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Sample records for qrs complex duration

  1. Narrow QRS complex tachycardias.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Carol

    2007-01-01

    Narrow QRS complex tachycardias are either atrioventricular (AV) nodal passive or AV nodal active. AV nodal passive tachycardias do not require the participation of the AV node in maintenance of the tachycardia. Examples are atrial tachycardia, atrial flutter, and atrial fibrillation. Treatment is directed at ventricular rate control with calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers. AV nodal active tachycardias require active participation of the AV node in maintaining the tachycardia. Examples include AV nodal reentry tachycardia and circus movement tachycardia using an accessory pathway. Treatment with a vagal maneuver or adenosine usually terminates the tachycardia. Recognition of these tachycardias is reviewed. PMID:18019517

  2. QRS Duration or QRS Morphology: What Really Matters in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?

    PubMed

    Poole, Jeanne E; Singh, Jagmeet P; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been well established in large, randomized trials. Despite the documented success of this treatment strategy, a significant proportion of patients with heart failure do not achieve the desired response. The aim of this review was to delineate factors contributing to a successful CRT response, emphasizing the interrelated roles of QRS morphology and QRS interval duration. More data are available on QRS duration, as this factor has been used as an enrollment criterion in clinical trials. Response to CRT seems to increase as the QRS duration becomes longer, with greatest benefit in QRS duration ≥150 ms. Recent data have placed more emphasis on QRS morphology, demonstrating variability in clinical response between patients with left bundle branch block, non-left bundle branch block, and right bundle branch block morphology. Notably, myocardial scarring and cardiac dimensions, among other variables, may alter heterogeneity in ventricular activation. Understanding the electrophysiological underpinnings of the QRS complex has become important not only to predict response but also to facilitate the patient-specific delivery of resynchronization therapy. PMID:26940932

  3. Simple and Robust Realtime QRS Detection Algorithm Based on Spatiotemporal Characteristic of the QRS Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwon; Shin, Hangsik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an intuitive and robust realtime QRS detection algorithm based on the physiological characteristics of the electrocardiogram waveform. The proposed algorithm finds the QRS complex based on the dual criteria of the amplitude and duration of QRS complex. It consists of simple operations, such as a finite impulse response filter, differentiation or thresholding without complex and computational operations like a wavelet transformation. The QRS detection performance is evaluated by using both an MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and an AHA ECG database (a total of 435,700 beats). The sensitivity (SE) and positive predictivity value (PPV) were 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. According to the database, the SE and PPV were 99.90% and 99.91% in the MIT-BIH database and 99.84% and 99.84% in the AHA database, respectively. The result of the noisy environment test using record 119 from the MIT-BIH database indicated that the proposed method was scarcely affected by noise above 5 dB SNR (SE = 100%, PPV > 98%) without the need for an additional de-noising or back searching process. PMID:26943949

  4. Relation of QRS duration to mortality in a community-based cohort with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bongioanni, Sergio; Bianchi, Francesca; Migliardi, Alessandro; Gnavi, Roberto; Pron, Paolo Giay; Casetta, Marzia; Conte, Maria Rosa

    2007-08-01

    A prolonged QRS duration on the standard electrocardiogram is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in cardiomyopathies of different origin. However, the relation between QRS duration and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) remains undefined. We assessed the relation between QRS duration and cardiovascular death in 241 consecutive patients with HC. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups according to QRS duration: <120 and > or =120 ms. Of the 241 patients, 191 (79%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 50 (21%) a QRS duration > or =120 ms. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 +/- 5.1 years, 35 patients died of cardiovascular causes related to HC. Of these 35 patients, 13 (6%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 22 (43%) had a QRS duration > or =120 ms (p <0.01). Risk of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in patients with a QRS duration > or =120 ms than in those with a QRS duration <120 ms (relative risk 5.2, p <0.0001). At 8-year follow-up, cumulative risks of HC-related death were 7.1% in patients with a QRS duration <120 ms and 55% in those with a QRS duration > or =120 ms. Multivariate analysis confirmed that a QRS duration > or =120 ms was independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 3.2, p = 0.007). New York Heart Association functional class III/IV was the only other clinical variable significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death. In conclusion, in patients with HC, QRS duration on standard electrocardiogram is directly related to cardiovascular mortality, and a QRS duration > or =120 ms is a strong and independent predictor of prognosis. PMID:17659936

  5. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cros, C.; Skinner, M.; Moors, J.; Lainee, P.; Valentin, J.P.

    2012-12-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two out of three antiarrhythmics were enhanced. ► Detection of a drug-induced prolongation of QRS was improved at high heart rate.

  6. Frailty severity is significantly associated with electrocardiographic QRS duration in chronic dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death, the risk of which is presumably related to arrhythmia. Electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters have been found to correlate with arrhythmia and predict cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD patients. Frailty is also a common feature in this population. We investigate whether the severity of dialysis frailty is associated with ECG findings, including PR interval, QRS duration, and QTc interval. Presence and severity of frailty was ascertained using six different self-report questionnaires with proven construct validity. Correlation analysis between frailty severity and ECG was made, and those with significant association entered into multiple regression analysis for confirmation. Among a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients, we found that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale, is significantly associated with QRS duration (r = ? 0.3, p < 0.05). Dialysis patients with QRS longer than 120 ms had significantly lower severity of frailty than those with QRS less than 120 ms (p = 0.01 for the Edmonton frailty scale and 0.05 for simple FRAIL scale). Regression analysis showed that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale and simple FRAIL scale, was significantly associated with QRS duration independent of serum electrolyte levels. In conclusion, a significant relationship exists between the severity of frailty and QRS duration in ESRD patients. This might be an under-recognized link between frailty and its adverse cardiovascular impact in these patients. PMID:26528415

  7. Common variants in 22 loci are associated with QRS duration and cardiac ventricular conduction

    PubMed Central

    Sotoodehnia, Nona; Isaacs, Aaron; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Drr, Marcus; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Harst, Pim; Mller, Martina; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Hicks, Andrew A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Smith, Albert Vernon; Polasek, Ozren; Giovannone, Steven; Fu, Jingyuan; Magnani, Jared W.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Pfeufer, Arne; Gharib, Sina A.; Teumer, Alexander; Li, Man; Bis, Joshua C.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aspelund, Thor; Kttgen, Anna; Johnson, Toby; Rice, Kenneth; Sie, Mark P.S.; Wang, Amanda Ying; Klopp, Norman; Fuchsberger, Christian; Wild, Sarah H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Estrada, Karol; Vlker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Qu, Jiaxiang; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Sinner, Moritz F.; Kors, Jan A.; Petersmann, Astrid; Harris, Tamara B.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Perz, Siegfried; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Uitterlinden, Andr G.; Vzke, Henry; Spector, Timothy D.; Liu, Fang-Yu; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Rotter, Jerome I.; van Herpen, G; Levy, Daniel; Wichmann, H.-Erich; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Heckbert, Susan R.; Meitinger, Thomas; Hofman, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Folsom, Aaron R.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Schwienbacher, Christine; ODonnell, Christopher J.; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M.; Launer, Lenore; Lu, Xiaowen; Franke, Lude; Fehrmann, Rudolf S.N.; te Meerman, Gerard; Groen, Harry J.M.; Weersma, Rinse K.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ophoff, Roel A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Wilson, James F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Siscovick, David S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Felix, Stephan B.; Fishman, Glenn I.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kb, Stefan; Arking, Dan E.

    2010-01-01

    QRS interval on the electrocardiogram reflects ventricular depolarization and conduction time, and is a risk factor for mortality, sudden death, and heart failure. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 40,407 European-descent individuals from 14 studies, with further genotyping in 7170 additional Europeans, and identified 22 loci associated with QRS duration (P < 5 10?8). These loci map in or near genes in pathways with established roles in ventricular conduction such as sodium channels, transcription factors, and calcium-handling proteins, but also point to novel biologic processes, such as kinase inhibitors and genes related to tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that SCN10A, a gene at our most significant locus, is expressed in the mouse ventricular conduction system, and treatment with a selective SCN10A blocker prolongs QRS duration. These findings extend our current knowledge of ventricular depolarization and conduction. PMID:21076409

  8. Detection of segments with fetal QRS complex from abdominal maternal ECG recordings using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Juan A.; Altuve, Miguel; Nabhan Homsi, Masun

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a robust method based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to detect the presence of Fetal QRS (fQRS) complexes in electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings provided by the PhysioNet/CinC challenge 2013. ECG signals are first segmented into contiguous frames of 250 ms duration and then labeled in six classes. Fetal segments are tagged according to the position of fQRS complex within each one. Next, segment features extraction and dimensionality reduction are obtained by applying principal component analysis on Haar-wavelet transform. After that, two sub-datasets are generated to separate representative segments from atypical ones. Imbalanced class problem is dealt by applying sampling without replacement on each sub-dataset. Finally, two SVMs are trained and cross-validated using the two balanced sub-datasets separately. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves high performance rates in fetal heartbeats detection that reach up to 90.95% of accuracy, 92.16% of sensitivity, 88.51% of specificity, 94.13% of positive predictive value and 84.96% of negative predictive value. A comparative study is also carried out to show the performance of other two machine learning algorithms for fQRS complex estimation, which are K-nearest neighborhood and Bayesian network.

