma, Xiao; Huang, Linkai; Zhang, Xinquan

    2015-01-01

    Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) is a cool-season annual grass cultivated worldwide for its high yield and quality. With the areas of saline soil increasing, investigation of the molecular mechanisms of annual ryegrass tolerance under salt stress has become a significant topic. qRT-PCR has been a predominant assay for determination of the gene expression, in which selecting a valid internal reference gene is a crucial step. The objective of present study was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR in annual ryegrass under salt stress. The results calculated by RefFinder indicated that eEF1A(s) was the most stable reference gene in leaves, whereas EF1-a was the least stable; meanwhile, TBP-1 was the most optimal in roots and in all samples, and the eIF-5A shouldn't be utilized for normalization of the gene expression. eEF1A(s) is more suitable than TBP-1 as reference gene in leaves when verified with P5CS1 and Cyt-Cu/Zn SOD genes. We should choose optimal reference genes in specific tissues instead of the most stable one selected from different conditions and tissues. PMID:25786166

  3. Characterization of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in various tissues of Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanfang; Hou, Shuang; Cui, Guanghong; Chen, Shilin; Wei, Jianhe; Huang, Luqi

    2010-01-01

    Five reference genes, 18S, EF1alpha, alpha-Tubulin, Ubiquitin and Actin, from Salvia miltiorrhiza were analyzed as internal controls for gene expression profiling assay using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). The five candidate genes were measured for their transcriptional level in seven tissues, including roots, stems, leaves, sepals, petals, stamens and pistils. Then they were ranked by the GeNorm tool. The results showed that Actin and Ubiquitin were the most stable whereas EF1alpha and 18S did not favor normalization of qRT-PCR results in these tissues. Expression levels of the SmDXR gene were studied in parallel, with Actin and Ubiquitin both or each as reference in the seven tissues, and varying relative quantifications of the SmDXR gene in seven tissues. This study indicated that selection of the most stable genes plays an important role in gene expression profiling assays. PMID:19680786

  4. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Investigating Gene Expression in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury by Using Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo Silveira; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently injured structures during high-impact sporting activities. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding ACL tears and healing failure. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, and TBP) by using ACL samples of 39 individuals with ACL tears (20 with isolated ACL tears and 19 with ACL tear and combined meniscal injury) and of 13 controls. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist, and RefFinder software packages and the comparative ?Ct method. ACTB was the best single reference gene and ACTB+TBP was the best gene pair. The GenEx software showed that the accumulated standard deviation is reduced when a larger number of reference genes is used for gene expression normalization. However, the use of a single reference gene may not be suitable. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of FN1 and PLOD1. We observed that at least 3 reference genes should be used. ACTB+HPRT1+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving isolated ACL tears and controls. Conversely, ACTB+TBP+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving (1) injured ACL tears and controls, and (2) ACL tears of patients with meniscal tears and controls. Therefore, if the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured ACL, isolated ACL tears and ACL tears from patients with meniscal tear as three independent groups ACTB+TBP+18S+HPRT1 should be used. In conclusion, 3 or more genes should be used as reference genes for analysis of ACL samples of individuals with and without ACL tears. PMID:26192306

  5. Assessment of candidate reference genes for the expression studies with brassinosteroids in Lolium perenne and Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Jurczyk, Barbara; Pociecha, Ewa; Janeczko, Anna; Paczy?ski, Robert; Rapacz, Marcin

    2014-10-15

    Quantitative PCR studies need proper reference genes with expression stability exclusively validated under certain experimental conditions. The expression stability of several genes commonly used as references was tested under 24-epibrassinolide (EBR) and temperature treatment. Different statistical approaches (qBase(PLUS), BestKeeper, NormFinder) were used to prepare rankings of expression stability in two species of an economic importance: common wheat (Triticum aestivum) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Candidate reference genes were shown to be regulated differentially in these two plant species. The maximum stability values indicated that the expression stability was higher in T. aestivum. Taking into account of all ranks it seems that TBP-1 and UBI in ryegrass and ACT, ADP and EF1A in wheat should be used as reference genes in the brassinosteroids and temperature involving studies. PMID:25128786

  6. Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus

    PubMed Central

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  7. Reference genes selection for quantitative real-time PCR using RankAggreg method in different tissues of Capra hircus.

    PubMed

    Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

  8. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies by real-time PCR in eggplant (Solanum melongena L)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Analysis of gene expression patterns leads to functional understanding of biological processes. Quantitative real-time PCR has become the most commonly used technique for in-depth studies of gene expression. To quantify variation in specific gene expression, accurate and reliable normalization across different samples and tissues is necessary. This can be achieved by selecting one or more suitable reference genes to compare the target mRNA transcript levels. In the present work, we illustrate the first evaluation of potential internal control or reference genes across different developmental stages of eggplant for reliable quantification of transcripts by real-time PCR. Results We have evaluated the stability in expression of six candidate reference genes (18s rRNA, APRT, GAPDH, Cyclophilin, Actin, and RuBP) in a set of tissues representing six developmental stages of eggplant. The candidate genes were cloned from cDNA and analysed by real-time PCR. The expression data analyzed by three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) identified 18s rRNA, Cyclophilin and APRT as the most stable and suitable reference genes in eggplant. This was further confirmed in four different varieties, two representative lines of transgenic eggplant as well as in nematode infected eggplant. Conclusion 18s rRNA, Cyclophilin and APRT have been found to be appropriate for the normalization of real-time PCR data for gene expression studies in eggplant. PMID:23919495

  9. Validation of endogenous reference genes in Buglossoides arvensis for normalizing RT-qPCR-based gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Gadkar, Vijay J; Filion, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Selection of a stably expressed reference gene (RG) is an important step for generating reliable and reproducible quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) gene expression data. We, in this study, have sought to validate RGs for Buglossoides arvensis, a high nutraceutical value plant whose refined seed oil is entering the market under the commercial trade name Ahiflower™. This weed plant has received attention for its natural ability to significantly accumulate the poly-unsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) stearidonic acid (SDA, C18:4n-3) in its seeds, which is uncommon for most plant species. Ten candidate RGs (?-Act, 18S rRNA, EF-1a, ?-Tub, UBQ, ?-actin, CAC, PP2a, RUBISCO, GAPDH) were isolated from B. arvensis and TaqMan™ compliant primers/probes were designed for RT-qPCR analysis. Abundance of these gene transcripts was analyzed across different tissues and growth regimes. Two of the most widely used algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, showed variation in expression levels of these RGs. However, combinatorial analysis of the results clearly identified CAC and ?-actin as the most stable and unstable RG candidates, respectively. This study has for the first time identified and validated RGs in the non-model system B. arvensis, a weed plant projected to become an important yet sustainable source of dietary omega-3 PUFA. PMID:25918683

  10. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Results Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), ?-Tubulin (?-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-? (Ef-1?), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1? are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1? as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. Conclusion This study proposes a first broad collection of teak tissue and organ mRNA expression data for nine selected candidate qRT-PCR reference genes. NormFinder, Bestkeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct analyses suggested that TgUbq and TgEf-1? have the highest expression stability and provided similar results when evaluating TgCAD gene expression, while the commonly used Act should be avoided. PMID:25048176

  11. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1?, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression profile of the target candidate genes. PMID:25793735

  12. Validation of the use of multiple internal control genes, and the application of real-time quantitative PCR, to study esterase gene expression in Oenococcus oeni.

    PubMed

    Sumby, Krista M; Grbin, Paul R; Jiranek, Vladimir

    2012-11-01

    The study of gene expression and accurate quantitation of target genes in any organism depends on correct normalisation. Due to the increase in studies on Oenococcus oeni gene expression, there is a clear need for alternative reference genes in order to reliably measure expression levels. In this manuscript, we propose the approach of using multiple reference genes to provide a more robust basis for establishing a reference gene set. The identification and evaluation of a panel of nine reference genes, including the commonly used ldhD, for real-time PCR normalisation was performed in O. oeni. Expression levels of these reference genes were then measured by real-time qPCR in an independent set of O. oeni samples (n?=?30). The nine genes were ranked according to their stability of gene expression measure (M) using geNorm to identify the most consistently expressed reference genes. This approach resulted in the identification of multiple reference genes that may be used for a screening and more robust normalisation of target gene expression measured by real-time RT-qPCR. Expression of esterase genes was then measured in these O. oeni samples in the presence of known esterase substrates. The results give an indication of how these genes may be involved in ester synthesis and hydrolysis in O. oeni. PMID:23053071

  13. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (?Ct), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1?) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1? were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  14. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (?Ct), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1?) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1? were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  15. Selection of reference genes from two leafhopper species challenged by phytoplasma infection, for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytoplasmas are phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria and represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. For gene expression studies based on mRNA quantification by RT-qPCR, stability of housekeeping genes is crucial. The aim of this study was the identification of reference genes to study the effect of phytoplasma infection on gene expression of two leafhopper vector species. The identified reference genes will be useful tools to investigate differential gene expression of leafhopper vectors upon phytoplasma infection. Results The expression profiles of ribosomal 18S, actin, ATP synthase ?, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tropomyosin were determined in two leafhopper vector species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), both healthy and infected by “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” (chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma strain, CYP). Insects were analyzed at three different times post acquisition, and expression stabilities of the selected genes were evaluated with BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder algorithms. In Euscelidius variegatus, all genes under all treatments were stable and could serve as reference genes. In Macrosteles quadripunctulatus, BestKeeper and Normfinder analysis indicated ATP synthase ?, tropomyosin and GAPDH as the most stable, whereas geNorm identified reliable genes only for early stages of infection. Conclusions In this study a validation of five candidate reference genes was performed with three algorithms, and housekeeping genes were identified for over time transcript profiling of two leafhopper vector species infected by CYP. This work set up an experimental system to study the molecular basis of phytoplasma multiplication in the insect body, in order to elucidate mechanisms of vector specificity. Most of the sequences provided in this study are new for leafhoppers, which are vectors of economically important plant pathogens. Phylogenetic indications were also drawn from sequence analysis of these genes. PMID:24119747

  16. Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V.; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1? (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and ?-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

  17. Screening ancient tuberculosis with qPCR: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Harkins, Kelly M; Buikstra, Jane E; Campbell, Tessa; Bos, Kirsten I; Johnson, Eric D; Krause, Johannes; Stone, Anne C

    2015-01-19

    The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has rapidly accelerated in recent years as a result of new methods in next-generation sequencing, library preparation and targeted enrichment. Such research is restricted, however, by the highly variable DNA preservation within different tissues, especially when isolating ancient pathogens from human remains. Identifying positive candidate samples via quantitative PCR (qPCR) for downstream procedures can reduce reagent costs, increase capture efficiency and maximize the number of sequencing reads of the target. This study uses four qPCR assays designed to target regions within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) to examine 133 human skeletal samples from a wide geographical and temporal range, identified by the presence of skeletal lesions typical of chronic disseminated tuberculosis. Given the inherent challenges working with ancient mycobacteria, strict criteria must be used and primer/probe design continually re-evaluated as new data from bacteria become available. Seven samples tested positive for multiple MTBC loci, supporting them as strong candidates for downstream analyses. Using strict and conservative criteria, qPCR remains a fast and effective screening tool when compared with screening by more expensive sequencing and enrichment technologies. PMID:25487341

  18. Normalizing genes for real-time polymerase chain reaction in epithelial and nonepithelial cells of mouse small intestine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengchao; Wang, Junping; Liu, Dengqun; Su, Yongping

    2010-04-15

    Gene expression studies in intestinal epithelial and stromal cells are a common tool for investigating the mechanisms by which the homeostasis of the small intestine is regulated under normal and pathological conditions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a sensitive and highly reproducible method of gene expression analysis, with expression levels quantified by normalization against reference genes in most cases. However, the lack of suitable reference genes for epithelial cells with different differentiation states and nonepithelial tissue cells has limited the application of qPCR in gene expression studies of small intestinal samples. In this study, 13 housekeeping genes, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT1, HMBS, HSP90AB1, RPL13A, RPS29, RPLP0,PPIA, TBP, and TUBA1, were analyzed to determine their applicability for isolated crypt cells, villus cells, deepithelialized mucosa, and whole mucosa of the mouse small intestine. Using geNorm and NormFinder software, GUSB and TBP were identified as the most stably expressed genes, whereas the expressions of the commonly used reference genes GAPDH, B2M, and ACTB, and ribosomal protein genes RPL13A, RPS29, and RPLP0 were relatively unstable. Thus, this study demonstrates that GUSB and TBP are the optimal reference genes for the normalization of gene expression in the mouse small intestine. PMID:20036209

  19. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Biofuel Plant Jatropha curcas Using Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lu; He, Liang-Liang; Fu, Qian-Tang; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising renewable feedstock for biodiesel and bio-jet fuel production. To study gene expression in Jatropha in different tissues throughout development and under stress conditions, we examined a total of 11 typical candidate reference genes using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, which is widely used for validating transcript levels in gene expression studies. The expression stability of these candidate reference genes was assessed across a total of 20 samples, including various tissues at vegetative and reproductive stages and under desiccation and cold stress treatments. The results obtained using software qBasePLUS showed that the top-ranked reference genes differed across the sample subsets. The combination of actin, GAPDH, and EF1? would be appropriate as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples at different developmental stages; the combination of actin, GAPDH, and TUB5 should be used as a reference panel for normalizing gene expression data across samples under various abiotic stress treatments. With regard to different developmental stages, we recommend the use of actin and TUB8 for normalization at the vegetative stage and GAPDH and EF1? for normalization at the reproductive stage. For abiotic stress treatments, we recommend the use of TUB5 and TUB8 for normalization under desiccation stress and GAPDH and actin for normalization under cold stress. These results are valuable for future research on gene expression during development or under abiotic stress in Jatropha. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the stability of reference genes in Jatropha. PMID:24351820

  20. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Yu; Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species. PMID:25786207

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in the leaves of rice seedlings under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Moraes, G P; Benitez, L C; do Amaral, M N; Vighi, I L; Auler, P A; da Maia, L C; Bianchi, V J; Braga, E J B

    2015-01-01

    To obtain accurate and reliable results for the expression of genes of interest using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) techniques, it is necessary to normalize the data by comparing them to constitutive genes that exhibit uniform expression levels under experimental conditions. In this study, the stability of expression was evaluated for the following ten candidate reference genes in rice leaves (Oryza sativa L.) from the BRS Bojuru and BRS Ligeirinho genotypes that were subjected to salt stress (150 mM): actin 11 (ACT11), beta-tubulin (?-TUB), eukaryote elongation factor 1-? (Eef-1), eukaryotic initiation factor 4-? (eIF-4-?), E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBC-E2), ubiquitin 5 (UBQ5), ubiquitin 10 (UBQ10), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), TIP41-like, and cyclophilin. The stability of expression for the aforementioned genes was then compared to that of three LTP genes using UBQ10, Eef-1, and eIF-4-? as references. After analyzing the expression levels using analysis of variance tests, the results indicated that UBQ10 was the most stable in all treatments (M = 0.404 and SV = 0.327). Furthermore, the eIF-4-?, TIP41-like, and cyclophilin genes exhibited the highest total coefficient of variation (CV = 269, 169.2, 179.2, respectively), which signifies that they exhibited the least stable expression. The expression levels of each candidate gene (LTP7, LTP10, and LTP13) were in contrast to the reference genes. Therefore, we concluded that UBQ10 is the best reference gene for RT-qPCR reactions under the experimental conditions. The expression analysis of LTP7, LTP10, and LTP13 confirmed the importance of validating reference genes to achieve accurate RT-qPCR results. PMID:25867385

  2. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in Siberian Apricot (Prunus sibirica L.) Germplasm using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jun; Zhu, Baoqing; Cai, Jian; Li, Peixue; Wang, Libing; Dai, Huitang; Qiu, Lin; Yu, Haiyan; Ha, Denglong; Zhao, Haiyan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Lin, Shanzhi

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction has been applied in a vast range of studies of gene expression analysis. However, real-time PCR data must be normalized with one or more reference genes. In this study, eleven putative consistently expressed genes (ACT, TUA, TUB, CYP, DNAj, ELFA, F-box27, RPL12, GAPDH, UBC and UBQ) in nine Siberian Apricot Germplasms (including much variability) were evaluated for their potential as references for the normalization of gene expression by NormFinder and geNorm programs. From our studies, ACT, UBC, CYP, UBQ and RPL12 as suitable for normalization were identified by geNorm, while UBC and CYP as the best pair by NormFinder. Moreover, UBC was selected as the most stably expressed gene by both algorithms in different Siberian Apricot seed samples. We also detected that a set of three genes (ACT, CYP and UBC) by geNorm as control for normalization could lead to accurate results. Furthermore, the expression levels of oleosin gene were analyzed to validate the suitability of the selected reference genes. These obtained experimental results could make an important contribution to normalize real-time PCR data for gene expression analysis in Siberian Apricot Germplasm. PMID:25105495

  3. Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chang Geng; Wang, Xian Li; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

    2013-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been used frequently to study gene expression related to fish immunology. In such studies, a stable reference gene should be selected to correct the expression of the target gene. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCE), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), tubulin alpha chain-like (TUBA) and beta actin (ACTB)), were selected to analyze their stability and normalization in seven tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and intestine) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus iniae, respectively. The results showed that all the candidate reference genes exhibited tissue-dependent transcriptional variations. With PBS injection as a control, UBCE was the most stable and suitable single reference gene in the intestine, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen after S. iniae infection, and in the liver, kidney, and spleen after S. agalactiae infection. EF1A was the most suitable in heart and muscle after S. iniae or S. agalactiae infection. GADPH was the most suitable gene in intestine and brain after S. agalactiae infection. In normal conditions, UBCE and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes across the various tissues. These results showed that for RT-qPCR analysis of tilapia, selecting two or more reference genes may be more suitable for cross-tissue analysis of gene expression. PMID:23792389

  4. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Huaijiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

    2014-01-01

    Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1?, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His) were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1?, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1? and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts. PMID:24887329

  5. Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses. PMID:24475250

  6. Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions. PMID:25474086

  7. Selection and evaluation of novel reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) based on genome and transcriptome data in Brassica napus L.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongli; Liu, Jing; Huang, Shunmou; Guo, Tingting; Deng, Linbin; Hua, Wei

    2014-03-15

    Selection of reference genes in Brassica napus, a tetraploid (4×) species, is a very difficult task without information on genome and transcriptome. By now, only several traditional reference genes which show significant expression differentiation under different conditions are used in B. napus. In the present study, based on genome and transcriptome data of the rapeseed Zhongshuang-11 cultivar, 14 candidate reference genes were screened for investigation in different tissues, cultivars, and treated conditions of B. napus. These genes were as follows: ELF5, ENTH, F-BOX7, F-BOX2, FYPP1, GDI1, GYF, MCP2d, OTP80, PPR, SPOC, Unknown1, Unknown2 and UBA. Among them, excluding GYF and FYPP1, another 12 genes, were identified to perform better than traditional reference genes ACTIN7 and GAPDH. To further validate the accuracy of the newly developed reference genes in normalization, expression levels of BnCAT1 (B. napus catalase 1) in different rapeseed tissues and seedlings under stress conditions were normalized by the three most stable reference genes PPR, GDI1, and ENTH and little difference existed in normalization results. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time B. napus reference genes have been provided with the help of complete genome and transcriptome information. The new reference genes provided in this study are more accurate than previously reported reference genes in quantifying expression levels of B. napus genes. PMID:24406618

  8. Normalizing to GADPH jeopardises correct quantification of gene expression in ovarian tumours – IPO8 and RPL4 are reliable reference genes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To ensure a correct interpretation of results obtained with quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), it is critical to normalize to a reference gene with stable mRNA expression in the tissue of interest. GADPH is widely used as a reference gene in ovarian tumour studies, although lacking tissue-specific stability. The aim of this study was to identify alternative suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies on benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumours. Methods We assayed mRNA levels for 13 potential reference genes – ABL1, ACTB, CDKN1A, GADPH, GUSB, HPRT1, HSP90AB, IPO8, PPIA, RPL30, RPL4, RPLPO, and TBP –with RT-qPCR in 42 primary ovarian tumours, using commercially pre-designed RT-qPCR probes. Expression stability was subsequently analysed with four different statistical programs (GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and the Equivalence test). Results Expression of IPO8, RPL4, TBP, RPLPO, and ACTB had the least variation in expression across the tumour samples according to GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The Equivalence test found variation in expression within a 3-fold expression change between tumour groups for: IPO8, RPL40, RPL30, GUSB, TBP, RPLPO, ACTB, ABL1, and CDKN1A. However, only IPO8 satisfied at a 2-fold change as a cut-off. Overall, IPO8 and RPL4 had the highest, whereas GADPH and HPRT1 the lowest expression stability. Employment of suitable reference genes (IPO8, RPL4) in comparison with unsuitable ones (GADPH, HPRT1), demonstrated divergent influence on the mRNA expression pattern of our target genes ? GPER and uPAR. Conclusions We found IPO8 and RPL4 to be suitable reference genes for normalization of target gene expression in benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian tumours. Moreover, IPO8 can be recommended as a single reference gene. Neither GADPH nor HPRT1 should be used as reference genes in studies on ovarian tumour tissue. PMID:24001041

  9. Identification of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Tang, Hongju; Zhang, Yuqing; Deng, Ruyuan; Shao, Li; Liu, Yun; Li, Fengying; Wang, Xiao; Zhou, Libin

    2014-05-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is becoming increasingly important in the effort to gain insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying adipogenesis. However, the expression profile of a target gene may be misinterpreted due to the unstable expression of the reference genes under different experimental conditions. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the expression stability of 10 commonly used reference genes during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. The mRNA expression levels of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and transferrin receptor (TFRC) significantly increased during the course of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation, which was decreased by berberine, an inhibitor of adipogenesis. Three popular algorithms, GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, identified 18 ribosomal RNA and hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) as the most stable reference genes, while GAPDH and TFRC were the least stable ones. Peptidylprolyl isomerase A [PIPA (cyclophilin A)], ribosomal protein, large, P0 (36-B4), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ?1-tubulin, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) and ?-actin showed relatively stable expression levels. The choice of reference genes with various expression stabilities exerted a profound influence on the expression profiles of 2 target genes, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)?2 and C/EBP?. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that the increased protein expression of GAPDH was markedly inhibited by berberine during adipocyte differentiation. This study highlights the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression during the process of adipogenesis. PMID:24626784

  10. Autonomous in-situ qPCR in the Deep Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ussler, W.; Tavormina, P.; Preston, C.; Shah, S.; Girguis, P. R.; Birch, J. M.; Orphan, V.; Scholin, C.

    2010-12-01

    We are developing an instrument to autonomously detect microbial genes that mediate biogeochemical transformations in the deep sea as a step towards developing the scientific and technical capability for searching for life on other planets. This device, known as the Deep-sea Environmental Sample Processor (D-ESP), allows for autonomous collection of discrete 10L water samples at depths up to 4,000 m followed by application of DNA probe arrays as well as qPCR in support of microbial community ribotype analyses and detection of specific genes, respectively. The D-ESP can also be used to preserve particulate material for return to laboratory to validate information gleaned from in-situ sample processing as well as to support expanded studies of genomic diversity and gene expression. To provide a contextual framework for evaluating factors controlling microbial populations, the D-ESP is deployed with a custom suite of chemical and physical sensors including an in-situ mass spectrometer (ISMS), In Situ Underwater Spectrophotometer (ISUS) and CTD/optical sensor package. The D-ESP was deployed for 5 days during July 2010 on the crest of a methane-rich authigenic carbonate mound in Santa Monica Basin (~800 m depth) and two off-mound sites (70 m and 263 m due east of the mound). Bacterial mats mantle the mound, and streams of methane bubbles rise out of long linear cracks in the authigenic carbonate mound. Previous molecular investigations of the benthic water column over and surrounding the mound have demonstrated presence of a diverse assemblage of 16S rRNA and particulate methane monoxygenase subunit A (pMMO-A) genes belonging to putative aerobic methanotrophs making it a useful site for testing the D-ESP. For qPCR analysis, the D-ESP was thus configured to target the pMMO-A and 16S rRNA genes of two putative methanotrophic groups OPU1 and OPU3, the most widespread and abundant groups found in Santa Monica Basin. The pMMO-A and 16S rRNA genes of OPU1 and OPU3 were detected by D-ESP at the on- and off-mound sites as was expected based on previous work. The pMMO-A gene of OPU1 was more abundant than OPU3. In contrast, the 16S rRNA gene of OPU3 group was more abundant than OPU1. Shipboard measurements of on-mound methane show a high degree of meter-scale spatial and temporal heterogeneity (2.9 to 55,000 nM). At the two off-mound sites, methane was more uniform and substantially lower (70-m site = 8.4±0.3 nM; 263-m site = 2.2±0.1 nM). Water for background comparison collected by CTD rosette from 620 m depth at a site near Point Conception was processed by the D-ESP on the deck of the R/V Western Flyer. OPU1 and OPU3 were less abundant than at the off-mound sites, and although detected they were unquantifiable (<10 copies/mL seawater). Methane concentration was an order of magnitude lower than the off-mound sites (0.4±0.07 nM). Although the qPCR data indicate the increased presence of these microbes in a region of methane-enriched water relative to background, methane itself is not a good predictor of the abundance of genes involved with metabolizing that substrate highlighting the need to place biogeochemical analyses in a regional rather than site-specific context.

  11. Genome-wide identification of housekeeping genes in maize.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yuhe; Lv, Yuanda; Dai, Huixue; Zhao, Han

    2014-11-01

    In the wake of recent progress of high throughput transcriptome profiling technologies, extensive housekeeping gene mining has been conducted in humans. However, very few studies have been reported in maize (Zea mays L.), an important crop plant, and none were conducted on a genome -wide level. In this study, we surveyed housekeeping genes throughout the maize transcriptome using RNA-seq and microarray techniques, and validated the housekeeping profile with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) under a series of conditions including different genotypes and nitrogen supplies. Seven microarray datasets and two RNA-seq libraries representing 40 genotypes at more than 20 developmental stages were selected to screen for commonly expressed genes. A total of 1,661 genes showed constitutive expression in both microarray and RNA-seq datasets, serving as our starting housekeeping gene candidates. To determine for stably expressed housekeeping genes, NormFinder was used to select the top 20 % invariable genes to be the more likely candidates, which resulted in 48 and 489 entries from microarray and RNA-seq data, respectively. Among them, nine genes (2OG-Fe, CDK, DPP9, DUF, NAC, RPN, SGT1, UPF1 and a hypothetical protein coding gene) were expressed in all 40 maize diverse genotypes tested covering 16 tissues at more than 20 developmental stages under normal and stress conditions, implying these as being the most reliable reference genes. qPCR analysis confirmed the stable expression of selected reference gene candidates compared to two widely used housekeeping genes. All the reference gene candidates showed higher invariability than ACT and GAPDH. The hypothetical protein coding gene exhibited the most stable expression across 26 maize lines with different nitrogen treatments with qPCR, followed by CDK encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase. As the first study to systematically screen for housekeeping genes in maize, we identified candidates by examining the transcriptome atlas generated from RNA-seq and microarray technologies. The nine top-ranked qPCR-validated novel housekeeping genes provide a valuable resource of reference genes for maize gene expression analysis. PMID:25209110

  12. Unraveling the Wheat Stem Rust Infection Process on Barley Genotypes Through Relative qPCR and Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zurn, J D; Dugyala, S; Borowicz, P; Brueggeman, R; Acevedo, M

    2015-05-01

    The infection process of wheat stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici) on barley (Hordeum vulgare) is often observed as a mesothetic infection type at the seedling stages, and cultivars containing the same major resistance genes often show variation in the level of resistance provided against the same pathogen race or isolate. Thus, robust phenotyping data based on quantification of fungal DNA can improve the ability to elucidate host-pathogen interaction, especially at early time points of infection when disease symptoms are not yet evident. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to determine the amount of fungal DNA relative to host DNA in infected tissue, providing new insights about fungal development and host resistance during the infection process in this pathosystem. The stem rust susceptible 'Steptoe', resistant cultivars containing only Rpg1 ('Beacon', 'Morex', and 'Chevron'), and the resistant line Q21861 containing Rpg1 and the rpg4/Rpg5 complex were evaluated using the traditional 0-to-4 rating scale, fluorescence microscopy, and qPCR. Statistical differences (P < 0.05) were observed in fungal development as early as 24 h postinoculation using the qPCR assay. Fungal development observed using fluorescence microscopy displayed the same hierarchal ordering observed using the qPCR assay. The fungal development occurring at 24 and 48 h postinoculation was vastly different than what was expected using the traditional disease phenotyping methodology; with Steptoe appearing more resistant than the barley lines harboring the known Rpg1 and rpg4/Rpg5 resistance complex. These data indicate potential early prehaustorial resistance contributions in a cultivar considered susceptible based on infection type. Moreover, the temporal differences in resistance suggest pre- and post-haustorial resistance mechanisms in the barley-wheat stem rust infection process, indicating potential host genotype contributions related to basal defense during the wheat stem rust infection process. PMID:25689517

  13. Validation of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analyses in Pleurotus ostreatus by Using Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Castanera, Raúl; López-Varas, Leticia; Pisabarro, Antonio G; Ramírez, Lucía

    2015-06-15

    Recently, the lignin-degrading basidiomycete Pleurotus ostreatus has become a widely used model organism for fungal genomic and transcriptomic analyses. The increasing interest in this species has led to an increasing number of studies analyzing the transcriptional regulation of multigene families that encode extracellular enzymes. Reverse transcription (RT) followed by real-time PCR is the most suitable technique for analyzing the expression of gene sets under multiple culture conditions. In this work, we tested the suitability of 13 candidate genes for their use as reference genes in P. ostreatus time course cultures for enzyme production. We applied three different statistical algorithms and obtained a combination of stable reference genes for optimal normalization of RT-quantitative PCR assays. This reference index can be used for future transcriptomic analyses and validation of transcriptome sequencing or microarray data. Moreover, we analyzed the expression patterns of a laccase and a manganese peroxidase (lacc10 and mnp3, respectively) in lignocellulose and glucose-based media using submerged, semisolid, and solid-state fermentation. By testing different normalization strategies, we demonstrate that the use of nonvalidated reference genes as internal controls leads to biased results and misinterpretations of the biological responses underlying expression changes. PMID:25862220

  14. Evaluation of potential reference genes for qRT-PCR studies in human hepatoma cell lines treated with TNF-?.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chang; Wang, Xiang; Zhong, Ming; Liu, Hailing; He, Qiongqiong; Yang, Xiaojing; Wen, Jifang; Feng, Deyun

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the expression of eight candidate reference genes, B2M, ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT1, TBP, UBC, and YWHAZ, was examined to identify optimal reference genes by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis in two human hepatoma cell lines, BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721, treated with tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) for different time periods. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed by three independent algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results showed that TBP was the most stably expressed gene in BEL-7402 and SMMC-7721 cell lines under current experimental conditions, and that the optimal set of reference genes required for accurate normalization was TBP and HMBS, based on the pairwise variation value determined with geNorm. UBC and ACTB were ranked as the least stable genes by same algorithms. Our findings provide evidence that using TBP alone or in combination with HMBS as endogenous controls could be a reliable method for normalizing qRT-PCR data in human hepatoma cell lines treated with TNF-?. PMID:23811755

  15. On the Limitations of Using Ribosomal Genes as References for the Study of Codon Usage: A Rebuttal

    E-print Network

    Petrov, Dmitri

    , used ribosomal genes as a reference set for the study of patterns of codon usage. We discuss here Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided codon bias (reviewed in [1,2]). The nucleotide content of the genome at large is explained by background

  16. Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies in the apomictic and sexual grass Brachiaria brizantha

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Érica Duarte; Alves-Ferreira, Márcio; Guimarães, Larissa Arrais; da Silva, Felipe Rodrigues; Carneiro, Vera Tavares de Campos

    2009-01-01

    Background Brachiaria brizantha is an important forage grass. The occurrence of both apomictic and sexual reproduction within Brachiaria makes it an interesting system for understanding the molecular pathways involved in both modes of reproduction. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as an important technique to compare expression profile of target genes and, in order to obtain reliable results, it is important to have suitable reference genes. In this work, we evaluated eight potential reference genes for B. brizantha qRT-PCR experiments, isolated from cDNA ovary libraries. Vegetative and reproductive tissues of apomictic and sexual B. brizantha were tested to validate the reference genes, including the female gametophyte, where differences in the expression profile between sexual and apomictic plants must occur. Results Eight genes were selected from a cDNA library of ovaries of B. brizantha considering the similarity to reference genes: EF1 (elongation factor 1 alpha), E1F4A (eukaryotic initiation factor 4A), GAPDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase), GDP (glyceroldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), SUCOA (succinyl-CoA ligase), TUB (tubulin), UBCE (ubiquitin conjugating enzyme), UBI (ubiquitin). For the analysis, total RNA was extracted from 22 samples and raw Ct data after qRT-PCR reaction was analyzed for primer efficiency and for an overall analysis of Ct range among the different samples. Elongation factor 1 alpha showed the highest expression levels, whereas succinyl-CoA ligase showed the lowest within the chosen set of samples. GeNorm application was used for evaluation of the best reference genes, and according to that, the least stable genes, with the highest M values were tubulin and succinyl-CoA ligase and the most stable ones, with the lowest M values were elongation factor 1 alpha and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, when both reproductive and vegetative samples were tested. For ovaries and spikelets of both sexual and apomictic B. brizantha the genes with the lowest M values were BbrizUBCE, BbrizE1F4A and BbrizEF1. Conclusion In total, eight genes belonging to different cellular processes were tested. Out of them, BbrizTUB was the less stable while BbrizEF1 followed by BbrizUBCE were the more stable genes considering male and female reproductive tissues, spikelets, roots and leaves. Regarding the best reference genes for ovary tissues, where apomictic and sexual reproduction must occur, the best reference genes were BbrizUBCE, BbrizE1F4A and BbrizEF1. Our results provide crucial information for transcriptional analysis in the Brachiaria ssp, helping to improve the quality of gene expression data in these species, which constitute an excellent plant system for the study of apomixis. PMID:19573233

  17. Identification of Valid Reference Genes for the Normalization of RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Treated with and without Transient Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Teng-Fei; Ge, Fei; Chen, Ce-Shi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfection, we identified appropriate and reliable reference genes from thirteen candidates in a panel of 10 normal and cancerous human breast cell lines under experimental conditions with/without transfection treatments with two transfection reagents. Reference gene expression stability was calculated using four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct), and the recommended comprehensive ranking was provided using geometric means of the ranking values using the RefFinder tool. GeNorm analysis revealed that two reference genes should be sufficient for all cases in this study. A stability analysis suggests that 18S rRNA-ACTB is the best reference gene combination across all cell lines; ACTB-GAPDH is best for basal breast cancer cell lines; and HSPCB-ACTB is best for ER+ breast cancer cells. After transfection, the stability ranking of the reference gene fluctuated, especially with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent in two subtypes of basal and ER+ breast cell lines. Comparisons of relative target gene (HER2) expression revealed different expressional patterns depending on the reference genes used for normalization. We suggest that identifying the most stable and suitable reference genes is critical for studying specific cell lines under certain circumstances. PMID:25617865

  18. Identification and validation of reference genes to study the gene expression in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus grown in different carbon sources using RT-qPCR.

