Science.gov

Sample records for qrs complex duration

  1. Relation of QRS duration to mortality in a community-based cohort with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bongioanni, Sergio; Bianchi, Francesca; Migliardi, Alessandro; Gnavi, Roberto; Pron, Paolo Giay; Casetta, Marzia; Conte, Maria Rosa

    2007-08-01

    A prolonged QRS duration on the standard electrocardiogram is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in cardiomyopathies of different origin. However, the relation between QRS duration and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) remains undefined. We assessed the relation between QRS duration and cardiovascular death in 241 consecutive patients with HC. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups according to QRS duration: <120 and > or =120 ms. Of the 241 patients, 191 (79%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 50 (21%) a QRS duration > or =120 ms. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 +/- 5.1 years, 35 patients died of cardiovascular causes related to HC. Of these 35 patients, 13 (6%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 22 (43%) had a QRS duration > or =120 ms (p <0.01). Risk of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in patients with a QRS duration > or =120 ms than in those with a QRS duration <120 ms (relative risk 5.2, p <0.0001). At 8-year follow-up, cumulative risks of HC-related death were 7.1% in patients with a QRS duration <120 ms and 55% in those with a QRS duration > or =120 ms. Multivariate analysis confirmed that a QRS duration > or =120 ms was independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 3.2, p = 0.007). New York Heart Association functional class III/IV was the only other clinical variable significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death. In conclusion, in patients with HC, QRS duration on standard electrocardiogram is directly related to cardiovascular mortality, and a QRS duration > or =120 ms is a strong and independent predictor of prognosis. PMID:17659936

  2. COMPRESSION OF QRS COMPLEXES USING HERMITE EXPANSION Aliaksei Sandryhaila1

    E-print Network

    Sandryhaila, Aliaksei

    ). In this paper, we study the compression of QRS complexes, which are the most characteristic waves of ECG signals for the compression of ECG signals, in particular QRS complexes, based on the expansion of signals with compact Hermite functions, previously used for the compression of ECG signals. Our algorithm uses the theory

  3. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cros, C.; Skinner, M.; Moors, J.; Lainee, P.; Valentin, J.P.

    2012-12-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ? We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ? We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ? At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ? At high heart rate the effects of two out of three antiarrhythmics were enhanced. ? Detection of a drug-induced prolongation of QRS was improved at high heart rate.

  4. The value of electrocardiography for differential diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Pedro A; Pereira, Salomé; Candeias, Rui; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2014-03-01

    Correct diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia remains a challenge. Differential diagnosis between ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, and although data from clinical history and physical examination may suggest a particular origin, it is the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram that usually enables this differentiation. Since 1978, various electrocardiographic criteria have been proposed for the differential diagnosis of wide complex tachycardias, particularly the presence of atrioventricular dissociation, and the axis, duration and morphology of QRS complexes. Despite the wide variety of criteria, diagnosis is still often difficult, and errors can have serious consequences. To reduce such errors, several differential diagnosis algorithms have been proposed since 1991. However, in a small percentage of wide QRS tachycardias the diagnosis remains uncertain and in these the wisest decision is to treat them as ventricular tachycardias. The authors' objective was to review the main electrocardiographic criteria and differential diagnosis algorithms of wide QRS tachycardia. PMID:24656320

  5. Frailty severity is significantly associated with electrocardiographic QRS duration in chronic dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death, the risk of which is presumably related to arrhythmia. Electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters have been found to correlate with arrhythmia and predict cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD patients. Frailty is also a common feature in this population. We investigate whether the severity of dialysis frailty is associated with ECG findings, including PR interval, QRS duration, and QTc interval. Presence and severity of frailty was ascertained using six different self-report questionnaires with proven construct validity. Correlation analysis between frailty severity and ECG was made, and those with significant association entered into multiple regression analysis for confirmation. Among a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients, we found that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale, is significantly associated with QRS duration (r = ? 0.3, p < 0.05). Dialysis patients with QRS longer than 120 ms had significantly lower severity of frailty than those with QRS less than 120 ms (p = 0.01 for the Edmonton frailty scale and 0.05 for simple FRAIL scale). Regression analysis showed that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale and simple FRAIL scale, was significantly associated with QRS duration independent of serum electrolyte levels. In conclusion, a significant relationship exists between the severity of frailty and QRS duration in ESRD patients. This might be an under-recognized link between frailty and its adverse cardiovascular impact in these patients. PMID:26528415

  6. Common variants in 22 loci are associated with QRS duration and cardiac ventricular conduction

    PubMed Central

    Sotoodehnia, Nona; Isaacs, Aaron; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Dörr, Marcus; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Harst, Pim; Müller, Martina; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Hicks, Andrew A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Smith, Albert Vernon; Polasek, Ozren; Giovannone, Steven; Fu, Jingyuan; Magnani, Jared W.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Pfeufer, Arne; Gharib, Sina A.; Teumer, Alexander; Li, Man; Bis, Joshua C.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aspelund, Thor; Köttgen, Anna; Johnson, Toby; Rice, Kenneth; Sie, Mark P.S.; Wang, Amanda Ying; Klopp, Norman; Fuchsberger, Christian; Wild, Sarah H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Estrada, Karol; Völker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Qu, Jiaxiang; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Sinner, Moritz F.; Kors, Jan A.; Petersmann, Astrid; Harris, Tamara B.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Perz, Siegfried; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Vözke, Henry; Spector, Timothy D.; Liu, Fang-Yu; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Rotter, Jerome I.; van Herpen, Gé; Levy, Daniel; Wichmann, H.-Erich; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Heckbert, Susan R.; Meitinger, Thomas; Hofman, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Folsom, Aaron R.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Schwienbacher, Christine; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M.; Launer, Lenore; Lu, Xiaowen; Franke, Lude; Fehrmann, Rudolf S.N.; Meerman, Gerard te; Groen, Harry J.M.; Weersma, Rinse K.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ophoff, Roel A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Wilson, James F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Siscovick, David S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Felix, Stephan B.; Fishman, Glenn I.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kääb, Stefan; Arking, Dan E.

    2010-01-01

    QRS interval on the electrocardiogram reflects ventricular depolarization and conduction time, and is a risk factor for mortality, sudden death, and heart failure. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 40,407 European-descent individuals from 14 studies, with further genotyping in 7170 additional Europeans, and identified 22 loci associated with QRS duration (P < 5 × 10?8). These loci map in or near genes in pathways with established roles in ventricular conduction such as sodium channels, transcription factors, and calcium-handling proteins, but also point to novel biologic processes, such as kinase inhibitors and genes related to tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that SCN10A, a gene at our most significant locus, is expressed in the mouse ventricular conduction system, and treatment with a selective SCN10A blocker prolongs QRS duration. These findings extend our current knowledge of ventricular depolarization and conduction. PMID:21076409

  7. The utility of fragmented QRS complexes to predict significant intraventricular dyssynchrony in nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients with a narrow QRS interval

    PubMed Central

    Tigen, Kursat; Karaahmet, Tansu; Gurel, Emre; Cevik, Cihan; Nugent, Kenneth; Pala, Selcuk; Tanalp, Ali Cevat; Mutlu, Bulent; Basaran, Yelda

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fragmented QRS complexes in the electrocardiograms (ECGs) of patients with coronary artery disease are associated with adverse cardiac events. However, there are limited data on its predictive usefulness in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Left ventricular dyssynchrony is common in heart failure patients who have wide QRS intervals, but its frequency in patients with narrow QRS intervals is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between fragmented QRS complexes and intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy in sinus rhythm. METHODS: Sixty nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy patients with sinus rhythm and narrow QRS intervals were recruited. Forty patients had a fragmented QRS in their basal ECG, and 20 patients did not have a fragmented QRS. Patients were analyzed for correlation between fragmented QRS complexes and intraventricular dyssynchrony. RESULTS: The maximal difference in time to the peak myocardial systolic velocity between any two left ventricular segments (Max-ASE Sys), and maximal difference between Max-ASE Sys and the mean value of all segments (Max-ASE to Mean Sys) were significantly higher in patients with fragmented QRS complexes (P=0.001 and P=0.003, respectively). Seventy-two per cent of the patients with fragmented QRS complexes had significant left ventricular dyssynchrony; 15% of patients without fragmented QRS complexes had significant left ventricular dyssynchrony (P<0.0001). The presence of fragmented QRS complexes in leads corresponding to the specific ventricular segment in basal ECG was found to detect intraventricular dyssynchrony with 90.6% sensitivity (negative predictive value of 85%). CONCLUSION: Fragmentation in the resting ECG is associated with significant intraventricular dyssynchrony in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, narrow QRS and sinus rhythm. Fragmentation in ECG might be useful in identifying patients who could benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy. PMID:19746241

  8. Current Algorithms for the Diagnosis of wide QRS Complex Tachycardias

    PubMed Central

    Vereckei, András

    2014-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of a regular, monomorphic wide QRS complex tachycardia (WCT) mechanism represents a great diagnostic dilemma commonly encountered by the practicing physician, which has important implications for acute arrhythmia management, further work-up, prognosis and chronic management as well. This comprehensive review discusses the causes and differential diagnosis of WCT, and since the ECG remains the cornerstone of WCT differential diagnosis, focuses on the application and diagnostic value of different ECG criteria and algorithms in this setting and also provides a practical clinical approach to patients with WCTs. PMID:24827795

  9. Risk of Mortality Associated With QT and JT Intervals at Different Levels of QRS Duration (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Waqas T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Shah, Amit J; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2015-07-01

    QT prolongation in the setting of QRS >120 ms is believed to be triggered by prolonged depolarization rather than repolarization. Hence, JT interval is suggested as an alternative to QT interval when QRS duration is prolonged. It is unclear, however, if JT and QT intervals portend similar risk of mortality for different durations of QRS. We examined the association between QT and JT, separately, with all-cause mortality across different levels of QRS duration in 8,025 participants (60 ± 13 years, 41% white and 54% women) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. At baseline (1986 to 1994), 486 participants (6%) had QRS duration ?120 ms. During a follow-up of up to 18 years, 3,045 deaths (38%) occurred. There were significant nonlinear relations of QT and JT intervals with mortality (p <0.001). Hence, QT and JT were categorized as prolonged (>95th percentile), shortened (<5th percentile), and normal (reference group). In multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models, prolonged JT (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 12.11) was associated with increased risk of mortality more than prolonged QT (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17) in participants with QRS ?120 ms (interaction p = 0.02). In participants with QRS duration <120 ms, prolonged QT and JT were equally predictive of all-cause mortality (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.54, and HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.55, respectively). Similar patterns were observed with shortened QT and JT intervals. In conclusion, although both QT and JT intervals are predictive of mortality, JT is more predictive in the setting of QRS duration >120 ms supporting the use of JT interval in patients with prolonged QRS. PMID:25929581

  10. Electrocardiogram Derived QRS Duration >120 ms is Associated With Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a Rural Australian Cross-Sectional Population

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yvonne Lee Yin; Zhou, Yuling; Ke, Honghong; Jelinek, Herbert; McCabe, Joel; Assareh, Hassan; McLachlan, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Homocysteine levels in the low to moderate range for cardiovascular risk have been previously associated with left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiogram (ECG) derived QRS duration has also been used as an epidemiological screening marker for cardiac hypertrophy risk. QRS duration cut offs have not been previously modeled to assess homocysteine levels in community populations. Our aims are to determine if QRS duration is associated with an elevated homocysteine level in a cross-sectional Australian aging rural population. A retrospective study design utilizing a rural health diabetic screening clinic database containing observational data from the period January 9, 2002 till September 25, 2012. One hundred seventy-eight individuals (>21 years of age) from the database were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included being nondiabetic and having both a QRS duration measure and a matching homocysteine level within the same subject. All participants were from the Albury-Wodonga area, with a mean age of >64 years for both sexes. Mean population homocysteine plasma levels were 10.4??mol/L (SD = 3.6). The mean QRS duration was 101.8 ms (SD = 17.4). Groups were stratified on the basis of QRS duration (?120 ms [n?=?157] and >120 ms [n?=?21]). QRS duration subgroup (?120 ms vs >120 ms) mean differences across homocysteine levels were 10.1??mol/L (SD = 3.3) and 12.2??mol/L (SD = 4.7), respectively (P?=?0.016). Other ECG parameters (PQ interval, QTc interval, and QT dispersion) measurements were not significantly associated with differences in plasma homocysteine (P?=?not significant). We conclude that in community populations homocysteine may be moderately elevated when QRS durations are >120 ms. Small additional increases in homocysteine levels may suggest a risk factor for ECG diagnosis of LVH. PMID:26166085

  11. An efficient unsupervised fetal QRS complex detection from abdominal maternal ECG.

    PubMed

    Varanini, M; Tartarisco, G; Billeci, L; Macerata, A; Pioggia, G; Balocchi, R

    2014-08-01

    Non-invasive fetal heart rate is of great relevance in clinical practice to monitor fetal health state during pregnancy. To date, however, despite significant advances in the field of electrocardiography, the analysis of abdominal fetal ECG is considered a challenging problem for biomedical and signal processing communities. This is mainly due to the low signal-to-noise ratio of fetal ECG and difficulties in cancellation of maternal QRS complexes, motion and electromyographic artefacts. In this paper we present an efficient unsupervised algorithm for fetal QRS complex detection from abdominal multichannel signal recordings combining ICA and maternal ECG cancelling, which outperforms each single method. The signal is first pre-processed to remove impulsive artefacts, baseline wandering and power line interference. The following steps are then applied: maternal ECG extraction through independent component analysis (ICA); maternal QRS detection; maternal ECG cancelling through weighted singular value decomposition; enhancing of fetal ECG through ICA and fetal QRS detection. We participated in the Physionet/Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2013, obtaining the top official scores of the challenge (among 53 teams of participants) of event 1 and event 2 concerning fetal heart rate and fetal interbeat intervals estimation section. The developed algorithms are released as open-source on the Physionet website. PMID:25069520

  12. Progressive loss in circulating volume during haemodialysis can be monitored by time voltage integral area of QRS complex: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Claudia; Cammarota, Camillo; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; Pasquali, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Time voltage area of QRS is a parameter that showed a close association with modifications in endoventricular volume. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of this parameter in identifying progressive reduction in circulating blood volume (BV) during haemodialytic treatment (HT). Material and methods Thirteen uraemic patients were studied. XYX like leads were monitored before, during and after HT. Summation of areas of each QRS complex was named QRS total area (TA). Results Increase in QRS TA and decrease in BV were found after vs. before HT. Progressive increase in QRS TA is strongly linked to a progressive reduction of BV during HT. Conclusions These findings encourage use of ECG monitoring during HT with a dual purpose: rhythm and haemodynamic control. In fact, excessive or insufficient subtractions of water, with consequent hypotensive or cardiorespiratory crisis, are the most frequent complications in these patients. PMID:23847680

  13. A FPGA system for QRS complex detection based on Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovi?, R.; Karadagli?, D.; Mirkovi?, M.; Miloševi?, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to complexity of their mathematical computation, many QRS detectors are implemented in software and cannot operate in real time. The paper presents a real-time hardware based solution for this task. To filter ECG signal and to extract QRS complex it employs the Integer Wavelet Transform. The system includes several components and is incorporated in a single FPGA chip what makes it suitable for direct embedding in medical instruments or wearable health care devices. It has sufficient accuracy (about 95%), showing remarkable noise immunity and low cost. Additionally, each system component is composed of several identical blocks/cells what makes the design highly generic. The capacity of today existing FPGAs allows even dozens of detectors to be placed in a single chip. After the theoretical introduction of wavelets and the review of their application in QRS detection, it will be shown how some basic wavelets can be optimized for easy hardware implementation. For this purpose the migration to the integer arithmetic and additional simplifications in calculations has to be done. Further, the system architecture will be presented with the demonstrations in both, software simulation and real testing. At the end, the working performances and preliminary results will be outlined and discussed. The same principle can be applied with other signals where the hardware implementation of wavelet transform can be of benefit.

