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1

Elasmobranch qPCR reference genes: a case study of hypoxia preconditioned epaulette sharks  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Elasmobranch fishes are an ancient group of vertebrates which have high potential as model species for research into evolutionary physiology and genomics. However, no comparative studies have established suitable reference genes for quantitative PCR (qPCR) in elasmobranchs for any physiological conditions. Oxygen availability has been a major force shaping the physiological evolution of vertebrates, especially fishes. Here we examined

Kalle T Rytkönen; Gillian MC Renshaw; Kevin J Ashton; Grant Williams-Pritchard; Erica H Leder; Mikko Nikinmaa

2010-01-01

2

Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT qPCR gene expression data in human brain tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of gene expression in post mortem human brain can contribute to understanding of the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Quantitative real-time PCR (RT qPCR) is often used to analyse gene expression. The validity of results obtained using RT qPCR is reliant on accurate data normalization. Reference

David TR Coulson; Simon Brockbank; Joseph G Quinn; Suzanne Murphy; Rivka Ravid; G Brent Irvine; Janet A Johnston

2008-01-01

3

Selection of Suitable Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization under Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli in Carrot Leaves  

PubMed Central

Carrot, a biennial herb of the Apiaceae family, is among the most important vegetable crops in the world. In this study, nine candidate reference genes (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4?, PP2A, SAND, TIP41, UBQ, EF-1?, and TUB) were cloned from carrot. Carrot plants were subjected to abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli (gibberellin, salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid). The expression profiles of the candidate reference genes were evaluated in three technical and biological replicates. Real-time qPCR data analyses were performed using three commonly used Excel-based applets namely, BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. ACTIN and TUB were the most stable genes identified among all sample groups, but individual analysis revealed changes in their expression profiles. GAPDH displayed the maximum stability for most of single stresses. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression profile of DcDREB-A1 gene (homolog of AtDREB-A1 gene of Arabidophsis) was studied in carrot. The appropriate reference genes were selected that showed stable expression under the different experimental conditions. PMID:25658122

Tian, Chang; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Feng; Wang, Guang-Long; Xu, Zhi-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

2015-01-01

4

Real-Time qPCR Identifies Suitable Reference Genes for Borna Disease Virus-Infected Rat Cortical Neurons  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most commonly-used technique to identify gene expression profiles. The selection of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite to properly evaluating gene expression. Here, the suitability of commonly-used reference genes in normalizing RT-qPCR assays of mRNA expression in cultured rat cortical neurons infected with Borna disease virus (BDV) was assessed. The expressions of eight commonly-used reference genes were comparatively analyzed in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons and non-infected control neurons mainly across 9 and 12 days post-infection. These reference genes were validated by RT-qPCR and separately ranked by four statistical algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. Then, the RankAggreg package was used to construct consensus rankings. ARBP was found to be the most stable internal control gene at Day 9, and ACTB at Day 12. As the assessment of the validity of the selected reference genes confirms the suitability of applying a combination of the two most stable references genes, combining the two most stable genes for normalization of RT-qPCR studies in BDV-infected rat cortical neurons is recommended at each time point. This study can contribute to improving BDV research by providing the means by which to obtain more reliable and accurate gene expression measurements. PMID:25431926

Zhang, Lujun; Liu, Siwen; Zhang, Liang; You, Hongmin; Huang, Rongzhong; Sun, Lin; He, Peng; Chen, Shigang; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Peng

2014-01-01

5

Getting real with real-time qPCR: a case study of reference gene selection for morphological variation in Drosophila melanogaster wings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accurate estimation of gene expression differences during development requires sensitive techniques combined with gold-standard\\u000a normalization procedures. This is particularly true in the case of quantitative traits, where expression changes might be\\u000a small. Nevertheless, systematic selection and validation of reference genes has been overlooked, even in Drosophila studies. Here, we tested the stability of six traditional reference genes across samples of

Bruna P. Matta; Blanche C. Bitner-Mathé; Marcio Alves-Ferreira

2011-01-01

6

Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Is Dependent on Cell Type Rather than Treatment in Colonic and Vaginal Human Epithelial Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

The ability of commensal bacteria to influence gene expression in host cells under the influence of pathogenic bacteria has previously been demonstrated, however the extent of this interaction is important for understanding how bacteria can be used as probiotics. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most sensitive tool for evaluating relative changes to gene expression levels. However as a result of its sensitivity an appropriate method of normalisation should be used to account for any variation incurred in preparatory experimental procedures. These variations may result from differences in the amount of starting material, quality of extracted RNA, or in the efficiency of the reverse transcriptase or polymerase enzymes. Selection of an endogenous control gene is the preferred method of normalisation, and ideally a proper validation of the gene's appropriateness for the study in question should be performed. In this study we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction data and applied four different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and comparative ?Cq) to evaluate eleven different genes as to their suitability as endogenous controls for use in studies involving colonic (HT-29) and vaginal (VK2/E6E7) human mucosal epithelial cells treated with probiotic and pathogenic bacteria. We found phosphoglycerate kinase 1 to be most appropriate for HT-29 cells, and ribosomal protein large P0 to be the best choice for VK2/E6E7 cells. We also showed that use of less stable reference genes can lead to less accurate quantification of expression levels of gene of interest (GOI) and also can result in decreased statistical significance for GOI expression levels when compared to control. Additionally, we found the cell type being analysed had greater influence on reference gene selection than the treatment performed. This study provides recommendations for stable endogenous control genes for use in further studies involving colonic and vaginal cell lines after bacterial challenge. PMID:25526394

Jacobsen, Annette V.; Yemaneab, Bisrat T.; Jass, Jana; Scherbak, Nikolai

2014-01-01

7

hMSC differentiation marker detection using Thermo Scientific Solaris™ qPCR Gene Expression Assays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human mesenchymal stem cells have become an important resource in developing strategies for regenerative therapies, owing to their ease of use and differentiation potential. Analytical tools, such as whole-genome expression array and validation with Solaris™ qPCR Assays, are essential to fully understand the key molecular events, such as microRNA-mediated gene modulation, that mark stem cell differentiation.

Zaklina Strezoska; Yuriy Fedorov; Melissa L Kelley

2009-01-01

8

Selection and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in gene expression studies in Catharanthus roseus.  

PubMed

Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), a sensitive and commonly used technique for gene expression analysis, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalization of gene expression. Up to now, only one reference gene for qPCR analysis, corresponding to 40S Ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), was available for the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, the only source of the commercial anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we screened for additional reference genes for this plant species by mining C. roseus RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and qualified as superior reference genes for this model plant species. Based on this, eight candidate C. roseus reference genes were identified and, together with RPS9, evaluated by performing qPCR on a series of different C. roseus explants and tissue cultures. NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper analyses of the resulting qPCR data revealed that the orthologs of At2g28390 (SAND family protein, SAND), At2g32170 (N2227-like family protein, N2227) and At4g26410 (Expressed protein, EXP) had the highest expression stability across the different C. roseus samples and are superior as reference genes as compared to the traditionally used RPS9. Analysis of publicly available C. roseus RNA-Seq data confirmed the expression stability of SAND and N2227, underscoring their value as reference genes for C. roseus qPCR analysis. PMID:25058454

Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

2014-10-01

9

Quantification of Las gene by qPCR from orange juice extracted from Huanglongbing infected fruit  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The objective of this research is to establish a methodology to quantify the Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) in orange juice as an indicator of orange juice quality. Current standard method for citrus Huanglongbing (HLB) diagnosis is using real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) to quan...

10

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative PCR Studies in Sheep Neutrophils  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are essential for studying mRNA expression with quantitative PCR (qPCR). We investigated 11 potential neutrophil reference genes (RPL19, GAPDH, ACTB, B2M, HPRT, G6PD, TFRC, PGK1, YWHAZ, SDHA and GYPC) for sheep under disease conditions of foot rot (FR) and with or without Se supplementation. Initial screening was based on gene expression level (<28 Cq cycles) and variability (SD < 1.5 Cq cycles) and excluded TFRC, GYPC and HPRT from further analysis. Expression stability of the remaining genes was evaluated using four software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta Cq method. The neutrophil reference genes, G6PD, YWHAZ, GAPDH, RPL19 and SDHA, consistently ranked among the top five most stable genes under these experimental conditions. The SDHA gene expression was not stable in FR-diseased sheep receiving Se treatment and, thus, cannot be recommended as a reference gene. The commonly used genes, PGK1, ACTB and B2M, were not reliable reference genes, underscoring the need to validate neutrophil reference genes under different experimental conditions. Multiple references genes rather than a single gene may provide more robust and reliable results. The best pair of reference genes was SDHA/G6PD in healthy sheep and GADPH/YWHAZ in FR-diseased sheep. PMID:23722658

Vorachek, William R.; Hugejiletu; Bobe, Gerd; Hall, Jean A.

2013-01-01

11

Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping

Sinara Artico; Sarah M Nardeli; Osmundo Brilhante; Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sa; Marcio Alves-Ferreira

2010-01-01

12

Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut  

PubMed Central

The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

2013-01-01

13

Reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression in cucumber grown under different nitrogen nutrition.  

PubMed

In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EF? proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

2013-01-01

14

Reliable Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression in Cucumber Grown under Different Nitrogen Nutrition  

PubMed Central

In plants, nitrogen is the most important nutritional factor limiting the yield of cultivated crops. Since nitrogen is essential for synthesis of nucleotides, amino acids and proteins, studies on gene expression in plants cultivated under different nitrogen availability require particularly careful selection of suitable reference genes which are not affected by nitrogen limitation. Therefore, the objective of this study was to select the most reliable reference genes for qPCR analysis of target cucumber genes under varying nitrogen source and availability. Among twelve candidate cucumber genes used in this study, five are highly homologous to the commonly used internal controls, whereas seven novel candidates were previously identified through the query of the cucumber genome. The expression of putative reference genes and the target CsNRT1.1 gene was analyzed in roots, stems and leaves of cucumbers grown under nitrogen deprivation, varying nitrate availability or different sources of nitrogen (glutamate, glutamine or NH3). The stability of candidate genes expression significantly varied depending on the tissue type and nitrogen supply. However, in most of the outputs genes encoding CACS, TIP41, F-box protein and EF? proved to be the most suitable for normalization of CsNRT1.1 expression. In addition, our results suggest the inclusion of 3 or 4 references to obtain highly reliable results of target genes expression in all cucumber organs under nitrogen-related stress. PMID:24058446

Warzybok, Anna; Migocka, Magdalena

2013-01-01

15

Novel reference genes for quantifying transcriptional responses of Escherichia coli to protein overexpression by quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate interpretation of quantitative PCR (qPCR) data requires normalization using constitutively expressed reference genes. Ribosomal RNA is often used as a reference gene for transcriptional studies in E. coli. However, the choice of reliable reference genes has not been systematically validated. The objective of this study is to identify a set of reliable reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein over-expression studies in E. coli. Results In this study, the meta-analysis of 240 sets of single-channel Affymetrix microarray data representing over-expressions of 63 distinct recombinant proteins in various E. coli strains identified twenty candidate reference genes that were stably expressed across all conditions. The expression of these twenty genes and two commonly used reference genes, rrsA encoding ribosomal RNA 16S and ihfB, was quantified by qPCR in E. coli cells over-expressing four genes of the 1-Deoxy-D-Xylulose 5-Phosphate pathway. From these results, two independent statistical algorithms identified three novel reference genes cysG, hcaT, and idnT but not rrsA and ihfB as highly invariant in two E. coli strains, across different growth temperatures and induction conditions. Transcriptomic data normalized by the geometric average of these three genes demonstrated that genes of the lycopene synthetic pathway maintained steady expression upon enzyme overexpression. In contrast, the use of rrsA or ihfB as reference genes led to the mis-interpretation that lycopene pathway genes were regulated during enzyme over-expression. Conclusion This study identified cysG/hcaT/idnT to be reliable novel reference genes for transcription analysis in recombinant protein producing E. coli. PMID:21513543

2011-01-01

16

Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in virus-infected monocots using quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Both genome-wide transcriptomic surveys of the mRNA expression profiles and virus-induced gene silencing-based molecular studies of target gene during virus-plant interaction involve the precise estimation of the transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification. In order to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes forms the basis of the preliminary work. Nevertheless, the stability of internal controls in virus-infected monocots needs to be fully explored. In this work, the suitability of ten housekeeping genes (ACT, EF1?, FBOX, GAPDH, GTPB, PP2A, SAND, TUB?, UBC18 and UK) for potential use as reference genes in qPCR were investigated in five different monocot plants (Brachypodium, barley, sorghum, wheat and maize) under infection with different viruses including Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). By using three different algorithms, the most appropriate reference genes or their combinations were identified for different experimental sets and their effectiveness for the normalisation of expression studies were further validated by quantitative analysis of a well-studied PR-1 gene. These results facilitate the selection of desirable reference genes for more accurate gene expression studies in virus-infected monocots. PMID:23954326

Zhang, Kun; Niu, Shaofang; Di, Dianping; Shi, Lindan; Liu, Deshui; Cao, Xiuling; Miao, Hongqin; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

2013-10-10

17

Analysis of SLC11A1 gene expression in healthy water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) blood cells using qPCR.  

PubMed

SLC11A1 (solute carrier family 11 member 1 protein) gene influences the initial phase of bacterial cellular infections through macrophage activation. Recent literature on buffalo has attempted to associate the genotype of the polymorphic microsatellite located in the 3'untranslated region (3'UTR) of the gene, with either susceptibility to brucellosis or with improved macrophage function. Carriers of the (GT)16 allele have been reported to be resistant to brucellosis. In this study we analyzed the steady-state level of SLC11A1 expression in a serologically negative herd of 26 animals differing by the number of (GT)n microsatellite repeats by using a reverse transcriptase quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction approach. We evaluated five different reference genes, which had not been reported previously, for use in gene expression experiments in buffalo blood. However, we did not find any significant difference between buffalo carriers of the different microsatellite alleles, with respect to SLC11A1 expression in whole blood or in blood fractions [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear leukocytes/granulocytes (PMN/G)]. Conversely, there was a difference between the blood fractions in their SLC11A1 expression levels, with the PMN/G fraction having a higher expression level than the PBMC fraction (P < 0.015). PMID:24391044

Crisà, A; De Matteis, G; Scatà, M C; Moioli, B

2013-01-01

18

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Functional Studies in the Calliphoridae Family  

PubMed Central

The genera Cochliomyia and Chrysomya contain both obligate and saprophagous flies, which allows the comparison of different feeding habits between closely related species. Among the different strategies for comparing these habits is the use of qPCR to investigate the expression levels of candidate genes involved in feeding behavior. To ensure an accurate measure of the levels of gene expression, it is necessary to normalize the amount of the target gene with the amount of a reference gene having a stable expression across the compared species. Since there is no universal gene that can be used as a reference in functional studies, candidate genes for qPCR data normalization were selected and validated in three Calliphoridae (Diptera) species, Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, Cochliomyia macellaria Fabricius, and Chrysomya albiceps Wiedemann. The expression stability of six genes (Actin, Gapdh, Rp49, Rps17, ?-tubulin, and GstD1) was evaluated among species within the same life stage and between life stages within each species. The expression levels of Actin, Gapdh, and Rp49 were the most stable among the selected genes. These genes can be used as reliable reference genes for functional studies in Calliphoridae using similar experimental settings. PMID:25373149

Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Matiolli, Cleverson Carlos; de Azeredo-Espin, Ana Maria Lima; Torres, Tatiana Teixeira

2014-01-01

19

Validation of a set of reference genes to study response to herbicide stress in grasses  

PubMed Central

Background Non-target-site based resistance to herbicides is a major threat to the chemical control of agronomically noxious weeds. This adaptive trait is endowed by differences in the expression of a number of genes in plants that are resistant or sensitive to herbicides. Quantification of the expression of such genes requires normalising qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied as internal standards. The aim of this study was to validate reference genes in Alopecurus myosuroides, a grass (Poaceae) weed of economic and agronomic importance with no genomic resources. Results The stability of 11 candidate reference genes was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to herbicides subjected or not to herbicide stress using the complementary statistical methods implemented by NormFinder, BestKeeper and geNorm. Ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were identified as the best reference genes. The reference gene set accuracy was confirmed by analysing the expression of the gene encoding acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase, a major herbicide target enzyme, and of an herbicide-induced gene encoding a glutathione-S-transferase. Conclusions This is the first study describing a set of reference genes (ubiquitin, beta-tubulin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) with a stable expression under herbicide stress in grasses. These genes are also candidate reference genes of choice for studies seeking to identify stress-responsive genes in grasses. PMID:22233533

2012-01-01

20

Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in virus-infected Nicotiana benthamiana using quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant-pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate normalisation of gene expression against an appropriate internal control is required. Yet there has been little systematic investigation of reference gene stability in N. benthamiana under conditions of viral infections. In this study, the expression profiles of 16 commonly used housekeeping genes (GAPDH, 18S, EF1?, SAMD, L23, UK, PP2A, APR, UBI3, SAND, ACT, TUB, GBP, F-BOX, PPR and TIP41) were determined in N. benthamiana and those with acceptable expression levels were further selected for transcript stability analysis by qPCR of complementary DNA prepared from N. benthamiana leaf tissue infected with one of five RNA plant viruses (Tobacco necrosis virus A, Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus and Potato virus X). Gene stability was analysed in parallel by three commonly-used dedicated algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Statistical analysis revealed that the PP2A, F-BOX and L23 genes were the most stable overall, and that the combination of these three genes was sufficient for accurate normalisation. In addition, the suitability of PP2A, F-BOX and L23 as reference genes was illustrated by expression-level analysis of AGO2 and RdR6 in virus-infected N. benthamiana leaves. This is the first study to systematically examine and evaluate the stability of different reference genes in N. benthamiana. Our results not only provide researchers studying these viruses a shortlist of potential housekeeping genes to use as normalisers for qPCR experiments, but should also guide the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression studies of N. benthamiana under other biotic and abiotic stress conditions. PMID:23029521

Liu, Deshui; Shi, Lindan; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

2012-01-01

21

Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Virus-Infected Nicotiana benthamiana Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Nicotiana benthamiana is the most widely-used experimental host in plant virology. The recent release of the draft genome sequence for N. benthamiana consolidates its role as a model for plant–pathogen interactions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is commonly employed for quantitative gene expression analysis. For valid qPCR analysis, accurate normalisation of gene expression against an appropriate internal control is required. Yet there has been little systematic investigation of reference gene stability in N. benthamiana under conditions of viral infections. In this study, the expression profiles of 16 commonly used housekeeping genes (GAPDH, 18S, EF1?, SAMD, L23, UK, PP2A, APR, UBI3, SAND, ACT, TUB, GBP, F-BOX, PPR and TIP41) were determined in N. benthamiana and those with acceptable expression levels were further selected for transcript stability analysis by qPCR of complementary DNA prepared from N. benthamiana leaf tissue infected with one of five RNA plant viruses (Tobacco necrosis virus A, Beet black scorch virus, Beet necrotic yellow vein virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus and Potato virus X). Gene stability was analysed in parallel by three commonly-used dedicated algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Statistical analysis revealed that the PP2A, F-BOX and L23 genes were the most stable overall, and that the combination of these three genes was sufficient for accurate normalisation. In addition, the suitability of PP2A, F-BOX and L23 as reference genes was illustrated by expression-level analysis of AGO2 and RdR6 in virus-infected N. benthamiana leaves. This is the first study to systematically examine and evaluate the stability of different reference genes in N. benthamiana. Our results not only provide researchers studying these viruses a shortlist of potential housekeeping genes to use as normalisers for qPCR experiments, but should also guide the selection of appropriate reference genes for gene expression studies of N. benthamiana under other biotic and abiotic stress conditions. PMID:23029521

Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

2012-01-01

22

Identification of optimal reference genes for quantitative PCR studies on human mesenchymal stem cells.  

PubMed

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis is a commonly used method for the study of mRNA expression throughout the field of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) research. This technology is simple and sensitive; however the results may vary significantly due to the use of various reference genes (RGs) as normalizers. Therefore, the reliable use of RGs is vital for obtaining accurate results. The present study focuses on ten putative RGs for the normalization of qPCR data between human bone marrow-derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and fetal tissue-derived MSCs (FT-MSCs). The total RNA from these two types of MSC was isolated using TRIzol reagent. cDNA was generated from the RNA via reverse transcription and subsequently analyzed by qPCR using ten common RGs as normalizers. These RGs included 18S, ACTB, B2M, HPRT1, GAPDH, TBP, PPIA, RPLP0, PGK1 and RPL13A. GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software were used to analyze the qPCR results by evaluating the expression stabilities of the ten candidate RGs in BM-MSCs and FT-MSCs. Consequently, several of the commonly used RGs, including 18S, ACTB and TBP, were demonstrated to be unsuitable for normalization in these two MSCs, whereas RPL13A, B2M and PPIA were the most stable RGs and were therefore reliable for use in qPCR studies. Combining multiple RGs had no contribution towards increasing their stabilities. In conclusion, the present study revealed that RPL13A, B2M and PPIA were the optimal RGs for qPCR studies comparing BM-MSCs and FT-MSCs. PMID:25369870

Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Yang, Yanyan; Zhong, Lingzhi; Wang, Yimin

2015-02-01

23

Identification of superior reference genes for data normalisation of expression studies via quantitative PCR in hybrid roses (Rosa hybrida)  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression studies are a prerequisite for understanding the biological function of genes. Because of its high sensitivity and easy use, quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the gold standard for gene expression quantification. To normalise qPCR measurements between samples, the most prominent technique is the use of stably expressed endogenous control genes, the so called reference genes. However, recent studies show there is no universal reference gene for all biological questions. Roses are important ornamental plants for which there has been no evaluation of useful reference genes for gene expression studies. Results We used three different algorithms (BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder) to validate the expression stability of nine candidate reference genes in different rose tissues from three different genotypes of Rosa hybrida and in leaves treated with various stress factors. The candidate genes comprised the classical "housekeeping genes" (Actin, EF-1?, GAPDH, Tubulin and Ubiquitin), and genes showing stable expression in studies in Arabidopsis (PP2A, SAND, TIP and UBC). The programs identified no single gene that showed stable expression under all of the conditions tested, and the individual rankings of the genes differed between the algorithms. Nevertheless the new candidate genes, specifically, PP2A and UBC, were ranked higher as compared to the other traditional reference genes. In general, Tubulin showed the most variable expression and should be avoided as a reference gene. Conclusions Reference genes evaluated as suitable in experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana were stably expressed in roses under various experimental conditions. In most cases, these genes outperformed conventional reference genes, such as EF1-? and Tubulin. We identified PP2A, SAND and UBC as suitable reference genes, which in different combinations may be used for normalisation in expression analyses via qPCR for different rose tissues and stress treatments. However, the vast genetic variation found within the genus Rosa, including differences in ploidy levels, might also influence expression stability of reference genes, so that future research should also consider different genotypes and ploidy levels. PMID:22123042

2011-01-01

24

Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane  

PubMed Central

Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

2014-01-01

25

Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in astrocytomas  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was aimed to test a panel of six housekeeping genes (GAPDH, HPRT1, POLR2A, RPLP0, ACTB, and H3F) so as to identify and validate the most suitable reference genes for expression studies in astrocytomas. GAPDH was the most stable and HPRT1 was the least stable reference gene. The effect of reference gene selection on quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction

Sylwia M. Gresner; Ewa Golanska; Dominika Kulczycka-Wojdala; Dariusz J. Jaskolski; Wielislaw Papierz; Pawel P. Liberski

2011-01-01

26

Reference gene identification for reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis in an ischemic wound-healing model.  

PubMed

Reference genes are often used in RT-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis to normalize gene expression levels to a gene that is expressed stably across study groups. They ultimately serve as a control in RT-qPCR analysis, producing more accurate interpretation of results. Whereas many reference genes have been used in various wound-healing studies, the most stable reference gene for ischemic wound-healing analysis has yet to be identified. The goal of this study was to determine systematically the most stable reference gene for studying gene expression in a rat ischemic wound-healing model using RT-qPCR. Twelve commonly used reference genes were analyzed using RT-qPCR and geNorm data analysis to determine stability across normal and ischemic skin tissue. It was ultimately determined that Ubiquitin C (UBC) and ?-2 Microglobulin (B2M) are the most stably conserved reference genes across normal and ischemic skin tissue. UBC and B2M represent reliable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in the rat ischemic wound model and are unaffected by sustained tissue ischemia. The geometric mean of these two stable genes provides an accurate normalization factor. These results provide insight on dependence of reference-gene stability on experimental parameters and the importance of such reference-gene investigations. PMID:24294111

Ruedrich, Elizabeth D; Henzel, Mary K; Hausman, Bryan S; Bogie, Kath M

2013-12-01

27

Identification of two putative reference genes from grapevine suitable for gene expression analysis in berry and related tissues derived from RNA-Seq data  

PubMed Central

Background Data normalization is a key step in gene expression analysis by qPCR. Endogenous control genes are used to estimate variations and experimental errors occurring during sample preparation and expression measurements. However, the transcription level of the most commonly used reference genes can vary considerably in samples obtained from different individuals, tissues, developmental stages and under variable physiological conditions, resulting in a misinterpretation of the performance of the target gene(s). This issue has been scarcely approached in woody species such as grapevine. Results A statistical criterion was applied to select a sub-set of 19 candidate reference genes from a total of 242 non-differentially expressed (NDE) genes derived from a RNA-Seq experiment comprising ca. 500 million reads obtained from 14 table-grape genotypes sampled at four phenological stages. From the 19 candidate reference genes, VvAIG1 (AvrRpt2-induced gene) and VvTCPB (T-complex 1 beta-like protein) were found to be the most stable ones after comparing the complete set of genotypes and phenological stages studied. This result was further validated by qPCR and geNorm analyses. Conclusions Based on the evidence presented in this work, we propose to use the grapevine genes VvAIG1 or VvTCPB or both as a reference tool to normalize RNA expression in qPCR assays or other quantitative method intended to measure gene expression in berries and other tissues of this fruit crop, sampled at different developmental stages and physiological conditions. PMID:24330674

2013-01-01

28

Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Expression Analysis by Real-Time RT-PCR in Four Lepidopteran Insects  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ?Ct analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2-??Ct method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR. PMID:22938136

Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

2012-01-01

29

Evaluation of coffee reference genes for relative expression studies by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Accuracy in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) requires the use of stable endogenous controls. Normalization\\u000a with multiple reference genes is the gold standard, but their identification is a laborious task, especially in species with\\u000a limited sequence information. Coffee (Coffea ssp.) is an important agricultural commodity and, due to its economic relevance, is the subject of increasing research in\\u000a genetics

Fernanda Cruz; Samara Kalaoun; Paula Nobile; Carlos Colombo; Juliana Almeida; Leila M. G. Barros; Eduardo Romano; Maria Fátima Grossi-de-Sá; Maité Vaslin; Marcio Alves-Ferreira

2009-01-01

30

Candidate reference genes for gene expression studies in water lily  

Microsoft Academic Search

The selection of an appropriate reference gene(s) is a prerequisite for the proper interpretation of quantitative Real-Time polymerase chain reaction data. We report the evaluation of eight candidate reference genes across various tissues and treatments in the water lily by the two software packages geNorm and NormFinder. Across all samples, clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit (AP47) and actin 11 (ACT11)

Huolin Luo; Sumei Chen; Hongjian Wan; Fadi Chen; Chunsun Gu; Zhaolei Liu

2010-01-01

31

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Reaumuria soongorica  

PubMed Central

Despite its superiority for evaluating gene expression, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results can be significantly biased by the use of inappropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions. Reaumuria soongorica is a dominant species of desert ecosystems in arid central Asia. Given the increasing interest in ecological engineering and potential genetic resources for arid agronomy, it is important to analyze gene function. However, systematic evaluation of stable reference genes should be performed prior to such analyses. In this study, the stabilities of 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed under 4 kinds of abiotic stresses (drought, salt, dark, and heat) within 4 accessions (HG010, HG020, XGG030, and XGG040) from 2 different habitats using 3 algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). After validation of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (rbcL) expression pattern, our data suggested that histone H2A (H2A) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4A-2 (EIF4A2) were the most stable reference genes, cyclophilin (CYCL) was moderate, and elongation factor 1? (EF1?) was the worst choice. This first systematic analysis for stably expressed genes will facilitate future functional analyses and deep mining of genetic resources in R. soongorica and other species of the Reaumuria genus. PMID:25117551

Zhang, Wen; Yin, Hengxia; Xiao, Honglang; Chen, Peng; Ma, Xiao-Fei

2014-01-01

32

The Use of Laser Microdissection in the Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Human FFPE Epithelial Ovarian Tissue Samples  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful and reproducible method of gene expression analysis in which expression levels are quantified by normalization against reference genes. Therefore, to investigate the potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for epithelial ovarian cancer by qPCR, it is critical to identify stable reference genes. In this study, twelve housekeeping genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18S rRNA, GUSB, PPIA, PBGD, PUM1, TBP, HRPT1, RPLP0, RPL13A, and B2M) were analyzed in 50 ovarian samples from normal, benign, borderline, and malignant tissues. For reliable results, laser microdissection (LMD), an effective technique used to prepare homogeneous starting material, was utilized to precisely excise target tissues or cells. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and nonparametric (Kruskal-Wallis) tests were used to compare the expression differences. NormFinder and geNorm software were employed to further validate the suitability and stability of the candidate genes. Results showed that epithelial cells occupied a small percentage of the normal ovary indeed. The expression of ACTB, PPIA, RPL13A, RPLP0, and TBP were stable independent of the disease progression. In addition, NormFinder and geNorm identified the most stable combination (ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP) and the relatively unstable reference gene GAPDH from the twelve commonly used housekeeping genes. Our results highlight the use of homogeneous ovarian tissues and multiple-reference normalization strategy, e.g. the combination of ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, and TBP, for qPCR in epithelial ovarian tissues, whereas GAPDH, the most commonly used reference gene, is not recommended, especially as a single reference gene. PMID:24776823

Huang, Bangxing; Cheng, Henghui; Ding, Hui; Dong, Weihong; Xiao, Man; Liu, Ling; Wang, Zehua

2014-01-01

33

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-time PCR Normalization in Caragana intermedia under Different Abiotic Stress Conditions  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a sensitive technique for gene expression analysis, depends on the stability of the reference genes used for data normalization. Caragana intermedia, a native desert shrub with strong drought-resistance, sand-fixing capacity and high forage value that is widespread in the desert land of west and northwest China, has not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of qPCR data. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were analyzed in C. intermedia subjected to different abiotic (osmotic, salt, cold and heat) stresses, in two distinct plant organs (roots and leaves). The expression stability of these genes was assessed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The best-ranked reference genes differed across the different sets of samples, but UNK2, PP2A and SAND were the most stable across all tested samples. UNK2 and SAND would be appropriate for normalizing gene expression data for salt-treated roots, whereas the combination of UNK2, SAND and EF-1? would be appropriate for salt-treated leaves. UNK1, UNK2 and PP2A would be appropriate for PEG-treated (osmotic) roots, whereas the combination of TIP41 and PP2A was the most suitable for PEG-treated leaves. SAND, PP2A and TIP41 exhibited the most stable expression in heat-treated leaves. In cold-treated leaves, SAND and EF-1? were the most stably expressed. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression levels of DREB1 and DREB2 (homologs of AtDREB1 and AtDREB2) were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis for the selection of superior reference genes for qPCR in C. intermedia under different abiotic stress conditions, and will benefit future studies on gene expression in C. intermedia and other species of the leguminous genus Caragana. PMID:23301042

Zhu, Jianfeng; Zhang, Lifeng; Li, Wanfeng; Han, Suying; Yang, Wenhua; Qi, Liwang

2013-01-01

34

Identification and evaluation of new reference genes in Gossypium hirsutum for accurate normalization of real-time quantitative RT-PCR data  

PubMed Central

Background Normalizing through reference genes, or housekeeping genes, can make more accurate and reliable results from reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Recent studies have shown that no single housekeeping gene is universal for all experiments. Thus, suitable reference genes should be the first step of any qPCR analysis. Only a few studies on the identification of housekeeping gene have been carried on plants. Therefore qPCR studies on important crops such as cotton has been hampered by the lack of suitable reference genes. Results By the use of two distinct algorithms, implemented by geNorm and NormFinder, we have assessed the gene expression of nine candidate reference genes in cotton: GhACT4, GhEF1?5, GhFBX6, GhPP2A1, GhMZA, GhPTB, GhGAPC2, Gh?TUB3 and GhUBQ14. The candidate reference genes were evaluated in 23 experimental samples consisting of six distinct plant organs, eight stages of flower development, four stages of fruit development and in flower verticils. The expression of GhPP2A1 and GhUBQ14 genes were the most stable across all samples and also when distinct plants organs are examined. GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 present more stable expression during flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 in the floral verticils and GhMZA and GhPTB during fruit development. Our analysis provided the most suitable combination of reference genes for each experimental set tested as internal control for reliable qPCR data normalization. In addition, to illustrate the use of cotton reference genes we checked the expression of two cotton MADS-box genes in distinct plant and floral organs and also during flower development. Conclusion We have tested the expression stabilities of nine candidate genes in a set of 23 tissue samples from cotton plants divided into five different experimental sets. As a result of this evaluation, we recommend the use of GhUBQ14 and GhPP2A1 housekeeping genes as superior references for normalization of gene expression measures in different cotton plant organs; GhACT4 and GhUBQ14 for flower development, GhACT4 and GhFBX6 for the floral organs and GhMZA and GhPTB for fruit development. We also provide the primer sequences whose performance in qPCR experiments is demonstrated. These genes will enable more accurate and reliable normalization of qPCR results for gene expression studies in this important crop, the major source of natural fiber and also an important source of edible oil. The use of bona fide reference genes allowed a detailed and accurate characterization of the temporal and spatial expression pattern of two MADS-box genes in cotton. PMID:20302670

2010-01-01

35

Reference Gene Selection and Validation for the Early Responses to Downy Mildew Infection in Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars  

PubMed Central

The pivotal role of cultivated grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) in many countries economy is compromised by its high susceptibility to Plasmopara viticola, the causal agent of downy mildew disease. Recent research has identified a set of genes related to resistance which may be used to track downy mildew infection. Quantification of the expression of these resistance genes requires normalizing qPCR data using reference genes with stable expression in the system studied. In this study, a set of eleven genes (VATP16, 60 S, UQCC, SMD3, EF1?, UBQ, SAND, GAPDH, ACT, PsaB, PTB2) was evaluated to identify reference genes during the first hours of interaction (6, 12, 18 and 24 hpi) between two V. vinifera genotypes and P. viticola. Two analyses were used for the selection of reference genes: direct comparison of susceptible, Trincadeira, and resistant, Regent, V. vinifera cultivars at 0 h, 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours post inoculation with P. viticola (genotype effect); and comparison of each genotype with mock inoculated samples during inoculation time-course (biotic stress effect). Three statistical methods were used, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper, allowing to identify UBQ, EF1? and GAPDH as the most stable genes for the genotype effect. For the biotic stress effect, EF1?, SAND and SMD3 were the most constant for the susceptible cultivar Trincadeira and EF1?, GAPDH, UBQ for the resistant cultivar Regent. In addition, the expression of three defense-related transcripts, encoding for subtilisin-like protein, CYP and PR10, was analysed, for both datasets, during inoculation time-course. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection towards a more accurate and widespread use of qPCR to study the first hours of interaction between different grapevine cultivars and P. viticola. PMID:24023800

Monteiro, Filipa; Sebastiana, Mónica; Pais, Maria Salomé; Figueiredo, Andreia

2013-01-01

36

Identification of cell-specific patterns of reference gene stability in quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction studies of embryonic, placental and neural stem models of prenatal ethanol exposure  

PubMed Central

Identification of the transcriptional networks disrupted by prenatal ethanol exposure remains a core requirement to better understanding the molecular mechanisms of alcohol-induced teratogenesis. In this regard, quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) has emerged as an essential technique in our efforts to characterize alterations in gene expression brought on by exposure to alcohol. However, many publications continue to report the utilization of inappropriate methods of qPCR normalization, and for many in vitro models, no consistent set of empirically tested normalization controls have been identified. In the present study, we sought to identify a group of candidate reference genes for use within studies of alcohol exposed embryonic, placental, and neurosphere stem cells under both conditions maintaining stemness as well as throughout in vitro differentiation. To this end, we surveyed the recent literature and compiled a short list of fourteen candidate genes commonly used as normalization controls in qPCR studies of gene expression. This list included: Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Gusb, H2afz, Hk2, Hmbs, Hprt, Mrpl1, Pgk1, Ppia, Sdha, Tbp, and Ywhaz. From these studies, we find no single candidate gene was consistently refractory to the influence of alcohol nor completely stable throughout in vitro differentiation. Accordingly, we propose normalizing qPCR measurements to the geometric mean CT values obtained for three independent reference mRNAs as a reliable method to accurately interpret qPCR data and assess alterations in gene expression within alcohol treated cultures. Highlighting the importance of careful and empirical reference gene selection, the commonly used reference gene Actb was often amongst the least stable candidate genes tested. In fact, it would not serve as a valid normalization control in many cases. Data presented here will aid in the design of future experiments using stem cells to study the transcriptional processes driving differentiation, and model the developmental impact of teratogens. PMID:23317542

Carnahan, Mindy N.; Veazey, Kylee J.; Muller, Daria; Tingling, Joseph D.; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Golding, Michael C.

2013-01-01

37

Blockade of ?2-adrenoceptors induces Arc gene expression in rat brain in a glutamate receptor-dependent manner: a combined qPCR, in situ hybridisation and immunocytochemistry study.  

PubMed

Studies of 5-HT-glutamate interactions suggest that activation of brain 5-HT(2A) receptors leads to an AMPA receptor-mediated induction of the immediate early (activity-dependent) gene, Arc (Arg3.1). In this respect, noradrenaline-glutamate interactions are poorly characterised. Here we investigated the influence on regional brain Arc gene expression of selective blockade of ?(2)-adrenoceptors in rats. Several complementary techniques were used: qPCR (mRNA, discrete tissue punches), in situ hybridisation (mRNA, sections) and immunocytochemistry. The ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, RX 821002, dose-dependently and time-dependently (maximal effect 2 h) increased Arc mRNA levels as demonstrated both by qPCR and in situ hybridisation. The ?(2)-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, also increased Arc mRNA in in situ hybridisation studies. Changes in Arc mRNA after RX 821002 were of similar magnitude in punches and intact tissue sections and region-specific, with effects being most pronounced in parietal cortex and caudate putamen, less robust in frontal cortex, and not detectable in hippocampal sub-regions. Both qPCR and in situ hybridisation studies demonstrated that RX 821002-induced Arc mRNA was blocked by the AMPA antagonist, GYKI 52466. Pretreatment with the NMDA antagonist MK 801 also prevented RX 821002-induced Arc mRNA, as did the mGluR5 antagonist MPEP, whilst the mGluR2/3 antagonist, LY341495, had no effect. Finally, immunocytochemical studies showed that RX 821002 increased Arc-immunoreactivity in cells in close apposition to ?(2)-adrenoceptor-positive processes. Thus, employing three complementary techniques, these observations demonstrate that blockade of ?(2)-adrenoceptors triggers brain expression of the immediate early gene, Arc, and that this effect involves the recruitment of AMPA, NMDA and mGluR5 but not mGluR2/3 glutamatergic receptors. PMID:22828637

Serres, Florence; Rodriguez, Marianne; Rivet, Jean-Michel; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Lockhart, Brian; Sharp, Trevor; Millan, Mark J

2012-11-01

38

Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions  

PubMed Central

Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (?-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study should be used as reference genes for a wide range of conditions in eucalyptus. PMID:23148685

2012-01-01

39

Reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of microRNAs and messenger RNAs in rat models of hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

Hepatotoxicity is associated with major changes in liver gene expression induced by xenobiotic exposure. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical for its clinical diagnosis and treatment. MicroRNAs are key regulators of gene expression that control mRNA stability and translation, during normal development and pathology. The canonical technique to measure gene transcript levels is Real-Time qPCR, which has been successfully modified to determine the levels of microRNAs as well. However, in order to obtain accurate data in a multi-step method like RT-qPCR, the normalization with endogenous, stably expressed reference genes is mandatory. Since the expression stability of candidate reference genes varies greatly depending on experimental factors, the aim of our study was to identify a combination of genes for optimal normalization of microRNA and mRNA qPCR expression data in experimental models of acute hepatotoxicity. Rats were treated with four traditional hepatotoxins: acetaminophen, carbon tetrachloride, D-galactosamine and thioacetamide, and the liver expression levels of two groups of candidate reference genes, one for microRNA and the other for mRNA normalization, were determined by RT-qPCR in compliance with the MIQE guidelines. In the present study, we report that traditional reference genes such as U6 spliceosomal RNA, Beta Actin and Glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase altered their expression in response to classic hepatotoxins and therefore cannot be used as reference genes in hepatotoxicity studies. Stability rankings of candidate reference genes, considering only those that did not alter their expression, were determined using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software packages. The potential candidates whose measurements were stable were further tested in different combinations to find the optimal set of reference genes that accurately determine mRNA and miRNA levels. Finally, the combination of MicroRNA-16/5S Ribosomal RNA and Beta 2 Microglobulin/18S Ribosomal RNA were validated as optimal reference genes for microRNA and mRNA quantification, respectively, in rat models of acute hepatotoxicity. PMID:22563491

Lardizábal, María N; Nocito, Ana L; Daniele, Stella M; Ornella, Leonardo A; Palatnik, Javier F; Veggi, Luis M

2012-01-01

40

Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep  

PubMed Central

Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal), gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental conditions, tissues, cell types or genotypes. To select reference genes not only statistical but also functional and biological criteria should be considered. Under the method here proposed SDHA/MDH1 have arisen as the best set of reference genes to be used in qPCR assays to study heat shock in ovine blood samples. PMID:21849053

2011-01-01

41

Validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in olive (Olea europaea) mesocarp tissue by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Gene expression analysis using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a robust method wherein the expression levels of target genes are normalised using internal control genes, known as reference genes, to derive changes in gene expression levels. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for olive tissues, combined/independent analysis on different cultivars has not yet been tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes was required to validate the recent findings and select stably expressed genes across different olive cultivars. Results A total of eight candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), serine/threonine-protein phosphatase catalytic subunit (PP2A), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1-alpha), polyubiquitin (OUB2), aquaporin tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2), tubulin alpha (TUBA), 60S ribosomal protein L18-3 (60S RBP L18-3) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein homolog 3 (PTB)] were chosen based on their stability in olive tissues as well as in other plants. Expression stability was examined by qRT-PCR across 12 biological samples, representing mesocarp tissues at various developmental stages in three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, independently and together during the 2009 season with two software programs, GeNorm and BestKeeper. Both software packages identified GAPDH, EF1-alpha and PP2A as the three most stable reference genes across the three cultivars and in the cultivar, Barnea. GAPDH, EF1-alpha and 60S RBP L18-3 were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Frantoio while 60S RBP L18-3, OUB2 and PP2A were found to be most stable reference genes in the cultivar Picual. Conclusions The analyses of expression stability of reference genes using qRT-PCR revealed that GAPDH, EF1-alpha, PP2A, 60S RBP L18-3 and OUB2 are suitable reference genes for expression analysis in developing Olea europaea mesocarp tissues, displaying the highest level of expression stability across three different olive cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual, however the combination of the three most stable reference genes do vary amongst individual cultivars. This study will provide guidance to other researchers to select reference genes for normalization against target genes by qPCR across tissues obtained from the mesocarp region of the olive fruit in the cultivars, Barnea, Frantoio and Picual. PMID:24884716

2014-01-01

42

Genetics Home Reference: What is gene therapy?  

MedlinePLUS

... Genomic Research Next Handbook > Gene Therapy > What is gene therapy? Gene therapy is an experimental technique that ... have no other cures. For general information about gene therapy: MedlinePlus from the National Library of Medicine ...

43

Reference Gene Selection in the Desert Plant Eremosparton songoricum  

PubMed Central

Eremosparton songoricum (Litv.) Vass. (E. songoricum) is a rare and extremely drought-tolerant desert plant that holds promise as a model organism for the identification of genes associated with water deficit stress. Here, we cloned and evaluated the expression of eight candidate reference genes using quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions. The expression of these candidate reference genes was analyzed in a diverse set of 20 samples including various E. songoricum plant tissues exposed to multiple environmental stresses. GeNorm analysis indicated that expression stability varied between the reference genes in the different experimental conditions, but the two most stable reference genes were sufficient for normalization in most conditions. EsEF and Es?-TUB were sufficient for various stress conditions, EsEF and EsACT were suitable for samples of differing germination stages, and EsGAPDHand EsUBQ were most stable across multiple adult tissue samples. The Es18S gene was unsuitable as a reference gene in our analysis. In addition, the expression level of the drought-stress related transcription factor EsDREB2 verified the utility of E. songoricum reference genes and indicated that no single gene was adequate for normalization on its own. This is the first systematic report on the selection of reference genes in E. songoricum, and these data will facilitate future work on gene expression in this species. PMID:22837673

Li, Xiao-Shuang; Yang, Hong-Lan; Zhang, Dao-Yuan; Zhang, Yuan-Ming; Wood, Andrew J.

2012-01-01

44

A selection of reference genes and early-warning mRNA biomarkers for environmental monitoring using Mytilus spp. as sentinel species.  