  9. QRS duration: a simple marker for predicting cardiac mortality in ICD patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Bode-Schnurbus, L; Bcker, D; Block, M; Gradaus, R; Heinecke, A; Breithardt, G; Borggrefe, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Patients resuscitated from ventricular tachyarrhythmias benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) as opposed to medical treatment. Patients with increased QRS duration receiving an ICD in the presence of heart failure are at greatest risk of cardiac death and benefit most from ICD therapy. Objective: To determine whether an increased QRS duration predicts cardiac mortality in ICD recipients. Design: Consecutive patients with heart failure in New York Heart Association functional class III were grouped according to QRS duration (< 150 ms, n = 139, group 1; v ? 150 ms, n = 26, group 2) and followed up for (mean (SD)) 23 (20) months. Patients: 165 patients were studied (80% men, 20% women); 73% had coronary artery disease and 18% had dilated cardiomyopathy. Their mean age was 62 (10) years and mean ejection fraction (EF) was 33 (14)%. They presented either with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; recurrence rates of VT, fast VT, or VF. Results: Mean left ventricular EF did not differ between group 1 (33 (13)%) and group 2 (31 (15)%). Forty patients died (34 cardiac deaths). There was no difference in survival between patients with EF > 35% and ? 35%. Cardiac mortality was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.3% at 12 months and 46.6% at 24 months, v 9.5% at 12 months and 18.2% at 24 months, respectively; p = 0.04). The recurrence rate of VT was similar in both groups. Conclusions: Within subgroups at highest risk of cardiac death, QRS durationa simple non-invasive indexpredicts outcome in ICD recipients in the presence of heart failure. PMID:12975406

  10. A new approach of QRS complex detection based on matched filtering and triangle character analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjun; Yan, Hong; Hong, Feng; Song, Jinzhong

    2012-09-01

    QRS complex detection usually provides the fundamentals to automated electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. In this paper, a new approach of QRS complex detection without the stage of noise suppression was developed and evaluated, which was based on the combination of two techniques: matched filtering and triangle character analysis. Firstly, a template of QRS complex was selected automatically by the triangle character in ECG, and then it was time-reversed after removing its direct current component. Secondly, matched filtering was implemented at low computational cost by finite impulse response, which further enhanced QRS complex and attenuated non-QRS regions containing P-wave, T-wave and various noise components. Subsequently, triangle structure-based threshold decision was processed to detect QRS complexes. And RR intervals and triangle structures were further analyzed for the reduction of false-positive and false-negative detections. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on all 48 records of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The results demonstrated that the detection rate reached 99.62 %, the sensitivity got 99.78 %, and the positive prediction was 99.85 %. In addition, the proposed method was able to identify QRS complexes reliably even under the condition of poor signal quality. PMID:22806315

  11. Adaptive Rule Based Fetal QRS Complex Detection Using Hilbert Transform

    PubMed Central

    Ulusar, Umit D.; Govindan, R.B.; Wilson, James D.; Lowery, Curtis L.; Preissl, Hubert; Eswaran, Hari

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce an adaptive rule based QRS detection algorithm using the Hilbert transform (adHQRS) for fetal magnetocardiography processing. Hilbert transform is used to combine multiple channel measurements and the adaptive rule based decision process is used to eliminate spurious beats. The algorithm has been tested with a large number of datasets and promising results were obtained. PMID:19964648

  12. Risk of Mortality Associated With QT and JT Intervals at Different Levels of QRS Duration (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Zulqarnain, Muhammad A; Qureshi, Waqas T; O'Neal, Wesley T; Shah, Amit J; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2015-07-01

    QT prolongation in the setting of QRS >120 ms is believed to be triggered by prolonged depolarization rather than repolarization. Hence, JT interval is suggested as an alternative to QT interval when QRS duration is prolonged. It is unclear, however, if JT and QT intervals portend similar risk of mortality for different durations of QRS. We examined the association between QT and JT, separately, with all-cause mortality across different levels of QRS duration in 8,025 participants (60 13 years, 41% white and 54% women) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. At baseline (1986 to 1994), 486 participants (6%) had QRS duration ?120 ms. During a follow-up of up to 18 years, 3,045 deaths (38%) occurred. There were significant nonlinear relations of QT and JT intervals with mortality (p <0.001). Hence, QT and JT were categorized as prolonged (>95th percentile), shortened (<5th percentile), and normal (reference group). In multivariate-adjusted Cox regression models, prolonged JT (hazard ratio [HR] 4.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.86 to 12.11) was associated with increased risk of mortality more than prolonged QT (HR 1.50, 95% CI 1.03 to 2.17) in participants with QRS ?120 ms (interaction p = 0.02). In participants with QRS duration <120 ms, prolonged QT and JT were equally predictive of all-cause mortality (HR 1.27, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.54, and HR 1.31, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.55, respectively). Similar patterns were observed with shortened QT and JT intervals. In conclusion, although both QT and JT intervals are predictive of mortality, JT is more predictive in the setting of QRS duration >120 ms supporting the use of JT interval in patients with prolonged QRS. PMID:25929581

  13. Paced QRS duration predicts left ventricular function in patients with permanent pacemakers One-year follow-up study using equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gautam; Shetkar, Sudhir Suryakant; Patel, Chetan D.; Singh, Harmandeep; Naik, Nitish; Roy, Ambuj; Juneja, Rajnish; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Permanent pacing, being non physiological, often results in ventricular dysfunction over time. Narrower paced QRS duration from pacing the right ventricular outflow tract septum, might result in relatively preserved ventricular function over long term follow up. PMID:26937092

  14. Automatic QRS complex detection algorithm designed for a novel wearable, wireless electrocardiogram recording device.

    PubMed

    Nielsena, Dorthe B; Egstrup, Kenneth; Branebjerg, Jens; Andersen, Gunnar B; Sorensen, Helge B D

    2012-01-01

    We have designed and optimized an automatic QRS complex detection algorithm for electrocardiogram (ECG) signals recorded with the DELTA ePatch platform. The algorithm is able to automatically switch between single-channel and multi-channel analysis mode. This preliminary study includes data from 11 patients measured with the DELTA ePatch platform and the algorithm achieves an average QRS sensitivity and positive predictivity of 99.57% and 99.57%, respectively. The algorithm was also evaluated on all 48 records from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (MITDB) with an average sensitivity and positive predictivity of 99.63% and 99.63%, respectively. PMID:23366534

  15. Electrocardiogram Derived QRS Duration >120 ms is Associated With Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a Rural Australian Cross-Sectional Population

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Yvonne Lee Yin; Zhou, Yuling; Ke, Honghong; Jelinek, Herbert; McCabe, Joel; Assareh, Hassan; McLachlan, Craig S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Homocysteine levels in the low to moderate range for cardiovascular risk have been previously associated with left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiogram (ECG) derived QRS duration has also been used as an epidemiological screening marker for cardiac hypertrophy risk. QRS duration cut offs have not been previously modeled to assess homocysteine levels in community populations. Our aims are to determine if QRS duration is associated with an elevated homocysteine level in a cross-sectional Australian aging rural population. A retrospective study design utilizing a rural health diabetic screening clinic database containing observational data from the period January 9, 2002 till September 25, 2012. One hundred seventy-eight individuals (>21 years of age) from the database were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included being nondiabetic and having both a QRS duration measure and a matching homocysteine level within the same subject. All participants were from the Albury-Wodonga area, with a mean age of >64 years for both sexes. Mean population homocysteine plasma levels were 10.4??mol/L (SD = 3.6). The mean QRS duration was 101.8 ms (SD = 17.4). Groups were stratified on the basis of QRS duration (?120 ms [n?=?157] and >120 ms [n?=?21]). QRS duration subgroup (?120 ms vs >120 ms) mean differences across homocysteine levels were 10.1??mol/L (SD = 3.3) and 12.2??mol/L (SD = 4.7), respectively (P?=?0.016). Other ECG parameters (PQ interval, QTc interval, and QT dispersion) measurements were not significantly associated with differences in plasma homocysteine (P?=?not significant). We conclude that in community populations homocysteine may be moderately elevated when QRS durations are >120 ms. Small additional increases in homocysteine levels may suggest a risk factor for ECG diagnosis of LVH. PMID:26166085