  14. On the relationship between block of the cardiac Na+ channel and drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, AR; Valentin, J-P; Pollard, CE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhibition of the human cardiac Na+ channel (hNav1.5) can prolong the QRS complex and has been associated with increased mortality in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease. The safety implications of blocking hNav1.5 channels suggest the need to test for this activity early in drug discovery in order to design out any potential liability. However, interpretation of hNav1.5 blocking potency requires knowledge of how hNav1.5 block translates into prolongation of the QRS complex. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested Class I anti-arrhythmics, other known QRS prolonging drugs and drugs not reported to prolong the QRS complex. Their block of hNav1.5 channels (as IC50 values) was measured in an automated electrophysiology-based assay. These IC50 values were compared with published reports of the corresponding unbound (free) plasma concentrations attained during clinical use (fCmax) to provide an IC50 : fCmax ratio. KEY RESULTS For 42 Class I anti-arrhythmics and other QRS prolonging drugs, 67% had IC50 : fCmax ratios <30. For 55 non-QRS prolonging drugs tested, 72% had ratios >100. Finally, we determined the relationship between the IC50 value and the free drug concentration associated with prolongation of the QRS complex in humans. For 37 drugs, QRS complex prolongation was observed at free plasma concentrations that were about 15-fold lower than the corresponding IC50 at hNav1.5 channels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A margin of 30- to 100-fold between hNav1.5 IC50 and fCmax appears to confer an acceptable degree of safety from QRS prolongation. QRS prolongation occurs on average at free plasma levels 15-fold below the IC50 at hNav1.5 channels. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Gintant et al., pp. 254–259 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01433.x PMID:21480866

  15. Successful cardiac resynchronization therapy in a 3-year-old girl with isolated left ventricular non-compaction and narrow QRS complex: a case report.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuyoshi; Ibuki, Keijirou; Yoshimura, Naoki; Hirono, Keiichi; Watanabe, Sayaka; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Uese, Keiichiro; Yasukouchi, Satoshi; Ichida, Fukiko; Miyawaki, Toshio

    2009-11-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a new method of treatment for refractory heart failure. However, for children, its indication, efficacy, and long-term prognosis remain unclear. This study describes the use of CRT for a 3-year-old girl with intractable heart failure caused by isolated left ventricular non-compaction (LVNC) with narrow QRS complex. Echocardiography showed diffuse hypokinetic left ventricular (LV) wall motion (ejection fraction =29.3%) with dyssynchrony between the apex, posterior and lateral walls, where numerous prominent trabeculations existed, and severe mitral regurgitation. Biventricular resynchronization using epicardial pacing leads was performed under general anesthesia. Pacing sites for optimal synchronization in the ventricular walls where chosen using tissue Doppler imaging, and AV delay was adjusted to achieve maximal systolic blood pressure and maximal cardiac output. Over a follow-up period of 2 years, she exhibited significant and sustained improvement in LV function and clinical symptoms. BNP levels decreased from 1,960 to 82 pg/ml. QRS duration (103 ms) on ECG did not change after CRT. We conclude that pediatric CRT provides a highly useful adjunct for the treatment of heart failure, even in patients with a narrow QRS duration, and might improve the prognosis of patients with LVNC. PMID:19352045

  16. Significance of fragmented QRS complexes for identifying culprit lesions in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a single-center, retrospective analysis of 183 cases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Fragmented QRS (fQRS) complexes are novel electrocardiographic signals, which reflect myocardial conduction delays in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The importance of fQRS complexes in identifying culprit vessels was evaluated in this retrospective study. Methods A 12-lead surface electrocardiogram was obtained in 183 patients who had non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) and subsequently underwent coronary angiography (CAG). On the basis of the frequency of fQRS complexes, indices such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and likelihood ratio were evaluated to determine the ability of fQRS complexes to identify the culprit vessels. Results Among the patients studied, elderly patients (age???65?years) and those with diabetes had a significantly higher frequency of fQRS complexes (p?=?0.005, p?=?0.003, respectively). The fQRS complexes recorded in the 4 precordial leads had the highest specificity (81.8%) for indentifying the culprit vessel (left anterior descending artery). However, the specificity of fQRS complexes to identify lesions in the left circumflex and right coronary arteries was lower for the inferior and lateral leads than for the limb leads (65.5% versus 71.7%); however, the limb leads had higher sensitivity (92.3% versus 89.4%). And the total sensitivity and specificity of fQRS (77.1% and 71.5%) were higher than those values for ischemic T-waves. Conclusions The frequency of fQRS complexes was higher in elderly and diabetic patients with NSTEMI. The frequency of fQRS complexes recorded in each of the ECG leads can be used to identify culprit vessels in patients with NSTEMI. PMID:22712769

  17. 3DQRS: A method to obtain reliable QRS complex detection within high field MRI using 12-lead ECG traces

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique that accurately detects the QRS complex in 1.5T, 3T and 7T MRI scanners.” Theory and Methods During early systole, blood is rapidly ejected into the aortic arch, traveling perpendicular to the MRI’s main field, which produces a strong voltage (VMHD) that eclipses the QRS complex. Greater complexity arises in arrhythmia patients, since VMHD can vary between sinus-rhythm and arrhythmic beats. The 3DQRS method uses a kernel consisting of 6 ECG precordial leads, compiled from a 12-lead ECG performed outside the magnet. The kernel is cross-correlated with signals acquired inside the MRI in order to identify the QRS complex in real time. The 3DQRS method was evaluated against a Vectorcardiogram-based (VCG) approach in 2 Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) and 2 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) patients, a healthy exercising athlete and 8 healthy volunteers, within 1.5T and 3T MRIs, using a prototype MRI-conditional 12 lead ECG system. 2 volunteers were recorded at 7T using a Holter recorder. Results For QRS complex detection, 3DQRS subject-averaged sensitivity levels, relative to VCG were: 1.5T (100% vs. 96.7%), 3T (98.9% vs. 92.2%), 7T (96.2% vs. 77.7%). Conclusions The 3DQRS method was shown to be more effective in cardiac gating than a conventional VCG-based method. PMID:24453116

  18. Effects of exercise on PR intervals, QRS durations and QTC intervals in male and female students of University of Abuja.

    PubMed

    Ogedengbe, John Onimisi; Adelaiye, Alexander Babatunde; Kolawole, Olorunshola Victor

    2012-03-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of exercise on Electrocardiogram (ECG) variables in students of University of Abuja, and gender variation of these variables was compared. Forty medical students were considered (22 males and 18 females), ages 18-30 years. The volunteers were subjected to exercise stress test by using bicycle ergometer. They exercised till exhaustion or attainment of 85% Heart Rate Maximum (HRmax) (Modified McArdle Protocol). ECGwas recorded pre and post-exercise. QTcintervals pre and post-exercise were 386.55 +/- 4.4ms and 415.82 +/- 4.89ms (range: 346 - 468ms) in males and 399.39 +/- 4.81ms and 409.11 +/- 4.44ms (range: 367 - 446ms) in females respectively. QTC was significantly raised post-exercise in male subjects. PR interval pre and postexercise were 153 +/- 5.09ms and 154.75 +/- 3.35ms (range: 116 - 206ms) in males and 160.44 +/- 6.5ms and 153.33 +/- 4.53ms (range: 116 - 243ms) in females respectively. QRS duration pre and post-exercise were found to be 90.86 +/- 0.97ms and 94.09 +/- 2.09ms (range: 83 - 122ms) in males and 87.44 +/- 1.36ms and 88.89 +/- 2.06ms (range: 80 - 113ms) in females respectively. PMID:22764463

  19. Transient attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes in the diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Currently, there are no specific diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) signs for Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) to differentiate it from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Myocardial oedema has been detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with TTS. Recently it has been postulated that myocardial oedema may be the cause of low QRS voltage (LQRSV) in the admission ECG and attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes (AAQRS) in serial ECGs, noted in a few published cases of patients with TTS. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the admission ECG of patients with documented TTS reveals LQRSV and whether AAQRS is found when serial ECGs are compared in such patients. Methods: This study evaluated the prevalence of LQRSV in the admission ECG and AAQRS in serial ECGs in patients with TTS. ECGs of 368 patients with TTS from published reports in the international literature were evaluated for LQRSV (?5 mm in limb leads and/or ?10 mm in precordial leads) and AAQRS in serial ECGs. Results: LQRSV was seen in 91.5% of 200 patients with TTS and one ECG, with a distribution of 49.0, 42.8, 51.0, 52.0, and 46.9%, in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. AAQRS was seen in 93.5% of 168 patients with TTS and two or more ECGs, with a distribution of 78.3, 74.5, 60.1, 70.7, and 74.5% in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. Conclusions: LQRSV and AAQRS are highly prevalent ECG signs in patients with TTS, and should be useful in aiding in its diagnosis and differentiation from ACS, on first contact with the patient on admission to the hospital, and the ensuing 24 hours, in conjunction with echocardiography and coronary arteriography. PMID:24562801

  20. Radial dyssynchrony assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in relation to left ventricular function, myocardial scarring and QRS duration in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intuitively, cardiac dyssynchrony is the inevitable result of myocardial injury. We hypothezised that radial dyssynchrony reflects left ventricular remodeling, myocardial scarring, QRS duration and impaired LV function and that, accordingly, it is detectable in all patients with heart failure. Methods 225 patients with heart failure, grouped according to QRS duration of <120 ms (A, n = 75), between 120-149 ms (B, n = 75) or ?150 ms (C, n = 75), and 50 healthy controls underwent assessment of radial dyssynchrony using the cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue synchronization index (CMR-TSI = SD of time to peak inward endocardial motion in up to 60 myocardial segments). Results Compared to 50 healthy controls (21.8 ± 6.3 ms [mean ± SD]), CMR-TSI was higher in A (74.8 ± 34.6 ms), B (92.4 ± 39.5 ms) and C (104.6 ± 45.6 ms) (all p < 0.0001). Adopting a cut-off CMR-TSI of 34.4 ms (21.8 plus 2xSD for controls) for the definition of dyssynchrony, it was present in 91% in A, 95% in B and 99% in C. Amongst patients in NYHA class III or IV, with a LVEF<35% and a QRS>120 ms, 99% had dyssynchrony. Amongst those with a QRS<120 ms, 91% had dyssynchrony. Across the study sample, CMR-TSI was related positively to left ventricular volumes (p < 0.0001) and inversely to LVEF (CMR-TSI = 178.3 e (-0.033 LVEF) ms, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Radial dyssynchrony is almost universal in patients with heart failure. This vies against the notion that a lack of response to CRT is related to a lack of dyssynchrony. PMID:19930713

  1. Design of a cardiac monitor in terms of parameters of QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Su, Ke-ping; Wang, Hong-yan; Jiang, Da-zong

    2002-08-01

    Objective. To design a portable cardiac monitor system based on the available ordinary ECG machine and works on the basis of QRS parameters. Method. The 80196 single chip microcomputer was used as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac signal was collected and analyzed [correction of analysized] in the system. Result. Apart from the performance of an ordinary monitor, this machine possesses also the following functions: arrhythmia analysis, HRV analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic papering. Convenient in carrying, the system is powered by AC or DC sources. Stability, low power and low cost are emphasized in the hardware design; and modularization method is applied in software design. Conclusion. Popular in usage and low cost made the portable monitor system suitable for use under simple conditions. PMID:12422858

  2. Pathophysiological links, echocardiographic characteristics, and clinical implications of QRS morphology in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Sunbul, Murat; Tigen, Kursat

    2015-10-01

    Heart failure is an important clinical problem worldwide. There is great interest in evaluating the relationship between electrocardiographic variations and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) since it has been used as a predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. The presence of fragmentation in the QRS complexes on 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) was reported as a marker of depolarization abnormality in patients with DCM. Previous studies have investigated the relation between QRS morphology and DCM. QRS morphology and duration are associated with clinical deterioration and increased mortality in patients with DCM. Although surface ECG provides valuable information on prognosis of these patients, echocardiographic methods have been used for further investigation of patients with DCM. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of the pathophysiological links, echocardiographic characteristics and clinical implications of QRS morphology in patients with DCM. PMID:25999264

  3. [Cardiac contractility modulation : A new form of therapy for patients with heart failure and narrow QRS complex?].

    PubMed

    Kleemann, T

    2015-11-01

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) is a stimulation therapy by an implantable impulse generator, which enhances ventricular contractile performance by delivering CCM impulses to the right ventricle during the absolute refractory period. The CCM signals mediate increased inotropy by prolonging the duration of the action potential, which leads to an enhanced influx of calcium into cardiomyocytes and a greater release of calcium by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. The increase of cardiac contractility is not associated with increased oxygen consumption. Several small studies have shown that CCM therapy can safely improve symptoms of heart failure and peak oxygen consumption in patients with moderate to severe heart failure who are not eligible for resynchronization therapy. Therefore, CCM is a novel potential therapy for patients with heart failure, an ejection fraction ??35?% and a normal QRS duration

  4. Studies of the electrical activity of the ventricles and the origin of the QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Scher, A M

    1995-01-01

    Historical events in the development of cardiac electrophysiology are described briefly. Observations before 1900 showed that electrical changes accompanied activity of muscle and nerve. Other studies showed that electrical activity of the heart produced voltage changes on the human torso. In 1903 Einthoven developed the string galvanometer which made measurement of electrocardiographic potentials much easier, more accurate and more common. The bases of understanding of arrhythmias were established by Lewis in the early 1900's. Soon thereafter Wilson devised practical and theoretical approaches to the human electrocardiogram which led to many further developments. Events before 1950 established the existence and mechanism of electrical activity in excitable cells. Studies of the origin of QRS began in about 1950, with studies of depolarization of the canine ventricle. Studies of the human ventricle followed. In the 70's it appeared possible to solve the electrocardiographic forward problem, prediction of electrocardiographic potentials from a knowledge of intracardiac events. That solution appeared possible because of new approaches to the associated physical and computational problems. Attempts to solve the forward problem at that time assumed that the cardiac generator (the boundary between resting and depolarized cells) was a uniform double layer generator. (The strength of the generator is constant everywhere along the boundary). Meanwhile physiologists and anatomists had worked out the mechanism of communication between cardiac cells. The cells are longer than they are wide, and each cell can depolarize contiguous cells. The connections between cells are predominantly at the ends of the cell and the longitudinal depolarization of a cardiac mass travels three times as fast as transverse depolarization. The generator is not uniform but is strongest parallel to the long axes of the cells. Many or most of those working in the field did not recognize the importance of the connections between cardiac cells in not only the pathway of excitation, but also the potentials produced as the cells depolarized. A number of experiments indicated that the uniform double layer assumption led to both qualitative and quantitative errors in prediction of fields generated by depolarization of cardiac muscle. These are reviewed. There are now alternatives to the uniform model which recognize the non-uniformity of the cardiac generators, particularly the axial model. The forward problem is unsolved but it appears possible that these newer models will make a solution possible. PMID:8932565

  5. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing RAZ scoring is a simple, accurate and inexpensive screening technique for cardiomyopathy. Although HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive for cardiomyopathy, its specificity may be compromised in patients with cardiac pathologies other than cardiomyopathy, such as uncomplicated coronary artery disease or multiple coronary disease risk factors. Further studies are required to determine whether HF QRS might be useful for monitoring cardiomyopathy severity or the efficacy of therapy in a longitudinal fashion.

  6. Straightforward and robust QRS detection algorithm for wearable cardiac monitor

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Barathram

    2014-01-01

    This Letter presents a fairly straightforward and robust QRS detector for wearable cardiac monitoring applications. The first stage of the QRS detector contains a powerful ?1-sparsity filter with overcomplete hybrid dictionaries for emphasising the QRS complexes and suppressing the baseline drifts, powerline interference and large P/T waves. The second stage is a simple peak-finding logic based on the Gaussian derivative filter for automatically finding locations of R-peaks in the ECG signal. Experiments on the standard MIT-BIH arrythmia database show that the method achieves an average sensitivity of 99.91% and positive predictivity of 99.92%. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method improves detection performance under small-QRS, wide-QRS complexes and noisy conditions without using the searchback algorithms.

  7. An automated algorithm for online detection of fragmented QRS and identification of its various morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Sidharth; Acharyya, Amit; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Leekha, Gourav; Maharatna, Koushik; Schiariti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (f-QRS) has been proven to be an efficient biomarker for several diseases, including remote and acute myocardial infarction, cardiac sarcoidosis, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, etc. It has also been shown to have higher sensitivity and/or specificity values than the conventional markers (e.g. Q-wave, ST-elevation, etc.) which may even regress or disappear with time. Patients with such diseases have to undergo expensive and sometimes invasive tests for diagnosis. Automated detection of f-QRS followed by identification of its various morphologies in addition to the conventional ECG feature (e.g. P, QRS, T amplitude and duration, etc.) extraction will lead to a more reliable diagnosis, therapy and disease prognosis than the state-of-the-art approaches and thereby will be of significant clinical importance for both hospital-based and emerging remote health monitoring environments as well as for implanted ICD devices. An automated algorithm for detection of f-QRS from the ECG and identification of its various morphologies is proposed in this work which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work of its kind. Using our recently proposed time–domain morphology and gradient-based ECG feature extraction algorithm, the QRS complex is extracted and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with one level of decomposition, using the ‘Haar’ wavelet, is applied on it to detect the presence of fragmentation. Detailed DWT coefficients were observed to hypothesize the postulates of detection of all types of morphologies as reported in the literature. To model and verify the algorithm, PhysioNet's PTB database was used. Forty patients were randomly selected from the database and their ECG were examined by two experienced cardiologists and the results were compared with those obtained from the algorithm. Out of 40 patients, 31 were considered appropriate for comparison by two cardiologists, and it is shown that 334 out of 372 (89.8%) leads from the chosen 31 patients complied favourably with our proposed algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity values obtained for the detection of f-QRS were 0.897 and 0.899, respectively. Automation will speed up the detection of fragmentation, reducing the human error involved and will allow it to be implemented for hospital-based remote monitoring and ICD devices. PMID:24132202

  8. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  9. Microcontroller-based real-time QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Suppappola, S; Wrublewski, T A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the design of a system for real-time detection of QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram based on a single-chip microcontroller (Motorola 68HC811). A systematic analysis of the instrumentation requirements for QRS detection and of the various design techniques is also given. Detection algorithms using different nonlinear transforms for the enhancement of QRS complexes are evaluated by using the ECG database of the American Heart Association. The results show that the nonlinear transform involving multiplication of three adjacent, sign-consistent differences in the time domain gives a good performance and a quick response. When implemented with an appropriate sampling rate, this algorithm is also capable of rejecting pacemaker spikes. The eight-bit single-chip microcontroller provides sufficient throughput and shows a satisfactory performance. Implementation of multiple detection algorithms in the same system improves flexibility and reliability. The low chip count in the design also favors maintainability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:1450792

  10. Prominent anterior QRS forces: clinical, electrocardiographic and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Paparella, N; Alboni, P; Cappato, R; Pirani, R; Gruppillo, P; Preziosi, S; Battaglia, R; Corio, R; Occari, G; Berti, C

    1987-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the prominent anterior QRS forces (R greater than or equal to S in V1 and/or V2 leads), in the absence of posterior myocardial infarction, right ventricular hypertrophy, or WPW syndrome, are related to an intraventricular conduction disturbance, at times rate-dependent. We followed 240 subjects with prominent anterior QRS forces and without the above mentioned diseases (study group), (mean age: 44.6 +/- 16 years, mean follow-up: 8 +/- 2 years) and 240 subjects without the anterior displacement (control group), (mean age: 44.4 +/- 14 years, mean follow-up: 7.9 +/- 1.9 years). The age distribution, sex, prevalence of organic heart disease, and follow-up period did not show significant differences between the two groups. QRS duration, prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy pattern, S1 S2 S3 morphology, terminal r wave in AVR and s wave in V6 were similar in the two groups. During the follow-up period the incidence of right and left bundle branch block and fascicular block was very similar in the two groups of patients. These data suggest that prominent anterior QRS forces do not appear to be related to an initial involvement of the main bundle branches and fascicles and do not increase the likelihood of appearance of an intraventricular block of more advanced degree. The clinical, ECG and prospective data are not helpful in localizing either the ventricle or the area of the ventricle affected by conduction disturbance responsible for the anterior displacement. Our data suggest that the prominent anterior QRS forces express a normal variant of ventricular depolarization and that this finding does not have, per se, any unfavourable clinical implication. PMID:3655594

  11. Regenerative Therapy Prevents Heart Failure Progression in Dyssynchronous Nonischemic Narrow QRS Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Arrell, D Kent; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Behfar, Atta; Kane, Garvan C; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; McDonald, Robert J; Wyles, Saranya P; Zlatkovic-Lindor, Jelena; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy using bi-ventricular pacing is proven effective in the management of heart failure (HF) with a wide QRS-complex. In the absence of QRS prolongation, however, device-based resynchronization is reported unsuitable. As an alternative, the present study tests a regenerative cell-based approach in the setting of narrow QRS-complex HF. Methods and Results Progressive cardiac dyssynchrony was provoked in a chronic transgenic model of stress-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. In contrast to rampant end-stage disease afflicting untreated cohorts, stem cell intervention early in disease, characterized by mechanical dyssynchrony and a narrow QRS-complex, aborted progressive dyssynchronous HF and prevented QRS widening. Stem cell-treated hearts acquired coordinated ventricular contraction and relaxation supporting systolic and diastolic performance. Rescue of contractile dynamics was underpinned by a halted left ventricular dilatation, limited hypertrophy, and reduced fibrosis. Reverse remodeling reflected a restored cardiomyopathic proteome, enforced at systems level through correction of the pathological molecular landscape and nullified adverse cardiac outcomes. Cell therapy of a dyssynchrony-prone cardiomyopathic cohort translated prospectively into improved exercise capacity and prolonged survivorship. Conclusions In narrow QRS HF, a regenerative approach demonstrated functional and structural benefit, introducing the prospect of device-autonomous resynchronization therapy for refractory disease. PMID:25964205

  12. QRS Prolongation in Myotonic Muscular Dystrophy and Diffuse Fibrosis on Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Nazarian, Saman; Bluemke, David A.; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Zviman, Menekhem M.; Turkbey, Evrim; Caffo, Brian S.; Shehata, Monda; Edwards, David; Butcher, Barbara; Calkins, Hugh; Berger, Ronald D.; Halperin, Henry R.; Tomaselli, Gordon F.