PubMed

mRNA biomarkers are promising tools for environmental health assessment and reference genes are needed to perform relevant qPCR analyses in tissue samples of sentinel species. In the present study, potential reference genes and mRNA biomarkers were tested in the gills and digestive glands of native and caged mussels (Mytilus spp.) exposed to harbor pollution. Results highlighted the difficulty to find stable reference genes in wild, non-model species and suggested the use of normalization indices instead of single genes as they exhibit a higher stability. Several target genes were found differentially expressed between mussel groups, especially in gills where cyp32, ?-gst and CuZn-sod mRNA levels could be biomarker candidates. Multivariate analyses confirmed the ability of mRNA levels to highlight site-effects and suggested the use of several combined markers instead of individual ones. These findings support the use of qPCR technology and mRNA levels as early-warning biomarkers in marine monitoring programs. PMID:25037875

Lacroix, C; Coquillé, V; Guyomarch, J; Auffret, M; Moraga, D

2014-09-15

45

Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection  

E-print Network

Gene Help: Integrated Access to Genes of Genomes in the Reference Sequence Collection Garth Brown Craig Wallin Tatiana Tatusova Kim Pruitt Terence Murphy Donna Maglott Introduction Gene supplies gene. Unique identifiers are assigned to genes with defining sequences, genes with known map positions

Levin, Judith G.

46

Gene expression results in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocytes depend significantly on the choice of reference genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Gene expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated monocytes is mainly studied by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) using GAPDH (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) or ACTB (beta-actin) as reference gene for normalization. Expression of traditional reference genes has been shown to vary substantially under certain conditions leading to invalid results. To investigate whether traditional reference genes are stably expressed in LPS-stimulated monocytes

Armin P. Piehler; Runa M. Grimholt; Reidun Øvstebø; Jens P. Berg

2010-01-01

47

Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization in Panax ginseng at Different Stages of Growth and in Different Organs  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) has become a widely used method for gene expression analysis; however, its data interpretation largely depends on the stability of reference genes. The transcriptomics of Panax ginseng, one of the most popular and traditional ingredients used in Chinese medicines, is increasingly being studied. Furthermore, it is vital to establish a series of reliable reference genes when qRT-PCR is used to assess the gene expression profile of ginseng. In this study, we screened out candidate reference genes for ginseng using gene expression data generated by a high-throughput sequencing platform. Based on the statistical tests, 20 reference genes (10 traditional housekeeping genes and 10 novel genes) were selected. These genes were tested for the normalization of expression levels in five growth stages and three distinct plant organs of ginseng by qPCR. These genes were subsequently ranked and compared according to the stability of their expressions using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper computational programs. Although the best reference genes were found to vary across different samples, CYP and EF-1? were the most stable genes amongst all samples. GAPDH/30S RPS20, CYP/60S RPL13 and CYP/QCR were the optimum pair of reference genes in the roots, stems, and leaves. CYP/60S RPL13, CYP/eIF-5A, aTUB/V-ATP, eIF-5A/SAR1, and aTUB/pol IIa were the most stably expressed combinations in each of the five developmental stages. Our study serves as a foundation for developing an accurate method of qRT-PCR and will benefit future studies on gene expression profiles of Panax Ginseng. PMID:25393243

Liu, Jing; Wang, Qun; Sun, Minying; Zhu, Linlin; Yang, Michael; Zhao, Yu

2014-01-01

48

Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene. PMID:25345678

Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

2014-01-01

49

Identification of reference genes suitable for qRT-PCR in grapevine and application for the study of the expression of genes involved in pterostilbene synthesis.  

PubMed

The recent publication of the grapevine genome sequence facilitates the use of qRT-PCR to study gene expression changes. For this approach, reference genes are commonly used to normalize data and their stability of expression should be systematically validated. Among grapevine defenses is the production of the antimicrobial stilbenic phytoalexins, notably the highly fungitoxic pterostilbene, which plays a crucial role in grapevine interaction with Plasmopara viticola and Botrytis cinerea. As a resveratrol O-methyltransferase (ROMT) gene involved in pterostilbene synthesis was recently identified, we investigated the accumulation of the corresponding transcripts to those of two other stilbene biosynthesis related genes phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and stilbene synthase (STS) in response to pathogen infection. Using three computer-based statistical methods and C(t) values or LRE method generated values as input data, we have first identified two reference genes (VATP16 and 60SRP) suitable for normalization of qPCR expression data obtained in grapevine leaves and berries infected by P. viticola and B. cinerea, respectively. Next, we have highlighted that the expression of ROMT is induced in P. viticola-infected leaves and also in B. cinerea-infected berries, confirming the involvement of pterostilbene in grapevine defenses. PMID:21340517

Gamm, Magdalena; Héloir, Marie-Claire; Kelloniemi, Jani; Poinssot, Benoît; Wendehenne, David; Adrian, Marielle

2011-04-01

50

Assessment of reference gene stability influenced by extremely divergent disease symptoms in Solanum lycopersicum L.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) is one of the most important vegetables of great worldwide economic value. The scientific importance of the vegetable results from the fact that the genome of S. lycopersicum has been sequenced. This allows researchers to study fundamental mechanisms playing an essential role during tomato development and response to environmental factors contributing significantly to cell metabolism alterations. Parallel with the development of contemporary genetics and the constant increase in sequencing data, progress has to be aligned with improvement of experimental methods used for studying genes functions and gene expression levels, of which the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is still the most reliable. As well as with other nucleic acid-based methods used for comparison of the abundance of specific RNAs, the RT-qPCR data have to be normalised to the levels of RNAs represented stably in a cell. To achieve the goal, the so-called housekeeping genes (i.e., RNAs encoding, for instance, proteins playing an important role in the cell metabolism or structure maintenance), are used for normalisation of the target gene expression data. However, a number of studies have indicated the transcriptional instability of commonly used reference genes analysed in different situations or conditions; for instance, the origin of cells, tissue types, or environmental or other experimental conditions. The expression of ten common housekeeping genes of S. lycopersicum, namely EF1?, TUB, CAC, EXP, RPL8, GAPDH, TBP, ACT, SAND and 18S rRNA were examined during viral infections of tomato. Changes in the expression levels of the genes were estimated by comparison of the non-inoculated tomato plants with those infected with commonly known tomato viral pathogens, Tomato torrado virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus and Pepino mosaic virus, inducing a diverse range of disease symptoms on the common host, ranging from mild leaves chlorosis to very severe stem necrosis. It is emphasised that despite the wide range of diverse disease symptoms it is concluded that ACT, CAC and EF1? could be used as the most suitable reference genes in studies of host-virus interactions in tomato. PMID:23994079

Wieczorek, Przemys?aw; Wrzesi?ska, Barbara; Obr?palska-St?plowska, Aleksandra

2013-12-01

51

GeneChip, geNorm, and gastrointestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR  

E-print Network

Toolbox GeneChip, geNorm, and gastrointestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR Mark I. GeneChip, geNorm, and gastro- intestinal tumors: novel reference genes for real-time PCR. Physiol and normal tissues, we identified 8 candidate reference genes and established expression levels by real- time

52

Reliable reference miRNAs for quantitative gene expression analysis of stress responses in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the “gold standard” for measuring expression levels of individual miRNAs. However, little is known about the validity of reference miRNAs, the improper use of which can result in misleading interpretation of data. Results Here we undertook a systematic approach to identify highly stable miRNAs in different stress conditions such as low oxygen (hypoxia), UV-stress and high temperature (heat-stress) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. We conducted genome-wide RNA-seq for small RNAs and selected abundant miRNAs with minimal variation of expression between the different conditions. We further validated the stable expression of a selection of those constitutively expressed candidates in the different stress conditions by SYBR Green qPCR. The selected miRNA candidates were analyzed for stability by applying the widely used geNorm logarithm. With this approach, we were able to successfully identify suitable reference miRNAs for each stress condition. Interestingly, we also found that 3 miRNAs, namely mir-2-5p, mir-46-3p and mir-47-3p, are stable in all the above-mentioned conditions suggesting that they might have general functions independent of stress. Conclusions Our analysis offers a comprehensive list of stably expressed miRNAs in different stress conditions that can be confidently used as reference miRNAs for qPCR analysis in C. elegans. PMID:24656064

2014-01-01

53

Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in apomictic and sexual Cenchrus ciliaris  

PubMed Central

Background Apomixis is a naturally occurring asexual mode of seed reproduction resulting in offspring genetically identical to the maternal plant. Identifying differential gene expression patterns between apomictic and sexual plants is valuable to help deconstruct the trait. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a popular method for analyzing gene expression. Normalizing gene expression data using proper reference genes which show stable expression under investigated conditions is critical in qRT-PCR analysis. We used qRT-PCR to validate expression and stability of six potential reference genes (EF1alpha, EIF4A, UBCE, GAPDH, ACT2 and TUBA) in vegetative and reproductive tissues of B-2S and B-12-9 accessions of C. ciliaris. Findings Among tissue types evaluated, EF1alpha showed the highest level of expression while TUBA showed the lowest. When all tissue types were evaluated and compared between genotypes, EIF4A was the most stable reference gene. Gene expression stability for specific ovary stages of B-2S and B-12-9 was also determined. Except for TUBA, all other tested reference genes could be used for any stage-specific ovary tissue normalization, irrespective of the mode of reproduction. Conclusion Our gene expression stability assay using six reference genes, in sexual and apomictic accessions of C. ciliaris, suggests that EIF4A is the most stable gene across all tissue types analyzed. All other tested reference genes, with the exception of TUBA, could be used for gene expression comparison studies between sexual and apomictic ovaries over multiple developmental stages. This reference gene validation data in C. ciliaris will serve as an important base for future apomixis-related transcriptome data validation. PMID:24083672

2013-01-01

54

Reference-based gene model prediction on DNA contigs  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents an algorithm for constructing multiple gene models on a set of contigs of a large genomic clone. The algorithm first uses pattern recognition-based methods to locate exons or partial exons in each contig, and then applies protein homology or EST information from the databases, as reference models, to parse the predicted exons into gene models. In the phase of gene model construction, the algorithm uses a unified framework for genes ranging from situation with homologous proteins/ESTs to no homologous protein/EST in the database. By exploiting protein homology or EST information, the algorithm is able to (1) parse exons into multiple gene models over a set of DNA contigs (possibly unoriented and unordered); (2) remove falsely predicted exons; and (3) identify and locate exons missed by the initial exon prediction.

Xu, Y.; Uberbacher, E.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Computer Sciences and Mathematics Div.

1997-01-01

55

Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity  

PubMed Central

Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1?g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

2015-01-01

56

Arbitrary Multi-gene Reference for Normalization of Real-Time PCR Gene Expression Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of gene expression using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) requires reference genes\\u000a to normalize expression values between samples. We have developed a novel reference for real-time RT-PCR using an arbitrary\\u000a primer to amplify a random set of genes. The arbitrary primer amplifies over 30 genes, whose cumulative expression as measured\\u000a by real-time RT-PCR closely follows that of

Gregory Conn; Charlotte Davidson

2009-01-01

57

Reference genes for gene expression studies on non-small cell lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study Objective : The aim of this study was to test a panel of 6 reference genes in order to iden - tify and validate the most suitable reference genes for expression studies in paired healthy and non-small cell lung cancer tissues. Method : Quantitative real-time PCR followed by the NormFinder- and geNorm-based analysis was employed. The study involved 21

Peter Gresner; Jolanta Gromadzinska; Wojciech Wasowicz

2009-01-01

58

Reliable reference gene selection for Cordyceps militaris gene expression studies under different developmental stages and media.  

PubMed

Cordyceps militaris is considered a model organism for the study of Cordyceps species, which are highly prized in traditional Chinese medicine. Gene expression analysis has become more popular and important in studies of this fungus. Reference gene validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, actin, cox5, gpd, rpb1, tef1, try, tub, and ubi, were selected and their expression stability was evaluated in C. militaris samples using four algorithms, genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method. Three sets of samples, five different developmental stages cultured in wheat medium and pupae, and all the samples pool were included. The results showed that rpb1 was the best reference gene during all developmental stages examined, while the most common reference genes, actin and tub, were not suitable internal controls. Cox5 also performed poorly and was less stable in our analysis. The ranks of ubi and gpd were inconsistent in different sample sets by different methods. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection at different developmental stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in C. militaris gene expression analysis. PMID:24953133

Lian, Tiantian; Yang, Tao; Liu, Guijun; Sun, Junde; Dong, Caihong

2014-07-01

59

Suitable Reference Gene Selection for Different Strains and Developmental Stages of the Carmine Spider Mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus, using Quantitative Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Reference genes are used as internal controls in gene expression studies, but their expression levels vary according to tissue types and experimental treatments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most sensitive technique for transcript quantification provided that gene transcription patterns are normalized to an evaluated reference gene. In this study, the suitability of eight commonly used genes (??-actin, 5.8SrRNA, ??-TUB, GAPDH, RPL13a, RPS18, TBP, SDHA) were cloned and investigated to find the most stable candidates for normalizing real-time PCR data generated from the four different strains (abamectin-resistant, fenpropathrin-resistant, omethoate-resistant, and susceptible strains) and different developmental stages (eggs, protonymphs, nymphs, and adults) of carmine spider mite, Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval) (Acarina: Tetranychidae). The stability of gene expression was assessed using two different analysis programs, geNorm and NormFinder. Using these analyses, RPS18 and 5.8SrRNA had the most stable expression regardless of the four different strains, whereas RPS18 and ??-TUB were expressed most stably in different developmental stages. PMID:21265619

Sun, W.; Jin, Y.; He, L; Lu, W-C.; Li, M.

2010-01-01

60

Evaluation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense  

PubMed Central

Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA) in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA) is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data. PMID:24841066

McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

2014-01-01

61

Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR in Azospirillum brasilense.  

PubMed

Azospirillum brasilense is a nitrogen fixing bacterium that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on plant growth and yield. Under normal conditions A. brasilense exists in a motile flagellated form, which, under starvation or stress conditions, can undergo differentiation into an encapsulated, cyst-like form. Quantitative RT-PCR can be used to analyse changes in gene expression during this differentiation process. The accuracy of quantification of mRNA levels by qRT-PCR relies on the normalisation of data against stably expressed reference genes. No suitable set of reference genes has yet been described for A. brasilense. Here we evaluated the expression of ten candidate reference genes (16S rRNA, gapB, glyA, gyrA, proC, pykA, recA, recF, rpoD, and tpiA) in wild-type and mutant A. brasilense strains under different culture conditions, including conditions that induce differentiation. Analysis with the software programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm indicated that gyrA, glyA and recA are the most stably expressed reference genes in A. brasilense. The results also suggested that the use of two reference genes (gyrA and glyA) is sufficient for effective normalisation of qRT-PCR data. PMID:24841066

McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

2014-01-01

62

Normalizing for biology: accounting for technical and biological variation in levels of reference gene and insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) transcripts in fish livers.  

PubMed

Feeding, fasting and re-feeding is a common experimental paradigm for studying growth endocrinology. Herein we demonstrate dynamic changes in the livers of coho salmon under these conditions and how changes in liver composition can influence quantification and interpretation of liver gene expression data. A three-week fast resulted in decreases in hepatosomatic index (liver size), liver glycogen content, and liver DNA concentration. In addition, significant differences were found in liver transcript levels from fed and fasted fish for the reference genes, arp and ef1a, when these were normalized to total RNA. We took the additional step of normalizing reference gene transcript levels to the liver homogenate RNA/DNA ratio to account for differences in RNA yield/cell and the number of cells sampled, normalizing to transcript number per cell rather than transcript number per unit RNA. After this additional step no significant differences in liver transcript levels of reference genes were found. The significance of these results was illustrated by normalizing liver transcript levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (igf1) to ef1a transcript levels or ef1a transcript levels by RNA/DNA. The different normalization strategies resulted in differing patterns of change in igf1 transcript levels between fed and fasted fish. The novelty of this work rests in a two-step normalization process, attempting to account for both 1) technical errors in reverse transcription and qPCR reactions, and 2) biological variance in liver samples. PMID:22546511

Metzger, David C; Luckenbach, J Adam; Shimizu, Munetaka; Beckman, Brian R

2012-09-01

63

Assessment of E. coli partitioning behavior via both culture-based and qPCR methods.  

PubMed

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) offers a rapid, highly sensitive analytical alternative to the traditional culture-based techniques of microbial enumeration typically used in water quality monitoring. Before qPCR can be widely applied within surface water monitoring programs and stormwater assessment research, the relationships between microbial concentrations measured by qPCR and culture-based methods must be assessed across a range of water types. Previous studies investigating fecal indicator bacteria quantification using molecular and culture-based techniques have compared measures of total concentration, but have not examined particle-associated microorganisms, which may be more important from a transport perspective, particularly during the calibration of predictive water quality models for watershed management purposes. This study compared total, free-phase, and particle-associated Escherichia coli concentrations as determined by the Colilert defined substrate method and qPCR targeting the uidA gene in stream grab samples partitioned via a calibrated centrifugation technique. Free-phase concentrations detected through qPCR were significantly higher than those detected using Colilert although total concentrations were statistically equivalent, suggesting a source of analytical bias. Although a specimen processing complex was used to identify and correct for inhibition of the qPCR reaction, high particle concentrations may have resulted in underestimation of total cell counts, particularly at low concentrations. Regardless, qPCR-based techniques will likely have an important future role in stormwater assessment and management. PMID:24056435

Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Noble, Rachel T; Characklis, Gregory W; Denene Blackwood, A; Sobsey, Mark D

2013-01-01

64

Defining reference genes in Oryza sativa using organ, development, biotic and abiotic transcriptome datasets  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reference genes are widely used to normalise transcript abundance data determined by quantitative RT-PCR and microarrays. However, the approaches taken to define reference genes can be variable. Although Oryza sativa (rice) is a widely used model plant and important crop specie, there has been no comprehensive analysis carried out to define superior reference genes. RESULTS: Analysis of 136 Affymetrix

Reena Narsai; Aneta Ivanova; Sophia Ng; James Whelan

2010-01-01

65

Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in qRT-PCR Analysis in Watermelon  

PubMed Central

Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT–PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT–PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1? and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT–PCR analyses involving watermelon. PMID:24587403

Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

2014-01-01

66

Validation of Reference Genes in Solenopsis invicta in Different Developmental Stages, Castes and Tissues  

PubMed Central

To accurately assess gene expression levels, it is essential to normalize real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data with suitable internal reference genes. For the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, reliable reference genes to assess the transcript expression levels of the target genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, we examined the expression levels of five candidate reference genes (rpl18, ef1-beta, act, GAPDH, and tbp) in different developmental stages, castes and tissues of S. invicta. To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, three software-based approaches (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. Furthermore, the optimal number of reference gene(s) was determined by the pairwise variation value. Our data showed that two of the five candidate genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, were the most suitable reference genes because they have the most stable expression among different developmental stages, castes and tissues in S. invicta. Although widely used as reference gene in other species, in S. invicta the act gene has high variation in expression and was consequently excluded as a reliable reference gene. The two validated reference genes, rpl18 and ef1-beta, can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with RT-qPCR technology in S. invicta. PMID:23469057

Cheng, Daifeng; Zhang, Zhiling; He, Xiaofang; Liang, Guangwen

2013-01-01

67

Validation of reference genes for expression analysis in the salivary gland and the intestine of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) under different experimental conditions by quantitative real-time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Rhodnius prolixus is a blood-feeding insect that can transmit Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli to vertebrate hosts. Recently, genomic resources for invertebrate vectors of human pathogens have increased significantly, and R. prolixus has been one of the main species studied among the triatomines. However, the paucity of information on many of the fundamental molecular aspects of this species limits the use of the available genomic information. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for the normalization of mRNA expression data from qPCR. Results The expression stability of five candidate reference genes (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ?-actin, ?-tubulin and ribosomal protein L26) was evaluated by qPCR in two tissues (salivary gland and intestine) and under different physiological conditions: before and after blood feeding and after infection with T. cruzi or T. rangeli. The results were analyzed with three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. All of the evaluated candidate genes proved to be acceptable as reference genes, but some were found to be more appropriate depending on the experimental conditions. 18S, GAPDH and ?-tubulin showed acceptable stability for studies in all of the tissues and experimental conditions evaluated. ?-actin, one of the most widely used reference genes, was confirmed to be one of the most suitable reference genes in studies with salivary glands, but it had the lowest expression stability in the intestine after insect blood feeding. L26 was identified as the poorest reference gene in the studies performed. Conclusions The expression stability of the genes varies in different tissue samples and under different experimental conditions. The results provided by three statistical packages emphasize the suitability of all five of the tested reference genes in both the crop and the salivary glands with a few exceptions. The results emphasise the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in R. prolixus studies. PMID:22395020

2012-01-01

68

Selection and reliability of internal reference genes for quantitative PCR verification of transcriptomics during the differentiation process of porcine adult mesenchymal stem cells  

PubMed Central

Introduction The objective of this study was to find highly reliable internal-control genes (ICGs) for normalization of qPCR data from porcine adult mesenchymal stem cells induced to differentiate toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. Methods Stem cells were acquired from subcutaneous back fat and bone marrow of three castrated Yorkshire crossbred male pigs. Adipose and bone marrow-derived stem cells (ADSCs and BMSCs) were cultured in vitro with specific osteogenic or adipogenic differentiation medium for 4 weeks. Total RNA was extract for microarray (13,000 oligonucleotides) and qPCR analyses. Microarray data were used to uncover the most stably expressed genes (that is, potential ICGs). Co-regulation among potential ICGs was evaluated with Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. qPCR was performed on the non-coregulated ICGs candidates and on specific osteogenic (COL1A1) and adipogenic (DBI) genes. geNorm was used to uncover the most reliable ICGs by using qPCR data and the optimal number of ICGs to be used to calculate the normalization factor. Results Microarray data analysis revealed 27 potential ICGs. Among those, 10 genes without known co-regulation were selected to perform qPCR. geNorm performed on qPCR data uncovered high stability in expression ratio among the selected ICGs. However, especially reliable normalization was obtained by geometric mean of NSUN5, TIMM17B, and VPS4A. The effect of normalization, assessed on specific osteogenic (COL1A1) and adipogenic (DBI) genes, was apparent for the adipogenic and less apparent for the osteogenic differentiation. Conclusions The combination of microarray data and pairwise gene analysis allowed identification of novel and highly reliable ICGs for qPCR data normalization of adult porcine stem cells induced to differentiate to adipogenic and osteogenic lineages. PMID:20504288

2010-01-01

69

Identification of suitable reference genes for investigating gene expression in human gallbladder carcinoma using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) has become a frequently used strategy in gene expression studies. The relative quantification method is an important and commonly used method for the evaluation of RT?qPCR data. The key aim of this method is to identify an applicable internal reference gene, however, there are currently no suitable reference genes for gene analysis in gallbladder carcinoma. In the present study, screening was performed using 12 common reference genes, which were selected in order to provide an experimental basis for the investigation of gene expression in gallbladder carcinoma. A total of 16 tissue samples of gallbladder carcinoma and their matched normal gallbladder tissues were used. The gene expression stability and applicability of the 12 reference gene candidates were determined using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Following comparison of the results of the three software programs, HPRT1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene. In the normal gallbladder group, the relative stably expressed reference gene was PPIA and in the entire sample group, the relatively stably expressed reference gene was PPIA. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of the three reference genes was the most appropriate. The recommended combinations were PPIA + PUM1 + ACTB for the total sample group, GAPDH + PBGD + ALAS1 for the gallbladder carcinoma group and PPIA + PUM1 + TBP for the paired normal gallbladder group. PMID:25434674

Yu, Shan; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Jing Hui; Du, Zhenwu; Zhang, Guizhen

2015-04-01

70

Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for gene Expression Studies by qRT-PCR in the Blister Beetle Mylabris cichorii  

PubMed Central

The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

2014-01-01

71

Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs/tissues examined. It is therefore important to identify the best reference genes to use in each biological system before using qRT-PCR to investigate differential gene expression. In this paper we evaluate different candidate HKGs for developmental transcriptomic studies in the economically-important flax fiber- and oil-crop (Linum usitatissimum L). Results Specific primers were designed in order to quantify the expression levels of 20 different potential housekeeping genes in flax roots, internal- and external-stem tissues, leaves and flowers at different developmental stages. After calculations of PCR efficiencies, 13 HKGs were retained and their expression stabilities evaluated by the computer algorithms geNorm and NormFinder. According to geNorm, 2 Transcriptional Elongation Factors (TEFs) and 1 Ubiquitin gene are necessary for normalizing gene expression when all studied samples are considered. However, only 2 TEFs are required for normalizing expression in stem tissues. In contrast, NormFinder identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH) as the most stably expressed gene when all samples were grouped together, as well as when samples were classed into different sub-groups. qRT-PCR was then used to investigate the relative expression levels of two splice variants of the flax LuMYB1 gene (homologue of AtMYB59). LuMYB1-1 and LuMYB1-2 were highly expressed in the internal stem tissues as compared to outer stem tissues and other samples. This result was confirmed with both geNorm-designated- and NormFinder-designated-reference genes. Conclusions The use of 2 different statistical algorithms results in the identification of different combinations of flax HKGs for expression data normalization. Despite such differences, the use of geNorm-designated- and NormFinder-designated-reference genes enabled us to accurately compare the expression levels of a flax MYB gene in different organs and tissues. Our identification and validation of suitable flax HKGs will facilitate future developmental transcriptomic studies in this economically-important plant. PMID:20403198

2010-01-01

72

Defining reference genes in Oryza sativa using organ, development, biotic and abiotic transcriptome datasets  

PubMed Central

Background Reference genes are widely used to normalise transcript abundance data determined by quantitative RT-PCR and microarrays. However, the approaches taken to define reference genes can be variable. Although Oryza sativa (rice) is a widely used model plant and important crop specie, there has been no comprehensive analysis carried out to define superior reference genes. Results Analysis of 136 Affymetrix transcriptome datasets comprising of 373 genome microarrays from studies in rice that encompass tissue, developmental, abiotic, biotic and hormonal transcriptome datasets identified 151 genes whose expression was considered relatively stable under all conditions. A sub-set of 12 of these genes were validated by quantitative RT-PCR and were seen to be stable under a number of conditions. All except one gene that has been previously proposed as a stably expressed gene for rice, were observed to change significantly under some treatment. Conclusion A new set of reference genes that are stable across tissue, development, stress and hormonal treatments have been identified in rice. This provides a superior set of reference genes for future studies in rice. It confirms the approach of mining large scale datasets as a robust method to define reference genes, but cautions against using gene orthology or counterparts of reference genes in other plant species as a means of defining reference genes. PMID:20353606

2010-01-01

73

Selection of candidate reference genes for real-time PCR studies in lettuce under abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

The process of selection and validation of reference genes is the first step in studies of gene expression by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The genome of lettuce, the most popular leaf vegetable cultivated worldwide, has recently been sequenced; therefore, suitable reference genes for reliable results in RT-qPCR analyses are required. In the present study, 17 candidate reference genes were selected, and their expression stability in lettuce leaves under drought, salt, heavy metal, and UV-C irradiation conditions and under the application of abscisic acid (ABA) was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder software. The candidate reference genes included protein-coding traditional and novel reference genes and microRNAs (miRNAs). The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The novel protein-coding reference genes were more suitable than the traditional reference genes under drought, UV-C irradiation, and heavy metal conditions and under the application of ABA. Only under salinity conditions were the traditional protein-coding reference genes more stable than the novel genes. In addition, the miRNAs, mainly MIR169, MIR171/170 and MIR172, were stably expressed under the abiotic stresses evaluated, representing a suitable alternative approach for gene expression data normalization. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) was used to further confirm the validated protein-coding reference genes, and the expression of MIR172 and MIR398 was used to confirm the validated miRNA genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene induces erroneous results. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in lettuce and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in lettuce studies. PMID:24573225

Borowski, Joyce Moura; Galli, Vanessa; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Buss, Julieti Hugh; dos Anjos e Silva, Sérgio Delmar; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2014-06-01

74

Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (?-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; ?-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1?) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, ?-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

2014-01-01

75

Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer  

PubMed Central

Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

2014-01-01

76

Reference gene selection for gene expression analysis of oocytes collected from dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer.  

PubMed

Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

2014-01-01

77

Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR Analysis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)  

PubMed Central

Abstract: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), a primary tool in gene expression analysis, requires an appropriate normalization strategy to control for variation among samples. The best option is to compare the mRNA level of a target gene with that of reference gene(s) whose expression level is stable across various experimental conditions. In this study, expression profiles of eight candidate reference genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were evaluated under diverse experimental conditions. RefFinder, a web-based analysis tool, integrates four major computational programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?Ct method to comprehensively rank the tested candidate genes. Elongation factor 1 (EF1) was the most suited reference gene for the biotic factors (development stage, tissue, and strain). In contrast, although appropriate reference gene(s) do exist for several abiotic factors (temperature, photoperiod, insecticide, and mechanical injury), we were not able to identify a single universal reference gene. Nevertheless, a suite of candidate reference genes were specifically recommended for selected experimental conditions. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis of this agriculturally important insect pest. PMID:23983612

Fu, Wei; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

78

In search of a suitable reference gene for normalization of gene expression in MDV-infected chicken cells  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Marek’s disease (MD) is a contagious lymphoproliferative disease of domestic chickens caused by a highly cell-associated alpha-herpesvirus, MD virus (MDV). The choice of an appropriate housekeeping gene as an endogenous reference gene is an essential requirement for relative quantification of gene ...

79

Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Sugarcane by Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4? were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1? in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

2014-01-01

80

Comprehensive selection of reference genes for gene expression normalization in sugarcane by real time quantitative rt-PCR.  

PubMed

The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4? were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1? in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

2014-01-01

81

Expression Profiling in Bemisia tabaci under Insecticide Treatment: Indicating the Necessity for Custom Reference Gene Selection  

PubMed Central

Finding a suitable reference gene is the key for qRT-PCR analysis. However, none of the reference gene discovered thus far can be utilized universally under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions. In this study, we further examine the stability of candidate reference genes under a single abiotic factor, insecticide treatment. After being exposed to eight commercially available insecticides, which belong to five different classes, the expression profiles of eight housekeeping genes in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, one of the most invasive and destructive pests in the world, were investigated using qRT-PCR analysis. In summary, elongation factor 1? (EF1?), ?-tubulin (TUB1?) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were identified as the most stable reference genes under the insecticide treatment. The initial assessment of candidate reference genes was further validated with the expression of two target genes, a P450 (Cyp6cm1) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, ranking of reference genes varied substantially among intra- and inter-classes of insecticides. These combined data strongly suggested the necessity of conducting custom reference gene selection designed for each and every experimental condition, even when examining the same abiotic or biotic factor. PMID:24498122

Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

2014-01-01

82

Identification of Novel Reference Genes Based on MeSH Categories  

PubMed Central

Transcriptome experiments are performed to assess protein abundance through mRNA expression analysis. Expression levels of genes vary depending on the experimental conditions and the cell response. Transcriptome data must be diverse and yet comparable in reference to stably expressed genes, even if they are generated from different experiments on the same biological context from various laboratories. In this study, expression patterns of 9090 microarray samples grouped into 381 NCBI-GEO datasets were investigated to identify novel candidate reference genes using randomizations and Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves. The analysis demonstrated that cell type specific reference gene sets display less variability than a united set for all tissues. Therefore, constitutively and stably expressed, origin specific novel reference gene sets were identified based on their coefficient of variation and percentage of occurrence in all GEO datasets, which were classified using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). A large number of MeSH grouped reference gene lists are presented as novel tissue specific reference gene lists. The most commonly observed 17 genes in these sets were compared for their expression in 8 hepatocellular, 5 breast and 3 colon carcinoma cells by RT-qPCR to verify tissue specificity. Indeed, commonly used housekeeping genes GAPDH, Actin and EEF2 had tissue specific variations, whereas several ribosomal genes were among the most stably expressed genes in vitro. Our results confirm that two or more reference genes should be used in combination for differential expression analysis of large-scale data obtained from microarray or next generation sequencing studies. Therefore context dependent reference gene sets, as presented in this study, are required for normalization of expression data from diverse technological backgrounds. PMID:24682035

Can, Tolga; Konu, Ozlen; Atalay, Volkan; Cetin-Atalay, Rengul

2014-01-01

83

Identification of Internal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization between the Two Sexes in Dioecious White Campion  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species. PMID:24675788

Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

2014-01-01

84

Sources of Blood Meals of Sylvatic Triatoma guasayana near Zurima, Bolivia, Assayed with qPCR and 12S Cloning  

PubMed Central

Background In this study we compared the utility of two molecular biology techniques, cloning of the mitochondrial 12S ribosomal RNA gene and hydrolysis probe-based qPCR, to identify blood meal sources of sylvatic Chagas disease insect vectors collected with live-bait mouse traps (also known as Noireau traps). Fourteen T. guasayana were collected from six georeferenced trap locations in the Andean highlands of the department of Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Methodology/Principal Findings We detected four blood meals sources with the cloning assay: seven samples were positive for human (Homo sapiens), five for chicken (Gallus gallus) and unicolored blackbird (Agelasticus cyanopus), and one for opossum (Monodelphis domestica). Using the qPCR assay we detected chicken (13 vectors), and human (14 vectors) blood meals as well as an additional blood meal source, Canis sp. (4 vectors). Conclusions/Significance We show that cloning of 12S PCR products, which avoids bias associated with developing primers based on a priori knowledge, detected blood meal sources not previously considered and that species-specific qPCR is more sensitive. All samples identified as positive for a specific blood meal source by the cloning assay were also positive by qPCR. However, not all samples positive by qPCR were positive by cloning. We show the power of combining the cloning assay with the highly sensitive hydrolysis probe-based qPCR assay provides a more complete picture of blood meal sources for insect disease vectors. PMID:25474154

Lucero, David E.; Ribera, Wilma; Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Plaza, Carlos; Gordon, Levi W.; Peña, Reynaldo; Morrissey, Leslie A.; Rizzo, Donna M.; Stevens, Lori

2014-01-01

85

Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Platycladus orientalis (Cupressaceae) Using Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

Platycladus orientalis is a tree species that is highly resistant, widely adaptable, and long-lived, with lifespans of even thousands of years. To explore the mechanisms underlying these characteristics, gene expressions have been investigated at the transcriptome level by RNA-seq combined with a digital gene expression (DGE) technique. So, it is crucial to have a reliable set of reference genes to normalize the expressions of genes in P. orientalis under various conditions using the most accurate and sensitive method of quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 reference gene candidates from transcriptome data of P. orientalis, and examined their expression profiles by qRT-PCR using 29 different samples of P. orientalis, which were collected from plants of different ages, different tissues, and plants subjected to different treatments including cold, heat, salinity, polyethylene glycol (PEG), and abscisic acid (ABA). Three analytical software packages (geNorm, Bestkeeper, and NormFinder) were used to assess the stability of gene expression. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC) and alpha-tubulin (aTUB) were the optimum pair of reference genes at all developmental stages and under all stress conditions. ACT7 was the most stable gene across different tissues and cold-treated samples, while UBQ was the most stably expressed reference gene for NaCl- and ABA-treated samples. In parallel, aTUB and UBC were used singly or in combination as reference genes to examine the expression levels of NAC (a homolog of AtNAC2) in plants subjected to various treatments with qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. Our study will benefit future research on the expression of genes in response to stress/senescence in P. orientalis and other members of the Cupressaceae. PMID:22479379

Liu, Jianfeng; Cheng, Tielong; Xue, Liang; Yang, Xiuyan; Yang, Wenjuan; Lan, Qian; Jiang, Zeping

2012-01-01

86

SYBR®Green qPCR Salmonella detection system allowing discrimination at the genus, species and subspecies levels.  

PubMed

In this work, a three-level Salmonella detection system based on a combination of seven SYBR®Green qPCR was developed. This detection system discriminates Salmonella at the genus, species and subspecies levels using a single 96-well plate. The SYBR®Green qPCR assays target the invA, rpoD, iroB and safC genes, as well as the STM0296 locus, putatively coding for a cytoplasmic protein. This study includes the design of primer pairs, in silico and in situ selectivity, sensitivity, repeatability and reproducibility evaluations of the seven SYBR®Green qPCR assays. Each detection level displayed a selectivity of 100 %. This combinatory SYBR®Green qPCR system was also compared with three commercially available Salmonella qPCR detection kits. This comparison highlighted the importance of using a multi-gene detection system to be able to detect every target strain, even those with deletion or mutation of important genes. PMID:24113820

Barbau-Piednoir, Elodie; Bertrand, Sophie; Mahillon, Jacques; Roosens, Nancy H; Botteldoorn, Nadine

2013-11-01

87

Microarray analysis of relative gene expression stability for selection of internal reference genes in the rhesus macaque brain  

PubMed Central

Background Normalization of gene expression data refers to the comparison of expression values using reference standards that are consistent across all conditions of an experiment. In PCR studies, genes designated as "housekeeping genes" have been used as internal reference genes under the assumption that their expression is stable and independent of experimental conditions. However, verification of this assumption is rarely performed. Here we assess the use of gene microarray analysis to facilitate selection of internal reference sequences with higher expression stability across experimental conditions than can be expected using traditional selection methods. We recently demonstrated that relative gene expression from qRT-PCR data normalized using GAPDH, ALG9 and RPL13A expression values mirrored relative expression using quantile normalization in Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) on the Affymetrix® GeneChip® rhesus Macaque Genome Array. Having shown that qRT-PCR and Affymetrix® GeneChip® data from the same hormone replacement therapy (HRT) study yielded concordant results, we used quantile-normalized gene microarray data to identify the most stably expressed among probe sets for prospective internal reference genes across three brain regions from the HRT study and an additional study of normally menstruating rhesus macaques (cycle study). Gene selection was limited to 575 previously published human "housekeeping" genes. Twelve animals were used per study, and three brain regions were analyzed from each animal. Gene expression stabilities were determined using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software packages. Results Sequences co-annotated for ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27A), and ubiquitin were among the most stably expressed under all conditions and selection criteria used for both studies. Higher annotation quality on the human GeneChip® facilitated more targeted analysis than could be accomplished using the rhesus GeneChip®. In the cycle study, multiple probe sets annotated for actin, gamma 1 (ACTG1) showed high signal intensity and were among the most stably expressed. Conclusions Using gene microarray analysis, we identified genes showing high expression stability under various sex-steroid environments in different regions of the rhesus macaque brain. Use of quantile-normalized microarray gene expression values represents an improvement over traditional methods of selecting internal reference genes for PCR analysis. PMID:20565976

2010-01-01

88

Identification of Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in a Wide Cohort of Endometrioid Endometrial Carcinoma Tissues  

PubMed Central

Accurate normalization is a primary component of a reliable gene expression analysis based on qRT-PCR technique. While the use of one or more reference genes as internal controls is commonly accepted as the most appropriate normalization strategy, many qPCR-based published studies still contain data poorly normalized and reference genes arbitrarily chosen irrespective of the particular tissue and the specific experimental design. To date, no validated reference genes have been identified for endometrial cancer tissues. In this study, 10 normalization genes (GAPDH, B2M, ACTB, POLR2A, UBC, PPIA, HPRT1, GUSB, TBP, H3F3A) belonging to different functional and abundance classes in various tissues and used in different studies, were analyzed to determine their applicability. In total, 100 endometrioid endometrial cancer samples, which were carefully balanced according to their tumor grade, and 29 normal endometrial tissues were examined using SYBR Green Real-Time RT-PCR. The expression stability of candidate reference genes was determined and compared by means of geNorm and NormFinder softwares. Both algorithms were in agreement in identifying GAPDH, H3F3A, PPIA, and HPRT1 as the most stably expressed genes, only differing in their ranking order. Analysis performed on the expression levels of all candidate genes confirm HPRT1 and PPIA as the most stably expressed in the study groups regardless of sample type, to be used alone or better in combination. As the stable expression of HPRT1 and PPIA between normal and tumor endometrial samples fulfill the basic requirement of a reference gene to be used for normalization purposes, HPRT1 expression showed significant differences between samples from low-grade and high-grade tumors. In conclusion, our results recommend the use of PPIA as a single reference gene to be considered for improved reliability of normalization in gene expression studies involving endometrial tumor samples at different tumor degrees. PMID:25473950

Romani, Chiara; Calza, Stefano; Todeschini, Paola; Tassi, Renata A.; Zanotti, Laura; Bandiera, Elisabetta; Sartori, Enrico; Pecorelli, Sergio; Ravaggi, Antonella; Santin, Alessandro D.; Bignotti, Eliana

2014-01-01

89

Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the ?-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was ?-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was ?-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 ? subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

2014-11-01

90

Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis)  

PubMed Central

Background The Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is one of the most important forestry resources and plays essential ecological roles in southern China. A draft nuclear genome sequence is expected to be publicly available in the near future; an explosion of gene expression data related to the unique traits of Moso bamboo will undoubtedly follow. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR ((RT-)qPCR) is a widely used method for gene expression analysis. A necessary prerequisite of exact and reliable data is the accurate choice of reference genes. Result In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression levels were assessed by (RT-)qPCR in a set of six tissue samples (root, stem, mature stem, leaf, flower, and leaf sheath) and at two developmental stages (before and after flowering) in bamboo specimens obtained in three locations. The stability and suitability of the candidate reference genes were validated using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper programs. The results showed that TIP41 and NTB were suitable reference genes across all the tissues and at the different developmental stages examined in this study. While the expression of the NTB, TIP41 and UBQ were the mostly stable in different plant tissues samples, the expression of the TIP41, NTB and CAC were ranked the most stable in bamboo plants at various developmental stages. AP2-like gene was further assessed by using the reference genes TIP41 and NTB in comparison to ACT. Significant difference of the expression profile of AP2-like demonstrated the importance of choosing adequate reference genes in bamboo. Conclusion TIP41 and NTB were found to be homogeneously expressed and were adequate for normalization purposes, showing equivalent transcript levels in different samples. They are therefore the recommended reference genes for measuring gene expression in P. edulis. PMID:23437174

Fan, Chunjie; Ma, Jinmin; Guo, Qirong; Li, Xiaotie; Wang, Hui; Lu, Mengzhu

2013-01-01

91

Tuber aestivum Vittad. mycelium quantified: advantages and limitations of a qPCR approach.  

PubMed

A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) marker Ta0 with hydrolysis probe ("TaqMan"), targeted to the internal transcribed spacer region of the ribosomal DNA, has been developed for quantification of summer truffle (Tuber aestivum) mycelium. Gene copy concentrations determined by the qPCR were calibrated against pure culture mycelium of T. aestivum, enabling quantification of the mycelium in soil and in host roots from the fields. Significant concentrations of the fungus were observed not only in the finest roots with ectomycorrhizae but also in other root types, indicating that the fungus is an important component of the microbial film at the root surface. The concentration of T. aestivum in soil is relatively high compared to other ectomycorrhizal fungi. To evaluate the reliability of the measurement of the soil mycelium density using qPCR, the steady basal extracellular concentration of the stabilized T. aestivum DNA should be known and taken into account. Therefore, we addressed the stability of the qPCR signal in soil subjected to different treatments. After the field soil was sieved, regardless of whether it was dried/rewetted or not, the T. aestivum DNA was quickly decomposed. It took just about 4 days to reach a steady concentration. This represents a conserved pool of T. aestivum DNA and determines detection limit of the qPCR quantification in our case. When the soil was autoclaved and recolonized by saprotrophic microorganisms, this conserved DNA pool was eliminated and the soil became free of T. aestivum DNA. PMID:23271632

Gryndler, Milan; Tril?ová, Jana; Hršelová, Hana; Streiblová, Eva; Gryndlerová, Hana; Jansa, Jan

2013-07-01

92

Evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR quantification of gene expression in the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina.  