  16. Electrocardiogram Derived QRS Duration >120 ms is Associated With Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a Rural Australian Cross-Sectional Population.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yvonne Lee Yin; Zhou, Yuling; Ke, Honghong; Jelinek, Herbert; McCabe, Joel; Assareh, Hassan; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-07-01

    Homocysteine levels in the low to moderate range for cardiovascular risk have been previously associated with left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiogram (ECG) derived QRS duration has also been used as an epidemiological screening marker for cardiac hypertrophy risk. QRS duration cut offs have not been previously modeled to assess homocysteine levels in community populations. Our aims are to determine if QRS duration is associated with an elevated homocysteine level in a cross-sectional Australian aging rural population.A retrospective study design utilizing a rural health diabetic screening clinic database containing observational data from the period January 9, 2002 till September 25, 2012. One hundred seventy-eight individuals (>21 years of age) from the database were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included being nondiabetic and having both a QRS duration measure and a matching homocysteine level within the same subject. All participants were from the Albury-Wodonga area, with a mean age of >64 years for both sexes.Mean population homocysteine plasma levels were 10.4??mol/L (SD = 3.6). The mean QRS duration was 101.8 ms (SD = 17.4). Groups were stratified on the basis of QRS duration (?120 ms [n?=?157] and >120 ms [n?=?21]). QRS duration subgroup (?120 ms vs >120 ms) mean differences across homocysteine levels were 10.1??mol/L (SD = 3.3) and 12.2??mol/L (SD = 4.7), respectively (P?=?0.016). Other ECG parameters (PQ interval, QTc interval, and QT dispersion) measurements were not significantly associated with differences in plasma homocysteine (P?=?not significant).We conclude that in community populations homocysteine may be moderately elevated when QRS durations are >120 ms. Small additional increases in homocysteine levels may suggest a risk factor for ECG diagnosis of LVH. PMID:26166085

  17. Data fusion for QRS complex detection in multi-lead electrocardiogram recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledezma, Carlos A.; Perpiñan, Gilberto; Severeyn, Erika; Altuve, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Heart diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. The first step in the diagnose of these diseases is the analysis of the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal. In turn, the ECG analysis begins with the detection of the QRS complex, which is the one with the most energy in the cardiac cycle. Numerous methods have been proposed in the bibliography for QRS complex detection, but few authors have analyzed the possibility of taking advantage of the information redundancy present in multiple ECG leads (simultaneously acquired) to produce accurate QRS detection. In our previous work we presented such an approach, proposing various data fusion techniques to combine the detections made by an algorithm on multiple ECG leads. In this paper we present further studies that show the advantages of this multi-lead detection approach, analyzing how many leads are necessary in order to observe an improvement in the detection performance. A well known QRS detection algorithm was used to test the fusion techniques on the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics database. Results show improvement in the detection performance with as little as three leads, but the reliability of these results becomes interesting only after using seven or more leads. Results were evaluated using the detection error rate (DER). The multi-lead detection approach allows an improvement from DER = 3:04% to DER = 1:88%. Further works are to be made in order to improve the detection performance by implementing further fusion steps.

  18. A FPGA system for QRS complex detection based on Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanovi?, R.; Karadagli?, D.; Mirkovi?, M.; Miloevi?, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to complexity of their mathematical computation, many QRS detectors are implemented in software and cannot operate in real time. The paper presents a real-time hardware based solution for this task. To filter ECG signal and to extract QRS complex it employs the Integer Wavelet Transform. The system includes several components and is incorporated in a single FPGA chip what makes it suitable for direct embedding in medical instruments or wearable health care devices. It has sufficient accuracy (about 95%), showing remarkable noise immunity and low cost. Additionally, each system component is composed of several identical blocks/cells what makes the design highly generic. The capacity of today existing FPGAs allows even dozens of detectors to be placed in a single chip. After the theoretical introduction of wavelets and the review of their application in QRS detection, it will be shown how some basic wavelets can be optimized for easy hardware implementation. For this purpose the migration to the integer arithmetic and additional simplifications in calculations has to be done. Further, the system architecture will be presented with the demonstrations in both, software simulation and real testing. At the end, the working performances and preliminary results will be outlined and discussed. The same principle can be applied with other signals where the hardware implementation of wavelet transform can be of benefit.

  19. On the relationship between block of the cardiac Na+ channel and drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex

    PubMed Central

    Harmer, AR; Valentin, J-P; Pollard, CE

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Inhibition of the human cardiac Na+ channel (hNav1.5) can prolong the QRS complex and has been associated with increased mortality in patients with underlying cardiovascular disease. The safety implications of blocking hNav1.5 channels suggest the need to test for this activity early in drug discovery in order to design out any potential liability. However, interpretation of hNav1.5 blocking potency requires knowledge of how hNav1.5 block translates into prolongation of the QRS complex. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We tested Class I anti-arrhythmics, other known QRS prolonging drugs and drugs not reported to prolong the QRS complex. Their block of hNav1.5 channels (as IC50 values) was measured in an automated electrophysiology-based assay. These IC50 values were compared with published reports of the corresponding unbound (free) plasma concentrations attained during clinical use (fCmax) to provide an IC50 : fCmax ratio. KEY RESULTS For 42 Class I anti-arrhythmics and other QRS prolonging drugs, 67% had IC50 : fCmax ratios <30. For 55 non-QRS prolonging drugs tested, 72% had ratios >100. Finally, we determined the relationship between the IC50 value and the free drug concentration associated with prolongation of the QRS complex in humans. For 37 drugs, QRS complex prolongation was observed at free plasma concentrations that were about 15-fold lower than the corresponding IC50 at hNav1.5 channels. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS A margin of 30- to 100-fold between hNav1.5 IC50 and fCmax appears to confer an acceptable degree of safety from QRS prolongation. QRS prolongation occurs on average at free plasma levels 15-fold below the IC50 at hNav1.5 channels. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Gintant et al., pp. 254259 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01433.x PMID:21480866

  20. Investigation of connexin 43 uncoupling and prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex in preclinical and marketed drugs

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, M P; Sharpe, P M; Garner, C; Hughes, R; Pollard, C E; Bowes, J

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Prolongation of the cardiac QRS complex is linked to increased mortality and may result from drug-induced inhibition of cardiac sodium channels (hNaV1.5). There has been no systematic evaluation of preclinical and marketed drugs for their additional potential to cause QRS prolongation via gap junction uncoupling. Experimental Approach Using the human cardiac gap junction connexin 43 (hCx43), a dye transfer parachute assay to determine IC50 values for compound ranking was validated with compounds known to uncouple gap junctions. Uncoupling activity (and hNaV1.5 inhibition by automated patch clamp) was determined in a set of marketed drugs and preclinical candidate drugs, each with information regarding propensity to prolong QRS. Key Results The potency of known gap junction uncouplers to uncouple hCx43 was ranked (according to IC50) as phorbol ester>digoxin>meclofenamic acid>carbenoxolone>heptanol. Among the drugs associated with QRS prolongation, 29% were found to uncouple hCx43 (IC50 < 50??M), whereas no uncoupling activity was observed in drugs not associated with QRS prolongation. In preclinical candidate drugs, hCx43 and hNaV1.5 IC50 values were similar (within threefold). No consistent margin over preclinical Cmax (free) was apparent for QRS prolongation associated with Cx43 inhibition. However, instances were found of QRS prolonging compounds that uncoupled hCx43 with significantly less activity at hNaV1.5. Conclusion and Implications These results demonstrate that off-target uncoupling activity is apparent in drug and drug-like molecules. Although the full ramifications of Cx inhibition remain to be established, screening for hCx43 off-target activity could reduce the likelihood of developing candidate drugs with a risk of causing QRS prolongation. PMID:24328991

  1. 3DQRS: A method to obtain reliable QRS complex detection within high field MRI using 12-lead ECG traces

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique that accurately detects the QRS complex in 1.5T, 3T and 7T MRI scanners.” Theory and Methods During early systole, blood is rapidly ejected into the aortic arch, traveling perpendicular to the MRI’s main field, which produces a strong voltage (VMHD) that eclipses the QRS complex. Greater complexity arises in arrhythmia patients, since VMHD can vary between sinus-rhythm and arrhythmic beats. The 3DQRS method uses a kernel consisting of 6 ECG precordial leads, compiled from a 12-lead ECG performed outside the magnet. The kernel is cross-correlated with signals acquired inside the MRI in order to identify the QRS complex in real time. The 3DQRS method was evaluated against a Vectorcardiogram-based (VCG) approach in 2 Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) and 2 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) patients, a healthy exercising athlete and 8 healthy volunteers, within 1.5T and 3T MRIs, using a prototype MRI-conditional 12 lead ECG system. 2 volunteers were recorded at 7T using a Holter recorder. Results For QRS complex detection, 3DQRS subject-averaged sensitivity levels, relative to VCG were: 1.5T (100% vs. 96.7%), 3T (98.9% vs. 92.2%), 7T (96.2% vs. 77.7%). Conclusions The 3DQRS method was shown to be more effective in cardiac gating than a conventional VCG-based method. PMID:24453116