    2011-01-01

    Current noninvasive surrogates of cardiac involvement in myotonic muscular dystrophy have low positive predictive value for sudden death. We hypothesized that the cardiac MR signal-to-noise ratio variance (SNRV) is a surrogate of the spatial heterogeneity of myocardial fibrosis and correlates with electrocardiography changes in myotonic muscular dystrophy. The SNRV for contrast enhanced cardiac MR images was calculated over the entire left ventricle in 43 patients with myotonic muscular dystrophy. All patients underwent standard electrocardiography, and a subset of 23 patients underwent signal averaged electrocardiography. After correcting for body mass index, age, and ejection fraction, SNRV was predictive of QRS duration on standard electrocardiography (1.35-msec increased QRS duration/unit increase in SNRV, P < 0.001). SNRV was also predictive of the low-amplitude late-potential duration (1.49-msec increased low-amplitude late-potential duration/unit increase in SNRV, P < 0.001). Ten-fold cross-validation yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87 for the predictive value of SNRV for QRS duration greater than 120 msec. The SNRV of the left ventricle is associated with QRS prolongation, likely due to late depolarization of tissue within islands of patchy fibrosis. The association of SNRV with future clinical events warrants further study. PMID:20572151

  13. PVC discrimination using the QRS power spectrum and self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Talbi, M L; Charef, A

    2009-06-01

    This paper deals with the discrimination of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) arrhythmia using the fractal behavior of the power spectrum density of the QRS complexes. The linear interpolation of the QRS complex power spectrum density in Bode diagram in two different frequency intervals gives two straight lines with two different slopes. The scatter plot of one slope versus the other shows that there exists two distinct regions which represent the normal beats and the PVC beats. Therefore the PVC beats are classified using a self-organizing map fed by the two slopes of the QRS complex power spectrum. The MIT/BIH arrhythmia database is then used to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed method in the discrimination of the premature ventricular contraction (PVC) arrhythmia. The results have indicated that the method has achieved 82.71% of sensitivity and 88.06% of specificity over 46 records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. PMID:19215994

  14. QRS detection using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm (KNN) and evaluation on standard ECG databases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Indu; Singh, Dilbag; Khosla, Arun

    2012-01-01

    The performance of computer aided ECG analysis depends on the precise and accurate delineation of QRS-complexes. This paper presents an application of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm as a classifier for detection of QRS-complex in ECG. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on two manually annotated standard databases such as CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. In this work, a digital band-pass filter is used to reduce false detection caused by interference present in ECG signal and further gradient of the signal is used as a feature for QRS-detection. In addition the accuracy of KNN based classifier is largely dependent on the value of K and type of distance metric. The value of K = 3 and Euclidean distance metric has been proposed for the KNN classifier, using fivefold cross-validation. The detection rates of 99.89% and 99.81% are achieved for CSE and MIT-BIH databases respectively. The QRS detector obtained a sensitivity Se = 99.86% and specificity Sp = 99.86% for CSE database, and Se = 99.81% and Sp = 99.86% for MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made between proposed algorithm and other published work using CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia databases. These results clearly establishes KNN algorithm for reliable and accurate QRS-detection. PMID:25685438

  15. Assessment of the relationship between red cell distribution width and fragmented QRS in patients with non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bekler, Adem; Gazi, Emine; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Karaagac, Kemal; Altun, Burak; Temiz, Ahmet; Barutçu, Ahmet; Peker, Tezcan; Aslan, Burhan; Y?lmaz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Background Red cell distribution width (RDW) and fragmented QRS (fQRS) complexes have also been reported to be predictors of cardiac events and all-cause mortality in coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to investigate the association of serum red cell distribution width (RDW) levels and fQRS in patients with non-ST elevated acute coronary syndrome (NST-ACS). Material/Methods We retrospectively evaluated a total of 251 patients (191 men and 60 women) with NST-ACS. The NST-ACS consisted of unstable angina (UA) and non-ST elevated myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). The fQRS pattern was defined as the presence of an additional R’ or crochetage wave, notching in the nadir of the S wave or fragmentation of the RS or QS complexes in 2 contiguous leads corresponding to a major coronary artery territory. The relationships between the RDW and fQRS were assessed. Results The patients in the fQRS group were older, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) levels were significantly lower, and baseline RDW and troponin levels were significantly higher than in the group without fQRS. There were positive correlations between age, number of coronary arteries narrowed, and RDW, and negative correlations between triglyceride, LVEF, and RDW in study patients. There were positive correlations between number of fQRS leads, age, and RDW, and negative correlations between triglyceride, LVEF, and RDW in NSTEMI patients. Conclusions Our results indicate that an elevated RDW values is associated with fQRS in NST-ACS. Elevated RDW values and fQRS together may be useful for identifying NSTEMI patients in NST-ACS. PMID:24621882

  16. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo AR; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Background The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS. PMID:25590925

  17. Integrate and fire pulse train automaton for QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Gabriel; Príncipe, José C

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring heart activity from electrocardiograms (ECG) is crucial to avoid unnecessary fatalities; therefore, detection of QRS complex is fundamental to automated ECG monitoring. Continuous, portable 24/7 ECG monitoring requires wireless technology with constraints on power, bandwidth, area, and resolution. In order to provide continuous remote monitoring of patients and fast transmission of data to medical personnel for instantaneous intervention, we propose a methodology that converts analog inputs into pulses for ultralow power implementation. The signal encoding scheme is the time-based integrate and fire (IF) sampler from which a set of signal descriptors in the pulse domain are proposed. Furthermore, a logical decision rule for QRS detection based on morphological checking is derived. The proposed decision logic depends exclusively on relational and logical operators resulting in ultrafast recognition and can be implemented using combinatorial logic hardware to guarantee power consumption orders of magnitude lower than any microprocessor device. The algorithm was evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and results show that our algorithm performance is comparable to the state-of-the art software-based detection. PMID:24107919

  18. A Method for Context-Based Adaptive QRS Clustering in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniel; Félix, Paulo; Presedo, Jesús

    2015-09-01

    Continuous followup of heart condition through long-term electrocardiogram monitoring is an invaluable tool for diagnosing some cardiac arrhythmias. In such context, providing tools for fast locating alterations of normal conduction patterns is mandatory and still remains an open issue. This paper presents a real-time method for adaptive clustering QRS complexes from multilead ECG signals that provides the set of QRS morphologies that appear during an ECG recording. The method processes the QRS complexes sequentially by grouping them into a dynamic set of clusters based on the information content of the temporal context. The clusters are represented by templates which evolve over time and adapt to the QRS morphology changes. Rules to create, merge, and remove clusters are defined along with techniques for noise detection in order to avoid their proliferation. To cope with beat misalignment, derivative dynamic time warping is used. The proposed method has been validated against the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and the AHA ECG Database showing a global purity of 98.56% and 99.56%, respectively. Results show that our proposal not only provides better results than previous offline solutions but also fulfills real-time requirements. PMID:25312964

  19. Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Eskofier, Björn; Dokos, Socrates; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal characteristics. However, it is not clear from the literature which ECG analysis algorithms are suited for an implementation on a mobile device. We investigate current QRS detection algorithms based on three assessment criteria: 1) robustness to noise, 2) parameter choice, and 3) numerical efficiency, in order to target a universal fast-robust detector. Furthermore, existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution only on small segments of ECG signals, within a certain amplitude range, or amid particular types of arrhythmia and/or noise. These issues are discussed in the context of a comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by future recommendations for developing reliable QRS detection schemes suitable for implementation on battery-operated mobile devices. PMID:24409290

  20. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  1. Minnesota Parent Aware: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  2. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  3. Illinois Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  4. Colorado Qualistar. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  5. Indiana Paths to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Indiana's Paths to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  6. SDO: Complex Mass of Plasma - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A small, but complex mass of solar material gyrated and spun about over the course of 40 hours above the surface of the sun on Sept. 1-3, 2015. It was stretched and pulled back and forth by powerfu...

  7. An Improved QRS Wave Group Detection Algorithm and Matlab Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjun

    This paper presents an algorithm using Matlab software to detect QRS wave group of MIT-BIH ECG database. First of all the noise in ECG be Butterworth filtered, and then analysis the ECG signal based on wavelet transform to detect the parameters of the principle of singularity, more accurate detection of the QRS wave group was achieved.

  8. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  9. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  10. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. PMID:26595281

  11. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo Ar; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-10-28

    Background: The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective: Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods: Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions: Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS.Fundamento: O ângulo QRS-T mostra correlação com prognóstico em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca e doença coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferença entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. Até hoje, nenhuma informação a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagásica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ângulo QRS-T com a indução de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilação ventricular (TV / FV) em chagásicos durante estudo eletrofisiológico (EEF). Métodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro terciário. Pacientes sem indução de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ângulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105º), limítrofe (105-135º) e anormal (135-180º). As diferenças entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variáveis contínuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variáveis categóricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excluídos por estarem com dados incompletos / prontuários inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ângulo QRS-T (presença de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilação atrial). De 72 pacientes incluídos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limítrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem indução de TV / FV, o ângulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limítrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ângulo QRS-T normal, o risco de indução de TV / FV nos pacientes com ângulo anormal foi quatro vezes maior [odds ratio (OR) 4; intervalo de confia

  12. Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2014-06-26

    Behavioural learning is mediated by cellular plasticity, such as changes in the strength of synapses at specific sites in neural circuits. The theory of cerebellar motor learning relies on movement errors signalled by climbing-fibre inputs to cause long-term depression of synapses from parallel fibres to Purkinje cells. However, a recent review has called into question the widely held view that the climbing-fibre input is an 'all-or-none' event. In anaesthetized animals, there is wide variation in the duration of the complex spike (CS) caused in Purkinje cells by a climbing-fibre input. Furthermore, the amount of plasticity in Purkinje cells is graded according to the duration of electrically controlled bursts in climbing fibres. The duration of bursts depends on the 'state' of the inferior olive and therefore may be correlated across climbing fibres. Here we provide a potential functional context for these mechanisms during motor learning in behaving monkeys. The magnitudes of both plasticity and motor learning depend on the duration of the CS responses. Furthermore, the duration of CS responses seems to be a meaningful signal that is correlated across the Purkinje-cell population during motor learning. We suggest that during learning, longer bursts in climbing fibres lead to longer-duration CS responses in Purkinje cells, more calcium entry into Purkinje cells, larger synaptic depression, and stronger learning. The same graded impact of instructive signals for plasticity and learning might occur throughout the nervous system. PMID:24814344

  13. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  14. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  15. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, E.; Laciar, E.; Anzuola, E.; Laguna, P.; Jané, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  16. Duration of complex-spikes grades Purkinje cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral learning is mediated by cellular plasticity such as changes in the strength of synapses at specific sites in neural circuits. The theory of cerebellar motor learning1,2,3 relies on movement errors signaled by climbing-fiber inputs to cause long-term depression of synapses from parallel fibers to Purkinje cells4,5. Yet, a recent review6 has called into question the widely-held view that the climbing fiber input is an “all-or-none” event. In anesthetized animals, there is wide variation in the duration of the complex-spike (CS) caused in Purkinje cells by a climbing fiber input7. Further, the duration of electrically-controlled bursts in climbing fibers grades the amount of plasticity in Purkinje cells8,9. The duration of bursts depends on the “state” of the inferior olive and therefore could be correlated across climbing fibers8,10. Here, we provide a potential functional context for these mechanisms during motor learning in behaving monkeys. The magnitudes of both plasticity and motor learning depend on the duration of the CS responses. Further, the duration of CS responses appears to be a meaningful signal that is correlated across the Purkinje cell population during motor learning. We suggest that during learning, longer bursts in climbing fibers lead to longer duration CS responses in Purkinje cells, more calcium entry into Purkinje cells, larger synaptic depression, and stronger learning. The same graded impact of instructive signals for plasticity and learning could occur throughout the nervous system. PMID:24814344

  17. Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Ritter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This document is the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the QRS unit and system tests in support of the ASAC QRS development effort. This document contains an overview of the project background and scope, defines the QRS system and presents the additions made to the QRS this year, explains the assumptions, constraints, and approach used to conduct QRS Unit and System Testing, and presents the schedule used to perform QRS Testing. The document also presents an overview of the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) Test Facility and testing environment and summarizes the QRS Unit and System Test effort and results.

  18. Duration of Purkinje cell complex spikes increases with their firing frequency

    PubMed Central

    Warnaar, Pascal; Couto, Joao; Negrello, Mario; Junker, Marc; Smilgin, Aleksandra; Ignashchenkova, Alla; Giugliano, Michele; Thier, Peter; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Climbing fiber (CF) triggered complex spikes (CS) are massive depolarization bursts in the cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC), showing several high frequency spikelet components (±600 Hz). Since its early observations, the CS is known to vary in shape. In this study we describe CS waveforms, extracellularly recorded in awake primates (Macaca mulatta) performing saccades. Every PC analyzed showed a range of CS shapes with profoundly different duration and number of spikelets. The initial part of the CS was rather constant but the later part differed greatly, with a pronounced jitter of the last spikelets causing a large variation in total CS duration. Waveforms did not effect the following pause duration in the simple spike (SS) train, nor were SS firing rates predictive of the waveform shapes or vice versa. The waveforms did not differ between experimental conditions nor was there a preferred sequential order of CS shapes throughout the recordings. Instead, part of their variability, the timing jitter of the CS’s last spikelets, strongly correlated with interval length to the preceding CS: shorter CS intervals resulted in later appearance of the last spikelets in the CS burst, and vice versa. A similar phenomenon was observed in rat PCs recorded in vitro upon repeated extracellular stimulation of CFs at different frequencies in slice experiments. All together these results strongly suggest that the variability in the timing of the last spikelet is due to CS frequency dependent changes in PC excitability. PMID:25918500

  19. [A research on real-time ventricular QRS classification methods for single-chip-microcomputers].

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Yang, Z; Li, L; Chen, H; Chen, E; Lin, J

    1997-05-01

    Ventricular QRS classification is key technique of ventricular arrhythmias detection in single-chip-microcomputer based dynamic electrocardiogram real-time analyser. This paper adopts morphological feature vector including QRS amplitude, interval information to reveal QRS morphology. After studying the distribution of QRS morphology feature vector of MIT/BIH DB ventricular arrhythmia files, we use morphological feature vector cluster to classify multi-morphology QRS. Based on the method, morphological feature parameters changing method which is suitable to catch occasional ventricular arrhythmias is presented. Clinical experiments verify missed ventricular arrhythmia is less than 1% by this method. PMID:11189347

  20. Conditional statistical properties of the complex systems having long-duration memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifu; Ou, Congjie; Lin, Bihong; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2014-09-01

    A new concept of the available force is proposed to investigate the performance of the complex systems having long-duration memory. Since the covariance of average velocity in double time interval and available force equals zero, it is possible to calculate the conditional probability distribution function (CPDF) within the systems. It is found that the asymmetric CPDF of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals can be derived from the symmetrical CPDF between the available force and the double time interval velocity. Two typical currency exchange databases, i.e., EUR/USD and GBP/USD, which collect the minutely opening exchange prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011, are adopted as examples. It is found that the analytical CPDF needs only six parameters for an arbitrary system. By calculating the CPDF in the currency exchange databases, it is shown that the results are well fitted by our analytical expression. The analytical CPDF can also be used to calculate the conditional expectation and the conditional variance of velocity. Interestingly, the two databases show that the conditional expectation of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals is not monotonic, while the conditional variance tends to monotonic. All of these results are well described by our theory. It is worthwhile to note that the analytical CPDF is a general expression. It is valid not only for current exchange systems but also for any complex systems having long-duration memory.