PubMed

The Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), is an important pest of sheep in Australia and other parts of the world. However, the paucity of information on many fundamental molecular aspects of this species limits the ability to exploit functional genomics techniques for the discovery of new drug targets for its control. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies in this species by identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression data. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with 11 genes across RNA samples from eggs, L1, L3, pupae and adult life stages, and two normalization programs, Normfinder and geNorm, were then applied to the data. The results showed an ideal set of genes (18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, GST1, beta-tubulin and RPLPO) for data normalization across all life stages. The most suitable reference genes for studies within specific life stages were also identified. GAPDH was shown to be a poor reference gene. The reference gene recommendations in this study will be of use to laboratories investigating gene expression in L. cuprina and related blowfly species. PMID:20604863

Bagnall, N H; Kotze, A C

2010-06-01

93

Reference Genes Selection and Normalization of Oxidative Stress Responsive Genes upon Different Temperature Stress Conditions in Hypericum perforatum L  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial) has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide valuable information about the roles of genes associated with temperature stress responses. PMID:25503716

Velada, Isabel; Ragonezi, Carla; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Cardoso, Hélia

2014-01-01

94

Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples  

PubMed Central

Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition. PMID:21303565

2011-01-01

95

Evaluation of endogenous reference genes for analysis of gene expression with real-time RT-PCR during planarian regeneration  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is important that endogenous reference genes for real-time RT-PCR be empirically evaluated for stability in different cell\\u000a types, developmental stages, and\\/or sample treatment. To select the most stable endogenous reference genes during planarian\\u000a regeneration, three housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, ACTB and DjEF2, were identified and established expression levels by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder

Yan-qing YuwenZi-mei; Zi-mei Dong; Qing-hua Wang; Xiao-juan Sun; Chang-ying Shi; Guang-wen Chen

96

Validation of suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in the halophyte Salicornia europaea by real-time quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. Salicornia europaea, a stem succulent halophyte with remarkable salt resistance and high capacity for ion accumulation, has not been investigated with regards to the selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR. In this study, the expression of 11 candidate reference genes, GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Actin, ?-Tub (?-tubulin), ?-Tub (?-tubulin), EF1-? (Elongation factor 1-?), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), UBQ (Polyubiquitin), CYP (Cyclophilin), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), CAC (Clathrin adaptor complexes), and DNAJ (DnaJ-like protein), was analyzed in S. europaea samples, which were classified into groups according to various abiotic stresses (NaCl, nitrogen, drought, cold and heat), tissues and ages. Three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of gene expression, and comprehensive ranks of stability were generated by aggregate analysis. The results show that the relatively stable genes for each group are the following: (1) CAC and UBC for whole samples; (2) CAC and UBC for NaCl stress; (3) Actin and ?-Tub for nitrogen treatment; (4) Actin and GAPDH for drought stress; (5) ?-Tub and UBC for cold stress; (6) TIP41 and DNAJ for heat stress; (7) UBC and UBQ for different tissues; and (8) UBC and Actin for various developmental stages. These genes were validated by comparing transcriptome profiles. Using two stable reference genes was recommended in the normalization of RT-qPCR data. This study identifies optimal reference genes for RT-qPCR in S. europaea, which will benefit gene expression analysis under these conditions. PMID:25653658

Xiao, Xinlong; Ma, Jinbiao; Wang, Junru; Wu, Xiaomeng; Li, Pengbo; Yao, Yinan

2015-01-01

97

Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ?Ct method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

2013-01-01

98

Identification and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis using quantitative PCR in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has rapidly become the most sensitive and accurate method for the quantification of gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes need to show stable expression under the given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in Spodoptera litura. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (RPL10), ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3), beta actin (ACTB), beta FTZ-F1 (FTZF1), ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase (UCCR), and arginine kinase (AK), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs, BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, and the comparative ?Ct method. We determined the expression levels of the candidate reference genes for three biotic factors (developmental stage, tissue and population), and four abiotic treatments (temperature, insecticide, food and starvation). The results indicated that the best sets of candidates as reference genes were as follows: GAPDH and UCCR for developmental stages; RPL10, AK and EF1 for different tissues; RPL10 and EF1 for different populations in China; GAPDH and EF1 for temperature-stressed larvae; AK and ACTB for larvae treated with different insecticides; RPL10, GAPDH and UCCR for larvae fed different diets; RPS3 and ACTB for starved larvae. We believe that these results make an important contribution to gene analysis studies in S. litura and form the basis of further research on stable reference genes in S. litura and other organisms. PMID:23874494

Lu, Yanhui; Yuan, Miao; Gao, Xiwu; Kang, Tinghao; Zhan, Sha; Wan, Hu; Li, Jianhong

2013-01-01

99

Renal Tissue Thawed for 30 Minutes Is Still Suitable for Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Some biosamples obtained from biobanks may go through thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the effects of thawing at room temperature for different time periods on gene expression analysis. A time course study with four time points was conducted to investigate the expression profiling on 10 thawed normal mice renal tissue samples through Affymetrix GeneChip mouse gene 2.0 st array. Microarray results were validated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reactions (qPCR) on 6 candidate reference genes and 11 target genes. Additionally, we used geNorm plus and NormFinder to identify the most stably expressed reference genes over time. The results showed RNA degraded more after longer incubation at room temperature. However, microarray results showed only 240 genes (0.91%) altered significantly in response to thawing at room temperature. The signal of majority altered probe sets decreased with thawing time, and the crossing point (Cp) values of all candidate reference genes correlated positively with the thawing time (p<0.05). The combination of B2M, ACTB and PPIA was identified as the best choice for qPCR normalization. We found most target genes were stable by using this normalization method. However, serious gene quantification errors were resulted from improper reference genes. In conclusion, thirty minutes of thawing at room temperature has a limited impact on microarray and qPCR analysis, gene expression variations due to RNA degradation in early period after thawing can be largely reduced by proper normalization. PMID:24687048

Ding, Wen-Bin; Yang, Hao-Zheng; Wang, Ye; Zhang, Jin; Huang, Yi-Ran; Dai, Hui-Li

2014-01-01

100

Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of human serous ovarian cancer by real-time polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) has proven to be a valuable molecular technique in gene expression quantification. Target gene expression levels are usually normalized to a stably expressed reference gene simultaneously determined in the same sample. It is critical to select optimal reference genes to interpret data generated by RT-qPCR. However, no suitable reference genes have been identified in human ovarian

Yan-Li Li; Feng Ye; Ying Hu; Wei-Guo Lu; Xing Xie

2009-01-01

101

Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR in Lolium temulentum under abiotic stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lolium temulentum is a valuable model grass species for the study of stress in forage and turf grasses. Gene expression analysis by quantitative real time RT-PCR relies on the use of proper internal standards. The aim of this study was to identify and evaluate reference genes for use in real-time q...

102

Reference gene selection for cross-species and cross-ploidy level comparisons in Chrysanthemum spp.  

PubMed Central

The establishment of a (set of) stably expressed reference gene(s) is required to normalize transcription data. Polyploidy is very common in the plant kingdom, but it is not necessarily the case that a reference gene which works well at the diploid level will also work well at the polyploid level. Here, ten candidate reference genes are compared in the context of gene transcription in the genus Chrysanthemum. The robustness of some, but not all, of these was shown to be high across ploidy levels. MTP (metalloprotease) and ACTIN (actin) were the most stable in diploid and tetraploid C. nankingense, while PSAA (photosynthesis-related plastid gene representing photosystem I) and EF-1? (elongation factor-1?) were the most stable in tetraploid and hexaploid C. zawadskii. EF-1? and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase) was the best combination for the complete set of four taxa. These results suggest that when making cross-species comparison of transcript abundance involving different ploidy levels, care needs to be taken in the selection of reference gene(s). PMID:25627791

Wang, Haibin; Chen, Sumei; Jiang, Jiafu; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Fadi

2015-01-01

103

Quantitative evaluation and selection of reference genes in mouse oocytes and embryos cultured in vivo and in vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR is an efficient tool to measure transcripts and provide valuable quantitative information on gene expression of preimplantation stage embryos. Finding valid reference genes for normalization is essential to interpret the real-time PCR results accurately, and understand the biological dynamics during early development. The use of reference genes also known as housekeeping genes is the most widely applied

Solomon Mamo; Arpad Baji Gal; Szilard Bodo; Andras Dinnyes

2007-01-01

104

Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.  

PubMed

The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1?, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks. PMID:22529976

Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

2012-01-01

105

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-time PCR Normalization in Quercus suber  

PubMed Central

The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1?, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks. PMID:22529976

Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P.; Miguel, Célia

2012-01-01

106

Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera  

PubMed Central

Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

2014-01-01

107

[Stability analysis of reference gene based on real-time PCR in Artemisia annua under cadmium treatment].  

PubMed

In this study, Actin, 18S rRNA, PAL, GAPDH and CPR of Artemisia annua were selected as candidate reference genes, and their gene-specific primers for real-time PCR were designed, then geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, Delta CT and RefFinder were used to evaluate their expression stability in the leaves of A. annua under treatment of different concentrations of Cd, with the purpose of finding a reliable reference gene to ensure the reliability of gene-expression analysis. The results showed that there were some significant differences among the candidate reference genes under different treatments and the order of expression stability of candidate reference gene was Actin > 18S rRNA > PAL > GAPDH > CPR. These results suggested that Actin, 18S rRNA and PAL could be used as ideal reference genes of gene expression analysis in A. annua and multiple internal control genes were adopted for results calibration. In addition, differences in expression stability of candidate reference genes in the leaves of A. annua under the same concentrations of Cd were observed, which suggested that the screening of candidate reference genes was needed even under the same treatment. To our best knowledge, this study for the first time provided the ideal reference genes under Cd treatment in the leaves of A. annua and offered reference for the gene expression analysis of A. annua under other conditions. PMID:25204164

Zhou, Liang-Yun; Mo, Ge; Wang, Sheng; Tang, Jin-Fu; Yue, Hong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Shao, Ai-Juan; Guo, Lan-Ping

2014-03-01

108

Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies of gene expression in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.)  

PubMed Central

Background Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important pasture and turf crop. Biotechniques such as gene expression studies are being employed to improve traits in this temperate grass. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is among the best methods available for determining changes in gene expression. Before analysis of target gene expression, it is essential to select an appropriate normalisation strategy to control for non-specific variation between samples. Reference genes that have stable expression at different biological and physiological states can be effectively used for normalisation; however, their expression stability must be validated before use. Results Existing Serial Analysis of Gene Expression data were queried to identify six moderately expressed genes that had relatively stable gene expression throughout the year. These six candidate reference genes (eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha, eEF1A; TAT-binding protein homolog 1, TBP-1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 alpha, eIF4A; YT521-B-like protein family protein, YT521-B; histone 3, H3; ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, E2) were validated for qRT-PCR normalisation in 442 diverse perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) samples sourced from field- and laboratory-grown plants under a wide range of experimental conditions. Eukaryotic EF1A is encoded by members of a multigene family exhibiting differential expression and necessitated the expression analysis of different eEF1A encoding genes; a highly expressed eEF1A (h), a moderately, but stably expressed eEF1A (s), and combined expression of multigene eEF1A (m). NormFinder identified eEF1A (s) and YT521-B as the best combination of two genes for normalisation of gene expression data in perennial ryegrass following different defoliation management in the field. Conclusions This study is unique in the magnitude of samples tested with the inclusion of numerous field-grown samples, helping pave the way to conduct gene expression studies in perennial biomass crops under field-conditions. From our study several stably expressed reference genes have been validated. This provides useful candidates for reference gene selection in perennial ryegrass under conditions other than those tested here. PMID:20089196

2010-01-01

109

Identification of qRT-PCR reference genes for analysis of opioid gene expression in a hibernator.  

PubMed

Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the brain and heart of summer ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and winter hibernating squirrels in the torpid or interbout arousal states. The use of appropriate reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression data can have profound effects on the analysis and interpretation of results. This may be particularly important when experimental subjects, such as hibernating animals, undergo significant morphological and/or functional changes during the study. Therefore, an additional goal of this study was to identify stable reference genes for use in qRT-PCR studies of the 13-lined ground squirrel. Expression levels of 10 potential reference genes were measured in the small intestine, liver, brain, and heart, and the optimal combinations of the most stable reference genes were identified by the GeNorm Excel applet. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations for reference genes to use in each tissue that would be suitable for comparative studies among different activity states. When appropriate normalization of mRNA levels was used, there were no changes in opioid-related genes in heart among the three activity states; in brain, DOR expression was highest during torpor, lowest in interbout arousal and intermediate in summer. The results support the idea that changes in DOR expression may regulate the level of neuronal activity in brain during the annual hibernation cycle and may contribute to hibernation-associated tissue protection. PMID:20033416

Otis, Jessica P; Ackermann, Laynez W; Denning, Gerene M; Carey, Hannah V

2010-04-01

110

Reference gene selection for gene expression studies using RT-qPCR in virus-infected planthoppers  

PubMed Central

Background Planthoppers not only severely affect crops by causing mechanical damage when feeding but are also vectors of several plant virus species. The analysis of gene expression in persistently infected planthoppers might unveil the molecular basis of viral transmission. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method used for quantitative gene expression analysis. In order to normalize the resulting quantitative data, reference genes with constant expression during the experimental procedures are needed. Results Partial sequences of the commonly used reference genes actin (ACT), ?1-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18) and polyubiquitin C (UBI) from Delphacodes kuscheli, a planthopper capable of persistently transmitting the plant fijivirus Mal de Río Cuarto virus (MRCV), were isolated for the first time. Specific RT-qPCR primers were designed and the expression stability of these genes was assayed in MRCV-infective and naïve planthoppers using geNorm, Normfinder and BestKeeper tools. The overall analysis showed that UBI, followed by 18S and ACT, are the most suitable genes as internal controls for quantitative gene expression studies in MRCV-infective planthoppers, while TUB and EF1A are the most variable ones. Moreover, EF1A was upregulated by MRCV infection. Conclusions A RT-qPCR platform for gene expression analysis in the MRCV-infected planthopper vector Delphacodes kuscheli was developed. Our work is the first report on reference gene selection in virus-infected insects, and might serve as a precedent for future gene expression studies on MRCV and other virus-planthopper pathosystems. PMID:21679431

2011-01-01

111

PlantRGS: A Web Server for the Identification of Most Suitable Candidate Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Plants  

PubMed Central

Normalization of quantitative gene expression data with a suitable reference gene is essential for accurate and reliable results. However, the availability and choice of most suitable reference gene(s) showing uniform expression across all the experimental conditions remain a drawback. We have developed a web server, PlantRGS (http://www.nipgr.res.in/PlantRGS), for the identification of most suitable candidate reference gene(s) at the whole-genome level using microarray data for quantitative gene expression studies in plants. Microarray data from more than 11 000 tissue samples for nine plant species have been included in the PlantRGS for meta-analysis. The web server provides a user-friendly graphical user interface-based analysis tool for the identification of most suitable reference genes in the selected plant species under user-defined experimental conditions. Various parameter options and output formats will help users to investigate desired number of most suitable reference genes with wide range of expression levels. Validation of results revealed that novel reference genes identified by the PlantRGS outperforms the traditionally used reference genes in terms of expression stability. We anticipate that the PlantRGS will provide a platform for the identification of most suitable reference gene(s) under given experimental conditions and facilitate quantitative gene expression studies in plants. PMID:21987088

Patel, Ravi K.; Jain, Mukesh

2011-01-01

112

Evaluation of putative reference genes for gene expression normalization in soybean by quantitative real-time RT-PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) data needs to be normalized for its proper interpretation. Housekeeping genes are routinely employed for this purpose, but their expression level cannot be assumed to remain constant under all possible experimental conditions. Thus, a systematic validation of reference genes is required to ensure proper normalization. For soybean, only a small number of validated

Ruibo Hu; Chengming Fan; Hongyu Li; Qingzhu Zhang; Yong-Fu Fu

2009-01-01

113

Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.  

PubMed

Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management. PMID:23623706

Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

2013-07-01

114

Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).  

PubMed

The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and ?-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

2015-01-01

115

Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

PubMed Central

The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and ?-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (?8, ?6, ?4, ?2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

2015-01-01

116

Validation of a reference control for an SYBR-Green fluorescence assay-based real-time PCR for detection of bovine herpesvirus 5 in experimentally exposed bovine embryos.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to optimize an internal control to improve SYBR-Green-based qPCR to amplify/detect the BoHV-5 US9 gene in bovine embryos produced in vitro and experimentally exposed to the virus. We designed an SYBR-Green-based binding assay that is quick to perform, reliable, easily optimized and compares well with the published assay. Herein we demonstrated its general applicability to detect BoHV-5 US9 gene in bovine embryos produced in vitro experimentally exposed to BoHV-5. In order to validate the assay, three different reference genes were tested; and the histone 2a gene was shown to be the most adequate for normalizing the qPCR reaction, by considering melting and standard curves (p < 0.05). On the other hand, no differences were found in the development of bovine embryos in vitro whether they were exposed to BoHV-5 reference and field strains comparing to unexposed embryos. The developed qPCR assay may have important field applications as it provides an accurate BoHV-5 US9 gene detection using a proven reference gene and is considerably less expensive than the TaqMan qPCR currently employed in sanitary programs. PMID:23831485

Cardoso, Tereza Cristina; Silva-Frade, Camila; Táparo, Cilene Vidovix; Okamura, Lucas Hidenori; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

2013-01-01

117

Comparison of 12 reference genes for normalization of gene expression levels in Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines and fibroblasts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Epstein-Barr virus-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (EBV-LCLs) and skin fibroblasts are often used to establish or confirm the effect of mutations on gene expression levels. Relative quantification of gene expression is usually achieved by comparison of the expression level of a gene of interest with that of a suitable reference gene. Hence, the choice of reference gene is critical in

A. P. M. de Brouwer; J. H. L. M. van Bokhoven; H. Kremer

2006-01-01

118

Identification of reference genes for tissue-specific gene expression in Panax notoginseng using quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Validated internal controls are prerequisites to accurately normalize gene expression levels. Here, 14 candidate reference genes in Panax notoginseng were characterized. Primer specificity and amplification efficiency were evaluated for each gene. Candidates were subjected to transcript quantification in the root, fibrous root, rhizome, leaf, receptacle, pedicel, and fruit tissues. Expression stability (M value) and normalization factor variation (Vn/Vn+1) were determined by geNorm. 26S-2 and ACT-2 exhibited the highest expression stability among the tissues. Gene expression of dammarenediol synthase was accurately detected after normalization to 26S-2 and ACT-2 was performed. Results were consistent when each or both of 26S-2 and ACT-2 were applied as internal control. Hence, this study provides useful information to normalize gene expression accurately in the tissue-specific transcripts of P. notoginseng. PMID:25216645

Wu, Qiong; Ma, Xinye; Zhang, Kefeng; Feng, Xuehua

2015-01-01

119

Identification and validation of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in mouse testis development.  

PubMed

RT-qPCR is a commonly used method for evaluating gene expression; however, its accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of appropriate reference gene(s), and there is limited information available on suitable reference gene(s) that can be used in mouse testis at different stages. In this study, using the RT-qPCR method, we investigated the expression variations of six reference genes representing different functional classes (Actb, Gapdh, Ppia, Tbp, Rps29, Hprt1) in mice testis during embryonic and postnatal development. The expression stabilities of putative reference genes were evaluated using five algorithms: geNorm, NormFinder, Bestkeeper, the comparative delta C(t) method and integrated tool RefFinder. Analysis of the results showed that Ppia, Gapdh and Actb were identified as the most stable genes and the geometric mean of Ppia, Gapdh and Actb constitutes an appropriate normalization factor for gene expression studies. The mRNA expression of AT1 as a test gene of interest varied depending upon which of the reference gene(s) was used as an internal control(s). This study suggested that Ppia, Gapdh and Actb are suitable reference genes among the six genes used for RT-qPCR normalization and provide crucial information for transcriptional analyses in future studies of gene expression in the developing mouse testis. PMID:24952483

Gong, Zu-Kang; Wang, Shuang-Jie; Huang, Yong-Qi; Zhao, Rui-Qiang; Zhu, Qi-Fang; Lin, Wen-Zhen

2014-12-01

120

Selection and validation of reference genes for miRNA expression studies during porcine pregnancy.  

PubMed

MicroRNAs comprise a family of small non-coding RNAs that modulate several developmental and physiological processes including pregnancy. Their ubiquitous presence is confirmed in mammals, worms, flies and plants. Although rapid advances have been made in microRNA research, information on stable reference genes for validation of microRNA expression is still lacking. Real time PCR is a widely used tool to quantify gene transcripts. An appropriate reference gene must be chosen to minimize experimental error in this system. A small difference in miRNA levels between experimental samples can be biologically meaningful as these entities can affect multiple targets in a pathway. This study examined the suitability of six commercially available reference genes (RNU1A, RNU5A, RNU6B, SNORD25, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A) in maternal-fetal tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting/dying conceptuses from sows were separately analyzed at gestation day 20. Comparisons were also made with non-pregnant endometrial tissues from sows. Spontaneous fetal loss is a prime concern to the commercial pork industry. Our laboratory has previously identified deficits in vasculature development at maternal-fetal interface as one of the major participating causes of fetal loss. Using this well-established model, we have extended our studies to identify suitable microRNA reference genes. A methodical approach to assessing suitability was adopted using standard curve and melting curve analysis, PCR product sequencing, real time PCR expression in a panel of gestational tissues, and geNorm and NormFinder analysis. Our quantitative real time PCR analysis confirmed expression of all 6 reference genes in maternal and fetal tissues. All genes were uniformly expressed in tissues from healthy and spontaneously arresting conceptus attachment sites. Comparisons between tissue types (maternal/fetal/non-pregnant) revealed significant differences for RNU5A, RNU6B, SCARNA17, and SNORA73A expression. Based on our methodical assessment of all 6 reference genes, results suggest that RNU1A is the most stable reference gene for porcine pregnancy studies. PMID:22174931

Wessels, Jocelyn M; Edwards, Andrew K; Zettler, Candace; Tayade, Chandrakant

2011-01-01

121

Guideline to reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, quantitative real-time PCR is the method of choice for rapid and reliable quantification of mRNA transcription. However, for an exact comparison of mRNA transcription in different samples or tissues it is crucial to choose the appropriate reference gene. Recently glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and ?-actin have been used for that purpose. However, it has been reported that these genes as

Aleksandar Radoni?; Stefanie Thulke; Ian M. Mackay; Olfert Landt; Wolfgang Siegert; Andreas Nitschea

2004-01-01

122

Identification of TL-Om1, an Adult T-Cell Leukemia (ATL) Cell Line, as Reference Material for Quantitative PCR for Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.  

PubMed

Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is useful for measuring the amount of integrated HTLV-1 proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Many laboratories in Japan have developed different HTLV-1 qPCR methods. However, when six independent laboratories analyzed the proviral load of the same samples, there was a 5-fold difference in their results. To standardize HTLV-1 qPCR, preparation of a well-defined reference material is needed. We analyzed the integrated HTLV-1 genome and the internal control (IC) genes of TL-Om1, a cell line derived from adult T-cell leukemia, to confirm its suitability as a reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) showed that HTLV-1 provirus was monoclonally integrated in chromosome 1 at the site of 1p13 in the TL-Om1 genome. HTLV-1 proviral genome was not transferred from TL-Om1 to an uninfected T-cell line, suggesting that the HTLV-1 proviral copy number in TL-Om1 cells is stable. To determine the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus and IC genes in TL-Om1 cells, we used FISH, digital PCR, and qPCR. HTLV-1 copy numbers obtained by these three methods were similar, suggesting that their results were accurate. Also, the ratio of the copy number of HTLV-1 provirus to one of the IC genes, RNase P, was consistent for all three methods. These findings indicate that TL-Om1 cells are an appropriate reference material for HTLV-1 qPCR. PMID:25502533

Kuramitsu, Madoka; Okuma, Kazu; Yamagishi, Makoto; Yamochi, Tadanori; Firouzi, Sanaz; Momose, Haruka; Mizukami, Takuo; Takizawa, Kazuya; Araki, Kumiko; Sugamura, Kazuo; Yamaguchi, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshiki; Hamaguchi, Isao

2015-02-01

123

The Gene Ontology's Reference Genome Project: a unified framework for functional annotation across species.  

PubMed

The Gene Ontology (GO) is a collaborative effort that provides structured vocabularies for annotating the molecular function, biological role, and cellular location of gene products in a highly systematic way and in a species-neutral manner with the aim of unifying the representation of gene function across different organisms. Each contributing member of the GO Consortium independently associates GO terms to gene products from the organism(s) they are annotating. Here we introduce the Reference Genome project, which brings together those independent efforts into a unified framework based on the evolutionary relationships between genes in these different organisms. The Reference Genome project has two primary goals: to increase the depth and breadth of annotations for genes in each of the organisms in the project, and to create data sets and tools that enable other genome annotation efforts to infer GO annotations for homologous genes in their organisms. In addition, the project has several important incidental benefits, such as increasing annotation consistency across genome databases, and providing important improvements to the GO's logical structure and biological content. PMID:19578431

2009-07-01

124

Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms  

PubMed Central

Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ?70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n?=?24, dilated n?=?11; bicuspid undilated n?=?6, dilated n?=?15; unicuspid dilated n?=?4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue. PMID:23326585

Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

2013-01-01

125

Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.  

PubMed

Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)?0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton. PMID:24929128

Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

2014-07-01

126

Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization and Its Applications in Lycium  

PubMed Central

Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1? for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

2014-01-01

127

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Chrysanthemum Subjected to Biotic and Abiotic Stress  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable method for assessing gene expression, provided that suitable reference\\u000a genes are included to normalize the data. The stability of expression of eight potential reference genes, namely, tubulin (alpha-2,4 tubulin), actin, EF1? (elongation factor 1?), UBC (ubiquitin C), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), psaA (photosynthesis-related plastid gene representing photosystem I), PP2Acs (catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase

Chunsun Gu; Sumei Chen; Zhaolei Liu; Hong Shan; Huolin Luo; Zhiyong Guan; Fadi Chen

128

Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae).  

PubMed

To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

Zhai, Yifan; Lin, Qingcai; Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

2014-01-01

129

Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)  

PubMed Central

To accurately evaluate gene expression levels and obtain more accurate quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) data, normalization relative to reliable reference gene(s) is required. Drosophila suzukii, is an invasive fruit pest native to East Asia, and recently invaded Europe and North America, the stability of its reference genes have not been previously investigated. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (RPL18, RPS3, AK, EF-1?, TBP, NADH, HSP22, GAPDH, Actin, ?-Tubulin), were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different biotic (developmental stage, tissue and population), and abiotic (photoperiod, temperature) conditions. The three statistical approaches (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to normalize analysis of the ten candidate reference genes identified ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK as the most stable candidates, while HSP22 and Actin showed the lowest expression stability. We used three most stable genes (?-Tubulin, TBP and AK) and one unstably expressed gene to analyze the expression of P-glycoprotein in abamectin-resistant and sensitive strains, and the results were similar to reference genes ?-Tubulin, TBP and AK, which show good stability, while the result of HSP22 has a certain bias. The three validated reference genes can be widely used for quantification of target gene expression with qRT-PCR technology in D.suzukii. PMID:25198611

Zhou, Xianhong; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Liu, Tingli; Yu, Yi

2014-01-01

130

Selection of reference genes for quantitative gene expression normalization in flax (Linum usitatissimum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate method for detecting differential gene expression. Such an approach depends on the identification of uniformly expressed 'housekeeping genes' (HKGs). Extensive transcriptomic data mining and experimental validation in different model plants have shown that the reliability of these endogenous controls can be influenced by the plant species, growth conditions and organs\\/tissues

Rudy Huis; Simon Hawkins; Godfrey Neutelings

2010-01-01

131

Evaluation of normalization strategies for qPCR quantitation of intracellular viral DNA: the example of Vaccinia virus.  

PubMed

Quantitation of intracellular viral genomes is critical in both clinical and fundamental virology. Quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) is currently the gold standard to detect and monitor virus infections, due to its high sensitivity and reproducibility. The reliability of qPCR data depends primarily on the technical process. Normalization, which corrects inter-sample variations related to both pre-analytical and qPCR steps, is a key point of an accurate quantitation. Total DNA input and qPCR-measured standards were evaluated to normalize intracellular Vaccinia virus (VACV) genomes. Three qPCR assays targeting either a single-copy chromosomic gene, a repeated chromosomic DNA sequence, or a mitochondrial DNA sequence were compared. qPCR-measured standards, unlike total DNA input, allowed for accurate normalization of VACV genome, regardless of the cell number. Among PCR-measured standards, chromosomic DNA and mitochondrial DNA were equivalent to normalize VACV DNA and multi-copy standards displayed lower limits of quantitation than single-copy standards. The combination of two qPCR-measured standards slightly improved the reliability of the normalization. Using one or two multi-copy standards must be favored for relative quantitation of intracellular VACV DNA. This concept could be applied to other DNA viruses. PMID:22981457

Poyot, Thomas; Flusin, Olivier; Diserbo, Michel; Iseni, Frédéric; Peinnequin, Andre

2012-12-01

132

Identification of Importin 8 (IPO8) as the most accurate reference gene for the clinicopathological analysis of lung specimens  

PubMed Central

Background The accurate normalization of differentially expressed genes in lung cancer is essential for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers by real time RT-PCR and microarrays. Although classical "housekeeping" genes, such as GAPDH, HPRT1, and beta-actin have been widely used in the past, their accuracy as reference genes for lung tissues has not been proven. Results We have conducted a thorough analysis of a panel of 16 candidate reference genes for lung specimens and lung cell lines. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR and expression stability was analyzed with the softwares GeNorm and NormFinder, mean of |?Ct| (= |Ct Normal-Ct tumor|) ± SEM, and correlation coefficients among genes. Systematic comparison between candidates led us to the identification of a subset of suitable reference genes for clinical samples: IPO8, ACTB, POLR2A, 18S, and PPIA. Further analysis showed that IPO8 had a very low mean of |?Ct| (0.70 ± 0.09), with no statistically significant differences between normal and malignant samples and with excellent expression stability. Conclusion Our data show that IPO8 is the most accurate reference gene for clinical lung specimens. In addition, we demonstrate that the commonly used genes GAPDH and HPRT1 are inappropriate to normalize data derived from lung biopsies, although they are suitable as reference genes for lung cell lines. We thus propose IPO8 as a novel reference gene for lung cancer samples. PMID:19014639

Nguewa, Paul A; Agorreta, Jackeline; Blanco, David; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Sanchez, Blas A; Valles, Iñaki; Pajares, Maria J; Pio, Ruben; Rodriguez, Maria Jose; Montuenga, Luis M; Calvo, Alfonso

2008-01-01

133

SYBR ® Green qPCR methods for detection of endogenous reference genes in commodity crops: a step ahead in combinatory screening of genetically modified crops in food and feed products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Identification of crops present in food and\\/or feed matrices represents an important step in the screening strategies targeting\\u000a genetically modified organisms (GMO). Soybean, maize, oilseed rape, rice, cotton, sugar beet and potato are to date the most\\u000a important sources of genetically modified materials imported in the European Union (EU). In order to allow detection of their\\u000a presence in an integrated

E. Guillaume Mbongolo Mbella; Antoon Lievens; Elodie Barbau-Piednoir; Myriam Sneyers; Amaya Leunda-Casi; Nancy Roosens; Marc Van den Bulcke

2011-01-01

134

Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs.  

PubMed

Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most reliable molecular biology technique for assessment of mRNA expression levels. However, to obtain the accurate RT-qPCR results, the expression levels of genes of interest should be normalized with appropriate reference genes and optimal numbers of reference genes. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 15 well-known candidate reference genes (ACTB, ALDOA, B2M, GAPDH, HPAR1, HSPCB, PGK1, POLR2G, PPIA, RPL4, RPS18, SDHA, TBP, TOP2B, and YWHAZ) in seven body tissues (liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) of Berkshire, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire pigs using three excel-based programs, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Combination analysis of these three programs showed that the stable and appropriate reference genes are PPIA, TBP, and HSPCB in Berkshire pigs; PPIA, TBP, RPL4, and RPS18 in Landrace pigs; PPIA and TBP in Duroc pigs; and PPIA, TOP2B, RPL4, and RPS18 in Yorkshire pigs. Because the four pig breeds had different suitable reference genes, the selection of appropriate reference genes is essential in RT-qPCR analyses. Taken together, our data could help to select reliable reference genes for the normalization of expression levels of various target genes in pigs. PMID:25550045

Park, Sang-Je; Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook

2015-03-01

135

Selection and validation of reference genes for gene expression analysis in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.  

PubMed

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1?, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1?, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass. PMID:24621568

Gimeno, Jacinta; Eattock, Nicholas; Van Deynze, Allen; Blumwald, Eduardo

2014-01-01

136

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) Using Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR  

PubMed Central

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) has received a lot of attention as a forage and bioenergy crop during the past few years. Gene expression studies are in progress to improve new traits and develop new cultivars. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as an important technique to study gene expression analysis. For accurate and reliable results, normalization of data with reference genes is essential. In this work, we evaluate the stability of expression of genes to use as reference for qRT-PCR in the grass P. virgatum. Eleven candidate reference genes, including eEF-1?, UBQ6, ACT12, TUB6, eIF-4a, GAPDH, SAMDC, TUA6, CYP5, U2AF, and FTSH4, were validated for qRT-PCR normalization in different plant tissues and under different stress conditions. The expression stability of these genes was verified by the use of two distinct algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Differences were observed after comparison of the ranking of the candidate reference genes identified by both programs but eEF-1?, eIF-4a, CYP5 and U2AF are ranked as the most stable genes in the samples sets under study. Both programs discard the use of SAMDC and TUA6 for normalization. Validation of the reference genes proposed by geNorm and NormFinder were performed by normalization of transcript abundance of a group of target genes in different samples. Results show similar expression patterns when the best reference genes selected by both programs were used but differences were detected in the transcript abundance of the target genes. Based on the above research, we recommend the use of different statistical algorithms to identify the best reference genes for expression data normalization. The best genes selected in this study will help to improve the quality of gene expression data in a wide variety of samples in switchgrass. PMID:24621568

Gimeno, Jacinta; Eattock, Nicholas; Van Deynze, Allen; Blumwald, Eduardo

2014-01-01

137

Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression. Stably expressed reference genes are necessary for normalization of RT-qPCR data. Only a few articles have been published on reference genes in canine tumours. The objective of this study was to demonstrate how to identify suitable reference genes for normalization of genes of interest in canine soft tissue sarcomas using RT-qPCR. Primer pairs for 17 potential reference genes were designed and tested in archival tumour biopsies from six dogs. The geNorm algorithm was used to analyse the most suitable reference genes. Eight potential reference genes were excluded from this final analysis because of their dissociation curves. ?-Glucuronidase (GUSB) and proteasome subunit, beta type, 6 (PSMB6) were most stably expressed with an M value of 0.154 and a CV of 0.053 describing their average stability. We suggest that choice of reference genes should be based on specific testing in every new experimental set-up. PMID:24995963

Zornhagen, K W; Kristensen, A T; Hansen, A E; Oxboel, J; Kjaer, A

2014-07-01

138

Reference gene selection for real-time RT-PCR normalization in rice field eel (Monopterus albus) during gonad development.  

PubMed

Real-time reverse transcriptase (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) requires data normalization using an appropriate reference gene in order to obtain more reliable results with biological significance. We cloned a partial sequence of elongation factor-1-? (EF1?) and ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17) from Monopterus albus. We investigated the suitability of five commonly used reference genes [18S ribosomal RNA (18S), cytoskeletal protein (?-actin), glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), EF1? and RPL17] as potential quantitative reference genes for normalizing real-time RT-PCR data generated in gonads of different developmental stages and in other tissues of M. albus. Analysis of the data indicated that 18S, ?-actin and GAPDH are not suitable as reference genes because of their levels of variations of expression. EF1? and RPL17 might be suitable as reference genes in the gonads of different developmental stages as well as in other tissues of M. albus. PMID:25079246

Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Gao, Yu; Tang, Rong; Li, Dapeng

2014-12-01

139

A combined strategy of “in silico” transcriptome analysis and web search engine optimization allows an agile identification of reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditionally housekeeping genes have been employed as endogenous reference (internal control) genes for normalization in\\u000a gene expression studies. Since the utilization of single housekeepers cannot assure an unbiased result, new normalization\\u000a methods involving multiple housekeeping genes and normalizing using their mean expression have been recently proposed. Moreover,\\u000a since a gold standard gene suitable for every experimental condition does not exist,

Primetta Faccioli; Gian Paolo Ciceri; Paolo Provero; Antonio Michele Stanca; Caterina Morcia; Valeria Terzi

2007-01-01

140

Identification of suitable reference genes for the relative quantification of microRNAs in pleural effusion  

PubMed Central

Circulating cell-free microRNAs (miRNAs) are potential biomarkers of cancer. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used in miRNA expression studies. The aim of this study was to identify suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analyses of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs were investigated in 10 benign pleural effusion (BPE) and 10 lung adenocarcinoma-associated malignant pleural effusion (LA-MPE) samples using miRNA microarrays. The expression levels of candidate reference miRNAs, together with those of U6 small nuclear RNA (snRNA), RNU6B, RNU44 and RNU48 small RNAs, in 46 BPE and 45 LA-MPE samples were validated by RT-qPCR, and were analyzed using the NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The impact of different normalization approaches on the detection of differential expression levels of miR-198 in BPE and LA-MPE samples was also assessed. As determined by the miRNA microarray data, five candidate reference miRNAs were identified. Following RT-qPCR validation, U6 snRNA, miR-192, miR-20a, miR-221, miR-222 and miR-16 were evaluated using the NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. U6 snRNA and miR-192 were identified as single reference genes and the combination of these genes was preferred for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. Normalization of miR-98 expression levels to those of U6 snRNA, miR-192 or a combination of these genes enabled the detection of a significant difference between BPE and LA-MPE samples. Therefore, U6 snRNA and miR-192 are recommended as reference genes for the relative quantification of miRNA expression levels in pleural effusion. PMID:25202432

HAN, HYE-SUK; JO, YEONG NANG; LEE, JIN YONG; CHOI, SONG-YI; JEONG, YUSOOK; YUN, JIEUN; LEE, OK-JUN

2014-01-01

141

Screening ancient tuberculosis with qPCR: challenges and opportunities.  

PubMed

The field of ancient DNA (aDNA) has rapidly accelerated in recent years as a result of new methods in next-generation sequencing, library preparation and targeted enrichment. Such research is restricted, however, by the highly variable DNA preservation within different tissues, especially when isolating ancient pathogens from human remains. Identifying positive candidate samples via quantitative PCR (qPCR) for downstream procedures can reduce reagent costs, increase capture efficiency and maximize the number of sequencing reads of the target. This study uses four qPCR assays designed to target regions within the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) to examine 133 human skeletal samples from a wide geographical and temporal range, identified by the presence of skeletal lesions typical of chronic disseminated tuberculosis. Given the inherent challenges working with ancient mycobacteria, strict criteria must be used and primer/probe design continually re-evaluated as new data from bacteria become available. Seven samples tested positive for multiple MTBC loci, supporting them as strong candidates for downstream analyses. Using strict and conservative criteria, qPCR remains a fast and effective screening tool when compared with screening by more expensive sequencing and enrichment technologies. PMID:25487341

Harkins, Kelly M; Buikstra, Jane E; Campbell, Tessa; Bos, Kirsten I; Johnson, Eric D; Krause, Johannes; Stone, Anne C

2015-01-19

142

Q-PCR based bioburden assessment of drinking water throughout treatment and delivery to the International Space Station  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous studies indicated evidence of opportunistic pathogens samples obtained during missions to the International Space Station (ISS). This study utilized TaqMan quantitative PCR to determine specific gene abundance in potable and non-potable ISS waters. Probe and primer sets specific to the small subunit rRNA genes were used to elucidate overall bacterial rRNA gene numbers. while those specific for Burkholderia cepacia and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia were optimized and used to probe for the presence of these two opportunistic pathogens. This research builds upon previous microbial diversity studies of ISS water and demonstrates the utility of Q-PCR tool to examine water quality.

Newcombe, David; Stuecker, Tara; La Duc, Myron; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri

2005-01-01

143

Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalization in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera:Thripidae)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) has emerged as a reliable and reproducible technique for studying gene expression analysis. For accurate results, the normalization of data with reference genes is particularly essential. Once the transcriptome sequencing of Frankliniella occidentalis was completed, numerous unigenes were identified and annotated. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of reference genes used in F. occidentalis. In this work, seven candidate reference genes, including actin, 18S rRNA, H3, tubulin, GAPDH, EF-1 and RPL32, were evaluated for their suitability as normalization genes under different experimental conditions using the statistical software programs BestKeeper, geNorm, Normfinder and the comparative ?Ct method. Because the rankings of the reference genes provided by each of the four programs were different, we chose a user-friendly web-based comprehensive tool RefFinder to get the final ranking. The result demonstrated that EF-1 and RPL32 displayed the most stable expression in different developmental stages; RPL32 and GAPDH showed the most stable expression at high temperatures, while 18S and EF-1 exhibited the most stable expression at low temperatures. In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes in F. occidentalis for gene expression profiling under different experimental conditions. The choice of internal standard is very important in the normalization of the target gene expression levels, thus validating and selecting the best genes will help improve the quality of gene expression data of F. occidentalis. What is more, these validated reference genes could serve as the basis for the selection of candidate reference genes in other insects. PMID:25356721

Zheng, Yu-Tao; Li, Hong-Bo; Lu, Ming-Xing; Du, Yu-Zhou

2014-01-01

144

Reference Gene Selection for qRT-PCR Analysis in the Sweetpotato Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)  

PubMed Central

Background Accurate evaluation of gene expression requires normalization relative to the expression of reliable reference genes. Expression levels of “classical” reference genes can differ, however, across experimental conditions. Although quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) has been used extensively to decipher gene function in the sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci, a world-wide pest in many agricultural systems, the stability of its reference genes has rarely been validated. Results In this study, 15 candidate reference genes from B. tabaci were evaluated using two Excel-based algorithms geNorm and Normfinder under a diverse set of biotic and abiotic conditions. At least two reference genes were selected to normalize gene expressions in B. tabaci under experimental conditions. Specifically, for biotic conditions including host plant, acquisition of a plant virus, developmental stage, tissue (body region of the adult), and whitefly biotype, ribosomal protein L29 was the most stable reference gene. In contrast, the expression of elongation factor 1 alpha, peptidylprolyl isomerase A, NADH dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A and heat shock protein 40 were consistently stable across various abiotic conditions including photoperiod, temperature, and insecticide susceptibility. Conclusion Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized quantitative real-time PCR procedure following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guideline in an agriculturally important insect pest, and provides a solid foundation for future RNA interference based functional study in B. tabaci. PMID:23308130

Li, Rumei; Xie, Wen; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Yang, Nina; Yang, Xin; Pan, Huipeng; Zhou, Xiaomao; Bai, Lianyang; Xu, Baoyun; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

2013-01-01

145

Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.  

PubMed

Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica. PMID:24770781

Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

2014-10-01

146

Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR in orchardgrass subjected to various abiotic stresses.  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful tool for the measurement of gene expression; however, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The objective of the present study was to identify the stable reference genes in orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), a principal cool-season forage grass in the world. Ten candidate reference genes were selected in this study including ATP-binding [ABC], actin [ACTIN], cyclophilin [CYP2], glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [GAPDH], beta-amylase 4 [BAM4], zeitlupe [ZTL], MAP Kinase 4 [MPK4], ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme [UBC], S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase [SAMDC], and translationally controlled tumor protein [TCTP]. The candidate genes were assessed in orchardgrass leaves and roots under conditions of drought, high salinity, heat, waterlogging, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments. We used GeNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder, and RefFinder for qRT-PCR normalization and validation to determine that the expression of these reference genes was stress-dependent. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were found to be the most stably expressed genes for drought stress while ACTIN, TCTP, and ABC were the most stable under salt stress. ACTIN, CYP2, and ABC were all found to be good reference genes for studying heat stress. Likewise, CYP2, MPK4, and ABC were most suitable to study waterlogging, and ACTIN, CYP2, and MPK4 were determined as the three best reference genes for ABA studies. Our study identified and validated the possible reference genes in orchardgrass that may be used for quantification of target gene expression under various abiotic stresses. PMID:25307767

Huang, Linkai; Yan, Haidong; Jiang, Xiaomei; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Xinquan; Ji, Yang; Zeng, Bing; Xu, Bin; Yin, Guohua; Lee, Samantha; Yan, Yanhong; Ma, Xiao; Peng, Yan

2014-12-15

147

A survey of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction internal reference genes for expression studies in Brassica napus.  

PubMed

Eight reference genes of Brassica napus were evaluated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) data, focusing on vegetative tissues and developing embryos. Analyses of expression stability indicated that UP1, UBC9, UBC21, and TIP41 were the top four choices as stably expressed reference genes for vegetative tissues, whereas ACT7, UBC21, TIP41, and PP2A were the top four choices for maturing embryos. In addition, radiolabeling of overall messenger RNA (mRNA) of maturing embryos indicated that the expression patterns of the top four ranked reference genes reflected the overall mRNA content changes in maturing embryos. PMID:20522329

Chen, Xue; Truksa, Martin; Shah, Saleh; Weselake, Randall J

2010-10-01

148

Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.  

PubMed

The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts. PMID:25445290

Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

2015-01-10

149

An evaluation and recommendation of the optimal methodologies to detect RET gene rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma.  