    PubMed

    Galisa, Péricles S; da Silva, Helder A P; Macedo, Aline V M; Reis, Verônica M; Vidal, Márcia S; Baldani, José I; Simões-Araújo, Jean L

    2012-10-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 is a nitrogen-fixing endophytic bacterium originally isolated from sugarcane and later on was found to colonize other plants such as rice, elephant grass, sweet potato, coffee, and pineapple. Currently, G. diazotrophicus has been considered a plant growth-promoting bacterium due to its characteristics of biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormone secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and antagonism to phytopathogens. Reverse transcription followed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a method applied for the quantification of nucleic acids because of its specificity and high sensitivity. However, the decision about the reference genes suitable for data validation is still a major issue, especially for nitrogen-fixing bacteria. To evaluate and identify suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in the diazotrophic G. diazotrophicus, mRNA levels of fourteen candidate genes (rpoA, rpoC, recA, rpoD, fabD, gmk, recF, rho, ldhD, gyrB, gyrBC, dnaG, lpxC and 23SrRNA) and three target genes (matE, omp16 and sucA) were quantified by RT-qPCR after growing the bacteria in different carbon sources. The geNorm and Normfinder programs were used to calculate the expression stabilities. The analyses identified three genes, rho, 23SrRNA and rpoD, whose expressions were stable throughout the growth of strain PAL5 in the chosen carbon sources. In conclusion our results strongly suggest that these three genes are suitable to be used as reference genes for real-time RT-qPCR data normalization in G. diazotrophicus. PMID:22814372

  19. Reference genes for high-throughput quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of gene expression in organs and tissues of Eucalyptus grown in various environmental conditions.

    PubMed

    Cassan-Wang, Hua; Soler, Marçal; Yu, Hong; Camargo, Eduardo Leal O; Carocha, Victor; Ladouce, Nathalie; Savelli, Bruno; Paiva, Jorge A P; Leplé, Jean-Charles; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline

    2012-12-01

    Interest in the genomics of Eucalyptus has skyrocketed thanks to the recent sequencing of the genome of Eucalyptus grandis and to a growing number of large-scale transcriptomic studies. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) is the method of choice for gene expression analysis and can now also be used as a high-throughput method. The selection of appropriate internal controls is becoming of utmost importance to ensure accurate expression results in Eucalyptus. To this end, we selected 21 candidate reference genes and used high-throughput microfluidic dynamic arrays to assess their expression among a large panel of developmental and environmental conditions with a special focus on wood-forming tissues. We analyzed the expression stability of these genes by using three distinct statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and ?Ct), and used principal component analysis to compare methods and rankings. We showed that the most stable genes identified depended not only on the panel of biological samples considered but also on the statistical method used. We then developed a comprehensive integration of the rankings generated by the three methods and identified the optimal reference genes for 17 distinct experimental sets covering 13 organs and tissues, as well as various developmental and environmental conditions. The expression patterns of Eucalyptus master genes EgMYB1 and EgMYB2 experimentally validated our selection. Our findings provide an important resource for the selection of appropriate reference genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data in the organs and tissues of Eucalyptus trees grown in a range of conditions including abiotic stresses. PMID:23161857

  20. Adapted approach to profile genes while reconciling Vegf-a mRNA expression in the developing and injured lung.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel D; Schwarz, Margaret A

    2015-06-15

    During lung development and injury, messenger RNA (mRNA) transcript levels of genes fluctuate over both space and time. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a highly sensitive, widely used technique to measure the mRNA levels. The sensitivity of this technique can be disadvantageous and errors amplified when each qPCR assay is not validated. In contrast to other organs, lungs have high RNase activity, resulting in less than optimal RNA integrity. We implemented a strategy to address these limitations in developing and injured lungs. Parameters were established and a filter designed that optimized amplicon length and included or excluded samples based on RNA integrity. This approach was illustrated and validated by measuring mRNA levels including Vegf-a in newborn mouse lungs that were injured by 85% oxygen (hyperoxia) for 12 days and compared with control (normoxia). We demonstrate that, in contrast to contradictory Vegf-a expression when normalized to the least suitable housekeeping genes, application of this filter and normalization to most suitable three housekeeping genes, Hprt, Eef2, and Rpl13a, gave reproducible Vegf-a expression, thus corroborating the sample filter. Accordingly, both short amplicon length and proper normalization to ranked, evaluated genes minimized erroneous fluctuation and qPCR amplification issues associated with nonideal RNA integrity in injured and developing lungs. Furthermore, our work uncovers how RNA integrity, purity, amplicon length, and discovery of stable candidate reference genes enhance precision of qPCR results and utilizes the advantages of qPCR in developmental studies. PMID:25868151

  1. Seasonal dynamics of Microcystis spp. and their toxigenicity as assessed by qPCR in a temperate reservoir.

    PubMed

    Martins, António; Moreira, Cristiana; Vale, Micaela; Freitas, Marisa; Regueiras, Ana; Antunes, Agostinho; Vasconcelos, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly frequent, mainly due to water quality degradation. This work applied qPCR as a tool for early warning of microcystin(MC)-producer cyanobacteria and risk assessment of water supplies. Specific marker genes for cyanobacteria, Microcystis and MC-producing Microcystis, were quantified to determine the genotypic composition of the natural Microcystis population. Correlations between limnological parameters, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity and MC concentrations as well as Microcystis abundance were assessed. A negative significant correlation was observed between toxic (with mcy genes) to non-toxic (without mcy genes) genotypes ratio and the overall Microcystis density. The highest proportions of toxic Microcystis genotypes were found 4-6 weeks before and 8-10 weeks after the peak of the bloom, with the lowest being observed at its peak. These results suggest positive selection of non-toxic genotypes under favorable environmental growth conditions. Significant positive correlations could be found between quantity of toxic genotypes and MC concentration, suggesting that the method applied can be useful to predict potential MC toxicity risk. No significant correlation was found between the limnological parameters measured and MC concentrations or toxic genotypes proportions indicating that other abiotic and biotic factors should be governing MC production and toxic genotypes dynamics. The qPCR method here applied is useful to rapidly estimate the potential toxicity of environmental samples and so, it may contribute to the more efficient management of water use in eutrophic systems. PMID:22072994

  2. Ontology-based functional classification of genes: Evaluation with reference sets and overlap analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sidahmed Benabderrahmane; Marie Dominique Devignes; Malika Smail Tabbone; Amedeo Napoli; Olivier Poch

    2011-01-01

    Functional classification involves grouping genes according to their molecular functions or the biological processes they participate in. This unsupervised classification task is essential for interpreting gene datasets produced by post-genomic experiments. As the functional annotation of genes is mostly based on the Gene Ontology (GO), many similarity measures using the GO have been described, but few of them have been

  3. Identification of cytokine-induced modulation of microRNA expression and secretion as measured by a novel microRNA specific qPCR assay

    PubMed Central

    Benes, Vladimir; Collier, Paul; Kordes, Claus; Stolte, Jens; Rausch, Tobias; Muckentaler, Martina U.; Häussinger, Dieter; Castoldi, Mirco

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally. Importantly, microRNA activity participates in the regulation of cellular processes and is a potentially valuable source of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Here we introduce miQPCR, an innovative method to quantify microRNAs expression by using Real-Time PCR. miQPCR exploits T4 RNA ligase activities to extend uniformly microRNAs’ 3?-ends by addition of a linker-adapter. The adapter is then used as ‘anchor’ to prime cDNA synthesis and throughout qPCR to amplify specifically target amplicons. miQPCR is an open, adaptable and cost-effective procedure, which offers the following advantages; i) universal elongation and reverse transcription of all microRNAs; ii) Tm-adjustment of microRNA-specific primers; iii) high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating among closely related sequences and; iv) suitable for the analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs. Analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs secreted by rat primary hepatocytes stimulated with cytokines and growth factors identifies for the first time a widespread modulation of both microRNAs expression and secretion. Altogether, our findings suggest that the pleiotropic activity of humoral factors on microRNAs may extensively affect liver function in response to injury and regeneration. PMID:26108880

  4. Identification of cytokine-induced modulation of microRNA expression and secretion as measured by a novel microRNA specific qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Benes, Vladimir; Collier, Paul; Kordes, Claus; Stolte, Jens; Rausch, Tobias; Muckentaler, Martina U; Häussinger, Dieter; Castoldi, Mirco

    2015-01-01

    microRNAs are an abundant class of small non-coding RNAs that control gene expression post-transcriptionally. Importantly, microRNA activity participates in the regulation of cellular processes and is a potentially valuable source of biomarkers in the diagnosis and prognosis of human diseases. Here we introduce miQPCR, an innovative method to quantify microRNAs expression by using Real-Time PCR. miQPCR exploits T4 RNA ligase activities to extend uniformly microRNAs' 3'-ends by addition of a linker-adapter. The adapter is then used as 'anchor' to prime cDNA synthesis and throughout qPCR to amplify specifically target amplicons. miQPCR is an open, adaptable and cost-effective procedure, which offers the following advantages; i) universal elongation and reverse transcription of all microRNAs; ii) Tm-adjustment of microRNA-specific primers; iii) high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating among closely related sequences and; iv) suitable for the analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs. Analysis of cellular and cell-free circulating microRNAs secreted by rat primary hepatocytes stimulated with cytokines and growth factors identifies for the first time a widespread modulation of both microRNAs expression and secretion. Altogether, our findings suggest that the pleiotropic activity of humoral factors on microRNAs may extensively affect liver function in response to injury and regeneration. PMID:26108880

  5. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julia M Lee; John R Roche; Danny J Donaghy; Anthony Thrush; Puthigae Sathish

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate

  6. Identification of endogenous reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in normal matched breast tumor tissues.

    PubMed

    Gur-Dedeoglu, Bala; Konu, Ozlen; Bozkurt, Betul; Ergul, Gulusan; Seckin, Selda; Yulug, Isik G

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative gene expression measurements from tumor tissue are frequently compared with matched normal and/or adjacent tumor tissue expression for diagnostic marker gene selection as well as assessment of the degree of transcriptional deregulation in cancer. Selection of an appropriate reference gene (RG) or an RG panel, which varies depending on cancer type, molecular subtypes, and the normal tissues used for interindividual calibration, is crucial for the accurate quantification of gene expression. Several RG panels have been suggested in breast cancer for making comparisons among tumor subtypes, cell lines, and benign/malignant tumors. In this study, expression patterns of 15 widely used endogenous RGs (ACTB, TBP, GAPDH, SDHA, HPRT, HMBS, B2M, PPIA, GUSB, YWHAZ2, PGK1, RPLP0, PUM1, MRPL19, and RPL41), and three candidate genes that were selected through analysis of two independent microarray datasets (IL22RA1, TC22, ZNF224) were determined in 23 primary breast tumors and their matched normal tissues using qRT-PCR. Additionally, 18S rRNA, ACTB, and SDHA were tested using randomly primed cDNAs from 13 breast tumor pairs to assess the rRNA/mRNA ratio. The tumors exhibited significantly lower rRNA/mRNA ratio when compared to their normals, on average. The expression of the studied RGs in breast tumors did not exhibit differences in terms of grade, ER, or PR status. The stability of RGs was examined based on two different statistical models, namely GeNorm and NormFinder. Among the 18 tested endogenous reference genes, ACTB and SDHA were identified as the most suitable reference genes for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in the analysis of normal matched tumor breast tissue pairs by both programs. In addition, the expression of the gelsolin (GSN) gene, a well-known downregulated target in breast tumors, was analyzed using the two most suitable genes and different RG combinations to validate their effectiveness as a normalization factor (NF). The GSN expression of the tumors used in this study was significantly lower than that of normals showing the effectivity of using ACTB and SDHA as suitable RGs in this set of tumor-normal tissue panel. The combinational use of the best performing two RGs (ACTB and SDHA) as a normalization factor can be recommended to minimize sample variability and to increase the accuracy and resolution of gene expression normalization in tumor-normal paired breast cancer qRT-PCR studies. PMID:19544972

  7. Evaluation and selection of reference genes for ecotoxicogenomic study of the green alga Closterium ehrenbergii using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah; Guo, Ruoyu; Ebenezer, Vinitha; Ki, Jang-Seu

    2015-05-01

    The green alga Closterium ehrenbergii occurs in fresh water environments and has been suggested as a model for ecotoxicological assessment. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), with its high sensitivity and specificity, is a preferred method for reliable quantification of gene expression levels. qRT-PCR requires reference genes to normalize the transcription level of the target gene, and selection of appropriate references is crucial. Here, we evaluated nine housekeeping genes, that is, 18S rRNA, ACT, TUA, TUB, eIF, H4, UBQ, rps4, and GAPDH, using 34 RNA samples of C. ehrenbergii cultured in various environments (e.g. exposure to heat shock, UV, metals, and non-metallic chemicals). Each housekeeping gene tested displayed different ranges of C T values for each experimental condition. The gene stability was determined using the descriptive statistic software geNorm, which showed that ACT, H4, and TUA were the most suitable reference genes for all the conditions tested. In addition, at least three genes were required for proper normalization. With these references, we assessed the expression level of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) gene in C. ehrenbergii cells exposed to thermal and toxic contaminant stress and found that it was significantly up-regulated by these stressors. This study provides potential reference genes for gene expression studies on C. ehrenbergii with qRT-PCR. PMID:25724346

  8. Selection of suitable reference genes for reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of neuronal cells differentiated from bone mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yu-Xi; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Qiwei; Wang, Chenguang; Su, Guanfang

    2015-08-01

    Reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) is a technique widely used for the quantification of mRNA transcription, It is well recognized that the reference genes used in RT?qPCR require appropriate validation to ensure that gene expression is unaffected by experimental conditions. The differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) into neurons is important in the treatment of nerve injury. In gene expression analysis of the differentiation of BMSCs into neuronal cells by, the commonly used reference genes for RNA analysis are often selected without any preliminary evaluation of their suitability. The present study aimed to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of 11 putative reference genes, including ACTB, ARBP, B2M, CYCA, GAPDH, GUSB, HPRT, PPIA, RPL13A, TBP and PGK1, in order to select the most suitable reference genes for RT?qPCR of the differentiation of neuronal cells by BMSCs. The mRNA expression levels of the 11 putative reference genes were examined using RT?qPCR in rat BMSCs differentiated into neuronal cells. Normal BMSCs and three types of rat BMSCs, which were chemically induced to differentiate into neurons using neurotrophic cytokines and co?culture with retinal cells. The geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs were used to select the most suitable reference genes. The results of the analyses using the three software programs demonstrated that RPL13A was the most stable among all the groups, while ACTB was the least stable. The combination of CYCA and PPIA reference genes contributed the most to increasing stability. The suitability of selected reference genes requires previous pre?selection in every investigation. Based on the three software programs, RPL13A, and the combination of CYCA and PPIA were identified as the most suitable reference genes for RT?qPCR in neuronal cells differentiated from BMSCs. PMID:25936423

  9. Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR in regenerating mouse livers

    SciTech Connect

    Tatsumi, Kohei [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Taminishi, Sanae [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Yoshioka, Akira; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan)

    2008-09-12

    The liver has an intrinsic ability to undergo active proliferation and recover functional liver mass in response to an injury response. This regenerative process involves a complex yet well orchestrated change in the gene expression profile. To produce accurate and reliable gene expression of target genes during various stages of liver regeneration, the determination of internal control housekeeping genes (HKGs) those are uniformly expressed is required. In the present study, the gene expression of 8 commonly used HKGs, including GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, GUSB, PPIA, TBP, TFRC, and RPL4, were studied using mouse livers that were quiescent and actively regenerating induced by partial hepatectomy. The amplification of the HKGs was statistically analyzed by two different mathematical algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Using this method, PPIA and TBP gene expression found to be relatively stable regardless of the stages of liver regeneration and would be ideal for normalization to target gene expression.

  10. Selection of appropriate reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge using transcriptome datasets under abiotic stress treatments

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Huihui; Fu, Yanping; He, Wei; Wang, Lin; Wei, Yahui

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytropis ochrocephala Bunge, an indigenous locoweed species in China, poses great threats to livestock on grasslands. There is a need for further genetic study in the plants per se, for understanding the basis of its acclimation mechanism in various unfavorable environmental conditions and to implement effective control measures. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is the most commonly used method for gene expression analysis. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. The aim of this study was to select the most stable reference genes for transcriptional analysis in O. ochrocephala. Results: We selected 12 candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA), actin2/7 (ACT7), ?-actin (ACTB), actin101 (ACT101), actin11 (ACT11), ?-tubulin (TUB), ?-tubulin (TUA), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH1), GAPDH2, metallothionein-like protein (MET), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase (FBA) and histone H3 (HIS), from the transcriptome datasets of O. ochrocephala and determined the suitability by analyzing their expression levels when exposed to a range of abiotic stress conditions. By employing software packages including geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, HIS, ACT7, and ACT101 were assessed as the most suitable set for normalization in all samples. When normalized with the most stable reference genes, the expression patterns of the three target genes were in accordance with those in the transcriptome data, indicating that the reference genes selected in this study are suitable. Conclusions: The study provided appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in O. ochrocephala and emphasized the importance of validating reference genes for gene expression analysis under specific experimental condition. The usage of inappropriate reference gene would cause misinterpretation.

  11. Comparative study of overlapping genes in bacteria, with special reference to Rickettsia prowazekii and Rickettsia conorii.

    PubMed

    Sakharkar, Kishore R; Sakharkar, Meena K; Verma, Chandra; Chow, Vincent T K

    2005-05-01

    Overlapping genes have been proposed as a means of achieving genome reduction by compressing the maximum amount of information in limited sequence space. In this report, comparative analyses of the overlapping genes of genomes of nine bacteria with different lifestyles were performed. The results clearly suggest that overlapping genes may be a result of evolutionary pressure to minimize genome size. The genomes of two closely related obligatory intracellular parasites - Rickettsia prowazekii and Rickettsia conorii - were investigated further. Detailed analyses of these two genomes revealed that mutations at the ends of coding regions and elimination of intergenic DNA are the main forces that determine overlapping of genes. PMID:15879256

  12. Stability Assessment of Candidate Reference Genes in Urine Sediment of Prostate Cancer Patients for miRNA Applications

    PubMed Central

    Egidi, Maria Giulia

    2015-01-01

    We aimed at assessing the stability of candidate reference genes in urine sediments of men subjected to digital rectal examination for suspected prostate cancer (PCa). Two microRNAs (miR-191 and miR-25) and 1 small nucleolar RNA (SNORD48) were assayed in 35 post-DRE urine sediments of men with PCa and in 26 subjects with histologically confirmed benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). The stability of candidate reference genes was assessed through BestKeeper algorithm and equivalence test. miR-200b and miR-452 were used to test for the effect of normalization on target genes. Our results proved miR-191 to be the most stable gene, showing the lowest degree of variation and the highest stability value. miR-25 and SNORD48 values fell beyond the cutoff of acceptability. In conclusion, we recommend the use of miR-191 for normalization purposes in post-DRE urine sediments.

  13. Analysis of natural and induced variation in tomato glandular trichome flavonoids identifies a gene not present in the reference genome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L

    2014-08-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3'/5' myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3' or 3'/5' O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3' O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3' O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3'-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3'-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

  14. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Real Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays on Pectoralis major Muscle in Chicken (Gallus gallus )

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Carlos S.; Barbosa, Leandro T.; Brito, Claudson; Fernandes, Roberta P. M.; Mann, Renata S.; Pinto, Ana Paula G.; Oliveira, Haniel C.; Dodson, Mike V.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen reference genes were investigated to determine their stability to be used as a housekeeping in gene expression studies in skeletal muscle of chickens. Five different algorithms were used for ranking of reference genes and results suggested that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. The stability of the expression of reference genes were validated using samples obtained from the Pectoralis major muscle in chicken. Samples were obtained from chickens in different development periods post hatch and under different nutritional diets. For gene expression calculation the ??Ct approach was applied to compare relative expression of pairs of genes within each of 52 samples when normalized to mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II (MT-CO2) target gene. Our findings showed that hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) are the most stable reference genes while transferrin receptor (TFRC) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) ranked as the least stable genes in the Pectoralis major muscle of chickens. Moreover, our results revealed that HMBS and HPRT1 gene expression did not change due to dietary variations and thus it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. PMID:26020643

  15. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Real Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays on Pectoralis major Muscle in Chicken (Gallus gallus ).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Carlos S; Barbosa, Leandro T; Brito, Claudson; Fernandes, Roberta P M; Mann, Renata S; Pinto, Ana Paula G; Oliveira, Haniel C; Dodson, Mike V; Guimarães, Simone E F; Duarte, Marcio S

    2015-01-01

    Thirteen reference genes were investigated to determine their stability to be used as a housekeeping in gene expression studies in skeletal muscle of chickens. Five different algorithms were used for ranking of reference genes and results suggested that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. The stability of the expression of reference genes were validated using samples obtained from the Pectoralis major muscle in chicken. Samples were obtained from chickens in different development periods post hatch and under different nutritional diets. For gene expression calculation the ??Ct approach was applied to compare relative expression of pairs of genes within each of 52 samples when normalized to mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase II (MT-CO2) target gene. Our findings showed that hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS) and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1) are the most stable reference genes while transferrin receptor (TFRC) and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M) ranked as the least stable genes in the Pectoralis major muscle of chickens. Moreover, our results revealed that HMBS and HPRT1 gene expression did not change due to dietary variations and thus it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in chicken Pectoralis major muscle. PMID:26020643

  16. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; ?-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; ?-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable genes for fruiting body developmental stages. PMID:25778998

  17. Selection of reference genes for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays when using interferons in U87MG.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Blomquist, Dania; Fernández, Julio Raúl; Miranda, Jamilet; Bello, Claudia; Silva, José A; Estrada, Regla C; Novoa, Lidia Inés; Palenzuela, Daniel; Bello, Iraldo

    2012-12-01

    Relative gene quantification by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is an accurate technique only when a correct normalization strategy is carried out. Some of the most commonly genes used as reference have demonstrated variation after interferon (IFN) treatments. In this work we evaluated the suitability of seven reference genes (RGs) [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), ?-2Microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal RNA subunits 18S and 28S, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and the RNA helicase (DDX5)] for use in qRT-PCR assays in the glioblastoma-derived cell line U87MG treated with IFN?, IFN? or a co-formulated combination of both IFNs (HeberPAG); untreated cell lines were included as control. Data was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. The expression stability of the seven RGs decreased in order of DDX5/GAPDH/HMBS, 18S rRNA, YWHAZ, 28S rRNA and B2M. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that DDX5, GAPDH and HMBS were among the best stably expressed markers under all conditions. Both, geNorm and NormFinder, analyses proposed same RGs as the least variables. Evaluation of the expression levels of two target genes utilizing different endogenous controls, using REST-MCS software, revealed that the normalization method applied might introduce errors in the estimation of relative quantities. We concluded that when qRT-PCR is designed for studies of gene expression in U87MG cell lines treated with IFNs type I and II or their combinations, the use of all three GAPDH, HMBS and DDX5 (or their combinations in pairs) as RGs for data normalizations is recommended. PMID:23065266

  18. Validation of hisH4 and cox5 reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in Aspergillus flavus under aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive conditions.

    PubMed

    Suleman, Essa; Somai, Benesh Munilal

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillus flavus is an environmental pathogen that produces highly carcinogenic aflatoxins. Biosynthesis of aflatoxins is affected by external factors such as pH, temperature, carbon source and nitrogen source. Real-Time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique used to detect minute changes in gene expression of a target gene in comparison to one or more reference genes. Several candidate genes were analysed to determine their suitability for use as reference genes for analysing gene expression in A. flavus via RT-qPCR under various aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive conditions. BestKeeper analysis indicated that histone H4 (hisH4) and cytochrome C oxidase subunit V (cox5) were suitable reference genes for analysis of gene expression in A. flavus via RT-qPCR. This was further confirmed by REST2009 analysis of hisH4 and cox5 stability. Furthermore, REST2009 was used to predict which gene or gene combination would be the best reference gene/s for RT-qPCR expression analysis under each treatment condition tested in this study. PMID:22704686

  19. Model of gene expression in extreme cold - reference transcriptome for the high-Antarctic cryopelagic notothenioid fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Among the cold-adapted Antarctic notothenioid fishes, the high-latitude bald notothen Pagothenia borchgrevinki is particularly notable as the sole cryopelagic species, exploiting the coldest and iciest waters of the Southern Ocean. Because P. borchgrevinki is a frequent model for investigating notothenioid cold-adaptation and specialization, it is imperative that “omic” tools be developed for this species. In the absence of a sequenced genome, a well annotated reference transcriptome of the bald notothen will serve as a model of gene expression in the coldest and harshest of all polar marine environments, useful for future comparative studies of cold adaptation and thermal responses in polar teleosts and ectotherms. Results We sequenced and annotated a reference transcriptome for P. borchgrevinki, with added attention to capturing the transcriptional responses to acute and chronic heat exposures. We sequenced by Roche 454 a normalized cDNA library constructed from pooled mRNA encompassing multiple tissues taken from environmental, warm acclimating, and acute heat stressed specimens. The resulting reads were assembled into 42,620 contigs, 17,951 of which could be annotated. We utilized this annotated portion of the reference transcriptome to map short Illumina reads sequenced from the gill and liver of environmental specimens, and also compared the gene expression profiles of these two tissue transcriptomes with those from the temperate model fish Danio rerio. From this, we identified a conserved group of 58 GO terms, in which terms related to transcription and its regulation, ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, protein ubiquitination, and protein binding among others are more prevalent in the bald notothen, suggesting the pertinent genes play essential roles in cold temperature functioning. Conclusion We sequenced multiple tissue transcriptomes from native and heat-exposed experimental specimens of the high Antarctic, cryopelagic notothenioid P. borchgrevinki to construct a reference transcriptome. In a proof of concept, we utilized the annotated reference transcriptome to profile the gene expression patterns of gill and liver, and identified a suite of over and under-represented GO terms when compared to the tropical water zebrafish suggesting these functions may be important for surviving in freezing waters. The transcriptome resource from this study will aid future investigations of cold adaptation and thermal response of polar ectothermic species. PMID:24053439

  20. Characterizing differential gene expression in polyploid grasses lacking a reference transcriptome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Basal transcriptome characterization and differential gene expression in response to varying conditions are often addressed through next generation sequencing (NGS) and data analysis techniques. While these strategies are commonly used, there are countless tools, pipelines, data analysis methods an...

  1. Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

  2. MPN estimation of qPCR target sequence recoveries from whole cell calibrator samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    DNA extracts from enumerated target organism cells (calibrator samples) have been used for estimating Enterococcus cell equivalent densities in surface waters by a comparative cycle threshold (Ct) qPCR analysis method. To compare surface water Enterococcus density estimates from ...