  2. Transient attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes in the diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Currently, there are no specific diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) signs for Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) to differentiate it from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Myocardial oedema has been detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with TTS. Recently it has been postulated that myocardial oedema may be the cause of low QRS voltage (LQRSV) in the admission ECG and attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes (AAQRS) in serial ECGs, noted in a few published cases of patients with TTS. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the admission ECG of patients with documented TTS reveals LQRSV and whether AAQRS is found when serial ECGs are compared in such patients. Methods: This study evaluated the prevalence of LQRSV in the admission ECG and AAQRS in serial ECGs in patients with TTS. ECGs of 368 patients with TTS from published reports in the international literature were evaluated for LQRSV (≤5 mm in limb leads and/or ≤10 mm in precordial leads) and AAQRS in serial ECGs. Results: LQRSV was seen in 91.5% of 200 patients with TTS and one ECG, with a distribution of 49.0, 42.8, 51.0, 52.0, and 46.9%, in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. AAQRS was seen in 93.5% of 168 patients with TTS and two or more ECGs, with a distribution of 78.3, 74.5, 60.1, 70.7, and 74.5% in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. Conclusions: LQRSV and AAQRS are highly prevalent ECG signs in patients with TTS, and should be useful in aiding in its diagnosis and differentiation from ACS, on first contact with the patient on admission to the hospital, and the ensuing 24 hours, in conjunction with echocardiography and coronary arteriography. PMID:24562801

  3. Radial dyssynchrony assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in relation to left ventricular function, myocardial scarring and QRS duration in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intuitively, cardiac dyssynchrony is the inevitable result of myocardial injury. We hypothezised that radial dyssynchrony reflects left ventricular remodeling, myocardial scarring, QRS duration and impaired LV function and that, accordingly, it is detectable in all patients with heart failure. Methods 225 patients with heart failure, grouped according to QRS duration of <120 ms (A, n = 75), between 120-149 ms (B, n = 75) or ≥150 ms (C, n = 75), and 50 healthy controls underwent assessment of radial dyssynchrony using the cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue synchronization index (CMR-TSI = SD of time to peak inward endocardial motion in up to 60 myocardial segments). Results Compared to 50 healthy controls (21.8 ± 6.3 ms [mean ± SD]), CMR-TSI was higher in A (74.8 ± 34.6 ms), B (92.4 ± 39.5 ms) and C (104.6 ± 45.6 ms) (all p < 0.0001). Adopting a cut-off CMR-TSI of 34.4 ms (21.8 plus 2xSD for controls) for the definition of dyssynchrony, it was present in 91% in A, 95% in B and 99% in C. Amongst patients in NYHA class III or IV, with a LVEF<35% and a QRS>120 ms, 99% had dyssynchrony. Amongst those with a QRS<120 ms, 91% had dyssynchrony. Across the study sample, CMR-TSI was related positively to left ventricular volumes (p < 0.0001) and inversely to LVEF (CMR-TSI = 178.3 e (-0.033 LVEF) ms, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Radial dyssynchrony is almost universal in patients with heart failure. This vies against the notion that a lack of response to CRT is related to a lack of dyssynchrony. PMID:19930713

  4. Prevalence and prognostic significance of fragmented QRS complex in middle-aged subjects with and without clinical or electrocardiographic evidence of cardiac disease.

    PubMed

    Terho, Henri K; Tikkanen, Jani T; Junttila, Juhani M; Anttonen, Olli; Kentt, Tuomas V; Aro, Aapo L; Kerola, Tuomas; Rissanen, Harri A; Reunanen, Antti; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2014-07-01

    We wanted to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic value of the fragmented QRS (fQRS) complex, defined as changes in QRS morphology with various RSR'-patterns in 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) in a middle-aged general population. We evaluated the 12-lead ECGs of 10,904 Finnish middle-aged subjects (52% men, mean age 44 8.5years) with (n= 2,543) and without (n= 8,361) an evidence of cardiac disease drawn from general population and followed them for 30 11years. Fragmentation of the QRS complex was defined as various RSR'-patterns in at least 2 consecutive leads within the same territory (inferior II, III, aVF; lateral I, aVL, V4 to V6; anterior V1 to V3). Primary end points were death from any cause, cardiac, and arrhythmic deaths. In the total population, fQRS was present in 19.7% (n= 2,147) of subjects, including 15.7% (n= 1714) in inferior leads, 0.8% (n= 84) in lateral leads, and 2.9% (n= 314) in anterior leads. Fragmentation was not associated with increased mortality in subjects without a known cardiac disease. However, fQRS observed in lateral leads in subjects with an evidence of cardiac disease was associated with an increased risk of all-cause (p= 0.001), cardiac (p= 0.001), and arrhythmic (p= 0.004) mortalities. In conclusion, fQRS reflecting minor intraventricular conduction defect is a common finding, especially in the inferior leads, but it is not a sign of increased risk of mortality in subjects without a known cardiac disease. Lateral fQRS, which is less commonly observed in the ECG, is associated with a worse outcome in patients with a known cardiac disease. PMID:24819902

  5. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-08-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data. PMID:26737641

  6. Design of a cardiac monitor in terms of parameters of QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Su, Ke-ping; Wang, Hong-yan; Jiang, Da-zong

    2002-08-01

    Objective. To design a portable cardiac monitor system based on the available ordinary ECG machine and works on the basis of QRS parameters. Method. The 80196 single chip microcomputer was used as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac signal was collected and analyzed [correction of analysized] in the system. Result. Apart from the performance of an ordinary monitor, this machine possesses also the following functions: arrhythmia analysis, HRV analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic papering. Convenient in carrying, the system is powered by AC or DC sources. Stability, low power and low cost are emphasized in the hardware design; and modularization method is applied in software design. Conclusion. Popular in usage and low cost made the portable monitor system suitable for use under simple conditions. PMID:12422858

  7. Marked QRS complex abnormalities and sodium channel blockade by propoxyphene reversed with lidocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, D C; Gilliam, F R; Starmer, C F; Grant, A O

    1989-01-01

    The opiate analgesic propoxyphene produces cardiac toxicity when taken in overdose. We recently observed a patient with propoxyphene overdose in whom marked QRS widening was reversed by lidocaine. The reversal is apparently paradoxical as both agents block the inward sodium current (INa). We examined possible mechanisms of the reversal by measuring INa in rabbit atrial myocytes during exposure to propoxyphene and the combination of propoxyphene and lidocaine (60 and 80 microM, respectively). Propoxyphene caused use-dependent block of INa during pulse train stimulation. Block recovered slowly with time constants of 20.8 +/- 3.9 s. Block during lidocaine exposure recovered with time constants of 2-3 s. During exposure to the mixture, block recovered as a double exponential. The half time for recovery during exposure to the mixture was 1.6 +/- .9 s compared with a half-time of 14.3 +/- 2.9 s during exposure to propoxyphene alone. During pulse train stimulation, less steady-state block was observed during exposure to the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone when the interval between pulses was greater than 0.95 s. Both drugs compete for a common receptor during the polarizing phase. The more rapid dissociation of lidocaine during the recovery period leads to less block during the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone. The experiments suggest a mechanism for reversal of the cardiac toxicity of drugs which have slow unbinding kinetics. Images PMID:2553778

  8. Studies of the electrical activity of the ventricles and the origin of the QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Scher, A M