PubMed

To recommend a reliable and clinically realistic RET/PTC rearrangement detection assay for papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), we compared multiplex quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), and immunohistochemistry (IHC). RET/PTC rearrangement was detected using either RET break-apart FISH followed by multicolor FISH to confirm CCDC6/RET or NCOA4/RET fusions, or by multiplex qPCR to detect 14 RET/PTC subtypes with simultaneous RET mRNA expression. RET protein expression was detected by IHC. The specificity and sensitivity of multiplex qPCR and IHC were calculated using break-apart FISH as a reference. Among 73 PTC patients with sufficient tissue available for FISH and multiplex qPCR, 10 cases were defined as RET/PTC positive by both assays, including eight CCDC6/RET and two NCOA4/RET fusions with relatively high RET mRNA. In addition, multiplex qPCR identified another two CCDC6/RET fusion positive cases, but with low RET mRNA expression. IHC staining identified 11 RET positive cases among 39 patients with available samples. In comparison to FISH, multiplex qPCR displayed 100% sensitivity and 97% specificity to detect RET/PTC fusions, while IHC was neither sensitive nor specific. Our data reveal that both multiplex qPCR and FISH assays are equally applicable for detection of RET/PTC rearrangements. Break-apart FISH methodology is highly recommended for the wider screening of RET rearrangements (regardless of partner genes), while multiplex qPCR is preferred to identify all known fusion types using one assay, provided mRNA expression is also measured. IHC analysis could potentially provide an additional method of fusion detection dependent on further optimization of assay conditions and scoring cutoffs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25407564

Zhang, Tianwei; Lu, Yachao; Ye, Qingqing; Zhang, Meizhuo; Zheng, Li; Yin, Xiaolu; Gavine, Paul; Sun, Zhongsheng; Ji, Qunsheng; Zhu, Guanshan; Su, Xinying

2015-03-01

150

Linear normalised hash function for clustering gene sequences and identifying reference sequences from multiple sequence alignments  

PubMed Central

Background Comparative genomics has put additional demands on the assessment of similarity between sequences and their clustering as means for classification. However, defining the optimal number of clusters, cluster density and boundaries for sets of potentially related sequences of genes with variable degrees of polymorphism remains a significant challenge. The aim of this study was to develop a method that would identify the cluster centroids and the optimal number of clusters for a given sensitivity level and could work equally well for the different sequence datasets. Results A novel method that combines the linear mapping hash function and multiple sequence alignment (MSA) was developed. This method takes advantage of the already sorted by similarity sequences from the MSA output, and identifies the optimal number of clusters, clusters cut-offs, and clusters centroids that can represent reference gene vouchers for the different species. The linear mapping hash function can map an already ordered by similarity distance matrix to indices to reveal gaps in the values around which the optimal cut-offs of the different clusters can be identified. The method was evaluated using sets of closely related (16S rRNA gene sequences of Nocardia species) and highly variable (VP1 genomic region of Enterovirus 71) sequences and outperformed existing unsupervised machine learning clustering methods and dimensionality reduction methods. This method does not require prior knowledge of the number of clusters or the distance between clusters, handles clusters of different sizes and shapes, and scales linearly with the dataset. Conclusions The combination of MSA with the linear mapping hash function is a computationally efficient way of gene sequence clustering and can be a valuable tool for the assessment of similarity, clustering of different microbial genomes, identifying reference sequences, and for the study of evolution of bacteria and viruses. PMID:22587938

2012-01-01

151

Evaluation of Four Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Real-Time PCR Assays for Common Wheat Quantification in GMOs Detection  

PubMed Central

Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat. PMID:24098735

Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

2013-01-01

152

Reference Genes Selection for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Using RankAggreg Method in Different Tissues of Capra hircus  

PubMed Central

Identification of reference genes with stable levels of gene expression is an important prerequisite for obtaining reliable results in analysis of gene expression data using quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR). Since the underlying assumption of reference genes is that expressed at the exact same level in all sample types, in this study, we evaluated the expression stability of nine most commonly used endogenous controls (GAPDH, ACTB, 18S rRNA, RPS18, HSP-90, ALAS, HMBS, ACAC, and B2M) in four different tissues of the domestic goat, Capra hircus, including liver, visceral, subcutaneous fat and longissimus muscles, across different experimental treatments (a standard diet prepared using the NRC computer software as control and the same diet plus one mg chromium/day). We used six different software programs for ranking of reference genes and found that individual rankings of the genes differed among them. Additionally, there was a significant difference in ranking patterns of the studied genes among different tissues. A rank aggregation method was applied to combine the ranking lists of the six programs to a consensus ranking. Our results revealed that HSP-90 was nearly always among the two most stable genes in all studied tissues. Therefore, it is recommended for accurate normalization of RT-qPCR data in goats, while GAPDH, ACTB, and RPS18 showed the most varied expressions and should be avoided as reference genes. PMID:24358246

Najafpanah, Mohammad Javad; Sadeghi, Mostafa; Bakhtiarizadeh, Mohammad Reza

2013-01-01

153

Counting Mycobacteria in Infected Human Cells and Mouse Tissue: A Comparison between qPCR and CFU  

PubMed Central

Due to the slow growth rate and pathogenicity of mycobacteria, enumeration by traditional reference methods like colony counting is notoriously time-consuming, inconvenient and biohazardous. Thus, novel methods that rapidly and reliably quantify mycobacteria are warranted in experimental models to facilitate basic research, development of vaccines and anti-mycobacterial drugs. In this study we have developed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays for simultaneous quantification of mycobacterial and host DNA in infected human macrophage cultures and in mouse tissues. The qPCR method cannot discriminate live from dead bacteria and found a 10- to 100-fold excess of mycobacterial genomes, relative to colony formation. However, good linear correlations were observed between viable colony counts and qPCR results from infected macrophage cultures (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] for M. tuberculosis?=?0.82; M. a. avium?=?0.95; M. a. paratuberculosis?=?0.91). Regression models that predict colony counts from qPCR data in infected macrophages were validated empirically and showed a high degree of agreement with observed counts. Similar correlation results were also obtained in liver and spleen homogenates of M. a. avium infected mice, although the correlations were distinct for the early phase (qPCR count in the early phase (geometric mean ratio of 0.37 and 0.34 in spleen and liver, respectively), as compared to later phase of infection (geometric mean ratio of 0.01 in both spleen and liver). Overall, qPCR methods offer advantages in biosafety, time-saving, assay range and reproducibility compared to colony counting. Additionally, the duplex format allows enumeration of bacteria per host cell, an advantage in experiments where variable cell death can give misleading colony counts. PMID:22532835

Pathak, Sharad; Awuh, Jane A.; Leversen, Nils Anders; Flo, Trude H.; Åsjø, Birgitta

2012-01-01

154

Validation of Reference Genes Aiming Accurate Normalization of qRT-PCR Data in Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro  

PubMed Central

Background Dendrocalamus latiflorus Munro distributes widely in subtropical areas and plays vital roles as valuable natural resources. The transcriptome sequencing for D. latiflorus Munro has been performed and numerous genes especially those predicted to be unique to D. latiflorus Munro were revealed. qRT-PCR has become a feasible approach to uncover gene expression profiling, and the accuracy and reliability of the results obtained depends upon the proper selection of stable reference genes for accurate normalization. Therefore, a set of suitable internal controls should be validated for D. latiflorus Munro. Results In this report, twelve candidate reference genes were selected and the assessment of gene expression stability was performed in ten tissue samples and four leaf samples from seedlings and anther-regenerated plants of different ploidy. The PCR amplification efficiency was estimated, and the candidate genes were ranked according to their expression stability using three software packages: geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper. GAPDH and EF1? were characterized to be the most stable genes among different tissues or in all the sample pools, while CYP showed low expression stability. RPL3 had the optimal performance among four leaf samples. The application of verified reference genes was illustrated by analyzing ferritin and laccase expression profiles among different experimental sets. The analysis revealed the biological variation in ferritin and laccase transcript expression among the tissues studied and the individual plants. Conclusions geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper analyses recommended different suitable reference gene(s) for normalization according to the experimental sets. GAPDH and EF1? had the highest expression stability across different tissues and RPL3 for the other sample set. This study emphasizes the importance of validating superior reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis to accurately normalize gene expression of D. latiflorus Munro. PMID:24498321

Liu, Mingying; Jiang, Jing; Han, Xiaojiao; Qiao, Guirong; Zhuo, Renying

2014-01-01

155

Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in ultraviolet B-irradiated human skin fibroblasts using quantitative real-time PCR  

PubMed Central

Background Reference genes are frequently used to normalise mRNA levels between different samples. The expression level of these genes, however, may vary between tissues or cells and may change under certain circumstances. Cytoskeleton genes have served as multifunctional tools for experimental studies as reference genes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that the expression of vimentin, one cytoskeletal protein, was increased in ultraviolet B (UVB)-irradiated fibroblasts. Thus, we examined the expression of other cytoskeleton protein genes, ACTB (actin, beta), TUBA1A (tubulin, alpha 1a), and TUBB1 (tubulin, beta 1), in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated by UVB to determine which of these candidates were the most appropriate reference genes. Results Quantitative real-time PCR followed by analysis with the NormFinder and geNorm software programmes was performed. The initial screening of the expression patterns demonstrated that the expression of VIM was suppressed after UVB irradiation at doses ?25 mJ/cm2 and that the expression of TUBA1A was significantly reduced by UVB doses ?75 mJ/cm2 in cultured human dermal fibroblasts. The analysis of the experimental data revealed ACTB to be the most stably expressed gene, followed by GAPDH (aglyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), under these experimental conditions. By contrast, VIM was found to be the least stable gene. The combination of ACTB and TUBB1 was revealed to be the gene pair that introduced the least systematic error into the data normalisation. Conclusion The data herein provide evidence that ACTB and TUBB1 are suitable reference genes in human skin fibroblasts irradiated by UVB, whereas VIM and TUBA1A are not and should therefore be excluded as reference genes in any gene expression studies involving UVB-irradiated human skin fibroblasts. PMID:21324211

2011-01-01

156

Reference genes for QRT-PCR tested under various stress conditions in Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta (Insecta, Collembola)  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of quantification when key standards, such as normalization, are carefully set. In this study, we validated potential reference genes for their use as endogenous controls under different chemical and physical stresses in two species of soil-living Collembola, Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta. Treatments for F. candida were cadmium exposure, phenanthrene exposure, desiccation, heat shock and pH stress, and for O. cincta cadmium, desiccation, heat shock and starvation. Results Eight potential reference genes for F. candida and seven for O. cincta were ranked by their stability per stress factor using the programs geNorm and Normfinder. For F. candida the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA) and eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 1A (ETIF) genes were found the most stable over the different treatments, while for O. cincta, the beta actin (ACTb) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) genes were the most stable. Conclusion We present a panel of reference genes for two emerging ecological genomic model species tested under a variety of treatments. Within each species, different treatments resulted in differences in the top stable reference genes. Moreover, the two species differed in suitable reference genes even when exposed to similar stresses. This might be attributed to dissimilarity of physiology. It is vital to rigorously test a panel of reference genes for each species and treatment, in advance of relative quantification of QRT-PCR gene expression measurements. PMID:19486513

de Boer, Muriel E; de Boer, Tjalf E; Mariën, Janine; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Nota, Benjamin; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha; Roelofs, Dick

2009-01-01

157

Identification and Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR  

PubMed Central

This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1? (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and ?-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data presented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V.; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

2014-01-01

158

Identification and evaluation of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) by reverse transcription quantitative realtime PCR.  

PubMed

This study presents a reliable method for performing reverse transcription quantitative realtime PCR (RT-qPCR) to measure gene expression in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Asia I) (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), utilising suitable reference genes for data normalisation. We identified orthologs of commonly used reference genes (actin (ACT), cyclophilin 1 (CYP1), elongation factor 1? (EF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), and ?-tubulin (TUB1A)), measured the levels of their transcripts by RT-qPCR during development and in response to thermal stress, and evaluated their suitability as endogenous controls using geNorm, BestKeeper, and NormFinder programs. Overall, TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 were the most stable reference genes during B. tabaci development, and TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A were the most stable reference genes in the context of thermal stress. An analysis of the effects of reference gene choice on the transcript profile of a developmentally-regulated gene encoding vitellogenin demonstrated the importance of selecting the correct endogenous controls for RT-qPCR studies. We propose the use of TUB1A, RPL13A, and CYP1 as endogenous controls for transcript profiling studies of B. tabaci development, whereas the combination of TUB1A, GAPDH, and RPL13A should be employed for studies into thermal stress. The data pre- sented here will assist future transcript profiling studies in whiteflies. PMID:25373210

Collins, Carl; Patel, Mitulkumar V; Colvin, John; Bailey, David; Seal, Susan

2014-01-01

159

Reference Genes to Study Herbicide Stress Response in Lolium sp.: Up-Regulation of P450 Genes in Plants Resistant to Acetolactate-Synthase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Variation in the expression of numerous genes is at the basis of plant response to environmental stresses. Non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR), the major threat to grass weed chemical control, is governed by a subset of the genes involved in herbicide stress response. Quantitative PCR assays allowing reliable comparison of gene expression are thus key to identify genes governing NTSR. This work aimed at identifying a set of reference genes with a stable expression to be used as an internal standard for the normalisation of quantitative PCR data in studies investigating NTSR to herbicides inhibiting acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the major grass weed Lolium sp. Gene expression stability was assessed in plants resistant or sensitive to two ALS inhibitors, subjected or not to herbicide stress. Using three complementary approaches implemented in the programs BestKeeper, NormFinder and geNorm, cap-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase and ubiquitin were identified as the most suitable reference genes. This reference gene set can probably be used to study herbicide response in other weed species. It was used to compare the expression of the genes encoding two herbicide target enzymes (ALS and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase) and five cytochromes P450 (CYP) with potential herbicide-degrading activity between plants resistant or sensitive to ALS inhibitors. Overall, herbicide application enhanced CYP gene expression. Constitutive up-regulation of all CYP genes observed in resistant plants compared to sensitive plants suggested enhanced secondary metabolism in the resistant plants. Comprehensive transcriptome studies associated to gene expression analyses using the reference gene set validated here are required to unravel NTSR genetic determinants. PMID:23696834

Duhoux, Arnaud; Délye, Christophe

2013-01-01

160

Validation of a rice specific gene, sucrose phosphate synthase, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of transgenes.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crops, many countries have issued regulations to label the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derived products. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods are thought to be reliable and useful techniques for qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. These methods generally need to amplify the transgene and compare the amplified result with that of the corresponding reference gene to obtain reliable results. In this article, we reported the development of specific primers and probe for the rice (Oryza sativa) sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) gene and PCR cycling conditions suitable for the use of this sequence as an endogenous reference gene in both qualitative and quantitative PCR assays. Both methods were assayed with 13 different rice varieties, and identical amplification products were obtained with all of them. No amplification products were observed when DNA samples from other species, such as wheat, maize, barley, tobacco, soybean, rapeseed, tomato, sunflower, carrot, pepper, eggplant, lupine, mung bean, plum, and Arabidopsis thaliana, were used as templates, which demonstrated that this system was specific for rice. In addition, the results of the Southern blot analysis confirmed that the SPS gene was a single copy in the tested rice varieties. In qualitative and quantitative PCR analyses, the detection sensitivities were 0.05 and 0.005 ng of rice genomic DNA, respectively. To test the practical use of this SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene, we have also quantified the beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene in transgenic rice using this reference gene. These results indicated that the SPS gene was species specific, had one copy number, and had a low heterogeneity among the tested cultivars. Therefore, this gene could be used as an endogenous reference gene of rice and the optimized PCR systems could be used for practical qualitative and quantitative detection of transgenic rice. PMID:15161200

Ding, Jiayu; Jia, Junwei; Yang, Litao; Wen, Haibo; Zhang, Chengmei; Liu, Wenxuan; Zhang, Dabing

2004-06-01

161

Differential identification of Sporothrix spp. and Leishmania spp. by conventional PCR and qPCR in multiplex format.  

PubMed

Sporotrichosis and cutaneous leishmaniasis are skin infections with similar clinical manifestations but different treatment methods. The present study aimed to evaluate qPCR and conventional PCR for differential detection of the etiological agents of both infections in multiplex format. Assays were designed using two sets of reported primers: SS1/SS2, designed on the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from Sporothrix spp., and JW11/JW12, designed on the kinetoplast DNA (kDNA) minicircles of Leishmania spp. qPCR detected 200 fg of DNA per reaction for both Sporothrix and Leishmania. Melting curve analysis revealed two distinctive Tm peaks for Sporothrix spp. (85.5°C), and Leishmania spp. (82.6°C). A detection limit of 20 pg was determined for the diagnosis of both with conventional PCR. No other clinically important organisms were detected by either PCR or qPCR. However, a Blast analysis on GenBank databases, using as query the sequence of the PCR fragment obtained with primers SS1/SS2, showed 100% identity to environmental fungi of the Ophiostomales order. Lower percentages of identity (?80%), with mismatches at primers' sequence regions were obtained for other environmental or clinically important fungi. Proper handling of clinical samples is required to avoid false negatives due to contamination with environmental fungi of the Ophiostomales order. PMID:25526778

Rodríguez-Brito, Sabrina; Camacho, Emma; Mendoza, Mireya; Niño-Vega, Gustavo A

2015-01-01

162

MicroRNA expression profiling to identify and validate reference genes for relative quantification in colorectal cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Advances in high-throughput technologies and bioinformatics have transformed gene expression profiling methodologies. The results of microarray experiments are often validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), which is the most sensitive and reproducible method to quantify gene expression. Appropriate normalisation of RT-qPCR data using stably expressed reference genes is critical to ensure accurate and reliable results. Mi(cro)RNA expression profiles

Kah Hoong Chang; Pieter Mestdagh; Jo Vandesompele; Michael J Kerin; Nicola Miller

2010-01-01

163

Transcription of reference genes used for quantitative RT-PCR in Atlantic salmon is affected by viral infection.  

PubMed

Relative quantification using RT-qPCR is a widely used method for transcription profiling. Transcript levels of target genes in fish after experimental infection is often reported without documentation of stably transcribed reference genes. We present results demonstrating that transcription of typically used reference genes in Atlantic salmon is not stable during experimental infection with salmon pancreas disease virus (SPDV). Transcript levels 0 to 6 weeks after challenge revealed statistically significant changes between time-points that corresponded with a peak in viral load 3 weeks after challenge. The results emphasize the need for thorough method validation prior to transcriptional studies during viral infections. PMID:21314970

Løvoll, Marie; Austbø, Lars; Jørgensen, Jorunn B; Rimstad, Espen; Frost, Petter

2011-01-01

164

Reference genes for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction expression studies in wild and cultivated peanut  

PubMed Central

Background Wild peanut species (Arachis spp.) are a rich source of new alleles for peanut improvement. Plant transcriptome analysis under specific experimental conditions helps the understanding of cellular processes related, for instance, to development, stress response, and crop yield. The validation of these studies has been generally accomplished by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) which requires normalization of mRNA levels among samples. This can be achieved by comparing the expression ratio between a gene of interest and a reference gene which is constitutively expressed. Nowadays there is a lack of appropriate reference genes for both wild and cultivated Arachis. The identification of such genes would allow a consistent analysis of qRT-PCR data and speed up candidate gene validation in peanut. Results A set of ten reference genes were analyzed in four Arachis species (A. magna; A. duranensis; A. stenosperma and A. hypogaea) subjected to biotic (root-knot nematode and leaf spot fungus) and abiotic (drought) stresses, in two distinct plant organs (roots and leaves). By the use of three programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and taking into account the entire dataset, five of these ten genes, ACT1 (actin depolymerizing factor-like protein), UBI1 (polyubiquitin), GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), 60S (60S ribosomal protein L10) and UBI2 (ubiquitin/ribosomal protein S27a) emerged as top reference genes, with their stability varying in eight subsets. The former three genes were the most stable across all species, organs and treatments studied. Conclusions This first in-depth study of reference genes validation in wild Arachis species will allow the use of specific combinations of secure and stable reference genes in qRT-PCR assays. The use of these appropriate references characterized here should improve the accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in both wild and cultivated Arachis and contribute for the better understanding of gene expression in, for instance, stress tolerance/resistance mechanisms in plants. PMID:21906295

2011-01-01

165

Evaluation of reference genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis of gene expression in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).  

PubMed

Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has been used frequently to study gene expression related to fish immunology. In such studies, a stable reference gene should be selected to correct the expression of the target gene. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GADPH), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UBCE), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF1A), tubulin alpha chain-like (TUBA) and beta actin (ACTB)), were selected to analyze their stability and normalization in seven tissues (liver, spleen, kidney, brain, heart, muscle and intestine) of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) challenged with Streptococcus agalactiae or Streptococcus iniae, respectively. The results showed that all the candidate reference genes exhibited tissue-dependent transcriptional variations. With PBS injection as a control, UBCE was the most stable and suitable single reference gene in the intestine, liver, brain, kidney, and spleen after S. iniae infection, and in the liver, kidney, and spleen after S. agalactiae infection. EF1A was the most suitable in heart and muscle after S. iniae or S. agalactiae infection. GADPH was the most suitable gene in intestine and brain after S. agalactiae infection. In normal conditions, UBCE and 18S rRNA were the most stably expressed genes across the various tissues. These results showed that for RT-qPCR analysis of tilapia, selecting two or more reference genes may be more suitable for cross-tissue analysis of gene expression. PMID:23792389

Yang, Chang Geng; Wang, Xian Li; Tian, Juan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Fan; Jiang, Ming; Wen, Hua

2013-09-15

166

Selection and Evaluation of Potential Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Using Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR  

PubMed Central

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is one of the most important rice pests. Abundant genetic studies on BPH have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Using qRT-PCR, the expression levels of target genes are calculated on the basis of endogenous controls. These genes need to be appropriately selected by experimentally assessing whether they are stably expressed under different conditions. However, such studies on potential reference genes in N. lugens are lacking. In this paper, we presented a systematic exploration of eight candidate reference genes in N. lugens, namely, actin 1 (ACT), muscle actin (MACT), ribosomal protein S11 (RPS11), ribosomal protein S15e (RPS15), alpha 2-tubulin (TUB), elongation factor 1 delta (EF), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), and arginine kinase (AK) and used four alternative methods (BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, and the delta Ct method) to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. We examined their expression levels among different experimental factors (developmental stage, body part, geographic population, temperature variation, pesticide exposure, diet change, and starvation) following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guidelines. Based on the results of RefFinder, which integrates four currently available major software programs to compare and rank the tested candidate reference genes, RPS15, RPS11, and TUB were found to be the most suitable reference genes in different developmental stages, body parts, and geographic populations, respectively. RPS15 was the most suitable gene under different temperature and diet conditions, while RPS11 was the most suitable gene under different pesticide exposure and starvation conditions. This work sheds light on establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure in N. lugens, and serves as a starting point for screening for reference genes for expression studies of related insects. PMID:24466124

Zhu, Xun; Wan, Hu; Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhan, Sha; Jin, Byung-Rae; Li, Jianhong

2014-01-01

167

Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Real-time qRT-PCR Analysis of Zi Geese (Anser anser domestica) Gene Expression  

PubMed Central

Zi geese (Anser anser domestica) belong to the white geese and are excellent layers with a superior feed-to-egg conversion ratio. Quantitative gene expression analysis, such as Real-time qRT-PCR, will provide a good understanding of ovarian function during egg-laying and consequently improve egg production. However, we still don’t know what reference genes in geese, which show stable expression, should be used for such quantitative analysis. In order to reveal such reference genes, the stability of seven genes were tested in five tissues of Zi geese. Methodology/Principal Findings: The relative transcription levels of genes encoding hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase 1 (HPRT1), ?-actin (ACTB), ?-tubulin (TUB), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), succinate dehydrogenase flavoprotein (SDH), 28S rRNA (28S) and 18S rRNA (18S) have been quantified in heart, liver, kidney, muscle and ovary in Zi geese respectively at different developmental stages (1 d, 2, 4, 6 and 8 months). The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. Conclusions: The expression of 28S in heart, GAPDH in liver and ovary, ACTB in kidney and HPRT1 in muscle are the most stable genes as identified by the three different analysis methods. Thus, these genes are recommended for use as candidate reference genes to compare mRNA transcription in various developmental stages of geese. PMID:25049806

Ji, Hong; Wang, Jianfa; Liu, Juxiong; Guo, Jingru; Wang, Zhongwei; Zhang, Xu; Guo, Li; Yang, Huanmin

2013-01-01

168

Evaluation of reference genes for real-time RT-PCR expression studies in the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum  

PubMed Central

Background Real-time RT-PCR has become a powerful technique to monitor low-abundance mRNA expression and is a useful tool when examining bacterial gene expression inside infected host tissues. However, correct evaluation of data requires accurate and reliable normalisation against internal standards. Thus, the identification of reference genes whose expression does not change during the course of the experiment is of paramount importance. Here, we present a study where manipulation of cultural growth conditions and in planta experiments have been used to validate the expression stability of reference gene candidates for the plant pathogen Pectobacterium atrosepticum, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. Results Of twelve reference gene candidates tested, four proved to be stably expressed both in six different cultural growth conditions and in planta. Two of these genes (recA and ffh), encoding recombinase A and signal recognition particle protein, respectively, proved to be the most stable set of reference genes under the experimental conditions used. In addition, genes proC and gyrA, encoding pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and DNA gyrase, respectively, also displayed relatively stable mRNA expression levels. Conclusion Based on these results, we suggest recA and ffh as suitable candidates for accurate normalisation of real-time RT-PCR data for experiments investigating the plant pathogen P. atrosepticum and potentially other related pathogens. PMID:17888160

Takle, Gunnhild W; Toth, Ian K; Brurberg, May B

2007-01-01

169

Selection and Assessment of Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR Normalization in Migratory Locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)  

PubMed Central

Locusta migratoria is a classic hemimetamorphosis insect and has caused widespread economic damage to crops as a migratory pest. Researches on the expression pattern of functional genes in L. migratoria have drawn focus in recent years, especially with the release of genome information. Real-time quantitative PCR is the most reproducible and sensitive approach for detecting transcript expression levels of target genes, but optimal internal standards are key factors for its accuracy and reliability. Therefore, it's necessary to provide a systematic stability assessment of internal control for well-performed tests of target gene expression profile. In this study, twelve candidate genes (Ach, Act, Cht2, EF1?, RPL32, Hsp70, Tub, RP49, SDH, GAPDH, 18S, and His) were analyzed with four statistical methods: the delta Ct approach, geNorm, Bestkeeper and NormFinder. The results from these analyses aimed to choose the best suitable reference gene across different experimental situations for gene profile study in L. migratoria. The result demonstrated that for different developmental stages, EF1?, Hsp70 and RPL32 exhibited the most stable expression status for all samples; EF1? and RPL32 were selected as the best reference genes for studies involving embryo and larvae stages, while SDH and RP49 were identified for adult stage. The best-ranked reference genes across different tissues are RPL32, Hsp70 and RP49. For abiotic treatments, the most appropriate genes we identified were as follows: Act and SDH for larvae subjected to different insecticides; RPL32 and Ach for larvae exposed to different temperature treatments; and Act and Ach for larvae suffering from starvation. The present report should facilitate future researches on gene expression in L. migratoria with accessibly optimal reference genes under different experimental contexts. PMID:24887329

Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen; Cao, Jinjun; Zhang, Songdou; Zhang, Huaijiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Qingwen; Liu, Xiaoxia

2014-01-01

170

Screening Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization in Reverse Transcription Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Melon  

PubMed Central

Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses. PMID:24475250

Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

2014-01-01

171

Screening suitable reference genes for normalization in reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR analysis in melon.  

PubMed

Melon (Cucumis melo. L) is not only an economically important cucurbitaceous crop but also an attractive model for studying many biological characteristics. Screening appropriate reference genes is essential to reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), which is key to many studies involving gene expression analysis. In this study, 14 candidate reference genes were selected, and the variations in their expression in roots and leaves of plants subjected to biotic stress, abiotic stress, and plant growth regulator treatment were assessed by RT-qPCR. The stability of the expression of the selected genes was determined and ranked using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified the two most stable genes for each set of conditions: CmADP and CmUBIep across all samples, CmUBIep and CmRPL in roots, CmRAN and CmACT in leaves, CmADP and CmRPL under abiotic stress conditions, CmTUA and CmACT under biotic stress conditions, and CmRAN and CmACT under plant growth regulator treatments. NormFinder determined CmRPL to be the best reference gene in roots and under biotic stress conditions and CmADP under the other experimental conditions. CmUBC2 and CmPP2A were not found to be suitable under many experimental conditions. The catalase family genes CmCAT1, CmCAT2, and CmCAT3 were identified in melon genome and used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. The catalase family genes showed the most upregulation 3 days after inoculation with Fusarium wilt in roots, after which they were downregulated. Their levels of expression were significantly overestimated when the unsuitable reference gene was used for normalization. These results not only provide guidelines for the selection of reference genes for gene expression analyses in melons but may also provide valuable information for studying the functions of catalase family genes in stress responses. PMID:24475250

Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Niu, Penghui; Xie, Junjun; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

2014-01-01

172

Sequencing and validation of reference genes to analyze endogenous gene expression and quantify yellow dwarf viruses using RT-qPCR in viruliferous Rhopalosiphum padi.  

PubMed

The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi), an important pest of cereal crops, not only directly sucks sap from plants, but also transmits a number of plant viruses, collectively the yellow dwarf viruses (YDVs). For quantifying changes in gene expression in vector aphids, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a touchstone method, but the selection and validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) as reference genes to normalize the expression level of endogenous genes of the vector and for exogenous genes of the virus in the aphids is critical to obtaining valid results. Such an assessment has not been done, however, for R. padi and YDVs. Here, we tested three algorithms (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) to assess the suitability of candidate reference genes (EF-1?, ACT1, GAPDH, 18S rRNA) in 6 combinations of YDV and vector aphid morph. EF-1? and ACT1 together or in combination with GAPDH or with GAPDH and 18S rRNA could confidently be used to normalize virus titre and expression levels of endogenous genes in winged or wingless R. padi infected with Barley yellow dwarf virus isolates (BYDV)-PAV and BYDV-GAV. The use of only one reference gene, whether the most stably expressed (EF-1?) or the least stably expressed (18S rRNA), was not adequate for obtaining valid relative expression data from the RT-qPCR. Because of discrepancies among values for changes in relative expression obtained using 3 regions of the same gene, different regions of an endogenous aphid gene, including each terminus and the middle, should be analyzed at the same time with RT-qPCR. Our results highlight the necessity of choosing the best reference genes to obtain valid experimental data and provide several HKGs for relative quantification of virus titre in YDV-viruliferous aphids. PMID:24810421

Wu, Keke; Liu, Wenwen; Mar, Thithi; Liu, Yan; Wu, Yunfeng; Wang, Xifeng

2014-01-01

173

Evaluation of internal reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time PCR in ovine whole blood.  

PubMed

The use of reference genes is commonly accepted as the most reliable approach to normalize qRT-PCR and to reduce possible errors in the quantification of gene expression. The most suitable reference genes in sheep have been identified for a restricted range of tissues, but no specific data on whole blood are available. The aim of this study was to identify a set of reference genes for normalizing qRT-PCR from ovine whole blood. We designed 11 PCR assays for commonly employed reference genes belonging to various functional classes and then determined their expression stability in whole blood samples from control and disease-stressed sheep. SDHA and YWHAZ were considered the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed regardless of disease status according to both geNorm and NormFinder software; furthermore, geNorm indicated SDHA/HPRT, YWHAZ/GAPDH and SDHA/YWHAZ as the best reference gene combinations in control, disease-stressed and combined sheep groups, respectively. Our study provides a validated panel of optimal control genes which may be useful for the identification of genes differentially expressed by qRT-PCR in a readily accessible tissue, with potential for discovering new physiological and disease markers and as a tool to improve production traits (e.g., by identifying expression Quantitative Trait Loci). An additional outcome of the study is a set of intron-spanning primer sequences suitable for gene expression experiments employing SYBR Green chemistry on other ovine tissues and cells. PMID:22174628

Peletto, Simone; Bertuzzi, Simone; Campanella, Chiara; Modesto, Paola; Maniaci, Maria Grazia; Bellino, Claudio; Ariello, Dario; Quasso, Antonio; Caramelli, Maria; Acutis, Pier Luigi

2011-01-01

174

RefPrimeCouch—a reference gene primer CouchApp  

PubMed Central

To support a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction standardization project, a new reference gene database application was required. The new database application was built with the explicit goal of simplifying not only the development process but also making the user interface more responsive and intuitive. To this end, CouchDB was used as the backend with a lightweight dynamic user interface implemented client-side as a one-page web application. Data entry and curation processes were streamlined using an OpenRefine-based workflow. The new RefPrimeCouch database application provides its data online under an Open Database License. Database URL: http://hpclife.th-wildau.de:5984/rpc/_design/rpc/view.html PMID:24368831

Silbermann, Jascha; Wernicke, Catrin; Pospisil, Heike; Frohme, Marcus

2013-01-01

175

Validation of a cotton-specific gene, Sad1, used as an endogenous reference gene in qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR detection of transgenic cottons.  

PubMed

Genetically modified (GM) cotton lines have been approved for commercialization and widely cultivated in many countries, especially in China. As a step towards the development of reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR methods for detecting GM cottons, we report here the validation of the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) endogenous reference control gene, Sad1, using conventional and real-time (RT)-PCR methods. Both methods were tested on 15 different G. hirsutum cultivars, and identical amplicons were obtained with all of them. No amplicons were observed when DNA samples from three species of genus Gossypium, Arabidopsis thaliana, maize, and soybean and others were used as amplified templates, demonstrating that these two systems are specific for the identification and quantification of G. hirsutum. The results of Southern blot analysis also showed that the Sad1 gene was two copies in these 15 different G. hirsutum cultivars. Furthermore, one multiplex RT-quantitative PCR employing this gene as an endogenous reference gene was designed to quantify the Cry1A(c) gene modified from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) in the insect-resistant cottons, such as Mon531 and GK19. The quantification detection limit of the Cry1A(c) and Sad1 genes was as low as 10 pg of genomic DNA. These results indicate that the Sad1 gene can be used as an endogenous reference gene for both qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of GM cottons. PMID:15726375

Yang, Litao; Chen, Jianxiu; Huang, Cheng; Liu, Yuhui; Jia, Shirong; Pan, Liangwen; Zhang, Dabing

2005-06-01

176

Identification and Evaluation of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Tea Plant (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze)  

PubMed Central

Reliable reference selection for the accurate quantification of gene expression under various experimental conditions is a crucial step in qRT-PCR normalization. To date, only a few housekeeping genes have been identified and used as reference genes in tea plant. The validity of those reference genes are not clear since their expression stabilities have not been rigorously examined. To identify more appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies on tea plant, we examined the expression stability of 11 candidate reference genes from three different sources: the orthologs of Arabidopsis traditional reference genes and stably expressed genes identified from whole-genome GeneChip studies, together with three housekeeping gene commonly used in tea plant research. We evaluated the transcript levels of these genes in 94 experimental samples. The expression stabilities of these 11 genes were ranked using four different computation programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ?CT method. Results showed that the three commonly used housekeeping genes of CsTUBULIN1, CsACINT1 and Cs18S rRNA1 together with CsUBQ1 were the most unstable genes in all sample ranking order. However, CsPTB1, CsEF1, CsSAND1, CsCLATHRIN1 and CsUBC1 were the top five appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in complex experimental conditions. PMID:25474086

Hao, Xinyuan; Horvath, David P.; Chao, Wun S.; Yang, Yajun; Wang, Xinchao; Xiao, Bin

2014-01-01

177

Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Oil Palm Elite Planting Materials Propagated by Tissue Culture  

PubMed Central

Background The somatic embryogenesis tissue culture process has been utilized to propagate high yielding oil palm. Due to the low callogenesis and embryogenesis rates, molecular studies were initiated to identify genes regulating the process, and their expression levels are usually quantified using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). With the recent release of oil palm genome sequences, it is crucial to establish a proper strategy for gene analysis using RT-qPCR. Selection of the most suitable reference genes should be performed for accurate quantification of gene expression levels. Results In this study, eight candidate reference genes selected from cDNA microarray study and literature review were evaluated comprehensively across 26 tissue culture samples using RT-qPCR. These samples were collected from two tissue culture lines and media treatments, which consisted of leaf explants cultures, callus and embryoids from consecutive developmental stages. Three statistical algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) confirmed that the expression stability of novel reference genes (pOP-EA01332, PD00380 and PD00569) outperformed classical housekeeping genes (GAPDH, NAD5, TUBULIN, UBIQUITIN and ACTIN). PD00380 and PD00569 were identified as the most stably expressed genes in total samples, MA2 and MA8 tissue culture lines. Their applicability to validate the expression profiles of a putative ethylene-responsive transcription factor 3-like gene demonstrated the importance of using the geometric mean of two genes for normalization. Conclusions Systematic selection of the most stably expressed reference genes for RT-qPCR was established in oil palm tissue culture samples. PD00380 and PD00569 were selected for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression data from RT-qPCR. These data will be valuable to the research associated with the tissue culture process. Also, the method described here will facilitate the selection of appropriate reference genes in other oil palm tissues and in the expression profiling of genes relating to yield, biotic and abiotic stresses. PMID:24927412

Chan, Pek-Lan; Rose, Ray J.; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Zainal, Zamri; Leslie Low, Eng-Ti; Ooi, Leslie Cheng-Li; Ooi, Siew-Eng; Yahya, Suzaini; Singh, Rajinder

2014-01-01

178

Reference gene selection in Carnobacterium maltaromaticum, Lactobacillus curvatus, and Listeria innocua subjected to temperature and salt stress.  

PubMed

Eight putative consistently expressed genes in Carnobacterium maltaromaticum and Lactobacillus curvatus, and nine in Listeria innocua, were examined for their potential as references for the normalization of gene expression. Expression stability of candidate reference genes was evaluated under growth conditions of low (5 °C) and moderately high (40-42.5 °C) temperatures, and high salt (?3 % NaCl) using the geNormplus and NormFinder algorithms. Under temperature stress, both algorithms ranked elongation factor Tu (Tuf) as the most stably expressed gene in C. maltaromaticum. In L. curvatus, at similar conditions, geNormplus identified Tuf and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGDH) as suitable for normalization, while NormFinder identified phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase and recombinase A as the best pair. In L. innocua grown under the same temperatures, geNormplus ranked 6PGDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and Tuf as the top three most stable references, whereas NormFinder identified GAPDH and 6PGDH as suitable for normalization, with Tuf ranked as number six. There was less consistency between algorithms in the salt stress experiment. No gene was identified that exhibited such a constant level of expression as to outperform the other candidates under both experimental conditions. This study underlines the need for normalizing bacterial gene expression using multiple carefully selected references. PMID:24037409

Løvdal, Trond; Saha, Aparna

2014-03-01

179

De-regulation of common housekeeping genes in hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background Tumorigenesis is associated with changes in gene expression and involves many pathways. Dysregulated genes include "housekeeping" genes that are often used for normalization for quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), which may lead to unreliable results. This study assessed eight stages of hepatitis C virus (HCV) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to search for appropriate genes for normalization. Results Gene expression profiles using microarrays revealed differential expression of most "housekeeping" genes during the course of HCV-HCC, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and beta-actin (ACTB), genes frequently used for normalization. QPCR reactions confirmed the regulation of these genes. Using them for normalization had strong effects on the extent of differential expressed genes, leading to misinterpretation of the results. Conclusion As shown here in the case of HCV-induced HCC, the most constantly expressed gene is the arginine/serine-rich splicing factor 4 (SFRS4). The utilization of at least two genes for normalization is robust and advantageous, because they can compensate for slight differences of their expression when not co-regulated. The combination of ribosomal protein large 41 (RPL41) and SFRS4 used for normalization led to very similar results as SFRS4 alone and is a very good choice for reference in this disease as shown on four differentially expressed genes. PMID:17640361

Waxman, Samuel; Wurmbach, Elisa

2007-01-01

180

Seasonal Dynamics of Microcystis spp. and Their Toxigenicity as Assessed by qPCR in a Temperate Reservoir  

PubMed Central

Blooms of toxic cyanobacteria are becoming increasingly frequent, mainly due to water quality degradation. This work applied qPCR as a tool for early warning of microcystin(MC)-producer cyanobacteria and risk assessment of water supplies. Specific marker genes for cyanobacteria, Microcystis and MC-producing Microcystis, were quantified to determine the genotypic composition of the natural Microcystis population. Correlations between limnological parameters, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen and conductivity and MC concentrations as well as Microcystis abundance were assessed. A negative significant correlation was observed between toxic (with mcy genes) to non-toxic (without mcy genes) genotypes ratio and the overall Microcystis density. The highest proportions of toxic Microcystis genotypes were found 4–6 weeks before and 8–10 weeks after the peak of the bloom, with the lowest being observed at its peak. These results suggest positive selection of non-toxic genotypes under favorable environmental growth conditions. Significant positive correlations could be found between quantity of toxic genotypes and MC concentration, suggesting that the method applied can be useful to predict potential MC toxicity risk. No significant correlation was found between the limnological parameters measured and MC concentrations or toxic genotypes proportions indicating that other abiotic and biotic factors should be governing MC production and toxic genotypes dynamics. The qPCR method here applied is useful to rapidly estimate the potential toxicity of environmental samples and so, it may contribute to the more efficient management of water use in eutrophic systems. PMID:22072994

Martins, António; Moreira, Cristiana; Vale, Micaela; Freitas, Marisa; Regueiras, Ana; Antunes, Agostinho; Vasconcelos, Vitor

2011-01-01

181

Genome-wide identification of housekeeping genes in maize.  

PubMed

In the wake of recent progress of high throughput transcriptome profiling technologies, extensive housekeeping gene mining has been conducted in humans. However, very few studies have been reported in maize (Zea mays L.), an important crop plant, and none were conducted on a genome -wide level. In this study, we surveyed housekeeping genes throughout the maize transcriptome using RNA-seq and microarray techniques, and validated the housekeeping profile with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) under a series of conditions including different genotypes and nitrogen supplies. Seven microarray datasets and two RNA-seq libraries representing 40 genotypes at more than 20 developmental stages were selected to screen for commonly expressed genes. A total of 1,661 genes showed constitutive expression in both microarray and RNA-seq datasets, serving as our starting housekeeping gene candidates. To determine for stably expressed housekeeping genes, NormFinder was used to select the top 20 % invariable genes to be the more likely candidates, which resulted in 48 and 489 entries from microarray and RNA-seq data, respectively. Among them, nine genes (2OG-Fe, CDK, DPP9, DUF, NAC, RPN, SGT1, UPF1 and a hypothetical protein coding gene) were expressed in all 40 maize diverse genotypes tested covering 16 tissues at more than 20 developmental stages under normal and stress conditions, implying these as being the most reliable reference genes. qPCR analysis confirmed the stable expression of selected reference gene candidates compared to two widely used housekeeping genes. All the reference gene candidates showed higher invariability than ACT and GAPDH. The hypothetical protein coding gene exhibited the most stable expression across 26 maize lines with different nitrogen treatments with qPCR, followed by CDK encoding the cyclin-dependent kinase. As the first study to systematically screen for housekeeping genes in maize, we identified candidates by examining the transcriptome atlas generated from RNA-seq and microarray technologies. The nine top-ranked qPCR-validated novel housekeeping genes provide a valuable resource of reference genes for maize gene expression analysis. PMID:25209110

Lin, Feng; Jiang, Lu; Liu, Yuhe; Lv, Yuanda; Dai, Huixue; Zhao, Han

2014-11-01

182

Conceptual framework and pilot study to benchmark phylogenomic databases based on reference gene trees  

PubMed Central

Phylogenomic databases provide orthology predictions for species with fully sequenced genomes. Although the goal seems well-defined, the content of these databases differs greatly. Seven ortholog databases (Ensembl Compara, eggNOG, HOGENOM, InParanoid, OMA, OrthoDB, Panther) were compared on the basis of reference trees. For three well-conserved protein families, we observed a generally high specificity of orthology assignments for these databases. We show that differences in the completeness of predicted gene relationships and in the phylogenetic information are, for the great majority, not due to the methods used, but to differences in the underlying database concepts. According to our metrics, none of the databases provides a fully correct and comprehensive protein classification. Our results provide a framework for meaningful and systematic comparisons of phylogenomic databases. In the future, a sustainable set of ‘Gold standard’ phylogenetic trees could provide a robust method for phylogenomic databases to assess their current quality status, measure changes following new database releases and diagnose improvements subsequent to an upgrade of the analysis procedure. PMID:21737420

Robinson-Rechavi, Marc; Xenarios, Ioannis; Dessimoz, Christophe

2011-01-01

183

On the Limitations of Using Ribosomal Genes as References for the Study of Codon Usage: A Rebuttal  

E-print Network

On the Limitations of Using Ribosomal Genes as References for the Study of Codon Usage: A Rebuttal our finding that the identity of optimal codons in different genomes follows a set of clear rules Genetics paper stand. This provides us with an opportunity to bring up an aspect of how codon usage has

Petrov, Dmitri

184

Identification of Valid Reference Genes for the Normalization of RT-qPCR Expression Studies in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines Treated with and without Transient Transfection  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfection, we identified appropriate and reliable reference genes from thirteen candidates in a panel of 10 normal and cancerous human breast cell lines under experimental conditions with/without transfection treatments with two transfection reagents. Reference gene expression stability was calculated using four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct), and the recommended comprehensive ranking was provided using geometric means of the ranking values using the RefFinder tool. GeNorm analysis revealed that two reference genes should be sufficient for all cases in this study. A stability analysis suggests that 18S rRNA-ACTB is the best reference gene combination across all cell lines; ACTB-GAPDH is best for basal breast cancer cell lines; and HSPCB-ACTB is best for ER+ breast cancer cells. After transfection, the stability ranking of the reference gene fluctuated, especially with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent in two subtypes of basal and ER+ breast cell lines. Comparisons of relative target gene (HER2) expression revealed different expressional patterns depending on the reference genes used for normalization. We suggest that identifying the most stable and suitable reference genes is critical for studying specific cell lines under certain circumstances. PMID:25617865

Ma, Teng-Fei; Ge, Fei; Chen, Ce-Shi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

2015-01-01

185

Selection of endogenous reference microRNA genes for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies of boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.  

PubMed

It is important to select high-quality reference genes for the accurate interpretation of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data, in particular for certain miRNAs that may demonstrate unstable expression. Although several studies have attempted to validate reference miRNA genes in the porcine testis, spermatozoa, and other tissues, no validation studies have been carried out on cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. In this study, 15 commonly used reference miRNA genes (5S, let-7c-5p, ssc-miR-16-5p, ssc-miR-17-5p, ssc-miR-20a, ssc-miR-23a, ssc-miR-24-3p, ssc-miR-26a, ssc-miR-27a-3p, ssc-miR-92a, ssc-miR-103-3p, ssc-miR-106a, ssc-miR-107-3p, ssc-miR-186, and ssc-miR-221-3p) were selected to evaluate the expression stability of target miRNAs in boar spermatozoa under different experimental conditions and concentrations. The stability of the expression of these reference miRNAs across each sample was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. The results showed that ssc-miR-186 (mean rank value = 5.00), ssc-miR-23a (5.33), and ssc-miR-27a (5.33) were the most suitable reference genes using three different statistical algorithms and comprehensive ranking. The identification of these reference miRNAs will allow for more accurate quantification of the changes in miRNA expression during cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa. PMID:25464866

Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Chang-Jun; He, Lian; Ding, Li; Tang, Ke-Yi; Peng, Wen-Pei

2015-03-01

186

Molecular cloning, expression and polymorphism of the porcine apolipoprotein A5 gene in a Jinhua × Pietrain F2 reference population.  

PubMed

As a newly described member of the apolipoprotein gene family, apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) has been suggested to play a key role in the triglyceride metabolism in both human and mice. The aim of this study was to identify the porcine (Sus scrofa) APOA5 gene, determine its mRNA and its mutations that are associated with lipid accumulation. The porcine APOA5 cDNA was amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using the information of the mouse or other mammals. It had been determined that the open reading frame of the porcine APOA5 gene consists of 1092 bp, which encodes a predicted protein composed of 363 amino acids with a similarity to bovine (80.43%) and to human (78.47%). The expression analysis indicated that the porcine APOA5 gene was expressed in hypophysis, fat and liver. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including 4 SNPs in the 5' end, 1 SNP in second intron, 1 SNP in third exon and 6 SNPs in the 3' end, were identified in the porcine APOA5 gene and genotyped on the Jinhua × Pietrain F2 reference population, it had revealed that the SNP of C1834T was significantly associated with average backfat thickness and leaf fat weight (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, this study has got basic information of the porcine APOA5 gene and provides evidence that the APOA5 gene could be a potential candidate gene for fat deposition. PMID:22444039

Zhang, L F; Jiang, X L; Hua, X C; Lu, Y P; Xu, N Y

2010-04-01

187

NEW TARGET AND CONTROL ASSAYS FOR QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS OF ENTEROCOCCI IN WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Enterococci are frequently monitored in water samples as indicators of fecal pollution. Attention is now shifting from culture based methods for enumerating these organisms to more rapid molecular methods such as QPCR. Accurate quantitative analyses by this method requires highly...