  1. Cardiac Rehabilitation Improves the QRS Fragmentation in Patients With ST Elevat?on Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Bulut, Mustafa; Deniz Acar, Rezzan; Ergün, Sunay; Geçmen, Çetin; Akçakoyun, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: We aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on the fragmented QRS (fQRS) in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods: Ninety-seven patients with STEMI participated CR and 81 patients as a control group were included to the study. The trained patients were grouped according to the presence and persistence of QRS fragmentation on the electrocardiogram (ECG) before and after CR. If the fragmentation was present on the ECG at the beginning of the CR but not on the ECG at the end of CR; the transient group, if the fQRS persists after CR; the persistent fQRS group. ECGs obtained from the control group were grouped according to the presence of a fQRS on ECG. Results: Among the trained patients, 45 (46%) did not have a fQRS before CR, whereas 52 (54%) presented a fQRS before CR, which was persistent in 35 patients (the persistent fQRS group) and transient in 17 patients (the transient fQRS group). Among 81 patients included in the control group, fQRS was persistent in 41 patients. Presence of fQRS on the ECG was significantly decreased with CR and it is better in trained group than the control group (P = .034). There were not significant correlations with other characteristics, except hypertension. Conclusion: The existence of the fQRS decreases after CR in patients with STEMI especially in hypertensive individuals, which may be related to improved electrical stability in the myocardium as a predictor of increase in survival and decrease in major cardiac events. PMID:26430496

  2. Complex structure of electrophysiological gradients emerging during long-duration ventricular fibrillation in the canine heart

    PubMed Central

    Venable, Paul W.; Taylor, Tyson G.; Shibayama, Junko; Warren, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Long-duration ventricular fibrillation (LDVF) in the globally ischemic heart is a common setting of cardiac arrest. Electrical heterogeneities during LDVF may affect outcomes of defibrillation and resuscitation. Previous studies in large mammalian hearts have investigated the role of Purkinje fibers and electrophysiological gradients between the endocardium (Endo) and epicardium (Epi). Much less is known about gradients between the right ventricle (RV) and left ventricle (LV) and within each chamber during LDVF. We studied the transmural distribution of the VF activation rate (VFR) in the RV and LV and at the junction of RV, LV, and septum (Sep) during LDVF using plunge needle electrodes in opened-chest dogs. We also used optical mapping to analyze the Epi distribution of VFR, action potential duration (APD), and diastolic interval (DI) during LDVF in the RV and LV of isolated hearts. Transmural VFR gradients developed in both the RV and LV, with a faster VFR in Endo. Concurrently, large VFR gradients developed in Epi, with the fastest VFR in the RV-Sep junction, intermediate in the RV, and slowest in the LV. Optical mapping revealed a progressively increasing VFR dispersion within both the LV and RV, with a mosaic presence of fully inexcitable areas after 4–8 min of LDVF. The transmural, interchamber, and intrachamber VFR heterogeneities were of similar magnitude. In both chambers, the inverse of VFR was highly correlated with DI, but not APD, at all time points of LDVF. We conclude that the complex VFR gradients during LDVF in the canine heart cannot be explained solely by the distribution of Purkinje fibers and are related to regional differences in the electrical depression secondary to LDVF. PMID:20802138

  3. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Atiar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods and Results: 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P<0.001). Conclusions: Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  4. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P less than 0.00l). Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  5. Age and duration of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the AnapolisItaucu Complex, Southern Brasilia Belt, central Brazil

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Ning

    ). The assumption that an age obtained from a zircon in a metamorphic rock corresponds to Tmax has been shownAge and duration of ultrahigh-temperature metamorphism in the Ana´polis­Itauc¸u Complex, Southern-sloping heavy-REE patterns, commonly inferred to be magmatic, whereas unambiguous metamorphic grains

  6. Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; DePalma, Jude L.; Moradi, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    An electronic system that performs real-time analysis of the low-amplitude, high-frequency, ordinarily invisible components of the QRS portion of an electrocardiographic signal in real time has been developed. Whereas the signals readily visible on a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) have amplitudes of the order of a millivolt and are characterized by frequencies <100 Hz, the ordinarily invisible components have amplitudes in the microvolt range and are characterized by frequencies from about 150 to about 250 Hz. Deviations of these high-frequency components from a normal pattern can be indicative of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

  7. Amplitude and Duration Interdependence in the Perceived Intensity of Complex Tactile Signals

    E-print Network

    Hayward, Vincent

    noise vibrations enveloped in a Gabor wavelet. Characteristic durations ranging between 100 and 700 ms, termed loudness, grows approximately as a power function of the duration of a stimulus shorter than 150 of sensation intensity on the finger tip is much like the growth of loudness in hearing. Therefore, a power law

  8. A ROBUST METHOD FOR QRS DETECTION BASED ON MODIFIED P-SPECTRUM , and K. J. Ray Liu2

    E-print Network

    Liu, K. J. Ray

    on the mod- i ed p-spectrum to detect heart beats in ECG signals, which is also referred as QRS detection in the literature. QRS de- tection is an old problem that has been studied for several decades. In the literature carefully labeled training data. In our study, we propose the modi ed p-spectrum for QRS detection, which

  9. Progress in resolving the duration of magmatism in the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Wall, C. J.; Friedman, R. M.; VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Determining precise crystallization ages and assessing the duration of magmatism associated with the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered intrusion located in the northern Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, is critical for establishing the genetic relations among its different rock units (Rustenburg Layered Suite, overlying Rooiberg Group felsic volcanic rocks, intrusive Rashoop Granophyres). We report chemical abrasion ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon results (weighted 207Pb/206Pb ages) for samples spanning the uppermost ~3/4 of the igneous stratigraphy of the layered mafic rocks and the roof. The temporal relationship between the Upper Zone and the roof from the Eastern Limb is constrained by the age of a diorite ~52 m below the roof (2056.52 ± 0.81 Ma; n = 6 single grains) and a granodiorite mixed with hornfels (40:60) and interpreted as partially melted roof material (2054.83 ± 0.86 Ma; n = 7). The slightly younger age of the granodiorite may indicate that the overlying melt sheet was kept molten due to continued influx of the latent heat of crystallization from the underlying 8 km-thick stack of cooling cumulates. The PGE-rich Merensky Reef and the UG2 chromitite occur in the Upper Critical Zone above the ultramafic rocks that comprise the base of the complex. Two samples from the Merensky Reef, separated by ~300 km, have overlapping ages: a sample from Farm Driekop in the Eastern Limb yields an age of 2055.30 ± 0.61 Ma (n = 10) and a sample from the Rustenburg mining section in the Western Limb an age of 2056.13 ± 0.70 Ma (n = 8; age revised from [1]). These ages are indistinguishable from the Upper Zone diorite indicating rapid construction of the upper 2/3 of the Bushveld Complex at ca. 2056 Ma. Preliminary results for zircon from a feldspathic orthopyroxenite immediately beneath the UG2 chromitite (Middelpunt mine, Eastern Limb), ~380 m below the Merensky Reef, reveal unusual U-Pb systematics with low U concentrations (2-27 ppm), exceptionally high Th/U (7.3-28.1) and a range of 207Pb/206Pb ages (2057.8 to 2075.0 Ma; n = 6, all results concordant). These results may reflect a combination of the compositional effects of co-existing U-bearing accessory phases (apatite, rutile) and formation by metasomatism and partial melting of the pyroxenite protolith by rising hydrous interstitial melt that accumulated beneath the impermeable chromitite layer [2]. The ages for additional samples in progress will also be presented to further test the proposal that 15-25% of the original magma volume in the intrusion was expelled to form the Upper Rooiberg Group lavas or Rashoop granophyres [3]. [1] Scoates & Friedman (2008) Economic Geology 103, 465-471; [2] Mathez & Mey (2005) Economic Geology 100, 1616-1630; [3] VanTongeren et al. (2010) Journal of Petrology 51, 1891-1912.

  10. Development of a Multi-Channel, High Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePalma, Jude L.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS era and the potential requirement for increased cardiovascular monitoring of crewmembers during extended EVAs, NASA flight surgeons would stand to benefit from an evolving technology that allows for a more rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia compared to standard electrocardiography. Similarly, during the astronaut selection process, NASA flight surgeons and other physicians would also stand to benefit from a completely noninvasive technology that, either at rest or during maximal exercise tests, is more sensitive than standard ECG in identifying the presence of ischemia. Perhaps most importantly, practicing cardiologists and emergency medicine physicians could greatly benefit from such a device as it could augment (or even replace) standard electrocardiography in settings where the rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia (or the lack thereof) is required for proper clinical decision-making. A multi-channel, high-frequency QRS electrocardiograph is currently under development in the Life Sciences Research Laboratories at JSC. Specifically the project consisted of writing software code, some of which contained specially-designed digital filters, which will be incorporated into an existing commercial software program that is already designed to collect, plot and analyze conventional 12-lead ECG signals on a desktop, portable or palm PC. The software will derive the high-frequency QRS signals, which will be analyzed (in numerous ways) and plotted alongside of the conventional ECG signals, giving the PC-viewing clinician advanced diagnostic information that has never been available previously in all 12 ECG leads simultaneously. After the hardware and software for the advanced digital ECG monitor have been fully integrated, plans are to use the monitor to begin clinical studies both on healthy subjects and on patients with known coronary artery disease in both the outpatient and hospital settings. The ultimate goal is to get the technology out into the clinical world, where it has the potential to save lives.

  11. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    PubMed Central

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Dürr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry, and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance, and an evolutionary context. PMID:25852589

  12. Prosodic Planning: Effects of Phrasal Length and Complexity on Pause Duration

    PubMed Central

    Krivokapi, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Research on pause duration has mainly focused on the impact of syntactic structure on the duration of pauses within an utterance and on the impact of syntax, discourse, and prosodic structure on the likelihood of pause occurrence. Relatively little is known about what factors play a role in determining the duration of pauses between utterances or phrases. Two experiments examining the effect of prosodic structure and phrase length on pause duration are reported. Subjects read sentences varying along the following parameters: a) the length in syllables of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, and b) the prosodic structure of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, specifically whether or not the intonational phrase branches into smaller phrases. In order to minimize variability due to speech rate and individual differences, speakers read sentences synchronously in dyads. The results showed a significant post-boundary effect of prosodic branching and significant pre- and post-boundary phrase length effects. The results are discussed in terms of production units. PMID:18379639

  13. 1 Ifa power spectrum of the ORS complex does not imply fractal activation of the

    E-print Network

    Guevara, Michael R.

    1 Ifa power spectrum of the ORS complex does not imply fractal activation of the ventricles Dear- diogram (ECG). The averaged power spectrum of single QRS complexes from different individuals shows a 1/fa the "fractal depolarization hypothesis." Here, we demonstrate that the 1/If spectrum of the QRS complex does

  14. Atlantis Time-Lapse Move to KSC Visitor Complex - Duration: 3 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse cameras captured space shuttle Atlantis making a 10-mile trek from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex whe...

  15. Monitoring complex trace-gas mixtures by long-path laser absorption spectrometry. [in long duration manned mission closed environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods, which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants, include Raman and passive radiometry. The paper discusses a simple long-path laser absorption method which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels. A number of species were selected which are most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Absorption coefficients at CO2 laser wavelengths were measured, accurate to + 3 per cent or better, for each of these species. This data base was then used to determine the presence and concentration of the contaminants in prepared mixtures of 12 to 15 gases. Computer programs have been developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Minimum detectable concentrations for individual species are generally in the ppm range, and are not seriously degraded by interferences even in complex mixtures. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations and comparison with other methods of analysis are discussed

  16. Spatial/Frontal QRS-T Angle Predicts All-Cause Mortality and Cardiac Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Jun; Huang, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2015-01-01

    Background A number of studies have assessed the predictive effect of QRS-T angles in various populations since the last decade. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the prognostic value of spatial/frontal QRS-T angle on all-cause death and cardiac death. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from their inception until June 5, 2014. Studies reporting the predictive effect of spatial/frontal QRS-T angle on all-cause/cardiac death in all populations were included. Relative risk (RR) was used as a measure of effect. Results Twenty-two studies enrolling 164,171 individuals were included. In the combined analysis in all populations, a wide spatial QRS-T angle was associated with an increase in all-cause death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.32 to 1.48) and cardiac death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.54 to 1.90), a wide frontal QRS-T angle also predicted a higher rate of all-cause death (maximum-adjusted RR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.54 to 1.90). Largely similar results were found using different methods of categorizing for QRS-T angles, and similar in subgroup populations such as general population, populations with suspected coronary heart disease or heart failure. Other stratified analyses and meta-analyses using unadjusted data also generated consistent findings. Conclusions Spatial QRS-T angle held promising prognostic value on all-cause death and cardiac death. Frontal QRS-T angle was also a promising predictor of all-cause death. Given the good predictive value of QRS-T angle, a combined stratification strategy in which QRS-T angle is of vital importance might be expected. PMID:26284799

  17. When Deriving the Spatial QRS-T Angle from the 12-lead ECG, which Transform is More Frank: Regression or Inverse Dower?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Cortez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Our primary objective was to ascertain which commonly used 12-to-Frank-lead transformation yields spatial QRS-T angle values closest to those obtained from simultaneously collected true Frank-lead recordings. Simultaneous 12-lead and Frank XYZ-lead recordings were analyzed for 100 post-myocardial infarction patients and 50 controls. Relative agreement, with true Frank-lead results, of 12-to-Frank-lead transformed results for the spatial QRS-T angle using Kors regression versus inverse Dower was assessed via ANOVA, Lin s concordance and Bland-Altman plots. Spatial QRS-T angles from the true Frank leads were not significantly different than those derived from the Kors regression-related transformation but were significantly smaller than those derived from the inverse Dower-related transformation (P less than 0.001). Independent of method, spatial mean QRS-T angles were also always significantly larger than spatial maximum (peaks) QRS-T angles. Spatial QRS-T angles are best approximated by regression-related transforms. Spatial mean and spatial peaks QRS-T angles should also not be used interchangeably.

  18. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic ?18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although each climatic parameter has its own interglacial duration in this approach, important overall patterns emerge for individual interglacials. Interglacial conditions during the last interglacial, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, as well as most pre-MBE interglacials persisted somewhat longer than the elapsed duration of the Holocene, while MIS 7 was shorter, and MIS 9 and MIS 19 were similar in duration. The longest interglacial durations overall characterized MIS 11, a frequent candidate as a potential Holocene and near future analogue because of similar orbital configurations (similarity shared also with MIS 19). Our study also reveals that interglacial high CO2 levels on the whole are within the duration range of the other paleoclimatic proxies and similar in length with the deuterium EDC record. This suggests that CO2 essentially plays a role of feedback when contributing to interglacial's duration. This exercise highlights the stability and variability in duration of the different interglacials as recorded in various proxy records under natural climate conditions. It may help identify past interglacial periods with conditions similar to those observed in the Holocene thus far, thereby allowing improved understanding of the human impact on climate.

  19. A 300-mV 220-nW event-driven ADC with real-time QRS detection for wearable ECG sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Yong

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power event-driven analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with real-time QRS detection for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors in wireless body sensor network (WBSN) applications. Two QRS detection algorithms, pulse-triggered (PUT) and time-assisted PUT (t-PUT), are proposed based on the level-crossing events generated from the ADC. The PUT detector achieves 97.63% sensitivity and 97.33% positive prediction in simulation on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The t-PUT improves the sensitivity and positive prediction to 97.76% and 98.59% respectively. Fabricated in 0.13 ?m CMOS technology, the ADC with QRS detector consumes only 220 nW measured under 300 mV power supply, making it the first nanoWatt compact analog-to-information (A2I) converter with embedded QRS detector. PMID:25608283

  20. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20– 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 – V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  1. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare. This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20?mm. The ?ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial ?bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes. PMID:26496347

  2. Prognostic value of frontal QRS-T angle in patients without clinical evidence of cardiovascular disease (from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).

    PubMed

    Walsh, Joseph A; Soliman, Elsayed Z; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Nazarian, Saman; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M

    2013-12-15

    Abnormal frontal QRS-T angle on a 12-lead electrocardiogram is associated with incident coronary heart disease and total mortality in a biracial cohort, but there have been no studies to date examining QRS-T angle's prognostic value across multiple ethnicities. We studied 6,814 participants (52.7% women, mean age 62 years) from Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a multiethnic cohort aged 45 to 84 years free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at enrollment. Baseline examination included measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead electrocardiograms. Frontal QRS-T axis was defined as normal (less than seventy-fifth percentile), borderline (seventy-fifth to ninety-fifth percentile), or abnormal (ninety-fifth percentile or more), and participants were followed for the composite end point of incident CVD events: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris, or heart failure. After 7.6 years of follow-up, there were 444 total events. Borderline (HR [hazard ratio] 1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.10 to 1.70) and abnormal QRS-T angles (HR 2.2, 95% CI 1.63 to 2.97) were associated with incident CVD events in multivariate-adjusted models. However, after adjusting for T-wave abnormalities, there was no statistically significant association of either borderline (HR 1.12, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.41) or abnormal (HR 1.31, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.84) QRS-T angle with incident CVD events. Abnormal frontal QRS-T angle predicts incident CVD events in a multiethnic population, and this increased risk is primarily mediated through T-wave abnormalities. QRS-T angle provides an easily interpretable continuous marker of abnormal ventricular repolarization that can aid the everyday clinician in risk prediction. PMID:24063831

  3. Utility of Routine Exercise Testing to Detect Rate-Related QRS Widening in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease on Class Ic Antiarrhythmic Agents (Flecainide and Propafenone).