    1995-01-01

    Historical events in the development of cardiac electrophysiology are described briefly. Observations before 1900 showed that electrical changes accompanied activity of muscle and nerve. Other studies showed that electrical activity of the heart produced voltage changes on the human torso. In 1903 Einthoven developed the string galvanometer which made measurement of electrocardiographic potentials much easier, more accurate and more common. The bases of understanding of arrhythmias were established by Lewis in the early 1900's. Soon thereafter Wilson devised practical and theoretical approaches to the human electrocardiogram which led to many further developments. Events before 1950 established the existence and mechanism of electrical activity in excitable cells. Studies of the origin of QRS began in about 1950, with studies of depolarization of the canine ventricle. Studies of the human ventricle followed. In the 70's it appeared possible to solve the electrocardiographic forward problem, prediction of electrocardiographic potentials from a knowledge of intracardiac events. That solution appeared possible because of new approaches to the associated physical and computational problems. Attempts to solve the forward problem at that time assumed that the cardiac generator (the boundary between resting and depolarized cells) was a uniform double layer generator. (The strength of the generator is constant everywhere along the boundary). Meanwhile physiologists and anatomists had worked out the mechanism of communication between cardiac cells. The cells are longer than they are wide, and each cell can depolarize contiguous cells. The connections between cells are predominantly at the ends of the cell and the longitudinal depolarization of a cardiac mass travels three times as fast as transverse depolarization. The generator is not uniform but is strongest parallel to the long axes of the cells. Many or most of those working in the field did not recognize the importance of the connections between cardiac cells in not only the pathway of excitation, but also the potentials produced as the cells depolarized. A number of experiments indicated that the uniform double layer assumption led to both qualitative and quantitative errors in prediction of fields generated by depolarization of cardiac muscle. These are reviewed. There are now alternatives to the uniform model which recognize the non-uniformity of the cardiac generators, particularly the axial model. The forward problem is unsolved but it appears possible that these newer models will make a solution possible. PMID:8932565

  9. [Differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Lewalter, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia requires on the one hand knowledge about the clinical data of the tachycardia patient but on the other hand a systematic step by step analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most successful approach. Apart from the question of regularity or irregularity of the QRS complexes, the presence and detection of P waves is also of importance. The P wave timing in relation to the preceding and the following QRS complexes as well as the numerical relationship of P waves and QRS complexes allow a well-founded suspected diagnosis to be achieved in most cases. Even the differentiation between atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) versus orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), e.g. by accessory leads, is in most cases possible in a surface ECG. Obviously, there are constellations which need an invasive electrophysiological procedure for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26287273

  10. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing RAZ scoring is a simple, accurate and inexpensive screening technique for cardiomyopathy. Although HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive for cardiomyopathy, its specificity may be compromised in patients with cardiac pathologies other than cardiomyopathy, such as uncomplicated coronary artery disease or multiple coronary disease risk factors. Further studies are required to determine whether HF QRS might be useful for monitoring cardiomyopathy severity or the efficacy of therapy in a longitudinal fashion.

  11. Straightforward and robust QRS detection algorithm for wearable cardiac monitor

    PubMed Central

    Ramkumar, Barathram

    2014-01-01

    This Letter presents a fairly straightforward and robust QRS detector for wearable cardiac monitoring applications. The first stage of the QRS detector contains a powerful ?1-sparsity filter with overcomplete hybrid dictionaries for emphasising the QRS complexes and suppressing the baseline drifts, powerline interference and large P/T waves. The second stage is a simple peak-finding logic based on the Gaussian derivative filter for automatically finding locations of R-peaks in the ECG signal. Experiments on the standard MIT-BIH arrythmia database show that the method achieves an average sensitivity of 99.91% and positive predictivity of 99.92%. Unlike existing methods, the proposed method improves detection performance under small-QRS, wide-QRS complexes and noisy conditions without using the searchback algorithms. PMID:26609375

  12. An automated algorithm for online detection of fragmented QRS and identification of its various morphologies

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Sidharth; Acharyya, Amit; Puddu, Paolo Emilio; Mazomenos, Evangelos B.; Leekha, Gourav; Maharatna, Koushik; Schiariti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Fragmented QRS (f-QRS) has been proven to be an efficient biomarker for several diseases, including remote and acute myocardial infarction, cardiac sarcoidosis, non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, etc. It has also been shown to have higher sensitivity and/or specificity values than the conventional markers (e.g. Q-wave, ST-elevation, etc.) which may even regress or disappear with time. Patients with such diseases have to undergo expensive and sometimes invasive tests for diagnosis. Automated detection of f-QRS followed by identification of its various morphologies in addition to the conventional ECG feature (e.g. P, QRS, T amplitude and duration, etc.) extraction will lead to a more reliable diagnosis, therapy and disease prognosis than the state-of-the-art approaches and thereby will be of significant clinical importance for both hospital-based and emerging remote health monitoring environments as well as for implanted ICD devices. An automated algorithm for detection of f-QRS from the ECG and identification of its various morphologies is proposed in this work which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first work of its kind. Using our recently proposed timedomain morphology and gradient-based ECG feature extraction algorithm, the QRS complex is extracted and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) with one level of decomposition, using the Haar wavelet, is applied on it to detect the presence of fragmentation. Detailed DWT coefficients were observed to hypothesize the postulates of detection of all types of morphologies as reported in the literature. To model and verify the algorithm, PhysioNet's PTB database was used. Forty patients were randomly selected from the database and their ECG were examined by two experienced cardiologists and the results were compared with those obtained from the algorithm. Out of 40 patients, 31 were considered appropriate for comparison by two cardiologists, and it is shown that 334 out of 372 (89.8%) leads from the chosen 31 patients complied favourably with our proposed algorithm. The sensitivity and specificity values obtained for the detection of f-QRS were 0.897 and 0.899, respectively. Automation will speed up the detection of fragmentation, reducing the human error involved and will allow it to be implemented for hospital-based remote monitoring and ICD devices. PMID:24132202

  13. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  14. A new QRS detection method using wavelets and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Abibullaev, Berdakh; Seo, Hee Don

    2011-08-01

    We present a new method for detection and classification of QRS complexes in ECG signals using continuous wavelets and neural networks. Our wavelet method consists of four wavelet basis functions that are suitable in detection of QRS complexes within different QRS morphologies in the signal and thresholding technique for denoising and feature extraction. The results demonstrate that the proposed method is not only efficient for normal ECG signal analysis but also for various types of arrhythmic cardiac signals embedded in noise. For the classification stage, a feedforward neural network was trained with standard backpropagation algorithm. The classifier input features consisted of compact wavelet coefficients of QRS complexes that resulted in higher classification rates. We demonstrate the efficiency of our method with the average accuracy 97.2% in classification of normal and abnormal QRS complexes. PMID:20703782

  15. Microcontroller-based real-time QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Suppappola, S; Wrublewski, T A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the design of a system for real-time detection of QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram based on a single-chip microcontroller (Motorola 68HC811). A systematic analysis of the instrumentation requirements for QRS detection and of the various design techniques is also given. Detection algorithms using different nonlinear transforms for the enhancement of QRS complexes are evaluated by using the ECG database of the American Heart Association. The results show that the nonlinear transform involving multiplication of three adjacent, sign-consistent differences in the time domain gives a good performance and a quick response. When implemented with an appropriate sampling rate, this algorithm is also capable of rejecting pacemaker spikes. The eight-bit single-chip microcontroller provides sufficient throughput and shows a satisfactory performance. Implementation of multiple detection algorithms in the same system improves flexibility and reliability. The low chip count in the design also favors maintainability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:1450792

  16. Prominent anterior QRS forces: clinical, electrocardiographic and prospective study.

    PubMed

    Paparella, N; Alboni, P; Cappato, R; Pirani, R; Gruppillo, P; Preziosi, S; Battaglia, R; Corio, R; Occari, G; Berti, C

    1987-07-01

    Recent data suggest that the prominent anterior QRS forces (R greater than or equal to S in V1 and/or V2 leads), in the absence of posterior myocardial infarction, right ventricular hypertrophy, or WPW syndrome, are related to an intraventricular conduction disturbance, at times rate-dependent. We followed 240 subjects with prominent anterior QRS forces and without the above mentioned diseases (study group), (mean age: 44.6 +/- 16 years, mean follow-up: 8 +/- 2 years) and 240 subjects without the anterior displacement (control group), (mean age: 44.4 +/- 14 years, mean follow-up: 7.9 +/- 1.9 years). The age distribution, sex, prevalence of organic heart disease, and follow-up period did not show significant differences between the two groups. QRS duration, prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy pattern, S1 S2 S3 morphology, terminal r wave in AVR and s wave in V6 were similar in the two groups. During the follow-up period the incidence of right and left bundle branch block and fascicular block was very similar in the two groups of patients. These data suggest that prominent anterior QRS forces do not appear to be related to an initial involvement of the main bundle branches and fascicles and do not increase the likelihood of appearance of an intraventricular block of more advanced degree. The clinical, ECG and prospective data are not helpful in localizing either the ventricle or the area of the ventricle affected by conduction disturbance responsible for the anterior displacement. Our data suggest that the prominent anterior QRS forces express a normal variant of ventricular depolarization and that this finding does not have, per se, any unfavourable clinical implication. PMID:3655594

  17. The relation of QRS amplitude to the frontal QRS axis and the heart-electrode distance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    The relation between QRS amplitude, QRS axis deviation and heart position was studied in 360 subjects, using the 12-lead EKG. The height of the V sub 6 R wave was used as the measure of QRS amplitude. The distance from the left lateral border of the heart was used to indicate heart position. The frontal and horizontal QRS axes were determined by noting the isoelectric limb and precordial leads, measured according to Schmitt's values.