188

ITS1 Copy Number Varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Strains: Implications for qPCR Estimates of  

E-print Network

ITS1 Copy Number Varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Strains: Implications for q-killing fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, [Bd]) identified three highly divergent genetic lineages, only) ITS1 Copy Number Varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Strains: Implications for qPCR Estimates

Zamudio, Kelly R.

189

Proteomic and targeted qPCR analyses of subsurface microbial communities for presence of methane monooxygenase  

SciTech Connect

The Test Area North (TAN) site at the Idaho National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, ID, USA, sits over a trichloroethylene (TCE) contaminant plume in the Snake River Plain fractured basalt aquifer. Past observations have provided evidence that TCE at TAN is being transformed by biological natural attenuation that may be primarily due to co-metabolism in aerobic portions of the plume by methanotrophs. TCE co-metabolism by methanotrophs is the result of the broad substrate specificity of microbial methane monooxygenase which permits non-specific oxidation of TCE in addition to the primary substrate, methane. Arrays of experimental approaches have been utilized to understand the biogeochemical processes driving intrinsic TCE co-metabolism at TAN. In this study, aerobic methanotrophs were enumerated by qPCR using primers targeting conserved regions of the genes pmoA and mmoX encoding subunits of the particulate MMO (pMMO) and soluble MMO (sMMO) enzymes, respectively, as well as the gene mxa encoding the downstream enzyme methanol dehydrogenase. Identification of proteins in planktonic and biofilm samples from TAN was determined using reverse phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with a quadrupole-time-of-flight (QToF) mass spectrometer to separate and sequence peptides from trypsin digests of the protein extracts. Detection of MMO in unenriched water samples from TAN provides direct evidence of intrinsic methane oxidation and TCE co-metabolic potential of the indigenous microbial population. Mass spectrometry is also well suited for distinguishing which form of MMO is expressed in situ either soluble or particulate. Using this method, pMMO proteins were found to be abundant in samples collected from wells within and adjacent to the TCE plume at TAN.

Andrzej J. Paszczynski; Ravindra Paidisetti; Andrew K. Johnson; Ronald L. Crawford; Frederick S. Colwell; Tonia Green; Mark Delwiche; Hope Lee; Deborah Newby; Eoin L. Brodie; Mark Conrad

2011-11-01

190

Wheat-specific gene, ribosomal protein l21, used as the endogenous reference gene for qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of transgenes.  

PubMed

Wheat-specific ribosomal protein L21 (RPL21) is an endogenous reference gene suitable for genetically modified (GM) wheat identification. This taxon-specific RPL21 sequence displayed high homogeneity in different wheat varieties. Southern blots revealed 1 or 3 copies, and sequence analyses showed one amplicon in common wheat. Combined analyses with sequences from common wheat (AABBDD) and three diploid ancestral species, Triticum urartu (AA), Aegilops speltoides (BB), and Aegilops tauschii (DD), demonstrated the presence of this amplicon in the AA genome. Using conventional qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the limit of detection was 2 copies of wheat haploid genome per reaction. In the quantitative real-time PCR assay, limits of detection and quantification were about 2 and 8 haploid genome copies, respectively, the latter of which is 2.5-4-fold lower than other reported wheat endogenous reference genes. Construct-specific PCR assays were developed using RPL21 as an endogenous reference gene, and as little as 0.5% of GM wheat contents containing Arabidopsis NPR1 were properly quantified. PMID:25325387

Liu, Yi-Ke; Li, He-Ping; Huang, Tao; Cheng, Wei; Gao, Chun-Sheng; Zuo, Dong-Yun; Zhao, Zheng-Xi; Liao, Yu-Cai

2014-10-29

191

De novo characterization of the gene-rich transcriptomes of two color-polymorphic spiders, Theridion grallator and T. californicum (Araneae: Theridiidae), with special reference to pigment genes  

PubMed Central

Background A number of spider species within the family Theridiidae exhibit a dramatic abdominal (opisthosomal) color polymorphism. The polymorphism is inherited in a broadly Mendelian fashion and in some species consists of dozens of discrete morphs that are convergent across taxa and populations. Few genomic resources exist for spiders. Here, as a first necessary step towards identifying the genetic basis for this trait we present the near complete transcriptomes of two species: the Hawaiian happy-face spider Theridion grallator and Theridion californicum. We mined the gene complement for pigment-pathway genes and examined differential expression (DE) between morphs that are unpatterned (plain yellow) and patterned (yellow with superimposed patches of red, white or very dark brown). Results By deep sequencing both RNA-seq and normalized cDNA libraries from pooled specimens of each species we were able to assemble a comprehensive gene set for both species that we estimate to be 98-99% complete. It is likely that these species express more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, perhaps 4.5% (ca. 870) of which might be unique to spiders. Mining for pigment-associated Drosophila melanogaster genes indicated the presence of all ommochrome pathway genes and most pteridine pathway genes and DE analyses further indicate a possible role for the pteridine pathway in theridiid color patterning. Conclusions Based upon our estimates, T. grallator and T. californicum express a large inventory of protein-coding genes. Our comprehensive assembly illustrates the continuing value of sequencing normalized cDNA libraries in addition to RNA-seq in order to generate a reference transcriptome for non-model species. The identification of pteridine-related genes and their possible involvement in color patterning is a novel finding in spiders and one that suggests a biochemical link between guanine deposits and the pigments exhibited by these species. PMID:24314324

2013-01-01

192

Analysis of natural and induced variation in tomato glandular trichome flavonoids identifies a gene not present in the reference genome.  

PubMed

Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3'/5' myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3' or 3'/5' O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3' O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3' O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3'-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3'-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L

2014-08-01

193

Rapid identification of gene sequences for transcriptional map assembly by direct cDNA screening of genomic reference libraries.  

PubMed

We have used the direct cDNA screening protocol to identify sequences transcribed in cerebral cortex from a reference library of human Xq28. To derive coding sequences from these genomic clones, we first identified fragments containing transcribed sequences and subjected these to exon trapping or to partial sequencing and analysis by Grail. In a preliminary analysis of three clones, coding sequences from two novel genes expressed in brain were identified. This method allows the rapid identification of coding sequences of genes expressed in specific tissues without recourse to cDNA libraries. The approach is amenable to large scale applications and should be useful for isolating candidate disease genes and in particular for assembling integrated transcriptional maps from large genomic regions. PMID:7874120

Lawrence, B J; Schwabe, W; Kioschis, P; Coy, J F; Poustka, A; Brennan, M B; Hochgeschwender, U

1994-11-01

194

Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in chicken embryo fibroblasts infected with avian leukosis virus subgroup J  

PubMed Central

Background The selection of stably expressed reference genes is a prerequisite when evaluating gene expression, via real-time PCR, in cells in response to viral infections. The objective of our study was to identify suitable reference genes for mRNA expression analysis in chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEF) after infection with avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J). Findings The expression levels of 11 potential reference genes in CEF infected with ALV-J were determined by real-time PCR. The expression stability of these genes were analyzed and ranked using the geNorm tool. Analysis indicated that the genes RPL30 (ribosomal protein L30) and SDHA (succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A) were the most stably expressed genes in the ALV-J infected CEF. Conclusions The RPL30 and SDHA were deemed suitable for use as reference genes for real-time PCR analysis of mRNA gene expression during ALV-J infection, whereas commonly used ACTB and GAPDH are unsuitable to be reference genes. PMID:24099561

2013-01-01

195

Validation of endogenous reference genes for RT-qPCR normalisation in bovine lymphoid cells (BL-3) infected with Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV).  

PubMed

Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive tool that can be used for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis; however, careful normalisation to a set of stably expressed endogenous reference genes is essential. Expression levels of many reference genes in RT-qPCR analyses can be extremely variable under different experimental conditions, producing potentially erroneous results (Bustin, 2002). This limitation can be overcome with a systematic evaluation of candidate reference genes to determine the most stable. In the present study eight candidate reference genes were evaluated in a bovine lymphoid (BL-3) cell culture system over seven different time points in response to three different Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) strains. Data were analysed using BestKeeper (Pfaffl et al., 2004), geNorm (Vandesompele et al., 2002), and NormFinder (Andersen et al., 2004) validation programs and results enable the candidate reference genes to be ranked from most to least stable. Quantification cycle (C(q)) variability was determined between samples, i.e. between treatment groups and time points, and variability was also observed between the three validation programs. The reference gene combination of beta-actin and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) was found to be the most stable in Norm Finder. BestKeeper and geNorm both demonstrated beta-microglobulin and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) as the most stable. The determination of a stable set of reference genes in the BL-3 cell culture system facilitates analysis of expression levels for appropriate genes of interest. This study further emphasises the need to accurately validate candidate reference genes before use in gene expression RT-qPCR studies. PMID:20580438

Anstaett, Olivia L; Brownlie, Joe; Collins, Margaret E; Thomas, Carole J

2010-10-15

196

RPL13A as a reference gene for normalizing mRNA transcription of ovarian cancer cells with paclitaxel and 10-hydroxycamptothecin treatments.  

PubMed

Gene transcription analysis is important in cancer research, and reverse transcription?quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT?qPCR) has been demonstrated to be an effective method to evaluate gene transcription in cancer. RT?qPCR requires an internal reference gene with a consistent level of mRNA transcription across various experimental conditions. However, it has been suggested that different treatments, including anticancer therapy, may influence the transcriptional stability of internal reference genes. Paclitaxel (PTX) and 10?hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) are widely used to treat various types of cancer, and a suitable internal reference gene is required in order to analyze the transcription profiles of the cells following treatment. In the current study, the transcriptional stability of 30 candidate reference genes was investigated in cancer cells following treatment with PTX and HCPT. The two ovarian cancer cell lines, UACC?1598 and SKOV3, were treated with PTX and HCPT for 24 and 48 h, and the transcriptional levels of the candidate reference genes were subsequently evaluated by RT?qPCR analysis. The transcriptional stability of the selected genes was then analyzed using qbase+ and NormFinder software. A total of 9 genes were demonstrated to exhibit high transcriptional stability and one of these genes, ribosomal protein L13a (RPL13A), was identified to exhibit high transcriptional stability in every group. The current study identified various reference genes suitable under different circumstances, while RPL13A was indicated to be the most suitable reference gene for analyzing the transcription profile of ovarian cancer cells following treatment with PTX and HCPT. PMID:25523336

Bian, Zehua; Yu, Yang; Quan, Chao; Guan, Rongwei; Jin, Yan; Wu, Jie; Xu, Lidan; Chen, Feng; Bai, Jing; Sun, Wenjing; Fu, Songbin

2015-04-01

197

The feline oral microbiome: A provisional 16S rRNA gene based taxonomy with full-length reference sequences.  

PubMed

The human oral microbiome is known to play a significant role in human health and disease. While less well studied, the feline oral microbiome is thought to play a similarly important role. To determine roles oral bacteria play in health and disease, one first has to be able to accurately identify bacterial species present. 16S rRNA gene sequence information is widely used for molecular identification of bacteria and is also useful for establishing the taxonomy of novel species. The objective of this research was to obtain full 16S rRNA gene reference sequences for feline oral bacteria, place the sequences in species-level phylotypes, and create a curated 16S rRNA based taxonomy for common feline oral bacteria. Clone libraries were produced using "universal" and phylum-selective PCR primers and DNA from pooled subgingival plaque from healthy and periodontally diseased cats. Bacteria in subgingival samples were also cultivated to obtain isolates. Full-length 16S rDNA sequences were determined for clones and isolates that represent 171 feline oral taxa. A provisional curated taxonomy was developed based on the position of each taxon in 16S rRNA phylogenetic trees. The feline oral microbiome curated taxonomy and 16S rRNA gene reference set will allow investigators to refer to precisely defined bacterial taxa. A provisional name such as "Propionibacterium sp. feline oral taxon FOT-327" is an anchor to which clone, strain or GenBank names or accession numbers can point. Future next-generation-sequencing studies of feline oral bacteria will be able to map reads to taxonomically curated full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:25523504

Dewhirst, Floyd E; Klein, Erin A; Bennett, Marie-Louise; Croft, Julie M; Harris, Stephen J; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V

2015-02-25

198

Characterizing differential gene expression in polyploid grasses lacking a reference transcriptome  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Basal transcriptome characterization and differential gene expression in response to varying conditions are often addressed through next generation sequencing (NGS) and data analysis techniques. While these strategies are commonly used, there are countless tools, pipelines, data analysis methods an...

199

Validation of reference gene stability for APAP hepatotoxicity studies in different in vitro systems and identification of novel potential toxicity biomarkers.  

PubMed

Liver cell lines and primary hepatocytes are becoming increasingly valuable for in vitro toxicogenomic studies, with RT-qPCR enabling the analysis of gene expression profiles following exposure to potential hepatotoxicants. Supporting the accurate normalisation of RT-qPCR data requires the identification of reference genes which have stable expression during in vitro toxicology studies. Therefore, we performed a comprehensive analysis of reference gene stability in two routinely used cell types, (HepG2 cells and primary rat hepatocytes), and two in vitro culture systems, (2D monolayer and 3D scaffolds). A robust reference gene validation strategy was performed, consisting of geNorm analysis, to test for pair wise variation in gene expression, and statistical analysis using analysis of variance. This strategy identified stable reference genes with respect to acetaminophen treatment and time in HepG2 cells (GAPDH and PPIA), and with respect to acetaminophen treatment and culture condition in primary hepatocytes (18S rRNA and ?-tubulin). Following the selection of reference genes, the novel target genes E2F7 and IL-11RA were identified as potential toxicity biomarkers for acetaminophen treatment. We conclude that accurate quantification of gene expression requires the use of a validated normalisation strategy for each species and experimental system employed. PMID:20732408

Fox, Bridget C; Devonshire, Alison S; Schutte, Maaike E; Foy, Carole A; Minguez, Jesus; Przyborski, Stefan; Maltman, Daniel; Bokhari, Maria; Marshall, Damian

2010-10-01

200

Assessing Reference Genes for Accurate Transcript Normalization Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Pearl Millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.  

PubMed Central

Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.], a close relative of Panicoideae food crops and bioenergy grasses, offers an ideal system to perform functional genomics studies related to C4 photosynthesis and abiotic stress tolerance. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) provides a sensitive platform to conduct such gene expression analyses. However, the lack of suitable internal control reference genes for accurate transcript normalization during qRT-PCR analysis in pearl millet is the major limitation. Here, we conducted a comprehensive assessment of 18 reference genes on 234 samples which included an array of different developmental tissues, hormone treatments and abiotic stress conditions from three genotypes to determine appropriate reference genes for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Analyses of Ct values using Stability Index, BestKeeper, ?Ct, Normfinder, geNorm and RefFinder programs ranked PP2A, TIP41, UBC2, UBQ5 and ACT as the most reliable reference genes for accurate transcript normalization under different experimental conditions. Furthermore, we validated the specificity of these genes for precise quantification of relative gene expression and provided evidence that a combination of the best reference genes are required to obtain optimal expression patterns for both endogeneous genes as well as transgenes in pearl millet. PMID:25170776

Saha, Prasenjit; Blumwald, Eduardo

2014-01-01

201

A critique of widely used normalization software tools and an alternative method to identify reliable reference genes in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.).  

PubMed

Determination of appropriate reference genes is crucial to normalization of gene expression data and prevention of biased results in qRT-PCR studies. This study is the first attempt to systematically compare potential reference genes to detect the most constitutively expressed reference genes for accurate normalization in red clover tissues including leaves, stems and roots. To identify the best-suited reference gene(s) for normalization, several statistical algorithms such as geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder have been developed. All these algorithms are based on the key assumption that none of the investigated candidate reference genes show systematic variation in their expression profile across the samples being considered. However, this assumption is likely to be violated in practice. The authors therefore suggest a simple and novel stability index based on the analysis of variance model which is free from the assumption made by the algorithms. We assessed the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes including actin (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GADPH), elongation factor-1alpha (EF-1?), translation initiation factor (EIF-4a), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC2), polyubiquitin (UBQ10), sand family protein (SAND) and yellow-leaf-specific protein 8 (YLS8). Our results indicated that UBC2 and UBQ10 ranked as the two most stably expressed genes in leaf tissue. UBC2 and YLS8 were defined as optimal control genes for stem tissue. EIF-4a and UBC2 were found to be the most stable reference gene for root tissue. GAPDH and SAND showed relatively low stability in expression study of red clover. When all tested tissues were considered, we observed that YLS8 and UBC2 showed remarkable stability in their expression level across tissues. PMID:22718310

Mehdi Khanlou, Khosro; Van Bockstaele, Erik

2012-11-01

202

Genetics of coronary heart disease with reference to ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene region  

PubMed Central

Cardiovascular diseases are affected by multiple factors like genetic as well as environmental hence they reveal factorial nature. The evidences that genetic factors are susceptible for developing cardiovascular diseases come from twin studies and familial aggregation. Different ethnic populations reveal differences in the prevalence coronary artery disease (CAD) pointing towards the genetic susceptibility. With progression in molecular techniques different developments have been made to comprehend the disease physiology. Molecular markers have also assisted to recognize genes that may provide evidences to evaluate the role of genetic factors in causation of susceptibility towards CAD. Numerous studies suggest the contribution of specific “candidate genes”, which correlate with various roles/pathways that are involved in the coronary heart disease. Different studies have revealed that there are large numbers of genes which are involved towards the predisposition of CAD. However, these reports are not consistent. One of the reasons could be weak contribution of genetic susceptibility of these genes. Genome wide associations show different chromosomal locations which dock, earlier unknown, genes which may attribute to CAD. In the present review different ApoAI-CIII-AIV gene clusters have been discussed. PMID:25228954

Agrawal, Suraksha; Mastana, Sarabjit

2014-01-01

203

Model of gene expression in extreme cold - reference transcriptome for the high-Antarctic cryopelagic notothenioid fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki  

PubMed Central

Background Among the cold-adapted Antarctic notothenioid fishes, the high-latitude bald notothen Pagothenia borchgrevinki is particularly notable as the sole cryopelagic species, exploiting the coldest and iciest waters of the Southern Ocean. Because P. borchgrevinki is a frequent model for investigating notothenioid cold-adaptation and specialization, it is imperative that “omic” tools be developed for this species. In the absence of a sequenced genome, a well annotated reference transcriptome of the bald notothen will serve as a model of gene expression in the coldest and harshest of all polar marine environments, useful for future comparative studies of cold adaptation and thermal responses in polar teleosts and ectotherms. Results We sequenced and annotated a reference transcriptome for P. borchgrevinki, with added attention to capturing the transcriptional responses to acute and chronic heat exposures. We sequenced by Roche 454 a normalized cDNA library constructed from pooled mRNA encompassing multiple tissues taken from environmental, warm acclimating, and acute heat stressed specimens. The resulting reads were assembled into 42,620 contigs, 17,951 of which could be annotated. We utilized this annotated portion of the reference transcriptome to map short Illumina reads sequenced from the gill and liver of environmental specimens, and also compared the gene expression profiles of these two tissue transcriptomes with those from the temperate model fish Danio rerio. From this, we identified a conserved group of 58 GO terms, in which terms related to transcription and its regulation, ubiquitin-protein ligase activity, protein ubiquitination, and protein binding among others are more prevalent in the bald notothen, suggesting the pertinent genes play essential roles in cold temperature functioning. Conclusion We sequenced multiple tissue transcriptomes from native and heat-exposed experimental specimens of the high Antarctic, cryopelagic notothenioid P. borchgrevinki to construct a reference transcriptome. In a proof of concept, we utilized the annotated reference transcriptome to profile the gene expression patterns of gill and liver, and identified a suite of over and under-represented GO terms when compared to the tropical water zebrafish suggesting these functions may be important for surviving in freezing waters. The transcriptome resource from this study will aid future investigations of cold adaptation and thermal response of polar ectothermic species. PMID:24053439

2013-01-01

204

Selection of reference genes for use in quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays when using interferons in U87MG.  

PubMed

Relative gene quantification by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is an accurate technique only when a correct normalization strategy is carried out. Some of the most commonly genes used as reference have demonstrated variation after interferon (IFN) treatments. In this work we evaluated the suitability of seven reference genes (RGs) [glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS), ?-2Microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal RNA subunits 18S and 28S, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ) and the RNA helicase (DDX5)] for use in qRT-PCR assays in the glioblastoma-derived cell line U87MG treated with IFN?, IFN? or a co-formulated combination of both IFNs (HeberPAG); untreated cell lines were included as control. Data was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder softwares. The expression stability of the seven RGs decreased in order of DDX5/GAPDH/HMBS, 18S rRNA, YWHAZ, 28S rRNA and B2M. qRT-PCR analyses demonstrated that DDX5, GAPDH and HMBS were among the best stably expressed markers under all conditions. Both, geNorm and NormFinder, analyses proposed same RGs as the least variables. Evaluation of the expression levels of two target genes utilizing different endogenous controls, using REST-MCS software, revealed that the normalization method applied might introduce errors in the estimation of relative quantities. We concluded that when qRT-PCR is designed for studies of gene expression in U87MG cell lines treated with IFNs type I and II or their combinations, the use of all three GAPDH, HMBS and DDX5 (or their combinations in pairs) as RGs for data normalizations is recommended. PMID:23065266

Vázquez-Blomquist, Dania; Fernández, Julio Raúl; Miranda, Jamilet; Bello, Claudia; Silva, José A; Estrada, Regla C; Novoa, Lidia Inés; Palenzuela, Daniel; Bello, Iraldo

2012-12-01

205

3' tag digital gene expression profiling of human brain and universal reference RNA using Illumina Genome Analyzer  

PubMed Central

Background Massive parallel sequencing has the potential to replace microarrays as the method for transcriptome profiling. Currently there are two protocols: full-length RNA sequencing (RNA-SEQ) and 3'-tag digital gene expression (DGE). In this preliminary effort, we evaluated the 3' DGE approach using two reference RNA samples from the MicroArray Quality Control Consortium (MAQC). Results Using Brain RNA sample from multiple runs, we demonstrated that the transcript profiles from 3' DGE were highly reproducible between technical and biological replicates from libraries constructed by the same lab and even by different labs, and between two generations of Illumina's Genome Analyzers. Approximately 65% of all sequence reads mapped to mitochondrial genes, ribosomal RNAs, and canonical transcripts. The expression profiles of brain RNA and universal human reference RNA were compared which demonstrated that DGE was also highly quantitative with excellent correlation of differential expression with quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, one lane of 3' DGE sequencing, using the current sequencing chemistry and image processing software, had wider dynamic range for transcriptome profiling and was able to detect lower expressed genes which are normally below the detection threshold of microarrays. Conclusion 3' tag DGE profiling with massive parallel sequencing achieved high sensitivity and reproducibility for transcriptome profiling. Although it lacks the ability of detecting alternative splicing events compared to RNA-SEQ, it is much more affordable and clearly out-performed microarrays (Affymetrix) in detecting lower abundant transcripts. PMID:19917133

2009-01-01

206

Validation of reference genes for expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)  

PubMed Central

Background L. decemlineata is an exotic invasive insect pest, and invaded in Xinjiang Uygur autonomous region in China in the 1990s from Kazakhstan. It is a notorious defoliator of potato throughout most of the northern Xinjiang in current, and often causes extremely large yield losses of potato. Results The expression stability of nine L. decemlineata house-keeping genes (Actin, ACT1 and ACT2; ADP-ribosylation factor, ARF1 and ARF4; TATA box binding protein, TBP1 and TBP2; ribosomal protein RP4 and RP18; translation elongation factor 1? EF1?) was evaluated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in seven developmental stages, three larval tissues and two insecticide treatments. The results were analyzed using three software programs: geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. Although there was no consistent ranking observed among the house-keeping genes across the samples, the overall analysis revealed that RP18, RP4, ARF1, and ARF4 were the four most stable house-keeping genes. In contrast, ACT1 and ACT2, two of the most widely used reference genes, had the least stability. Our results suggest that the combined use of the four most stably expressed genes may produce optimal normalization for qRT-PCR. Conclusions The expression stability of the house-keeping genes varies among different developing stages, in different tissues and under different experimental conditions. Our results will enable a more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. decemlineata. PMID:23497596

2013-01-01

207

Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Expression Studies with Quantitative PCR in the Model Fungus Neurospora crassa under Different Environmental Conditions in Continuous Culture  

PubMed Central

Neurospora crassa has served as a model organism for studying circadian pathways and more recently has gained attention in the biofuel industry due to its enhanced capacity for cellulase production. However, in order to optimize N. crassa for biotechnological applications, metabolic pathways during growth under different environmental conditions must be addressed. Reverse-transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a technique that provides a high-throughput platform from which to measure the expression of a large set of genes over time. The selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies using relative quantification, as this strategy is based on normalization of target gene expression to a reference gene whose expression is stable under the experimental conditions. This study evaluated twelve candidate reference genes for use with N. crassa when grown in continuous culture bioreactors under different light and temperature conditions. Based on combined stability values from NormFinder and Best Keeper software packages, the following are the most appropriate reference genes under conditions of: (1) light/dark cycling: btl, asl, and vma1; (2) all-dark growth: btl, tbp, vma1, and vma2; (3) temperature flux: btl, vma1, act, and asl; (4) all conditions combined: vma1, vma2, tbp, and btl. Since N. crassa exists as different cell types (uni- or multi-nucleated), expression changes in a subset of the candidate genes was further assessed using absolute quantification. A strong negative correlation was found to exist between ratio and threshold cycle (CT) values, demonstrating that CT changes serve as a reliable reflection of transcript, and not gene copy number, fluctuations. The results of this study identified genes that are appropriate for use as reference genes in RT-qPCR studies with N. crassa and demonstrated that even with the presence of different cell types, relative quantification is an acceptable method for measuring gene expression changes during growth in bioreactors. PMID:25474155

Cusick, Kathleen D.; Fitzgerald, Lisa A.; Pirlo, Russell K.; Cockrell, Allison L.; Petersen, Emily R.; Biffinger, Justin C.

2014-01-01

208

Quantification of B16 Melanoma Cells in Lungs Using Triplex Q-PCR - A New Approach to Evaluate Melanoma Cell Metastasis and Tumor Control  

PubMed Central

Skin cancer is the most common type of all cancers. However, it comprises several different types of cancers, one of which is malignant melanoma. Even though melanomas only make up about 5% of skin cancers, they are responsible for the majority of skin cancer deaths due to the poor chance of survival once the tumor has metastasized. In the present study, we have developed a new assay for quantitative analysis of B16 melanoma metastasis in the lungs. We have used a triplex Q-PCR to determine the expression of the melanoma genes GP100/Pmel and tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP-2), and found that B16.F10gp cells were detectable in the lungs as early as 2 hours after intravenous challenge with ?104 tumor cells. When investigating the gene expression as a function of time, we observed a gradual decrease from 2–24 hours post tumor challenge followed by an increase of approximately 2 log10 on day 11. The early decrease was accelerated in the presence of activated NK cells. To further evaluate our assay, we also investigated the level of metastasis in the context of vaccination with replication defective adenoviral vectors, Ad-Ii-GP and Ad-GP, previously found to significantly delay the outgrowth of subcutaneous melanomas. Results obtained using Q-PCR were compared to conventional counting of metastatic foci under a dissection microscope. A marked reduction in gene expression was observed in the lungs after vaccination with both vectors; however, Ad-Ii-GP showed the highest protection, and matching results were obtained by enumeration of visible tumor nodules on the lung surfaces. Finally, we could show that inhibition of tumor metastasis required antigen-specific CD8 T cells and IFN?, but not perforin. In conclusion, the presented results validate triplex Q-PCR as a fast, objective, and quantitative method for analysis of melanoma metastasis in the lungs. PMID:24498205

Lindkvist, Annika; Christensen, Jan P.; Thomsen, Allan R.

2014-01-01

209

Characterization of reference genes for RT-qPCR in the desert moss Syntrichia caninervis in response to abiotic stress and desiccation/rehydration  

PubMed Central

Syntrichia caninervis is the dominant bryophyte of the biological soil crusts found in the Gurbantunggut desert. The extreme desert environment is characterized by prolonged drought, temperature extremes, high radiation and frequent cycles of hydration and dehydration. S. caninervis is an ideal organism for the identification and characterization of genes related to abiotic stress tolerance. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) expression analysis is a powerful analytical technique that requires the use of stable reference genes. Using available S. caninervis transcriptome data, we selected 15 candidate reference genes and analyzed their relative expression stabilities in S. caninervis gametophores exposed to a range of abiotic stresses or a hydration-desiccation-rehydration cycle. The programs geNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder were used to assess and rank the expression stability of the 15 candidate genes. The stability ranking results of reference genes under each specific experimental condition showed high consistency using different algorithms. For abiotic stress treatments, the combination of two genes (?-TUB2 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the hydration-desiccation-rehydration process, the combination of two genes (?-TUB1 and CDPK) were sufficient for accurate normalization. 18S was among the least stable genes in all of the experimental sets and was unsuitable as reference gene in S. caninervis. This is the first systematic investigation and comparison of reference gene selection for RT-qPCR work in S. caninervis. This research will facilitate gene expression studies in S. caninervis, related moss species from the Syntrichia complex and other mosses.

Li, Xiaoshuang; Zhang, Daoyuan; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Bei; Yang, Honglan; Zhang, Yuanming; Wood, Andrew J.

2015-01-01

210

An improved qPCR protocol for rapid detection and quantification of Clostridium difficile in cattle feces.  

PubMed

Clostridium difficile (CD) can cause a significant and transmissible disease in animals and humans, with poorly understood epidemiology. Animals have been suggested as a possible source of infection and environment contamination. It is necessary that a precise and rapid diagnostic tool is available for the detection of CD from clinical and/or environmental samples. A quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) protocol for CD detection defined by Penders et al. (FEMS Microbiol Lett, 243, 2005, 141-147) was modified. The modified protocol, supported by a novel extraction method, was tested on CD-spiked cattle feces and clinical fecal samples from calves. Quantification was performed targeting CD 16S rRNA gene. Three different commonly used TaqMan universal PCR master mixes were also compared. Results indicate that the modified protocol is very sensitive with an LOD of 7.72 CD cells per g CD-spiked feces. The protocol is capable of precise quantification with an LOQ of 77.2 CD cells per g CD-spiked feces, R(2) between 0.9957 and 0.9968, isolation efficiency from 87.89% to 90.96%, and an interassay CV ranging from 3.71% to 9.57%. The qPCR protocol for the detection and quantification of CD from animal feces investigated and described in this article using MIQE guidelines has the lowest detection and quantification limits published to date. Therefore, it can be implemented for precise epidemiological investigations of CD infections in animals and humans. PMID:23397963

Bandelj, Petra; Logar, Katarina; Usenik, Alenka M; Vengust, Modest; Ocepek, Matjaz

2013-04-01

211

Analysis of the black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii reproducing under a wide range of salinities: from RNA-seq to candidate genes.  

PubMed

The black-chinned tilapia Sarotherodon melanotheron heudelotii is an ecologically appealing model as it shows exceptional adaptive capacities, especially with regard to salinity. In spite of this, this species is devoid of genomic resources, which impedes the understanding of such remarkable features. De novo assembly of transcript sequences produced by next-generation sequencing technologies offers a rapid approach to obtain expressed gene sequences for non-model organisms. It also facilitates the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assays for analysing gene expression under different environmental conditions. Nevertheless, obtaining accurate and reliable qPCR results from such data requires a number of validations prior to interpretation. The transcriptome of S. melanotheron was sequenced to discover transcripts potentially involved in the plasticity of male reproduction in response to salinity variations. A set of 54 candidate and reference genes was selected through a digital gene expression (DGE) approach, and a de novo qPCR assay using these genes was validated for further detailed expression analyses. A user-friendly web interface was created for easy handling of the sequence data. This sequence collection represents a major transcriptomic resource for S. melanotheron and will provide a useful tool for functional genomics and genetics studies. PMID:23889972

Avarre, J-C; Dugué, R; Alonso, P; Diombokho, A; Joffrois, C; Faivre, N; Cochet, C; Durand, J-D

2014-01-01

212

The Importance of Reference Gene Analysis of Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Samples from Sarcoma Patients — An Often Underestimated Problem12  

PubMed Central

Objective: Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is efficient for quantification of gene expression, but the choice of reference genes is of paramount importance as it is essential for correct interpretation of data. This is complicated by the fact that the materials often available are routinely collected formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples in which the mRNA is known to be highly degraded. The purpose of this study was to investigate 22 potential reference genes in sarcoma FFPE samples and to study the variation in expression level within different samples taken from the same tumor and between different histologic types. Methods: Twenty-nine patients treated for sarcoma were enrolled. The samples encompassed 82 (FFPE) specimens. Extraction of total RNA from 7-?m FFPE sections was performed using a fully automated, bead-base RNA isolation procedure, and 22 potential reference genes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The stability of the genes was analyzed by RealTime Statminer. The intrasamples variation and the interclass correlation coefficients were calculated. The linear regression model was used to calculate the degradation of the mRNA over time. Results: The quality of RNA was sufficient for analysis in 84% of the samples. Recommended reference genes differed with histologic types. However, PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 were stably expressed regardless of the histologic type included. The variation in ?Cq value for samples from the same patients was similar to the variation between patients. It was possible to compensate for the time-dependent degradation of the mRNA when normalization was made using the selected reference genes. Conclusion: PPIA, SF3A1, and MRPL19 are suitable reference genes for normalization in gene expression studies of FFPE samples from sarcoma regardless of the histology. PMID:25500077

Aggerholm-Pedersen, Ninna; Safwat, Akmal; Bærentzen, Steen; Nordsmark, Marianne; Nielsen, Ole Steen; Alsner, Jan; Sørensen, Brita S.

2014-01-01

213

Addressing fluorogenic real-time qPCR inhibition using the novel custom Excel file system 'FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001' to attain consistently high fidelity qPCR reactions  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss fluorogenic real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) inhibition and to introduce/define a novel Microsoft Excel-based file system which provides a way to detect and avoid inhibition, and enables investigators to consistently design dynamically-sound, truly LOG-linear qPCR reactions very quickly. The qPCR problems this invention solves are universal to all qPCR reactions, and it performs all necessary qPCR set-up calculations in about 52 seconds (using a pentium 4 processor) for up to seven qPCR targets and seventy-two samples at a time – calculations that commonly take capable investigators days to finish. We have named this custom Excel-based file system "FocusField2-6GallupqPCRSet-upTool-001" (FF2-6-001 qPCR set-up tool), and are in the process of transforming it into professional qPCR set-up software to be made available in 2007. The current prototype is already fully functional. PMID:17033699

Ackermann, Mark R.

2006-01-01

214

Absolute qPCR for Measuring Telomere Length in Bone Marrow Samples of Plasma Cell Disorders.  

PubMed

Telomere length (TL) is currently used as an emerging biomarker in understanding the development/progression of hematological malignancies. The absolute quantitative PCR (qPCR) methodology has allowed the study of TL from a variety of mammalian tissues, but it has not been tested for bone marrow (BM) samples. In this study, we have examined the relationship between TL data generated by absolute qPCR versus those obtained by terminal restriction fragments (TRF) in 102 BM samples from patients with plasma cell disorders. A significant linear correlation between both methodologies was observed (p < 0.0001; r (2) = 0.70). Results were also analyzed in relation to clinical characteristics and significant associations between telomere shortening and parameters of adverse prognosis were observed. Furthermore, another set of 47 BM samples from patients with low quantity of DNA for TRF assay were suitably analyzed by qPCR, indicating the usefulness of the absolute qPCR methodology for the inclusion of patients with scarce material to the study. Taken together, these findings are of interest considering the importance of telomere dysfunction in the pathogenesis of cancer and give a new alternative to measure TL in hematologic disorders with substantial time and cost savings. PMID:25311116

Panero, Julieta; O'Callaghan, Nathan J; Fenech, Michael; Slavutsky, Irma

2015-02-01

215

Development and Use of Fluorescent Antibody and qPCR Protocols for the Electrostatic Spore Trap  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fluorescent antibody (FA) and qPCR protocols were evaluated for the newly developed aerobiological sampler (Ionic Spore Trap), which depends upon electrostatic deposition of particulates onto a 25 mm aluminum disk (stub). This device was originally designed for assessment of captured particulates by...

216

the all-in-one qPCR instrument QuantStudioTM  

E-print Network

the all-in-one qPCR instrument QuantStudioTM 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System #12;Expand throughput, flexibility, and scalability, the QuantStudioTM 12K Flex Real-Time PCR System sets the new standard for what a real-time PCR instrument should be. Combining flexible throughput capabilities

217

QPCR Determined Fecal Indicator Bacterial Densities in Marine Waters from Two Recreational Beaches  

EPA Science Inventory

The use of real-time qPCR to determine fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) densities is currently being investigated by the U.S. EPA. The present recreational water quality guidelines, based on culturable FIB, prevent same day determinations of water quality whereas results from the ...

218

Analyzing Water Samples for Sources of Contamination using PCR and qPCR Berenise Rivera  

E-print Network

the host animal source of fecal contamination is based on the assumption that certain strains of fecalAnalyzing Water Samples for Sources of Contamination using PCR and qPCR Berenise Rivera Advisor: Dr or full body contact) and public water supplies from fecal contamination have become challenging

Fay, Noah

219

Adaptation of a membrane bioreactor to 1,2-dichloroethane revealed by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing and dhlA qPCR.  

PubMed

A pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) was tested for bioremediation of 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) in groundwater. Pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA was used to study changes in the microbiology of the MBR over 137 days, including a 67 day initial adaptation phase of increasing DCA concentration. The bacterial community in the MBR was distinct from those in soil and groundwater at the same site, and was dominated by alpha- and beta- proteobacteria, including Rhodobacter, Methylibium, Rhodopseudomonas, Methyloversatilis, Caldilinea, Thiobacillus, Azoarcus, Hyphomicrobium, and Leptothrix. Biodegradation of DCA in the MBR began after 26 days, and was sustained for the remainder of the experiment. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for the dehalogenase gene dhlA was developed to monitor DCA-degrading bacteria in the MBR, and a positive correlation was seen between dhlA gene abundance and the cumulative amount of DCA that had entered the MBR. Genera previously associated with aerobic DCA biodegradation (Xanthobacter, Ancylobacter, Azoarcus) were present in the MBR, and the abundance of Azoarcus correlated well with dhlA gene abundance. This study shows that MBRs can be an effective method for removal of DCA from groundwater, and that the dhlA qPCR is a rapid and sensitive method for detection of DCA-degrading bacteria. PMID:24175727

Munro, Jacob E; Liew, Elissa F; Coleman, Nicholas V

2013-12-01

220

Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation  

PubMed Central

Background Diagnosis and follow up of CanL is difficult since the range of clinical signs is varied and seroprevalence is high in endemic areas. The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring. Findings This study included 710 dogs living in an endemic area of leishmaniasis. Forty percent (285/710) exhibited clinical signs consistent with CanL. Infection was detected in 36.3% (258/710) of the dogs of which 4.5% (32/710) were detected by qPCR, 16.2% (115/710) detected by ELISA and 15.6% (111/710) tested positive for both tests. Only 17.9% (127/710) of the dogs were classified sick (affected) with CanL. All symptomatic dogs with medium or high ELISA titers were qPCR-positive in blood samples. All dogs with inconclusive or low ELISA results with high or medium qPCR parasitemia values developed the disease. Seventy one percent of asymptomatic ELISA-positive dogs confirmed by qPCR (medium to high parasitemia) developed the disease. Bone marrow or lymph node aspirate should be selected to ensure the absence of the parasite in asymptomatic dogs: 100-1,000 parasites/ml in bone marrow are detectable in blood, whereas lower parasite loads are usually negative. Almost 10% of negative samples in blood were positive in conjunctival swabs. Conclusions Because qPCR allows parasite quantification, it is an effective tool to confirm a diagnosis of CanL in (i) cases of inconclusive ELISA results, (ii) when the dog has not yet seroconverted, or (iii) for treatment monitoring. PMID:21489253

2011-01-01

221

Selection and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using qRT-PCR in the Beet Armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a reliable and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. The most common method for analyzing qRT-PCR data is to normalize mRNA levels of target genes to internal reference genes. Evaluating and selecting stable reference genes on a case-by-case basis is critical. The present study aimed to facilitate gene expression studies by identifying the most suitable reference genes for normalization of mRNA expression in qRT-PCR analysis of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). For this purpose, three software tools (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) were used to investigate 10 candidate reference genes in nine developmental stages and five different tissues (epidermis, head, midgut, fat body and hemolymph) in three larval physiological stages (molting, feeding and wandering stages) of, S. exigua. With the exception of 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), all other candidate genes evaluated, ?-actin1(ACT1), ?-actin2 (ACT2), elongation factor1(EF1), elongation factor 2 (EF2), Glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein L10 (L10), ribosomal protein L17A (L17A), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ?-tubulin (TUB),proved to be acceptable reference genes. However, their suitability partly differed between physiological stages and different tissues. L10, EF2 and L17A ranked highest in all tissue sample sets. SOD, ACT2, GAPDH, EF1 and ACT1 were stably expressed in all developmental stage sample sets; ACT2, ACT1 and L10 for larvae sample sets; GAPDH, ACT1 and ACT2 for pupae and adults; SOD and L17A for males; and EF2 and SOD for females. The expression stability of genes varied in different conditions. The findings provided here demonstrated, with a few exceptions, the suitability of most of the 10 reference genes tested in tissues and life developmental stages. Overall, this study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis in S. exigua. PMID:24454743

Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhang, Youjun; Wang, Shaoli; Wang, Xin; Zhan, Sha; Kang, Tinghao; Li, Jianhong

2014-01-01

222

[Investigation of genes within copy number variation regions in pig chromosome 13 and analysis of the genetic law].  

PubMed

Copy number variation (CNV), referring to a genome structure variation, has attracted researchers' great interests. Thirty-two CNV regions (CNV region, CNVR) have been detected on chromosome 13 in our previous work. In order to detect the genes located in these CNVRs, we first obtained the annotated information from Ensembl database, and searched gene functional enrichments using DAVID online tools. In the 32 CNVRs, a total of 236 genes were identified, in which 169 genes were annotated. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these genes mainly participate in proteolysis, cell adhesion, and macromolecular catabolic process. To study the genetic law of these CNVs, we chose the RCAN1 (regulators of calcineurin 1) gene as the candidate. We quantified the copy number of RCAN1 gene in 38 Laiwu pigs by using QPCR method, and analyzed the genetic laws in three Laiwu families including 15 pigs. QPCR results showed that both duplication and deletion occurred in RCAN1 gene among Laiwu pigs and the heredity mode corresponds with Mendelian genetic law. PMID:24846980

Liu, Jing; Wang, Yanan; Sun, Yaqi; Wang, Hongyang; Wang, Chao; Peng, Zhongzhen; Liu, Bang

2014-04-01

223

Identification of suitable reference genes for hepatic microRNA quantitation  

PubMed Central

Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short (~22 nt) endogenous RNAs that play important roles in regulating expression of a wide variety of genes involved in different cellular processes. Alterations in microRNA expression patterns have been associated with a number of human diseases. Accurate quantitation of microRNA levels is important for their use as biomarkers and in determining their functions. Real time PCR is the gold standard and the most frequently used technique for miRNA quantitation. Real time PCR data analysis includes normalizing the amplification data to suitable endogenous control/s to ensure that microRNA quantitation is not affected by the variability that is potentially introduced at different experimental steps. U6 (RNU6A) and RNU6B are two commonly used endogenous controls in microRNA quantitation. The present study was designed to investigate inter-individual variability and gender differences in hepatic microRNA expression as well as to identify the best endogenous control/s that could be used for normalization of real-time expression data in liver samples. Methods We used Taqman based real time PCR to quantitate hepatic expression levels of 22 microRNAs along with U6 and RNU6B in 50 human livers samples (25 M, 25 F). To identify the best endogenous controls for use in data analysis, we evaluated the amplified candidates for their stability (least variability) in expression using two commonly used software programs: Normfinder and GeNormplus, Results Both Normfinder and GeNormplus identified U6 to be among the least stable of all the candidates analyzed, and RNU6B was also not among the top genes in stability. mir-152 and mir-23b were identified to be the two most stable candidates by both Normfinder and GeNormplus in our analysis, and were used as endogenous controls for normalization of hepatic miRNA levels. Conclusion Measurements of microRNA stability indicate that U6 and RNU6B are not suitable for use as endogenous controls for normalizing microRNA relative quantitation data in hepatic tissue, and their use can led to possibly erroneous conclusions. PMID:24606728

2014-01-01

224

A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results  

PubMed Central

Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called “infectious genome titration” in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

Gallaher, Sean D.; Berk, Arnold J.

2013-01-01

225

A rapid Q-PCR titration protocol for adenovirus and helper-dependent adenovirus vectors that produces biologically relevant results.  

PubMed

Adenoviruses are employed in the study of cellular processes and as expression vectors used in gene therapy. The success and reproducibility of these studies is dependent in part on having accurate and meaningful titers of replication competent and helper-dependent adenovirus stocks, which is problematic due to the use of varied and divergent titration protocols. Physical titration methods, which quantify the total number of viral particles, are used by many, but are poor at estimating activity. Biological titration methods, such as plaque assays, are more biologically relevant, but are time consuming and not applicable to helper-dependent gene therapy vectors. To address this, a protocol was developed called "infectious genome titration" in which viral DNA is isolated from the nuclei of cells ~3 h post-infection, and then quantified by Q-PCR. This approach ensures that only biologically active virions are counted as part of the titer determination. This approach is rapid, robust, sensitive, reproducible, and applicable to all forms of adenovirus. Unlike other Q-PCR-based methods, titers determined by this protocol are well correlated with biological activity. PMID:23624118

Gallaher, Sean D; Berk, Arnold J

2013-09-01

226

Expression stability of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR of healthy and diseased pituitary tissue samples varies between humans, mice, and dogs.  