    PubMed

    Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Paydak, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Class Ic antiarrhythmic agents are effective in the treatment of various atrial tachyarrhythmias. They are known to cause rate-related QRS widening in the presence of structural heart disease, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. The role of routine exercise electrocardiography in patients without structural heart disease is unknown. All patients initiated on class Ic antiarrhythmic agents and who had exercise electrocardiography performed from June 2009 to June 2013 were included. Symptom-limited treadmill electrocardiography was performed to detect significant QRS widening at peak exercise (defined as an increase of >25% of baseline QRS). Fifty-six patients were included in the study. All patients were screened for structural heart disease before initiation of the medication. Significant QRS widening and atrial tachycardia occurred in a single patient, which terminated with cessation of exercise. This patient had a history of tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy with normalization of ejection fraction 3 years before being placed on flecainide. In conclusion, routine exercise testing to detect QRS widening is not warranted in patients with no structural heart disease. PMID:26100588

  4. Duration, convexity and immunisation

    E-print Network

    Winkel, Matthias

    or effective duration (i) = - d(ln(V )) di = - 1 V dV di . (b) discounted mean term (DMT) or MacAuley duration outflows. Example 78 DMT of an n-year coupon-paying bond, annual coupons of D, redemption proceeds of R the special case of a zero-coupon bond of duration n, which has DMT n. Note however, that it is the Mac

  5. Implications of Franciscan Complex graywacke geochemistry for sediment transport, provenance determination, burial-exposure duration, and fluid exchange with cosubducted metabasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Arundhuti; Basu, Asish R.; Wakabayashi, John

    2013-09-01

    of graywacke provenance has long been used to evaluate the record of tectonic process in orogenic belts. Our geochemical data from graywackes of the Franciscan subduction complex, California, show that the connection between sedimentary record and geologic processes may be more complex than previously believed. Trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes of Franciscan graywackes indicate two sources types. One group lacking negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* > 0.9), shows slightly concave-up heavy rare earth elements, arc-like trace element patterns, and western Pacific island arc-like Pb isotopes, reflecting derivation from older accreted oceanic-arc terranes in the Sierra Nevada-Klamath Mountains. The other group displays small negative Eu anomalies, with trace element patterns resembling post-Archean Australian shale and Pb isotopes similar to Jurassic-Cretaceous Sierran batholith. There is no systematic separation of these two groups by depositional ages. Thus, geochemistry of the graywackes may partly reflect variation in location of sediment delivery systems, rather than solely reflecting evolution of the neighboring arc. Variation of Nd-Sr isotopes with stratigraphic-age for the graywackes mimics the trends of the coeval Great Valley Group clastic-rocks, suggesting that (1) they share the same sediment sources, (2) there are no "exotic" sediment sources that fed the Franciscan trench, and (3) burial-exposure cycles for Franciscan clastic rocks were comparatively brief. Comparison of Franciscan graywacke and metabasite geochemistry corroborates earlier conclusions that metabasites had little or no chemical exchange with fluids from cosubducted graywacke. Detrital zircon age populations, major element chemistry, and detrital framework modes, when compared to our data suggest that the former three parameters underrepresent the mafic component of clastic sediment provenance.

  6. Therapeutic efficacy of liposomal clofazimine against Mycobacterium avium complex in mice depends on size of initial inoculum and duration of infection.

    PubMed Central

    Kansal, R G; Gomez-Flores, R; Sinha, I; Mehta, R T

    1997-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of liposomal clofazimine (L-CLF) against Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) was evaluated in the acute and chronic infection models of the beige mouse (C57BL/6J bgj bgj). The maximum tolerated dose of L-CLF was inversely proportional to the infection level. L-CLF showed higher antibacterial activity than free clofazimine. Treatment with 25 mg of L-CLF per kg of body weight (intravenously) was started at days 1, 8, 15, and 22 postinfection and was studied at three levels of MAC infection (10(4), 10(5), and 10(6) bacilli/mouse). L-CLF treatment caused a significant (P < 0.05 to 0.001) reduction in the numbers of viable bacteria in lung, liver, and spleen at all infection levels, irrespective of time of treatment. However, the best results were obtained when an already established infection was treated (day 22). The organ-related differences in response to the treatment were also affected by the level of infection. A marked reduction in the numbers of CFU was observed in the lungs of mice with lower infection levels, whereas liver and spleen were treated more efficiently at higher infection levels. These studies might help in evaluations of host responses to therapy. PMID:8980748

  7. Icon Duration and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerman, Kent; And Others

    In this study, developmental changes in duration of the icon (visual sensory store) were investigated with three converging tachistoscopic tasks. (1) Stimulus interuption detection (SID), a variation of the two-flash threshold method, was performed by 29 first- and 32 fifth-graders, and 32 undergraduates. Icon duration was estimated by stimulus…

  8. Complex Solar Eruption - Duration: 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 around 0855 UT, Earth orbiting satellites detected a C3-class solar flare. The origin of the blast was sunspot 1092. At about the same time, an enormous magnetic filament stretchi...

  9. [Sleep duration and overweight].

    PubMed

    Hense, S; Bayer, O

    2011-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is considered a serious risk factor with a relevant public health impact due to its multiple effects, which we are just beginning to understand. This is underlined by the growing number of studies in recent decades that have investigated the association between sleep duration and overweight. This review gives an overview of the current state of research and potential biological mechanisms. Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests an association between short sleep duration and overweight in children as well as in adults. Different biological mechanisms have been discussed in this context with a special focus on hormonal changes as the potential mediator. To include sleep in a comprehensive strategy to prevent overweight, interventional studies that analyze the potentially protective effect of prolonged sleep duration are necessary. PMID:22116485

  10. Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Eagleman, David M.; Pariyadath, Vani

    2009-01-01

    Perceived duration is conventionally assumed to correspond with objective duration, but a growing literature suggests a more complex picture. For example, repeated stimuli appear briefer in duration than a novel stimulus of equal physical duration. We suggest that such duration illusions appear to parallel the neural phenomenon of repetition suppression, and we marshal evidence for a new hypothesis: the experience of duration is a signature of the amount of energy expended in representing a stimulus, i.e. the coding efficiency. This novel hypothesis offers a unified explanation for almost a dozen illusions in the literature in which subjective duration is modulated by properties of the stimulus such as size, brightness, motion and rate of flicker. PMID:19487187

  11. Blink duration measurement system for drowsiness detection using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Kato, Masami

    2005-03-01

    Support systems for automobile drivers have been recently developed. One support system prevents drivers from sleeping at the wheel, but an adequate system has not yet been commercialized. Many reports say that when a driver is drowsy, the blinking duration tends to be long. So, we propose a method to prevent drivers from sleeping by detecting the blinking duration. Because this method only uses simple image processing, the algorithm is not complex. The algorithm involves face localization, then eye localization, followed by measurement of the blinking duration. We tested our system on a number of frames, and the correct blinking duration was usually detected.

  12. Prevalence and inter-relationship of different Doppler measures of dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS: a report from CARE-HF

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Magnus; Kim, Yong; Hansen, Knud Norregaard; Nissen, Henrik; Espersen, Geert; La Rosee, Karl; Maru, Fikru; Freemantle, Nick; Cleland, John; Sogaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) improves mortality and morbidity in heart failure patients with wide QRS. Observational studies suggest that patients having more left ventricular dyssynchrony pre-implantation obtain greater benefit on ventricular function and symptoms with CRT. Aim To provide an analysis of the prevalence and type of dyssynchrony in patients included in the CARE-HF trial. Methods 100 patients 67 (58 to 71) years were examined with echocardiography including tissue doppler imaging before receiving a CRT-pacemaker. Atrio-ventricular dyssynchrony (LVFT/RR) was defined as left ventricular filling time <40% of the RR-interval. Inter-ventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) was measured as the difference in onset of Doppler-flow in the pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts >40 ms. Intra-ventricular (regional) dyssynchrony in a 16-segment model was expressed either as a delayed longitudinal contraction (DLC) during the postsystolic phase or by tissue synchronisation imaging (TSI) with a predefined time-difference in systolic maximal velocities >85 ms. Results LVFT/RR was present in 34% and IVMD in 60% of patients while intra-ventricular dyssynchrony was present in 85% (DLC) and 86% (TSI) with a high agreement between the measures (Kappascore 0.86–1.00), indicating the methods being interchangeable. Patients with cardiomyopathy (53%) were more likely to have LVFT/RR <40% (45% vs. 21% (p= 0.02)) and more segments affected by intra-ventricular dyssynchrony 4(3, 5) vs. 3(1, 4), p = 0.002, compared to patients with ischemic heart disease. Conclusion The prevalence of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony is high in patients with heart failure, wide QRS and depressed systolic function. Most important, TSI appears to be a fast and reliable method to identify patients with intra-ventricular dyssynchrony likely to benefit from CRT. PMID:19128462

  13. The Latest Developments in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Latest Developments in NASA’s Long Duration Balloon Systems Bryan D. Stilwell, bryan.stilwell@csbf.nasa.gov Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas, USA The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, located in Palestine, Texas offers the scientific community a high altitude balloon based communications platform. Scientific payload mass can exceed 2722 kg with balloon float altitudes on average of 40000 km and flight duration of up to 100 days. Many developments in electrical systems have occurred over the more than 25 years of long duration flights. This paper will discuss the latest developments in electronic systems related to long duration flights. Over the years, the long duration flights have increased in durations exceeding 56 days. In order to support these longer flights, the systems have had to increase in complexity and reliability. Several different systems that have been upgraded and/or enhanced will be discussed.

  14. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with a minimum risk for population. Telemetry system is based on satellite communication technologies. Housekeeping data and GPS data are transferred to the Ground Station by IRIDIUM network. Gondola is interrogated automatically each hour and all data stocked onboard are downloaded to ground station. Communication takes a few minutes to transfer all data stocked from last request. Tools had been used in SCOUT-MIR campaign 2008 for the first time. The results obtained encourage CNES teams to improve ergonomics and functionalities of these prototype.

  15. ESTIMATING THE DURATION OF SPECIATION FROM PHYLOGENIES

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Rampal S; Morlon, Hélène; Lambert, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Speciation is not instantaneous but takes time. The protracted birth–death diversification model incorporates this fact and predicts the often observed slowdown of lineage accumulation toward the present. The mathematical complexity of the protracted speciation model has barred estimation of its parameters until recently a method to compute the likelihood of phylogenetic branching times under this model was outlined (Lambert et al. 2014). Here, we implement this method and study using simulated phylogenies of extant species how well we can estimate the model parameters (rate of initiation of speciation, rate of extinction of incipient and good species, and rate of completion of speciation) as well as the duration of speciation, which is a combination of the aforementioned parameters. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a primate phylogeny. The simulations show that phylogenies often do not contain enough information to provide unbiased estimates of the speciation-initiation rate and the extinction rate, but the duration of speciation can be estimated without much bias. The estimate of the duration of speciation for the primate clade is consistent with literature estimates. We conclude that phylogenies combined with the protracted speciation model provide a promising way to estimate the duration of speciation. PMID:24758256

  16. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  17. The derivation of the spatial QRS-T angle and the spatial ventricular gradient using the Mason-Likar 12-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Guldenring, Daniel; Finlay, Dewar D; Bond, Raymond R; Kennedy, Alan; McLaughlin, James; Galeotti, Loriano; Strauss, David G

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the 'spatial QRS-T angle' (SA) and the 'spatial ventricular gradient' (SVG) have clinical value in a number of different applications. The determination of the SA and the SVG requires vectorcardiographic data. Such data is seldom recorded in clinical practice. The SA and the SVG are therefore frequently derived from 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) data using linear lead transformation matrices. This research compares the performance of two previously published linear lead transformation matrices (Kors and ML2VCG) in deriving the SA and the SVG from Mason-Likar (ML) 12-lead ECG data. This comparison was performed through an analysis of the estimation errors that are made when deriving the SA and the SVG for all 181 subjects in the study population. The estimation errors were quantified as the systematic error (mean difference) and the random error (span of the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement). The random error was found to be the dominating error component for both the Kors and the ML2VCG matrix. The random error [ML2VCG; Kors; result of the paired, two-sided Pitman-Morgan test for statistical significance of differences in the error variance between ML2VCG and Kors] for the vectorcardiographic parameters SA, magnitude of the SVG, elevation of the SVG and azimuth of the SVG were found to be [37.33°; 50.52°; p<0.001], [30.17mVms; 39.09mVms; p<0.001], [36.77°; 47.62°; p=0.001] and [63.45°; 80.32°; p<0.001] respectively. The findings of this research indicate that in comparison to the Kors matrix the ML2VCG provides greater precision for estimating the SA and SVG from ML 12-lead ECG data. PMID:26381798

  18. Voice attractiveness: influence of stimulus duration and type.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, C; Patel, S; Mehu-Blantar, I; Khidasheli, M; Sander, D; Delplanque, S

    2013-06-01

    Voice attractiveness is a relatively new area of research. Some aspects of the methodology used in this domain deserve particular attention. Especially, the duration of voice samples is often neglected as a factor and happens to be manipulated without the perceptual consequences of these manipulations being known. Moreover, the type of voice stimulus varies from a single vowel to complex sentences. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the extent to which stimulus duration (nonmanipulated vs. normalized) and type (vowel vs. word) influence perceived voice attractiveness. Twenty-seven male and female raters made attractiveness judgments of 30 male and female voice samples. Voice samples included a single vowel /a/, a three-vowel series /i a o/, and the French word "bonjour" (i.e., "hello"). These samples were presented in three conditions: nonmanipulated, shortened, and lengthened duration. Duration manipulation was performed using the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) algorithm implemented in Praat. Results for the effect of stimulus type showed that word length samples were more attractive to the opposite sex than vowels. Results for the effect of duration showed that the nonmanipulated sound sample duration was not predictive of perceived attractiveness. Duration manipulation, on the other hand, altered perceived attractiveness for the lengthening condition. In particular, there was a linear decrease in attractiveness as a function of modification percentage (especially for the word, as compared with the vowels). Recommendations for voice sample normalization with the PSOLA algorithm are thus to prefer shortening over lengthening and, if not possible, to limit the extent of duration manipulation-for example, by normalizing to the mean sample duration. PMID:23239065

  19. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Pool, S. L.; Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program addresses a need for more time to perform experiments and other tasks during Space Shuttle missions. As a part of this program, the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) has been instituted to obtain information about physiologic effects of extending mission duration and the effectiveness of countermeasures against factors that might compromise crew health, safety, or performance on extended-duration missions. Only those investigations that address and characterize operational problems, develop countermeasures, or evaluate the effectiveness of countermeasures will be pursued. The EDOMP investigations will include flight-associated Detailed Supplementary Objectives as well as ground-based studies simulating the influence of microgravity. Investigator teams have been formed in the following areas: biomedical physiology, cardiovascular and fluid/electrolyte physiology, environmental health, muscle and exercise physiology, and neurophysiology. Major operational questions must be answered in each of these areas, and investigations have been designed to answer them. The EDO program will proceed only after countermeasures have been shown to be effective in preventing or mitigating the adverse changes they have been designed to attenuate. The program is underway and will continue on each Shuttle flight as the manifest builds toward a 16-day orbital flight.

  20. Duration learning for analysis of nanopore ionic current blockades

    PubMed Central

    Churbanov, Alexander; Baribault, Carl; Winters-Hilt, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Background Ionic current blockade signal processing, for use in nanopore detection, offers a promising new way to analyze single molecule properties, with potential implications for DNA sequencing. The alpha-Hemolysin transmembrane channel interacts with a translocating molecule in a nontrivial way, frequently evidenced by a complex ionic flow blockade pattern. Typically, recorded current blockade signals have several levels of blockade, with various durations, all obeying a fixed statistical profile for a given molecule. Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based duration learning experiments on artificial two-level Gaussian blockade signals helped us to identify proper modeling framework. We then apply our framework to the real multi-level DNA hairpin blockade signal. Results The identified upper level blockade state is observed with durations that are geometrically distributed (consistent with an a physical decay process for remaining in any given state). We show that mixture of convolution chains of geometrically distributed states is better for presenting multimodal long-tailed duration phenomena. Based on learned HMM profiles we are able to classify 9 base-pair DNA hairpins with accuracy up to 99.5% on signals from same-day experiments. Conclusion We have demonstrated several implementations for de novo estimation of duration distribution probability density function with HMM framework and applied our model topology to the real data. The proposed design could be handy in molecular analysis based on nanopore current blockade signal. PMID:18047713

  1. Sleep duration and body mass index among southern Brazilian preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó; Vitolo, Márcia Regina

    2012-12-01

    Prevention and treatment of overweight are particularly complex, reinforcing the importance of studies aimed at clarifying their range of causes and effects. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between night sleep duration and anthropometric measurements. A cross-sectional analysis was performed from data from 348 children aged 3 and 4 years in São Leopoldo/RS. Night sleep duration was reported by their mothers and body mass index, waist circumference and skinfold thickness were measured according to standard protocol. The analyses were adjusted for energy intake and hours of television watching. Overweight children had, on average, 0.39 hours less sleep than those with normal weight (9.77 ± 1.44 versus 10.17 ± 1.34; 95% CI 0.03 to 0, 76). We observed an inverse association between night sleep duration and z score values of body mass index for age (B = -0.12 95% CI -0.22 - -0.02). Waist circumference and skinfold thickness showed an inverse relationship with sleep duration, but without any statistic differences. Among preschool children in southern Brazil, smaller night sleep duration was associated with higher body mass index. PMID:23337988

  2. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth - Duration: 53 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter?s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  3. Health care delivery system for long duration manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.; Shulman, E. L.; Johnson, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Specific requirements for medical support of a long-duration manned facility in a low earth orbit derive from inflight medical experience, projected medical scenarios, mission related spacecraft and environmental hazards, health maintenance, and preventive medicine. A sequential buildup of medical capabilities tailored to increasing mission complexity is proposed. The space station health maintenance facility must provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic medical support as immediate rescue capability may not exist.