  18. Effect of QRS Narrowing After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy on Functional Mitral Regurgitation in Patients With Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Oguz; Omaygenc, Mehmet Onur; Cakal, Beytullah; Cakal, Sinem Deniz; Gunes, Haci Murat; Barutcu, Irfan; Boztosun, Bilal; Kilicaslan, Fethi

    2016-02-01

    The determinants of improvement in functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) after cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remain unclear. We evaluated the predictors of FMR improvement and hypothesized that CRT-induced change in QRS duration (?QRS) might have an impact on FMR response after CRT. One hundred ten CRT recipients were enrolled. CRT response (?15 reduction in left ventricular end-systolic volume) and FMR response (absolute reduction in FMR volume) were assessed with echocardiography before and 6 months after CRT. The study end points included all-cause death or hospitalization assessed in 12 3months (range 1 to 18). A total of 71 patients (65%) responded to CRT at 6months. FMR response was observed in 49 (69%) of the CRT responders and 8 (20%) of the CRT nonresponders (p <0.001). Although the baseline QRS durations were similar, the paced QRS durations were shorter (p= 0.012) and the ?QRS values were greater (p=0.003) in FMR responders compared with FMR nonresponders. There was a linear correlation between ?QRS and change in regurgitant volume (r= 0.49, p <0.001). At multivariate analysis, baseline tenting area (p= 0.012) and ?QRS (p= 0.028) independently predicted FMR response. A ?QRS ? 20ms was related to CRT response, FMR improvement, and lower rates of death or hospitalization during follow-up (p values <0.05). In conclusion, QRS narrowing after CRT independently predicts FMR response. A ?QRS ?20ms after CRT is associated with a favorable outcome in all clinical end points. PMID:26721652

  19. Regenerative Therapy Prevents Heart Failure Progression in Dyssynchronous Nonischemic Narrow QRS Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Arrell, D Kent; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Behfar, Atta; Kane, Garvan C; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; McDonald, Robert J; Wyles, Saranya P; Zlatkovic-Lindor, Jelena; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy using bi-ventricular pacing is proven effective in the management of heart failure (HF) with a wide QRS-complex. In the absence of QRS prolongation, however, device-based resynchronization is reported unsuitable. As an alternative, the present study tests a regenerative cell-based approach in the setting of narrow QRS-complex HF. Methods and Results Progressive cardiac dyssynchrony was provoked in a chronic transgenic model of stress-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. In contrast to rampant end-stage disease afflicting untreated cohorts, stem cell intervention early in disease, characterized by mechanical dyssynchrony and a narrow QRS-complex, aborted progressive dyssynchronous HF and prevented QRS widening. Stem cell-treated hearts acquired coordinated ventricular contraction and relaxation supporting systolic and diastolic performance. Rescue of contractile dynamics was underpinned by a halted left ventricular dilatation, limited hypertrophy, and reduced fibrosis. Reverse remodeling reflected a restored cardiomyopathic proteome, enforced at systems level through correction of the pathological molecular landscape and nullified adverse cardiac outcomes. Cell therapy of a dyssynchrony-prone cardiomyopathic cohort translated prospectively into improved exercise capacity and prolonged survivorship. Conclusions In narrow QRS HF, a regenerative approach demonstrated functional and structural benefit, introducing the prospect of device-autonomous resynchronization therapy for refractory disease. PMID:25964205

  20. Relationship of ST-segment elevation to eventual QRS loss in acute anterior wall myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bell, A J; Briggs, C M; Nichols, P; Kilpatrick, D

    1993-07-01

    The position of electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation in acute myocardial infarction (MI) is related to the region of infarction, but the relationship between the initial ST-segment elevation and the eventual loss of QRS voltage remains uncertain. The authors examined body surface map data in 76 patients with acute anterior wall MI to clarify this relationship. The patients had no evidence of previous MI, no subsequent MI, and did not receive thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions. Maps were recorded on admission to the hospital, every 24 hours during the hospital stay, and again at follow-up examinations 6-48 months after the index MI. The region of ST-segment elevation on the initial body surface map was compared to the region of developed voltage loss in the QRS complex as measured by the integral 0-30, 0-40, 0-80, and 30-80 ms body surface maps subsequently recorded 24 hours, 48 hours, and over 6 months after the initial body surface map. There was a relationship between the position of the ST-segment elevation and the loss of the QRS segment voltages, which was pronounced early after acute MI and diminished months after the MI. The region of ST-segment elevation in the initial body surface map predicts the QRS loss. In the integral QRS0-30 map versus the initial ST-segment map the mean correlation coefficient was -0.54 +/- 0.33 with a median value of -0.67. The integral QRS0-40 map and ST-segment map had a mean correlation coefficient of 0.60 +/- 0.29 and median of 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient is less for the integral QRS0-80 map and nonexistent in the integral QRS30-80 map. This method may be useful for monitoring acute interventions in acute MI. PMID:8409812

  1. Dramatic Response to Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With AV Delay Optimization in Narrow QRS Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Rikitake; Nakai, Toshiko; Ikeya, Yukitoshi; Mano, Hiroaki; Sonoda, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Naoko; Iso, Kazuki; Okumura, Yasuo; Ohkubo, Kimie; Kunimoto, Satoshi; Watanabe, Ichiro; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2015-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for heart failure. However, as outlined in the AHA/ACC/HRS Appropriate Use Criteria, CRT is not strongly recommended for patients with a narrow QRS complex. We describe a case of dilated cardiomyopathy and narrow QRS complex in which we obtained a dramatic response to CRT by optimizing the atrioventricular (AV) delay. The patient was a 61-year-old man with intractable heart failure. Echocardiography showed a low ejection fraction of 22% but no dyssynchrony. Because he had been hospitalized many times for congestive heart failure despite ?-blocker and diuretic treatment, we decided to use CRT. However, after implantation of the CRT device, the QRS complex widened abnormally, and his symptoms worsened. He was re-admitted 2 months after CRT implantation. We examined the pacemaker status and optimized the AV delay to obtain a "narrow" QRS complex. The patient's condition improved dramatically after the AV delay optimization. His clinical status has been good, and there has been no subsequent hospitalization. Our case points to the effectiveness of CRT in patients with a narrow QRS complex and to the importance of AV optimization for successful CRT. PMID:26549283

  2. QRS width and its impact on inducibility of ventricular arrhythmia at the time of electrophysiology study.

    PubMed Central

    Ashwath, Mahi Lakshmi; Okosun, Ike; Sogade, Felix O.

    2005-01-01

    The inducibility of sustained ventricular arrhythmia by programmed electrical stimulation is a well-established marker of an increased risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether there was a significant difference in the QRS duration or ejection fraction (EF) amongst patients who could be induced and those who could not be induced into ventricular arrhythmia at the time of standard electrophysiology study (EPS). All the patients who were studied for inducibility of ventricular arrhythmias between March 2003 and March 2004 (a total of 137 patients) were included in the study. An EF less than or equal to 30% was used to define decreased EF, and a QRS width greater than 120 ms was used to define widened QRS width. Patients were studied using standard EPS protocol after obtaining informed consent. In the univariate analysis, increasing age, male gender and low EF were predictors of inducibility, while widened QRS width did not have any predictive value. With multivariate analysis, there was a significant increase in the odds of inducibility with decreasing EF and widened QRS width. Interestingly, males had significantly more numbers of positive results. PMID:15926647

  3. PVC discrimination using the QRS power spectrum and self-organizing maps.

    PubMed

    Talbi, M L; Charef, A

    2009-06-01

    This paper deals with the discrimination of premature ventricular contraction (PVC) arrhythmia using the fractal behavior of the power spectrum density of the QRS complexes. The linear interpolation of the QRS complex power spectrum density in Bode diagram in two different frequency intervals gives two straight lines with two different slopes. The scatter plot of one slope versus the other shows that there exists two distinct regions which represent the normal beats and the PVC beats. Therefore the PVC beats are classified using a self-organizing map fed by the two slopes of the QRS complex power spectrum. The MIT/BIH arrhythmia database is then used to evaluate the usefulness of the proposed method in the discrimination of the premature ventricular contraction (PVC) arrhythmia. The results have indicated that the method has achieved 82.71% of sensitivity and 88.06% of specificity over 46 records from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. PMID:19215994