PubMed

Pituitary surgery generates pituitary tissue for histology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular biological research. In the last decade, the pathogenesis of pituitary adenomas has been extensively studied in humans, and to a lesser degree in dogs, and tumor oncogenesis has been studied in knock-out mice, often by means of quantitative reversed-transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR). A precondition of such analyses is that so-called reference genes are stably expressed regardless of changes in disease status or treatment. In this study, the expression of six frequently used reference genes, namely, tata box binding protein (tbp), tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (ywhaz), hydroxymethylbilane synthase (hmbs), beta-2-microglobulin (b2m), succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (sdha), and glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (gapdh), was studied in pituitary tissue (normal and adenoma) from three species (humans, mice, and dogs). The stability of expression of these reference genes differed between species and between healthy and diseased tissue within one species. Quantitative analysis based on a single reference gene that is assumed to be stably expressed might lead to wrong conclusions. This cross-species analysis clearly emphasizes the need to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes as a standard and integral aspect of study design and data analysis, in order to improve the validity of the conclusions drawn on the basis of quantitative molecular analyses. PMID:24135907

van Rijn, Sarah J; Riemers, Frank M; van den Heuvel, Douwe; Wolfswinkel, Jeannette; Hofland, Leo; Meij, Björn P; Penning, Louis C

2014-04-01

227

Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Hyperaccumulating Ecotype of Sedum alfredii under Different Heavy Metals Stresses  

PubMed Central

Real-time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for accurate analysis of gene expression in several biological systems as well as under different experimental conditions. Although with high sensitivity, specificity and broad dynamic range, this method requires suitable reference genes for transcript normalization in order to guarantee reproducible and meaningful results. In the present study, we evaluated five traditional housekeeping genes and five novel reference genes in Hyperaccumulating ecotype of Sedum alfredii, a well known hyperaccumulator for heavy metals phytoremediation, under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses of seven different durations. The expression stability of these ten candidates were determined with three programs - geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The results showed that all the selected reference genes except for SAND could be used for RT-qPCR normalization. Among them UBC9 and TUB were ranked as the most stable candidates across all samples by three programs together. For the least stable reference genes, however, BestKeeper produced different results compared with geNorm and NormFinder. Meanwhile, the expression profiles of PCS under Cd, Pb, Zn and Cu stresses were assessed using UBC9 and TUB respectively, and similar trends were obtained from the results of the two groups. The distinct expression patterns of PCS indicated that various strategies could be taken by plants in adaption to different heavy metals stresses. This study will provide appropriate reference genes for further gene expression quantification using RT-qPCR in Hyperaccumulator S. alfredii. PMID:24340067

Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Jiang, Jing; Zhuo, Renying

2013-01-01

228

Evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods for reliable biomarker discovery: bias, resolution, precision, and implications.  

PubMed

RNA transcripts such as mRNA or microRNA are frequently used as biomarkers to determine disease state or response to therapy. Reverse transcription (RT) in combination with quantitative PCR (qPCR) has become the method of choice to quantify small amounts of such RNA molecules. In parallel with the democratization of RT-qPCR and its increasing use in biomedical research or biomarker discovery, we witnessed a growth in the number of gene expression data analysis methods. Most of these methods are based on the principle that the position of the amplification curve with respect to the cycle-axis is a measure for the initial target quantity: the later the curve, the lower the target quantity. However, most methods differ in the mathematical algorithms used to determine this position, as well as in the way the efficiency of the PCR reaction (the fold increase of product per cycle) is determined and applied in the calculations. Moreover, there is dispute about whether the PCR efficiency is constant or continuously decreasing. Together this has lead to the development of different methods to analyze amplification curves. In published comparisons of these methods, available algorithms were typically applied in a restricted or outdated way, which does not do them justice. Therefore, we aimed at development of a framework for robust and unbiased assessment of curve analysis performance whereby various publicly available curve analysis methods were thoroughly compared using a previously published large clinical data set (Vermeulen et al., 2009) [11]. The original developers of these methods applied their algorithms and are co-author on this study. We assessed the curve analysis methods' impact on transcriptional biomarker identification in terms of expression level, statistical significance, and patient-classification accuracy. The concentration series per gene, together with data sets from unpublished technical performance experiments, were analyzed in order to assess the algorithms' precision, bias, and resolution. While large differences exist between methods when considering the technical performance experiments, most methods perform relatively well on the biomarker data. The data and the analysis results per method are made available to serve as benchmark for further development and evaluation of qPCR curve analysis methods (http://qPCRDataMethods.hfrc.nl). PMID:22975077

Ruijter, Jan M; Pfaffl, Michael W; Zhao, Sheng; Spiess, Andrej N; Boggy, Gregory; Blom, Jochen; Rutledge, Robert G; Sisti, Davide; Lievens, Antoon; De Preter, Katleen; Derveaux, Stefaan; Hellemans, Jan; Vandesompele, Jo

2013-01-01

229

A Comprehensive Approach to Identify Reliable Reference Gene Candidates to Investigate the Link between Alcoholism and Endocrinology in Sprague-Dawley Rats  

PubMed Central

Gender and hormonal differences are often correlated with alcohol dependence and related complications like addiction and breast cancer. Estrogen (E2) is an important sex hormone because it serves as a key protein involved in organism level signaling pathways. Alcoholism has been reported to affect estrogen receptor signaling; however, identifying the players involved in such multi-faceted syndrome is complex and requires an interdisciplinary approach. In many situations, preliminary investigations included a straight forward, yet informative biotechniques such as gene expression analyses using quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validity of qRT-PCR-based conclusions is affected by the choice of reliable internal controls. With this in mind, we compiled a list of 15 commonly used housekeeping genes (HKGs) as potential reference gene candidates in rat biological models. A comprehensive comparison among 5 statistical approaches (geNorm, dCt method, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder) was performed to identify the minimal number as well the most stable reference genes required for reliable normalization in experimental rat groups that comprised sham operated (SO), ovariectomized rats in the absence (OVX) or presence of E2 (OVXE2). These rat groups were subdivided into subgroups that received alcohol in liquid diet or isocalroic control liquid diet for 12 weeks. Our results showed that U87, 5S rRNA, GAPDH, and U5a were the most reliable gene candidates for reference genes in heart and brain tissue. However, different gene stability ranking was specific for each tissue input combination. The present preliminary findings highlight the variability in reference gene rankings across different experimental conditions and analytic methods and constitute a fundamental step for gene expression assays. PMID:24824616

Taki, Faten A.; Abdel-Rahman, Abdel A.; Zhang, Baohong

2014-01-01

230

A quadruplex real-time qPCR assay for the simultaneous assessment of total human DNA, human male DNA, DNA degradation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in forensic samples: A diagnostic tool for STR typing  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quadruplex real-time qPCR assay was developed to simultaneously assess total human DNA, human male DNA, DNA degradation and PCR inhibitors in forensic samples. Specifically, the assay utilizes a ?170–190bp target sequence that spans the TH01 STR locus to quantify total human DNA (nuTH01), a 137bp target sequence directly adjacent to the SRY gene to quantify human male DNA (nuSRY),

William R. Hudlow; Mavis Date Chong; Katie L. Swango; Mark D. Timken; Martin R. Buoncristiani

2008-01-01

231

Single-cell qPCR on dispersed primary pituitary cells -an optimized protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The incidence of false positives is a potential problem in single-cell PCR experiments. This paper describes an optimized protocol for single-cell qPCR measurements in primary pituitary cell cultures following patch-clamp recordings. Two different cell harvesting methods were assessed using both the GH4 prolactin producing cell line from rat, and primary cell culture from fish pituitaries. RESULTS: Harvesting whole cells

Kjetil Hodne; Trude M Haug; Finn-Arne Weltzien

2010-01-01

232

Assessment of cellular and mucosal immune responses in chicks to Newcastle disease oral pellet vaccine (D58 strain) using qPCR.  

PubMed

To assess the cell mediated and mucosal immune responses in chicks to Newcastle disease vaccine, expression levels of certain genes encoding cytokines and chemokines were quantified by q-PCR. The utility of cytokine and chemokine gene expression profile in estimating the cell mediated and humoral immune response has been established. The cell mediated immune response was assessed by quantifying the IFN-? gene expression in splenocytes and compared with colorimetric blastogenesis assay. The mucosal immune response was assessed by quantifying the expression of IL-8, IL1-?, MIP1-?, K60 and K203 in the intestinal cells and compared with IgA ELISA. On 14th day post vaccination, the expression of IFN-? was upregulated by 12-folds in the Group I, which have received oral pellet vaccine and fourfolds in the Group II where birds have received live thermostable vaccine as occulonasal instillation. 3 and 7 days after receiving booster, the same cytokine gene was upregulated by 12-folds and 27-folds respectively in the Group III, where birds have received live thermostable ND vaccine as priming vaccine and oral pellet vaccine as booster. On 21st day post vaccination the expression of IL-8 was upregulated by 42.8-folds in Group I and 3.3-folds in the Group II. The expression of IL-1? was upregulated by eightfolds on 3rd day post vaccination and 23-folds on 21st day post vaccination in Group I. The expression of macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?) was upregulated by 16-folds in Group I and 70-folds in Group II on 14th day post vaccination. No significant change in expression of chemokine genes K60 and K203 in vaccinated birds. The results were comparable with the results of conventional tests and proved the utility of qPCR in estimating the cellular and mucosal immune responses. PMID:25674624

Shilpa, P; Kirubaharan, J John; Chandran, N Daniel Joy; Gnanapriya, N

2014-12-01

233

QuantStudioTM services at OHSU --qPCR gene expression  

E-print Network

), Chris Harrington (OHSU), Charlie Dubois (LIFE), or Mary Wittig (LIFE) *including but not limited Representative: Charlie Dubois, Molecular Biology Instruments, charlie.dubois@lifetech.com Mary Wittig

Chapman, Michael S.

234

Identification and validation of quantitative PCR reference genes suitable for normalizing expression in normal and dystrophic cell culture models of myogenesis.  

PubMed

The coordinated differentiation of myoblasts to mature muscle is essential for muscle development and repair, and study of the myogenic program in health and disease is critical to the understanding and treatment of muscle pathologies. Use of quantitative RT-PCR to analyse gene expression in cell culture models of muscle differentiation can be highly informative, but data must be normalized to one or more suitable reference genes. Myogenesis is highly dynamic, thus identification of genes with stable expression throughout this process is challenging. Establishing a common set of reference genes suitable for measuring expression in both healthy and disease models would be of considerable advantage. We measured expression of 11 candidate normalization genes (Cdc40, Htatsf1, Ap3d1, Csnk2a2, Fbxw2, Fbxo38, Pak1ip1, Zfp91, GAPDH, ActB, 18S) in three cell culture models of myogenesis (C2C12 , H2K2B4, and the dystrophic line H2KSF1). Strong and weak normalization candidates were identified using the software packages Bestkeeper, geNorm and Normfinder, then validated against several known myogenic markers (MyoD, myogenin, MEF2C, dystrophin). Our data show that Csnk2a2 and Ap3d1 are suitable for normalizing gene expression during differentiation in both healthy and dystrophic cell-culture models, and that the commonly-used reference standards 18S, ActB and GAPDH are exceptionally poor candidates. PMID:24634799

Hildyard, John C W; Wells, Dominic J

2014-01-01

235

Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of Bm86  

PubMed Central

Background For accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. In most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative RT-PCR is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually ?-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. The first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. To demonstrate the usefulness of these results, an unresolved issue in tick vaccine development was examined. Commercial vaccines against R. microplus were developed based on the recombinant antigen Bm86, but despite a high degree of sequence homology, these vaccines are not effective against R. appendiculatus. In fact, Bm86-based vaccines give better protection against some tick species with lower Bm86 sequence homology. One possible explanation is the variation in Bm86 expression levels between R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. The most stable reference genes were therefore used for normalization of the Bm86 expression profile in all life stages of both species to examine whether antigen abundance plays a role in Bm86 vaccine susceptibility. Results The transcription levels of nine potential reference genes: ?-actin (ACTB), ?-tubulin (BTUB), elongation factor 1? (ELF1A), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glutathione S-transferase (GST), H3 histone family 3A (H3F3A), cyclophilin (PPIA), ribosomal protein L4 (RPL4) and TATA box binding protein (TBP) were measured in all life stages of R. microplus and R. appendiculatus. ELF1A was found to be the most stable expressed gene in both species following analysis by both geNorm and Normfinder software applications, GST showed the least stability. The expression profile of Bm86 in R. appendiculatus and R. microplus revealed a more continuous Bm86 antigen abundance in R. microplus throughout its one-host life cycle compared to the three-host tick R. appendiculatus where large variations were observed between different life stages. Conclusion Based on these results, ELF1A can be proposed as an initial reference gene for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR data in whole R. microplus and R. appendiculatus ticks. The observed differences in Bm86 expression profile between the two species alone can not adequately explain the lack of a Bm86 vaccination effect in R. appendiculatus. PMID:20040102

2009-01-01

236

Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

2012-01-01

237

Improved real-time PCR estimation of gene copy number in soil extracts using an artificial reference.  

PubMed

Application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques has developed significantly from a qualitative technology to include powerful quantitative technologies, including real-time PCR, which are regularly used for detection and quantification of nucleic acids in many settings, including community analysis where culture-based techniques are not suitable. Many applications of real-time PCR involve absolute quantification which is susceptible to inaccuracies caused by losses during DNA extraction or inhibition caused by co-extracted compounds. We present here an improvement to this approach involving the addition of an artificial internal standard, prior to nucleic acid extraction. The standard was generated by in-situ mutagenesis from an E. coli template to ensure it both did not amplify with bacterial primers used for quantification and was short enough to minimise possible interference with other analyses. By estimating gene target copies by relative abundance, this approach accounts for both loss during extraction and inhibition effects. We present a novel application of relative real time PCR, using the internal standard as a reference, allowing accurate estimation of total bacterial populations both within and across a wide range of soils and demonstrate its improvement over absolute quantification by comparison of both approaches to ester linked fatty acid analysis of the same soils. PMID:22820198

Daniell, T J; Davidson, J; Alexander, C J; Caul, S; Roberts, D M

2012-10-01

238

Validation of an rpoB Gene PCR Assay for Detection of Tropheryma whipplei: 10 Years' Experience in a National Reference Laboratory  

PubMed Central

The performance of a real-time PCR assay targeting the Tropheryma whipplei rpoB gene was evaluated using test strains and 1,236 clinical specimens in a national reference laboratory. The novel rpoB-PCR assay proved to be specific, revealed improved analytical sensitivity, and substantially accelerated detection of T. whipplei DNA in clinical specimens. PMID:23966507

Schmiedel, Dinah; Petrich, Annett; Wiessner, Alexandra; Kikhney, Judith; Schneider, Thomas; Moos, Verena; Göbel, Ulf B.; Reischl, Udo

2013-01-01

239

Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro blastocysts  

PubMed Central

Background Application of reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction is very well suited to reveal differences in gene expression between in vivo and in vitro produced embryos. Ultimately, this may lead to optimized equine assisted reproductive techniques. However, for a correct interpretation of the real-time PCR results, all data must be normalized, which is most reliably achieved by calculating the geometric mean of the most stable reference genes. In this study a set of reliable reference genes was identified for equine in vivo and fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos. Findings The expression stability of 8 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, H2A/I, HPRT1, RPL32, SDHA, TUBA4A, UBC) was determined in 3 populations of equine blastocysts (fresh in vivo, fresh and frozen-thawed in vitro embryos). Application of geNorm indicated UBC, GAPDH, ACTB and HPRT1 as the most stable genes in the in vivo embryos and UBC, RPL32, GAPDH and ACTB in both in vitro populations. When in vivo and in vitro embryos were combined, UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH were found to be the most stable. SDHA and H2A/I appeared to be highly regulated. Conclusions Based on these results, the geometric mean of UBC, ACTB, RPL32 and GAPDH is to be recommended for accurate normalization of quantitative real-time PCR data in equine in vivo and in vitro produced blastocysts. PMID:20003356

2009-01-01

240

Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae)  

PubMed Central

To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 ? (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), ?-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ?Ct method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

2014-01-01

241

Selection of reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae).  

PubMed

To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 ? (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), ?-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ?Ct method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

2014-01-01

242

Validation of the ?-amy1 Transcription Profiling Assay and Selection of Reference Genes Suited for a RT-qPCR Assay in Developing Barley Caryopsis  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription coupled with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a frequently used method for gene expression profiling. Reference genes (RGs) are commonly employed to normalize gene expression data. A limited information exist on the gene expression and profiling in developing barley caryopsis. Expression stability was assessed by measuring the cycle threshold (Ct) range and applying both the GeNorm (pair-wise comparison of geometric means) and Normfinder (model-based approach) principles for the calculation. Here, we have identified a set of four RGs suitable for studying gene expression in the developing barley caryopsis. These encode the proteins GAPDH, HSP90, HSP70 and ubiquitin. We found a correlation between the frequency of occurrence of a transcript in silico and its suitability as an RG. This set of RGs was tested by comparing the normalized level of ?-amylase (?-amy1) transcript with directly measured quantities of the BMY1 gene product in the developing barley caryopsis. This panel of genes could be used for other gene expression studies, as well as to optimize ?-amy1 analysis for study of the impact of ?-amy1 expression upon barley end-use quality. PMID:22860024

Ovesná, Jaroslava; Ku?era, Ladislav; Vaculová, Kate?ina; Štrymplová, Kamila; Svobodová, Ilona; Milella, Luigi

2012-01-01

243

The High Polyphenol Content of Grapevine Cultivar Tannat Berries Is Conferred Primarily by Genes That Are Not Shared with the Reference Genome[W  

PubMed Central

The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Tannat is cultivated mainly in Uruguay for the production of high-quality red wines. Tannat berries have unusually high levels of polyphenolic compounds, producing wines with an intense purple color and remarkable antioxidant properties. We investigated the genetic basis of these important characteristics by sequencing the genome of the Uruguayan Tannat clone UY11 using Illumina technology, followed by a mixture of de novo assembly and iterative mapping onto the PN40024 reference genome. RNA sequencing data for genome reannotation were processed using a combination of reference-guided annotation and de novo transcript assembly, allowing 5901 previously unannotated or unassembled genes to be defined and resulting in the discovery of 1873 genes that were not shared with PN40024. Expression analysis showed that these cultivar-specific genes contributed substantially (up to 81.24%) to the overall expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds that contribute to the unique characteristics of the Tannat berries. The characterization of the Tannat genome therefore indicated that the grapevine reference genome lacks many genes that appear to be relevant for the varietal phenotype. PMID:24319081

Da Silva, Cecilia; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Ferrarini, Alberto; Minio, Andrea; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Tononi, Paola; Avanzato, Carla; Zago, Elisa; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Gaggero, Carina; Pezzotti, Mario; Carrau, Francisco; Delledonne, Massimo

2013-01-01

244

The high polyphenol content of grapevine cultivar tannat berries is conferred primarily by genes that are not shared with the reference genome.  

PubMed

The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) cultivar Tannat is cultivated mainly in Uruguay for the production of high-quality red wines. Tannat berries have unusually high levels of polyphenolic compounds, producing wines with an intense purple color and remarkable antioxidant properties. We investigated the genetic basis of these important characteristics by sequencing the genome of the Uruguayan Tannat clone UY11 using Illumina technology, followed by a mixture of de novo assembly and iterative mapping onto the PN40024 reference genome. RNA sequencing data for genome reannotation were processed using a combination of reference-guided annotation and de novo transcript assembly, allowing 5901 previously unannotated or unassembled genes to be defined and resulting in the discovery of 1873 genes that were not shared with PN40024. Expression analysis showed that these cultivar-specific genes contributed substantially (up to 81.24%) to the overall expression of enzymes involved in the synthesis of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds that contribute to the unique characteristics of the Tannat berries. The characterization of the Tannat genome therefore indicated that the grapevine reference genome lacks many genes that appear to be relevant for the varietal phenotype. PMID:24319081

Da Silva, Cecilia; Zamperin, Gianpiero; Ferrarini, Alberto; Minio, Andrea; Dal Molin, Alessandra; Venturini, Luca; Buson, Genny; Tononi, Paola; Avanzato, Carla; Zago, Elisa; Boido, Eduardo; Dellacassa, Eduardo; Gaggero, Carina; Pezzotti, Mario; Carrau, Francisco; Delledonne, Massimo

2013-12-01

245

A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.  

PubMed

The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean. PMID:25078400

Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

2014-11-01

246

Peptidylpropyl isomerase B (PPIB): a suitable reference gene for mRNA quantification in peripheral whole blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative real-time RT-PCR is a very powerful technique for measuring gene expression at the mRNA level. In order to compare mRNA expression in different experimental or clinical conditions, expression of a target gene has to be normalized to an appropriate internal standard, which is generally a housekeeping gene. In our study, we have tested several housekeeping genes in peripheral whole

Alexandre Pachot; Jean-Luc Blond; Bruno Mougin; Pierre Miossec

2004-01-01

247

Genetics Home Reference: Dwarfism  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dwarfism Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 3-M syndrome achondrogenesis achondroplasia asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy atelosteogenesis type 2 campomelic dysplasia ...

248

Novel reference gene, High-mobility-group protein I/Y, used in qualitative and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction detection of transgenic rapeseed cultivars.  

PubMed

With the development of transgenic crops, regulations to label the genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and their derived products have been issued in many countries. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods are thought to be reliable and useful techniques for qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. These methods are generally needed to amplify the transgene and compare the amplified results with that of a corresponding reference gene to get the reliable results. Specific primers were developed for the rapeseed (Brassica napus), high-mobility-group protein I/Y(HMG-I/Y) single-copy gene and PCR cycling conditions suitable for the use of this sequence as an endogenous reference gene in both qualitative and quantitative PCR assays. Both methods were assayed with 15 different rapeseed varieties, and identical amplified products were obtained with all of them. No amplification was observed when templates were the DNA samples from the other species of Brassica genus or other species, such as broccoli, stem mustard, cauliflower, Chinese cabbage, cabbage, sprouts, Arabidopsis thaliana, carrot, tobacco, soybean, mung bean, tomato, pepper, eggplant, plum, wheat, maize, barley, rice, lupine, and sunflower. This system was specific for rapeseed. Limits of detection and quantitation in qualitative and quantitative PCR systems were about 13 pg DNA (about 10 haploid genomes) and about 1.3 pg DNA (about 1 haploid genome), respectively. To further test the feasibility of this HMG-I/Y gene as an endogenous reference gene, samples containing transgenic rapeseed GT73 with the inserted glyphosate oxidoreductase (GOX) gene were quantitated. These demonstrated that the endogenous PCR detection systems were applicable to the qualitative and quantitative detection of transgenic rapeseed. PMID:15859086

Weng, Haibo; Yang, Litao; Liu, Zhili; Ding, Jiayu; Pan, Aihu; Zhang, Dabing

2005-01-01

249

Global genome transcription profiling of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 under in vitro conditions and identification of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.  

PubMed

Bifidobacteria have attracted significant scientific attention due to their perceived role as health-promoting microorganisms, although the genetics of the bacterial group is still underexplored. In this study, we investigated the transcriptome of Bifidobacterium bifidum PRL2010 during in vitro growth by microarray technology. When B. bifidum PRL2010 was grown in liquid broth, 425 of the 1,644 PRL2010 genes represented on the array were expressed in at least one of the three investigated growth phases, i.e., the lag, exponential, and stationary phases. These transcriptional analyses identified a core in vitro transcriptome encompassing 150 genes that are expressed in all phases. A proportion of these genes were further investigated as potential reference genes by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Their expression stability was evaluated under different growth conditions, which included cultivation on different carbon sources, exposure to environmental stresses (thermal, acidic, and osmotic), and growth phases. Our analyses validated six reference genes suitable for normalizing mRNA expression levels in qRT-PCR experiments applied to bifidobacteria. PMID:22003014

Turroni, Francesca; Foroni, Elena; Montanini, Barbara; Viappiani, Alice; Strati, Francesco; Duranti, Sabrina; Ferrarini, Alberto; Delledonne, Massimo; van Sinderen, Douwe; Ventura, Marco

2011-12-01

250

Salicin regulates the expression of functional 'youth gene clusters' to reflect a more youthful gene expression profile.  

PubMed

There are a variety of biological mechanisms that contribute to specific characteristics of ageing skin; for example, the loss of skin structure proteins, increased susceptibility to UV-induced pigmentation and/or loss of hydration. Each of these biological processes is influenced by specific groups of genes. In this research, we have identified groups of genes associated with specific clinical signs of skin ageing and refer to these as functional 'youth gene clusters'. In this study, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to investigate the effects of topical application of salicin in regulating the expression of functional 'youth gene clusters' to reflect a more youthful skin profile and reduce the appearance of attributes associated with skin ageing. Results showed that salicin significantly influences the gene expression profiles of treated human equivalent full-thickness skin, by regulating the expression of genes associated with various biological processes involving skin structure, skin hydration, pigmentation and cellular differentiation. Based on the findings from this experiment, salicin was identified as a key ingredient that may regulate functional 'youth gene clusters' to reflect a more youthful gene expression profile by increasing the expression of genes responsible for youthful skin and decreasing the expression of genes responsible for the appearance of aged skin. PMID:21449910

Gopaul, R; Knaggs, H E; Lephart, J

2011-10-01

251

Sequence heterogeneity in the equi merozoite antigen gene ( ema-1) of Theileria equi and development of an ema-1-specific TaqMan MGB™ assay for the detection of T. equi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although a quantitative real-time PCR assay (qPCR) assay for the detection of Theileria equi has been developed and evaluated, it is possible that additional, as yet undetected 18S rRNA gene sequence variants may exist. A qPCR assay targeting a different gene, used in conjunction with the T. equi 18S rRNA qPCR assay, could assist in the detection of all T.

Raksha Bhoora; Melvyn Quan; Paul T. Matjila; Erich Zweygarth; Alan J. Guthrie; Nicola E. Collins

2010-01-01

252

Quantitative PCR for glucose transporter and tristetraprolin family gene expression in cultured mouse adipocytes and macrophages  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) such as TaqMan and SYBR Green qPCR are widely used for gene expression analysis. The drawbacks of SYBR Green assay are that the dye binds to any double-stranded DNA which can generate falsepositive signals and that the length of the amplicon affects the intensity of...

253

Molecular Identification of Unusual Pathogenic Yeast Isolates by Large Ribosomal Subunit Gene Sequencing: 2 Years of Experience at the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rapid identification of yeast isolates from clinical samples is particularly important given their innately variable antifungal susceptibility profiles. We present here an analysis of the utility of PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the hypervariable D1\\/D2 region of the 26S rRNA gene for the identification of yeast species submitted to the United Kingdom Mycology Reference Laboratory over a 2-year period.

Christopher J. Linton; Andrew M. Borman; Grace Cheung; Ann D. Holmes; Adrien Szekely; Michael D. Palmer; Paul D. Bridge; Colin K. Campbell; Elizabeth M. Johnson

254

Validation of internal reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in a non-model organism, the yellow-necked mouse, Apodemus flavicollis  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Reference genes are used as internal standards to normalize mRNA abundance in quantitative real-time PCR and thereby allow a direct comparison between samples. So far most of these expression studies used human or classical laboratory model species whereas studies on non-model organism under in-situ conditions are quite rare. However, only studies in free-ranging populations can reveal the effects of

Jan Axtner; Simone Sommer

2009-01-01

255

Normalizing RT-qPCR Data: Are We Getting the Right Answers? An Appraisal of Normalization Approaches and Internal Reference Genes from a Case Study in the Finfish Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Commonly used normalization approaches for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses include (a)\\u000a input nucleic acids standardization (?C\\u000a q method), (b) normalizing target gene transcript abundance against a single internal reference gene (??C\\u000a q method), and (c) geometric averaging of multiple reference gene abundance using the geNorm software. We compared these three\\u000a approaches to examine expression of a negative

Christian De Santis; Carolyn Smith-Keune; Dean R. Jerry

2011-01-01

256

Analysis of Natural and Induced Variation in Tomato Glandular Trichome Flavonoids Identifies a Gene Not Present in the Reference Genome[W][OPEN  

PubMed Central

Flavonoids are ubiquitous plant aromatic specialized metabolites found in a variety of cell types and organs. Methylated flavonoids are detected in secreting glandular trichomes of various Solanum species, including the cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Inspection of the sequenced S. lycopersicum Heinz 1706 reference genome revealed a close homolog of Solanum habrochaites MOMT1 3?/5? myricetin O-methyltransferase gene, but this gene (Solyc06g083450) is missing the first exon, raising the question of whether cultivated tomato has a distinct 3? or 3?/5? O-methyltransferase. A combination of mining genome and cDNA sequences from wild tomato species and S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 led to the identification of Sl-MOMT4 as a 3? O-methyltransferase. In parallel, three independent ethyl methanesulfonate mutants in the S. lycopersicum cultivar M82 background were identified as having reduced amounts of di- and trimethylated myricetins and increased monomethylated myricetin. Consistent with the hypothesis that Sl-MOMT4 is a 3? O-methyltransferase gene, all three myricetin methylation defective mutants were found to have defects in MOMT4 sequence, transcript accumulation, or 3?-O-methyltransferase enzyme activity. Surprisingly, no MOMT4 sequence is found in the Heinz 1706 reference genome sequence, and this cultivar accumulates 3-methyl myricetin and is deficient in 3?-methyl myricetins, demonstrating variation in this gene among cultivated tomato varieties. PMID:25128240

Kim, Jeongwoon; Matsuba, Yuki; Ning, Jing; Schilmiller, Anthony L.; Hammar, Dagan; Jones, A. Daniel; Pichersky, Eran; Last, Robert L.

2014-01-01

257

Detection of pathogens in water: from phylochips to qPCR to pyrosequencing.  

PubMed

Waterborne pathogens pose a significant threat to human health and a proper assessment of microbial water quality is important for decision making regarding water infrastructure and treatment investments and eventually to provide early warning of disease, particularly given increasing global disasters associated with severe public health risks. Microbial water quality monitoring has undergone tremendous transition in recent years, with novel molecular tools beginning to offer rapid, high-throughput, sensitive and specific detection of a wide spectrum of microbial pathogens that challenge traditional culture-based techniques. High-density microarrays, quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and pyrosequencing which are considered to be breakthrough technologies borne out of the 'molecular revolution' are at present emerging rapidly as tools of pathogen detection and discovery. Future challenges lie in integrating these molecular tools with concentration techniques and bioinformatics platforms for unbiased guide of pathogen surveillance in water and developing standardized protocols. PMID:22153035

Aw, Tiong Gim; Rose, Joan B

2012-06-01

258

Direct Comparison of Flow-FISH and qPCR as Diagnostic Tests for Telomere Length Measurement in Humans  

PubMed Central

Telomere length measurement is an essential test for the diagnosis of telomeropathies, which are caused by excessive telomere erosion. Commonly used methods are terminal restriction fragment (TRF) analysis by Southern blot, fluorescence in situ hybridization coupled with flow cytometry (flow-FISH), and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Although these methods have been used in the clinic, they have not been comprehensively compared. Here, we directly compared the performance of flow-FISH and qPCR to measure leukocytes' telomere length of healthy individuals and patients evaluated for telomeropathies, using TRF as standard. TRF and flow-FISH showed good agreement and correlation in the analysis of healthy subjects (R2?=?0.60; p<0.0001) and patients (R2?=?0.51; p<0.0001). In contrast, the comparison between TRF and qPCR yielded modest correlation for the analysis of samples of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.35; p<0.0001) and low correlation for patients (R2?=?0.20; p?=?0.001); Bland-Altman analysis showed poor agreement between the two methods for both patients and controls. Quantitative PCR and flow-FISH modestly correlated in the analysis of healthy individuals (R2?=?0.33; p<0.0001) and did not correlate in the comparison of patients' samples (R2?=?0.1, p?=?0.08). Intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was similar for flow-FISH (10.8±7.1%) and qPCR (9.5±7.4%; p?=?0.35), but the inter-assay CV was lower for flow-FISH (9.6±7.6% vs. 16±19.5%; p?=?0.02). Bland-Altman analysis indicated that flow-FISH was more precise and reproducible than qPCR. Flow-FISH and qPCR were sensitive (both 100%) and specific (93% and 89%, respectively) to distinguish very short telomeres. However, qPCR sensitivity (40%) and specificity (63%) to detect telomeres below the tenth percentile were lower compared to flow-FISH (80% sensitivity and 85% specificity). In the clinical setting, flow-FISH was more accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and specific in the measurement of human leukocyte's telomere length in comparison to qPCR. In conclusion, flow-FISH appears to be a more appropriate method for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25409313

Gutierrez-Rodrigues, Fernanda; Santana-Lemos, Bárbara A.; Scheucher, Priscila S.; Alves-Paiva, Raquel M.; Calado, Rodrigo T.

2014-01-01

259

Endocrine disruption screening by protein and gene expression of vitellogenin in freshly isolated and cryopreserved rainbow trout hepatocytes.  

PubMed

Xenobiotics may activate the estrogen receptor, resulting in alteration of normal endocrine functions in animals and humans. Consequently, this necessitates development of assay end points capable of identifying estrogenic xenobiotics. In the present study, we screened the potential estrogenicity of chemicals via their ability to induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression in cultured primary hepatocytes from male trout. A routine method for VTG detection measures the secretion of the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in freshly isolated trout hepatocytes. However, this lengthy (6 days) culturing procedure requires that hepatocyte isolation is performed each time the assay is run. We optimized this methodology by investigating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes, shortening the incubation time, performing a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for VTG quantification, and verifying the model system with reference chemicals 17?-estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, genistein, and a negative control, corticosterone. To test the performance of both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, mRNA was collected from hepatocytes following 24 h treatment for VTG gene expression analysis, whereas cell culture media was collected for a VTG ELISA 96 h post-treatment. EC50 values were obtained for each reference chemical except for corticosterone, which exhibited no induction of VTG gene or protein level. Our results show linear concordance between ELISA and qPCR detection methods. Although there was approximately 50% reduction in VTG inducibility following cryopreservation, linear concordance of EC50 values was found between freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, indicating that cryopreservation does not alter the functional assessment of estrogen receptor activation and therefore VTG expression. These studies demonstrate that qPCR is a sensitive and specific method for detecting VTG gene expression that can be used together with cryopreserved trout hepatocytes for screening estrogenic chemicals, resulting in a reduction of the time required to perform the assay and enabling greater access to the model system through the approach of cryopreservation. PMID:25055050

Markell, Lauren K; Mingoia, Robert T; Peterson, Heather M; Yao, Jianhong; Waters, Stephanie M; Finn, James P; Nabb, Diane L; Han, Xing

2014-08-18

260

Maternal low-protein diet alters the expression of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction reference genes in an age-, sex-, and organ-dependent manner in rat offspring.  

PubMed

Altered perinatal environment, often manifested as low birth weight, is thought to contribute to greater susceptibility for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes as a result of epigenetic modifications and alteration of transcriptional activity for key genes. Real-time polymerase chain reaction is a useful technique for the quantitative determination of differences in transcriptional activity. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data analyses require normalization of transcriptional activity of target genes to an endogenous control, usually a reference gene. In response to reports of altered expression of reference genes in various experimental models, we hypothesized that adverse perinatal environment alters reference gene expression. We examined the expression of the following reference genes in the offspring of a rodent maternal low-protein diet model: ?-actin, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1, TATA-box-binding protein, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucuronidase-? in brain, heart, kidneys, and intestines. We found altered expression in brain, heart, and kidneys for each of the reference genes measured; these effects were age, organ, and sex dependent. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucuronidase-? were found to be the least affected by these variables, whereas hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 was the most inconsistent. Our findings underscore the importance of empirical determination of a reliable reference gene for real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in the low-protein diet model. PMID:23507230

DuBois, Barent; Pearson, Jacob; Hastings, Bonnie; Mahmood, Tahir; Chan, Tammy; Alnakhli, Ali; Cherala, Ganesh

2013-03-01

261

Selection of reference genes as internal controls for gene expression in tissues of red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Mollusca, Vetigastropoda; Swainson, 1822).  

PubMed

The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is one of the most important species for aquaculture in Baja California, México, and despite this, few gene expression studies have been done in tissues such as gill, head and gonad. For this purpose, reverse transcription and quantitative real time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool for gene expression evaluation. For a reliable analysis, however, it is necessary to select and validate housekeeping genes that allow proper transcription quantification. Stability of nine housekeeping genes (ACTB, BGLU, TUBB, CY, GAPDH, HPRTI, RPL5, SDHA and UBC) was evaluated in different tissues of red abalone (gill, head and gonad/digestive gland). Four-fold serial dilutions of cDNA (from 25 ng?L(-1) to 0.39 ng?L(-1)) were used to prepare the standard curve, and it showed gene efficiencies between 0.95 and 0.99, with R(2)=0.99. geNorm and NormFinder analysis showed that RPL5 and CY were the most stable genes considering all tissues, whereas in gill HPRTI and BGLU were most stable. In gonad/digestive gland, RPL5 and TUBB were the most stable genes with geNorm, while SDHA and HPRTI were the best using NormFinder. Similarly, in head the best genes were RPL5 and UBC with geNorm, and GAPDH and CY with NormFinder. The technical variability analysis with RPL5 and abalone gonad/digestive gland tissue indicated a high repeatability with a variation coefficient within groups ? 0.56% and between groups ? 1.89%. These results will help us for further research in reproduction, thermoregulation and endocrinology in red abalone. PMID:25101866

López-Landavery, Edgar A; Portillo-López, Amelia; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A

2014-10-10

262

FECAL INDICATOR BACTERIA MEASUREMENTS BY QUANTITATIVE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (QPCR) ANALYSIS IN FRESH ARCHIVED DNA EXTRACT OF WATER SAMPLE FILTRATES  

EPA Science Inventory

The U.S. EPA has initiated a new recreational water study to evaluate the correlation between illness rates in swimmers and Enterococcus concentrations determined by the mEI agar membrane filter (MF) method and several new technologies including QPCR analysis. Results of this stu...

263

Comparison of culture and qPCR for the detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in not chronically infected cystic fibrosis patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major respiratory pathogen causing severe lung infections among CF patients, leading to high morbidity and mortality. Once infection is established, early antibiotic treatment is able to postpone the transition to chronic lung infection. In order to optimize the early detection, we compared the sensitivity of microbiological culture and quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the detection of

Pieter Deschaght; Petra Schelstraete; Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago; Leen Van Simaey; Filomeen Haerynck; Sabine Van daele; Elke De Wachter; Anne Malfroot; Patrick Lebecque; Christiane Knoop; Georges Casimir; Hedwige Boboli; Frédéric Pierart; Kristine Desager; Mario Vaneechoutte; Frans De Baets

2010-01-01

264

Relationship and Variation of qPCR and Culturable Enterococci Estimates in Ambient Surface Waters Are Predictable  

EPA Science Inventory

The quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method provides rapid estimates of fecal indicator bacteria densities that have been indicated to be useful in the assessment of water quality. Primarily because this method provides faster results than standard culture-based meth...

265

DNA-Based Faecal Dietary Analysis: A Comparison of qPCR and High Throughput Sequencing Approaches  

PubMed Central

The genetic analysis of faecal material represents a relatively non-invasive way to study animal diet and has been widely adopted in ecological research. Due to the heterogeneous nature of faecal material the primary obstacle, common to all genetic approaches, is a means to dissect the constituent DNA sequences. Traditionally, bacterial cloning of PCR amplified products was employed; less common has been the use of species-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays. Currently, with the advent of High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) technologies and indexed primers it has become possible to conduct genetic audits of faecal material to a much greater depth than previously possible. To date, no studies have systematically compared the estimates obtained by HTS with that of qPCR. What are the relative strengths and weaknesses of each technique and how quantitative are deep-sequencing approaches that employ universal primers? Using the locally threatened Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) as a model organism, it is shown here that both qPCR and HTS techniques are highly correlated and produce strikingly similar quantitative estimates of fish DNA in faecal material, with no statistical difference. By designing four species-specific fish qPCR assays and comparing the data to the same four fish in the HTS data it was possible to directly compare the strengths and weaknesses of both techniques. To obtain reproducible quantitative data one of the key, and often overlooked, steps common to both approaches is ensuring that efficient DNA isolation methods are employed and that extracts are free of inhibitors. Taken together, the methodology chosen for long-term faecal monitoring programs is largely dependent on the complexity of the prey species present and the level of accuracy that is desired. Importantly, these methods should not be thought of as mutually exclusive, as the use of both HTS and qPCR in tandem will generate datasets with the highest fidelity. PMID:21998697

Murray, Dáithí C.; Bunce, Michael; Cannell, Belinda L.; Oliver, Rebecca; Houston, Jayne; White, Nicole E.; Barrero, Roberto A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Haile, James

2011-01-01

266

Reference genes for QRT-PCR tested under various stress conditions in Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta (Insecta, Collembola)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of quantification when key standards, such as normalization, are carefully set. In

Muriel E de Boer; Tjalf E de Boer; Janine Mariën; Martijn JTN Timmermans; Benjamin Nota; Nico M van Straalen; Jacintha Ellers; Dick Roelofs

2009-01-01

267

CopyRighter: a rapid tool for improving the accuracy of microbial community profiles through lineage-specific gene copy number correction  

PubMed Central

Background Culture-independent molecular surveys targeting conserved marker genes, most notably 16S rRNA, to assess microbial diversity remain semi-quantitative due to variations in the number of gene copies between species. Results Based on 2,900 sequenced reference genomes, we show that 16S rRNA gene copy number (GCN) is strongly linked to microbial phylogenetic taxonomy, potentially under-representing Archaea in amplicon microbial profiles. Using this relationship, we inferred the GCN of all bacterial and archaeal lineages in the Greengenes database within a phylogenetic framework. We created CopyRighter, new software which uses these estimates to correct 16S rRNA amplicon microbial profiles and associated quantitative (q)PCR total abundance. CopyRighter parses microbial profiles and, because GCN estimates are pre-computed for all taxa in the reference taxonomy, rapidly corrects GCN bias. Software validation with in silico and in vitro mock communities indicated that GCN correction results in more accurate estimates of microbial relative abundance and improves the agreement between metagenomic and amplicon profiles. Analyses of human-associated and anaerobic digester microbiomes illustrate that correction makes tangible changes to estimates of qPCR total abundance, ? and ? diversity, and can significantly change biological interpretation. For example, human gut microbiomes from twins were reclassified into three rather than two enterotypes after GCN correction. Conclusions The CopyRighter bioinformatic tools permits rapid correction of GCN in microbial surveys, resulting in improved estimates of microbial abundance, ? and ? diversity. PMID:24708850

2014-01-01

268

Study of rumen metagenome community using qPCR under different diets  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to detect the major bacteria present in rumen microbiota. Here, we performed qPCR based absolute quantitation of selected rumen microbes in rumen fluid of river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to roughage diets. Animals were adapted to roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the proportion of 100:00 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3) and 25:75 (T4) respectively for 30 days. At the end of each treatment, rumen fluid was collected at 0 h and 2 h after feeding. It was found that among fibrolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens (2.22 × 108 copies/ml) were highest in T2 group and followed by 1.11 × 108 copies/ml for Fibrobacter succinogenes (T2), 2.56 × 107 copies/ml for Prevotella ruminicola (T1) and 1.25 × 107 copies/ml for Ruminococcus albus (T4). In non-fibrolytic bacteria, the Selenomonas ruminantium (2.62 × 107 copies/ml) was predominant in group T3 and followed by Treponema bryantii (2.52 × 107copies/ml) in group T1, Ruminobacter amylophilus (1.31 × 107copies/ml) in group T1 and Anaerovibrio lipolytica (2.58 × 106 copies/ml) in group T4. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens were the highest in population in the rumen of Surti buffalo fed wheat straw as roughage source. PMID:25606402

Singh, K.M.; Pandya, P.R.; Tripathi, A.K.; Patel, G.R.; Parnerkar, S.; Kothari, R.K.; Joshi, C.G.