  4. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  5. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  6. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  7. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  8. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

  9. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  10. Retinotopic adaptation-based visual duration compression

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Alan

    Retinotopic adaptation-based visual duration compression Cognitive, Perceptual and Brain Sciences of whether adaptation-based duration compression (A. Johnston, D. H. Arnold, & S. Nishida, 2006) takes place temporal frequency. However, using an adaptation schedule that minimizes any effect of adaptation

  11. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  12. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  13. Predicting and Explaining Success and Task Duration

    E-print Network

    that affect the success and the duration of fire-fighting episodes, it does not explain how these factors firefighting agents, such as rates of move- ment and effectiveness of various firefighting tec For example

  14. A progressive-duration schedule of reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Gulotta, Kara B; Byrne, Tom

    2015-12-01

    We describe a schedule of reinforcement involving systematic, within-session increases in response-duration requirements. Rats received access to appetitive reinforcers for depressing and holding down a response lever. Duration requirements increased after each reinforcer delivery. Sessions ended when reinforcement criteria were unmet for a period of ten minutes. Breaking points, defined as the terminal duration requirement in effect prior to the end of the session, stabilized when environmental conditions were held constant. Breaking points were sensitive to manipulations of both food deprivation and reinforcer quality. Analogous to progressive-ratio schedules, progressive-duration schedules may provide an assay for measuring the amount of behavior an organism will emit for a given reinforcer under current motivational conditions. PMID:26536304

  15. Chronotype and sleep duration: the influence of season of assessment.

    PubMed

    Allebrandt, Karla V; Teder-Laving, Maris; Kantermann, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Wilson, James F; Metspalu, Andres; Roenneberg, Till

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about human entrainment under natural conditions, partly due to the complexity of human behavior, torn between biological and social time and influenced by zeitgebers (light-dark cycles) that are progressively "polluted" (and thereby weakened) by artificial light. In addition, data about seasonal variations in sleep parameters are scarce. We, therefore, investigated seasonal variation in cross-sectional assessments of sleep/wake times of 9765 subjects from four European populations (EGCUT?=?Estonian Genome Centre, University of Tartu in Estonia; KORA?=?Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg in Germany; KORCULA?=?The Korcula study in Croatia; and ORCADES?=?The Orkney Complex Disease Study in Scotland). We identified time-of-year dependencies for the distribution of chronotype (phase of entrainment assessed as the mid-sleep time point on free days adjusted for sleep deficit of workdays) in cohorts from Estonia (EGCUT) and Germany (KORA). Our results indicate that season (defined as daylight saving time - DST and standard zonetime periods - SZT) specifications of photoperiod influence the distribution of chronotype (adjusted for age and sex). Second, in the largest investigated sample, from Estonia (EGCUT; N?=?5878), we could detect that seasonal variation in weekly average sleep duration was dependent on individual chronotype. Later chronotypes in this cohort showed significant variation in their average sleep duration across the year, especially during DST (1?h advance in social time from the end of March to end of October), while earlier chronotypes did not. Later chronotypes not only slept less during the DST period but the average chronotype of the population assessed during this period was earlier than during the SZT (local time for a respective time zone) period. More in detail, hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that, beyond season of assessment (DST or SZT), social jetlag (SJl; the discrepancy between the mid sleep on free and work days - which varied with age and sex) contributed to a greater extent to the variation in sleep duration than chronotype (after taking into account factors that are known to influence sleep duration, i.e. age, sex and body mass index). Variation in chronotype was also dependent on age, sex, season of assessment and SJl (which is highly correlated with chronotype - SJl was larger among later chronotypes). In summary, subjective assessments of sleep/wake times are very reliable to assess internal time and sleep duration (e.g. reproducing sleep duration and timing tendencies related to age and sex across the investigated populations), but season of assessment should be regarded as a potential confounder. We identified in this study photoperiod (seasonal adaptation) and SJl as two main factors influencing seasonal variation in chronotype and sleep duration. In conclusion, season of assessment, sex and age have an effect on epidemiological variation in sleep duration, chronotype and SJl, and should be included in studies investigating associations between these phenotypes and health parameters, and on the development of optimal prevention strategies. PMID:24679223

  16. Effect of Bolus Volume and Consistency on Swallowing Events Duration in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Weslania V; Cassiani, Rachel A; Santos, Carla M; Dantas, Roberto O

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Swallowing is a complex function with the control of the swallowing center being located in the brain stem. Our aim in this investigation was to evaluate, in healthy volunteers, the oral and pharyngeal transit of 2 bolus volumes and 2 consistencies, and the influence of these boluses on the proportion of pharyngeal clearance duration/hyoid movement duration. Methods Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows was performed in 30 healthy volunteers, aged 29–77 years (mean 58 years). The subjects swallowed in duplicate of 5 mL and 10 mL of thick liquid barium and honey thick barium. We measured the duration of oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement, oropharyngeal transit, and the relation pharyngeal clearance duration/hyoid movement duration. Results A 10 mL bolus volume caused a longer UES opening duration than a 5 mL bolus volume, for both consistencies. The pharyngeal transit was longer for honey thick bolus consistency than for thick liquid, with both the volumes of 5 mL and 10 mL. For pharyngeal clearance, the difference was significant only with the 10 mL bolus volume. There was no difference associated with bolus volume or consistency in the relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration. Conclusions Increase in the swallowed bolus volume causes a longer UES opening duration and an increase in bolus consistency from thick liquid to honey thick causes a longer pharyngeal transit duration. The proportion between pharyngeal clearance and hyoid movement does not change with bolus volume or bolus consistency. PMID:25540944

  17. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations. Results: The magnetostimulation limits decreased with increasing pulse duration (T{sub pulse}). For T{sub pulse} < 18 ms, the thresholds were significantly higher than at the longest pulse durations (p < 0.01, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The normalized magnetostimulation threshold (B{sub Norm}) vs duration curve at all three frequencies agreed almost identically, indicating that the observed effect is independent of the operating frequency. At the shortest pulse duration (T{sub pulse} ? 2 ms), the thresholds were approximately 24% higher than at the asymptotes. The thresholds decreased to within 4% of their asymptotic values for T{sub pulse} > 20 ms. These trends were well characterized (R{sup 2} = 0.78) by a stretched exponential function given by B{sub Norm}=1+?e{sup ?(T{sub p}{sub u}{sub l}{sub s}{sub e}/?){sup ?}}, where the fitted parameters were ? = 0.44, ? = 4.32, and ? = 0.60. Conclusions: This work shows for the first time that the magnetostimulation thresholds decrease with increasing pulse duration, and that this effect is independent of the operating frequency. Normalized threshold vs duration trends are almost identical for a 20-fold range of frequencies: the thresholds are significantly higher at short pulse durations and settle to within 4% of their asymptotic values for durations longer than 20 ms. These results emphasize the importance of matching the human-subject experiments to the imaging conditions of a particular setup. Knowing the dependence of the safety limits to all contributing factors is critical for increasing the time-efficiency of imaging systems that utilize time-varying magnetic fields.

  18. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required during the initial fabrication and also refurbishing processes of flight hardware systems. The recent use of microcontrollers in the design of both LDB flight hardware and test equipment has shown some examples of the adaptability and usefulness they have provided for our workplace.

  19. Thermoresponsive nanogels for prolonged duration local anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Hoare, Todd; Young, Stuart; Lawlor, Michael W.; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanogels based on poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) are attractive vehicles for prolonged duration local anesthesia because of their tunable size, number of functional groups, thermoresponsiveness, and their anionic charge. Nerve block durations of up to nine hours were achieved using acrylic acid-loaded nanogels loaded with bupivacaine. Increasing the anionic charge density of the nanogels or (for more highly acid-functionalized nanogels) decreasing the nanogel size facilitated longer duration anesthetic release. Small (<300 nm diameter) nanogels formed dense aggregates upon injection in vivo and induced only mild inflammatory responses, while large (>500 nm diameter) nanogels typically remained as liquid-like residues in vivo and induced more severe inflammatory reactions. PMID:22732383

  20. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  1. Impaired duration mismatch negativity in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Corbera, Sílvia; Escera, Carles; Artigas, Josep

    2006-07-17

    A mismatch negativity event-related potential protocol was administered to dyslexic children and their respective controls to test whether a specific auditory deficit concerning phonetic processing or a lower level auditory processing deficit was present in developmental dyslexia. Three different contrast conditions were explored, including nonphonological sounds, contrasted in pitch and duration, and phonemes. Mismatch negativity amplitudes differed significantly between groups in the duration condition, whereas no differences were found in the frequency and phoneme conditions. Moreover, the dyslexic children had delayed mismatch negativity latencies in the three contrast conditions. Our results suggest a deficit in low-level auditory discrimination in dyslexic children, in particular when detecting stimulus duration, and support the rapid auditory processing theory of dyslexia. PMID:16791102

  2. Contextual Effects on the Perception of Duration

    PubMed Central

    Kingston, John; Kawahara, Shigeto; Chambless, Della; Mash, Daniel; Brenner-Alsop, Eve

    2009-01-01

    In the experiments reported here, listeners categorized and discriminated speech and non-speech analogue stimuli in which the durations of a vowel and a following consonant or their analogues were varied orthogonally. The listeners’ native languages differed in how these durations covary in speakers’ productions of such sequences. Because auditorist and autonomous models of speech perception hypothesize that the auditory qualities evoked by both kinds of stimuli determine their initial perceptual evaluation, they both predict that listeners from all the languages will respond similarly to non-speech analogues as they do to speech in both tasks. Because neither direct realist nor interactive models hypothesize such a processing stage, they predict instead that in the way in which vowel and consonant duration covary in the listeners’ native languages will determine how they categorize and discriminate the speech stimuli, and that all listeners will categorize and discriminate the non-speech differently from the speech stimuli. Listeners’ categorization of the speech stimuli did differ as a function of how these durations covary in their native languages, but all listeners discriminated the speech stimuli in the same way, and they all categorized and discriminated the non-speech stimuli in the same way, too. These similarities could arise from listeners adding the durations of the vowel and consonant intervals (or their analogues) in these tasks with these stimuli; they do so when linguistic experience does not influence them to perceive these durations otherwise. These results support an autonomous rather than interactive model in which listeners either add or apply their linguistic experience at a post-perceptual stage of processing. They do not however support an auditorist over a direct realist model because they provide no evidence that the signal’s acoustic properties are transformed during the hypothesized prior perceptual stage. PMID:20161112

  3. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  4. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed.

  5. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  6. Duration of the earth-formation interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levskii, L. K.

    The duration of the formation interval of prototerrestrial matter is estimated on the basis of the iodine-xenon and plutonium-xenon dating techniques. The formation interval is shown to include two phases: (1) a galactic (nebular) phase corresponding to the independent existence of two sources and lasting 150 million years; and (2) a planetesimal (accretion) phase lasting not more than 140 million years. The total duration of the formation interval from the termination of nucleosynthesis to the formation of the planet amounts to not more than 300-400 million years.

  7. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  8. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  9. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements...

  10. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements...

  11. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a) This part has not been superseded through amendment, and (b) The Enterprise remains subject to the terms and obligations of the...

  12. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  13. The CarD/CarG regulatory complex is required for the action of several members of the large set of Myxococcus xanthus extracytoplasmic function ? factors.

    PubMed

    Abellón-Ruiz, Javier; Bernal-Bernal, Diego; Abellán, María; Fontes, Marta; Padmanabhan, S; Murillo, Francisco J; Elías-Arnanz, Montserrat

    2014-08-01

    Extracytoplasmic function (ECF) ? factors are critical players in signal transduction networks involved in bacterial response to environmental changes. The Myxococcus xanthus genome reveals ?45 putative ECF-? factors, but for the overwhelming majority, the specific signals or mechanisms for selective activation and regulation remain unknown. One well-studied ECF-?, CarQ, binds to its anti-?, CarR, and is inactive in the dark but drives its own expression from promoter P(QRS) on illumination. This requires the CarD/CarG complex, the integration host factor (IHF) and a specific CarD-binding site upstream of P(QRS). Here, we show that DdvS, a previously uncharacterized ECF-?, activates its own expression in a CarD/CarG-dependent manner but is inhibited when specifically bound to the N-terminal zinc-binding anti-? domain of its cognate anti-?, DdvA. Interestingly, we find that the autoregulatory action of 11 other ECF-? factors studied here depends totally or partially on CarD/CarG but not IHF. In silico analysis revealed possible CarD-binding sites that may be involved in direct regulation by CarD/CarG of target promoter activity. CarD/CarG-linked ECF-? regulation likely recurs in other myxobacteria with CarD/CarG orthologous pairs and could underlie, at least in part, the global regulatory effect of the complex on M.?xanthus gene expression. PMID:24428729

  14. Exercise-triggered transient R-wave enhancement and ST-segment elevation in II, III, and aVF ECG leads: a testament to the "plasticity" of the QRS complex during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E; Attari, Mehran

    2004-04-01

    We describe a patient with coronary artery disease who showed transiently augmented R-waves in his electrocardiogram (ECG) during the course of an exercise treadmill test (ETT), an ECG pattern occasionally associated with the hyperacute phase of myocardial infarction and variant angina. This change in the R-waves was noted in II, III, and aVF ECG leads and was associated with ST-segment elevation; both changed gradually and were normalized during the recovery period. Cardiac enzymes after ETT were negative, and arteriography revealed 3-vessel coronary artery disease, with a completely occluded right coronary artery. The ventriculogram showed very mild hypokinesis of the inferior left ventricular wall, while the global ejection fraction was 75%. These ECG changes, noted previously during ETT in precordial ECG leads, are herein reported to occur also in II, III, and aVF ECG leads. The generation of these ECG changes, which hinges upon a late unopposed depolarization occurring in the course and at the site of severe ischemic injury, constitutes a transient focal ventricular conduction abnormality. PMID:15127379

  15. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of this study. PMID:24450057

  16. Sensitivity to combinations of musical parameters: pitch with duration, and pitch pattern with durational pattern.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F

    1994-09-01

    In four experiments, listeners' sensitivity to combinations of pitch and duration was investigated. Experiments 1-3 involved "textures" of notes, which were created by repeatedly sounding one of two notes (e.g., C4 quarter note; D4 eighth note), so that each note had an equal chance of occurring at any point within a texture. Experiment 1 showed that if a texture change was effected by introducing a pitch or duration that was not in the initial texture, the change was perceived by both attentive and distracted listeners. If a texture change was effected by combining the pitch of one note with the duration of the other note in the initial texture, and vice versa, it was perceived only if the listeners were attentive. Sensitivity to pitch/duration combinations was poorer when the pitch difference between component notes of textures was increased (Experiment 2), but it was better when the difference in duration between component notes was increased (Experiment 3). In Experiment 4, listeners' sensitivity to combinations of pitch pattern and durational pattern in brief sequences was examined. Listeners were sensitive to the manner in which parameter patterns were combined when they were attentive, but not when they were distracted. The results are discussed in view of feature-integration theory and its application to music cognition. PMID:7971136

  17. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  18. Does aftershock duration scale with mainshock size?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziv, A.

    2006-09-01

    It has been claimed that aftershock duration scales with the mainshock recurrence interval [Dieterich, 1994]. This implies a scaling between aftershock duration and mainshock magnitude. To see if such a scaling exist, we compare properties of aftershock sequences associated with mainshocks whose size span several magnitude units. Earthquake properties were examined along two northern California fault segments, one is the Calaveras fault, another is a northern segment of the San Andreas fault. The first study area contains the rupture area of the M6.2, 1984 Morgan Hill, and the latter is adjacent the southern end of the M7.1, 1989 Loma Prieta rupture. Both the Morgan Hill and the Loma Prieta aftershock activities lasted 1-3 × 108 seconds. On the other hand, aftershock activities of small-to-moderate mainshocks lasted about 1-2 × 106 seconds. Nevertheless, there is no evidence for scaling between mainshock size and aftershock duration for moderate-to-small mainshocks. It thus seems that large earthquakes, because they break the entire seismogenic depth and interact with deeper parts of the crust, trigger a relaxation mechanism that is inactive during aftershock activity due to moderate-to-small quakes, and whose characteristic relaxation time is much longer than that of the brittle crust. Current seismicity models do not provide explanation for these observations.

  19. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  20. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample?

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007–2008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (<5 h) short (5–6 h) and long (9+ h) sleep durations are associated with intake of a number of dietary nutrient variables. Overall, energy intake varied across very short (2036 kcal), short (2201 kcal), and long (1926 kcal) sleep duration, relative to normal (2151 kcal) sleep duration (p = 0.001). Normal sleep duration was associated with the greatest food variety (17.8), compared to very short (14.0), short (16.5) and long (16.3) sleep duration (p < 0.001). Associations between sleep duration were found across nutrient categories, with significant associations between habitual sleep duration and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. In stepwise analyses, significant contributors of unique variance included theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991

  1. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma. One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally significant increase in exclusive BF at six months in women receiving a booklet plus video plus lactation consultation (LC) compared with the booklet plus video only. Two studies compared multiple methods of BF education versus routine care. The combination of BF booklet plus video plus LC was significantly better than routine care for exclusive BF at three months. Authors’ conclusions Because there were significant methodological limitations and the observed effect sizes were small, it is not appropriate to recommend any antenatal BF education. There is an urgent need to conduct RCTs study with adequate power to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education. PMID:22071830

  2. Electrocardiographical case. Narrow complex tachycardia provoked by the Valsalva manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Koh, C H; Foo, D; Ng, K S; Chong, C H

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old Chinese man presented with tachyarrhythmia during a human centrifuge session while performing a Valsalva manoeuvre at near normal (+1.4 Gz) centripetal forces. It was likely that the hydrostatic effects of sustained centrifugal forces, the distortion of the heart's shape, as well as swings in the autonomic dominance pre- and post-Valsalva manoeuvre, contributed to the tachyarrhythmia. The 12-lead ECG showed a narrow complex tachycardia with visible P-waves after the QRS complexes consistent with a long R-P' tachycardia. The intracardiac electrogram demonstrated a concentric retrograde atrial activation during narrow complex tachycardia. The V-A interval was 150 ms which was much longer than in typical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which is usually less than 70 ms. The A-H interval was short and the H-A interval was long, indicating that antegrade activation was over the fast pathway and retrograde activation was over the slow pathway. The diagnosis was atypical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and radiofrequency ablation was successfully applied to the slow AV nodal pathway. PMID:19421691

  3. Dependence on pulse duration and foil thickness in high-contrast-laser proton acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flacco, A.; Sylla, F.; Veltcheva, M.; Carrié, M.; Nuter, R.; Lefebvre, E.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2010-03-01

    Experimental measurements of proton acceleration with high intensity and high-contrast short laser pulses have been carried out over an order of magnitude range in target thickness and laser pulse duration. The dependence of the maximum proton energy with these parameters is qualitatively supported by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. They evidence that two regimes of proton acceleration can take place, depending on the ratio between the density gradient and the hot electron Debye length at the rear target surface. As this ratio can be affected by the target thickness, a complex interplay between pulse duration and target thickness is observed. Measurements and simulations support unexpected variations in the laser absorption and hot electron temperature with the pulse duration and laser intensity, for which density profile modification at the target front surface is the controlling parameter.