  4. QRS detection using K-Nearest Neighbor algorithm (KNN) and evaluation on standard ECG databases.

    PubMed

    Saini, Indu; Singh, Dilbag; Khosla, Arun

    2013-07-01

    The performance of computer aided ECG analysis depends on the precise and accurate delineation of QRS-complexes. This paper presents an application of K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) algorithm as a classifier for detection of QRS-complex in ECG. The proposed algorithm is evaluated on two manually annotated standard databases such as CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. In this work, a digital band-pass filter is used to reduce false detection caused by interference present in ECG signal and further gradient of the signal is used as a feature for QRS-detection. In addition the accuracy of KNN based classifier is largely dependent on the value of K and type of distance metric. The value of K=3 and Euclidean distance metric has been proposed for the KNN classifier, using fivefold cross-validation. The detection rates of 99.89% and 99.81% are achieved for CSE and MIT-BIH databases respectively. The QRS detector obtained a sensitivity Se=99.86% and specificity Sp=99.86% for CSE database, and Se=99.81% and Sp=99.86% for MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A comparison is also made between proposed algorithm and other published work using CSE and MIT-BIH Arrhythmia databases. These results clearly establishes KNN algorithm for reliable and accurate QRS-detection. PMID:25685438

  5. Management of persistent wide QRS in flecainide overdose with magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Diane G; Sinha, Ayush; Frost, Ian; Singh, Vinod Kumar

    2010-06-01

    Magnesium sulphate was added to conventional medical therapy in the treatment of persistent severe hypotension and wide QRS complex tachyarrhythmia in an 18-year-old woman presenting with a 1200 mg flecainide overdose. Blood pressure was restored with associated resolution of the electrocardiogram abnormalities. PMID:20562156

  6. [Doubts of the cardiologist regarding an electrocardiogram presenting QRS V1-V2 complexes with positive terminal wave and ST segment elevation. Consensus Conference promoted by the Italian Cardiology Society].

    PubMed

    Oreto, Giuseppe; Corrado, Domenico; Delise, Pietro; Fedele, Francesco; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Gentile, Federico; Giustetto, Carla; Michelucci, Antonio; Padeletti, Luigi; Priori, Silvia

    2010-11-01

    When an ECG shows (or is suspicious for) a Brugada pattern, i.e., the association of a positive terminal deflection and ST segment elevation in the right precordial leads, the cardiologist often faces several problems. Three important questions are raised by this ECG pattern: (1) is this really a Brugada ECG pattern? (2) How can be determined whether this patient is at risk for sudden death? and (3) Should this patient receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)? The term "Brugada syndrome" should be restricted to patients who have diagnostic ECG changes, as well as a history of symptoms. Asymptomatic subjects, in contrast, should be categorized as having a "Brugada ECG pattern" rather than the syndrome. Diagnostic ECG (type 1) is characterized by a J wave (a terminal positive wave) whose amplitude is > or =2 mm, and a "coved" type ST segment elevation located in the right precordial leads. These signs are usually present in leads V1 and/or V2 (lead V3 is more rarely involved, and is never the only affected one), but occasionally also can be observed in some of the limb leads. Types 2 and 3 ECGs, which are not truly diagnostic of Brugada pattern, are characterized by a "saddle back" ST segment elevation, that is > or =1 mm in type 2 and <1 mm in type 3. In Brugada ECG pattern, the QRS complex characteristically shows a positive terminal deflection that mimics an r' prime wave (the wave occurring in right bundle branch block), in the right precordial leads. Actually, it is a J wave that is very similar to the "Osborn" one observed during hypothermia. The J wave of Brugada ECG pattern is generated by a voltage gradient across the myocardial wall of the right ventricular outflow tract. This abnormal potential can be recorded only by electrodes located very close to the site where that phenomenon is originating. Displacement of the right precordial leads electrodes one or two intercostal spaces above their normal positions may, at times, disclose the diagnostic pattern when conventional leads, recorded at the fourth intercostal space, are non-diagnostic or even normal. High right precordial leads should be recorded whenever standard V1-V3 leads raise the suspicion of Brugada pattern. For example, when a relatively large positive terminal wave, even of low amplitude, is recorded, placing high right precordial leads is an option that should be considered. The ECG may show a marked variation over time, ranging from the typical pattern to a completely normal ECG and back again. In subjects with a non-diagnostic ECG, a pharmacological test with sodium channel blockers may disclose the typical Brugada pattern. In order to establish the diagnosis, several conditions that can mimic Brugada pattern must be excluded. These include right bundle branch block, early repolarization, acute myocardial ischemia, pericarditis, hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia, hypothermia and primary right ventricular diseases, particularly arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia. Some drugs (e.g., some antiarrhythmic drugs, psychotropic agents or antihistamines), hyperthermia and enhanced vagal tone, as it occurs after a full meal, may render Brugada pattern more evident on the ECG. Typical ventricular arrhythmia in Brugada syndrome is a polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, that can evolve into ventricular fibrillation; its mechanism is assumed to be phase 2 reentry. Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia is rarely seen. Atrial fibrillation occurs more frequently in patients with the Brugada ECG pattern than in the general population. A mutation in the SCN5A gene, which encodes the alpha subunit of the cardiac sodium channel, is found in about 20% of the subjects with Brugada pattern; mutations in other genes have less frequently been described. Genetic testing is not very helpful in formulating the diagnosis, but when a mutation is found it could be useful to extend testing to first degree relatives, enabling early detection of abnormal gene carriers. Patients who have experienced an aborted

  7. Integrate and fire pulse train automaton for QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Gabriel; Prncipe, Jos C

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring heart activity from electrocardiograms (ECG) is crucial to avoid unnecessary fatalities; therefore, detection of QRS complex is fundamental to automated ECG monitoring. Continuous, portable 24/7 ECG monitoring requires wireless technology with constraints on power, bandwidth, area, and resolution. In order to provide continuous remote monitoring of patients and fast transmission of data to medical personnel for instantaneous intervention, we propose a methodology that converts analog inputs into pulses for ultralow power implementation. The signal encoding scheme is the time-based integrate and fire (IF) sampler from which a set of signal descriptors in the pulse domain are proposed. Furthermore, a logical decision rule for QRS detection based on morphological checking is derived. The proposed decision logic depends exclusively on relational and logical operators resulting in ultrafast recognition and can be implemented using combinatorial logic hardware to guarantee power consumption orders of magnitude lower than any microprocessor device. The algorithm was evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and results show that our algorithm performance is comparable to the state-of-the art software-based detection. PMID:24107919

  8. SDO: Complex Mass of Plasma - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A small, but complex mass of solar material gyrated and spun about over the course of 40 hours above the surface of the sun on Sept. 1-3, 2015. It was stretched and pulled back and forth by powerfu...

  9. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo AR; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brando; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Background The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105), borderline (105-135) or abnormal (135-180). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS. PMID:25590925

  10. A Method for Context-Based Adaptive QRS Clustering in Real Time.

    PubMed

    Castro, Daniel; Flix, Paulo; Presedo, Jess

    2015-09-01

    Continuous followup of heart condition through long-term electrocardiogram monitoring is an invaluable tool for diagnosing some cardiac arrhythmias. In such context, providing tools for fast locating alterations of normal conduction patterns is mandatory and still remains an open issue. This paper presents a real-time method for adaptive clustering QRS complexes from multilead ECG signals that provides the set of QRS morphologies that appear during an ECG recording. The method processes the QRS complexes sequentially by grouping them into a dynamic set of clusters based on the information content of the temporal context. The clusters are represented by templates which evolve over time and adapt to the QRS morphology changes. Rules to create, merge, and remove clusters are defined along with techniques for noise detection in order to avoid their proliferation. To cope with beat misalignment, derivative dynamic time warping is used. The proposed method has been validated against the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and the AHA ECG Database showing a global purity of 98.56% and 99.56%, respectively. Results show that our proposal not only provides better results than previous offline solutions but also fulfills real-time requirements. PMID:25312964

  11. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;

  12. Indiana Paths to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Indiana's Paths to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for

  13. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;

  14. Colorado Qualistar. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family

  15. Illinois Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family

  16. Maine Quality for ME: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Maine's Quality for ME prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family

  17. Palm Beach Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for

  18. Minnesota Parent Aware: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family

  19. Miami-Dade Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Miami-Dade's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for

  20. New Hampshire Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)

  1. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for

  2. Oregon Child Care Quality Indicators Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Oregon's Child Care Quality Indicators Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)

  3. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators

  4. Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Eskofier, Björn; Dokos, Socrates; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal characteristics. However, it is not clear from the literature which ECG analysis algorithms are suited for an implementation on a mobile device. We investigate current QRS detection algorithms based on three assessment criteria: 1) robustness to noise, 2) parameter choice, and 3) numerical efficiency, in order to target a universal fast-robust detector. Furthermore, existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution only on small segments of ECG signals, within a certain amplitude range, or amid particular types of arrhythmia and/or noise. These issues are discussed in the context of a comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by future recommendations for developing reliable QRS detection schemes suitable for implementation on battery-operated mobile devices. PMID:24409290

  5. An Improved QRS Wave Group Detection Algorithm and Matlab Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongjun

    This paper presents an algorithm using Matlab software to detect QRS wave group of MIT-BIH ECG database. First of all the noise in ECG be Butterworth filtered, and then analysis the ECG signal based on wavelet transform to detect the parameters of the principle of singularity, more accurate detection of the QRS wave group was achieved.