2014-01-01

269

Characterization and quantification of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in a nitrogen-removing reactor using T-RFLP and qPCR  

PubMed Central

Using ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) gene and 16S rRNA gene, the community structure and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in a nitrogen-removing reactor, which was operated for five phases, were characterized and quantified by cloning, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The results suggested that the dominant AOB in the reactor fell to the genus Nitrosomonas, while the dominant AOA belonged to Crenarchaeotal Group I.1a in phylum Crenarchaeota. Real-time PCR results demonstrated that the levels of AOB amoA varied from 2.9?×?103 to 2.3?×?105 copies per nanogram DNA, greatly (about 60 times) higher than those of AOA, which ranged from 1.7?×?102 to 3.8?×?103 copies per nanogram DNA. This indicated the possible leading role of AOB in the nitrification process in this study. T-RFLP results showed that the AOB community structure significantly shifted in different phases while AOA only showed one major peak for all the phases. The analyses also suggested that the AOB community was more sensitive than that of AOA to operational conditions, such as ammonia loading and dissolved oxygen. PMID:20405121

Jin, Tao; Yan, Qingmei

2010-01-01

270

Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR expression studies of microdissected reproductive tissues in apomictic and sexual Boechera  

PubMed Central

Background Apomixis, a natural form of asexual seed production in plants, is considered to have great biotechnological potential for agriculture. It has been hypothesised that de-regulation of the sexual developmental pathway could trigger apomictic reproduction. The genus Boechera represents an interesting model system for understanding apomixis, having both sexual and apomictic genotypes at the diploid level. Quantitative qRT-PCR is the most extensively used method for validating genome-wide gene expression analyses, but in order to obtain reliable results, suitable reference genes are necessary. In this work we have evaluated six potential reference genes isolated from a 454 (FLX) derived cDNA library of Boechera. RNA from live microdissected ovules and anthers at different developmental stages, as well as vegetative tissues of apomictic and sexual Boechera, were used to validate the candidates. Results Based on homologies with Arabidopsis, six genes were selected from a 454 cDNA library of Boechera: RPS18 (Ribosomal sub protein 18), Efalpha1 (Elongation factor 1 alpha), ACT 2 (Actin2), UBQ (polyubiquitin), PEX4 (Peroxisomal ubiquitin conjugating enzyme) and At1g09770.1 (Arabidopsis thaliana cell division cycle 5). Total RNA was extracted from 17 different tissues, qRT-PCRs were performed, and raw Ct values were analyzed for primer efficiencies and gene ratios. The geNorm and normFinder applications were used for selecting the most stable genes among all tissues and specific tissue groups (ovule, anthers and vegetative tissues) in both apomictic and sexual plants separately. Our results show that BoechRPS18, BoechEf?1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ were the most stable genes. Based on geNorm, the combinations of BoechRPS18 and BoechEf?1 or BoechUBQ and BoechEf?1 were the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 and BoechACT2 or BoechUBQ and BoechACT2 performed best in the sexual plant. When subgroups of tissue samples were analyzed, different optimal combinations were identified in sexual ovules (BoechUBQ and BoechEf?1), in anthers from both reproductive systems (BoechACT2 and BoechEf?1), in apomictic vegetative tissues (BoechEf?1 and BoechACT2) and sexual vegetative tissues (BoechRPS18 and BoechEf?1). NormFinder ranked BoechACT2 as the most stable in the apomictic plant, while BoechRPS18 was the best in the sexual plant. The subgroups analysis identified the best gene for both apomictic and sexual ovules (BoechRPS18), for anthers from both reproductive system (BoechEf?1) and for apomictic and vegetative tissues (BoechACT2 and BoechRPS18 respectively) Conclusions From a total of six tested genes, BoechRPS18, BoechEf?1, BoechACT2 and BoechUBQ showed the best stability values. We furthermore provide detailed information for the accurate normalization of specific tissue gene expression analyses of apomictic and sexual Boechera. PMID:21851639

2011-01-01

271

Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

272

Permethrin induces overexpression of multiple genes in Aedes aegypti.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using the PCR-select subtractive cDNA hybridization technique, 18 different genes were isolated from a permethrin-treated vs acetone-treated Aedes aegypti subtractive library. QPCR results revealed that eight of the 18 gene’s transcriptional levels in permethrin-treated Ae. aegypti were at least 2- ...

273

Genetics Home Reference: Fever  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Fever Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome familial Mediterranean fever mevalonate kinase deficiency Muckle-Wells syndrome Nakajo-Nishimura ...

274

Genetics Home Reference: Seizures  

MedlinePLUS

... U.S. National Library of Medicine® Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Seizures Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: 15q13.3 microdeletion Alpers-Huttenlocher syndrome aminoacylase 1 deficiency aspartylglucosaminuria ...

275

Genetics Home Reference: Anemia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Anemia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: acute promyelocytic ... syndrome beta thalassemia Coats plus syndrome congenital dyserythropoietic anemia Diamond-Blackfan anemia Fanconi anemia Ghosal hematodiaphyseal dysplasia ...

276

Genetics Home Reference: Dementia  

MedlinePLUS

... Home Conditions Genes Chromosomes Handbook Glossary Resources Conditions > Dementia Related topics on Genetics Home Reference: adult polyglucosan body disease Alzheimer disease cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and ...

277

Validation of endogenous reference genes for insecticide-induced and developmental expression profiling of Liposcelis bostsrychophila (Psocoptera: Liposcelididae).  

PubMed

Four housekeeping genes named Lbbeta-Actin1, Lbbeta-Actin2, Lbalpha-Tubulin, and LbGapdh were cloned from Liposcelis bostrychophila using the combined techniques of reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) with rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The GenBank accession numbers were FJ196622, FJ447483, FJ595242, and FJ595241, respectively. The full-length cDNA of Lbbeta-Actin1 was a 1,772 bp sequence with an open reading frame (ORF) encoded 376 amino acids, while Lbbeta-Actin2 was 1,350 bp in length containing an ORF encoded 376 amino acids. Furthermore, the 1,565 bp cDNA of Lbalpha-Tubulin had an ORF of 1,350 bp encoding 450 amino acids. And LbGapdh possessed an ORF of 333 amino acids. Sequences analysis and phylogenetic trees generated from the nucleotide sequences of their coding regions revealed a relationship that was closer to other insects than to mammals. The four genes together with 18S rRNA were quantified for transcription stability in L. bostrychophila, and the geNorm software ranked from the most to least were Lbbeta-Actin1 > LbGapdh > Lbalpha-Tubulin > Lbbeta-Actin2 > Lb18S rRNA for deltamethrin induction, while ranked Lbbeta-Actin1 > Lbalpha-Tubulin > Lbbeta-Actin2 > LbGapdh > Lb18S rRNA for the different developmental stages. PMID:19757170

Jiang, Hong-Bo; Liu, Yong-Hua; Tang, Pei-An; Zhou, An-Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

2010-02-01

278

Study of rumen metagenome community using qPCR under different diets.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect the major bacteria present in rumen microbiota. Here, we performed qPCR based absolute quantitation of selected rumen microbes in rumen fluid of river buffalo adapted to varying proportion of concentrate to roughage diets. Animals were adapted to roughage-to-concentrate ratio in the proportion of 100:00 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3) and 25:75 (T4) respectively for 30 days. At the end of each treatment, rumen fluid was collected at 0 h and 2 h after feeding. It was found that among fibrolytic bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens (2.22 × 10(8) copies/ml) were highest in T2 group and followed by 1.11 × 10(8) copies/ml for Fibrobacter succinogenes (T2), 2.56 × 10(7) copies/ml for Prevotella ruminicola (T1) and 1.25 × 10(7) copies/ml for Ruminococcus albus (T4). In non-fibrolytic bacteria, the Selenomonas ruminantium (2.62 × 10(7) copies/ml) was predominant in group T3 and followed by Treponema bryantii (2.52 × 10(7)copies/ml) in group T1, Ruminobacter amylophilus (1.31 × 10(7)copies/ml) in group T1 and Anaerovibrio lipolytica (2.58 × 10(6) copies/ml) in group T4. It is most notable that R. flavefaciens were the highest in population in the rumen of Surti buffalo fed wheat straw as roughage source. PMID:25606402

Singh, K M; Pandya, P R; Tripathi, A K; Patel, G R; Parnerkar, S; Kothari, R K; Joshi, C G

2014-12-01

279

Real-time PCR for detection of NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from spiked stool samples.  

PubMed

An in-house quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay using TaqMan chemistry has been developed to detect NDM-1 carbapenemase genes from bacterial isolates and directly from stool samples. The qPCR amplification of bla(NDM-1) DNA was linear over 10 log dilutions (r(2) = 0.99), and the amplification efficiency was 1.03. The qPCR detection limit was reproducibly 1 CFU, or 10 plasmid molecules, and there was no cross-reaction with DNA extracted from several multidrug-resistant bacteria harboring other ?-lactam resistance genes. Feces spiked with decreasing amounts of enterobacterial isolates producing NDM-1 were spread on ChromID ESBL and on CHROMagar KPC media and were subjected to the qPCR. The limits of carbapenem-resistant bacterial detection from stools was reproducibly 1 × 10(1) to 3 × 10(1) CFU/100 mg feces with ChromID ESBL medium. The CHROMagar KPC culture medium had higher limits of detection (1 × 10(1) to 4 × 10(3) CFU/ml), especially with bacterial isolates having low carbapenem MICs. The limits of detection with the qPCR assay were reproducibly below 1 × 10(1) CFU/100 mg of feces by qPCR assay. Samples spiked with NDM-1-negative bacteria were negative by qPCR. The sensitivity and specificity of the bla(NDM-1) qPCR assay on spiked samples were 100% in both cases. Using an automated DNA extraction system (QIAcube system), the qPCR assay was reproducible. The use of qPCR is likely to shorten the time for bla(NDM-1) detection from 48 h to 4 h and will be a valuable tool for outbreak follow-up in order to rapidly isolate colonized patients and assign them to cohorts. PMID:21690281

Naas, Thierry; Ergani, Ayla; Carrër, Amélie; Nordmann, Patrice

2011-09-01

280

Evaluation of RAD51C as cancer susceptibility gene in a large breast-ovarian cancer patient population referred for genetic testing.  

PubMed

Despite extensive analysis of the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes, germline mutations are detected in <20% of families with a presumed genetic predisposition for breast and ovarian cancer. Recent literature reported RAD51C as a new breast cancer susceptibility gene. In this study, we report the analysis of 410 patients from 351 unrelated pedigrees. All were referred for genetic testing and we selected families with at least one reported case of ovarian cancer in which BRCA1&2 mutations were previously ruled out. We analyzed the coding exons, intron-exons boundaries, and UTRs of RAD51C. Our mutation analysis did not reveal any unequivocal deleterious mutation. In total 12 unique sequence variations were identified of which two were novel. Our study and others suggest a low prevalence of RAD51C mutations with an exception for some founder populations. This observation is in favor of the rare allele hypothesis in the debate over the nature of the genetic contribution to individual susceptibility to breast and ovarian cancer and further genome-wide studies in high risk families are warranted. PMID:22370629

De Leeneer, K; Van Bockstal, M; De Brouwer, S; Swietek, N; Schietecatte, P; Sabbaghian, N; Van den Ende, J; Willocx, S; Storm, K; Blaumeiser, B; Van Asperen, C J; Wijnen, J T; Leunen, K; Legius, E; Michils, G; Matthijs, G; Blok, M J; Gomez-Garcia, E; De Paepe, A; Tischkowitz, M; Poppe, B; Claes, K

2012-05-01

281

A cross comparison of QPCR to agar-based or defined substrate test methods for the determination of Escherichia coli and enterococci in municipal water quality monitoring programs.  

PubMed

Molecular methods such as quantitative, real-time polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) are intended to shorten the period between sampling and publicly available results. Cross comparison studies in Racine, WI, USA evaluated QPCR against agar-based (US EPA Method 1600) and defined substrate (IDEXX Colilert-18) methods for the detection and quantification of Escherichia coli and enterococci in a variety of aqueous environments (wastewater, stormwater, and surface water). Regulatory outcomes were also compared based on choice of indicator and method. Positive correlation was seen between QPCR cell equivalents and viable cells through the wastewater treatment process and in all surface water samples (river or freshwater bathing beach) but not in direct stormwater discharge. For surface water samples, correlation improved with the application of a site-specific corrective factor, with regulatory action correctly predicted 98% of the time at bathing beaches. This study suggests the potential utility of QPCR for certain water quality monitoring applications. PMID:19717179

Lavender, Jennifer S; Kinzelman, Julie L

2009-11-01

282

Clinical Evaluation of the Cartridge-Based GeneXpert Human Papillomavirus Assay in Women Referred for Colposcopy  

PubMed Central

High-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) testing is now being introduced as a potential primary screening test for improved detection of cervical precancer and cancer. Current U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved tests are batch tests that take several hours to complete. A rapid, non-batch test might permit point-of-care (POC) testing, which can facilitate same-day screen and management strategies. For a non-batch, random-access platform (GeneXpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA), a prototype hrHPV assay (Xpert) has been developed where testing for 14 hrHPV types can be completed in 1 h. In the first clinical evaluation, Xpert was compared to two validated hrHPV tests, the cobas HPV test (cobas, Roche Molecular Systems) and Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2, Qiagen), and to histologic outcomes using specimens from colposcopy referral populations at 7 clinical sites in the United States (n = 697). The sensitivity of Xpert for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe diagnoses (CIN2+) (n = 141) was equal to that of cobas (90.8% versus 90.8%, P = 1) and greater than that of hc2 (90.8% versus 81.6%, P = 0.004). Xpert was more specific than cobas (42.6% versus 39.6%, P = 0.02) and less specific than hc2 (42.6% versus 47.7%, P < 0.001). Similar results were observed for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or higher (CIN3+) (n = 91). HPV16 detection by Xpert identified 41.8% of the CIN2+ specimens with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 54.6%. By comparison, HPV16 detection by cobas identified 42.6% of the CIN2+ specimens with a PPV of 55.0%. hrHPV detection by the Xpert demonstrated excellent clinical performance for identifying women with CIN2+ and CIN3+ that was comparable to that of currently available clinically validated tests. PMID:24719440

Smith, Katherine M.; Davis, Thomas E.; Schmeler, Kathleen M.; Ferris, Daron G.; Savage, Ashlyn H.; Gray, Jermaine E.; Stoler, Mark H.; Wright, Thomas C.; Ferenczy, Alex; Castle, Philip E.

2014-01-01

283

Reference Gene Selection for Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR Normalization in the Half-Smooth Tongue Sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis) at Different Developmental Stages, in Various Tissue Types and on Exposure to Chemicals  

PubMed Central

Quantitative real time RT-PCR has been described as the most sensitive method for the detection of low abundance mRNA. To date, no reference genes have been screened in the half-smooth tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis). The aim of this study was to select the most stable genes for quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Eight housekeeping genes (18S, TUBA, B2M, ACTB, EF1A, GAPDH, RPL17 and UBCE) were tested at different developmental stages, in different tissues, and following exposure to the drug SB-431542. Using geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder software, GAPDH/B2M, GAPDH/18S and UBCE/GAPDH were identified as the most suitable genes from samples taken of different developmental stages while 18S/RPL17 were consistently ranked as the best reference genes for different tissue types. Furthermore, TUBA/B2M, TUBA/UBCE and B2M/TUBA were found to be the most suitable genes in samples treated with the drug, SB-431542 by geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder respectively. Across both different developmental stages and tissue types, the combination of 18S and GAPDH was the most stable reference gene analyzed by Ref-Finder. To test and verify the screened reference genes, the expression profiles of LEFTY-normalized to the combination of GAPDH/18S and ACTB were presented. These results will be useful for future gene-expression studies in the half-smooth tongue sole. PMID:24667563

Liu, Conghui; Xin, Nian; Zhai, Yi; Jiang, Liming; Zhai, Jieming; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie

2014-01-01

284

Limitations of Using Propidium Monoazide with qPCR to Discriminate between Live and Dead Legionella in Biofilm Samples  

PubMed Central

Accurately quantifying Legionella for regulatory purposes to protect public health is essential. Real-time PCR (qPCR) has been proposed as a better method for detecting and enumerating Legionella in samples than conventional culture method. However, since qPCR amplifies any target DNA in the sample, the technique’s inability to discriminate between live and dead cells means that counts are generally significantly overestimated. Propidium monoazide (PMA) has been used successfully in qPCR to aid live/dead discrimination. We tested PMA use as a method to count only live Legionella cells in samples collected from a modified chemostat that generates environmentally comparable samples. Counts from PMA-treated samples that were pretreated with either heat or three types of disinfectants (to kill the cells) were highly variable, with the only consistent trend being the relationship between biofilm mass and numbers of Legionella cells. Two possibilities explain this result: 1. PMA treatment worked and the subsequent muted response of Legionella to disinfection treatment is a factor of biofilm/microbiological effects; although this does not account for the relationship between the amount of biofilm sampled and the viable Legionella count as determined by PMA-qPCR; or 2. PMA treatment did not work, and any measured decrease or increase in detectable Legionella is because of other factors affecting the method. This is the most likely explanation for our results, suggesting that higher concentrations of PMA might be needed to compensate for the presence of other compounds in an environmental sample or that lower amounts of biofilm need to be sampled. As PMA becomes increasingly toxic at higher concentrations and is very expensive, augmenting the method to include higher PMA concentrations is both counterproductive and cost prohibitive. Conversely, if smaller volumes of biofilm are used, the reproducibility of the method is reduced. Our results suggest that using PMA is not an appropriate method for discriminating between live and dead cells to enumerate Legionella for regulatory purposes. PMID:25288885

Taylor, Michael J; Bentham, Richard H; Ross, Kirstin E

2014-01-01

285

The validation of housekeeping genes as a reference in quantitative Real Time PCR analysis: application in the milk somatic cells and frozen whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus.  

PubMed

The validation of housekeeping genes (HKGs) for normalization of RNA expression in Real-Time PCR is crucial to obtain the most reliable results. There is limited information on reference genes used in the study of gene expression in milk somatic cells and the frozen whole blood of goats. Thus, the aim of this study was to propose the most stable housekeeping genes that can be used as a reference in Real-Time PCR analysis of milk somatic cells and whole blood of goats infected with caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Animals were divided into two groups: non-infected (N=13) and infected with CAEV (N=13). Biological material (milk somatic cells and whole blood) was collected 4 times during the lactation period (7, 30, 100 and 240days post-partum). The expression levels of candidate reference genes were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software. The stability of candidates for reference gene expression was analyzed for CAEV-free (control) and CAEV-infected groups, and also for both groups together (combined group). The stability of expression of ?-actin (ACTB), glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH), cyclophilin A (PPIA), RNA18S1, ubiquilin (UBQLN1) and ribosomal protein large subunit P0 (RPLP0) was determined in milk somatic cells, while ACTB, PPIA, RPLP0, succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ), battenin (CLN3), eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3K (EIF3K) and TATA box-binding protein (TBP) were measured in frozen whole blood of goats. PPIA and RPLP0 were considered as the most suitable internal controls as they were stably expressed in milk somatic cells regardless of disease status, according to NormFinder software. Furthermore, geNorm results indicated the expression of PPIA/RPLP0 genes as the best combination under these experimental conditions. The results of frozen whole blood analysis using NormFinder software revealed that the most stable reference gene in control, CAEV-infected and combined groups is YWHAZ, and - according to the geNorm results - the combined expression of PPM/YWHAZ genes is the best reference in the presented experiment. The usefulness in gene expression analysis of whole blood samples frozen immediately in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80°C was also proved. PMID:25068405

Jarczak, Justyna; Kaba, Jaros?aw; Bagnicka, Emilia

2014-10-10

286

Evaluation and validation of the suitable control genes for quantitative PCR studies in plasma DNA for non?invasive prenatal diagnosis.  

PubMed

Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is widely used in quantitation of plasma DNA for non?invasive prenatal diagnosis (NIPD). Control genes are indispensable as standard normalizers in qPCR analysis, and there is increasing evidence indicating that the content levels of commonly used control genes vary significantly in different independent experiments. The commonly used control genes for DNA quantitation using qPCR in plasma DNA analysis are frequently chosen without any preliminary evaluation of their suitability. The present study aimed to examine a panel of six common control genes (HBB, TERT, GAPDH, ALB, ACTB and TRG) in order to evaluate and validate the most reliable control genes for qPCR studies in the quantitation of plasma DNA from pregnant and non?pregnant females for NIPD. Plasma DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of 18 pregnant females and 18 non?pregnant females by the QIAamp DNA mini kit. qPCR followed by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper based analysis was conducted to evaluate the DNA content stabilities of the six candidate control genes. DSCR3 was used to validate the result. The study recommended TERT and the combination of ACTB and TERT as the optimal control genes for qPCR studies on pregnant/non?pregnant plasma DNA quantitation. Thus, the study reveals that the DNA content stability of widely used control genes varies significantly in pregnant and non?pregnant plasma DNA. PMID:25269617

Yang, Qiwei; Ali, Hassan Abdellah Ahmed; Yu, Shan; Zhang, Lin; Li, Xiuying; Du, Zhenwu; Zhang, Guizhen

2014-12-01

287

A strategy for designing multi-taxa specific reference gene systems. example of application--ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) used for the detection and quantification of three taxa: maize (Zea mays), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and rice (Oryza sativa).  

PubMed

In the first part of the paper, we report the description of a new strategy for the development of a plant reference gene system that can be used for genetically modified organism (GMO) analysis. On the basis of in silico research for candidate genes, the design of degenerate primers allowed the obtention of genomic sequences of the selected gene ppi-phosphofructokinase ( ppi-PPF) for nine taxa in which GMOs have been developed. The comparison and the analysis of inter- and intraspecies sequence variability were performed using a large number of species and cultivars. As an example of application following the detection of single nucleotide polymorphism, we designed specific conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for the detection and quantification of three taxa, namely, maize, cotton, and rice. This system was highly specific and sensitive. The gene copy number conservation among different cultivars was analyzed and confirmed with a sequencing step. This reference gene system is adequate for use in routine assays for the quantification of GMOs. We then explain briefly the constraints faced and propose recommendations when designing a reference gene system depending on the species to be targeted. PMID:17824661

Chaouachi, Maher; Giancola, Sandra; Romaniuk, Marcel; Laval, Valérie; Bertheau, Yves; Brunel, Dominique

2007-10-01

288

lolB gene, a valid alternative for qPCR detection of Vibrio cholerae in food and environmental samples.  

PubMed

In recent years a new genetic target for Vibrio cholerae detection has been reported, but its application was limited to clinical samples. This target, lolB, has never been applied to either food or environmental samples. In the present study the development, as well as the evaluation and pre-validation, of a real-time PCR method based on lolB, is described. The method included a newly designed hydrolysis probe to enhance its specificity. After comparison against other molecular and traditional methods, similar results were obtained regarding relative sensitivity, relative specificity, relative accuracy, positive and negative predictive values and index kappa of concordance (all higher than 91%), as well as a very low limit of detection (2 cfu/25 g). Additionally, after the analysis of more than 160 different food and environmental samples, its applicability in the food industry was completely demonstrated. PMID:25475326

Garrido-Maestu, Alejandro; Chapela, María-José; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

2015-04-01

289

Development of q-PCR approaches to assess water quality: Effects of cadmium on gene expression of the diatom  

E-print Network

, heavy metals are of particular concern because of the different toxic effects they can produce (Sauvant to metal pollution, for example Morin et al. (2008a) observed structural impact at the community level and morphological abnormalities in a metal-polluted

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

290

Genes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Illustration of the placement of genes in a chromosome. A gene can be defined as a region of DNA that controls a hereditary characteristic. It usually corresponds to a sequence used in the production of a specific protein or RNA. A gene carries biological information in a form that must be copied and transmitted from each cell to all its progeny. This includes the entire functional unit: coding DNA sequences, non-coding regulatory DNA sequences, and introns. Genes can be as short as 1000 base pairs or as long as several hundred thousand base pairs. It can even be carried by more than one chromosome. The estimate for the number of genes in humans has decreased as our knowledge has increased. As of 2001, humans are thought to have between 30,000 and 40,000 genes.

Access Excellence

2005-03-12

291

Towards Q-PCR of pathogenic bacteria with improved electrochemical double-tagged genosensing detection  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A very sensitive assay for the rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria based on electrochemical genosensing has been designed. The assay was performed by the PCR specific amplification of the eaeA gene, related with the pathogenic activity of Escherichia coli O157:H7. The efficiency and selectivity o...

292

Application of qPCR in conjunctival swab samples for the evaluation of canine leishmaniasis in borderline cases or disease relapse and correlation with clinical parameters.  

PubMed

BackgroundIn leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum, the dog acts as the main reservoir for the disease. Non-invasive sampling for Leishmania detection is pivotal for rapid and affordable diagnosis. Recently, the use of conjunctival swab (CS) has been evaluated as a non-invasive sampling technique for quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). However, few investigations have been made on the applicability of CS qPCR in particular cases such as dogs with borderline IFAT titres, suspected disease relapse with comorbidity and therapy monitoring. The aims of this study were i) to confirm the efficacy of CS, comparing these samples to buffy coat (BC) samples, as effective non-invasive samples for Leishmania quantitative detection by qPCR and ii) to verify the usefulness of qPCR compared to conventional laboratory and clinical parameters to assist in therapeutic decision making regarding dogs with complex clinical cases.MethodsEighty dogs were divided into 4 groups based on their IFAT titres and clinical histories. Two qPCR assays were performed both on CS raw lysates and on purified DNA from BC samples. The assays were then compared. Z tests for difference of proportion, with Bonferroni correction, were carried out to evaluate the qPCR results. Logistic regression with backward stepwise elimination was performed to detect the subset of haematochemical variables significantly associated with PCR positivity.ResultsThe qPCR performed on CS samples showed better sensitivity (87%) and specificity (96%) than assays carried out using BC samples, regardless of the primers used. The haematochemical parameters haemoglobin and globulins were found to be significantly associated with qPCR positivity. Pearson correlations between Leishmania kDNA load in CS and body condition scores or IFAT titres were calculated in dogs with new leishmaniasis diagnoses. The Leishmania kDNA load in CS correlated moderately with IFAT titres (R¿=¿0.59) but a very weak correlation (R¿=¿0.37) with body condition score (BCS) was found.ConclusionsThe applicability of CS for Leishmania detection in dogs was confirmed, revealing the usefulness of raw lysates for quantitative purposes. Moreover, the qPCR was found to be particularly useful in cases lacking a clear clinical diagnosis, where the haematochemical values cannot be predictive. PMID:25331737

Ceccarelli, Marcello; Galluzzi, Luca; Sisti, Davide; Bianchi, Barbara; Magnani, Mauro

2014-10-21

293

Determination of specific types and relative levels of QPCR inhibitors in environmental water samples using excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy and PARAFAC.  

PubMed

Assays that utilize PCR offer powerful tools to detect pathogens and other microorganisms in environmental samples. However, PCR inhibitors present in nucleic acid extractions can increase a sample's limit of detection, skew calculated marker concentrations, or cause false-negative results. It would be advantageous to predict which samples contain various types and levels of PCR inhibitors, especially the humic and fulvic acids that are frequently cited as PCR inhibitors in natural water samples. This study investigated the relationships between quantitative PCR (qPCR) inhibition and the humic and fulvic content of dissolved organic matter (DOM), as well as several other measures of DOM quantity and quality, in water samples. QPCR inhibition was also compared to water quality parameters, precipitation levels, and land use adjacent to the sampling location. Results indicate that qPCR inhibition in the tested water samples was correlated to several humic substance-like, DOM components, most notably terrestrially-derived, humic-like DOM and microbially-derived, fulvic-like DOM. No correlation was found between qPCR inhibition and water quality parameters or land use, but a relationship was noted between inhibition and antecedent rainfall. This study suggests that certain fractions of humic substances are responsible for PCR inhibition from temperate, freshwater systems. PARAFAC modeling of excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy provides insight on the components of the DOM pool that impact qPCR success and may be useful in evaluating methods to remove PCR inhibitors present in samples. PMID:23601829

Gentry-Shields, Jennifer; Wang, Angela; Cory, Rose M; Stewart, Jill R

2013-06-15

294

QUANTITATIVE REAL-TIME PCR (Q-PCR) FOR SPUTUM SMEAR DIAGNOSIS OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS AMONG PEOPLE WITH HIV/AIDS  

PubMed Central

Objective: To assess quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR) for the sputum smear diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB. Method: This is a prospective study to assess the accuracy of a diagnostic test, conducted on 140 sputum specimens from 140 patients living with HIV/AIDS with a clinical suspicion of PTB, attended at two referral hospitals for people living with HIV/AIDS in the city of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. A Löwenstein-Jensen medium culture and 7H9 broth were used as gold standard. Results: Of the 140 sputum samples, 47 (33.6%) were positive with the gold standard. q-PCR was positive in 42 (30%) of the 140 patients. Only one (0.71%) did not correspond to the culture. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the q-PCR were 87.2%, 98.9% and 95% respectively. In 39 (93%) of the 42 q-PCR positive cases, the CT (threshold cycle) was equal to or less than 37. Conclusion: q-PCR performed on sputum smears from patients living with HIV/AIDS demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, and may therefore be recommended as a method for diagnosing PTB. PMID:24626416

de Albuquerque, Yvana Maria Maia; Lima, Ana Luiza Magalhães de Andrade; Lins, Ana Kelly; Magalhães, Marcelo; Magalhães, Vera

2014-01-01

295

Reference Assessment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents interesting articles that explore several different areas of reference assessment, including practical case studies and theoretical articles that address a range of issues such as librarian behavior, patron satisfaction, virtual reference, or evaluation design. They include: (1) "Evaluating the Quality of a Chat Service"…

Bivens-Tatum, Wayne

2006-01-01

296

Palynology References  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As a part of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) website, this page provides a list of palynological references related to the Cretaceous Period. These references cover an array of topics including Early Cretaceous gymnosperm pollen, implications of palynofacies on petroleum potential, lignite microfossils, Cretaceous megaspore pollen, microspore pollen and depositional environments.

Ocean Drilling Program, Texas A&M University

297

A model freed from endogenous reference gene for quantification of genetically modified DNA by real-time PCR. 1. Quantification of DNA from genetically modified organisms in haplo-species materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is the first part of a serial study investigating a quantification model freed from endogenous reference gene for\\u000a genetically modified (GM) content by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The serial study involves two parts: (1) quantitative\\u000a determination of GM DNA in haplo-species plant samples; (2) quantitative determination of GM DNA in multi-species plant samples.\\u000a The paper describes a

Pingjian Deng; Dongyan Yang; Yongcun Yang; Xiaoke Yang; Liangrang Guo; Xiangyang Zhou; Xueling Wang

2008-01-01

298

Genetics Home Reference: MEGDEL syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... These changes, which can be seen with medical imaging, are referred to as Leigh-like disease. Other ... dystonia ; encephalopathy ; failure to thrive ; gene ; hypoglycemia ; hypotonia ; imaging ; inborn errors of metabolism ; inherited ; involuntary ; lactic acid ; ...

299

RAPID AND QUANTITATIVE DETECTION OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI AND E. COLI O157 IN WELL WATER USING A NANO-WIRED BIOSENSOR AND QPCR  

EPA Science Inventory

This project is expected to advance the use of antibody-based methods and molecular techniques for application to drinking water supplies. The expected deliverables are: (a) proof of concept and assessment of biosensor and QPCR techniques for recovery, detection and quantitati...

300

Evaluation of Commercial Cell Preparations as Sources of Calibration Standards for Real-Time qPCR Analysis of Enterococci in Recreational Waters  

EPA Science Inventory

In response to the Beach Act, the U.S. EPA has developed a quantitative PCR (qPCR) method for enterococci that meets requirements for rapid, risk-based water quality assessments of recreational waters. Widespread implementation of this method will require that different laborator...

301

Real-time polymerase chain reaction for the quantitative detection of tetA and tetB bacterial tetracycline resistance genes in food.  

PubMed

A new, rapid, sensitive and specific method was developed to directly detect and quantify tetA and tetB in food. Both tet genes are two of the most frequently present tetracycline resistance genes in gram-negative bacteria. A set of primers and Taqman probes was designed for each gene. The standard curves were performed using Escherichia coli BM13 (C600 RifR)/RP4 and E. coli NCTC 50365, which carry tetA and tetB, respectively. Meat and fish samples inoculated with these reference strains were used as a matrix to construct the standard curves for the analysis of 20 samples of chicken meat and 10 samples of hake (Merlucius merlucius). The limits of detection in pure culture were 5 cfu/mL (0.7 log cfu/mL) in the case of tetA, 50 cfu/mL (1.7log cfu/mL) for tetB and 5×10(2)cfu/g (2.7 log cfu/g) for both genes in food samples. The results obtained by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were compared to counts of tetracycline-resistant bacteria obtained by plating extracts of poultry and hake samples in culture media supplemented with 16 mg/L of tetracycline. Counts of tetracycline-resistant bacteria obtained by qPCR showed a positive correlation, especially interesting when compared with microbiological counts of tetracycline-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in poultry meat (r=0.5509) and with tetracycline-resistant mesophilic aerobic bacteria in hake samples (r=0.7146). The obtained results demonstrate that this method could be a useful tool for the direct quantification of the amount of bacterial strains that carry tetA and/or tetB genes in food samples. PMID:21420750

Guarddon, M; Miranda, J M; Rodríguez, J A; Vázquez, B I; Cepeda, A; Franco, C M

2011-04-29

302

A duplex real-time qPCR assay for the quantification of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in forensic samples: implications for quantifying DNA in degraded samples.  

PubMed

A duplex real-time qPCR assay was developed for quantifying human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA in forensic samples. The nuclear portion of the assay utilized amplification of a approximately 170-190 bp target sequence that spans the repeat region of the TH01 STR locus, and the mitochondrial portion of the assay utilized amplification of a 69 bp target sequence in the ND1 region. Validation studies, performed on an ABI 7000 SDS instrument using TaqMan detection, demonstrated that both portions of the duplex assay provide suitable quantification sensitivity and precision down to 10-15 copies of each genome of interest and that neither portion shows cross-reactivity to commonly encountered non-human genomes. As part of the validation studies, a series of DNase-degraded samples were quantified using three different methods: the duplex nuclear-mitochondrial qPCR assay, the ABI Quantifiler Human DNA Quantification Kit qPCR assay, which amplifies and detects a 62 bp nuclear target sequence, and slot blot hybridization. For non-degraded and moderately degraded samples in the series, all three methods were suitably accurate for quantifying nuclear DNA to achieve successful STR amplifications to yield complete profiles using the ABI AmpFlSTR Identifiler kit. However, for highly degraded samples, the duplex qPCR assay provided better estimates of nuclear template for STR amplification than did either the commercial qPCR assay, which overestimated the quantity of STR-sized DNA fragments, leading to an increased proportion of undetected alleles at the larger STR loci, or slot blot hybridization, which underestimated the quantity of nuclear DNA, leading to an increased proportion of STR amplification artifacts due to amplification of excess template. PMID:16225209

Timken, Mark D; Swango, Katie L; Orrego, Cristián; Buoncristiani, Martin R

2005-09-01

303

Reference gene selection, primer design and amplification interference of quantitative real-time PCR in tomato and orange subjected to environmental and disease stress  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Response of gene expression in the oxylipin pathway to chilling and heating in tomatoes at full ripe stage was investigated. Total RNA was isolated from tomato pericarp tissue, and gene expression of Tomlox A-Tomlox D, HPL and ADH were determined by real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using t...

304

A simple screening method for detection of Klinefelter syndrome and other X-chromosome aneuploidies based on copy number of the androgen receptor gene.  

PubMed

Due to the high prevalence and variable phenotype of patients with Klinefelter syndrome, there is a need for a robust and rapid screening method allowing early diagnosis. Here, we report on the development and detailed clinical validation of a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR)-based method of the copy number assessment of the androgen receptor (AR) gene, located to Xq11.2-q12. We analysed samples from 50 individuals, including a healthy male and female controls and patients with Klinefelter syndrome (47,XXY; 48,XXXY) (n = 28), mosaicisms (46,XX/47,XXY/48XXYY; 45,X/46,XY) (n = 3), other sex chromosome abnormalities (46,XX males; 47,XYY)(n = 4) and normal karyotypes (46,XY) (n = 13). The reference range for the AR-copy number was established as 0.8-1.2 for one copy and 1.7-2.3 for two copies. The qPCR results were within the reference range in 17/18 samples (94%) or 30/31 (97%) samples with one or two copies of the AR gene, respectively. None of the Klinefelter patients were misdiagnosed as having a karyotype with only one X-chromosome, and in none of the 46,XY males were two copies demonstrated. We systematically compared qPCR results with those obtained with another PCR-based method, the XIST-gene expression. The XIST-expression based assay was correct in only 29/36 samples (81%). Our findings demonstrated that the AR-qPCR technique is a simple and reliable screening method for diagnosis of patients with Klinefelter syndrome or other chromosomal disorders involving an aberrant number of X-chromosomes. PMID:17720778

Ottesen, A M; Garn, I D; Aksglaede, L; Juul, A; Rajpert-De Meyts, E

2007-10-01

305

DNA Repair Genes Expression Analysis of Acute Dose Charge Particle Radiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study will present gene expression changes induced by positively charged particle in four categories i.e. 0 Gy, 0.1 Gy, 1.0 Gy and 2.0 Gy in nine different DNA repair genes from testes of mouse using qPCR analysis.

Tariq, M. A.; Shishodia, S.; Ramesh, G. T.; Sodipe, A.; Jejelowo, O.; Pourmand, N.

2010-04-01

306

Comparison of quantitative PCR assays for Escherichia coli targeting ribosomal RNA and single copy genes  

EPA Science Inventory

Aims: Compare specificity and sensitivity of quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays targeting single and multi-copy gene regions of Escherichia coli. Methods and Results: A previously reported assay targeting the uidA gene (uidA405) was used as the basis for comparing the taxono...

307

SINGLE CELL GENE EXPRESSION ANALYSIS REVEALS GENETIC ASSOCIATIONS MASKED IN  

E-print Network

for the samples are available from the HapMap repository (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov). The data are: · Annotation and growth of the 15 HapMap LCL samples (sheet 1) · Annotation and qPCR primers for the genes

Cai, Long

308

Genetics Home Reference: Progressive external ophthalmoplegia  

MedlinePLUS

Progressive external ophthalmoplegia Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information ...

309

Genetics Home Reference: Leber hereditary optic neuropathy  

MedlinePLUS

Leber hereditary optic neuropathy Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) Related Condition(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about ...

310

Genetics Home Reference: Mitochondrial complex III deficiency  

MedlinePLUS

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency Mitochondrial DNA Related Gene(s) References Quick links to this topic MedlinePlus Health information Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center Information about genetic conditions ...

311

Reference Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reference materials for measurement of particle size and porosity may be used for calibration or qualification of instruments or for validation of operating procedures or operators. They cover a broad range of materials. On the one hand there are the certified reference materials, for which governmental institutes have certified one or more typical size or porosity values. Then, there is a large group of reference materials from commercial companies. And on the other hand there are typical products in a given line of industry, where size or porosity values come from the analysis laboratory itself or from some round-robin test in a group of industrial laboratories. Their regular application is essential for adequate quality control of particle size and porosity measurement, as required in e.g., ISO 17025 on quality management. In relation to this, some quality requirements for certification are presented.

Merkus, Henk G.

312

SARS Reference  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Amedeo.com, the online Medical Literature Guide, has recently made available the SARS reference -- a "comprehensive and up-to-date overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome" edited by Christian Drosten and Wolfgang Preiser. Offered free of charge to any user, the SARS reference will be updated monthly for the duration of the epidemic. Content includes SARS virology, epidemiology, treatment, a timeline, and a number of other timely and important topics. Users may view chapters individually within their browser, or download the entire publication. Also available in Spanish and Chinese.

Osten, Christian.

313

Reference Gene Selection for Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction of mRNA Transcript Levels in Chinese Cabbage ( Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis )  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Chinese cabbage is a crop belonging to the family Cruciferae; very few studies have focused on the analysis of gene expression\\u000a in this economically important crop. In this study, we used real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction to identify the\\u000a control genes that are the most stably expressed in a given set of tissues and under conditions of drought stress

Jiani Qi; Shuancang Yu; Fenglan Zhang; Xiangqun Shen; Xiuyun Zhao; Yangjun Yu; Deshuang Zhang

2010-01-01

314

Poroelastic references  

DOE Data Explorer

This file contains a list of relevant references on the Biot theory (forward and inverse approaches), the double-porosity and dual-permeability theory, and seismic wave propagation in fracture porous media, in RIS format, to approach seismic monitoring in a complex fractured porous medium such as Brady?s Geothermal Field.

Christina Morency

315

De novo sequencing and assembly of Centella asiatica leaf transcriptome for mapping of structural, functional and regulatory genes with special reference to secondary metabolism.  

PubMed

Centella asiatica (L.) Urban is an important medicinal plant and has been used since ancient times in traditional systems of medicine. C. asiatica mainly contains ursane skeleton based triterpenoid sapogenins and saponins predominantly in its leaves. This investigation employed Illumina next generation sequencing (NGS) strategy on a pool of three cDNAs from expanding leaf of C. asiatica and developed an assembled transcriptome sequence resource of the plant. The short transcript reads (STRs) generated and assembled into contigs and singletons, representing majority of the genes expressed in C. asiatica, were termed as 'tentative unique transcripts' (TUTs). The TUT dataset was analyzed with the objectives of (i) development of a transcriptome assembly of C. asiatica, and (ii) classification/characterization of the genes into categories like structural, functional, regulatory etc. based on their function. Overall, 68.49% of the 46,171,131 reads generated in the NGS process could be assembled into a total of 79,041 contigs. Gene ontology and functional annotation of sequences resulted into the identification of genes related to different sets of cellular functions including identification of genes related to primary and secondary metabolism. The wet lab validation of seventeen assembled gene sequences identified to be involved in secondary metabolic pathways and control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was established by semi-quantitative and real time PCR (qRT-PCR). The validation also included sequencing/size matching of a set of semi-quantitative PCR amplicons with their in silico assembled contig/gene. This confirmed the appropriateness of assembling the reads and contigs. Thus, the present study constitutes the largest report to date on C. asiatica transcriptome based gene resource that may contribute substantially to the understanding of the basal biological functions and biochemical pathways of secondary metabolites as well as the transcriptional regulatory elements and genetic markers. This work sets the stage for multi-faceted future improvement of the plant, through discovery of new genes, marker-assisted breeding or genetic engineering, on this species as well as for other species of Apiaceae and triterpene producing medicinal plants. PMID:23644021

Sangwan, Rajender S; Tripathi, Sandhya; Singh, Jyoti; Narnoliya, Lokesh K; Sangwan, Neelam S

2013-08-01

316

Comparison of culture with two different qPCR assays for detection of rectovaginal carriage of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci) in pregnant women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Development of rapid and sensitive detection methods for group B streptococci (GBS) in pregnant women remains useful in order to adequately identify pregnant women at risk of transferring GBS to their neonate. This study compared the CDC recommended sampling and culture method with two qPCR methods for detecting GBS colonization.For a total of 100 pregnant women at 35–37 weeks of

Nabil Abdullah El Aila; Inge Tency; Geert Claeys; Hans Verstraelen; Pieter Deschaght; Ellen Decat; Guido Lopes dos Santos Santiago; Piet Cools; Marleen Temmerman; Mario Vaneechoutte

2011-01-01

317

Use of Real-Time qPCR to Quantify Members of the Unculturable Heterotrophic Bacterial Community in a Deep Sea Marine Sponge, Vetulina sp  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this report, real-time quantitative PCR (TaqMan® qPCR) of the small subunit (SSU) 16S-like rRNA molecule, a universal phylogenetic\\u000a marker, was used to quantify the relative abundance of individual bacterial members of a diverse, yet mostly unculturable,\\u000a microbial community from a marine sponge. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of bacterial communities derived from Caribbean\\u000a Lithistid sponges have shown a wide diversity of

M. Cassler; C. L. Peterson; A. Ledger; S. A. Pomponi; A. E. Wright; R. Winegar; P. J. McCarthy; J. V. Lopez

2008-01-01

318

Stability of expression of reference genes among different lentil (Lens culinaris) genotypes subjected to cold stress, white mold disease, and Aphanomyces root rot  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Lentils have served as an important plant source of dietary protein for over 8000 years. The development of improved lentil varieties is accelerated by a better understanding of the genetic basis of desirable traits, which can be gained by examining patterns of gene expression among phenotypically d...

319

Reference gene selection for quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction normalization during in vitro adventitious rooting in Eucalyptus globulus Labill  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Eucalyptus globulus and its hybrids are very important for the cellulose and paper industry mainly due to their low lignin content and frost resistance. However, rooting of cuttings of this species is recalcitrant and exogenous auxin application is often necessary for good root development. To date one of the most accurate methods available for gene expression analysis is quantitative

Márcia R de Almeida; Carolina M Ruedell; Felipe K Ricachenevsky; Raul A Sperotto; Giancarlo Pasquali; Arthur G Fett-Neto

2010-01-01

320

Diagnostic Strategies for Autosomal Dominant Acute Porphyrias: Retrospective Analysis of 467 Unrelated Patients Referred for Mutational Analysis of the HMBS, CPOX, or PPOX Gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Clinically indistinguishable attacks of acute porphyria occur in acute intermittent porphyria (AIP), hereditary coproporphyria (HCP), and varie- gate porphyria (VP). There are few evidence-based di- agnostic strategies for these disorders. METHODS: Thediagnosticsensitivityofmutationdetec- tion was determined by sequencing and gene-dosage analysis to search for mutations in 467 sequentially re- ferred, unrelated patients. The diagnostic accuracy of plasma fluorescence scanning, fecal

Sharon D. Whatley; Nicola G. Mason; Jacqueline R. Woolf; Robert G. Newcombe; George H. Elder; Michael N. Badminton

2009-01-01

321

Incorporating Expert Judgments in Utility Evaluation of Bacteroidales qPCR Assays for Microbial Source Tracking in a Drinking Water Source.  