  3. NEW TARGET AND CONTROL ASSAYS FOR QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCI IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Enterococci are frequently monitored in water samples as indicators of fecal pollution. Attention is now shifting from culture based methods for enumerating these organisms to more rapid molecular methods such as QPCR. Accurate quantitative analyses by this method requires highly...

  4. 3' tag digital gene expression profiling of human brain and universal reference RNA using Illumina Genome Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Massive parallel sequencing has the potential to replace microarrays as the method for transcriptome profiling. Currently there are two protocols: full-length RNA sequencing (RNA-SEQ) and 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE). In this preliminary effort, we evaluated the 3' DGE approach using two reference RNA samples from the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium (MAQC). Results Using Brain RNA sample from multiple runs, we demonstrated that the transcript profiles from 3' DGE were highly reproducible between technical and biological replicates from libraries constructed by the same lab and even by different labs, and between two generations of Illumina's Genome Analyzers. Approximately 65% of all sequence reads mapped to mitochondrial genes, ribosomal RNAs, and canonical transcripts. The expression profiles of brain RNA and universal human reference RNA were compared which demonstrated that DGE was also highly quantitative with excellent correlation of differential expression with quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, one lane of 3' DGE sequencing, using the current sequencing chemistry and image processing software, had wider dynamic range for transcriptome profiling and was able to detect lower expressed genes which are normally below the detection threshold of microarrays. Conclusion 3' tag DGE profiling with massive parallel sequencing achieved high sensitivity and reproducibility for transcriptome profiling. Although it lacks the ability of detecting alternative splicing events compared to RNA-SEQ, it is much more affordable and clearly out-performed microarrays (Affymetrix) in detecting lower abundant transcripts. PMID:19917133

  5. Suitable reference genes for the analysis of direct hyperplasia in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Takagi, Soichi [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Ohashi, Kazuo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)], E-mail: ohashi@abmes.twmu.ac.jp; Utoh, Rie [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan); Tatsumi, Kohei; Shima, Midori [Department of Pediatrics, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8522 (Japan); Okano, Teruo [Institute of Advanced Biomedical Engineering and Science, Tokyo Women's Medical University, 8-1 Kawada-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666 (Japan)

    2008-12-26

    The liver is capable of undergoing a proliferative growth, known as direct hyperplasia, in which the naive liver increases in size due to stimulation with primary mitogens. To produce accurate gene expression data, housekeeping genes (HKGs) that are stably expressed need to be determined. In the present study, liver regeneration was promoted via the direct hyperplasia mode by inducing mice with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene. Gene expression levels of nine commonly used HKGs were analyzed in the liver of different timing during the regeneration. The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, we identified that PPIA and RPL4 showed the most stable expression regardless of the status of the liver regeneration. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that the use of PPIA and RPL4 were the most optimal in providing reliable normalization of gene expression when assessing liver regeneration attributed to direct hyperplasia.

  6. Validation of reference genes for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background L. decemlineata is an exotic invasive insect pest, and invaded in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China in the 1990s from Kazakhstan. It is a notorious defoliator of potato throughout most of the northern Xinjiang in current, and often causes extremely large yield losses of potato. Results The expression stability of nine L. decemlineata house-keeping genes (Actin, ACT1 and ACT2; ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1 and ARF4; TATA box binding protein, TBP1 and TBP2; ribosomal protein RP4 and RP18; translation elongation factor 1? EF1?) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in seven developmental stages, three larval tissues and two insecticide treatments. The results were analyzed using three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the house-keeping genes across the samples, the overall analysis revealed that RP18, RP4, ARF1, and ARF4 were the four most stable house-keeping genes. In contrast, ACT1 and ACT2, two of the most widely used reference genes, had the least stability. Our results suggest that the combined use of the four most stably expressed genes may produce optimal normalization for qRT-PCR. Conclusions The expression stability of the house-keeping genes varies among different developing stages, in different tissues and under different experimental conditions. Our results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. decemlineata. PMID:23497596

  7. Identification and validation of reference genes for Populus euphratica gene expression analysis during abiotic stresses by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hou-Ling; Chen, Jinhuan; Tian, Qianqian; Wang, Shu; Xia, Xinli; Yin, Weilun

    2014-11-01

    Populus euphratica is the only arboreal species that is established in the world's largest shifting-sand desert in China and is well-adapted to the extreme desert environment, so it is widely considered a model system for researching into abiotic stress resistance of woody plants. However, few P. euphratica reference genes (RGs) have been identified for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) until now. Validation of suitable RGs is essential for gene expression normalization research. In this study, we screened 16 endogenous candidate RGs in P. euphratica leaves in six abiotic stress treatments, including abscisic acid (ABA), cold, dehydration, drought, short-duration salt (SS) and long-duration salt (LS) treatments, each with 6 treatment gradients. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software tools, NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper, were employed to analyze the qRT-PCR data systematically, and the outputs were merged by means of a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. The genes selected as optimal for gene expression analysis of the six treatments were RPL17 (ribosomal protein L17) in ABA, EF1? (elongation factor-1 alpha) in cold, HIS (histone superfamily protein H3) in dehydration, GII? in drought and SS, and TUB (tubulin) in LS. The expression of 60S (the 60S ribosomal protein) varied the least during all treatments. To illustrate the suitability of these RGs, the relative quantifications of three stress-inducible genes, PePYL1, PeSCOF-1 and PeSCL7 were investigated with different RGs. The results, calculated using qBasePlus software, showed that compared with the least-appropriate RGs, the expression profiles normalized by the recommended RGs were closer to expectations. Our study provided an important RG application guideline for P. euphratica gene expression characterization. PMID:24720378

  8. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qian; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Yao, Dan; Li, Xin; Chen, Han; Dou, Yang; Wang, Yi; Pei, Yan; Xiao, Yue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum), a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors) maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062) showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus. PMID:25992947

  9. The Basic/Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Family in Gossypium: Reference Genes and Their Evolution during Tetraploidization

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Qian; Liu, Hou-Sheng; Yao, Dan; Li, Xin; Chen, Han; Dou, Yang; Wang, Yi; Pei, Yan; Xiao, Yue-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Basic/helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins comprise one of the largest transcription factor families and play important roles in diverse cellular and molecular processes. Comprehensive analyses of the composition and evolution of the bHLH family in cotton are essential to elucidate their functions and the molecular basis of cotton development. By searching bHLH homologous genes in sequenced diploid cotton genomes (Gossypium raimondii and G. arboreum), a set of cotton bHLH reference genes containing 289 paralogs were identified and named as GobHLH001-289. Based on their phylogenetic relationships, these cotton bHLH proteins were clustered into 27 subfamilies. Compared to those in Arabidopsis and cacao, cotton bHLH proteins generally increased in number, but unevenly in different subfamilies. To further uncover evolutionary changes of bHLH genes during tetraploidization of cotton, all genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies in upland cotton and its diploid progenitors were cloned and compared, and their transcript profiles were determined in upland cotton. A total of 10 genes of S5a and S5b subfamilies (doubled from A- and D-genome progenitors) maintained in tetraploid cottons. The major sequence changes in upland cotton included a 15-bp in-frame deletion in GhbHLH130D and a long terminal repeat retrotransposon inserted in GhbHLH062A, which eliminated GhbHLH062A expression in various tissues. The S5a and S5b bHLH genes of A and D genomes (except GobHLH062) showed similar transcription patterns in various tissues including roots, stems, leaves, petals, ovules, and fibers, while the A- and D-genome genes of GobHLH110 and GobHLH130 displayed clearly different transcript profiles during fiber development. In total, this study represented a genome-wide analysis of cotton bHLH family, and revealed significant changes in sequence and expression of these genes in tetraploid cottons, which paved the way for further functional analyses of bHLH genes in the cotton genus. PMID:25992947

  10. Selection of optimized candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in rice (Oryza sativa L.) during Magnaporthe oryzae infection and drought.

    PubMed

    Bevitori, R; Oliveira, M B; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Lanna, A C; da Silveira, R D; Petrofeza, S

    2014-01-01

    Drought and rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae are two of the most serious threats to global rice production. To explore the mechanisms underlying gene expression induced in rice by stresses, studies involving transcriptome analyses have been conducted over the past few years. Thus, it is crucial to have a reliable set of reference genes to normalize the expression levels of rice genes affected by different stresses. To identify potential reference genes for studies of the differential expression of target genes in rice under M. oryzae infection and drought conditions, the present study evaluated five housekeeping genes for the normalization of gene expression. The stability of the expression of these genes was assessed using the analytical software packages geNorm and NormFinder. For all samples analyzed, the stability rank was UBQ5 > GAPDH > eIF-4?> ?-TUB > 18S rRNA. The data showed that the UBQ5, GAPDH, and eIF-4?genes are appropriate, high-performing reference genes and will be highly useful in future expression studies of fungal infections and drought in rice. PMID:25501189

  11. Evaluation of potential internal references for quantitative real-time RT-PCR normalization of gene expression in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo-Guang; Hu, Yong-Hua

    2015-06-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively for studying gene expression in diverse organisms including fish. In this study, with an aim to identify reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR in red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus), an economic fish species, we determined the expression stability of seven housekeeping genes in healthy and bacterium-infected red drum. Each of the selected candidate genes was amplified by qRT-PCR from the brain, gill, heart, intestine, kidney, liver, muscle, and spleen of red drum infected with or without a bacterial pathogen for 12 and 48 h. The mRNA levels of the genes were analyzed with the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that in the absence of bacterial infection, translation initiation factor 3, NADH dehydrogenase 1, and QM-like protein may be used together as internal references across the eight examined tissues. Bacterial infection caused variations in the rankings of the most stable genes in a tissue-dependent manner. For all tissues, two genes sufficed for reliable normalization at both 12 and 48 h post-infection. However, the optimal gene pairs differed among tissues and, for four of the examined eight tissues, between infection points. These results indicate that when studying gene expression in red drum under conditions of bacterial infection, the optimal reference genes should be selected on the basis of tissue type and, for accurate normalization, infection stage. PMID:25743365

  12. Integrative structural annotation of de novo RNA-Seq provides an accurate reference gene set of the enormous genome of the onion (Allium cepa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seungill; Kim, Myung-Shin; Kim, Yong-Min; Yeom, Seon-In; Cheong, Kyeongchae; Kim, Ki-Tae; Jeon, Jongbum; Kim, Sunggil; Kim, Do-Sun; Sohn, Seong-Han; Lee, Yong-Hwan; Choi, Doil

    2015-01-01

    The onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. Although a considerable amount of onion transcriptome data has been deposited into public databases, the sequences of the protein-coding genes are not accurate enough to be used, owing to non-coding sequences intermixed with the coding sequences. We generated a high-quality, annotated onion transcriptome from de novo sequence assembly and intensive structural annotation using the integrated structural gene annotation pipeline (ISGAP), which identified 54,165 protein-coding genes among 165,179 assembled transcripts totalling 203.0 Mb by eliminating the intron sequences. ISGAP performed reliable annotation, recognizing accurate gene structures based on reference proteins, and ab initio gene models of the assembled transcripts. Integrative functional annotation and gene-based SNP analysis revealed a whole biological repertoire of genes and transcriptomic variation in the onion. The method developed in this study provides a powerful tool for the construction of reference gene sets for organisms based solely on de novo transcriptome data. Furthermore, the reference genes and their variation described here for the onion represent essential tools for molecular breeding and gene cloning in Allium spp. PMID:25362073

  13. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in Iris. lactea var. chinensis Roots under Cadmium, Lead, and Salt Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Chun-Sun; Liu, Liang-qin; Xu, Chen; Zhao, Yan-hai; Zhu, Xu-dong; Huang, Su-Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an accurate and sensitive method to measure the gene expression. However, obtaining reliable result depends on the selection of reference genes which normalize differences among samples. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of seven reference genes, namely, ubiquitin-protein ligase UBC9 (UBC), tubulin alpha-5 (TUBLIN), eukaryotic translation initiation factor (EIF-5A), translation elongation factor EF1A (EF1?), translation elongation factor EF1B (EF1b), actin11 (ACTIN), and histone H3 (HIS), in Iris. lactea var. chinensis (I. lactea var. chinensis) root when the plants were subjected to cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and salt stress conditions. All seven reference genes showed a relatively wide range of threshold cycles (Ct) values in different samples. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were used to assess the suitable reference genes. The results from the two software units showed that EIF-5A and UBC were the most stable reference genes across all of the tested samples, while TUBLIN was unsuitable as internal controls. I. lactea var. chinensis is tolerant to Cd, Pb, and salt. Our results will benefit future research on gene expression in response to the three abiotic stresses. PMID:24977206

  14. Assessment of Transient Gene Expression in Plant Tissues Using the Green Fluorescent Protein as a Reference

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PEER M. SCHENK; ADRIAN R. ELLIOTT

    1998-01-01

    Four different promoters (35S and enhanced 35S of the cauliflower mosaic virus, polyubiquitin of maize and actin1 of rice) were compared in a transient assay using maize leaves and particle bombardment. A gene encoding the jellyfish green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the 35S promoter was used as an internal standard to monitor the effectiveness of each bombardment. Normalisation of

  15. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Hop (Humulus lupulus L.) during Infection with Vascular Pathogen Verticillium albo-atrum

    PubMed Central

    Štajner, Nataša; Cregeen, Sara; Javornik, Branka

    2013-01-01

    Hop plant (Humulus lupulus L.), cultivated primarily for its use in the brewing industry, is faced with a variety of diseases, including severe vascular diseases, such as Verticillium wilt, against which no effective protection is available. The understanding of disease resistance with tools such as differentially expressed gene studies is an important objective of plant defense mechanisms. In this study, we evaluated twenty-three reference genes for RT-qPCR expression studies on hop under biotic stress conditions. The candidate genes were validated on susceptible and resistant hop cultivars sampled at three different time points after infection with Verticillium albo-atrum. The stability of expression and the number of genes required for accurate normalization were assessed by three different Excel-based approaches (geNorm v.3.5 software, NormFinder, and RefFinder). High consistency was found among them, identifying the same six best reference genes (YLS8, DRH1, TIP41, CAC, POAC and SAND) and five least stably expressed genes (CYCL, UBQ11, POACT, GAPDH and NADH). The candidate genes in different experimental subsets/conditions resulted in different rankings. A combination of the two best reference genes, YLS8 and DRH1, was used for normalization of RT-qPCR data of the gene of interest (PR-1) implicated in biotic stress of hop. We outlined the differences between normalized and non-normalized values and the importance of RT-qPCR data normalization. The high correlation obtained among data standardized with different sets of reference genes confirms the suitability of the reference genes selected for normalization. Lower correlations between normalized and non-normalized data may reflect different quantity and/or quality of RNA samples used in RT-qPCR analyses. PMID:23874551

  16. Identification and evaluation of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in tea plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a commonly used technique for measuring gene expression levels due to its simplicity, specificity, and sensitivity. Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a...

  17. Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lies Bogaert; Mario Van Poucke; Cindy De Baere; Luc Peelman; Frank Gasthuys; Ann Martens

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative PCR can be a very powerful and accurate technique to examine gene transcription patterns in different biological conditions. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is accurate normalisation. In most of the studies published on real-time PCR in horses, normalisation occurred against only one reference gene, usually GAPDH or ACTB, without validation of its expression

  18. The Importance of Reference Gene Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples from Sarcoma Patients — An Often Underestimated Problem12

    PubMed Central

    Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Safwat, Akmal; Bærentzen, Steen; Nordsmark, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is efficient for quantification of gene expression, but the choice of reference genes is of paramount importance as it is essential for correct interpretation of data. This is complicated by the fact that the materials often available are routinely collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in which the mRNA is known to be highly degraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate 22 potential reference genes in sarcoma FFPE samples and to study the variation in expression level within different samples taken from the same tumor and between different histologic types. Methods: Twenty-nine patients treated for sarcoma were enrolled. The samples encompassed 82 (FFPE) specimens. Extraction of total RNA from 7-?m FFPE sections was performed using a fully automated, bead-base RNA isolation procedure, and 22 potential reference genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stability of the genes was analyzed by RealTime Statminer. The intrasamples variation and the interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The linear regression model was used to calculate the degradation of the mRNA over time. Results: The quality of RNA was sufficient for analysis in 84% of the samples. Recommended reference genes differed with histologic types. However, PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 were stably expressed regardless of the histologic type included. The variation in ?Cq value for samples from the same patients was similar to the variation between patients. It was possible to compensate for the time-dependent degradation of the mRNA when normalization was made using the selected reference genes. Conclusion: PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 are suitable reference genes for normalization in gene expression studies of FFPE samples from sarcoma regardless of the histology. PMID:25500077

  19. Stability of reference genes for normalization of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) data in bovine blastocysts produced by IVF, ICSI and SCNT.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Charlotte; Arias, María Elena; Vargas, Tamara; Paredes, Marcos; Sánchez, Raúl; Felmer, Ricardo

    2014-11-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive and accurate tool for quantitative estimation of gene transcription levels in preimplantation embryos. To control for possible experimental variations, gene expression data must be normalized using internal control genes commonly known as reference genes. However, the stability of reference genes can vary depending on the state of development and/or experimental conditions; hence the assessment of their stability is essential before initiating a gene expression analysis. In the present study, we used RT-qPCR to measure the transcript levels of 10 commonly used reference genes and analyzed their expression stability in bovine blastocysts produced by in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Using the geNorm program, we found the best combination of genes to normalize gene expression data in bovine embryos at the blastocyst stage produced by IVF (HMBS, SF3A1, and HPRT1), ICSI (H2A, HMBS, and GAPDH), SCNT (ACTB, SF3A1, and SDHA) and/or between blastocysts produced by these methods (GAPDH, HMBS and EEF1A2). We also demonstrated that not only the culture conditions may affect the expression patterns in bovine blastocysts but also the choice of embryo production method may have an important effect. PMID:23731783

  20. Detection of a bacteriophage gene encoding a Mu-like portal protein in Haemophilus parasuis reference strains and field isolates by nested polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Zehr, Emilie S; Tabatabai, Louisa B

    2011-05-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assay was developed to determine the presence of a gene encoding a bacteriophage Mu-like portal protein, gp29, in 15 reference strains and 31 field isolates of Haemophilus parasuis. Specific primers, based on the gene's sequence, were utilized. A majority of the virulent reference strains and field isolates tested harbored the gene. The results suggest that the nPCR technique described in the current report could serve as a tool for epidemiological studies of H. parasuis. PMID:21908286

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), a Migrating Bio-Indicator

    PubMed Central

    Bidne, Keith; Hellmich, Richard L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate results, normalization relative to stably expressed reference genes is crucial. The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), is one of the most recognized insect species for its spectacular annual migration across North America. Besides its great voyages, D. plexippus has drawn attention to its role as a bio-indicator, ranging from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to natural ecosystems. In this study, nine reference genes from D. plexippus genome were selected as the candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these candidates under various biotic and abiotic conditions were evaluated using the four readily available computational programs, BestKeeper, Normfinder, geNorm, and ?Ct method, respectively. Moreover, RefFinder, a web-based computational platform integrating the four above mentioned algorisms, provided a comprehensive ranking of the stability of these reference genes. As a result, a suite of reference genes were recommended for each experimental condition. Specifically, elongation factor 1? (EF1A) and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) were the most stable reference genes, respectively, under biotic (development, tissue, and sex) and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature, and dietary RNAi) conditions. With the recent release of a 273-million base pair draft genome, results from this study allow us to establish a standardized RT-qPCR analysis and lay a foundation for the subsequent genomic and functional genomic research in D. plexippus, a major bio-indicator and an emerging model for migratory animals. PMID:26030778

  2. Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in the Monarch Butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), a Migrating Bio-Indicator.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xiaowei; Bidne, Keith; Hellmich, Richard L; Siegfried, Blair D; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique to quantify gene expression. To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate results, normalization relative to stably expressed reference genes is crucial. The monarch butterfly, Danaus plexippus (L.), is one of the most recognized insect species for its spectacular annual migration across North America. Besides its great voyages, D. plexippus has drawn attention to its role as a bio-indicator, ranging from genetically modified organisms (GMOs) to natural ecosystems. In this study, nine reference genes from D. plexippus genome were selected as the candidate reference genes. The expression profiles of these candidates under various biotic and abiotic conditions were evaluated using the four readily available computational programs, BestKeeper, Normfinder, geNorm, and ?Ct method, respectively. Moreover, RefFinder, a web-based computational platform integrating the four above mentioned algorisms, provided a comprehensive ranking of the stability of these reference genes. As a result, a suite of reference genes were recommended for each experimental condition. Specifically, elongation factor 1? (EF1A) and ribosomal protein 49 (RP49) were the most stable reference genes, respectively, under biotic (development, tissue, and sex) and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature, and dietary RNAi) conditions. With the recent release of a 273-million base pair draft genome, results from this study allow us to establish a standardized RT-qPCR analysis and lay a foundation for the subsequent genomic and functional genomic research in D. plexippus, a major bio-indicator and an emerging model for migratory animals. PMID:26030778

  3. Avoiding Pitfalls of Internal Controls: Validation of Reference Genes for Analysis by qRT-PCR and Western Blot throughout Rat Retinal Development

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Martins, Maurício; Njaine, Brian; Silveira, Mariana S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Housekeeping genes have been commonly used as reference to normalize gene expression and protein content data because of its presumed constitutive expression. In this paper, we challenge the consensual idea that housekeeping genes are reliable controls for expression studies in the retina through the investigation of a panel of reference genes potentially suitable for analysis of different stages of retinal development. Methodology/Principal Findings We applied statistical tools on combinations of retinal developmental stages to assess the most stable internal controls for quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The stability of expression of seven putative reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt1, Mapk1, Ppia and Rn18s) was analyzed using geNorm, BestKeeper and Normfinder software. In addition, several housekeeping genes were tested as loading controls for Western blot in the same sample panel, using Image J. Overall, for qRT-PCR the combination of Gapdh and Mapk1 showed the highest stability for most experimental sets. Actb was downregulated in more mature stages, while Rn18s and Hprt1 showed the highest variability. We normalized the expression of cyclin D1 using various reference genes and demonstrated that spurious results may result from blind selection of internal controls. For Western blot significant variation could be seen among four putative internal controls (?-actin, cyclophilin b, ?-tubulin and lamin A/C), while MAPK1 was stably expressed. Conclusion Putative housekeeping genes exhibit significant variation in both mRNA and protein content during retinal development. Our results showed that distinct combinations of internal controls fit for each experimental set in the case of qRT-PCR and that MAPK1 is a reliable loading control for Western blot. The results indicate that biased study outcomes may follow the use of reference genes without prior validation for qRT-PCR and Western blot. PMID:22916200

  4. Mapping Bias Overestimates Reference Allele Frequencies at the HLA Genes in the 1000 Genomes Project Phase I Data.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Débora Y C; Aguiar, Vitor R C; Bitarello, Bárbara D; Nunes, Kelly; Goudet, Jérôme; Meyer, Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have become the standard for data generation in studies of population genomics, as the 1000 Genomes Project (1000G). However, these techniques are known to be problematic when applied to highly polymorphic genomic regions, such as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes. Because accurate genotype calls and allele frequency estimations are crucial to population genomics analyses, it is important to assess the reliability of NGS data. Here, we evaluate the reliability of genotype calls and allele frequency estimates of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reported by 1000G (phase I) at five HLA genes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DQB1). We take advantage of the availability of HLA Sanger sequencing of 930 of the 1092 1000G samples and use this as a gold standard to benchmark the 1000G data. We document that 18.6% of SNP genotype calls in HLA genes are incorrect and that allele frequencies are estimated with an error greater than ±0.1 at approximately 25% of the SNPs in HLA genes. We found a bias toward overestimation of reference allele frequency for the 1000G data, indicating mapping bias is an important cause of error in frequency estimation in this dataset. We provide a list of sites that have poor allele frequency estimates and discuss the outcomes of including those sites in different kinds of analyses. Because the HLA region is the most polymorphic in the human genome, our results provide insights into the challenges of using of NGS data at other genomic regions of high diversity. PMID:25787242

  5. Defining Reference Sequences for Nocardia Species by Similarity and Clustering Analyses of 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Helal, Manal; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon C. A.; Bain, Michael; Christen, Richard; Sintchenko, Vitali

    2011-01-01

    Background The intra- and inter-species genetic diversity of bacteria and the absence of ‘reference’, or the most representative, sequences of individual species present a significant challenge for sequence-based identification. The aims of this study were to determine the utility, and compare the performance of several clustering and classification algorithms to identify the species of 364 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with a defined species in GenBank, and 110 sequences of 16S rRNA gene with no defined species, all within the genus Nocardia. Methods A total of 364 16S rRNA gene sequences of Nocardia species were studied. In addition, 110 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned only to the Nocardia genus level at the time of submission to GenBank were used for machine learning classification experiments. Different clustering algorithms were compared with a novel algorithm or the linear mapping (LM) of the distance matrix. Principal Components Analysis was used for the dimensionality reduction and visualization. Results The LM algorithm achieved the highest performance and classified the set of 364 16S rRNA sequences into 80 clusters, the majority of which (83.52%) corresponded with the original species. The most representative 16S rRNA sequences for individual Nocardia species have been identified as ‘centroids’ in respective clusters from which the distances to all other sequences were minimized; 110 16S rRNA gene sequences with identifications recorded only at the genus level were classified using machine learning methods. Simple kNN machine learning demonstrated the highest performance and classified Nocardia species sequences with an accuracy of 92.7% and a mean frequency of 0.578. Conclusion The identification of centroids of 16S rRNA gene sequence clusters using novel distance matrix clustering enables the identification of the most representative sequences for each individual species of Nocardia and allows the quantitation of inter- and intra-species variability. PMID:21687706

  6. Insights into the role of differential gene expression on the ecological adaptation of the snail Littorina saxatilis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In the past 40 years, there has been increasing acceptance that variation in levels of gene expression represents a major source of evolutionary novelty. Gene expression divergence is therefore likely to be involved in the emergence of incipient species, namely, in a context of adaptive radiation. In this study, a genome-wide expression profiling approach (cDNA-AFLP), validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were used to get insights into the role of differential gene expression on the ecological adaptation of the marine snail Littorina saxatilis. This gastropod displays two sympatric ecotypes (RB and SU) which are becoming one of the best studied systems for ecological speciation. Results Among the 99 transcripts shared between ecotypes, 12.12% showed significant differential expression. At least 4% of these transcripts still displayed significant differences after correction for multiple tests, highlighting that gene expression can differ considerably between subpopulations adapted to alternative habitats in the face of gene flow. One of the transcripts identified was Cytochrome c Oxidase subunit I (COI). In addition, 6 possible reference genes were validated to normalize and confirm this result using qPCR. ?-Tubulin and histone H3.3 showed the more stable expression levels, being therefore chosen as the best option for normalization. The qPCR analysis confirmed a higher COI expression in SU individuals. Conclusions At least 4% of the transcriptome studied is being differentially expressed between ecotypes living in alternative habitats, even when gene flow is still substantial between ecotypes. We could identify a candidate transcript of such ecotype differentiation: Cytochrome c Oxidase Subunit I (COI), a mitochondrial gene involved in energy metabolism. Quantitative PCR was used to confirm the differences found in COI and its over-expression in the SU ecotype. Interestingly, COI is involved in the oxidative phosphorylation, suggesting an enhanced mitochondrial gene expression (or increased number of mitochondria) to improve energy supply in the ecotype subjected to the strongest wave action. PMID:21087461

  7. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis with reference to acrylamide and microarray analysis of acrylamide-response genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian-Jie; Peng, Ri-He; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Bo; Wang, Li-Juan; Xu, Jing; Sun, Miao; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2015-10-01

    Acrylamide (ACR) is a widely used industrial chemical. However, it is a dangerous compound because it showed neurotoxic effects in humans and act as reproductive toxicant and carcinogen in many animal species. In the environment, acrylamide has high soil mobility and may travel via groundwater. Phytoremediation is an effective method to remove the environmental pollutants, but the mechanism of plant response to acrylamide remains unknown. With the purpose of assessing remediation potentials of plants for acrylamide, we have examined acrylamide uptake by the model plant Arabidopsis grown on contaminated substrates with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. The result revealed that acrylamide could be absorbed and degraded by Arabidopsis. Further microarray analysis showed that 527 transcripts were up-regulated within 2-days under acrylamide exposure condition. We have found many potential acrylamide-induced genes playing a major role in plant metabolism and phytoremediation. PMID:26112177

  8. Expression stability of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR of healthy and diseased pituitary tissue samples varies between humans, mice, and dogs.

    PubMed

    van Rijn, Sarah J; Riemers, Frank M; van den Heuvel, Douwe; Wolfswinkel, Jeannette; Hofland, Leo; Meij, Björn P; Penning, Louis C

    2014-04-01

    Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out mice, often by means of quantitative reversed-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). A precondition of such analyses is that so-called reference genes are stably expressed regardless of changes in disease status or treatment. In this study, the expression of six frequently used reference genes, namely, tata box binding protein (tbp), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (ywhaz), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (sdha), and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (gapdh), was studied in pituitary tissue (normal and adenoma) from three species (humans, mice, and dogs). The stability of expression of these reference genes differed between species and between healthy and diseased tissue within one species. Quantitative analysis based on a single reference gene that is assumed to be stably expressed might lead to wrong conclusions. This cross-species analysis clearly emphasizes the need to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes as a standard and integral aspect of study design and data analysis, in order to improve the validity of the conclusions drawn on the basis of quantitative molecular analyses. PMID:24135907

  9. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Hyperaccumulating Ecotype of Sedum alfredii under Different Heavy Metals Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Zhuo, Renying

    2013-01-01

    Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs - geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii. PMID:24340067

  10. Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR Expression Studies in a Thermophilic Bacterium Grown under Different Culture Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Kathleen D.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Cockrell, Allison L.; Biffinger, Justin C.