  4. Using wavelet transform and fuzzy neural network for VPC detection from the Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Liang-Yu; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Hu, Weichih

    2004-07-01

    A novel method for detecting ventricular premature contraction (VPC) from the Holter system is proposed using wavelet transform (WT) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The basic ideal and major advantage of this method is to reuse information that is used during QRS detection, a necessary step for most ECG classification algorithm, for VPC detection. To reduce the influence of different artifacts, the filter bank property of quadratic spline WT is explored. The QRS duration in scale three and the area under the QRS complex in scale four are selected as the characteristic features. It is found that the R wave amplitude has a marked influence on the computation of proposed characteristic features. Thus, it is necessary to normalize these features. This normalization process can reduce the effect of alternating R wave amplitude and achieve reliable VPC detection. After normalization and excluding the left bundle branch block beats, the accuracies for VPC classification using FNN is 99.79%. Features that are extracted using quadratic spline wavelet were used successfully by previous investigators for QRS detection. In this study, using the same wavelet, it is demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction method from different WT scales can effectively eliminate the influence of high and low-frequency noise and achieve reliable VPC classification. The two primary advantages of using same wavelet for QRS detection and VPC classification are less computation and less complexity during actual implementation. PMID:15248543

  5. 5 CFR 1209.11 - Duration of stay; interim compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES FOR APPEALS AND STAY REQUESTS OF PERSONNEL ACTIONS ALLEGEDLY BASED ON WHISTLEBLOWING Stay Requests § 1209.11 Duration of stay; interim compliance. (a) Duration of stay. A stay...

  6. 10 CFR 52.147 - Duration of design approval.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of design approval. 52.147 Section 52.147 ...APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Approvals § 52.147 Duration of design approval. A standard design...

  7. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Environmental and duration tests. 2.1509 Section 2.1509 Telecommunication...EPIRBs) Environmental and Operational Test Procedures § 2.1509 Environmental and duration tests. The environmental and operational...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with the following marking, “50X2-WMD.” (b) Extending duration of classification for information classified under the Order. Extensions of...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with the following marking, “50X2-WMD.” (b) Extending duration of classification for information classified under the Order. Extensions of...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with the following marking, “50X2-WMD.” (b) Extending duration of classification for information classified under the Order. Extensions of...

  11. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...weapons of mass destruction, the duration shall be up to 75 years and shall be designated with the following marking, “50X2-WMD.” (b) Extending duration of classification for information classified under the Order. Extensions of...

  12. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of...

  14. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of...

  16. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of...

  17. Terror Attacks and the Duration of Civil War

    E-print Network

    Crist, Rachel

    2015-05-31

    Several factors that scholars have thought relate to the duration of civil war including: low per capita income, ethnic divisions, resources/contraband, and terrain were found to have no correlation to the duration of civil war. Another factor...

  18. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45 Section 166.45...USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be...

  19. Time perception: paradigms, methods, target duration and individual differences 

    E-print Network

    McFarlane, Henriett A

    2008-06-27

    The present study assessed the role of the time judgement paradigms of prospective and retrospective durations, the length of durations and the effects of the states of mood and arousal in time perception. The role of ...

  20. 19 CFR 141.34 - Duration of power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of power of attorney. 141.34 Section 141.34...TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.34 Duration of power of attorney. Powers of attorney...

  1. 19 CFR 141.34 - Duration of power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of power of attorney. 141.34 Section 141.34...TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.34 Duration of power of attorney. Powers of attorney...

  2. 19 CFR 141.34 - Duration of power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of power of attorney. 141.34 Section 141.34...TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.34 Duration of power of attorney. Powers of attorney...

  3. 19 CFR 141.34 - Duration of power of attorney.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of power of attorney. 141.34 Section 141.34...TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Powers of Attorney § 141.34 Duration of power of attorney. Powers of attorney...

  4. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642...Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. ...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  5. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642...Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. ...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  6. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642...Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. ...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  7. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642...Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. ...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  8. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642...Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. ...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  9. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  10. Postintervention duration of anticoagulation in venous surgery.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Prins, M H; Wittens, C H A; ten Cate, H

    2013-03-01

    For a substantial proportion of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), current treatment strategies are suboptimal and new treatment options are needed. Especially for the group of patients who are at the highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, new treatment modalities such as catheter-directed thrombolysis and additional stenting are being investigated. With current clinical studies addressing new technical options, the medical management of patients following these interventions deserves attention. The duration of anticoagulant treatment following surgical or radiological interventions for DVT seems not to be influenced by the presence of a venous stent. According to recent ACCP 2012 guidelines the anticoagulant management in patients who have had any method of thrombus removal performed, the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal is recommended (Grade 1B). In the acute phase of thrombosis, irrespective of the technique and whether or not stenting is applied, immediate anticoagulation following the procedure is pertinent to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis and thrombus propagation. The long-term treatment duration after venous interventions therefore may be tailored based on common risk factors for recurrent thrombosis and the individual risk for bleeding. Selected thrombophilia factors, d-dimer assessment and residual venous thrombosis provide markers for recurrent DVT. Currently, vitamin K antagonists) provide the main anticoagulants for (prolonged) anticoagulation, while the new oral anticoagulants emerge as promising alternatives. In case prolonged anticoagulation after unprovoked DVT is not indicated, cardiovascular risk management is warranted because of an increased rate of arterial thrombotic events after DVT; aspirin may be indicated as secondary prevention against recurrent thrombosis (while providing primary prevention against arterial thrombosis). PMID:23482544

  11. Evaluating observational methods to quantify snow duration under diverse forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Martin, Kael A.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Gersonde, Rolf; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-02-01

    Forests cover almost 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow-covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three diverse forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow-covered area and snow duration metrics from the colocated instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration, and snow duration differences between forest treatments. The fiber-optic cable and the cameras indicated that mean snow duration was 8 days longer in the gap plots than in the control plots (p < 0.001). We conducted Monte Carlo experiments for observing mean snow duration in a 40 m forest plot, and found the 95% confidence interval was ±5 days for 10 m spacing between instruments and ±3 days for 6 m spacing. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  12. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  13. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  14. The influence of stimulus repetition on duration judgments with simple stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Birngruber, Teresa; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of stimulus repetition vs. stimulus novelty on perceived duration. In a reminder task, a standard and a comparison stimulus were presented consecutively in each trial, and the comparison was either a repetition of the standard or a different stimulus. Pseudowords (Experiment 1) or strings of consonants (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the standard and the comparison was either constant or variable. Participants were asked to judge whether the comparison was shorter or longer than the standard. In both experiments, we observed shorter judged durations for repeated than for novel comparisons whereas the manipulation of the ISI had no pronounced effects on duration judgments. The finding of shorter duration judgments for repeated as compared to novel nonwords replicates the results of a previous study (Matthews, 2011) which employed highly complex stimulus material. The present study shows that changes of simple, semantically meaningless stimuli are sufficient to result in a shorter perceived duration of repeated as compared to novel stimuli. PMID:26347682

  15. Repairing Tracheoesophageal Speech Duration Arantza del Pozo and Steve Young

    E-print Network

    Young, Steve

    ) speech. The proposed repair algorithm modifies TE phone durations based on the predictions of regression phone recognition, studies of feature relevance for duration prediction and a robust duration voice restoration technique after total laryngectomy. It involves the insertion of a voice prosthesis

  16. Time in Language: Event Duration in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll-Florit, Marta; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how we process and represent event duration in on-line language comprehension. Specifically, it examines how events of different duration are processed and what type of knowledge underlies their representations. Studies 1-4 examined verbs and phrases in different contexts. They showed that durative events took longer to…

  17. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  18. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  19. How hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension: using eye fixations to investigate the duration of speech processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  20. Correlating beam radiation with sunshine duration

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M. )

    1992-01-01

    For seven locations in north and central India, monthly averaged data of daily beam irradiation on a horizontal surface, I, have been correlated with bright sunshine duration, s, using the relation (I/I{sub o}) = b{sub o}(s/S{prime}) where I{sub o} is the monthly mean value of extraterrestrial irradiation over a day, S{prime} is the corresponding duration over which Campbell-Stokes type sunshine recorders remain sensitive. It is found that b{sub o} is a constant that is period and region dependent. Monthly estimates of beam radiation using the relation above show that for the seven stations rms errors are within 3-6%. Tests made for other stations in India also gave good estimates. For the computation of I, global radiation is not required unlike most estimation techniques and therefore the method should find a wide application. It may be observed that b{sub o} values turn out to be roughly equal to exp({minus}md{sub R}T{sub L}) where m is the relative airmass, d{sub R} is the Raleigh optical thickness and T{sub L} is the Linke turbidity factor.

  1. Prediction of Daily Flow Duration Curves and Streamflow for Ungauged Catchments Using Regional Flow Duration Curves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents a method to predict flow duration curves (FDCs) and streamflow for ungauged catchments in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. We selected 29 catchments from the Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont physiographic provinces to develop and test the propo...

  2. Shuttle Showcase: STS-124 - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The second in a series of flights to assemble the Japanese segment of the International Space Station saw the mammoth Kibo module delivered to the complex complements of Discovery and its crew on t...

  3. Why Are Teams Important? - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kelvin Kirby, deputy director for the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, explains how the complexity of space radiation m...

  4. HIAD at NFAC - Duration: 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Timelapse video of a six-meter (19.7 ft), inflatable Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) article being prepared for testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Moffet...

  5. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6–1.1 s). We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias. PMID:26506613

  6. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  7. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  8. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  9. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  10. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  11. Evaluating Observational Methods to Quantify Snow Duration under Diverse Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, S. E.; Lutz, J. A.; Martin, K.; Raleigh, M. S.; Gersonde, R.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Forests cover over 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three different forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow covered area and snow duration metrics from the co-located instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration. The fiber-optic cable and the camera detected a significant difference of 8 days in mean snow duration between the gap and control plots. Monte Carlo experiments based on our results suggest that 10 m spacing of self-recording ground temperature sensors across a 40 m forest plot will capture mean snow duration to ± 5 days whereas 6 m spacing reduces the 95% confidence interval to ± 3 days. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  12. Illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W F; Hall, M D; Pressing, J

    2001-02-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined short-term memory for pitch and duration in unfamiliar tone sequences. Participants were presented a target sequence consisting of 2 tones (Experiment 1) or 7 tones (Experiments 2 and 3) and then a probe tone. Participants indicated whether the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones in both pitch and duration. Error rates were relatively low if the probe tone matched 1 of the target tones or if it differed from target tones in pitch, duration, or both. Error rates were remarkably high, however, if the probe tone combined the pitch of 1 target tone with the duration of a different target tone. The results suggest that illusory conjunctions of these dimensions frequently occur. A mathematical model is presented that accounts for the relative contribution of pitch errors, duration errors, and illusory conjunctions of pitch and duration. PMID:11248928

  13. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  14. Rashes and Exanthems on Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilscus, L.S.; Johnston, S.L.; Moynihan, S.; Kerstman, E.L.; Marshall, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As NASA expands its human space exploration to the Moon, Mars and beyond, it will be presented with many challenges, not the least of which will be dealing with medical conditions, which on earth are simple, but take on new levels of complexity in space habitats. Skin conditions exemplify this complexity. METHODS AND RESULTS: While skin conditions account for 7 % of outpatient presentations to a primary care provider in the United States, NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database indicates that cutaneous manifestations are significantly prevalent on-orbit. Reviewing this data for US astronauts, there have been 90 total cases of skin rashes during 27.34 person-years of spaceflight, or 3.29 cases/person. Specifically, STS-1 though 114 had 56 cases, ISS Expeditions 1 though 13 had 7 cases, Mir had 4 cases, Skylab had 5 cases and the Apollo program had 18 cases. If there was a period of 24 hours or more between rashes in the same crewmember, this was counted as an additional case. DISCUSSION: This prevalence is likely due, in some part, to constraints of hygiene and to immunologic changes that occur. The stresses of microgravity and austere Earth environments such as the Antarctic, submarine and military deployments, no doubt, similarly contribute to cutaneous reactions; but the difference of the environments are significant enough to warrant further study and discussion. This paper will discuss rashes, exanthems, and cutaneous reactions in space habitats; it will address diagnosis, causation, mitigation and treatment of skin conditions seen on orbit, to date, with a look to anticipating what may be seen with larger crews on future extended duration expeditions.

  15. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  16. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  17. Analysis of the duration of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Néto, Raimundo Pereira; Almeida, Kelson James; Bernardino, Silvya Neri

    2014-02-15

    To determine the minimum duration of migraine prophylaxis, after patients become pain-free. Migraine patients diagnosed according to criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 were treated prophylactically. After becoming pain-free, they were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was maintained for another 12 months and in group 2, for 24 months. Each group was followed for more three years after prophylaxis period. Of the 50 patients, 39 (78%) were female and 11 (22%) were male. The age ranged from 18 to 50 years. Before treatment, the attack frequency for groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 16.3 ± 12.8 and 16.4 ± 11.8 days per month (p = 0.769). Patients in groups 1 and 2 have become pain-free, respectively, with 21.4 ± 11.2 and 16.8 ± 9.9 months (p = 0.161). During three years without treatment, groups 1 and 2 maintained an annual frequency of respectively 3.2 and 0.5 headache days. Of the patients in group 2, 76.0% (19/25) remained pain-free during follow-up, versus 44.0% (11/25) of group 1, with a significant difference (p=0.001). The best results were obtained when migraine prophylaxis was maintained for 24 months after patients became pain-free. PMID:24308946

  18. Using the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative Data to conduct a genome-wide association study of sleep duration.

    PubMed

    Scheinfeldt, Laura B; Gharani, Neda; Kasper, Rachel S; Schmidlen, Tara J; Gordon, Erynn S; Jarvis, Joseph P; Delaney, Susan; Kronenthal, Courtney J; Gerry, Norman P; Christman, Michael F

    2015-12-01

    Sleep is critical to health and functionality, and several studies have investigated the inherited component of insomnia and other sleep disorders using genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, genome-wide studies focused on sleep duration are less common. Here, we used data from participants in the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC) (n?=?4,401) to examine putative associations between self-reported sleep duration, demographic and lifestyle variables, and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data to better understand genetic contributions to variation in sleep duration. We employed stepwise ordered logistic regression to select our model and retained the following predictive variables: age, gender, weight, physical activity, physical activity at work, smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnicity, and ancestry (as measured by principal components analysis) in our association testing. Several of our strongest candidate genes were previously identified in GWAS related to sleep duration (TSHZ2, ABCC9, FBXO15) and narcolepsy (NFATC2, SALL4). In addition, we have identified novel candidate genes for involvement in sleep duration including SORCS1 and ELOVL2. Our results demonstrate that the self-reported data collected through the CPMC are robust, and our genome-wide association analysis has identified novel candidate genes involved in sleep duration. More generally, this study contributes to a better understanding of the complexity of human sleep. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26333835

  19. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene × sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (? 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  20. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  1. Functional and biochemical rationales for the 24-hour-long duration of action of olodaterol.

    PubMed

    Casarosa, Paola; Kollak, Ines; Kiechle, Tobias; Ostermann, Angela; Schnapp, Andreas; Kiesling, Ralf; Pieper, Michael; Sieger, Peter; Gantner, Florian

    2011-06-01

    ?(2)-Adrenoceptor (?(2)-AR) agonists are powerful bronchodilators and play a pivotal role in the management of pulmonary obstructive diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Although these agents first were used many years ago, progress in drug development has resulted in better tolerated, long-acting ?(2)-AR agonists (LABAs), such as formoterol and salmeterol. Although LABAs have been on the market for several years, relatively little is known on the rationale(s) behind their long duration of action. In this study, we focused on olodaterol (previously known as BI1744CL), a novel inhaled LABA, which provides a bronchodilating effect lasting 24 h and is currently in Phase III clinical trials. To understand the rationale behind its long duration of action, different aspects of olodaterol were analyzed (i.e., its lipophilicity and propensity to accumulate in the lipid bilayer as well as its tight binding to the ?(2)-AR). In line with its physicochemical properties, olodaterol associated moderately with lipid bilayers. Instead, kinetic as well as equilibrium binding studies indicated the presence of a stable [(3)H]olodaterol/?(2)-AR complex with a dissociation half-life of 17.8 h due to ternary complex formation. The tight binding of olodaterol to the human ?(2)-AR and stabilization of the ternary complex were confirmed in functional experiments monitoring adenylyl cyclase activity after extensive washout. Taken together, binding, kinetic, and functional data support the existence of a stable complex with the ?(2)-AR that, with a dissociation half-life >17 h, might indeed be a rationale for the 24-h duration of action of olodaterol. PMID:21357659

  2. Duration of U.S. stay and body mass index among Latino and Asian immigrants: A test of theoretical pathways.

    PubMed

    Ro, Annie; Bostean, Georgiana

    2015-11-01

    Studies find that longer-term immigrants have higher body mass index (BMI) than their more recently arrived counterparts. Most interpretations of these health patterns by duration of U.S. residence rely on theories of immigrant integration; they posit that with increasing time in the United States, immigrants incorporate economically, socially, and culturally into aspects of U.S. society, and that these changes impact health. Few studies empirically examine whether these aspects of integration are indeed mediators of the association between duration of U.S. stay and BMI, and if their patterns differ across immigrant subgroups. This study examines data from the National Latino and Asian American Survey, using path analytic methods to simultaneously test six hypothesized mediators between duration and BMI: household income, English language ability, ethnic identity, family cohesion, acculturative stress and discrimination for both Latino and Asian immigrants, stratified by gender. We find little evidence for an association between duration and BMI for either Latino or Asian men. For women, duration and BMI have a significant and positive relationship, although the pathways differ between the two ethnic groups. For Latina women, household income and acculturative stress are significant indirect pathways, although they work in opposing directions. For Asian women, English proficiency and discrimination are significant indirect pathways. Our findings reveal complex pathways between duration and BMI that vary by ethnicity and gender and highlight limitations in the negative acculturation theory, which suggests that exposure to the United States should have a net negative impact on health. In contrast, our findings suggest that not all groups show declining health with longer duration, as measured by BMI, and that integration processes do not always translate into health differences in the expected directions. Future research on duration patterns may need to consider alternative explanations beyond incorporation-based processes, such as cross-national health theories or age, period, cohort effects. PMID:26387078

  3. Using Phone Durations in Finnish Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition

    E-print Network

    Kurimo, Mikko

    Using Phone Durations in Finnish Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Janne Pylkkönen of the languages where phone durations dis­ criminate between words. They therefore have significant meaning, an extension of an existing speech recognition system to include models for discriminatively important phone

  4. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56.6406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow....