PubMed

Several assays for the detection of host-specific genetic markers of the order Bacteroidales have been developed and used for microbial source tracking (MST) in environmental waters. It is recognized that the source-sensitivity and source-specificity are unknown and variable when introducing these assays in new geographic regions, which reduces their reliability and use. A Bayesian approach was developed to incorporate expert judgments with regional assay sensitivity and specificity assessments in a utility evaluation of a human and a ruminant-specific qPCR assay for MST in a drinking water source. Water samples from Lake Rådasjön were analyzed for E. coli, intestinal enterococci and somatic coliphages through cultivation and for human (BacH) and ruminant-specific (BacR) markers through qPCR assays. Expert judgments were collected regarding the probability of human and ruminant fecal contamination based on fecal indicator organism data and subjective information. Using Bayes formula, the conditional probability of a true human or ruminant fecal contamination given the presence of BacH or BacR was determined stochastically from expert judgments and regional qPCR assay performance, using Beta distributions to represent uncertainties. A web-based computational tool was developed for the procedure, which provides a measure of confidence to findings of host-specific markers and demonstrates the information value from these assays. PMID:25545113

Åström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Reischer, Georg H; Norberg, Tommy; Hermansson, Malte

2015-02-01

322

Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer-testis antigens in multiple myeloma1  

E-print Network

1 Gene expression profiling and real-time PCR analyses identify novel potential cancer. Real-time RT-PCR was performed for 34 genes in 12 NT, 5 MMC samples and one sample of 5 pooled testes collected bone marrow samples and clinical data. VP performed microarray hybridization. GR performed qPCR

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

323

Gene expression patterns in hypoxic and post-hypoxic adult rat retina with special reference to the NMDA receptor and its interactome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: A gene expression analysis of hypoxic rat retina was undertaken to gain a deeper understanding of the possible molecular mechanisms that underlie hypoxia-induced retinal pathologies and identify possible therapeutic targets. Methods: Rats were made severely hypoxic (6%-7% O2) for 3 h. Some rats were sacrificed at this time, and others were allowed to recover for 24 h under normoxic

Lori Anne Crosson; Roger A. Kroes; Joseph R. Moskal; Robert A. Linsenmeier

2009-01-01

324

Differentiation of Salmonella strains from the SARA, SARB and SARC reference collections by using three genes PCR-RFLP and the 2100 Agilent Bioanalyzer  

PubMed Central

Rapid molecular typing methods are important tools in surveillance and outbreak investigations of human Salmonella infections. Here we described the development of a three-genes PCR-RFLP typing method for the differentiation of Salmonella species, subspecies and serovars using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. The fliC, gnd, and mutS genes were PCR-amplified in 160 Salmonella strains representing the two Salmonella species, six subspecies, and 41 different serovars of S. enterica subspecies enterica. PCR products were individually cut with two different restriction enzymes and the resulting 930 restriction patterns were collected using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer followed by cluster analysis. Both species of Salmonella were differentiated by conventional PCR. All of S. bongori tested were gnd PCR negative due to a mismatch at the 3?-end in one the PCR primers. Salmonella subspecies were differentiated into third-teen homogeneous groups representing each of the six subspecies by cluster analysis of restriction patterns generated from the mutS gene cut with AciI. S. enterica subspecies enterica serovars were further differentiated by the combination of the three target genes and five out the six sets of restriction patterns with a discriminatory power of 0.9725 by cluster analysis. The combined RFLP results of five sets of restriction patterns allowed us to assign each of the 160 strains to one of 128 restriction types. During inoculation studies we were able to identify S. Saintpaul and Typhimurium from 24 h pre-enrichment samples using the described method. The use of fliC, gnd, and mutS PCR-RFLP with the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer can provide an accessible and automated alternative method for differentiation of Salmonella pathogens. PMID:25157247

Soler-García, Ángel A.; De Jesús, Antonio J.; Taylor, Kishana; Brown, Eric W.

2014-01-01

325

Quantitative multi-gene expression profiling of primary prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND. This study describes the evaluation of the expression patterns of prostate- related transcripts in 106 matched prostate tissues from prostatectomies as predictors for prostate cancer (PCa). METHODS. Quantitative PCR (QPCR) assays with site-specific hybridization probes were established for four housekeeping genes (GAPDH, HPRT, PBGD, TBP) and nine prostate- related genes (AibZIP, D-GPCR, EZH2, PCA3, PDEF, prostein, PSA, PSCA, TRPM8).

Uta Schmidt; Susanne Fuessel; Rainer Koch; Gustavo B. Baretton; Andrea Lohse; Silke Tomasetti; Susanne Unversucht; Michael Froehner; Manfred P. Wirth; Axel Meye

2006-01-01

326

A quadruplex real-time qPCR assay for the simultaneous assessment of total human DNA, human male DNA, DNA degradation and the presence of PCR inhibitors in forensic samples: a diagnostic tool for STR typing.  

PubMed

A quadruplex real-time qPCR assay was developed to simultaneously assess total human DNA, human male DNA, DNA degradation and PCR inhibitors in forensic samples. Specifically, the assay utilizes a approximately 170-190bp target sequence that spans the TH01 STR locus to quantify total human DNA (nuTH01), a 137 bp target sequence directly adjacent to the SRY gene to quantify human male DNA (nuSRY), a 67 bp target sequence flanking the CSF1PO STR locus (nuCSF) to assess degradation (nuCSF:nuTH01 ratio) and a 77 bp synthetic DNA template used as an internal PCR control target sequence (IPC) for the assessment of PCR inhibition. Validation studies, performed on an ABI 7500 SDS instrument using TaqMan and TaqManMGB detection, indicate each of the targets in the quadruplex assay performs effectively and is informative even when challenged with DNase-degraded and hematin-inhibited samples. The nuTH01-nuSRY-nuCSF-IPC quadruplex qPCR assay is envisioned to assist in the choice of the most informative DNA typing system available, which may include standard autosomal STR typing when the results indicate the presence of non-degraded, single gender DNA or non-degraded, male:female mixtures at ratios expected to yield probative alleles; Y STR typing in samples containing a male component that is overwhelmed by the presence of an excess of female DNA; reduced amplicon size STR typing ("MiniSTRs") where the nuCSF:nuTH01 ratio indicates the sample is highly degraded; enhanced STR amplification with additional AmpliTaq Gold/BSA and/or sample clean-up when the presence of PCR inhibitors is suggested by a delayed IPC C(T) value or mitochondrial DNA typing in samples where little to no nuclear DNA is detected. The present study includes evaluations of species specificity, sensitivity, precision, reproducibility, male-female mixtures, population samples and applications to various casework-type samples as indicated by the Scientific Working Group on DNA Analysis Methods (SWGDAM) guidelines. PMID:19083806

Hudlow, William R; Chong, Mavis Date; Swango, Katie L; Timken, Mark D; Buoncristiani, Martin R

2008-03-01

327

DEVELOPMENT OF DATA QUALITY OBJECTIVES AND USE OF TWO VARIATIONS OF GENETICALLY-MODIFIED STREPTOCOCCUS GORDONIL AS LYSIS CONTROLS IN A QPCR ASSAY FOR ASSESSING SANITARY QUALITY OF WATER  

EPA Science Inventory

Joseph B. James and Fred J. Genthner United States Environmental Protection Agency, Gulf Breeze, FL Background: Methods using rapid cycle, real-time, quantitative (QPCR) are being developed for detecting and quantifying Enterococcus spp. as well as other aquatic b...

328

Comparison of Five Major Trichome Regulatory Genes in Brassica villosa with Orthologues within the Brassicaceae  

PubMed Central

Coding sequences for major trichome regulatory genes, including the positive regulators GLABRA 1(GL1), GLABRA 2 (GL2), ENHANCER OF GLABRA 3 (EGL3), and TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA 1 (TTG1) and the negative regulator TRIPTYCHON (TRY), were cloned from wild Brassica villosa, which is characterized by dense trichome coverage over most of the plant. Transcript (FPKM) levels from RNA sequencing indicated much higher expression of the GL2 and TTG1 regulatory genes in B. villosa leaves compared with expression levels of GL1 and EGL3 genes in either B. villosa or the reference genome species, glabrous B. oleracea; however, cotyledon TTG1 expression was high in both species. RNA sequencing and Q-PCR also revealed an unusual expression pattern for the negative regulators TRY and CPC, which were much more highly expressed in trichome-rich B. villosa leaves than in glabrous B. oleracea leaves and in glabrous cotyledons from both species. The B. villosa TRY expression pattern also contrasted with TRY expression patterns in two diploid Brassica species, and with the Arabidopsis model for expression of negative regulators of trichome development. Further unique sequence polymorphisms, protein characteristics, and gene evolution studies highlighted specific amino acids in GL1 and GL2 coding sequences that distinguished glabrous species from hairy species and several variants that were specific for each B. villosa gene. Positive selection was observed for GL1 between hairy and non-hairy plants, and as expected the origin of the four expressed positive trichome regulatory genes in B. villosa was predicted to be from B. oleracea. In particular the unpredicted expression patterns for TRY and CPC in B. villosa suggest additional characterization is needed to determine the function of the expanded families of trichome regulatory genes in more complex polyploid species within the Brassicaceae. PMID:24755905

Nayidu, Naghabushana K.; Kagale, Sateesh; Taheri, Ali; Withana-Gamage, Thushan S.; Parkin, Isobel A. P.; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Gruber, Margaret Y.

2014-01-01

329

OakContigDF159.1, a reference library for studying differential gene expression in Quercus robur during controlled biotic interactions: use for quantitative transcriptomic profiling of oak roots in ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.  

PubMed

Oaks (Quercus spp.), which are major forest trees in the northern hemisphere, host many biotic interactions, but molecular investigation of these interactions is limited by fragmentary genome data. To date, only 75 oak expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have been characterized in ectomycorrhizal (EM) symbioses. We synthesized seven beneficial and detrimental biotic interactions between microorganisms and animals and a clone (DF159) of Quercus robur. Sixteen 454 and eight Illumina cDNA libraries from leaves and roots were prepared and merged to establish a reference for RNA-Seq transcriptomic analysis of oak EMs with Piloderma croceum. Using the Mimicking Intelligent Read Assembly (MIRA) and Trinity assembler, the OakContigDF159.1 hybrid assembly, containing 65 712 contigs with a mean length of 1003 bp, was constructed, giving broad coverage of metabolic pathways. This allowed us to identify 3018 oak contigs that were differentially expressed in EMs, with genes encoding proline-rich cell wall proteins and ethylene signalling-related transcription factors showing up-regulation while auxin and defence-related genes were down-regulated. In addition to the first report of remorin expression in EMs, the extensive coverage provided by the study permitted detection of differential regulation within large gene families (nitrogen, phosphorus and sugar transporters, aquaporins). This might indicate specific mechanisms of genome regulation in oak EMs compared with other trees. PMID:23672230

Tarkka, Mika T; Herrmann, Sylvie; Wubet, Tesfaye; Feldhahn, Lasse; Recht, Sabine; Kurth, Florence; Mailänder, Sarah; Bönn, Markus; Neef, Maren; Angay, Oguzhan; Bacht, Michael; Graf, Marcel; Maboreke, Hazel; Fleischmann, Frank; Grams, Thorsten E E; Ruess, Liliane; Schädler, Martin; Brandl, Roland; Scheu, Stefan; Schrey, Silvia D; Grosse, Ivo; Buscot, François

2013-07-01

330

Detection of fecal bacteria and source tracking identifiers in environmental waters using rRNA-based RT-qPCR and rDNA-based qPCR assays.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the use of RT-qPCR assays targeting rRNA gene sequences for the detection of fecal bacteria in water samples. We challenged the RT-qPCR assays against RNA extracted from sewage effluent (n = 14), surface water (n = 30), and treated source water (n = 15) samples. Additionally, we applied the same assays using DNA as the qPCR template. The targeted fecal bacteria were present in most of the samples tested, although in several cases, the detection frequency increased when RNA was used as the template. For example, the majority of samples that tested positive for E. coli and Campylobacter spp. in surface waters, and for human-specific Bacteroidales, E. coli, and Enterococcus spp. in treated source waters were only detected when rRNA was used as the original template. The difference in detection frequency using rRNA or rDNA (rRNA gene) was sample- and assay-dependent, suggesting that the abundance of active and nonactive populations differed between samples. Statistical analyses for each population exhibiting multiple quantifiable results showed that the rRNA copy numbers were significantly higher than the rDNA counterparts (p < 0.05). Moreover, the detection frequency of rRNA-based assays were in better agreement with the culture-based results of E. coli, intestinal enterococci, and thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in surface waters than that of rDNA-based assays, suggesting that rRNA signals were associated to active bacterial populations. Our data show that using rRNA-based approaches significantly increases detection sensitivity for common fecal bacteria in environmental waters. These findings have important implications for microbial water quality monitoring and public health risk assessments. PMID:24187936

Pitkänen, Tarja; Ryu, Hodon; Elk, Michael; Hokajärvi, Anna-Maria; Siponen, Sallamaari; Vepsäläinen, Asko; Räsänen, Pia; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

2013-12-01

331

Analysis of adenoviruses and polyomaviruses quantified by qPCR as indicators of water quality in source and drinking-water treatment plants.  

PubMed

Three drinking-water treatment plants were analyzed for the presence of human adenoviruses (HAdV) and JC polyomavirus (JCPyV), previously suggested as viral contamination indicators, in order to define their water quality in relation to the presence of viral pathogens and the efficiency of the treatments applied. The 90% of the river water samples had positive results of HAdV (10(1)-10(4) genome copies (GC)/L); and 48%, of JCPyV (10(0)-10(3)GC/L). Lower concentrations of HAdV and JCPyV were found in different treatment steps of the plants in absence of bacterial standards. Virus removal efficiencies were higher than 5 logs in plants 1 and 3 and could be quantified as >2 logs in plant 2. However, three post-chlorinated samples from plants 2 and 3 (11%) were found to be positive for HAdV by qPCR, but did not show infectivity in the cell cultures assayed. Simple methods based on the adsorption-elution of viruses from glass wool give low-cost and efficient virus recovery from source water and large-volume water samples. Quantification of JCPyV and HAdV using qPCR is useful for evaluating virus removal efficiency in water treatment plants, identification of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) and as a molecular index of the virological quality of water. Though infectivity is not guaranteed when using qPCR techniques in water treated with disinfection processes, the quality of source water, where viruses have proved to have infective capabilities, and the removal efficiency of viral particles may be efficiently quantified. PMID:19230949

Albinana-Gimenez, Nestor; Miagostovich, Marize P; Calgua, Byron; Huguet, Josep M; Matia, Lleonard; Girones, Rosina

2009-04-01

332

ITS1 copy number varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis strains: implications for qPCR estimates of infection intensity from field-collected amphibian skin swabs.  

PubMed

Genomic studies of the amphibian-killing fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, [Bd]) identified three highly divergent genetic lineages, only one of which has a global distribution. Bd strains within these linages show variable genomic content due to differential loss of heterozygosity and recombination. The current quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol to detect the fungus from amphibian skin swabs targets the intergenic transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region using a TaqMan fluorescent probe specific to Bd. We investigated the consequences of genomic differences in the quantification of ITS1 from eight distinct Bd strains, including representatives from North America, South America, the Caribbean, and Australia. To test for potential differences in amplification, we compared qPCR standards made from Bd zoospore counts for each strain, and showed that they differ significantly in amplification rates. To test potential mechanisms leading to strain differences in qPCR reaction parameters (slope and y-intercept), we: a) compared standard curves from the same strains made from extracted Bd genomic DNA in equimolar solutions, b) quantified the number of ITS1 copies per zoospore using a standard curve made from PCR-amplicons of the ITS1 region, and c) cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified ITS1 regions from these same strains to verify the presence of the probe site in all haplotypes. We found high strain variability in ITS1 copy number, ranging from 10 to 144 copies per single zoospore. Our results indicate that genome size might explain strain differences in ITS1 copy number, but not ITS1 sequence variation because the probe-binding site and primers were conserved across all haplotypes. For standards constructed from uncharacterized Bd strains, we recommend the use of single ITS1 PCR-amplicons as the absolute standard in conjunction with current quantitative assays to inform on copy number variation and provide universal estimates of pathogen zoospore loads from field-caught amphibians. PMID:23555682

Longo, Ana V; Rodriguez, David; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mendoza Almeralla, Cinthya; Burrowes, Patricia A; Zamudio, Kelly R

2013-01-01

333

Evaluation of Broiler Litter with Reference to the Microbial Composition as Assessed by Using 16S rRNA and Functional Gene Markers  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about the microbial composition of animal bedding wastes, including poultry litter, and what is known has been deduced from standard culture methods, by which some fastidious organisms that exist in the environment may not be detected. We evaluated the bacterial composition of poultry litter by using a combination of culture and molecular detection. Total aerobic bacteria in poultry litter were detected by culture at 109 CFU/g of material. Enteric bacteria such as Enterococcus spp. and coliforms composed 0.1 and 0.01%, respectively, of the total aerobic cultivatable bacteria in poultry litter; no Salmonella strains were detected by culture. In order to characterize the most abundant bacterial groups, we sequenced 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) genes amplified by PCR with microbial community DNA isolated from poultry litter as the template. From the 16S rDNA library, 31 genera were identified. Twelve families or groups were identified with lactobacilli and Salinococcus spp. forming the most abundant groups. In fact, 82% of the total sequences were identified as gram-positive bacteria with 62% of total belonging to low G+C gram-positive groups. In addition to detection of 16S rDNA sequences associated with the expected fecal bacteria present in manure, we detected many bacterial sequences for organisms, such as Globicatella sulfidofaciens, Corynebacterium ammoniagenes, Corynebacterium urealyticum, Clostridium aminovalericum, Arthrobacter sp., and Denitrobacter permanens, that may be involved in the degradation of wood and cycling of nitrogen and sulfur. Several sequences were identified in the library for bacteria associated with disease in humans and poultry such as clostridia, staphylococci, and Bordetella spp. However, specific PCR targeting other human and veterinary pathogens did not detect the presence of Salmonella, pathogenic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Listeria spp., or toxigenic staphylococci. PCR and DNA hybridization revealed the presence of class 1 integrons with gene cassettes that specify resistance to aminoglycosides and chloramphenicol. Only from understanding the microbial community of animal wastes such as poultry litter can we manage animal disease and limit the impact of animal waste on the environment and human and animal health. PMID:12571010

Lu, Jingrang; Sanchez, Susan; Hofacre, Charles; Maurer, John J.; Harmon, Barry G.; Lee, Margie D.

2003-01-01

334

Meningioangiomatosis occurring in a young male without neurofibromatosis: with special reference to its histogenesis and loss of heterozygosity in the NF2 gene region.  

PubMed

A 16-year-old young male experienced persistent headache, and brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal mass with calcification in the right temporal lobe of the cerebrum. The tumor was located in the leptomeninges and cerebral cortex. In the leptomeninges, multiple calcified-fibrous nodules were noted. In this area spindle-shaped cells were arranged in a fascicular or storiform pattern. A few meningioma-like nodules were also present. With continuity of this leptomeningeal lesion, a diffuse infiltrative lesion composed of proliferating perivascular cells and hyalinized small vessels was also present in the cerebral cortex. The proliferating vessels were small and narrowed by proliferation of surrounding spindle-shaped cells. Immunohistochemically, the spindle-shaped cells had strong to moderate positivity for vimentin and CD34 and weak positivity for epithelial membrane antigen and S-100 protein. The maximum Ki67 labeling index was 0.3%. The spindle-shaped cells showed loss of heterozygosity on D17S929 and D17S282 microsatellite markers flanking the NF2 gene. These histopathologic and genetic findings are consistent with meningioangiomatosis, and meningioangiomatosis has been thought to be a neoplastic lesion of meningothelial cells. This is the first report of a genetic alteration in a case of meningioangiomatosis. PMID:11756780

Takeshima, Yukio; Amatya, Vishwa Jeet; Nakayori, Fumio; Nakano, Tomohiro; Sugiyama, Kazuhiko; Inai, Kouki

2002-01-01

335

Screening biological stains with qPCR versus lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips: a quantitative comparison using analytical figures of merit.  

PubMed

Biological fluid identification is an important facet of evidence examination in forensic laboratories worldwide. While identifying bodily fluids may provide insight into which downstream DNA methods to employ, these screening techniques consume a vital portion of the available evidence, are usually qualitative, and rely on visual interpretation. In contrast, qPCR yields information regarding the amount and proportion of amplifiable genetic material. In this study, dilution series of either semen or male saliva were prepared in either buffer or female blood. The samples were subjected to both lateral flow immunochromatographic test strips and qPCR analysis. Analytical figures of merit-including sensitivity, minimum distinguishable signal (MDS) and limit of detection (LOD)-were calculated and compared between methods. By applying the theory of the propagation of random errors, LODs were determined to be 0.05 ?L of saliva for the RSID™ Saliva cards, 0.03 ?L of saliva for Quantifiler(®) Duo, and 0.001 ?L of semen for Quantifiler(®) Duo. In conclusion, quantitative PCR was deemed a viable and effective screening method for subsequent DNA profiling due to its stability in different matrices, sensitivity, and low limits of detection. PMID:24117798

Oechsle, Crystal Simson; Haddad, Sandra; Sgueglia, Joanne B; Grgicak, Catherine M

2014-01-01

336

Quantification of predation using qPCR: Effect of elapsed time, chaser diet, quantity of prey eggs, and sample preservation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Using quantitative PCR with a prey-specific mtDNA 214 bp amplicon from COI and cds mitochondrial genes of Colorado potato beetle, we fed prey eggs of known age and number to larvae of the generalist coccinelid predator Coleomegilla maculata, to elucidate the effects of time and diet since consumptio...

337

16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing of reference and clinical samples and investigation of the temperature stability of microbiome profiles  

PubMed Central

Background Sample storage conditions, extraction methods, PCR primers, and parameters are major factors that affect metagenomics analysis based on microbial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Most published studies were limited to the comparison of only one or two types of these factors. Systematic multi-factor explorations are needed to evaluate the conditions that may impact validity of a microbiome analysis. This study was aimed to improve methodological options to facilitate the best technical approaches in the design of a microbiome study. Three readily available mock bacterial community materials and two commercial extraction techniques, Qiagen DNeasy and MO BIO PowerSoil DNA purification methods, were used to assess procedures for 16S ribosomal DNA amplification and pyrosequencing-based analysis. Primers were chosen for 16S rDNA quantitative PCR and amplification of region V3 to V1. Swabs spiked with mock bacterial community cells and clinical oropharyngeal swabs were incubated at respective temperatures of -80°C, -20°C, 4°C, and 37°C for 4 weeks, then extracted with the two methods, and subjected to pyrosequencing and taxonomic and statistical analyses to investigate microbiome profile stability. Results The bacterial compositions for the mock community DNA samples determined in this study were consistent with the projected levels and agreed with the literature. The quantitation accuracy of abundances for several genera was improved with changes made to the standard Human Microbiome Project (HMP) procedure. The data for the samples purified with DNeasy and PowerSoil methods were statistically distinct; however, both results were reproducible and in good agreement with each other. The temperature effect on storage stability was investigated by using mock community cells and showed that the microbial community profiles were altered with the increase in incubation temperature. However, this phenomenon was not detected when clinical oropharyngeal swabs were used in the experiment. Conclusions Mock community materials originated from the HMP study are valuable controls in developing 16S metagenomics analysis procedures. Long-term exposure to a high temperature may introduce variation into analysis for oropharyngeal swabs, suggestive of storage at 4°C or lower. The observed variations due to sample storage temperature are in a similar range as the intrapersonal variability among different clinical oropharyngeal swab samples. PMID:25228989

2014-01-01

338

Region-Specific In Situ Hybridization-Guided Laser-Capture Microdissection on Postmortem Human Brain Tissue Coupled with Gene Expression Quantification  

PubMed Central

This chapter describes the procedure of in situ hybridization-guided laser-capture microdissection performed on postmortem human brain tissue. This procedure permits the precise collection of brain tissue within anatomically defined brain nuclei that is enriched with mRNA. The chapter emphasizes the specific handling of postmortem tissue and preservation of RNA integrity to ensure high-quality gene profiling. Downstream procedures including mRNA amplification, gene profiling using high-density microarray chips, and confirmation with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) are described. PCR primer design and cDNA quantification required for qPCR are delineated. PMID:21761318

Bernard, René; Burke, Sharon; Kerman, Ilan A.

2015-01-01

339

Reference Frames and Relativity.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Stresses the importance of a reference frame in mechanics. Shows the Galilean transformation in terms of relativity theory. Discusses accelerated reference frames and noninertial reference frames. Provides examples of reference frames with diagrams. (YP)

Swartz, Clifford

1989-01-01

340

Transients in chloroplast gene transcription  

SciTech Connect

Transcriptional regulation of chloroplast genes is demonstrated by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). These genes encode apoproteins of the reaction centres of photosystem I and photosystem II. Their transcription is regulated by changes in wavelength of light selectively absorbed by photosystem I and photosystem II, and therefore by the redox state of an electron carrier located between the two photosystems. Chloroplast transcriptional redox regulation is shown to have greater amplitude, and the kinetics of transcriptional changes are more complex, than suggested by previous experiments using only DNA probes in Northern blot experiments. Redox effects on chloroplast transcription appear to be superimposed on an endogenous rhythm of mRNA abundance. The functional significance of these transients in chloroplast gene transcription is discussed.

Puthiyaveetil, Sujith [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Allen, John F. [School of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.f.allen@qmul.ac.uk

2008-04-18

341

Seasonal changes in hepatic gene expression reveal modulation of multiple processes in rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax).  

PubMed

Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are freeze-resistant fish that accumulate glycerol and produce an antifreeze protein during winter. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) and subtractive hybridization studies have previously revealed five genes in rainbow smelt liver to be differentially regulated in winter in comparison with the fall when water temperatures are warmer. In order to further define the suite of processes that are regulated seasonally, we undertook a large-scale analysis of gene expression by hybridization of smelt cDNA to the salmonid 16K cGRASP microarray. In total, 69 genes were identified as up-regulated and 14 genes as down-regulated under winter conditions. A subset of these genes was examined for differential regulation by qPCR in the individual cDNA samples that were pooled for microarray analysis. Ten of the 15 genes tested showed significant change in the same direction as microarray results, whereas one showed significant change in the opposite direction. Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B and the cytosolic NAD-dependent glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase were among the most highly up-regulated genes, a result supporting a metabolic focus on glycerol synthesis during winter. Modulation of other processes, including endoplasmic reticulum stress, lipid metabolism and transport, and protein synthesis, was also suggested by the qPCR analysis of array-identified genes. The 15 genes were subsequently examined by qPCR for seasonal variation in expression over five sampling times between October and March, and ten showed significant variation in expression over the sampling period. Taken together, these results provide new understanding of the biochemical adaptations of vertebrates to an extremely low seasonal temperature. PMID:20107851

Richards, Robert C; Short, Connie E; Driedzic, William R; Ewart, K Vanya

2010-11-01

342

Rapid detection of the Vibrio cholerae ctx gene in food enrichments using real-time polymerase chain reaction.  

PubMed

A real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for the detection of the ctxA gene of toxigenic Vibrio cholerae (Vc) was validated against standard culture techniques. The first experimental phase determined optimal enrichment conditions for detection by culture and qPCR of Vc in shrimp, bottled water, milk, and potato salad. The conditions tested included temperature (35 and 42 degrees C), time (6 and 18 h), and effect of shaking (0 and 100 rpm). No definitive trends were found with enrichment temperature or shaking on Vc isolation frequency or detection by qPCR. Generally, Vc was detected by qPCR more frequently than Vc was isolated, but this difference was significant only in the 35 degrees C 6 h enrichment without shaking. In the second phase of experiments, shrimp, bottled water, milk, potato salad, and oysters were inoculated with each of 3 toxigenic Vc strains (Latin American O1 strain, an O139 strain, and an O1 strain from the U.S. Gulf Coast) and enriched under static conditions at 42OC for 6 and 18 h. Overall, detection frequency of ctx by qPCR was 98% (88/90) and 100% (90/90) after 6 and 18 h enrichments, respectively, while Vc isolation frequency was 87% (78/90) and 83% (75/90) after 6 and 18 h, respectively. Toxigenic Vc can be detected by qPCR within an 8 h work day using the 6 h enrichment procedure, assuming an initial level of at least 1-2 colony-forming units/g; however, overnight enrichment may be necessary to detect lower levels. These data indicate that the qPCR assay for ctx is a more reliable, sensitive, and rapid alternative to standard Vc culture methods and is applicable to diverse food products. PMID:17955973

Fedio, Willis; Blackstone, George M; Kikuta-Oshima, Lynne; Wendakoon, Chitra; McGrath, Timothy H; DePaola, Angelo

2007-01-01

343

Development of a reference standard of Escherichia coli DNA for residual DNA determination in China.  

PubMed

This collaborative study developed the first national Escherichia coli (E. coli) DNA reference standard for standardizing quantitative residual DNA assay methods, fluorescence dye (PicoGreen) and quantitative PCR (q-PCR), which were widely employed to measure residual DNA contents of prokaryotic-derived recombinant products. High purity of E. coli strain BL21 was extracted by the cetyl triethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB)/phenol chloroform method, analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry and electrophoresis, diluted with tris-EDTA (TE) buffer and manually dispensed. Then, with a cooperative calibration among six laboratories, including five manufacturers and one national control laboratory, the concentration of E. coli DNA standard solution was determined as 96.2 ?g/mL (95% C.I: 95.5-96.9 ?g/mL, CV 3.4%). The candidate showed excellent stability both from accelerated degradation study and real time stability study. The applicability study showed that the E. coli DNA reference could reach the sensitivity of 0.781 ng/mL and 1 fg/?L, respectively, in fluorescent dye and q-PCR assay, and also had good linearity and precision. The consistency of the reference could meet the requirements of the national reference standard. As a conclusion, the candidate material was suitable to serve as a China national standard for E. coli residual DNA determination. The successful establishment of the E. coli DNA standard will facilitate the standardization of quantitative methods for testing residual host cell DNA. PMID:24086318

Wang, Lan; Rao, Chunming; Gao, Kai; Li, Yonghong; Fu, Zhihao; Bi, Hua; Wang, Junzhi

2013-01-01

344

Comparison of gull-specific assays targeting 16S rRNA gene of Catellicoccus marimammalium and Streptococcus spp.  

EPA Science Inventory

Gulls have been implicated as a source of fecal contamination in inland and coastal waters. Only one gull-specific assay is currently available (i.e., gull2 qPCR assay). This assay is based on the 16S rRNA gene of Catellicocclls marimammalium and has showed a high level of host-s...

345

Efficacy of corn silage inoculants on the fermentation quality under farm conditions and their influence on Aspergillus parasitucus, A. flavus and A. fumigatus determined by q-PCR.  

PubMed

Laboratory-scale silos were prepared to evaluate the efficacy of two different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the fermentation quality and mycobiota of corn silage. Their influence on Aspergillus species' variability by using the q-PCR technique was studied. Silage inoculated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus RC007 or L. plantarum RC009 were compared with uninoculated silage. Silos were opened after 1, 7, 45, 90 and 120 days after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, silos were left open for 7 days to evaluate aerobic stability. Rapid lactic acid production and decline in pH values were seen in the early stages of fermentation in silage inoculated with L. rhamnosus RC007. After aerobic exposure, a significant decline in lactic acid content was observed in untreated and L. plantarum RC009-inoculated silages. Counts for yeasted and toxigenic fungus remained lower, after aerobic exposure, in L. rhamnosus RC007-inoculated silage, in comparison with L. plantarum RC009 and uninoculated silages. Comparing the influence exerted by both BAL, it was observed that L. rhamnosus RC007 was more efficient at inhibiting the three fungal species tested whose DNA concentrations, determined by q-PCR, oscillated near the initial value (pre-ensiling maize). The ability of L. rhamnosus RC007 to produce lactic acid rapidly and the decline in pH values in the early stages of the fermentation along with the reduction of yeast and mycotoxicogenic fungus after aerobic exposure shows its potential as a bio-control inoculant agent in animal feed. PMID:25421370

Dogi, Cecilia A; Pellegrino, Matías; Poloni, Valeria; Poloni, Luis; Pereyra, Carina M; Sanabria, Analía; Pianzzola, María Julia; Dalcero, Ana; Cavaglieri, Lilia

2015-02-01

346

Validation of Endogenous Control Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Human Ocular Surface Epithelium  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate a panel of ten known endogenous control genes (ECG) with quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qPCR), for identification of stably expressed endogenous control genes in the ocular surface (OS) epithelial regions including cornea, limbus, limbal epithelial crypt and conjunctiva to normalise the quantitative reverse transcription PCR data of genes of interest expressed in above-mentioned regions. Method The lasermicrodissected (LMD) OS epithelial regions of cryosectioned corneoscleral buttons from the cadaver eyes were processed for RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis to detect genes of interest with qPCR. Gene expression of 10 known ECG—glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), beta actin (ACTB), peptidylprolyl isomerase (PPIA), TATA-box binding protein (TBP1), hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT1), beta glucuronidase (GUSB), Eucaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), ribosomal protein, large, P0 (RPLP0)—was measured in the OS epithelial regions by qPCR method and the data collected was further analysed using geNorm software. Results The expression stability of ECGs in the OS epithelial regions in increasing order as determined with geNorm software is as follows: ACTB<18SqPCR results in genes of interest. The results from this study are broadly applicable to quantitative reverse transcription PCR studies on human OS epithelium and provide evidence for the use of PPIA-RPLP0 ECGs pair in quantitative reverse transcription PCR across the OS epithelium. PMID:21857920

Kulkarni, Bina; Mohammed, Imran; Hopkinson, Andrew; Dua, Harminder Singh

2011-01-01

347

Rearrangement and Selection in the Developing Vk Repertoire of the Mouse: An Analysis of the Usage of Two Vk Gene Segments1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detailed analysis of the rearrangement and expression of two mouse Vk genes has been used to examine B cell repertoire development. The Vk1-A gene is used by a large proportion (9.6%) of splenic B cells in the adult primary repertoire, whereas the Vk22 gene is used at a much lower frequency (0.16%). Consistent with these results, quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assays

Elizabeth A. Whitcomb; Peter H. Brodeur

348

Live, Digital Reference.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses digital reference services, also known as virtual reference, chat reference, or online reference, based on a round table discussion at the 2002 American Library Association annual conference in Atlanta. Topics include numbers and marketing; sustainability; competition and models; evaluation methods; outsourcing; staffing and training;…

Kenney, Brian

2002-01-01

349

Statistical Reference Datasets  

National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

Statistical Reference Datasets (Web, free access)   The Statistical Reference Datasets is also supported by the Standard Reference Data Program. The purpose of this project is to improve the accuracy of statistical software by providing reference datasets with certified computational results that enable the objective evaluation of statistical software.

350

Fundamentals of Reference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The all-in-one "Reference reference" you've been waiting for, this invaluable book offers a concise introduction to reference sources and services for a variety of readers, from library staff members who are asked to work in the reference department to managers and others who wish to familiarize themselves with this important area of…

Mulac, Carolyn M.

2012-01-01

351

Reach for Reference. Four Recent Reference Books  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article provides descriptions of four new science and technology encyclopedias that are appropriate for inclusion in upper elementary and/or middle school reference collections. "The Macmillan Encyclopedia of Weather" (Stern, Macmillan Reference/Gale), a one-volume encyclopedia for upper elementary and middle level students, is a…

Safford, Barbara Ripp

2004-01-01

352

GeneCARD-FISH: Detection of tceA and vcrA reductive dehalogenase genes in Dehalococcoides mccartyi by fluorescence in situ hybridization.  

PubMed

Due to the direct involvement in the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, reductive dehalogenase genes (RDase) are considered biomarkers of the metabolic potential of different strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi (Dhc). This is known to be the only microbe able to completely reduce toxic chlorinated solvents to harmless ethene. In the last years, several Molecular Biological Tools (MBTs) have been developed to optimize the detectability of Dhc cells and/or the RDase genes, with particular attention to the most important indicators of ethene formation, namely tceA and vcrA genes. Despite qPCR has been indicated as the MBT of choice, the use of CARD-FISH recently demonstrated to provide a more accurate quantification of Dhc cells in a wide concentration range, overcoming the drawbacks of loosing nucleic acids during the preparation of the sample associated with qPCR. CARD-FISH assays usually target 16S rRNA and up to date no protocol able to discriminate different Dhc strains by detecting RDase genes has been developed. This study reports the first evidence of in situ detection of tceA and vcrA genes into Dhc cells by applying a new procedure named geneCARD-FISH. Dhc strains carrying tceA and vcrA genes were identified and quantified in a PCE-to-ethene dechlorinating microbial enrichment and overall they represented 58.63%±2.45% and 40.46%±1.86% of the total Dhc cells, respectively. These values were markedly higher than those obtained by qPCR, which strongly underestimated the actual concentration of vcrA gene (0.08%±0.01% of Dhc 16S rRNA gene copies). The assay was successfully applied also for the analysis of environmental samples and remarkably strengthens the biomonitoring activities at field scale by providing the specific in situ discrimination of Dhc cells carrying the key-RDase genes. PMID:25595619

Matturro, B; Rossetti, S

2015-03-01

353

Microarray Analysis of the Global Alterations in the Gene Expression in the Placentas From Cigarette-smoking Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of maternal cigarette smoking on the transcriptome of human full-term placentas were investigated by a microarray analysis. QPCR was performed for a selected set of metabolizing genes. Differentially expressed genes were selected by fold change (±1.5-fold) and analysis of variance (P<0.05) between the control and smoker groups. The expression of 174 probe sets was affected significantly. Chronic cigarette

P Huuskonen; M Storvik; M Reinisalo; P Honkakoski; J Rysä; J Hakkola; M Pasanen

2008-01-01

354

Restriction Cascade Exponential Amplification (RCEA) assay with an attomolar detection limit: a novel, highly specific, isothermal alternative to qPCR.  

PubMed

An alternative to qPCR was developed for nucleic acid assays, involving signal rather than target amplification. The new technology, Restriction Cascade Exponential Amplification (RCEA), relies on specific cleavage of probe-target hybrids by restriction endonucleases (REase). Two mutant REases for amplification (Ramp), S17C BamHI and K249C EcoRI, were conjugated to oligonucleotides, and immobilized on a solid surface. The signal generation was based on: (i) hybridization of a target DNA to a Ramp-oligonucleotide probe conjugate, followed by (ii) specific cleavage of the probe-target hybrid using a non-immobilized recognition REase. The amount of Ramp released into solution upon cleavage was proportionate to the DNA target amount. Signal amplification was achieved through catalysis, by the free Ramp, of a restriction cascade containing additional oligonucleotide-conjugated Ramp and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). Colorimetric quantification of free HRP indicated that the RCEA achieved a detection limit of 10 aM (10(-17)?M) target concentration, or approximately 200 molecules, comparable to the sensitivity of qPCR-based assays. The RCEA assay had high specificity, it was insensitive to non-specific binding, and detected target sequences in the presence of foreign DNA. RCEA is an inexpensive isothermal assay that allows coupling of the restriction cascade signal amplification with any DNA target of interest. PMID:25583452

Ghindilis, Andrey L; Smith, Maria W; Simon, Holly M; Seoudi, Ihab A; Yazvenko, Nina S; Murray, Iain A; Fu, Xiaoqing; Smith, Kenneth; Jen-Jacobson, Linda; Xu, Shuang-Yong

2015-01-01

355

Systematic Inference of Copy-Number Genotypes from Personal Genome Sequencing Data Reveals Extensive Olfactory Receptor Gene Content Diversity  

PubMed Central

Copy-number variations (CNVs) are widespread in the human genome, but comprehensive assignments of integer locus copy-numbers (i.e., copy-number genotypes) that, for example, enable discrimination of homozygous from heterozygous CNVs, have remained challenging. Here we present CopySeq, a novel computational approach with an underlying statistical framework that analyzes the depth-of-coverage of high-throughput DNA sequencing reads, and can incorporate paired-end and breakpoint junction analysis based CNV-analysis approaches, to infer locus copy-number genotypes. We benchmarked CopySeq by genotyping 500 chromosome 1 CNV regions in 150 personal genomes sequenced at low-coverage. The assessed copy-number genotypes were highly concordant with our performed qPCR experiments (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.94), and with the published results of two microarray platforms (95–99% concordance). We further demonstrated the utility of CopySeq for analyzing gene regions enriched for segmental duplications by comprehensively inferring copy-number genotypes in the CNV-enriched >800 olfactory receptor (OR) human gene and pseudogene loci. CopySeq revealed that OR loci display an extensive range of locus copy-numbers across individuals, with zero to two copies in some OR loci, and two to nine copies in others. Among genetic variants affecting OR loci we identified deleterious variants including CNVs and SNPs affecting ?15% and ?20% of the human OR gene repertoire, respectively, implying that genetic variants with a possible impact on smell perception are widespread. Finally, we found that for several OR loci the reference genome appears to represent a minor-frequency variant, implying a necessary revision of the OR repertoire for future functional studies. CopySeq can ascertain genomic structural variation in specific gene families as well as at a genome-wide scale, where it may enable the quantitative evaluation of CNVs in genome-wide association studies involving high-throughput sequencing. PMID:21085617

Waszak, Sebastian M.; Hasin, Yehudit; Zichner, Thomas; Olender, Tsviya; Keydar, Ifat; Khen, Miriam; Stütz, Adrian M.; Schlattl, Andreas; Lancet, Doron; Korbel, Jan O.

2010-01-01

356

Silica Nanoparticles Induced Metabolic Stress through  EGR1, CCND, and E2F1 Genes in Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells.  

PubMed

The SiO2 synthesized in bulk form, adopting the conventional methods for application in food industry applications, may also contain nano-sized particles. On account of the unique physico-chemical properties, the SiO2 particulates, such as size and shape, cause metabolic toxicity in cells. Poor understanding of the molecular level nanotoxicity resulting from high-volume synthetic SiO2 exposures in humans is a serious issue, since these particles may also contribute to metabolic stress-mediated chronic diseases. In the present study, we examined the structural characteristics of these nano-sized silica particles adopting SEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS) and assessed the alterations in the cell cycle induced by these silica particles in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) adopting 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assay, morphological changes in the cells adopting fluorescent microscopy, cell cycle analysis adopting flow cytometry, and the expression of genes linked to cell cycle (i.e., proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), early growth response protein (EGR1), E2F transcription factor (E2F1), cyclin D1, cyclin C, and cyclin D3) adopting qPCR. The SEM and DLS studies indicated that the commercial grade SiO2-NPs were in the nano-scale range. Alterations in the cytoplasmic organization, nuclear morphology, cell cycle progression, and expression of genes linked to cell cycle-dependent metabolic stress through EGR1, CCND, and E2F1 genes were the primary indicators of metabolic stress. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate that synthetic SiO2 acutely affects hMSC through cell cycle-dependent oxidative stress gene network. The toxicity mechanisms (both acute and chronic) of food grade silica should be investigated in greater depth with special reference to food safety. PMID:25374141

Periasamy, Vaiyapuri S; Athinarayanan, Jegan; Akbarsha, Mohammad A; Alshatwi, Ali A

2015-01-01

357

Quick Reference Contents  

Cancer.gov

Skip to Main Content CCR Home | About CCR | CCR Intranet Main Navigation Home Profiles Research Newsworthy References Special Interest Groups Training Main Links Psycho-Oncology Home Profiles Research Publications Newsworthy/Resources References Special

358

NCI: Resources & References  

Cancer.gov

Reference Services NIH Library Online National Library of Medicine Library Resources NCI Library Reference Center Publications Locator Journals Online In the Loop The NCI Administrative Newsletter Intramural Resources Intramural Organizational and Principal

359

Genetics Home Reference: Pilomatricoma  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding pilomatricoma? benign ; carcinoma ; cell ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (5 links) ...

360

Genetics Home Reference: Phenylketonuria  

MedlinePLUS

... Patients and Families Resources for Health Professionals What glossary definitions help with understanding phenylketonuria? amino acid ; autosomal ; ... many other terms in the Genetics Home Reference Glossary . See also Understanding Medical Terminology . References (7 links) ...

361

Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Bartonella bacilliformis in Experimentally Infected Sand Flies by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) of the Pap31 Gene  

PubMed Central

Background Carrion' disease, caused by Bartonella bacilliformis, remains truly neglected due to its focal geographical nature. A wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, including asymptomatic bacteremia, and lack of a sensitive diagnostic test can potentially lead to a spread of the disease into non-endemic regions where competent sand fly vectors may be present. A reliable test capable of detecting B. bacilliformis is urgently needed. Our objective is to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay targeting the pap31 gene to detect B. bacilliformis. Methods and Findings The sensitivity of the LAMP was evaluated in comparison to qPCR using plasmid DNA containing the target gene and genomic DNA in the absence and presence of human or sand fly DNA. The detection limit of LAMP was 1 to 10 copies/µL, depending on the sample metrics. No cross-reaction was observed when testing against a panel of various closely related bacteria. The utility of the LAMP was further compared to qPCR by the examination of 74 Lutzomyia longipalpis sand flies artificially fed on blood spiked with B. bacilliformis and harvested at days (D) 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 post feeding. Only 86% of sand flies at D1 and 63% of flies at D3 were positive by qPCR. LAMP was able to detect B. bacilliformis in all those flies confirmed positive by qPCR. However, none of the flies after D3 were positive by either LAMP or qPCR. In addition to demonstrating the sensitivity of the LAMP assay, these results suggest that B. bacilliformis cannot propagate in artificially fed L. longipalpis. Conclusions The LAMP assay is as sensitive as qPCR for the detection of B. bacilliformis and could be useful to support diagnosis of patients in low-resource settings and also to identify B. bacilliformis in the sand fly vector. PMID:25522230

Angkasekwinai, Nasikarn; Atkins, Erin H.; Johnson, Richard N.; Grieco, John P.; Ching, Wei Mei; Chao, Chien Chung

2014-01-01

362

Human Gene Therapy: Genes without Frontiers?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the latest advancements and setbacks in human gene therapy to provide reference material for biology teachers to use in their science classes. Focuses on basic concepts such as recombinant DNA technology, and provides examples of human gene therapy such as severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome, familial hypercholesterolemia, and…

Simon, Eric J.

2002-01-01

363

Teachers Reference: Introduction  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the introduction to the teacher's reference designed to accompany the book 'Stone Wall Secrets'. It compares the roles of teachers to that of the mentor in the book (Grampa) and states some of the reference's intended goals, as well as describing the primary content of the reference (text annotations), their arrangements, and their uses.

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Academic Library Reference Services.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the philosophy and objectives of academic library reference services provides an overview of the major reference approaches to fulfilling the following primary objectives of reference services: (1) providing accurate answers to patrons' questions and/or helping patrons find sources to pursue their research needs; (2) building…

Batt, Fred

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Physics Resource Reference Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable physics reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, force diagrams, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

366

Chemistry Reference Sheets  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This reference sheet, presented by the National Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network provides a valuable chemistry reference sheet for high school students. Definition of terms, diagrams, abbreviations, mathematical notations, the periodic table, and other useful information is provided in an easy to use format. Included in this lesson are the front and back sides of this reference sheet.

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