    2015-01-01

    The phylum Deinococcus-Thermus is a deeply-branching lineage of bacteria widely recognized as one of the most extremophilic. Members of the Thermus genus are of major interest due to both their bioremediation and biotechnology potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these key metabolic pathways remain unknown. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a high-throughput means of studying the expression of a large suite of genes over time and under different conditions. The selection of a stably-expressed reference gene is critical when using relative quantification methods, as target gene expression is normalized to expression of the reference gene. However, little information exists as to reference gene selection in extremophiles. This study evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for use with the thermophile Thermus scotoductus when grown under different culture conditions. Based on the combined stability values from BestKeeper and NormFinder software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes when comparing: (1) aerobic and anaerobic growth: TSC_c19900, polA2, gyrA, gyrB; (2) anaerobic growth with varied electron acceptors: TSC_c19900, infA, pfk, gyrA, gyrB; (3) aerobic growth with different heating methods: gyrA, gap, gyrB; (4) all conditions mentioned above: gap, gyrA, gyrB. The commonly-employed rpoC does not serve as a reliable reference gene in thermophiles, due to its expression instability across all culture conditions tested here. As extremophiles exhibit a tendency for polyploidy, absolute quantification was employed to determine the ratio of transcript to gene copy number in a subset of the genes. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes reflect transcript copy number, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. Even with the potential for polyploidy in extremophiles, the results obtained via absolute quantification indicate that relative quantification is appropriate for RT-qPCR studies with this thermophile. PMID:26115538

  11. Addressing fluorogenic real-time qPCR inhibition using the novel custom Excel file system 'FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001' to attain consistently high fidelity qPCR reactions

    PubMed Central

    Ackermann, Mark R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventy-two samples at a time – calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have named this custom Excel-based file system "FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001" (FF2-6-001 qPCR set-up tool), and are in the process of transforming it into professional qPCR set-up software to be made available in 2007. The current prototype is already fully functional. PMID:17033699

  12. A Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in a Predatory Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable, rapid, and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate RT-qPCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of seven candidate reference genes, including ?-actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 ? (EF1A), glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydro-genase (GAPDH), cyclophilins A (CypA), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from Hippodamia convergens were investigated. H. convergens is an abundant predatory species in the New World, and has been widely used as a biological control agent against sap-sucking insect pests, primarily aphids. A total of four analytical methods, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ?Ct method, were employed to evaluate the performance of these seven genes as endogenous controls under diverse experimental conditions. Additionally, RefFinder, a comprehensive evaluation platform integrating the four above mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. A suite of reference genes were specifically recommended for each experimental condition. Among them, 28S, EF1A, and CypA were the best reference genes across different development stages; GAPDH, 28S, and CypA were most stable in different tissues. GAPDH and CypA were most stable in female and male adults and photoperiod conditions, 28S and EF1A were most stable under a range of temperatures, Actin and CypA were most stable under dietary RNAi condition. This work establishes a standardized RT-qPCR analysis in H. convergens. Additionally, this study lays a foundation for functional genomics research in H. convergens and sheds light on the ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based biopesticides on this non-target biological control agent. PMID:25915640

  13. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR of Plant Samples Using Purified cDNA as Template

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael A. Phillips; John C. D’Auria; Katrin Luck; Jonathan Gershenzon

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a precise method to measure changes in gene transcript level.\\u000a Accurate quantification requires careful RNA quality assessment, determination of primer efficiency, and selection of an appropriate\\u000a reference gene. While many experimental procedures for these purposes have been described for mammalian samples, the direct\\u000a application of these methods to plant samples often introduces unexpected

  14. Selection of a set of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Bogaert, Lies; Van Poucke, Mario; De Baere, Cindy; Peelman, Luc; Gasthuys, Frank; Martens, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Background Real-time quantitative PCR can be a very powerful and accurate technique to examine gene transcription patterns in different biological conditions. One of the critical steps in comparing transcription profiles is accurate normalisation. In most of the studies published on real-time PCR in horses, normalisation occurred against only one reference gene, usually GAPDH or ACTB, without validation of its expression stability. This might result in unreliable conclusions, because it has been demonstrated that the expression levels of so called "housekeeping genes" may vary considerably in different tissues, cell types or disease stages, particularly in clinical samples associated with malignant disease. The goal of this study was to establish a reliable set of reference genes for studies concerning normal equine skin and equine sarcoids, which are the most common skin tumour in horses. Results In the present study the gene transcription levels of 6 commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, UBB, TUBA1 and RPL32) were determined in normal equine skin and in equine sarcoids. After applying the geNorm applet to this set of genes, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB were found to be most stable in normal skin and B2M, ACTB and UBB in equine sarcoids. Conclusion Based on these results, TUBA1, ACTB and UBB, respectively B2M, ACTB and UBB can be proposed as reference gene panels for accurate normalisation of quantitative data for normal equine skin, respectively equine sarcoids. When normal skin and equine sarcoids are compared, the use of the geometric mean of UBB, ACTB and B2M can be recommended as a reliable and accurate normalisation factor. PMID:16643647

  15. Analyzing Water Samples for Sources of Contamination using PCR and qPCR Berenise Rivera

    E-print Network

    Fay, Noah

    Analyzing Water Samples for Sources of Contamination using PCR and qPCR Berenise Rivera Advisor: Dr. Channah Rock Department of Soil, Water and Environmental Science College of Agriculture and Life Sciences of contamination is essential to effective management of water resources and public health in resource waters

  16. Expressed Repeat Elements Improve RT-qPCR Normalization across a Wide Range of Zebrafish Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vanhauwaert, Suzanne; Van Peer, Gert; Rihani, Ali; Janssens, Els; Rondou, Pieter; Lefever, Steve; De Paepe, Anne; Coucke, Paul J.; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo; Willaert, Andy

    2014-01-01

    The selection and validation of stably expressed reference genes is a critical issue for proper RT-qPCR data normalization. In zebrafish expression studies, many commonly used reference genes are not generally applicable given their variability in expression levels under a variety of experimental conditions. Inappropriate use of these reference genes may lead to false interpretation of expression data and unreliable conclusions. In this study, we evaluated a novel normalization method in zebrafish using expressed repetitive elements (ERE) as reference targets, instead of specific protein coding mRNA targets. We assessed and compared the expression stability of a number of EREs to that of commonly used zebrafish reference genes in a diverse set of experimental conditions including a developmental time series, a set of different organs from adult fish and different treatments of zebrafish embryos including morpholino injections and administration of chemicals. Using geNorm and rank aggregation analysis we demonstrated that EREs have a higher overall expression stability compared to the commonly used reference genes. Moreover, we propose a limited set of ERE reference targets (hatn10, dna15ta1 and loopern4), that show stable expression throughout the wide range of experiments in this study, as strong candidates for inclusion as reference targets for qPCR normalization in future zebrafish expression studies. Our applied strategy to find and evaluate candidate expressed repeat elements for RT-qPCR data normalization has high potential to be used also for other species. PMID:25310091

  17. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

  18. A rapid qPCR method for genetic sex identification of Salmo salar and Salmo trutta including simultaneous elucidation of interspecies hybrid paternity by high-resolution melt analysis.

    PubMed

    Anglès d'Auriac, M B; Urke, H A; Kristensen, T

    2014-06-01

    This study presents an improved duplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method using the master sex-determining gene sdY as a marker for simultaneous genetic sex identification of salmonids of the Salmo genus and paternity elucidation for Salmo salar × Salmo trutta hybrids. This method will provide a new, simple and economical molecular tool for ecological studies of these species as well as for aquaculture purposes. PMID:24814478

  19. What is custom mutation analysis? Custom mutation analysis refers to testing of any gene for families with previously identified mutations associated

    E-print Network

    Gilad, Yoav

    3/10 What is custom mutation analysis? Custom mutation analysis refers to testing of any gene for families with previously identified mutations associated with common or rare genetic conditions. We control guidelines that are not required of research laboratories. Who can benefit from custom mutation

  20. What is custom mutation analysis? Custom mutation analysis refers to testing of any gene for families with previously identified mutations associated

    E-print Network

    Ober, Carole

    1/13 What is custom mutation analysis? Custom mutation analysis refers to testing of any gene for families with previously identified mutations associated with common or rare genetic conditions. We control guidelines that are not required of research laboratories. Who can benefit from custom mutation

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 ? (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), ?-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ?Ct method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

  2. Alignment of gene expression profiles from test samples against a reference database: New method for context-specific interpretation of microarray data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Gene expression microarray data have been organized and made available as public databases, but the utilization of such highly heterogeneous reference datasets in the interpretation of data from individual test samples is not as developed as e.g. in the field of nucleotide sequence comparisons. We have created a rapid and powerful approach for the alignment of microarray gene expression profiles (AGEP) from test samples with those contained in a large annotated public reference database and demonstrate here how this can facilitate interpretation of microarray data from individual samples. Methods AGEP is based on the calculation of kernel density distributions for the levels of expression of each gene in each reference tissue type and provides a quantitation of the similarity between the test sample and the reference tissue types as well as the identity of the typical and atypical genes in each comparison. As a reference database, we used 1654 samples from 44 normal tissues (extracted from the Genesapiens database). Results Using leave-one-out validation, AGEP correctly defined the tissue of origin for 1521 (93.6%) of all the 1654 samples in the original database. Independent validation of 195 external normal tissue samples resulted in 87% accuracy for the exact tissue type and 97% accuracy with related tissue types. AGEP analysis of 10 Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) samples provided quantitative description of the key pathogenetic events, such as the extent of inflammation, in individual samples and pinpointed tissue-specific genes whose expression changed (SAMD4A) in DMD. AGEP analysis of microarray data from adipocytic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and from normal myeloid cell types and leukemias provided quantitative characterization of the transcriptomic changes during normal and abnormal cell differentiation. Conclusions The AGEP method is a widely applicable method for the rapid comprehensive interpretation of microarray data, as proven here by the definition of tissue- and disease-specific changes in gene expression as well as during cellular differentiation. The capability to quantitatively compare data from individual samples against a large-scale annotated reference database represents a widely applicable paradigm for the analysis of all types of high-throughput data. AGEP enables systematic and quantitative comparison of gene expression data from test samples against a comprehensive collection of different cell/tissue types previously studied by the entire research community. PMID:21453538

  3. Validation of the ?-amy1 Transcription Profiling Assay and Selection of Reference Genes Suited for a RT-qPCR Assay in Developing Barley Caryopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ovesná, Jaroslava; Ku?era, Ladislav; Vaculová, Kate?ina; Štrymplová, Kamila; Svobodová, Ilona; Milella, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Reverse transcription coupled with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a frequently used method for gene expression profiling. Reference genes (RGs) are commonly employed to normalize gene expression data. A limited information exist on the gene expression and profiling in developing barley caryopsis. Expression stability was assessed by measuring the cycle threshold (Ct) range and applying both the GeNorm (pair-wise comparison of geometric means) and Normfinder (model-based approach) principles for the calculation. Here, we have identified a set of four RGs suitable for studying gene expression in the developing barley caryopsis. These encode the proteins GAPDH, HSP90, HSP70 and ubiquitin. We found a correlation between the frequency of occurrence of a transcript in silico and its suitability as an RG. This set of RGs was tested by comparing the normalized level of ?-amylase (?-amy1) transcript with directly measured quantities of the BMY1 gene product in the developing barley caryopsis. This panel of genes could be used for other gene expression studies, as well as to optimize ?-amy1 analysis for study of the impact of ?-amy1 expression upon barley end-use quality. PMID:22860024

  4. The High Polyphenol Content of Grapevine Cultivar Tannat Berries Is Conferred Primarily by Genes That Are Not Shared with the Reference Genome[W

    PubMed Central

    Da Silva, Cecilia; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Ferrarini, Alberto; Minio, Andrea; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Tononi, Paola; Avanzato, Carla; Zago, Elisa; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Gaggero, Carina; Pezzotti, Mario; Carrau, Francisco; Delledonne, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Tannat is cultivated mainly in Uruguay for the production of high-quality red wines. Tannat berries have unusually high levels of polyphenolic compounds, producing wines with an intense purple color and remarkable antioxidant properties. We investigated the genetic basis of these important characteristics by sequencing the genome of the Uruguayan Tannat clone UY11 using Illumina technology, followed by a mixture of de novo assembly and iterative mapping onto the PN40024 reference genome. RNA sequencing data for genome reannotation were processed using a combination of reference-guided annotation and de novo transcript assembly, allowing 5901 previously unannotated or unassembled genes to be defined and resulting in the discovery of 1873 genes that were not shared with PN40024. Expression analysis showed that these cultivar-specific genes contributed substantially (up to 81.24%) to the overall expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds that contribute to the unique characteristics of the Tannat berries. The characterization of the Tannat genome therefore indicated that the grapevine reference genome lacks many genes that appear to be relevant for the varietal phenotype. PMID:24319081

  5. Circumventing qPCR inhibition to amplify miRNAs in plasma

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) have be identified in saliva, urine and blood, which has led to increasing interest in their development as biomarkers for diverse diseases including cancers. One of the key advantages of c-miRNAs over other biomarkers is the ability to be amplified and quantified by quantitative PCR (qPCR). However, at phlebotomy when whole blood is dispensed into heparinized tubes, residual levels of the anti-coagulant lithium heparin may remain in the plasma and hence with RNA isolated from the plasma. This can confound the detection of c-miRNAs by qPCR because it inhibits reverse transcriptase (RT). Here we present a procedure, modified from earlier techniques, to detect c-miRNAs in plasma that improves sensitivity and streamlines performance. Findings Treatment of total RNA isolated from human blood plasma with Bacteroides heparinase I during reverse transcription at 37°C for one hour improved sensitivity and performance of the qPCR. This is in comparison to no treatment or treatment of the RNA prior to RT, which is the current suggested method and exposes plasma to Flavobacterium heparinum heparinase I for up to 2 hours before RT. This modest alteration improved qPCR performance and resulted in lowered threshold cycles (Ct) for detection of the target sequence, candidate c-miRNA biomarkers, and controls. It also reduced the expense and number of processing steps, shortening the duration of the assay and minimizing exposure of RNA to elevated temperatures. Conclusion Incorporating Bacteroides heparinase I treatment into conventional RT protocols targeting c-miRNA in plasma can be expected to expedite the discovery of biomarkers. PMID:25075309

  6. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    PubMed

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained. PMID:24128588

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Hypochondroplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for hypochondroplasia? HCH Hypochondrodysplasia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Hypercholesterolemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... for hypercholesterolemia? Elevated cholesterol For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  9. Selection and validation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR studies in the non-model species Delomys sublineatus, an endemic Brazilian rodent.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Alexandra; Axtner, Jan; Sommer, Simone

    2010-02-01

    Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis. A critical factor for creating reliable data in relative quantification is the normalization of the expression data of genes of interest. Therefore the needed normalization factor is calculated out of the expression data of co-amplified genes that are stable expressed in the certain sample material, the so-called reference genes. In this study, we demonstrate the important process of validating potential reference genes using a non-model species. As there are almost no sequences known of the Pallid Atlantic Forest Rat (Delomys sublineatus), a rodent used as indicator species in conservation studies of the endangered Brazilian rainforest, suitable primer sets are more problematic to find than in model species. Out of nine tested primer sets designed for the fully sequenced Mus musculus, five could be used for the establishment of a proper running SYBR-Green assay and validation of their constant expression. qRT-PCR results of 12 cDNAs of Delomys livers were analyzed with three different validation software programs: BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm. Our approach showed that out of the five (Sdha, Canx, Pgk1, Actb and Actg1) potential reference genes, the first four should be used for accurate normalization in further relative quantification analyses. Transferring data from close-by model organisms makes high sensitive real-time RT-PCR applicable even to free-ranging non-model organisms. Our approach might be suitable for other non-model organisms. PMID:20059981

  10. Analysis of Natural and Induced Variation in Tomato Glandular Trichome Flavonoids Identifies a Gene Not Present in the Reference Genome[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3?/5? myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3? or 3?/5? O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3? O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3? O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3?-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3?-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

  11. SISH/CISH or qPCR as alternative techniques to FISH for determination of HER2 amplification status on breast tumors core needle biopsies: a multicenter experience based on 840 cases

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Until now, FISH has been the gold standard technique to identify HER2 amplification status in ambiguous cases of breast cancer. Alternative techniques have been developed to increase the capacities of investigating HER2 amplification status. The aims of this multicenter study in a large series of breast cancer patients were to prospectively compare the level of performance of CISH, SISH, and qPCR alternative techniques on paraffin-embedded core biopsies with “gold standard FISH” for evaluation of HER2 amplification status. Methods This study was performed on 840 cases scored by immunohistochemistry (IHC): 0=317 (38%), 1+=183 (22%), 2+=109 (13%), 3+=231 (27%). Each of the 15 French centers participating in the study analyzed 56 breast carcinoma cases diagnosed on fixed paraffin-embedded core biopsies. HER2 amplification status was determined by commercially available FISH used as the reference technique with determination of the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number status. The alternative techniques performed on the same cases were commercially available SISH or CISH and a common qPCR method especially designed for the study including a set of 10 primer pairs: 2 for HER2 (exons 8 and 26), 5 to evaluate chromosome 17 polysomy TAOK1, UTP6, MRM1, MKS1, SSTR2 and 3 for diploidy control TSN, LAP3 and ADAMTS16. Results The concordance between IHC and FISH was 96% to 95% based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio (n=766) or HER2 copy number (n=840), respectively. The concordance of the alternative techniques with FISH was excellent: 97% and 98% for SISH (498 and 587 cases), 98% and 75% for CISH (108 and 204 cases) and 95% and 93% (699 and 773 cases) for qPCR based on the HER2/CEN17 ratio or HER2 copy number, respectively. Similarly, sensitivity ranged from 99% to 95% for SISH, 100% to 99% for CISH and 89% to 80% for qPCR. The concordance with FISH (ratio) in the 2+ cases was 89% for SISH, 100% for CISH and 93% for qPCR. Conclusion These alternative techniques showed an excellent concordance with FISH in core biopsies allowing their use in routine clinical practice. This newly designed qPCR on paraffin-embedded core biopsies deserves special attention, as it is reliable, easy to perform and less expensive than ISH tests. PMID:23875536

  12. A gene-based linkage map for Bicyclus anynana butterflies allows for a comprehensive analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome.

    PubMed

    Beldade, Patrícia; Saenko, Suzanne V; Pul, Nicolien; Long, Anthony D

    2009-02-01

    Lepidopterans (butterflies and moths) are a rich and diverse order of insects, which, despite their economic impact and unusual biological properties, are relatively underrepresented in terms of genomic resources. The genome of the silkworm Bombyx mori has been fully sequenced, but comparative lepidopteran genomics has been hampered by the scarcity of information for other species. This is especially striking for butterflies, even though they have diverse and derived phenotypes (such as color vision and wing color patterns) and are considered prime models for the evolutionary and developmental analysis of ecologically relevant, complex traits. We focus on Bicyclus anynana butterflies, a laboratory system for studying the diversification of novelties and serially repeated traits. With a panel of 12 small families and a biphasic mapping approach, we first assigned 508 expressed genes to segregation groups and then ordered 297 of them within individual linkage groups. We also coarsely mapped seven color pattern loci. This is the richest gene-based map available for any butterfly species and allowed for a broad-coverage analysis of synteny with the lepidopteran reference genome. Based on 462 pairs of mapped orthologous markers in Bi. anynana and Bo. mori, we observed strong conservation of gene assignment to chromosomes, but also evidence for numerous large- and small-scale chromosomal rearrangements. With gene collections growing for a variety of target organisms, the ability to place those genes in their proper genomic context is paramount. Methods to map expressed genes and to compare maps with relevant model systems are crucial to extend genomic-level analysis outside classical model species. Maps with gene-based markers are useful for comparative genomics and to resolve mapped genomic regions to a tractable number of candidate genes, especially if there is synteny with related model species. This is discussed in relation to the identification of the loci contributing to color pattern evolution in butterflies. PMID:19197358

  13. Association between AKT1 Gene Polymorphism rs2498794 and Smoking-Related Traits with reference to Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Nishizawa, Daisuke; Kasai, Shinya; Hasegawa, Junko; Sato, Naomi; Tanioka, Fumihiko; Sugimura, Haruhiko; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Dobashi, Yoh

    2015-01-01

    To clarify the potential role of variability within and around the AKT1 gene in smoking behaviors, we performed a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of the AKT1 gene in an elderly Japanese cohort. Genotypes of the rs2498794 SNP, which is located in the fifth intron region of the AKT1 gene, were marginally but significantly associated with smoking duration in the total 999 samples of former and current smokers. Interestingly, this SNP had a marginally significant association with individual cancer history (past and current), especially in groups with a shorter smoking duration (<44 years) and fewer cigarettes per day (?20). These data suggest that the rs2498794 polymorphism of the AKT1 gene is associated with a long smoking duration and may be involved in the predisposition to cancer when the smoking duration is short or the cigarettes per day is rate low. PMID:26137473

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR in High Fat Diet-Induced Hepatic Steatosis Mice Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lingyan XuXinran; Xinran Ma; Bin Cui; Xiaoying Li; Guang Ning; Shu Wang

    2011-01-01

    With the epidemic proportions of obesity worldwide and the concurrent prevalence of hepatic steatosis, there is an urgent\\u000a need for better understanding the intrinsic mechanism of hepatic steatosis, especially the changes of gene expression underlying\\u000a the development of hepatic steatosis and its associated abnormal liver function. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a\\u000a sensitive and highly reproducible technique of gene expression

  15. Development of a qPCR method to rapidly assess the function of NKT cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Silke; Tiper, Irina; Japp, Emily; Sun, Wenji; Tkaczuk, Katherine; Webb, Tonya J.

    2014-01-01

    NKT cells comprise a rare, but important subset of T cells which account for ~0.2% of the total circulating T cell population. NKT cells are known to have anti-tumor functions and rapidly produce high levels of cytokines following activation. Several clinical trials have sought to exploit the effector functions of NKT cells. While some studies have shown promise, NKT cells are approximately 50% lower in cancer patients compared to healthy donors of the same age and gender, thus limiting their therapeutic efficacy. These studies indicate that baseline levels of activation should be assessed before initiating an NKT cell based immunotherapeutic strategy, thus the goal of this study was to develop a sensitive method to rapidly assess NKT cell function. We utilized artificial antigen presenting cells in combination with qPCR in order to determine NKT cell function in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors and breast cancer patients. We found that NKT cell activation can be detected by qPCR, but not by ELISA, in healthy donors as well as in breast cancer patients following four hour stimulation. This method utilizing CD1d-expressing aAPC will enhance our knowledge of NKT cell biology and could potentially be used as a novel tool in adoptive immunotherapeutic strategies. PMID:24721393

  16. Detection of Legionella by quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for monitoring and risk assessment

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Culture and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for the detection of Legionella were compared on samples from a residential area before and after two interventions. A total of 84 samples were collected from shower hoses and taps as first flush samples and at constant temperature. Samples were grouped according to the origin of the sample, a) circulation water b) water from empty apartments c) water from shower hoses. The aims were to investigate the usefulness of qPCR compared to culture for monitoring remedial actions for elimination of Legionella bacteria and as a tool for risk assessment. Results In water collected from the apartments Legionella spp were detected by qPCR in the concentration range from LOQ to 9.6*105GU/L while L. pneumophila were detected in a range from LOQ to 6.8*105 GU/L. By culturing, the legionellae were detected in the range from below detection limit (> 10 CFU/L) to 1.6*106 CFU/L. In circulating water and in first flush water from shower hoses, culture and qPCR showed the same tendencies. The overall correlation between the bacteria number detected by culture and the two developed qPCR assays (L. spp and L. pneumophila) was relatively poor (r2 = 0.31 for culture and Legionella spp. assay, r2 = 0.20 for culture and L. pneumophila assay). Conclusion Detection by qPCR was suitable for monitoring changes in the concentration of Legionella but the precise determination of bacteria is difficult. Risk assessment by qPCR only on samples without any background information regarding treatment, timing, etc is dubious. However, the rapid detection by qPCR of high concentrations of Legionella - especially Legionella pneumophila - is valuable as an indicator of risk, although it may be false positive compared to culture results. On the other hand, the detection of a low number of bacteria by qPCR is a strong indication for the absence of risk. PMID:22103438

  17. CopyRighter: a rapid tool for improving the accuracy of microbial community profiles through lineage-specific gene copy number correction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Culture-independent molecular surveys targeting conserved marker genes, most notably 16S rRNA, to assess microbial diversity remain semi-quantitative due to variations in the number of gene copies between species. Results Based on 2,900 sequenced reference genomes, we show that 16S rRNA gene copy number (GCN) is strongly linked to microbial phylogenetic taxonomy, potentially under-representing Archaea in amplicon microbial profiles. Using this relationship, we inferred the GCN of all bacterial and archaeal lineages in the Greengenes database within a phylogenetic framework. We created CopyRighter, new software which uses these estimates to correct 16S rRNA amplicon microbial profiles and associated quantitative (q)PCR total abundance. CopyRighter parses microbial profiles and, because GCN estimates are pre-computed for all taxa in the reference taxonomy, rapidly corrects GCN bias. Software validation with in silico and in vitro mock communities indicated that GCN correction results in more accurate estimates of microbial relative abundance and improves the agreement between metagenomic and amplicon profiles. Analyses of human-associated and anaerobic digester microbiomes illustrate that correction makes tangible changes to estimates of qPCR total abundance, ? and ? diversity, and can significantly change biological interpretation. For example, human gut microbiomes from twins were reclassified into three rather than two enterotypes after GCN correction. Conclusions The CopyRighter bioinformatic tools permits rapid correction of GCN in microbial surveys, resulting in improved estimates of microbial abundance, ? and ? diversity. PMID:24708850

  18. Quantitative real-time PCR with SYBR Green detection to assess gene duplication in insects: study of gene dosage in Drosophila melanogaster (Diptera) and in Ostrinia nubilalis (Lepidoptera)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yolanda Bel; Juan Ferré; Baltasar Escriche

    2011-01-01

    Background  The accurate determination of the number of copies of a gene in the genome (gene dosage) is essential for a number of genetic\\u000a analyses. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) with TaqMan detection has shown advantages over traditional Southern-blot and\\u000a FISH techniques, however the high costs of the required labeled probes is an important limitation of this method. qPCR with\\u000a SYBR

  19. Allelic variation in porcine resistin (RETN) gene is associated with fatness traits in a Wild Boar x Meishan reference family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cloning and comparative sequencing of the porcine resistin (RETN) gene and 5’ flanking region, located at 64 cM on SSC2, revealed 9 SNPs and 2 indels. A European Wild Boar x Meishan family encompassing 335 F2 animals measured for 46 traits including growth, fat deposition and muscle accretion was sc...

  20. Analysis of Gene Expression in Experimental Pressure Ulcers in the Rat with Special Reference to Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kurose, Tomoyuki; Hashimoto, Masakazu; Ozawa, Junya; Kawamata, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers have been investigated in a few animal models, but the molecular mechanisms of pressure ulcers are not well understood. We hypothesized that pressure results in up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and those cytokines contribute to the formation of pressure ulcers. We measured genome-wide changes in transcript levels after compression, and focused especially on inflammatory cytokines. The abdominal wall of rats was compressed at 100 mmHg for 4 hours by two magnets. Specimens were obtained 12 hours, 1, or 3 days after compression, and analyzed by light microscopy, microarray, Real-Time PCR, and ELISA. The skin and subcutaneous tissue in the compressed area were markedly thickened. The microarray showed that numerous genes were up-regulated after the compression. Up-regulated genes were involved in apoptosis, inflammation, oxidative stress, proteolysis, hypoxia, and so on. Real-Time PCR showed the up-regulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon ? (IFN-?), interleukin 1? (IL-1?), interleukin 1 receptor antagonist gene (IL1Ra), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) at 12 hours, IFN-?, IL-6, IL-10, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 at 1 day, and IFN-?, IL-6, and MMP-3 at 3 days. Some genes from subcutaneous tissue were up-regulated temporarily, and others were kept at high levels of expression. ELISA data showed that the concentrations of IL-1? and IL-6 proteins were most notably increased following compression. Prolonged up-regulation of IL-1?, and IL-6 might enhance local inflammation, and continuous local inflammation may contribute to the pressure ulcer formation. In addition, GM-CSF, IFN-?, MMP-3, and TIMP-1 were not reported previously in the wound healing process, and those genes may have a role in development of the pressure ulcers. Expression data from Real-Time PCR were generally in good agreement with those of the microarray. Our microarray data were useful for identifying genes involved in pressure ulcer formation. However, the expression levels of the genes didn’t necessarily correspond with protein production. As such, the functions of these cytokines need to be further investigated. PMID:26177082

  1. Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

  2. Direct Comparison of Flow-FISH and qPCR as Diagnostic Tests for Telomere Length Measurement in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2?=?0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2?=?0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2?=?0.20; p?=?0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2?=?0.1, p?=?0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p?=?0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p?=?0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the measurement of human leukocyte's telomere length in comparison to qPCR. In conclusion, flow-FISH appears to be a more appropriate method for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25409313

  3. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods.

    PubMed

    Haugland, Richard A; Siefring, Shawn D; Varma, Manju; Dufour, Alfred P; Brenner, Kristen P; Wade, Timothy J; Sams, Elizabeth; Cochran, Stacey; Braun, Steve; Sivaganensan, Mano

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 recreational water quality criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to estimate enterococci densities in recreational beach waters in the EPA National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study and directly informed the derivation of the RWQC recommendations. Recent studies have demonstrated that CCE estimates from the method can vary when using different cultured Enterococcus cell preparations in calibrator samples. These differences have been attributed to differences in the quantities of targeted gene copies (target sequences) that are recovered per nominal calibrator cell by DNA extraction. Standardization of results from the calibration model will require the estimation of target sequence recoveries from the calibrator and water samples. In addition, comparisons of water sample results with the RWQC values will require a knowledge of target sequence recoveries from the NEEAR study calibrator samples. In this study recoveries of target sequences and the mean target sequence/cell ratio for the NEEAR study calibrator samples were retrospectively estimated with a corroborated standard curve. A modification of the calibration model was then used to estimate enterococci target sequence quantities in water samples from eight midwestern U.S. rivers. CCE estimates were obtained by dividing these target sequence quantities by the mean NEEAR study target sequence/cell ratio. This target sequence-based quantification approach resulted in a high degree of agreement in beach action decisions (determinations of whether bacterial fecal indicator densities are above or below RWQC-recommended values) from CCE results of the qPCR method and from culture dependent enumeration of both enterococci and Eschericia coli in the corresponding water samples. PMID:25038459

  4. Renal cells exposed to cadmium in vitro and in vivo: normalizing gene expression data.

    PubMed

    Nair, A R; Smeets, K; Keunen, E; Lee, W-K; Thévenod, F; Van Kerkhove, E; Cuypers, A

    2015-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal with a long half-life in biological systems. This half-life is partly as a result of metallothioneins (MTs), metal-binding proteins with a high affinity for Cd. The high retention properties of the kidneys reside in proximal tubular cells that possess transport mechanisms for Cd-MT uptake, ultimately leading to more Cd accumulation. Researchers have studied MT-metal interactions using various techniques including quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), an efficient tool for quantifying gene expression. Often a poor choice of reference genes, which is represented by their instability and condition dependency, leads to inefficient normalization of gene expression data and misinterpretations. This study demonstrates the importance of an efficient normalization strategy in toxicological research. A selection of stable reference genes was proposed in order to acquire reliable and reproducible gene quantification under metal stress using MT expression as an example. Moreover, in vitro and in vivo setups were compared to identify the influence of toxicological compounds in function of the experimental design. This study shows that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (Gapdh), tyrosine monooxygenase/tryptophan5-monooxygenase activation-protein, zeta polypeptide (Ywhaz) and beta-actin (Actb) are the most stable reference genes in a kidney proximal tubular cell line exposed to moderate and high Cd concentrations, applied as CdCl2 . A slightly different sequence in reference gene stability was found in renal cells isolated from rats in vivo exposed to Cd. It was further shown that three reference genes are required for efficient normalization in this experimental setup. This study demonstrates the importance of an efficient normalization strategy in toxicological research. PMID:25042840

  5. Seasonal dynamics of harmful algae in outer Oslofjorden monitored by microarray, qPCR, and microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dittami, Simon M; Hostyeva, Vladyslava; Egge, Elianne Sirnæs; Kegel, Jessica U; Eikrem, Wenche; Edvardsen, Bente

    2013-10-01

    Monitoring of marine microalgae is important to predict and manage harmful algal blooms. Microarray Detection of Toxic ALgae (MIDTAL) is an FP7-funded EU project aiming to establish a multi-species microarray as a tool to aid monitoring agencies. We tested the suitability of different prototype versions of the MIDTAL microarray for the monthly monitoring of a sampling station in outer Oslofjorden during a 1-year period. Microarray data from two different versions of the MIDTAL chip were compared to results from cell counts (several species) and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR; only Pseudochattonella spp.). While results from generation 2.5 microarrays exhibited a high number of false positive signals, generation 3.3 microarray data generally correlated with microscopy and qPCR data, with three important limitations: (1) Pseudo-nitzschia cells were not reliably detected, possibly because cells were not sufficiently retained during filtration or lysed during the extraction, and because of low sensitivity of the probes; (2) in the case of samples with high concentrations of non-target species, the sensitivity of the arrays was decreased; (3) one occurrence of Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax was not detected due to a 1-bp mismatch with the genus probe represented on the microarray. In spite of these shortcomings our data demonstrate the overall progress made and the potential of the MIDTAL array. The case of Pseudochattonella - where two morphologically similar species impossible to separate by light microscopy were distinguished - in particular, underlines the added value of molecular methods such as microarrays in routine phytoplankton monitoring. PMID:23325054

  6. Identification of stable endogenous reference genes for real-time PCR in the human fetal gonad using an external standard technique.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, Peter J; Monteiro, Ana; Fowler, Paul A

    2011-10-01

    Measurement of tissue mRNA transcript levels is critically dependent upon the normalization strategy used. For real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RT-PCR) this commonly depends upon identification of stable (non-variable) endogenous reference genes, with housekeeping genes (HKGs) the most commonly used. In this report we describe the use of an external mRNA standard to identify stable HKGs in the human fetal gonad. Total RNA was extracted from second trimester human fetal gonads and a standard amount of luciferase mRNA was added at the start of the extraction process. Levels of luciferase were then measured relative to each of seven HKGs (SDHA, TBP, B2M, PMM1, SFRS4, HMBS and UBC) by RT-PCR. When normalized to tissue weight, HKG expression was constant across fetal ages. Measurement of overall variation in transcript expression showed that PMM1 was the most stable HKG in the ovary while B2M was most stable in the testis. Re-analysis of the data using GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms showed that two of the top three most stable HKGs were the same using all three methods. This study describes a method for identification of endogenous, stable reference genes for RT-PCR studies of transcript expression levels which is objective and not dependent on prior assumptions of HKG expression. This technique is likely to be applicable to most tissues and, in this case, identifies suitable HKGs for studies into human gonadal development. PMID:21527436

  7. Genetics Home Reference: Epilepsy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Epilepsy Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: Aicardi syndrome autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features benign ...