  5. Tactile duration compression by vibrotactile adaptation Junji Watanabea,b

    E-print Network

    Johnston, Alan

    Tactile duration compression by vibrotactile adaptation Junji Watanabea,b , Tomohiro Amemiyaa , Shin'ya Nishidaa and Alan Johnstonc In the visual modality adaptation to high temporal frequency can result in spatially localized apparent duration compression. The principal point of adaptation is thought

  6. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  7. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  8. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  9. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  10. Segmental Duration Control Based on an Articulatory Model 

    E-print Network

    Shiga, Yoshinori; Matsuura, Hiroshi; Nitta, Tsuneo

    square error of predicted segmental duration is approximately 15[ms] for the closed set and 15-17[ms] for the open set. The error is within 20[ms], the level of acceptability for distortion of segmental duration without loss of naturalness, and hence...

  11. 46 CFR 71.75-20 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of certificates. 71.75-20 Section 71.75-20 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Certificates Under the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 § 71.75-20 Duration of certificates. (a) The certificates...

  12. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  13. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  14. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  15. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  16. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  17. 20 CFR 410.202 - Duration of entitlement; miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; miner. 410.202 Section 410.202 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for Entitlement; Duration of...

  18. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  19. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 301.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment § 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  20. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  1. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 301.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment § 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  2. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  3. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 301.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment § 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  4. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 301.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment § 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  5. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  6. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 301.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment § 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  7. Encoding by response duration in the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Parush, Naama; Arkadir, David; Nevet, Alon; Morris, Genela; Tishby, Naftali; Nelken, Israel; Bergman, Hagai

    2008-12-01

    Several models have suggested that information transmission in the basal ganglia (BG) involves gating mechanisms, where neuronal activity modulates the extent of gate aperture and its duration. Here, we demonstrate that BG response duration is informative about a highly abstract stimulus feature and show that the duration of "gate opening" can indeed be used for information transmission through the BG. We analyzed recordings from three BG locations: the external part of the globus pallidus (GPe), the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr), and dopaminergic neurons from the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) during performance of a probabilistic visuomotor task. Most (>85%) of the neurons showed significant rate modulation following the appearance of cues predicting future reward. Trial-to-trial mutual information analysis revealed that response duration encoded reward prospects in many (42%) of the responsive SNr neurons, as well as in the SNc (26.9%), and the GPe (29.3%). Whereas the low-frequency discharge SNc neurons responded with only an increase in firing rate, SNr and GPe neurons with high-frequency tonic discharge responded with both increases and decreases. Conversely, many duration-informative neurons in SNr (68%) and GPe (50%) responded with a decreased rather than an increased rate. The response duration was more informative than the extreme (minimal or maximal) amplitude or spike count in responsive bins of duration-informative neurons. Thus response duration is not simply correlated with the discharge rate and can provide additional information to the target structures of the BG. PMID:18842956

  8. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue...

  9. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  10. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  11. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities...

  12. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  13. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  14. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  15. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities...

  17. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  18. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  19. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  20. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  1. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  2. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  3. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  4. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  5. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  6. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  7. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  8. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  9. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  10. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  11. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  12. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  13. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  14. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities...

  15. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  17. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  18. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  19. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  20. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  1. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  2. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  3. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  4. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  5. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  6. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  7. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  8. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  9. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  10. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  11. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  12. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  13. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities...

  14. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  15. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  17. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  18. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  19. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  20. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  1. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  2. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  3. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  4. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  5. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  6. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  7. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  8. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue...

  9. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  10. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  11. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  12. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  13. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  14. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  15. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  16. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  17. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 920.66 Section 920.66 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and immunities...

  18. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  19. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  20. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  1. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  2. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  3. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  4. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  5. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  6. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  7. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  8. 7 CFR 925.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 925.66 Section 925.66... OF SOUTHEASTERN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 925.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  9. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  10. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  11. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  12. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  13. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  14. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  15. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  16. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  17. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  18. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  19. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  20. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  1. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  2. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  3. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  4. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  5. 7 CFR 917.65 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 917.65 Section 917.65... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 917.65 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of the provisions of this subpart shall cease upon...

  6. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  7. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  8. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  9. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue...

  10. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  11. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  12. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue...

  13. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  14. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  15. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  16. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  17. 7 CFR 993.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 993.87 Section 993.87... CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 993.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  18. 7 CFR 981.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 981.88 Section 981.88... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 981.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon its termination except...

  19. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  20. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  1. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  2. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  3. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  4. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  5. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  6. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  7. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  8. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 932.71 Section 932.71... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  9. 7 CFR 929.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 929.72 Section 929.72 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue...

  10. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  11. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  12. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  13. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 922.67 Section 922.67... COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart...

  14. 7 CFR 955.82 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 955.82 Section 955.82 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 955.82 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  15. 7 CFR 984.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 984.87 Section 984.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 984.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination hereof...

  16. 7 CFR 966.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 966.87 Section 966.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 966.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  17. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  18. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  19. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  20. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  1. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  2. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  3. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  4. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  5. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  6. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  7. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term of not less than 5, nor more than...

  8. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  9. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term of not less than 5, nor more than...

  10. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  11. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing...

  12. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  13. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license issued under this subpart may be valid for...

  14. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  15. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified period not to exceed 40 years from...

  16. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a specified period not to exceed 40 years from...

  17. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing...

  18. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing...

  19. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license issued under this subpart may be valid for...

  20. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  1. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  2. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  3. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  4. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  5. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  6. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  7. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  8. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  9. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  10. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  11. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  12. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  13. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  14. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  15. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  16. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  19. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  20. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  1. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard design will be for not less than 10, nor...

  2. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10, nor more than 20 years, plus...

  3. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original classification, original...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification § 2001.12 Duration of classification....

  5. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original classification, original...

  6. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  7. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  8. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  9. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303...Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  10. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303...Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  11. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303...Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  12. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303...Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  13. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303...Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The...or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in paragraph (c)...

  14. Smoking duration, respiratory symptoms, and COPD in adults aged ?45 years with a smoking history

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Pleasants, Roy A; Croft, Janet B; Wheaton, Anne G; Heidari, Khosrow; Malarcher, Ann M; Ohar, Jill A; Kraft, Monica; Mannino, David M; Strange, Charlie

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of smoking duration with respiratory symptoms and history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey in 2012. Methods Data from 4,135 adults aged ?45 years with a smoking history were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression that accounted for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and current smoking status, as well as the complex sampling design. Results The distribution of smoking duration ranged from 19.2% (1–9 years) to 36.2% (?30 years). Among 1,454 respondents who had smoked for ?30 years, 58.3% were current smokers, 25.0% had frequent productive cough, 11.2% had frequent shortness of breath, 16.7% strongly agreed that shortness of breath affected physical activity, and 25.6% had been diagnosed with COPD. Prevalence of COPD and each respiratory symptom was lower among former smokers who quit ?10 years earlier compared with current smokers. Smoking duration had a linear relationship with COPD (P<0.001) and all three respiratory symptoms (P<0.001) after adjusting for smoking status and other covariates. While COPD prevalence increased with prolonged smoking duration in both men and women, women had a higher age-adjusted prevalence of COPD in the 1–9 years, 20–29 years, and ?30 years duration periods. Conclusion These state population data confirm that prolonged tobacco use is associated with respiratory symptoms and COPD after controlling for current smoking behavior. PMID:26229460

  15. Diurnal variation of overdense meteor echo duration and ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simek, Milos

    1992-01-01

    The diurnal variation of the median duration of overdense sporadic radar meteor echoes is examined. The meteors recorded in August, December, and January by the Ondrejov meteor radar during the period 1958-1990 were used for the analysis. A maximum median echo duration 1-3 hours after the time of local sunrise in the meteor region confirms the already known sunrise effect. Minimum echo duration occurring at the time of sunset seems to be the most important point of diurnal variation of the echo duration, when ozone is no longer dissociated by solar UV radiation. The effect of diurnal changes of the echo duration should be considered when the mass distribution of meteor showers is analyzed.

  16. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  17. Sotoodehnia, et al.: QRS GWAS SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: Common variants in 22 loci are associated with QRS

    E-print Network

    de Bakker, Paul

    23,24 , Anna Köttgen35 , Toby Johnson36,37 , Kenneth Rice38 , 1 Division of Cardiology, Department for Human Genetic Research, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA 11 Cardiology Division of Cardiology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands 15 Institute

  18. Suprasegmental Duration Modelling with Elastic Constraints in Automatic Speech Recognition 

    E-print Network

    Molloy, Laurence; Isard, Stephen

    In this paper a method of integrating a model of suprasegmental duration with a HMM-based recogniser at the post-processing level is presented. The N-Best utterance output is rescored using a suitable linear combination ...

  19. Vocalization frequency and duration are coded in separate hindbrain nuclei

    PubMed Central

    Chagnaud, Boris P.; Baker, Robert; Bass, Andrew H.

    2011-01-01

    Temporal patterning is an essential feature of neural networks producing precisely timed behaviours such as vocalizations that are widely used in vertebrate social communication. Here we show that intrinsic and network properties of separate hindbrain neuronal populations encode the natural call attributes of frequency and duration in vocal fish. Intracellular structure/function analyses indicate that call duration is encoded by a sustained membrane depolarization in vocal prepacemaker neurons that innervate downstream pacemaker neurons. Pacemaker neurons, in turn, encode call frequency by rhythmic, ultrafast oscillations in their membrane potential. Pharmacological manipulations show prepacemaker activity to be independent of pacemaker function, thus accounting for natural variation in duration which is the predominant feature distinguishing call types. Prepacemaker neurons also innervate key hindbrain auditory nuclei thereby effectively serving as a call-duration corollary discharge. We propose that premotor compartmentalization of neurons coding distinct acoustic attributes is a fundamental trait of hindbrain vocal pattern generators among vertebrates. PMID:21673667

  20. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of...

  3. Ectodysplasin signaling in cutaneous appendage development: Dose, duration and diversity 

    E-print Network

    Headon, Denis J.

    2009-01-01

    The development of several skin appendages is guided by prenatal Ectodysplasin signalling. Cui et al. (this issue, 2009) report on the dose and duration of Ectodysplasin signalling required for the maintenance and morphogenesis ...

  4. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of...

  5. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of...

  6. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of...

  7. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of...

  8. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of...

  9. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration...payments under this part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal...

  10. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration...payments under this part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal...

  11. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration...payments under this part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal...

  12. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care subject to...

  13. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care subject to...

  14. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...a VA health care facility. When a veteran is undergoing extensive treatment or procedures, such as an organ transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of the episode of care subject to...

  15. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring...

  16. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring...

  17. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring...

  18. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY REGULATIONS SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring...

  19. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be any...

  20. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be any...

  1. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships. Initial...

  2. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be any...

  3. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be any...

  4. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships. Initial...

  5. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and...

  6. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and...

  7. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and...

  8. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and...

  9. 7 CFR 920.66 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE KIWIFRUIT GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Miscellaneous Provisions § 920.66 Duration of immunities. The benefits, priviliges, and...

  10. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...1) Establishing duration of classification. Except for information...identity of a confidential human source or a human intelligence source or key...mass destruction, an original classification authority shall follow...

  11. On The Role of Duration in Connected Speech

    E-print Network

    Simoes, Antonio Roberto Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    discourse, then we can expect it to permeate all linguistic components, from Phonetics, to Phonology, to Syntax, Semantics and Pragmatics. This conclusion is supported by data obtained in Simões’ (1987) study of duration in speech synthesis by rule...

  12. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date...

  13. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date...

  14. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date...

  15. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date...

  16. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration...

  17. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration...

  18. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration...

  19. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration...

  20. 7 CFR 922.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE APRICOTS GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 922.67 Duration...

  1. Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency?

    E-print Network

    , and that an increase in the rate of internal information processing (because of increased attention, fear, etc.) causes appealed to versions of this counter model to explain the duration distortion triggered by the oddball

  2. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The...

  3. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The...

  4. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The...

  5. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The...

  6. 7 CFR 932.71 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 932.71 Duration of immunities. The...

  7. Vocal Corollary Discharge Communicates Call Duration to Vertebrate Auditory System

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corollary discharge is essential to an animal's ability to filter self-generated from external stimuli. This includes acoustic communication, although direct demonstration of a corollary discharge that both conveys a vocal motor signal and informs the auditory system about the physical attributes of a self-generated vocalization has remained elusive for vertebrates. Here, we show the underlying synaptic activity of a neuronal vocal corollary discharge pathway in the hindbrain of a highly vocal species of fish. Neurons carrying the vocal corollary discharge are specifically adapted for the transmission of duration information, a predominant acoustic cue. The results reveal that vertebrates, like some insects, have a robust corollary discharge conveying call duration. Along with evidence for the influence of vocal duration on auditory encoding in mammals, these new findings suggest that linking vocal motor and corollary discharge pathways with pattern generating, call duration neurons is a shared network character across the animal kingdom. PMID:24285884

  8. Bayesian estimation of rainfall intensity-duration-frequency relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Vyver, H.

    2015-10-01

    Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves are one of the most commonly used tools in water resources engineering. They give an idea of how return levels of extreme rainfall intensities vary with duration over a range of return periods. It is assumed that the annual maximum intensity follows the generalised extreme value (GEV) distribution. Conventional methods of estimating IDF relationships do not provide estimates of uncertainty. We propose a Bayesian framework for handling uncertainties in IDF models. Firstly, we collect annual maximum intensity data over a relevant range of rainfall durations. Secondly, we define an approximate likelihood, the "independence" likelihood, in which the correlations have been ignored between maximum intensity data of different durations. Finally, we apply Bayesian inference to obtain the adjusted posterior, which accounts for likelihood misspecification. A comparison with earlier methods, without any adjustment amongst others, shows that the adjusted posteriors are considerably wider.

  9. 36 CFR 72.33 - Timing and duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Program Development, Rehabilitation and Innovation § 72.33 Timing and duration of...components of either Rehabilitation or Innovation proposals will be limited to three...federal government. Any component of an Innovation proposal which is to provide...

  10. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities....

  11. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities....

  12. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities....

  13. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities....

  14. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA, ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities....

  15. Government Coordination Sheet Project Duration: *Estimated Cost Required

    E-print Network

    Kastner, Marc A.

    Government Coordination Sheet Project Duration: *Estimated Cost requirements. The costs outlined below represent Lincoln's best attempt to estimate the funding required. This estimate creates no commitment or obligation for sponsors. The cost may be reduced through leveraging

  16. 43 CFR 3140.5 - Duration of the lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.5 Duration of...

  17. 43 CFR 3140.5 - Duration of the lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.5 Duration of...

  18. 43 CFR 3140.5 - Duration of the lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.5 Duration of...

  19. 43 CFR 3140.5 - Duration of the lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) LEASING IN SPECIAL TAR SAND AREAS Conversion of Existing Oil and Gas Leases and Valid Claims Based on Mineral Locations § 3140.5 Duration of...

  20. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of time beyond...

  2. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of...

  3. Mighty Eagle Scores Longest, Highest Flight Yet - Duration: 71 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The â??Mighty Eagle,â? a NASA robotic prototype lander, reached its highest altitude and velocity -- and longest duration -- on Oct. 25 when it soared to a height of more than 150 feet during a fl...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.1011 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1011 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made under the Sun Grant Program shall not exceed 5 years. No-cost extensions of time beyond...

  5. 14 CFR 21.621 - Transferability and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... § 21.621 Transferability and duration. A TSO authorization or letter of TSO design approval issued under this part is not transferable...prescribes— (1) Procedural requirements for issuing TSO authorizations; (2) Rules governing the...

  6. Are Nonlinear Ventricular Arrhythmia Characteristics Lost, as Signal Duration Decreases?

    E-print Network

    Povinelli, Richard J.

    Are Nonlinear Ventricular Arrhythmia Characteristics Lost, as Signal Duration Decreases? RJ, nonlinear, phase space based method to quickly and accurately identify life-threatening arrhythmias, have proven to be effective therapy for terminating such ventricular arrhythmias. There is evidence [2

  7. 14 CFR 65.92 - Inspection authorization: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.92 Inspection authorization: Duration. ...that authorization only while he holds a currently effective mechanic certificate with both a currently effective airframe...

  8. 14 CFR 65.92 - Inspection authorization: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.92 Inspection authorization: Duration. ...that authorization only while he holds a currently effective mechanic certificate with both a currently effective airframe...

  9. 14 CFR 65.92 - Inspection authorization: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.92 Inspection authorization: Duration. ...that authorization only while he holds a currently effective mechanic certificate with both a currently effective airframe...

  10. 14 CFR 65.92 - Inspection authorization: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.92 Inspection authorization: Duration. ...that authorization only while he holds a currently effective mechanic certificate with both a currently effective airframe...

  11. 14 CFR 65.92 - Inspection authorization: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Mechanics § 65.92 Inspection authorization: Duration. ...that authorization only while he holds a currently effective mechanic certificate with both a currently effective airframe...

  12. Performance and alertness of railroad engineers on long duration trips

    E-print Network

    Karnali, Leona D., 1978-

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the performance and alertness of 8 healthy male participants between the age of 31 years and 65 years old in nighttime, long duration simulated train operation. Participants completed the ...

  13. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.69 Duration of...

  14. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.69 Duration of...

  15. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.69 Duration of...

  16. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MARKETING ORDER REGULATING THE HANDLING OF SPEARMINT OIL PRODUCED IN THE FAR WEST Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 985.69 Duration of...

  17. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Mission 1 Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, L. G. (editor); Kinard, W. H. (editor); Carter, D. L., Jr. (editor); Jones, J. L., Jr. (editor)

    1984-01-01

    Spaceborne experiments using the space shuttle payload known as the Long Duration Exposure Facility are described. Experiments in the fields of materials, coatings, thermal systems, power and propulsion, electronic, and optics are discussed.

  18. 7 CFR 3430.709 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...AGRICULTURE COMPETITIVE AND NONCOMPETITIVE NON-FORMULA FEDERAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Biomass Research and Development Initiative § 3430.709 Duration of awards. The term of a Federal assistance award made...

  19. 7 CFR 1450.205 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Establishment Payments and Annual Payments § 1450.205 Duration of contracts....

  20. Volume-Duration-Frequencies for Ungaged Catchments in Texas 

    E-print Network

    Devulapalli, Ravi S.; Valdes, Juan B.

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes results from studies to determine relationships among the volume, duration and frequencies of floods in ungaged catchments in Texas. Methodologies were adopted for determining flood volumes at unregulated, non-urban catchments...