  8. Genetics Home Reference: Paralysis

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    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Paralysis Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood hyperkalemic periodic paralysis hypokalemic periodic paralysis infantile-onset ascending hereditary spastic ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: Fever

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    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Anemia

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    ... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

  11. FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS IN FRESH ARCHIVED DNA EXTRACT OF WATER SAMPLE FILTRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA has initiated a new recreational water study to evaluate the correlation between illness rates in swimmers and Enterococcus concentrations determined by the mEI agar membrane filter (MF) method and several new technologies including QPCR analysis. Results of this stu...

  12. DNA-Based Faecal Dietary Analysis: A Comparison of qPCR and High Throughput Sequencing Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dáithí C.; Bunce, Michael; Cannell, Belinda L.; Oliver, Rebecca; Houston, Jayne; White, Nicole E.; Barrero, Roberto A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Haile, James

    2011-01-01

    The genetic analysis of faecal material represents a relatively non-invasive way to study animal diet and has been widely adopted in ecological research. Due to the heterogeneous nature of faecal material the primary obstacle, common to all genetic approaches, is a means to dissect the constituent DNA sequences. Traditionally, bacterial cloning of PCR amplified products was employed; less common has been the use of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Currently, with the advent of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) technologies and indexed primers it has become possible to conduct genetic audits of faecal material to a much greater depth than previously possible. To date, no studies have systematically compared the estimates obtained by HTS with that of qPCR. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each technique and how quantitative are deep-sequencing approaches that employ universal primers? Using the locally threatened Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as a model organism, it is shown here that both qPCR and HTS techniques are highly correlated and produce strikingly similar quantitative estimates of fish DNA in faecal material, with no statistical difference. By designing four species-specific fish qPCR assays and comparing the data to the same four fish in the HTS data it was possible to directly compare the strengths and weaknesses of both techniques. To obtain reproducible quantitative data one of the key, and often overlooked, steps common to both approaches is ensuring that efficient DNA isolation methods are employed and that extracts are free of inhibitors. Taken together, the methodology chosen for long-term faecal monitoring programs is largely dependent on the complexity of the prey species present and the level of accuracy that is desired. Importantly, these methods should not be thought of as mutually exclusive, as the use of both HTS and qPCR in tandem will generate datasets with the highest fidelity. PMID:21998697

  13. Microarray detection and qPCR screening of potential biomarkers of Folsomia candida (Collembola: Isotomidae) exposed to Bt proteins (Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yiyang; Krogh, Paul Henning; Bai, Xue; Roelofs, Dick; Chen, Fajun; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Liang, Yuyong; Sun, Yucheng; Ge, Feng

    2014-01-01

    The impact of Bt proteins on non-target arthropods is less understood than their effects on target organisms where the mechanism of toxic action is known. Here, we report the effects of two Bt proteins, Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, on gene expression in the non-target collembolan, Folsomia candida. A customized microarray was used to study gene expression in F. candida specimens that were exposed to Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac. All selected transcripts were subsequently confirmed by qPCR. Eleven transcripts were finally verified, and three of them were annotated. The responses of all eleven transcripts were tested in specimens for both Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac at a series of concentrations. These transcripts were separated into two and three groups for Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac, respectively, depend on their expression levels. However, those eleven transcripts did not respond to the Bt proteins in Bt-rice residues. PMID:24056072

  14. Development and qualification of a high sensitivity, high throughput Q-PCR assay for quantitation of residual host cell DNA in purification process intermediate and drug substance samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Meng; Menesale, Emily; Lu, Tongjun; Magliola, Aeona; Bergelson, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    Methods of high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput are needed for quantitation of low level residual host cell DNA in purification process intermediates and drug substances of therapeutic proteins. In this study, we designed primer/probe sets targeting repetitive Alu repeats or Alu-equivalent sequences in the human, Chinese hamster and murine genomes. When used in quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs), these primer/probe sets showed high species specificity and gave significantly higher sensitivity compared to those targeting the low copy number GAPDH gene. This allowed for detection of residual host cell DNA of much lower concentrations and, for some samples, eliminated the need for DNA extraction. By combining the high sensitivity Alu Q-PCR with high throughput automated DNA extraction using an automated MagMAX magnetic particle processor, we successfully developed and qualified a highly accurate, specific, sensitive and efficient method for the quantitation of residual host cell DNA in process intermediates and drug substances of multiple therapeutic proteins purified from cells of multiple species. Compared to the previous method using manual DNA extraction and primer/probe sets targeting the GAPDH gene, this new method increased our DNA extraction throughput by over sevenfold, and lowered the lower limit of quantitation by up to eightfold. PMID:25165010

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Cranioectodermal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dysplasia? CED Sensenbrenner syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Otospondylomegaepiphyseal dysplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Oto-spondylo-megaepiphyseal dysplasia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Lynch syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... nonpolyposis colorectal neoplasms HNPCC For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Essential pentosuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... pentosuria xylitol dehydrogenase deficiency For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Farber lipogranulomatosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lipogranulomatosis Farber-Uzman syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Alport syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... interstitial pyelonephritis hereditary nephritis For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  1. Identification of crossovers in Wilson disease families as reference points for a genetic localization of the gene.

    PubMed

    Scheffer, H; Houwen, R H; Te Meerman, G J; Loessner, J; Bachmann, B; Kunert, E; Verlind, E; Buys, C H

    1992-08-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism. A minimum recombinant analysis using D13S22, ESD, RB1, D13S31, D13S55, D13S26, D13S39, and D13S12, all localized at 13q14-q22, has been carried out in 20 WD families of Northwest-European origin. No inconsistencies have been observed with respect to locus order or location of the WD locus (WND) compared with previous linkage studies. D13S31 was mapped as the closest marker proximal to WND, whereas D13S55 and D13S26 were mapped as the closest markers distal to WND. We have identified a crossover between WND and D13S31 in one family and a crossover between WND and D13S55 in another. These crossover sites can be used as reference points for new chromosome 13q14-q21 markers, and are therefore important for a more accurate mapping of the WD locus. PMID:1511977

  2. The effects of reference genes in qRT-PCR assays for determining the immune response of bovine cells (MDBK) infected with the Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus 1 (BVDV-1).

    PubMed

    Fredericksen, Fernanda; Delgado, Fredy; Cabrera, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro; Gonzalo, Carrasco; Villalba, Melina; Olavarría, Víctor H

    2015-09-10

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) causes significant economic losses to the dairy industry worldwide, and understanding its infection mechanisms would be extremely useful in designing new and efficient treatments. Due to the limited number of specific antibodies against bovine proteins, differential gene expression analyses are vital for researching host immune responses to viral infection. qRT-PCR provides a sensitive platform to conduct such gene expression analyses, but suitable housekeeping genes are needed for accurate transcript normalization. The present study assessed nine reference genes in bovine kidney cells under conditions of BVDV-1 infection, incubation with pathogen-associated molecular patterns, and co-incubation with BAY117085, a pharmacological inhibitor of the NF-?B signaling pathway. Analyses of Ct values using the BestKeeper and Normfinder programs ranked CD81, RPL4, and GAPDH as the most reliable reference genes. This determination of a stable set of reference genes in this culture system will facilitate analyses of expression levels for genes of interest. PMID:26004977

  3. Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in the Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) at Different Developmental Stages, in Various Tissue Types and on Exposure to Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Conghui; Xin, Nian; Zhai, Yi; Jiang, Liming; Zhai, Jieming; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time RT-PCR has been described as the most sensitive method for the detection of low abundance mRNA. To date, no reference genes have been screened in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The aim of this study was to select the most stable genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Eight housekeeping genes (18S, TUBA, B2M, ACTB, EF1A, GAPDH, RPL17 and UBCE) were tested at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and following exposure to the drug SB-431542. Using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software, GAPDH/B2M, GAPDH/18S and UBCE/GAPDH were identified as the most suitable genes from samples taken of different developmental stages while 18S/RPL17 were consistently ranked as the best reference genes for different tissue types. Furthermore, TUBA/B2M, TUBA/UBCE and B2M/TUBA were found to be the most suitable genes in samples treated with the drug, SB-431542 by geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder respectively. Across both different developmental stages and tissue types, the combination of 18S and GAPDH was the most stable reference gene analyzed by Ref-Finder. To test and verify the screened reference genes, the expression profiles of LEFTY-normalized to the combination of GAPDH/18S and ACTB were presented. These results will be useful for future gene-expression studies in the half-smooth tongue sole. PMID:24667563

  4. Single nucleotide polymorphism in the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: analysis of clinical isolates and standard reference strains

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The presence of four mammalian cell entry (mce) operons in Mycobacterium tuberculosis suggests the essentiality of the functions of the genes in these operons. The differential expression of the four mce operons in different phases of in vitro growth and in infected animals reported earlier from our laboratory further justifies the apparent redundancy for these genes in the genome. Here we investigate the extent of polymorphism in eight genes in the mce1 and mce4 operons of M. tuberculosis from four standard reference strains (H37Rv, H37Ra, LVS (Low Virulent Strain) and BCG) and 112 clinical isolates varying in their drug susceptibility profile, analysed by direct sequencing and Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Results We discovered 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the two operons. The comparative analysis of the genes of mce1 and mce4 operons revealed that yrbE1A [Rv0167] was most polymorphic in mce1 operon while yrbE4A [Rv3501c] and lprN [Rv3495c] had the highest number of SNPs in the mce4 operon. Of 20 SNPs, 12 were found to be nonsynonymous and were further analysed for their pathological relevance to M. tuberculosis using web servers PolyPhen and PMut, which predicted five deleterious nonsynonymous SNPs. A mutation from proline to serine at position 359 of the native Mce1A protein was most deleterious as predicted by both PolyPhen and PMut servers. Energy minimization of the structure of native Mce1A protein and mutated protein was performed using InsightII. The mutated Mce1A protein showed structural changes that could account for the effects of this mutation. Conclusions Our results show that SNPs in the coding sequences of mce1 and mce4 operons in clinical isolates can be significantly high. Moreover, mce4 operon is significantly more polymorphic than mce1 operon (p < 0.001). However, the frequency of nonsynonymous substitutions is higher in mce1 operon and synonymous substitutions are more in mce4 operon. In silico modeling predict that nonsynonymous SNP at mce1A [Rv0169], a virulence gene could play a pivotal role in causing functional changes in M. tuberculosis that may reflect upon the biology of the bacteria. PMID:21345183

  5. Cross-Species Comparison of Genes Related to Nutrient Sensing Mechanisms Expressed along the Intestine

    PubMed Central

    van der Wielen, Nikkie; van Avesaat, Mark; de Wit, Nicole J. W.; Vogels, Jack T. W. E.; Troost, Freddy; Masclee, Ad; Koopmans, Sietse-Jan; van der Meulen, Jan; Boekschoten, Mark V.; Müller, Michael; Hendriks, Henk F. J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Meijerink, Jocelijn

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal chemosensory receptors and transporters are able to detect food-derived molecules and are involved in the modulation of gut hormone release. Gut hormones play an important role in the regulation of food intake and the control of gastrointestinal functioning. This mechanism is often referred to as “nutrient sensing”. Knowledge of the distribution of chemosensors along the intestinal tract is important to gain insight in nutrient detection and sensing, both pivotal processes for the regulation of food intake. However, most knowledge is derived from rodents, whereas studies in man and pig are limited, and cross-species comparisons are lacking. Aim To characterize and compare intestinal expression patterns of genes related to nutrient sensing in mice, pigs and humans. Methods Mucosal biopsy samples taken at six locations in human intestine (n?=?40) were analyzed by qPCR. Intestinal scrapings from 14 locations in pigs (n?=?6) and from 10 locations in mice (n?=?4) were analyzed by qPCR and microarray, respectively. The gene expression of glucagon, cholecystokinin, peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor, taste receptor T1R3, sodium/glucose cotransporter, peptide transporter-1, GPR120, taste receptor T1R1, GPR119 and GPR93 was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS) modeling was used to compare the intestinal expression pattern between the three species. Results and conclusion The studied genes were found to display specific expression patterns along the intestinal tract. PLS analysis showed a high similarity between human, pig and mouse in the expression of genes related to nutrient sensing in the distal ileum, and between human and pig in the colon. The gene expression pattern was most deviating between the species in the proximal intestine. Our results give new insights in interspecies similarities and provide new leads for translational research and models aiming to modulate food intake processes in man. PMID:25216051

  6. Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Plesiomonas shigelloides by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the hugA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Shuang; Xu, Jianguo; Xiong, Yanwen; Ye, Changyun

    2012-01-01

    Plesiomonas shigelloides is one of the causative agents of human gastroenteritis, with increasing number of reports describing such infections in recent years. In this study, the hugA gene was chosen as the target to design loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of P. shigelloides. The performance of the assay with reference plasmids and spiked human stools as samples was evaluated and compared with those of quantitative PCR (qPCR). No false-positive results were observed for the 32 non-P. shigelloides strains used to evaluate assay specificity. The limit of detection for P. shigelloides was approximately 20 copies per reaction in reference plasmids and 5×103 CFU per gram in spiked human stool, which were more sensitive than the results of qPCR. When applied in human stool samples spiked with 2 low levels of P. shigelloides, the LAMP assays achieved accurate detection after 6-h enrichment. In conclusion, the LAMP assay developed in this study is a valuable method for rapid, cost-effective, and simple detection of P. shigelloides in basic clinical and field laboratories in the rural areas of China. PMID:23077478

  7. The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jaros?aw; Bagnicka, Emilia

    2014-10-10

    The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of ?-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is YWHAZ, and - according to the geNorm results - the combined expression of PPM/YWHAZ genes is the best reference in the presented experiment. The usefulness in gene expression analysis of whole blood samples frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C was also proved. PMID:25068405

  8. Improving qPCR efficiency in environmental samples by selective removal of humic acids with DAX-8.

    PubMed

    Schriewer, A; Wehlmann, A; Wuertz, S

    2011-04-01

    Quantitative PCR is becoming the method of choice for the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and other targets in the environment. A major obstacle when amplifying DNA is the presence of inhibiting substances like humic acids that decrease the efficiency of PCR. We combined the polymeric adsorbent Supelite™ DAX-8 with a large-volume (10 mL) nucleic acid extraction method to decrease the humic acid content prior to qPCR quantification in water samples. The method was tested by spiking with humic acid standards and the bacterial surrogate Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1. Improvements in qPCR detection of ADP1 after application of DAX-8 resin (5 and 10 w/v%) were compared with the effects of added bovine serum albumin (BSA) (50, 100 and 200 ng/?L). Both additions improved detection of ADP1 by counteracting inhibitory effects. There were no changes in mean cycle threshold difference (?C(T)) after application of DAX-8 compared to the control despite some loss of DNA, whereas significant increases occurred for BSA, irrespective of BSA concentration applied. The use of DAX-8 leads to an increase in qPCR amplification efficiency in contrast to BSA. The commonly used method to calculate genomic sample concentrations by comparing measured CT values relative to standard curves is only valid if amplification efficiencies of both are sufficiently similar. DAX-8 can provide this efficiency by removing humic acids permanently from nucleic acid extracts and has the potential to significantly increase the reliability of reported non-detects and measured results obtained by qPCR in environmental monitoring. PMID:21256890

  9. Study of rumen metagenome community using qPCR under different diets.

    PubMed

    Singh, K M; Pandya, P R; Tripathi, A K; Patel, G R; Parnerkar, S; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the major bacteria present in rumen microbiota. Here, we performed qPCR based absolute quantitation of selected rumen microbes in rumen fluid of river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to roughage diets. Animals were adapted to roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the proportion of 100:00 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3) and 25:75 (T4) respectively for 30 days. At the end of each treatment, rumen fluid was collected at 0 h and 2 h after feeding. It was found that among fibrolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens (2.22 × 10(8) copies/ml) were highest in T2 group and followed by 1.11 × 10(8) copies/ml for Fibrobacter succinogenes (T2), 2.56 × 10(7) copies/ml for Prevotella ruminicola (T1) and 1.25 × 10(7) copies/ml for Ruminococcus albus (T4). In non-fibrolytic bacteria, the Selenomonas ruminantium (2.62 × 10(7) copies/ml) was predominant in group T3 and followed by Treponema bryantii (2.52 × 10(7)copies/ml) in group T1, Ruminobacter amylophilus (1.31 × 10(7)copies/ml) in group T1 and Anaerovibrio lipolytica (2.58 × 10(6) copies/ml) in group T4. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens were the highest in population in the rumen of Surti buffalo fed wheat straw as roughage source. PMID:25606402

  10. Rapid Detection of blaKPC Carbapenemase Genes by Real-Time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Musa Hindiyeh; Gill Smollen; Zehava Grossman; Daniela Ram; Yehudit Davidson; Fernando Mileguir; Marina Vax; Debbie Ben David; Ilana Tal; Galia Rahav; Ari Shamiss; Ella Mendelson; Nathan Keller

    2008-01-01

    Carbapenem resistance among Enterobacteriaceae is an emerging problem worldwide. Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (blaKPC) enzymes are among the most common -lactamases described. In this study, we report the development and validation of a real-time PCR (q-PCR) assay for the detection of blaKPC genes using TaqMan chemistry. The q-PCR amplification of blaKPC DNA was linear over 7 log dilutions (r 2 0.999;

  11. gbpA as a Novel qPCR Target for the Species-Specific Detection of Vibrio cholerae O1, O139, Non-O1/Non-O139 in Environmental, Stool, and Historical Continuous Plankton Recorder Samples.

    PubMed

    Vezzulli, Luigi; Stauder, Monica; Grande, Chiara; Pezzati, Elisabetta; Verheye, Hans M; Owens, Nicholas J P; Pruzzo, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The Vibrio cholerae N-acetyl glucosamine-binding protein A (GbpA) is a chitin-binding protein involved in V. cholerae attachment to environmental chitin surfaces and human intestinal cells. We previously investigated the distribution and genetic variations of gbpA in a large collection of V. cholerae strains and found that the gene is consistently present and highly conserved in this species. Primers and probe were designed from the gbpA sequence of V. cholerae and a new Taq-based qPCR protocol was developed for diagnostic detection and quantification of the bacterium in environmental and stool samples. In addition, the positions of primers targeting the gbpA gene region were selected to obtain a short amplified fragment of 206 bp and the protocol was optimized for the analysis of formalin-fixed samples, such as historical Continuous Plankton Recorder (CPR) samples. Overall, the method is sensitive (50 gene copies), highly specific for V. cholerae and failed to amplify strains of the closely-related species Vibrio mimicus. The sensitivity of the assay applied to environmental and stool samples spiked with V. cholerae ATCC 39315 was comparable to that of pure cultures and was of 102 genomic units/l for drinking and seawater samples, 101 genomic units/g for sediment and 102 genomic units/g for bivalve and stool samples. The method also performs well when tested on artificially formalin-fixed and degraded genomic samples and was able to amplify V. cholerae DNA in historical CPR samples, the earliest of which date back to August 1966. The detection of V. cholerae in CPR samples collected in cholera endemic areas such as the Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem (BCLME) is of particular significance and represents a proof of concept for the possible use of the CPR technology and the developed qPCR assay in cholera studies. PMID:25915771

  12. Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique's inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not an appropriate method for discriminating between live and dead cells to enumerate Legionella for regulatory purposes. PMID:25288885

  13. Comparison of two poultry litter qPCR assays targeting the 16S rRNA gene of Brevibacterium sp

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chicken feces are vectors of human pathogens and are also important sources of fecal pollution in environmental waters. Consequently, methods that can detect chicken fecal pollution are needed in public health and environmental monitoring studies. In this study, we compared a pre...

  14. QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR (Q-PCR) FOR SPUTUM SMEAR DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    de Albuquerque, Yvana Maria Maia; Lima, Ana Luiza Magalhães de Andrade; Lins, Ana Kelly; Magalhães, Marcelo; Magalhães, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) for the sputum smear diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB. Method: This is a prospective study to assess the accuracy of a diagnostic test, conducted on 140 sputum specimens from 140 patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB, attended at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A Löwenstein-Jensen medium culture and 7H9 broth were used as gold standard. Results: Of the 140 sputum samples, 47 (33.6%) were positive with the gold standard. q-PCR was positive in 42 (30%) of the 140 patients. Only one (0.71%) did not correspond to the culture. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the q-PCR were 87.2%, 98.9% and 95% respectively. In 39 (93%) of the 42 q-PCR positive cases, the CT (threshold cycle) was equal to or less than 37. Conclusion: q-PCR performed on sputum smears from patients living with HIV/AIDS demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and may therefore be recommended as a method for diagnosing PTB. PMID:24626416

  15. A novel gene cluster in Fusarium graminearum expressed under mycotoxin induction conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified a cluster of eight genes (gene loci fg08077 - fg08084) in Fusarium graminearum that is concomitantly up-regulated (Northern and qPCR analysis) under growth conditions that promote mycotoxin production. Proteomics experiments (iTRAQ analysis) have confirmed the up-regulation of pr...

  16. Palynology References

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A& M University

    As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Baraitser-Winter syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypertelorism, and mental retardation For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Ophthalmo-acromelic syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... syndrome Waardenburg anophthalmia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  19. Genetics Home Reference: Infantile systemic hyalinosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hyalinosis? inherited systemic hyalinosis For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hypomagnesemia with secondary hypocalcemia For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    MedlinePLUS

    ... childhood? alternating hemiplegia syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  2. Genetics Home Reference: Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Schilder progressive sclerosing poliodystrophy For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  3. FURTHER STUDIES ON THE ?G-HEAVY CHAIN GENE COMPLEXES, WITH PARTICULAR REFERENCE TO THE GENETIC MARKERS Gm(g) AND Gm(n)

    PubMed Central

    Natvig, J. B.; Kunkel, H. G.; Yount, W. J.; Nielsen, J. C.

    1968-01-01

    The recently described Gm (g) and Gm (n) genetic markers of the ?G3- and ?G2-subgroups of ?-globulin were characterized in detail primarily through studies of myeloma proteins, their polypeptide chains and fragments. Antisera derived from rabbits, non-human primates and rheumatoid arthritis patients gave identical results. This contrasted with the Gm (b) system where the rabbit antisera react with a different genetic determinant (b0) than the sera from rheumatoid arthritis patients (b). The Gm (g) and Gm (n) antigens were detected both by precipitin analysis and by hemagglutination inhibition. The Gm (g) antigen was not associated with any of the other genetic antigens of the ?G3-proteins which all belonged in the Gm (b) class. The genes for the latter were always allelic to the gene coding for Gm (g), with that for Gm (b0) constantly present when that for Gm (g) was absent. The Gm (g) and Gm (n) markers were of particular value in tracing the various gene complexes made up of the closely linked subgroup genes. Further support was gained for the concept that the different gene complexes of various population groups arose primarily through crossing-over. The Gmg and Gmb genes for the ?G3-subgroup were extremely closely linked to those for the ?G1-subgroup. However the Gm (n) marker indicated that the ?G2-subgroup genes were probably further separated on the chromosome. Additional evidence was obtained for the ?G2-?G3-?G1-order of the subgroup cistrons. Among the wide range of gene complexes a new type (?G2,—,?/G1) was described. This complex appeared to have a deletion of the ?G3-cistron. Lower levels of ?G3-globulin were found in the sera of the individuals with this gene in the heterozygous state. The possibility that this unusual complex arose through an unequal nonhomologous crossing-over is discussed. PMID:19867305

  4. Development of a sensitive and specific qPCR assay in conjunction with propidium monoazide for enhanced detection of live Salmonella spp. in food

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Although a variety of methodologies are available for detection of Salmonella, sensitive, specific, and efficient methods are urgently needed for differentiation of live Salmonella cells from dead cells in food and environmental samples. Propidium monoazide (PMA) can preferentially penetrate the compromised membranes of dead cells and inhibit their DNA amplification, however, such inhibition has been reported to be incomplete by some studies. In the present study, we report an efficient qPCR assay targeting a conserved region of the invA gene of Salmonella in conjunction with PMA treatment for detection of DNA from live Salmonella cells in food samples. Results We investigated the relationship between amplicon length and inhibitory effect of PMA treatment to prevent DNA amplification from dead cells while allowing for DNA amplification from live cells, and found that the two factors are well correlated with each other. An amplicon that is 130 bp in length was determined to be optimal for PMA treatment and was selected for further PMA-qPCR assay development. A PMA-qPCR assay was established by utilizing this amplicon and adopting a modified PMA-treatment procedure. The PMA-qPCR assay provided excellent inhibition of DNA amplification from dead cells (a 17-CT-value, or 128,000-fold reduction) while only a slight DNA amplification difference (0.5 CT value) was noted between the PMA-treated and untreated live cells. This assay has been validated through stringent inclusivity and exclusivity studies using a large number of (n?=?167) Salmonella, including all strains of SARA and SARB collections, and non-Salmonella strains (n?=?36). This PMA-qPCR assay is capable of detecting live Salmonella cells in live/dead cell mixtures, or 30 CFU/g live Salmonella cells from enriched spiked spinach samples as early as 4 h. Conclusions A 130-bp amplicon in invA gene was demonstrated to be optimal for PMA treatment for selective detection of live Salmonella cells by PCR. This PMA-qPCR assay provides a sensitive, specific, and efficient method for detecting live Salmonella cells in foods and environmental samples and may have an impact on the accurate microbiological monitoring of Salmonella in foods and environment samples. PMID:24289661

  5. Genetic diversity of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene in Lutzomyia spp., with special reference to Lutzomyia peruensis, a main vector of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in the Peruvian Andes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kento; Cáceres, Abraham G; Gomez, Eduardo A; Mimori, Tatsuyuki; Iwata, Hiroyuki; Korenaga, Masataka; Sakurai, Tatsuya; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2013-05-01

    The genetic divergence caused by genetic drift and/or selection is suggested to affect the vectorial capacity and insecticide susceptibility of sand flies, as well as other arthropods. In the present study, cytochrome b (cyt b) gene sequences were determined in 13 species circulating in Peru to establish a basis for analysis of the genetic structure, and the intraspecific genetic diversity was assessed in the Lutzomyia (Lu.) peruensis, a main vector species of Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana in Peruvian Andes. Analysis of intraspecific genetic diversity in the cyt b gene sequences from 36 Lu. peruensis identified 3 highly polymorphic sites in the middle region of the gene. Haplotype and gene network analyses were performed on the cyt b gene sequences of 130 Lu. peruensis in 9 Andean areas from 3 Departments (Ancash, Lima and La Libertad). The results showed that the populations of La Libertad were highly polymorphic and that their haplotypes were distinct from those of Ancash and Lima, where dominant haplotypes were observed, suggesting that a population bottleneck may have occurred in Ancash and Lima, but not in La Libertad. The present study indicated that the middle region of the cyt b gene is useful for the analysis of genetic structure in sand fly populations. PMID:23416127

  6. Characterization of recombinant IgA producing CHO cell lines by qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Immunoglobulin A (IgA) mediates a key role in mucosal immunity and is a promising novel immunotherapeutic candidate. However, difficulties in obtaining enough material often hamper in vivo explorations. We have previously generated recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines which expressed two different HIV-1 antibodies, 3D6 and 4B3, as IgA1 [1]. One cell line (3D6-IgA) shows high production rates, whereas the other (4B3-IgA) secretes rather low amounts of product. In order to unravel the mystery of productivity bottlenecks we extensively characterized the cell lines regarding growth rate, IgA productivity in long-term culture, immunofluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and Western blotting of intra- and extracellular product (data not shown). The generated data encouraged us to analyze whether the observed antibody productivities could be explained by gene copy number (GCN) or mRNA levels.

  7. Laboratory Evaluations of the Enterococcus qPCR Method for Recreational Water Quality Testing: Method Performance and Sources of Uncertainty in Quantitative Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The BEACH Act of 2000 directed the U.S. EPA to establish more expeditious methods for the detection of pathogen indicators in coastal waters, as well as new water quality criteria based on these methods. Progress has been made in developing a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for en...

  8. Standardization of enterococci density estimates by EPA qPCR methods and comparison of beach action value exceedances in river waters with culture methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.EPA has published recommendations for calibrator cell equivalent (CCE) densities of enterococci in recreational waters determined by a qPCR method in its 2012 Recreational Water Quality Criteria (RWQC). The CCE quantification unit stems from the calibration model used to ...

  9. RAPID AND QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND E. COLI O157 IN WELL WATER USING A NANO-WIRED BIOSENSOR AND QPCR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is expected to advance the use of antibody-based methods and molecular techniques for application to drinking water supplies. The expected deliverables are: (a) proof of concept and assessment of biosensor and QPCR techniques for recovery, detection and quantitati...

  10. De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Rajender S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Singh, Jyoti; Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

    2013-08-01

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important medicinal plant and has been used since ancient times in traditional systems of medicine. C. asiatica mainly contains ursane skeleton based triterpenoid sapogenins and saponins predominantly in its leaves. This investigation employed Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy on a pool of three cDNAs from expanding leaf of C. asiatica and developed an assembled transcriptome sequence resource of the plant. The short transcript reads (STRs) generated and assembled into contigs and singletons, representing majority of the genes expressed in C. asiatica, were termed as 'tentative unique transcripts' (TUTs). The TUT dataset was analyzed with the objectives of (i) development of a transcriptome assembly of C. asiatica, and (ii) classification/characterization of the genes into categories like structural, functional, regulatory etc. based on their function. Overall, 68.49% of the 46,171,131 reads generated in the NGS process could be assembled into a total of 79,041 contigs. Gene ontology and functional annotation of sequences resulted into the identification of genes related to different sets of cellular functions including identification of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism. The wet lab validation of seventeen assembled gene sequences identified to be involved in secondary metabolic pathways and control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was established by semi-quantitative and real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validation also included sequencing/size matching of a set of semi-quantitative PCR amplicons with their in silico assembled contig/gene. This confirmed the appropriateness of assembling the reads and contigs. Thus, the present study constitutes the largest report to date on C. asiatica transcriptome based gene resource that may contribute substantially to the understanding of the basal biological functions and biochemical pathways of secondary metabolites as well as the transcriptional regulatory elements and genetic markers. This work sets the stage for multi-faceted future improvement of the plant, through discovery of new genes, marker-assisted breeding or genetic engineering, on this species as well as for other species of Apiaceae and triterpene producing medicinal plants. PMID:23644021

  11. Development of a Dry-Reagent-Based qPCR to Facilitate the Diagnosis of Mycobacterium ulcerans Infection in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Babonneau, Jérémie; Bernard, Christian; Marion, Estelle; Chauty, Annick; Kempf, Marie; Robert, Raymond; Marsollier, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Background Buruli ulcer is a neglected tropical disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. This skin disease is the third most common mycobacterial disease and its rapid diagnosis and treatment are necessary. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is considered to be the most sensitive method for the laboratory confirmation of Buruli ulcer. However, PCR remains expensive and involves reagents unsuitable for use in tropical countries with poor storage conditions, hindering the development of reliable quantitative PCR (qPCR) diagnosis. We aimed to overcome this problem by developing a ready-to-use dry qPCR mix for the diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the efficiency of three different dry qPCR mixes, lyophilized with various concentrations of cryoprotectants, with that of a freshly prepared mixture, for the detection of a standard range of M. ulcerans DNA concentrations. We evaluated the heat resistance of the dry mixes, comparing them with the fresh mix after heating. We also evaluated one of the dry mixes in field conditions, by analyzing 93 specimens from patients with suspected Buruli ulcers. The dry mix was (i) highly resistant to heat; (ii) of similar sensitivity and efficiency to the fresh mix and (iii) easier to use than the fresh mix. Conclusions Dry qPCR mixes are suitable for use in the diagnosis of M. ulcerans infection in endemic countries. The user-friendly format of this mix makes it possible for untrained staff to perform diagnostic tests with a limited risk of contamination. The possibility of using this mix in either vial or strip form provides considerable flexibility for the management of small or large amounts of sample. Thus, dry-mix qPCR could be used as a reliable tool for the diagnosis of Buruli ulcer in the field. PMID:25830546

  12. Highly aggressive behavior of malignant rhabdoid tumor: a special reference to SMARCB1\\/INI1 gene alterations using molecular genetic analysis including quantitative real-time PCR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Kohashi; Yoshinao Oda; Hidetaka Yamamoto; Sadafumi Tamiya; Teiyu Izumi; Shigeru Ohta; Tomoaki Taguchi; Sachiyo Suita; Masazumi Tsuneyoshi

    2007-01-01

    Purpose  \\u000a SMARCB1\\/INI1, which negatively regulates cell cycle progression from G0\\/G1 into the S-phase via the p16INK4a-RB-E2F pathway, has been\\u000a reported to be inactivated homozygously by deletion and\\/or mutations in malignant rhabdoid tumor (MRT). In the current study,\\u000a we investigated the alteration of the SMARCB1\\/INI1 gene using simple methods, and its gene product at the protein level. Moreover, we investigated the

  13. Poroelastic references

    DOE Data Explorer

    Christina Morency

    This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

  14. Phylogeny of Japanese Stag Beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) Inferred from 16S mtrRNA Gene Sequences, with Reference to the Evolution of Sexual Dimorphism of Mandibles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tadatsugu Hosoya; Kunio Araya

    2005-01-01

    As a first step in reconstructing the phylogeny of world stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), phylogenetic relationships among the major members of Japanese stag beetles were explored by analyzing a sequence of 1030 nucleotides from the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene. A total of 20 species and three additional subspecies representing 13 genera were examined to pro- vide basic

  15. Stability of expression of reference genes among different lentil (Lens culinaris) genotypes subjected to cold stress, white mold disease, and Aphanomyces root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentils have served as an important plant source of dietary protein for over 8000 years. The development of improved lentil varieties is accelerated by a better understanding of the genetic basis of desirable traits, which can be gained by examining patterns of gene expression among phenotypically d...

  16. Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae

    PubMed Central

    Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

    2014-01-01

    Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

  17. Referred pain.

    PubMed

    Markman, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    Comprehending orofacial referred pain requires an understanding of the neuroanatomy of the trigeminal nerve and associated cranial nerves. It also requires knowledge of the concept of neuronal convergence as well as the recognition that the caudalis is laminated and is therefore responsible for sensory receptive fields-that one interneuron may receive multiple sensory inputs and that structures within a lamina have sensory neurons which project into the caudalis and may share the same interneuron. PMID:25141487

  18. Advantageous Direct Quantification of Viable Closely Related Probiotics in Petit-Suisse Cheeses under In Vitro Gastrointestinal Conditions by Propidium Monoazide - qPCR

    PubMed Central

    Villarreal, Martha Lissete Morales; Padilha, Marina; Vieira, Antonio Diogo Silva; Franco, Bernadette Dora Gombossy de Melo; Martinez, Rafael Chacon Ruiz; Saad, Susana Marta Isay

    2013-01-01

    Species-specific Quantitative Real Time PCR (qPCR) alone and combined with the use of propidium monoazide (PMA) were used along with the plate count method to evaluate the survival of the probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12, and the bacteriocinogenic and potentially probiotic strain Lactobacillus sakei subsp. sakei 2a in synbiotic (F1) and probiotic (F2) petit-suisse cheeses exposed throughout shelf-life to in vitro simulated gastrointestinal tract conditions. The three strains studied showed a reduction in their viability after the 6 h assay. Bb-12 displayed the highest survival capacity, above 72.6 and 74.6% of the initial populations, respectively, by plate count and PMA-qPCR, maintaining population levels in the range or above 6 log CFU/g. The prebiotic mix of inulin and FOS did not offer any additional protection for the strains against the simulated gastrointestinal environment. The microorganisms' populations were comparable among the three methods at the initial time of the assay, confirming the presence of mainly viable and culturable cells. However, with the intensification of the stress induced throughout the various stages of the in vitro test, the differences among the methods increased. The qPCR was not a reliable enumeration method for the quantification of intact bacterial populations, mixed with large numbers of injured and dead bacteria, as confirmed by the scanning electron microscopy results. Furthermore, bacteria plate counts were much lower (P<0.05) than with the PMA-qPCR method, suggesting the accumulation of stressed or dead microorganisms unable to form colonies. The use of PMA overcame the qPCR inability to differentiate between dead and alive cells. The combination of PMA and species-specific qPCR in this study allowed a quick and unequivocal way of enumeration of viable closely related species incorporated into probiotic and synbiotic petit-suisse cheeses and under stress conditions. PMID:24358142

  19. Evaluation of broiler litter with reference to the microbial composition as assessed by using 16S rRNA and functional gene markers.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jingrang; Sanchez, Susan; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J; Harmon, Barry G; Lee, Margie D

    2003-02-01

    Very little is known about the microbial composition of animal bedding wastes, including poultry litter, and what is known has been deduced from standard culture methods, by which some fastidious organisms that exist in the environment may not be detected. We evaluated the bacterial composition of poultry litter by using a combination of culture and molecular detection. Total aerobic bacteria in poultry litter were detected by culture at 10(9) CFU/g of material. Enteric bacteria such as Enterococcus spp. and coliforms composed 0.1 and 0.01%, respectively, of the total aerobic cultivatable bacteria in poultry litter; no Salmonella strains were detected by culture. In order to characterize the most abundant bacterial groups, we sequenced 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes amplified by PCR with microbial community DNA isolated from poultry litter as the template. From the 16S rDNA library, 31 genera were identified. Twelve families or groups were identified with lactobacilli and Salinococcus spp. forming the most abundant groups. In fact, 82% of the total sequences were identified as gram-positive bacteria with 62% of total belonging to low G+C gram-positive groups. In addition to detection of 16S rDNA sequences associated with the expected fecal bacteria present in manure, we detected many bacterial sequences for organisms, such as Globicatella sulfidofaciens, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium urealyticum, Clostridium aminovalericum, Arthrobacter sp., and Denitrobacter permanens, that may be involved in the degradation of wood and cycling of nitrogen and sulfur. Several sequences were identified in the library for bacteria associated with disease in humans and poultry such as clostridia, staphylococci, and Bordetella spp. However, specific PCR targeting other human and veterinary pathogens did not detect the presence of Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., or toxigenic staphylococci. PCR and DNA hybridization revealed the presence of class 1 integrons with gene cassettes that specify resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. Only from understanding the microbial community of animal wastes such as poultry litter can we manage animal disease and limit the impact of animal waste on the environment and human and animal health. PMID:12571010

  20. DEVELOPMENT OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND USE OF TWO VARIATIONS OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STREPTOCOCCUS GORDONIL AS LYSIS CONTROLS IN A QPCR ASSAY FOR ASSESSING SANITARY QUALITY OF WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Joseph B. James and Fred J. Genthner United States Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL Background: Methods using rapid cycle, real-time, quantitative (QPCR) are being developed for detecting and quantifying Enterococcus spp. as well as other aquatic b...

  1. Analysis of Wilms tumor gene (WT1) expression in acute leukemia patients with special reference to the differential diagnosis between eosinophilic leukemia and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Menssen, H D; Schmidt, A; Bartelt, S; Arjomand, A; Thomsen, H; Leben, R; Kath, R; Thiel, E

    2000-01-01

    Continuous Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) expression is a typical feature of leukemic blasts in AML, ALL, and blast crisis CML patients. It is easily detectable by a variety of RT-PCR protocols, which differ mainly in their sensitivity. The nuclear WT1 protein can be found in blasts of approximately 50-60% of acute leukemia patients at diagnosis. Conversely, WT1 is only transiently expressed in normal hemopoiesis. Early CD34+ hemopoietic progenitors express WT1, whereas no WT1 mRNA transcripts can be found in mature blood cells and differentiation-induced committed CD34- progenitors. As a powerful complementary diagnostic tool, testing for WT1 expression can be helpful to discriminate between eosinophilic leukemia (EoL) patients and patients with idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndromes. Conflicting data about the usefulness of testing for WT1 expression to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in treated leukemia patients will be discussed. Finally, research strategies to circumvent shortcomings in detecting leukemia-associated WT1 expression will be outlined. PMID:10674900

  2. Differential genome-wide gene expression profiling of bovine largest and second-largest follicles: identification of genes associated with growth of dominant follicles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ken-Go Hayashi; Koichi Ushizawa; Misa Hosoe; Toru Takahashi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Bovine follicular development is regulated by numerous molecular mechanisms and biological pathways. In this study, we tried to identify differentially expressed genes between largest (F1) and second-largest follicles (F2), and classify them by global gene expression profiling using a combination of microarray and quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR) analysis. The follicular status of F1 and F2 were further evaluated in

  3. Timing & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    ...........................................................................................................1 Universal Time (UT0....................................................................................................................2 Coordinated Universal TimeTiming & Time Code Reference REFERENCE GUIDE #12;i Time Scales of Measurement Introduction

  4. Detection of fecal bacteria and source tracking identifiers in environmental waters using rRNA-based RT-qPCR and rDNA-based qPCR assays.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Siponen, Sallamaari; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Räsänen, Pia; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the use of RT-qPCR assays targeting rRNA gene sequences for the detection of fecal bacteria in water samples. We challenged the RT-qPCR assays against RNA extracted from sewage effluent (n = 14), surface water (n = 30), and treated source water (n = 15) samples. Additionally, we applied the same assays using DNA as the qPCR template. The targeted fecal bacteria were present in most of the samples tested, although in several cases, the detection frequency increased when RNA was used as the template. For example, the majority of samples that tested positive for E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in surface waters, and for human-specific Bacteroidales, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in treated source waters were only detected when rRNA was used as the original template. The difference in detection frequency using rRNA or rDNA (rRNA gene) was sample- and assay-dependent, suggesting that the abundance of active and nonactive populations differed between samples. Statistical analyses for each population exhibiting multiple quantifiable results showed that the rRNA copy numbers were significantly higher than the rDNA counterparts (p < 0.05). Moreover, the detection frequency of rRNA-based assays were in better agreement with the culture-based results of E. coli, intestinal enterococci, and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in surface waters than that of rDNA-based assays, suggesting that rRNA signals were associated to active bacterial populations. Our data show that using rRNA-based approaches significantly increases detection sensitivity for common fecal bacteria in environmental waters. These findings have important implications for microbial water quality monitoring and public health risk assessments. PMID:24187936

  5. Microarray analysis of pediatric ependymoma identifies a cluster of 112 candidate genes including four transcripts at 22q12.1-q13.31, 2

    PubMed Central

    Suarez-Merino, Blanca; Hubank, Mike; Revesz, Tamas; Harkness, William; Hayward, Richard; Thompson, Dominic; Darling, John L.; Thomas, David G.T.; Warr, Tracy J.

    2005-01-01

    Ependymomas are glial cell–derived tumors characterized by varying degrees of chromosomal abnormalities and variability in clinical behavior. Cytogenetic analysis of pediatric ependymoma has failed to identify consistent patterns of abnormalities, with the exception of monosomy of 22 or structural abnormalities of 22q. In this study, a total of 19 pediatric ependymoma samples were used in a series of expression profiling, quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR), and loss of heterozygosity experiments to identify candidate genes involved in the development of this type of pediatric malignancy. Of the 12,627 genes analyzed, a subset of 112 genes emerged as being abnormally expressed when compared to three normal brain controls. Genes with increased expression included the oncogene WNT5A; the p53 homologue p63 and several cell cycle, cell adhesion, and proliferation genes. Underexpressed genes comprised the NF2 interacting gene SCHIP-1 and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-associated gene EB1 among others. We validated the abnormal expression of six of these genes by Q-PCR. The subset of differentially expressed genes also included four underexpressed transcripts mapping to 22q12.3-13.3. By Q-PCR we show that one of these genes, CBX7 (22q13.1), was deleted in 55% of cases. Other genes mapping to cytogenetic hot spots included two overexpressed and three underexpressed genes mapping to 1q31-41 and 6q21-q24.3, respectively. These genes represent candidate genes involved in ependymoma tumorigenesis. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time microarray analysis and Q-PCR have been linked to identify heterozygous/homozygous deletions. PMID:15701279

  6. Genetics Home Reference: MYH9-related disorder

    MedlinePLUS

    ... MYH9RD MYH9-related macrothrombocytopenias For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  7. Extensive innate immune gene activation accompanies brain aging, increasing vulnerability to cognitive decline and neurodegeneration: a microarray study

    E-print Network

    2012-01-01

    TLR4, TLR7, MYD88, and TOLLIP were in good agreement with the expressionTLR4, TLR7, MYD88, TOLLIP). In addition, qPCR was used to assess expressionTLR4 by S100A8 [85]. Interestingly, chemokine genes as a whole did not show altered expression,

  8. ITS1 Copy Number Varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Strains: Implications for qPCR Estimates of Infection Intensity from Field-Collected Amphibian Skin Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Ana V.; Rodriguez, David; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mendoza Almeralla, Cinthya; Burrowes, Patricia A.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of the amphibian-killing fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, [Bd]) identified three highly divergent genetic lineages, only one of which has a global distribution. Bd strains within these linages show variable genomic content due to differential loss of heterozygosity and recombination. The current quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol to detect the fungus from amphibian skin swabs targets the intergenic transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region using a TaqMan fluorescent probe specific to Bd. We investigated the consequences of genomic differences in the quantification of ITS1 from eight distinct Bd strains, including representatives from North America, South America, the Caribbean, and Australia. To test for potential differences in amplification, we compared qPCR standards made from Bd zoospore counts for each strain, and showed that they differ significantly in amplification rates. To test potential mechanisms leading to strain differences in qPCR reaction parameters (slope and y-intercept), we: a) compared standard curves from the same strains made from extracted Bd genomic DNA in equimolar solutions, b) quantified the number of ITS1 copies per zoospore using a standard curve made from PCR-amplicons of the ITS1 region, and c) cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified ITS1 regions from these same strains to verify the presence of the probe site in all haplotypes. We found high strain variability in ITS1 copy number, ranging from 10 to 144 copies per single zoospore. Our results indicate that genome size might explain strain differences in ITS1 copy number, but not ITS1 sequence variation because the probe-binding site and primers were conserved across all haplotypes. For standards constructed from uncharacterized Bd strains, we recommend the use of single ITS1 PCR-amplicons as the absolute standard in conjunction with current quantitative assays to inform on copy number variation and provide universal estimates of pathogen zoospore loads from field-caught amphibians. PMID:23555682

  9. Development of an FgMito assay: A highly sensitive mitochondrial based qPCR assay for quantification of Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Tomasz; Ostrowska, Anna; Bu?ko, Maciej; Pasquali, Matias; Beyer, Marco; Stenglein, Sebastian; Za?uski, Dariusz; Sawicki, Jakub; Treder, Kinga; Perkowski, Juliusz

    2015-10-01

    An ascomycete fungus, Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (s.s.), is the major cause of Fusarium head blight (FHB), a devastating disease of cereals worldwide. The fungus contaminates crops with mycotoxins, which pose a serious threat to food and feed safety. In this study, we developed a highly sensitive mitochondrial based qPCR assay (FgMito qPCR) for quantification of F. graminearum s.s. To ensure high sensitivity of the assay, primers and a Minor-groove binding (MGB) probe were designed based on multi-copy mitochondrial DNA. The FgMito assay was successfully validated against a range of geographically diverse F. graminearum s.s. strains to ensure uniformity of the assay at an intraspecific level, as well as with other fungal species to ensure specificity. The assay was further evaluated in terms of efficiency and sensitivity against a test panel of different F. graminearum s.s. strains with various levels of pure fungal DNA and in the presence of wheat background DNA. The results showed a high efficiency of the assay developed, ranging from 93% to 101% with r(2)-values of >0.99. We further showed that three low concentrations of fungal template 2pg, 0.6pg and 0.2pg could be reliably quantified in the presence of wheat background DNA. The FgMito assay was used to quantify F. graminearum s.s. DNA on 65 field samples from a range of hosts with defined levels of trichothecenes. We revealed a significant positive correlation between fungal DNA quantity and the sum of trichothecenes. Lastly, we showed a higher sensitivity of the FgMito assay than the nuclear based qPCR assay for F. graminearum s.s. by comparing Ct-values from both assays. PMID:26087129

  10. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis: Implications for Neurodegenerative and Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen D. Ginsberg; Irina Elarova; Marc Ruben; Fengzhu Tan; Scott E. Counts; James H. Eberwine; John Q. Trojanowski; Scott E. Hemby; Elliott J. Mufson; Shaoli Che

    2004-01-01

    Technical and experimental advances in microaspiration techniques, RNA amplification, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and cDNA microarray analysis have led to an increase in the number of studies of single-cell gene expression. In particular, the central nervous system (CNS) is an ideal structure to apply single-cell gene expression paradigms. Unlike an organ that is composed of one principal cell

  11. Reference Frames and Relativity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swartz, Clifford

    1989-01-01

    Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

  12. Genetics Home Reference: X-linked chondrodysplasia punctata 2

    MedlinePLUS

    ... linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes ...

  13. Spectrum and Prevalence of Mutations Involving BrS1-12-Susceptibility Genes in a Cohort of Unrelated Patients Referred for Brugada Syndrome Genetic Testing: Implications for Genetic Testing

    PubMed Central

    Crotti, Lia; Kellen, Cherisse A.; Tester, David J.; Castelletti, Silvia; Giudicessi, John R.; Torchio, Margherita; Medeiros-Domingo, Argelia; Simone, Savastano; Will, Melissa L; Dagradi, Federica; Schwartz, Peter J.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To provide the spectrum and prevalence of mutations in the 12 Brugada Syndrome (BrS)-susceptibility genes discovered to date, in a single large BrS cohort. Background BrS is a potentially lethal heritable arrhythmia syndrome diagnosed electrocardiographically by coved-type ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads (V1-V3; type-1 Brugada ECG pattern) and the presence of a personal/family history of cardiac events. Methods Using PCR, DHPLC, and DNA sequencing, comprehensive mutational analysis of BrS1-12-susceptibility genes was performed in 129 unrelated patients with possible/probable BrS [46 with clinically diagnosed BrS (ECG pattern plus personal/family history of a cardiac event) and 83 with type 1 ECG pattern only]. Results Overall, 27 (21%) patients had a putative pathogenic mutation, absent in 1400 Caucasian reference alleles, including 21 patients with an SCN5A mutation, 2 CACNB2B, 1 KCNJ8, 1 KCND3, 1 SCN1Bb, and 1 HCN4. The overall mutation yield was 23% in type 1 ECG pattern only patients versus 17% in clinically diagnosed BrS patients, was significantly greater among young men < 20 years of age with clinically diagnosed BrS, and among patients who had a prolonged PQ interval. Conclusions We identified putative pathogenic mutations in ~20% of our BrS cohort, with BrS2-12 accounting for < 5%. Importantly, the yield was similar between patients with only a type 1 BrS ECG pattern and those with clinically established BrS. The yield approaches 40% for SCN5A-mediated BrS (BrS1) when the PQ interval exceeds 200ms. Calcium channel-mediated BrS is extremely unlikely in the absence of a short QT interval. PMID:22840528

  14. Development of a reference standard of Escherichia coli DNA for residual DNA determination in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan; Rao, Chunming; Gao, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Fu, Zhihao; Bi, Hua; Wang, Junzhi

    2013-01-01

    This collaborative study developed the first national Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA reference standard for standardizing quantitative residual DNA assay methods, fluorescence dye (PicoGreen) and quantitative PCR (q-PCR), which were widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of prokaryotic-derived recombinant products. High purity of E. coli strain BL21 was extracted by the cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)/phenol chloroform method, analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and electrophoresis, diluted with tris-EDTA (TE) buffer and manually dispensed. Then, with a cooperative calibration among six laboratories, including five manufacturers and one national control laboratory, the concentration of E. coli DNA standard solution was determined as 96.2 ?g/mL (95% C.I: 95.5-96.9 ?g/mL, CV 3.4%). The candidate showed excellent stability both from accelerated degradation study and real time stability study. The applicability study showed that the E. coli DNA reference could reach the sensitivity of 0.781 ng/mL and 1 fg/?L, respectively, in fluorescent dye and q-PCR assay, and also had good linearity and precision. The consistency of the reference could meet the requirements of the national reference standard. As a conclusion, the candidate material was suitable to serve as a China national standard for E. coli residual DNA determination. The successful establishment of the E. coli DNA standard will facilitate the standardization of quantitative methods for testing residual host cell DNA. PMID:24086318

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Acatalasemia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... genes are related to acatalasemia? Mutations in the CAT gene can cause acatalasemia. This gene provides instructions ... DNA, proteins, and cell membranes. Mutations in the CAT gene greatly reduce the activity of catalase. A ...

  16. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of differentially expressed genes in Quercus suber in response to Phytophthora cinnamomi infection.

    PubMed

    Ebadzad, Ghazal; Cravador, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    cDNA-AFLP methodology was used to gain insight into gene fragments differentially present in the mRNA profiles of Quercus suber roots infected with zoospores of Phytophthora cinnamomi at different post challenge time points. Fifty-three transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) were identified and sequenced. Six candidate genes were selected based on their expression patterns and homology to genes known to play a role in defence. They encode a cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase2 (QsCAD2), a protein disulphide isomerase (QsPDI), a CC-NBS-LRR resistance protein (QsRPc), a thaumatin-like protein (QsTLP), a chitinase (QsCHI) and a 1,3-?-glucanase (QsGlu). Evaluation of the expression of these genes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) revealed that transcript levels of QsRPc, QsCHI, QsCAD2 and QsPDI increased during the first 24 h post-inoculation, while those of thaumatin-like protein decreased. No differential expression was observed for 1,3-?-glucanase (QsGlu). Four candidate reference genes, polymerase II (QsRPII), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (QsEIF-5A), ?-tubulin (QsTUB) and a medium subunit family protein of clathrin adaptor complexes (QsCACs) were assessed to determine the most stable internal references for qRT-PCR normalization in the Phytophthora-Q. suber pathosystem in root tissues. Those found to be more stable, QsRPII and QsCACs, were used as internal reference in the present work. Knowledge on the Quercus defence mechanisms against biotic stress is scarce. This study provides an insight into the gene profiling of a few important genes of Q. suber in response to P. cinnamomi infection contributing to the knowledge of the molecular interactions involving Quercus and root pathogens that can be useful in the future to understand the mechanisms underlying oak resistance to soil-borne oomycetes. PMID:25392784

  17. Reference Service Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, William F.

    This reference service policy manual provides general guidelines to encourage reference service of the highest possible quality and to insure uniform practice. The policy refers only to reference service in the University Libraries and is intended for use in conjunction with other policies and procedures issued by the Reference Services Division.…

  18. nanosheets for gene therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, Zhongyang; Wang, Xin; Yuan, Renshun; Chen, Huabin; Zhi, Qiaoming; Gao, Ling; Wang, Bin; Guo, Zhaoji; Xue, Xiaofeng; Cao, Wei; Guo, Liang

    2014-10-01

    A new class of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2, MoSe2, WS2, and WSe2 which have fantastic physical and chemical properties, has drawn tremendous attention in different fields recently. Herein, we for the first time take advantage of the great potential of MoS2 with well-engineered surface as a novel type of 2D nanocarriers for gene delivery and therapy of cancer. In our system, positively charged MoS2-PEG-PEI is synthesized with lipoic acid-modified polyethylene glycol (LA-PEG) and branched polyethylenimine (PEI). The amino end of positively charged nanomaterials can bind to the negatively charged small interfering RNA (siRNA). After detection of physical and chemical characteristics of the nanomaterial, cell toxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) was investigated as a well-known oncogene, which was a critical regulator of cell cycle transmission at multiple levels. Through knockdown of PLK1 with siRNA carried by novel nanovector, qPCR and Western blot were used to measure the interfering efficiency; apoptosis assay was used to detect the transfection effect of PLK1. All results showed that the novel nanocarrier revealed good biocompatibility, reduced cytotoxicity, as well as high gene-carrying ability without serum interference, thus would have great potential for gene delivery and therapy.

  19. Quantitative PCR analysis of functional genes in iron-rich microbial mats at an active hydrothermal vent system (L?'ihi Seamount, Hawai'i).

    PubMed

    Jesser, Kelsey J; Fullerton, Heather; Hager, Kevin W; Moyer, Craig L

    2015-05-01

    The chemolithotrophic Zetaproteobacteria represent a novel class of Proteobacteria which oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III) and are the dominant bacterial population in iron-rich microbial mats. Zetaproteobacteria were first discovered at L?'ihi Seamount, located 35 km southeast off the big island of Hawai'i, which is characterized by low-temperature diffuse hydrothermal venting. Novel nondegenerate quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays for genes associated with microbial nitrogen fixation, denitrification, arsenic detoxification, Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB), and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles were developed using selected microbial mat community-derived metagenomes. Nitrogen fixation genes were not detected, but all other functional genes were present. This suggests that arsenic detoxification and denitrification processes are likely cooccurring in addition to two modes of carbon fixation. Two groups of microbial mat community types were identified by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) and were further described based on qPCR data for zetaproteobacterial abundance and carbon fixation mode preference. qPCR variance was associated with mat morphology but not with temperature or sample site. Geochemistry data were significantly associated with sample site and mat morphology. Together, these qPCR assays constitute a functional gene signature for iron microbial mat communities across a broad array of temperatures, mat types, chemistries, and sampling sites at L?'ihi Seamount. PMID:25681182

  20. Genetics Home Reference: Porphyria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... one of these genes: ALAD , ALAS2 , CPOX , FECH , HMBS , PPOX , UROD , or UROS . The genes related to ... more about the ALAD , ALAS2 , CPOX , FECH , HFE , HMBS , PPOX , UROD , and UROS genes. How do people ...

  1. An examination of the utility of a nuclear DNA/mitochondrial DNA duplex qPCR assay to assess surface decontamination of hair.

    PubMed

    Date-Chong, Mavis; Buoncristiani, Martin R; Aceves, Margaret; Orrego, Cristián

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to compare two commonly used methods for the surface decontamination of human hair shafts, and to evaluate the use of a duplex real-time qPCR assay to assess decontamination effectiveness for the purpose of mitochondrial DNA typing. Hair shafts of known mitochondrial DNA haplotype were coated with undiluted saliva, semen or blood, each of known mitochondrial haplotype distinct from the test hair. Surface decontamination was conducted by enzymatic treatment with Terg-a-zyme™ and by chemical treatment with dilutions of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO, bleach). Following DNA extraction, a duplex (nuclear and mitochondrial DNA) real-time qPCR assay was used to quantify mitochondrial DNA and to test for surface contamination by quantifying the exogenous nuclear DNA not removed from the hair shaft. The NaClO treatment was found to be more effective for removing surface contamination than the Terg-a-zyme™ treatment, and it was procedurally simpler to implement, resulting in a significant savings of sample processing time. Exposure to 3% NaClO for up to two minutes had no detrimental effect on quantity or typing of the mitochondrial DNA belonging to the hair. In addition, we demonstrated that the duplex real-time PCR assay is a convenient early-warning diagnostic method for the detection of the presence of external DNA contamination, providing an assessment of the purity of the sample prior to embarking on further analysis by more laborious mitochondrial DNA typing methods. PMID:23582697

  2. Silica nanoparticles induced metabolic stress through EGR1, CCND, and E2F1 genes in human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Alshatwi, Ali A

    2015-01-01

    The SiO2 synthesized in bulk form, adopting the conventional methods for application in food industry applications, may also contain nano-sized particles. On account of the unique physico-chemical properties, the SiO2 particulates, such as size and shape, cause metabolic toxicity in cells. Poor understanding of the molecular level nanotoxicity resulting from high-volume synthetic SiO2 exposures in humans is a serious issue, since these particles may also contribute to metabolic stress-mediated chronic diseases. In the present study, we examined the structural characteristics of these nano-sized silica particles adopting SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and assessed the alterations in the cell cycle induced by these silica particles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adopting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay, morphological changes in the cells adopting fluorescent microscopy, cell cycle analysis adopting flow cytometry, and the expression of genes linked to cell cycle (i.e., proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), early growth response protein (EGR1), E2F transcription factor (E2F1), cyclin D1, cyclin C, and cyclin D3) adopting qPCR. The SEM and DLS studies indicated that the commercial grade SiO2-NPs were in the nano-scale range. Alterations in the cytoplasmic organization, nuclear morphology, cell cycle progression, and expression of genes linked to cell cycle-dependent metabolic stress through EGR1, CCND, and E2F1 genes were the primary indicators of metabolic stress. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that synthetic SiO2 acutely affects hMSC through cell cycle-dependent oxidative stress gene network. The toxicity mechanisms (both acute and chronic) of food grade silica should be investigated in greater depth with special reference to food safety. PMID:25374141

  3. Fundamentals of Reference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulac, Carolyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

  4. Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safford, Barbara Ripp

    2004-01-01

    This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

  5. Testing an Aflatoxin B1 Gene Signature in Rat Archival Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Merrick, B. Alex; Auerbach, Scott S.; Stockton, Patricia S.; Foley, Julie F.; Malarkey, David E.; Sills, Robert C.; Irwin, Richard D.; Tice, Raymond R.

    2012-01-01

    Archival tissues from laboratory studies represent a unique opportunity to explore the relationship between genomic changes and agent-induced disease. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of qPCR for detecting genomic changes in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues by determining if a subset of 14 genes from a 90-gene signature derived from microarray data and associated with eventual tumor development could be detected in archival liver, kidney, and lung of rats exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) for 90 days in feed at 1 ppm. These tissues originated from the same rats used in the microarray study. The 14 genes evaluated were Adam8, Cdh13, Ddit4l, Mybl2, Akr7a3, Akr7a2, Fhit, Wwox, Abcb1b, Abcc3, Cxcl1, Gsta5, Grin2c and C8orf46 homolog. The qPCR FFPE liver results were compared to the original liver microarray data and to qPCR results using RNA from fresh frozen liver. Archival liver paraffin blocks yielded 30 to 50 ?g of degraded RNA that ranged in size from 0.1 to 4 kB. qPCR results from FFPE and fresh frozen liver samples were positively correlated (p?0.05) by regression analysis and showed good agreement in direction and proportion of change with microarray data for 11 of 14 genes. All 14 transcripts could be amplified from FFPE kidney RNA except the glutamate receptor gene Grin2c; however, only Abcb1b was significantly upregulated from control. Abundant constitutive transcripts, S18 and ?-actin, could be amplified from lung FFPE samples, but the narrow RNA size range (25–500 bp length) prevented consistent detection of target transcripts. Overall, a discrete gene signature derived from prior transcript profiling and representing cell cycle progression, DNA damage response, and xenosensor and detoxication pathways was successfully applied to archival liver and kidney by qPCR and indicated that gene expression changes in response to subchronic AFB1 exposure occurred predominantly in liver, the primary target for AFB1-induced tumors. We conclude that an evaluation of gene signatures in archival tissues can be an important toxicological tool for evaluating critical molecular events associated with chemical exposures. PMID:22545673

  6. Gene symbol precision.

    PubMed

    Bennani-Baiti, Barbara; Bennani-Baiti, Idriss M

    2012-01-10

    Several gene databases, including heavily used ones such as the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database, erroneously assign, on occasion, literature references to genes or proteins. These mistakes are mostly due to an overlap in gene aliases, whereby two distinct genes share a pseudonym. This is particularly confusing when the gene products have also biological properties in common, are part of signaling pathways that cross-talk to one another, or are regulated by the same effectors. We present examples spanning several research fields including apoptosis, ubiquitin-dependent degradation, signaling by Notch, Wnt, and small G proteins, transporters of glutathione conjugates of electrophiles, and mitochondrial and ribosomal RNA genes. To solve the problem, we argue in favor of including Entrez gene numbers in papers submitted for publication as unique gene identifiers to allow precise identification of genes and species studied. PMID:22019431

  7. Creating a honey bee consensus gene set

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christine G Elsik; Aaron J Mackey; Justin T Reese; Natalia V Milshina; David S Roos; George M Weinstock

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We wished to produce a single reference gene set for honey bee (Apis mellifera). Our motivation was twofold. First, we wished to obtain an improved set of gene models with increased coverage of known genes, while maintaining gene model quality. Second, we wished to provide a single official gene list that the research community could further utilize for consistent

  8. Best Reference Sources 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coutts, Brian; McConnell, Tamara

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of the best reference materials published in 2001. Discusses activity in the reference publishing industry; costs; and lists print materials, Web sites, databases, and CD-ROMs. (LRW)

  9. Characterisation by RNAi of pioneer genes expressed in the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell of Heterodera glycines and the effects of combinatorial RNAi

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Bakhetia; P. E. Urwin; H. J. Atkinson

    2008-01-01

    Changes in transcript abundance of 24 genes expressed in the dorsal pharyngeal gland cell of Heterodera glycines encoding for putative secretions of unknown function were monitored by quantitative PCR (qPCR) at 0, 2, 7, 14 and 21 days post-invasion (pi) of soybean plantlets. Five groups of temporal patterns (A, B1, B2, C and D) were defined for the 24 genes

  10. Reference frames and refbits

    E-print Network

    Van Enk, S J

    2004-01-01

    We define a new quantity called refbit, which allows one to quantify the resource of sharing a reference frame in quantum communication protocols. By considering various protocols we find relations between refbits and other resources such as cbits, ebits, cobits, and qubits. We also consider the same resources in encoded, reference-frame independent, form. This allows one to rephrase and unify previous work on phase references, reference frames, and superselection rules.

  11. Multi-Center Evaluation of a Standardized Protocol for Non-Invasive Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Keslar, Karen S.; Lin, Marvin; Zmijewska, Anna A.; Sigdel, Tara K.; Tran, Tim Q.; Ma, Lingzhi; Bhasin, Manoj; Rao, Ping; Ding, Ruchuang; Iklé, David N.; Mannon, Roslyn B.; Sarwal, Minnie M.; Strom, Terry B.; Reed, Elaine F.; Heeger, Peter S.; Suthanthiran, Manikkam; Fairchild, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of transplant recipient blood and urine can potentially be used to monitor graft function, but the multitude of protocols in use make sharing data and comparing results from different laboratories difficult. The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of current methods of RNA isolation, reverse transcription, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and to test whether multiple centers using a standardized protocol can obtain the same results. Samples, reagents, and detailed instructions were distributed to six participating sites that performed RNA isolation, reverse transcription and qPCR for 18S, PRF, GZB, IL8, CXCL9 and CXCL10 as instructed. All data were analyzed at a single site. All sites demonstrated proficiency in RNA isolation and qPCR analysis. Gene expression measurements for all targets and samples had correlations >0.938. The coefficient of variation of fold-changes between pairs of samples was less than 40%. All sites were able to accurately quantify a control sample of known concentration within a factor of 1.5. Collectively, we have formulated and validated detailed methods for measuring gene expression in blood and urine that can yield consistent results in multiple laboratories. PMID:23802725

  12. Metatranscriptome Sequencing of a Reef-building Coral Elucidates Holobiont Community Gene Functions in Health and Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timberlake, S.; Helbig, T.; Fernando, S.; Penn, K.; Alm, E.; Thompson, F.; Thompson, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    The coral reefs of the Abrolhos Bank of Brazil play a vital ecological role in the health of the Southern Atlantic Ocean, but accelerating rates of disease, particularly white plague, threaten this ecosystem. Thus, an understanding of white plague disease and diagnostic tests for it are urgently needed. The coral animal is associated with a distinct microbiome, a diverse assemblage of eukaryotes, bacteria, and viruses. That these microbes have a great influence on the health of the coral has been long known, however, most of their functions are still mysterious. While recent studies have contrasted healthy and white-plague-associated communities, the causative agents and mechanisms of the disease remain unknown. We collected fragments of healthy and diseased corals, as well as post-disease skeleton, from 12 colonies of the genus Mussismilia, the major component of the reef structure in the Abrolhos bank, and increasingly, a victim of white-plague disease. Fragments were flash-frozen in situ, and prepped for culture-free high throughput sequencing of gene transcripts with the Illumina II-G. While the membership of the microbial communities associated with coral has been previously described, the a coral holobiont community's gene function has, to date, never been assayed by this powerful approach. We designed a bioinformatics pipeline to analyze the short-read data from this complex sample: identifying the functions of genes expressed in the holobiont, and describing the active community's taxonomic composition. We show that gene functions expressed by the coral's bacterial assemblage are distinct from those of the underlying skeleton, and we highlight differences in the disease samples. We find that gene markers for the dissimilatory sulfate reduction pathway more abundant in the disease state, and we further quantify this difference with qPCR. Finally, we report the abundant expression of highly repetitive transcripts in the diseased coral samples, and highlight other coral host genes whose expression differs in this disease. Our work provides a first glimpse into coral holobiont community gene function and its deviations in disease. Moreover, we hope that our bioinformatic protocol, designed to cope with the challenges of short-read transcriptomics from complex ecosystems with no close reference, will be a useful template to further understanding of the gene functions and ecological partnerships in coral reefs and other complex ecosystems.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Anencephaly

    MedlinePLUS

    ... defect. The best-studied of these genes is MTHFR , which provides instructions for making a protein that ... the risk of anencephaly. Read more about the MTHFR gene. How do people inherit anencephaly? Most cases ...

  14. Re-evaluation of dioxygenase gene phylogeny for the development and validation of a quantitative assay for environmental aromatic hydrocarbon degraders

    PubMed Central

    Meynet, Paola; Head, Ian M.; Werner, David; Davenport, Russell J.

    2015-01-01

    Rieske non-heme iron oxygenases enzymes have been widely studied, as they catalyse essential reactions initiating the bacterial degradation of organic compounds, for instance aromatic hydrocarbons. The genes encoding these enzymes offer a potential target for studying aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading organisms in the environment. However, previously reported primer sets that target dioxygenase gene sequences or the common conserved Rieske centre of aromatics dioxygenases have limited specificity and/or target non-dioxygenase genes. In this work, an extensive database of dioxygenase ?-subunit gene sequences was constructed, and primer sets targeting the conserved Rieske centre were developed. The high specificity of the primers was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction analysis, agarose gel electrophoresis and sequencing. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays were also developed and optimized, following MIQE guidelines (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments). Comparison of the qPCR quantification of dioxygenases in spiked sediment samples and in pure cultures demonstrated an underestimation of the Ct value, and the requirement for a correction factor at gene abundances below 108 gene copies per g of sediment. Externally validated qPCR provides a valuable tool to monitor aromatic hydrocarbon degrader population abundances at contaminated sites. PMID:25944871

  15. Genetics Home Reference: Nail-patella syndrome

    MedlinePLUS

    ... hereditary osteo-onychodysplasia Osterreicher syndrome pelvic horn syndrome Turner-Kieser syndrome For more information about naming genetic conditions, see the Genetics Home Reference Condition Naming Guidelines and How are genetic conditions and genes named? in the Handbook. What if I still ...

  16. Multidrug resistance protein gene expression in Trichoplusia ni caterpillars.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Jason; D'Souza, Olivia; Rheault, Mark; Donly, Cam

    2013-02-01

    Many insect species exhibit pesticide-resistant phenotypes. One of the mechanisms capable of contributing to resistance is the overexpression of multidrug resistance (MDR) transporter proteins. Here we describe the cloning of three genes encoding MDR proteins from Trichoplusia ni: trnMDR1, trnMDR2 and trnMDR3. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) detected trnMDR mRNA in the whole nervous system, midgut and Malpighian tubules of final instar T.?ni caterpillars. To test whether these genes are upregulated in response to chemical challenge in this insect, qPCR was used to compare trnMDR mRNA levels in unchallenged insects with those of insects fed the synthetic pyrethroid, deltamethrin. Only limited increases were detected in a single gene, trnMDR2, which is the most weakly expressed of the three MDR genes, suggesting that increased multidrug resistance of this type is not a significant part of the response to deltamethrin exposure. PMID:23170973

  17. First detection of Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA in hair of wild mammals: application of qPCR method to determine potential parasite reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Madrid, Rubén; Belinchón-Lorenzo, Silvia; Iniesta, Virginia; Fernández-Cotrina, Javier; Parejo, Juan Carlos; Serrano, Francisco Javier; Monroy, Isabel; Baz, Victora; Gómez-Luque, Adela; Gómez-Nieto, Luis Carlos

    2013-12-01

    The data presented in this paper describe the application of a method for a reliable and non-invasive diagnosis of leishmaniosis in wild reservoirs, based on the detection of Leishmania infantum kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) in hair samples by Real Time PCR (qPCR). The study has been performed on 68 ear/leg hair samples from 5 different wild species (Vulpes vulpes, Canis lupus, Martes foina, Rattus norvegicus and Erinaceus europaeus) from several geographic areas of West and North Spain. The presence of Leishmania kDNA was detected in 14 of the 68 analyzed samples, being the highest quantity of DNA observed in foxes. This is the first report of the presence of Leishmania in a hedgehog. The kDNA remained stable under the exposure of hair to different environmental conditions (freezing or high temperature, ultraviolet rays or treatment with tanning salts). This detection method could constitute a suitable alternative for the search of the parasite in wild hosts, due to the numerous advantages that hair samples present for collection, transport and storage processes. PMID:23973736

  18. Application of a qPCR Assay with Melting Curve Analysis for Detection and Differentiation of Protozoan Oocysts in Human Fecal Samples from Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, Laura F.; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A.

    2013-01-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  19. Application of a qPCR assay with melting curve analysis for detection and differentiation of protozoan oocysts in human fecal samples from Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Laura F; Reyes, Julissa; Gajadhar, Alvin A

    2013-11-01

    A quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay with melt curve analysis (qPCR-MCA) was applied for the detection of protozoan oocysts in 501 human fecal samples collected in Dominican Republic. Samples were subjected to qPCR using universal coccidia primers targeting 18S rDNA to detect oocysts followed by MCA to identify oocyst species based on amplicon melting temperature. Putative positive samples were also tested by conventional PCR and microscopy. Cystoisospora belli (×3), Cryptosporidium parvum (×3), Cryptosporidium hominis (×5), Cryptosporidium meleagridis (×1), Cryptosporidium canis (×1), and Cyclospora cayetanensis (×9) were detected by qPCR-MCA and confirmed by sequencing. This assay consistently detected 10 copies of the cloned target fragment and can be considered more efficient and sensitive than microscopy flotation methods for detecting multiple species of oocysts in human feces. The qPCR-MCA is a reliable protozoan oocyst screening assay for use on clinical and environmental samples in public health, food safety and veterinary programs. PMID:24019437

  20. Comparison of PfHRP-2/pLDH ELISA, qPCR and Microscopy for the Detection of Plasmodium Events and Prediction of Sick Visits during a Malaria Vaccine Study

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, Ismail Mahat; Otsyula, Nekoye; Awinda, George; Spring, Michele; Schneider, Petra; Waitumbi, John Njenga

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to expert malaria microscopy, malaria biomarkers such as Plasmodium falciparum histidine rich protein-2 (PfHRP-2), and PCR provide superior analytical sensitivity and specificity for quantifying malaria parasites infections. This study reports on parasite prevalence, sick visits parasite density and species composition by different diagnostic methods during a phase-I malaria vaccine trial. Methods Blood samples for microscopy, PfHRP-2 and Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase (pLDH) ELISAs and real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) were collected during scheduled (n?=?298) or sick visits (n?=?38) from 30 adults participating in a 112-day vaccine trial. The four methods were used to assess parasite prevalence, as well as parasite density over a 42-day period for patients with clinical episodes. Results During scheduled visits, qPCR (39.9%, N?=?119) and PfHRP-2 ELISA (36.9%, N?=?110) detected higher parasite prevalence than pLDH ELISA (16.8%, N?=?50) and all methods were more sensitive than microscopy (13.4%, N?=?40). All microscopically detected infections contained P. falciparum, as mono-infections (95%) or with P. malariae (5%). By qPCR, 102/119 infections were speciated. P. falciparum predominated either as monoinfections (71.6%), with P. malariae (8.8%), P. ovale (4.9%) or both (3.9%). P. malariae (6.9%) and P. ovale (1.0%) also occurred as co-infections (2.9%). As expected, higher prevalences were detected during sick visits, with prevalences of 65.8% (qPCR), 60.5% (PfHRP-2 ELISA), 21.1% (pLDH ELISA) and 31.6% (microscopy). PfHRP-2 showed biomass build-up that climaxed (1813±3410 ng/mL SD) at clinical episodes. Conclusion PfHRP-2 ELISA and qPCR may be needed for accurately quantifying the malaria parasite burden. In addition, qPCR improves parasite speciation, whilst PfHRP-2 ELISA is a potential predictor for clinical disease caused by P. falciparum. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00666380 PMID:23554856

  1. Candidate gene analysis using genomic quantitative PCR: identification of ADAMTS13 large deletions in two patients with Upshaw-Schulman syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eura, Yuka; Kokame, Koichi; Takafuta, Toshiro; Tanaka, Ryojiro; Kobayashi, Hikaru; Ishida, Fumihiro; Hisanaga, Shuichi; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Miyata, Toshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    Direct sequencing is a popular method to discover mutations in candidate genes responsible for hereditary diseases. A certain type of mutation, however, can be missed by the method. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to complement the weakness of direct sequencing. Upshaw-Schulman syndrome (USS) is a recessively inherited disease associated with severe deficiency of plasma ADAMTS13 activity. We previously analyzed ADAMTS13 in 47 USS patients using direct sequencing, and 44 of them had either homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations. Then, we sought to reveal more extensive defects of ADAMTS13 in the remaining three patients. We quantified copy numbers of each ADAMTS13 exon in the patients by using genomic qPCR. Each primer pair was designed to contain at least one of the two primers used in direct sequencing, to avoid missing any exonic deletions. The qPCR demonstrated heterozygous loss of exons 7 and 8 in one patient and exon 27 in the other, and further analysis revealed c.746_987+373del1782 and c.3751_3892+587del729, respectively. Genomic qPCR provides an effective method for identifying extensive defects of the target genes. PMID:24936513

  2. REFERENCES, REGULATIONS, & U. S. CODE General References

    E-print Network

    , Revision 1 #12;References American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1993. Reducing Samples of Aggregate to Testing Size, C702-93. ASTM, West Conshohocken, PA. American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). 1995. Soil Sample preparation for the Determination of Radionuclides, C999-90 (1995) e1. ASTM

  3. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1994-01-01

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or "halo" at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes.

  4. High frequency reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-05-31

    A high frequency reference electrode for electrochemical experiments comprises a mercury-calomel or silver-silver chloride reference electrode with a layer of platinum around it and a layer of a chemically and electrically resistant material such as TEFLON around the platinum covering all but a small ring or halo' at the tip of the reference electrode, adjacent to the active portion of the reference electrode. The voltage output of the platinum layer, which serves as a redox electrode, and that of the reference electrode are coupled by a capacitor or a set of capacitors and the coupled output transmitted to a standard laboratory potentiostat. The platinum may be applied by thermal decomposition to the surface of the reference electrode. The electrode provides superior high-frequency response over conventional electrodes. 4 figs.

  5. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, R.; Kotter, D.

    1994-04-26

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source is described. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function. 2 figures.

  6. Optical voltage reference

    DOEpatents

    Rankin, Richard (Ammon, ID); Kotter, Dale (Bingham County, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An optical voltage reference for providing an alternative to a battery source. The optical reference apparatus provides a temperature stable, high precision, isolated voltage reference through the use of optical isolation techniques to eliminate current and impedance coupling errors. Pulse rate frequency modulation is employed to eliminate errors in the optical transmission link while phase-lock feedback is employed to stabilize the frequency to voltage transfer function.

  7. Relevance of using a human microarray to study gene expression in heaves-affected horses.

    PubMed

    Ramery, Eve; Closset, Rodrigue; Bureau, Fabrice; Art, Tatiana; Lekeux, Pierre

    2008-08-01

    Environmental causes of heaves are well described, but the molecular mechanisms of the disease remain unclear. Previous studies have highlighted the implications of variations in gene expression, most using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). This well-known technique limits the number of genes that can be studied in a single assay. Microarray appears to be a valuable tool to by-pass this limitation, but so far there has been no equine-specific microarray available on the market. The present study was performed to determine whether a human microarray could be used to study gene expression in nucleated cells originating from peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in heaves-affected horses. With a four-fold cut-off, a total of 46 candidates were identified with differentially regulated genes between heaves-affected horses and controls. A real-time quantitative RT-PCR (RT-QPCR) conducted on a selection of genes, determined on the basis of previous publications, was used to validate the microarray results. The microarray failed to detect the presence of interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-8 mRNA in the nucleated cells from BALF otherwise confirmed by real-time RT-QPCR. Although some candidate genes have been identified using this method, a complete expression profile of genes related to heaves could not be obtained with the use of the human microarray. PMID:17574458

  8. Molecular Identification and Quantification of Tetracycline and Erythromycin Resistance Genes in Spanish and Italian Retail Cheeses

    PubMed Central

    Flórez, Ana Belén; Alegría, Ángel; Delgado, Susana

    2014-01-01

    Large antibiotic resistance gene pools in the microbiota of foods may ultimately pose a risk for human health. This study reports the identification and quantification of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant populations, resistance genes, and gene diversity in traditional Spanish and Italian cheeses, via culturing, conventional PCR, real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The numbers of resistant bacteria varied widely among the antibiotics and the different cheese varieties; in some cheeses, all the bacterial populations seemed to be resistant. Up to eight antibiotic resistance genes were sought by gene-specific PCR, six with respect to tetracycline, that is, tet(K), tet(L), tet(M), tet(O), tet(S), and tet(W), and two with respect to erythromycin, that is, erm(B) and erm(F). The most common resistance genes in the analysed cheeses were tet(S), tet(W), tet(M), and erm(B). The copy numbers of these genes, as quantified by qPCR, ranged widely between cheeses (from 4.94 to 10.18log?10/g). DGGE analysis revealed distinct banding profiles and two polymorphic nucleotide positions for tet(W)-carrying cheeses, though the similarity of the sequences suggests this tet(W) to have a monophyletic origin. Traditional cheeses would therefore appear to act as reservoirs for large numbers of many types of antibiotic resistance determinants. PMID:25302306

  9. Sizing up arthropod genomes: an evaluation of the impact of environmental variation on genome size estimates by flow cytometry and the use of qPCR as a method of estimation.

    PubMed

    Gregory, T Ryan; Nathwani, Paula; Bonnett, Tiffany R; Huber, Dezene P W

    2013-09-01

    A study was undertaken to evaluate both a pre-existing method and a newly proposed approach for the estimation of nuclear genome sizes in arthropods. First, concerns regarding the reliability of the well-established method of flow cytometry relating to impacts of rearing conditions on genome size estimates were examined. Contrary to previous reports, a more carefully controlled test found negligible environmental effects on genome size estimates in the fly Drosophila melanogaster. Second, a more recently touted method based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was examined in terms of ease of use, efficiency, and (most importantly) accuracy using four test species: the flies Drosophila melanogaster and Musca domestica and the beetles Tribolium castaneum and Dendroctonus ponderosa. The results of this analysis demonstrated that qPCR has the tendency to produce substantially different genome size estimates from other established techniques while also being far less efficient than existing methods. PMID:24168671

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Achondroplasia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Where can I find information about diagnosis or management of achondroplasia? These resources address the diagnosis or management of achondroplasia and may include treatment providers. GeneFacts: ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Aspartylglucosaminuria

    MedlinePLUS

    ... What glossary definitions help with understanding aspartylglucosaminuria? autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; breakdown ; cell ; deficiency ; disability ; enzyme ; gene ; glycoproteins ; hypermobility ; hypertelorism ; incidence ; inherited ; joint ; ocular hypertelorism ; oligosaccharides ; osteoporosis ; ...

  12. GENES 2000

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Benjamin Lewin provides this detailed educational site as the online (and continuously updated) version of the printed resource, GENES. Designed as a pilot project "for building an online site that will develop into a general resource for the life sciences, including molecular biology, cell biology, development, immunology, and neurobiology, at levels varying from introductory to advanced," this impressive site is intended to be useful to students at the undergraduate level (or above). First-time users must register (access is free, "at least temporarily") to gain access to chapters; registered users may conduct searches, build references, write notes, highlight specified information, or browse the full resource. Future plans include "better (and faster) searches on the text, searches on figures, identification of new material and recently added references, printing by chapter or by section, more animations, on line tests and problem sets." Content is detailed, well illustrated, and thorough; this looks to be an exceptional resource.

  13. Application Protocol Reference Architecture Application Protocol Reference Architecture

    E-print Network

    van Sinderen, Marten

    Application Protocol Reference Architecture 165 Chapter 7 Application Protocol Reference Architecture This chapter proposes an alternative reference architecture for application protocols. The proposed reference architecture consists of the set of possible architectures for application protocols

  14. Cisco Reference Configurations for

    E-print Network

    Chaudhuri, Surajit

    Cisco Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server 2012 Fast Track Data Warehouse 4.0 with EMC......................................................................................... 3 Cisco and EMC Reference Configurations for Microsoft SQL Server Fast Track Data Warehouse.............................................................................................. 4 Microsoft SQL Server Fast Track Data Warehouse Program................................. 4

  15. Oracle Database SQL Reference

    E-print Network

    Shahabi, Cyrus

    Oracle® Database SQL Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10759-01 December 2003 #12;Oracle Database SQL Reference 10g Release 1 (10.1) Part No. B10759-01 Copyright © 1996, 2003 Oracle Corporation include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of Oracle Corporation

  16. Optical reference profilometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephan Richard Clark

    2000-01-01

    The Optical Reference Profilometer is a new coordinate measurement machine (CMM) configuration that utilizes a special optical referencing frame to provide a highly stable and highly accurate surface measurement. This new referencing frame provides several mechanical advantages that make it possible to use lower precision mechanical components while still maintaining a high measurement accuracy. The Optical Reference Profilometer also provides

  17. Activities Using References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Charlene

    Elementary students are introduced to a wide variety of reference materials. Separate sections contain activities for using an atlas, "The Book of Lists," dictionaries, encyclopedias, "Familiar Quotations," games, "The Guiness Book of World Records," magazines, multi-references, newspapers, the "T.V. Guide," and world maps. Students complete…

  18. Reference Collection Development Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Univ., Kearney.

    The purpose of this policy is to outline those principles that guide the development of the Reference Collection at the Calvin T. Ryan Library, University of Nebraska at Kearney. It clarifies, records, and makes public the basic principles that the members of the Reference Department believe should be applied in adding items to or withdrawing…

  19. Martindale's "The Reference Desk"

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jim Martindale

    This online reference provides links to reference materials on a variety of science topics, including astronomy, biosciences, chemistry, engineering, geosciences, and many others. The links are organized by topics (education, entertainment, music, science, and so forth). Within each topic, the resources are arranged by type (dictionaries, databases, journals, web sites, and so forth).

  20. Detection of Angiostrongylus cantonensis in the Blood and Peripheral Tissues of Wild Hawaiian Rats (Rattus rattus) by a Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Assay.

    PubMed

    Jarvi, Susan I; Pitt, William C; Farias, Margaret E; Shiels, Laura; Severino, Michael G; Howe, Kathleen M; Jacquier, Steven H; Shiels, Aaron B; Amano, Karis K; Luiz, Blaine C; Maher, Daisy E; Allison, Maureen L; Holtquist, Zachariah C; Scheibelhut, Neil T

    2015-01-01

    The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a rat lungworm, a zoonotic pathogen that causes human eosinophilic meningitis and ocular angiostrongyliasis characteristic of rat lungworm (RLW) disease. Definitive diagnosis is made by finding and identifying A. cantonensis larvae in the cerebral spinal fluid or by using a custom immunological or molecular test. This study was conducted to determine if genomic DNA from A. cantonensis is detectable by qPCR in the blood or tissues of experimentally infected rats. F1 offspring from wild rats were subjected to experimental infection with RLW larvae isolated from slugs, then blood or tissue samples were collected over multiple time points. Blood samples were collected from 21 rats throughout the course of two trials (15 rats in Trial I, and 6 rats in Trial II). In addition to a control group, each trial had two treatment groups: the rats in the low dose (LD) group were infected by approximately 10 larvae and the rats in the high dose (HD) group were infected with approximately 50 larvae. In Trial I, parasite DNA was detected in cardiac bleed samples from five of five LD rats and five of five HD rats at six weeks post-infection (PI), and three of five LD rats and five of five HD rats from tail tissue. In Trial II, parasite DNA was detected in peripheral blood samples from one of two HD rats at 53 minutes PI, one of two LD rats at 1.5 hours PI, one of two HD rats at 18 hours PI, one of two LD rats at five weeks PI and two of two at six weeks PI, and two of two HD rats at weeks five and six PI. These data demonstrate that parasite DNA can be detected in peripheral blood at various time points throughout RLW infection in rats. PMID:25910229

  1. Every Reference Librarian a Reviewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rettig, James

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the need for reference librarians to learn reference materials well enough to be able to review materials and correctly refer patrons to information sources. The review process is outlined and some evaluation of current reference services is provided. (CLB)

  2. Uranium reference materials

    SciTech Connect

    Donivan, S.; Chessmore, R.

    1987-07-01

    The Technical Measurements Center has prepared uranium mill tailings reference materials for use by remedial action contractors and cognizant federal and state agencies. Four materials were prepared with varying concentrations of radionuclides, using three tailings materials and a river-bottom soil diluent. All materials were ground, dried, and blended thoroughly to ensure homogeneity. The analyses on which the recommended values for nuclides in the reference materials are based were performed, using independent methods, by the UNC Geotech (UNC) Chemistry Laboratory, Grand Junction, Colorado, and by C.W. Sill (Sill), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, Idaho. Several statistical tests were performed on the analytical data to characterize the reference materials. Results of these tests reveal that the four reference materials are homogeneous and that no large systematic bias exists between the analytical methods used by Sill and those used by TMC. The average values for radionuclides of the two data sets, representing an unbiased estimate, were used as the recommended values for concentrations of nuclides in the reference materials. The recommended concentrations of radionuclides in the four reference materials are provided. Use of these reference materials will aid in providing uniform standardization among measurements made by remedial action contractors. 11 refs., 9 tabs.

  3. Frames of Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This interactive resourece is from the Museum's Seminars on Science, a series of distance-learning courses designed to help educators meet the new national science standards. Part of the Frontiers in Physical Science seminar, the Frames of Reference interactive has three sections. An animated overview illustrates why whether an object appears to be at rest or in motion depends on your frame of reference, a nine-question interactive test that allows you to check your understanding of the concept and there is a matrix that allows you to view any of the nine frame-of-reference combinations. Shockwave is required to view the site.

  4. Expression of small heat shock protein (sHSP) genes in the garden pea (Pisum sativum) under slow horizontal clinorotation

    PubMed Central

    Talalaiev, Oleksandr; Korduym, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Plant cells respond to stress conditions, such as high temperatures, by synthesizing small heat shock proteins (sHSPs). sHSPs are molecular chaperones that assist in protein folding and prevent irreversible protein aggregation. Although many sHSP genes are temperature-inducible, other variables, such as altered gravity, can induce significant changes in plant cell gene expression. Furthermore, not all subfamilies of sHSP genes share the same expression pattern. The objective of our research was to determine the effect of simulated microgravity (clinorotation) on the expression of sHSP gene subfamilies with different subcellular locations in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum) seedlings. sHSP gene expression levels were examined using quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR). qPCR results demonstrated that sHSP genes were constitutively expressed in seedlings. High temperatures increased the expression of sHSP genes by several thousand-fold. However, simulated microgravity did not have any significant effects on sHSP gene expression. PMID:24786104

  5. Response of denitrifying genes coding for nitrite (nirK or nirS) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases to different physico-chemical parameters during agricultural waste composting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lihua; Zeng, Guangming; Zhang, Jiachao; Chen, Yaoning; Yu, Man; Lu, Lunhui; Li, Hui; Zhu, Yuan; Yuan, Yujie; Huang, Aizhi; He, Ling

    2015-05-01

    The present research was performed to clarify the changes of denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) abundances under different physico-chemical parameters through evaluating the relationships between the genes abundances and parameters during agricultural waste composting. The genes abundances were determined by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The correlations between physico-chemical parameters and denitrifying genes abundances were analysed by regression analysis. qPCR results showed that the nosZ gene abundance was higher than that of nirK and nirS genes. The nirK gene abundance was higher than nirS gene indicating that nitrite reducers with Cu-containing enzyme encoded by nirK gene were more of importance than those with cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase encoded by nirS gene in the nitrite reduction step. Regression analysis suggested that (1) nirK gene abundance was correlated with pile temperature following quadratic model; (2) nirS gene abundance was linearly correlated with pile temperature and concentration of NH4 (+), while correlated with concentration of NO3 (-) and pH following inverse and quadratic model respectively; (3) nosZ gene abundance was quadratically correlated with pH and linearly correlated with water soluble carbon (WSC). PMID:25877886

  6. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu The selected year range will determine which race/ethnicity options are available. Population estimates

  7. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  8. EPA QUICK REFERENCE GUIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Quick Reference Guides are compilations of information on chemical and biological terrorist agents. The information is presented in consistent format and includes agent characteristics, release scenarios, health and safety data, real-time field detection, effect levels, samp...

  9. OA Internet Reference Materials

    Cancer.gov

    skip navigation NCI Office of Acquisitions Home About OA FNLCR Acquisition Portal Contact OA OA References NCI Contract Awards Contracting Forms General Clause Listings Commercial Item Provision & Clauses Understanding NCI Contracts / A Guide Top 10

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Dystonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dystonia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: dopa-responsive dystonia dystonia 6 early-onset primary dystonia GM1 gangliosidosis hypermanganesemia with dystonia, polycythemia, and cirrhosis Leigh syndrome ...

  11. Development and Accuracy of Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for Detection and Quantification of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) Heat Labile and Heat Stable Toxin Genes in Travelers' Diarrhea Samples

    PubMed Central

    Youmans, Bonnie P.; Ajami, Nadim J.; Jiang, Zhi-Dong; Petrosino, Joseph F.; DuPont, Herbert L.; Highlander, Sarah K.

    2014-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), the leading bacterial pathogen of travelers' diarrhea, is routinely detected by an established DNA hybridization protocol that is neither sensitive nor quantitative. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays that detect the ETEC toxin genes eltA, sta1, and sta2 in clinical stool samples were developed and tested using donor stool inoculated with known quantities of ETEC bacteria. The sensitivity of the qPCR assays is 89%, compared with 22% for the DNA hybridization assay, and the limits of detection are 10,000-fold lower than the DNA hybridization assays performed in parallel. Ninety-three clinical stool samples, previously characterized by DNA hybridization, were tested using the new ETEC qPCR assays. Discordant toxin profiles were observed for 22 samples, notably, four samples originally typed as ETEC negative were ETEC positive. The qPCR assays are unique in their sensitivity and ability to quantify the three toxin genes in clinical stool samples. PMID:24189361

  12. Reference selenocentric net

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nefedyev, Yura

    2012-08-01

    The catalogues based on mission “Apollo” and reference nets of the west lunar hemisphere made by missions “Zond 5”, ”Zond 8” cover small part of the Moon surface (zone from - 20 to +40 degrees by latitude). Three ALSEP stations were used to transform “Apollo” topographic coordinates. Transformation mean - square errors are less than 80 meters and measurement’s errors are about 60 meters. On this account positions inaccuracy near and between ALSEP stations are less 150 meters. The offset from place of the location ALSEP enlarges the supposed mistake is more than 300 m and this is a major part of the lunar surface. Catalogues of the mission “Apollo” realize quasidynamic coordinate system. Distribution reference nets DMA/A 15, NOS/USGS and DMA/603 mission “Apollo” on visible side of the Moon didn’t bring in appreciable results. Only KSC - 1162 realizes dynamic coordinate system and covers zone from - 70 to +70 degrees by latitude. The reference selenodetic net KSC - 1162 was made in the dynamic coordinate system. Analysis KSC - 1162 catalogue shows it corresponds to an essential requirements. It has enough reference points to cove r main areas of the lunar visible side. Reference points accuracy for plan coordinates is ± 40 meters and it is ± 80 in height. The purposes of investigation are increasing concentration accuracy and expansion of selenodetic control system based on optimal coordinate transformations. At present the best method of the expansion selenodetic reference net wide lunar area is the use of coordinate’s transformation matrix. Constituents of matrix and displacement vectors can be obtained by transform available general points in KSC - 1162 and transformable in its system catalogues. As a result was obtained summary reference net by expansion KSC - 1162 selenodetic system using 12 cosmic and ground selenodesic catalogues. In the future we plan to bind to the KSC - 1162 catalogue reference coordinate system data topocentric modern space missions in which there are visually identify the lunar objects

  13. Precision displacement reference system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F. (Albuquerque, NM); Dubois, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Strother, Jerry D. (Edgewood, NM)

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  14. Frames of Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stern, David P. (David Peter), 1931-

    Authored and curated by David P. Stern, this is a lesson plan for teaching frames of reference. It is linked to text material on reference frames, aberration of light, and a very short introduction to the foundations of special relativity. This is a part of the larger site: "Stargazers to Starships" which teaches physics through astronomy and space science. The site provides additional links for teachers that contain study guides, glossaries and timelines for use.

  15. The Memory Management Reference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Memory Management Reference is a useful compilation of memory management resources. The site offers a range of information including a handy, hyperlinked dictionary of terms, an introduction to memory management, a detailed bibliography which includes abstracts, FAQs, links to other resources, and more. It is both a good reference point for current garbage collection research, as well as a nice introduction to the subject for the novice.

  16. Membrane reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, L.; Bloom, I.D.

    1988-01-21

    A reference electrode utilizes a small thin, flat membrane of a highly conductive glass placed on a small diameter insulator tube having a reference material inside in contact with an internal voltage lead. When the sensor is placed in a non-aqueous ionic electrolytic solution, the concentration difference across the glass membrane generates a low voltage signal in precise relationship to the concentration of the species to be measured, with high spatial resolution. 2 figs.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Fucosidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in the breakdown of complexes of sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) attached to certain proteins (glycoproteins) and fats (glycolipids). ... fucose ; gene ; glycolipids ; glycoproteins ; inherited ; molecule ; motor ; neurological ; oligosaccharides ; pancreas ; recessive ; respiratory ; spasticity ; visceromegaly You may find ...

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Galactosialidosis

    MedlinePLUS

    ... protein plays a role in the formation of elastic fibers, a component of the connective tissues that ... galactosialidosis? ataxia ; autosomal ; autosomal recessive ; cell ; deficiency ; disability ; elastic ; enzyme ; gene ; glycolipids ; glycoproteins ; heart valve ; hepatosplenomegaly ; hernia ; ...

  19. Validation of a quantitative polymerase chain reaction method for human Alu gene detection in microchimeric pigs used as donors for xenotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Abellaneda, J M; Martínez-Alarcón, L; Quereda, J J; Herrero-Medrano, J M; Mendonça, L; Mrowiec, A; García-Nicolás, O; Pallarés, F J; Ríos, A; Muñoz, A; Ramírez, P; Ramis, G

    2015-01-01

    This work was undertaken to evaluate whether a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is as an adequate method for detection and quantification of human-specific DNA elements (Alu gene) in tissues and blood samples of pigs in which human stem cells were engrafted. Real-time qPCR quantification was performed with the use of previously described primers. The human DNA was mixed with different quantities of porcine DNA. The primer concentration and specificity, the qPCR efficiency, the quantification variations due to different porcine DNA concentrations, and the dissociation curve produced by the assay were evaluated. The qPCR proved to be specific, robust, with a reproducible and specific bimodal melting curve. High porcine DNA concentration produced subquantification, especially with low human DNA quantity. However, the assay proved to be useful for the detection of chimeric piglets produced by human cells injected in utero, because the effect caused by the porcine DNA interference was corrected in quantification of human DNA from piglets. PMID:25645791

  20. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co ?-rays ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co ?-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co ?-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ?Ct pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of ?-ray-exposed human blood samples. PMID:25271263

  1. Selection of genes associated with variations in the circle of willis in gerbils using suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhenkun; Huo, Xueyun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Lu, Jing; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Fu, Rui; He, Zhengming; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2015-01-01

    Deformities in the Circle of Willis (CoW) can significantly increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deformities have not been understood. Based on our previous studies, variations in the CoW of gerbils are hereditary. A normal CoW is observed in approximately 60% of gerbils, a percentage that also applies to humans. Thus, gerbil is an ideal experimental model for studying variations in the CoW. To study the mechanisms underlying these variations, we selected genes associated with different types of the CoW using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). After evaluating the efficiency of SSH using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on subtracted and unsubtracted cDNA and Southern blotting on SSH PCR products, 12 SSH libraries were established. We identified 4 genes (CST3, GNAS, GPx4 and PFN2) associated with variations in the CoW. These genes were identified with qPCR and Western blotting using 70 expressed sequence tags from the SSH libraries. Cloning and sequencing allowed us to demonstrate that the 4 genes were closely related to mouse genes. We may assume that these 4 genes play an important role in the development of variations in the CoW. This study provides a foundation for further research of genes related to development of variations in the CoW and the mechanisms of dysmorphosis of cerebral vessels. PMID:25973917

  2. Selection of Genes Associated with Variations in the Circle of Willis in Gerbils Using Suppression Subtractive Hybridization

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenkun; Huo, Xueyun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Lu, Jing; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Fu, Rui; He, Zhengming; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2015-01-01

    Deformities in the Circle of Willis (CoW) can significantly increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease in humans. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these deformities have not been understood. Based on our previous studies, variations in the CoW of gerbils are hereditary. A normal CoW is observed in approximately 60% of gerbils, a percentage that also applies to humans. Thus, gerbil is an ideal experimental model for studying variations in the CoW. To study the mechanisms underlying these variations, we selected genes associated with different types of the CoW using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). After evaluating the efficiency of SSH using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) on subtracted and unsubtracted cDNA and Southern blotting on SSH PCR products, 12 SSH libraries were established. We identified 4 genes (CST3, GNAS, GPx4 and PFN2) associated with variations in the CoW. These genes were identified with qPCR and Western blotting using 70 expressed sequence tags from the SSH libraries. Cloning and sequencing allowed us to demonstrate that the 4 genes were closely related to mouse genes. We may assume that these 4 genes play an important role in the development of variations in the CoW. This study provides a foundation for further research of genes related to development of variations in the CoW and the mechanisms of dysmorphosis of cerebral vessels. PMID:25973917

  3. Optical reference profilometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Stephan Richard

    2000-08-01

    The Optical Reference Profilometer is a new coordinate measurement machine (CMM) configuration that utilizes a special optical referencing frame to provide a highly stable and highly accurate surface measurement. This new referencing frame provides several mechanical advantages that make it possible to use lower precision mechanical components while still maintaining a high measurement accuracy. The Optical Reference Profilometer also provides a reduced measurement sensitivity to thermal variations of the system. With the addition a Super-Invar metering rod network, this CMM system is essentially thermally insensitive to temperature changes on the order of 1°C. This special feature makes the Optical Reference Profilometer functional at a high measurement accuracy level in an open lab environment. For the current dissertation work, two profilometer designs were built: a prototype and a second-generation system. A discussion of both systems will be given where the advantages of the optical reference frame design will be shown, This dissertation will end with a discussion of the overall system performance and plans for future work that would increase the overall system accuracy. The optical reference profilometer has proven to be a viable testing device. It provides a high accuracy surface measurement, 100nm peak-to-valley and 15nm rms for surface slopes up to 20 degrees, with simple mechanical structures while maintaining the versatility to measure a variety of surface shapes.

  4. Effect of bioaugmentation and biostimulation on sulfate-reducing column startup captured by functional gene profiling.

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Luciana P; Hiibel, Sage R; Perrault, Elizabeth M; Reardon, Kenneth F; Pruden, Amy

    2012-10-01

    Sulfate-reducing permeable reactive zones (SR-PRZs) depend upon a complex microbial community to utilize a lignocellulosic substrate and produce sulfides, which remediate mine drainage by binding heavy metals. To gain insight into the impact of the microbial community composition on the startup time and pseudo-steady-state performance, functional genes corresponding to cellulose-degrading (CD), fermentative, sulfate-reducing, and methanogenic microorganisms were characterized in columns simulating SR-PRZs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Duplicate columns were bioaugmented with sulfate-reducing or CD bacteria or biostimulated with ethanol or carboxymethyl cellulose and compared with baseline dairy manure inoculum and uninoculated controls. Sulfate removal began after ~ 15 days for all columns and pseudo-steady state was achieved by Day 30. Despite similar performance, DGGE profiles of 16S rRNA gene and functional genes at pseudo-steady state were distinct among the column treatments, suggesting the potential to control ultimate microbial community composition via bioaugmentation and biostimulation. qPCR revealed enrichment of functional genes in all columns between the initial and pseudo-steady-state time points. This is the first functional gene-based study of CD, fermentative and sulfate-reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea in a lignocellulose-based environment and provides new qualitative and quantitative insight into startup of a complex microbial system. PMID:22587594

  5. Abundance and Genetic Diversity of nifH Gene Sequences in Anthropogenically Affected Brazilian Mangrove Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Pereira e Silva, Michele de Cassia; Cotta, Simone Raposo; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Soares, Fábio Lino; Salles, Joana Falcão; Azevedo, João Lúcio; van Elsas, Jan Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Although mangroves represent ecosystems of global importance, the genetic diversity and abundance of functional genes that are key to their functioning scarcely have been explored. Here, we present a survey based on the nifH gene across transects of sediments of two mangrove systems located along the coast line of São Paulo state (Brazil) which differed by degree of disturbance, i.e., an oil-spill-affected and an unaffected mangrove. The diazotrophic communities were assessed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), quantitative PCR (qPCR), and clone libraries. The nifH gene abundance was similar across the two mangrove sediment systems, as evidenced by qPCR. However, the nifH-based PCR-DGGE profiles revealed clear differences between the mangroves. Moreover, shifts in the nifH gene diversities were noted along the land-sea transect within the previously oiled mangrove. The nifH gene diversity depicted the presence of nitrogen-fixing bacteria affiliated with a wide range of taxa, encompassing members of the Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and also a group of anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. We also detected a unique mangrove-specific cluster of sequences denoted Mgv-nifH. Our results indicate that nitrogen-fixing bacterial guilds can be partially endemic to mangroves, and these communities are modulated by oil contamination, which has important implications for conservation strategies. PMID:22941088

  6. Apoptosis-related genes change their expression with age and hearing loss in the mouse cochlea

    PubMed Central

    Tadros, Sherif F.; D’Souza, Mary; Zhu, Xiaoxia

    2010-01-01

    To understand possible causative roles of apoptosis gene regulation in age-related hearing loss (presbycusis), apoptotic gene expression patterns in the CBA mouse cochlea of four different age and hearing loss groups were compared, using GeneChip and real-time (qPCR) microarrays. GeneChip transcriptional expression patterns of 318 apoptosis-related genes were analyzed. Thirty eight probes (35 genes) showed significant differences in expression. The significant gene families include Caspases, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2 family, P53, Cal-pains, Mitogen activated protein kinase family, Jun oncogene, Nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor-related and tumor necrosis factor-related genes. The GeneChip results of 31 genes were validated using the new TaqMan® Low Density Array (TLDA). Eight genes showed highly correlated results with the GeneChip data. These genes are: activating transcription factor3, B-cell leukemia/lymphoma2, Bcl2-like1, caspase4 apoptosis-related cysteine protease 4, Calpain2, dual specificity phosphatase9, tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member12a, and Tumor necrosis factor superfamily member13b, suggesting they may play critical roles in inner ear aging. PMID:18839313

  7. NASCAP programmer's reference manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Stannard, P. R.; Katz, I.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) is a computer program designed to model the electrostatic charging of complicated three-dimensional objects, both in a test tank and at geosynchronous altitudes. This document is a programmer's reference manual and user's guide. It is designed as a reference to experienced users of the code, as well as an introduction to its use for beginners. All of the many capabilities of NASCAP are covered in detail, together with examples of their use. These include the definition of objects, plasma environments, potential calculations, particle emission and detection simulations, and charging analysis.

  8. Multifunctional reference electrode

    DOEpatents

    Redey, Laszlo (Lisle, IL); Vissers, Donald R. (Naperville, IL)

    1983-01-01

    A multifunctional, low mass reference electrode of a nickel tube, thermocouple means inside the nickel tube electrically insulated therefrom for measuring the temperature thereof, a housing surrounding the nickel tube, an electrolyte having a fixed sulfide ion activity between the housing and the outer surface of the nickel tube forming the nickel/nickel sulfide/sulfide half-cell. An ion diffusion barrier is associated with the housing in contact with the electrolyte. Also disclosed is a cell using the reference electrode to measure characteristics of a working electrode.

  9. Educational Outreach: References

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    As part of the Oklahoma Climatological Survey, the Educational Outreach Web site contains a References page for teachers. The materials provided are "intended to be used by teachers as refresher information prior to teaching a given subject... and are not meant to be comprehensive, but should provide adequate depth in the subject for use by most K-12 teachers." Titles of the materials include Atmospheric Water Vapor and its Importance, Common Meteorological Variables, The Seasons, Earth's Energy Budget, Cloud Development, Precipitation, High and Low Pressure Systems, and several others related to weather and climate. Other sections of the site include lessons, references, a glossary, and other helpful educational materials for teachers and students.

  10. Hualapai Reference Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watahomigie, Lucille J.; And Others

    A first and modest beginning toward a grammar of the Hualapai language, a Pai branch of the Yuman language family, this reference book is intended for use by: the Hualapai people to reaffirm the vitality of their language; the Hualapai teachers in their preparation of language materials for teaching; younger Haulapais to find the regularity and…

  11. Chemical Reference Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Shirley M.

    An innovative and effective laboratory experiment of chemical reference literature is reported. The objectives of the experiment are to acquaint the first term student of college chemistry with the vast source of chemical literature that is available to him; to raise the general level of scientific literacy of these first term college students;…

  12. Genetics Home Reference

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of genetics and a glossary of genetics terms. Physicians can order free "InfoRx" prescription pads for the Genetics Home Reference site at ... by the National Library of Medicine (NLM). The prescription pad is a joint ... Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and ...

  13. Reference-Dependent Sympathy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Deborah A.

    2010-01-01

    Natural disasters and other traumatic events often draw a greater charitable response than do ongoing misfortunes, even those that may cause even more widespread misery, such as famine or malaria. Why is the response disproportionate to need? The notion of reference dependence critical to Prospect Theory (Kahneman & Tversky, 1979) maintains that…

  14. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Cancer Site Selection The available cancer sites are determined by the data type and the year range selected. When selecting a cancer site remember that: No mortality data is available for benign and in situ cancers The following

  15. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    rotate with 10000 rpm(revolutions/min). Other speeds are e.g. 3600, 5400, 7200, and 15000 rpm. Stefan for not updating the slides with a new disk. . The platters are mounted to a rotating spindle. ST318405: platters8. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 8­1 Part 8: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  16. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    to a rotating spindle. As the name says, the disks rotate with 15000 rpm in the 15K147. Other speeds are e.g. 4400 (2.5'' disks for notebooks), 5400 (low noise), 7200, and 10000 rpm. Stefan Brass: Datenbanken II B2. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 2­1 Part 2: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  17. References: Elmasri/Navathe

    E-print Network

    Brass, Stefan

    rotate with 10000 rpm(revolutions/min). Other speeds are e.g. 3600, 5400, 7200, and 15000 rpm. Stefan for not updating the slides with a new disk. . The platters are mounted to a rotating spindle. ST318405: platters2. Disks and the Bu#er Cache 2­1 Part 2: Disks and Caching References: . Elmasri

  18. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    / · 607.253.3060 For more information, view this directory online at www.vet. cornell.edu/hospital for information on these changes (http://www.vet.cornell.edu/hospital/beat/). We value our partnership with youDirectory for Referring Veterinarians Companion Animal Emergency, Specialty & General care www.vet.cornell.edu/hospital

  19. Virtual Reference Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Sally

    2003-01-01

    As the need to access information increases, school librarians must create virtual libraries. Linked to reliable reference resources, the virtual library extends the physical collection and library hours and lets students learn to use Web-based resources in a protected learning environment. The growing number of virtual schools increases the need…

  20. Grant Reference Lead / Sole

    E-print Network

    Rank Overall Score Grant Reference Lead / Sole Grant Grant Holder Research Organisation Project sediment-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 1 9 NE-concentration and velocity data for submarine turbidity currents Standard Grant DEC12 2 8 NE/K015184/1 Y Alistair Pike

  1. Quick Reference Guides: Index

    Cancer.gov

    This page contains links to a set of Quick Reference Guides for each of the table and graph types contained on this site. These guides provide a short "how to" explanation of the tables and graphs and are designed to be “printer friendly”.

  2. Directory for Referring Veterinarians

    E-print Network

    & Critical Care 3-4 Adult Large Animal & Neonatal Intensive Care Units 5 Imaging 6-7 Internal Medicine 8Directory for Referring Veterinarians Farm Animal Emergency, Specialty, and General Care www for Animals provides leadership in patient care, education, clinical investigation, and scientific innovation

  3. IERS Reference System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yokoyama

    1991-01-01

    Present circumstances related to IERS activities are described from various points of view. The NASA Dynamics of Solid Earth (DOSE) program and the IERS intensive campaign proposed by J. Dickey of JPL are particularly interesting. It is important to implement international cooperation to establish a fundamental radio reference frame by carrying out global solution based on all geodetic observations, past

  4. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Statistic Type Selection Fast Stats presents the data analysis in a format appropriate for each Statistic Type. The following is a list of the statistic types available in Fast Stats for which data types, and the output formats

  5. Referred by: Business Address

    E-print Network

    Feschotte, Cedric

    Name: Referred by: Employer: Business Address: Business E-mail: Home E-mail: Home Address: Yes No Yes No Yes No Send Correspondence to: Home Work Degree City State/Country Address: Multi-racial (specify) International (specify) Phone: Other (specify) If you have concerns about sending a Social

  6. Teachers Reference: Annotations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This collection of 171 annotations was written to enhance and explain the text of the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. Each annotation consists of a number that refers specifically to the phrase preceding it. Each annotation number is followed by three indexing elements: subject category, one or more keywords, and one or more sample questions with answers.

  7. CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual

    E-print Network

    CONCRETE PAVEMENT Reference Manual Prepared for Federal Highway Administration Office of Pavement by National Concrete Pavement Technology Center at Iowa State University 2711 South Loop Drive, Suite 4700 No. 3. Recipient's Catalog No. 4. Title and Subtitle 5. Report Date February 2008 Concrete Pavement

  8. The Unreliability of References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barden, Dennis M.

    2008-01-01

    When search consultants, like the author, are invited to propose their services in support of a college or university seeking new leadership, they are generally asked a fairly standard set of questions. But there is one question that they find among the most difficult to answer: How do they check a candidate's references to ensure that they know…

  9. Nonresident Alien Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    - 1 - Nonresident Alien Reference Guide #12;- 2 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen or a Permanent Resident (Resident Alien or Green Card status. These are NOT Immigration categories. United States Citizen Permanent Resident Alien Resident

  10. (Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide

    E-print Network

    Adali, Tulay

    - 1 - NRA (Nonresident Alien) Reference Guide #12;- 2 - UMBC'S OFFICES ASSISTING THE NONRESIDENT ALIEN (NRA) Office of International Education Administration Building 2nd floor Arlene Wergin Ext: 5 - Definition Nonresident Alien (NRA) is defined as any employee who is NOT a United States Citizen

  11. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection Fast Stats statistical analyses are based on data that has been collected from 1975 to the present. Data collected before 1992 is available for the following Races/Ethnicities: All Races White (including

  12. Matrix Reference Manual

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brookes, Mike

    An alphabetical manual, from Abelian group to Zero matrix, that contains reference information about linear algebra and the properties of matrices, divided into the following sections: Properties; Eigenvalues; Special properties; Relations; Decompositions; Identities; Equations; Differentiation; Stochastic (statistical) properties; Signals; Examples; and Formal Algebra. The notation is based on the MATLAB software package.

  13. Multimedia Reference Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzberg, Carol S.

    2001-01-01

    Presents suggestions for content-rich classroom encyclopedias on CO-ROM and DVD, including: the Encarta Reference Suite 2001; the 2001 Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, School Edition; the Britannica 2001 DVD; and the World Book 2001 Deluxe Edition, v5.0. (SM)

  14. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Race/Ethnicity Selection The race/ethnicity groups available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Year Range menu. For year ranges starting before 1992 (e.g. 1975-2006) the Race/Ethnicity selections available

  15. Fast Stats: Quick Reference

    Cancer.gov

    Fast Stats: Quick Reference Year Range Selection The year ranges available in Fast Stats vary based on the selection made in the Statistic Type menu as follows: Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006, 1992-2006, 2000-2006. Trends in Age-Adjusted Rates: 1975-2006,

  16. Clustering Aggregation References

    E-print Network

    Terzi, Evimaria

    Clustering Aggregation · References ­ A. Gionis, H. Mannila, P. Tsaparas: Clustering aggregation and clustering, JACM 2008 Tuesday, October 15, 13 #12;Clustering aggregation · Many different clusterings for the same dataset! ­ Different objective functions ­ Different algorithms ­ Different number of clusters

  17. Generating Multimodal References

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Krahmer, Emiel

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a new computational model for the generation of multimodal referring expressions (REs), based on observations in human communication. The algorithm is an extension of the graph-based algorithm proposed by Krahmer, van Erk, and Verleg (2003) and makes use of a so-called Flashlight Model for pointing. The Flashlight Model…

  18. Configurable Reference Modeling Languages

    E-print Network

    van der Aalst, Wil

    .h.jansen-vullers}@tm.tue.nl 3) SAP Research CEC Brisbane, SAP Australia Pty Ltd 133 Mary Street, Brisbane QLD 4000, Australia Phone: +61 7 3259 9512, Fax: +61 7 3259 9599 alexander.dreiling@sap.com #12;Configurable Reference to the proliferation of comprehensive business information systems such as Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems

  19. Gene Expression Profile in Human Skeletal Muscle Cells Infected With Human Adenovirus Type 36

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhong Q.; Yu, Yongmei; Zhang, Xian H.; Qin, Jianhua; Floyd, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Human adenovirus type-36 (HAdV-36) is a specific pathogen that may lead to increased adiposity and obesity. In order to evaluate the effects of HAdV-36 on gene transcription, a microarray analysis of muscle cells infected with HAdV-36 was performed. Gene expression profile was determined by microarray analysis in cultured human skeletal muscle cells with or without HAdV-36 infection. Quantitative realtime PCR (qPCR) assay was performed in selected 35 genes to verify the results of the microarray analysis. A total of 13,060 unique genes were detected in the HAdV-36 infected muscle cells infected with HAdV-36. Among them, 1,004 genes were significantly altered by using a cut-off point at fold change ?1.5 and P value <0.05. Most of the principal 100 altered genes were involved in development, immune response, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation as well as carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Thirty-two genes (91.4%) from the 35 selected genes were confirmed by qPCR assay. In addition, HAdV-36 altered 252 genes that are associated with cancer. The study showed HAdV-36 infection upregulated host cell antiviral defense. HAdV-36 also induces changes in gene expression related to cellular signaling pathways of signal transduction, transcriptional regulation as well as carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. However, it remains to be investigated if HAdV-36 infection could lead to oncogenesis. PMID:22711354

  20. Prognostic Significance of TOP2A Gene Dosage in HER-2-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markiewicz, Aleksandra; Seroczy?ska, Barbara; Skokowski, Jaros?aw; Ja?kiewicz, Janusz; Pie?kowski, Tadeusz; Olszewski, Wojciech P.; Szade, Jolanta; Rhone, Piotr; We?nicka-Ja?kiewicz, Marzena; Jassem, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    Background. Previous studies showed the prognostic and predictive impact of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) gene alterations analyzed separately and jointly with topoisomerase II ? (TOP2A) gene alterations; however, the role of TOP2A gene abnormalities alone has not been thoroughly investigated. Additionally, TOP2A aberrations were typically studied in HER-2-positive (HER-2+) tumors because these genes are frequently coamplified. Therefore, the knowledge concerning the impact of TOP2A abnormalities in HER-2-negative (HER-2?) patients is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the clinical significance of TOP2A anomalies in breast cancer patients with HER-2? and HER-2+ tumors. Materials and Methods. Snap-frozen tumor samples from 322 consecutive stage I–III breast cancer patients were analyzed for TOP2A gene dosage using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Results. A high TOP2A gene dosage was found in 94 tumors (29%)—32% and 27% of HER-2+ and HER-2? tumors, respectively. The mean TOP2A gene dosages in the HER-2+ and HER-2? groups were 1.49 ± 1.03 and 1.09 ± 0.35, respectively. High TOP2A gene dosage had an inverse prognostic impact in terms of shorter disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) times in the entire group and in both the HER-2? and HER-2+ subgroups. The unfavorable prognostic impact of TOP2A gene dosage was maintained in the multivariate Cox regression analysis in the entire group and in HER-2? patients. Conclusions. A high gene dosage of TOP2A determined using qPCR occurs frequently both in HER-2+ and HER-2? tumors and has a strong adverse prognostic impact. PMID:22871798

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