  6. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. PMID:26595281

  7. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  8. Real-time 12-lead high-frequency QRS electrocardiography for enhanced detection of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Todd T; Kulecz, Walter B; DePalma, Jude L; Feiveson, Alan H; Wilson, John S; Rahman, M Atiar; Bungo, Michael W

    2004-03-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease. PMID:15008608

  9. Noninvasive fetal QRS detection using an echo state network and dynamic programming.

    PubMed

    Lukoevi?ius, Mantas; Marozas, Vaidotas

    2014-08-01

    We address a classical fetal QRS detection problem from abdominal ECG recordings with a data-driven statistical machine learning approach. Our goal is to have a powerful, yet conceptually clean, solution. There are two novel key components at the heart of our approach: an echo state recurrent neural network that is trained to indicate fetal QRS complexes, and several increasingly sophisticated versions of statistics-based dynamic programming algorithms, which are derived from and rooted in probability theory. We also employ a standard technique for preprocessing and removing maternal ECG complexes from the signals, but do not take this as the main focus of this work. The proposed approach is quite generic and can be extended to other types of signals and annotations. Open-source code is provided. PMID:25069892

  10. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  11. [Wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spikes].

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A

    2014-04-01

    The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral. PMID:23768570

  12. [Ventricular pre-excitation revealed by idioventricular rhythm and large QRS tachycardias. Apropos of an operated case].

    PubMed

    Weissenburger, J; Dumoulin, P; Juliard, J M; Frank, R; Kessler, P; Michel, P L; Rozensztajn, L; Valty, J

    1983-06-01

    A 15 year old boy presented with palpitations of sudden onset and termination over a two month period. The heart was clinically and radiologically normal. The electrocardiogramme showed sinus rhythm with a short PR interval (0,11 sec) and narrow QRS complexes (0,08 sec) associated with an intermittent escape accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR). During an attack of palpitations a regular tachycardia (250/min) with wide QRS complexes of the same configuration as those of the AIVR (left side delay). The diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia was retained. Endocavitary electrophysiological recording demonstrated preexcitation of the right ventricle associated with accelerated nodal conduction explaining the narrow QRS complexes in sinus rhythm. The wide complex tachycardias initiated and terminated by paired ventricular stimulation were identical to the spontaneous attacks and were attributed to an antidromic reciprocating rhythm. The hypothesis of a rhythm arising from the accessory pathway is suggested. This would explain the identical configuration of the QRS complexes of the AIVR and of the antidromic reciprocating-rhythm and the disappearance of the AIVR after surgical section of the accessory pathway. PMID:6414416

  13. The Development of Mental Models for Auditory Events: Relational Complexity and Discrimination of Pitch and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Catherine; Gallagher, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated relational complexity and relational shift in judgments of auditory patterns. Pitch and duration values were used to construct two-note perceptually similar sequences (unary relations) and four-note relationally similar sequences (binary relations). It was hypothesized that 5-, 8- and 11-year-old children would perform…

  14. Purkinje-cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning are graded by complex-spike duration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Lisberger, Stephen G

    2014-06-26

    Behavioural learning is mediated by cellular plasticity, such as changes in the strength of synapses at specific sites in neural circuits. The theory of cerebellar motor learning relies on movement errors signalled by climbing-fibre inputs to cause long-term depression of synapses from parallel fibres to Purkinje cells. However, a recent review has called into question the widely held view that the climbing-fibre input is an 'all-or-none' event. In anaesthetized animals, there is wide variation in the duration of the complex spike (CS) caused in Purkinje cells by a climbing-fibre input. Furthermore, the amount of plasticity in Purkinje cells is graded according to the duration of electrically controlled bursts in climbing fibres. The duration of bursts depends on the 'state' of the inferior olive and therefore may be correlated across climbing fibres. Here we provide a potential functional context for these mechanisms during motor learning in behaving monkeys. The magnitudes of both plasticity and motor learning depend on the duration of the CS responses. Furthermore, the duration of CS responses seems to be a meaningful signal that is correlated across the Purkinje-cell population during motor learning. We suggest that during learning, longer bursts in climbing fibres lead to longer-duration CS responses in Purkinje cells, more calcium entry into Purkinje cells, larger synaptic depression, and stronger learning. The same graded impact of instructive signals for plasticity and learning might occur throughout the nervous system. PMID:24814344

  15. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease.

    PubMed

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo Ar; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brando; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-10-28

    Background: The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective: Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods: Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105), borderline (105-135) or abnormal (135-180). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions: Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS.Fundamento: O ngulo QRS-T mostra correlao com prognstico em pacientes com insuficincia cardaca e doena coronariana, traduzido por um aumento na mortalidade proporcional ao aumento na diferena entre os eixos do complexo QRS e da onda T no plano frontal. At hoje, nenhuma informao a este respeito foi obtida em pacientes com cardiopatia chagsica. Objetivo: Correlacionar o ngulo QRS-T com a induo de taquicardia ventricular / fibrilao ventricular (TV / FV) em chagsicos durante estudo eletrofisiolgico (EEF). Mtodos: Estudo caso-controle em centro tercirio. Pacientes sem induo de TV / FV ao EEF foram utilizados como controles. O ngulo QRS-T foi categorizado como normal (0-105), limtrofe (105-135) e anormal (135-180). As diferenas entre os grupos foram analisadas pelo teste t ou teste de Mann-Whitney para variveis contnuas, e teste exato de Fisher ou qui-quadrado para variveis categricas. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: De 116 pacientes submetidos ao EEF, 37,9% foram excludos por estarem com dados incompletos / pronturios inativos ou pela impossibilidade de se calcular corretamente o ngulo QRS-T (presena de bloqueio de ramo esquerdo e fibrilao atrial). De 72 pacientes includos, 31 induziram TV / FV ao EEF. Destes, o ngulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 41,9%, limtrofe em 12,9% e anormal em 45,2%. No grupo de pacientes sem induo de TV / FV, o ngulo QRS-T se encontrava normal em 63,4%, limtrofe em 14,6% e anormal em 17,1% (p = 0,04). Quando comparados aos pacientes com ngulo QRS-T normal, o risco de induo de TV / FV nos pacientes com ngulo anormal foi quatro vezes maior [odds ratio (OR) 4; intervalo de confia

  16. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  17. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  18. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, E.; Laciar, E.; Anzuola, E.; Laguna, P.; Jané, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  19. Duration of complex-spikes grades Purkinje cell plasticity and cerebellar motor learning

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yan; Lisberger, Stephen G.

    2014-01-01

    Behavioral learning is mediated by cellular plasticity such as changes in the strength of synapses at specific sites in neural circuits. The theory of cerebellar motor learning1,2,3 relies on movement errors signaled by climbing-fiber inputs to cause long-term depression of synapses from parallel fibers to Purkinje cells4,5. Yet, a recent review6 has called into question the widely-held view that the climbing fiber input is an all-or-none event. In anesthetized animals, there is wide variation in the duration of the complex-spike (CS) caused in Purkinje cells by a climbing fiber input7. Further, the duration of electrically-controlled bursts in climbing fibers grades the amount of plasticity in Purkinje cells8,9. The duration of bursts depends on the state of the inferior olive and therefore could be correlated across climbing fibers8,10. Here, we provide a potential functional context for these mechanisms during motor learning in behaving monkeys. The magnitudes of both plasticity and motor learning depend on the duration of the CS responses. Further, the duration of CS responses appears to be a meaningful signal that is correlated across the Purkinje cell population during motor learning. We suggest that during learning, longer bursts in climbing fibers lead to longer duration CS responses in Purkinje cells, more calcium entry into Purkinje cells, larger synaptic depression, and stronger learning. The same graded impact of instructive signals for plasticity and learning could occur throughout the nervous system. PMID:24814344

  20. Low Power Adder Based Digital Filter for QRS Detector

    PubMed Central

    Murali, L.; Chitra, D.; Manigandan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65?nm technology library standard cells. PMID:24895649

  1. A precision ECG signal generator providing full Lead II QRS amplitude variability and an accurate timing profile.

    PubMed

    Shorten, Gavin P; Burke, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design and development of a precision ECG signal generator intended for use in test and calibration of electrocardiographic equipment, ECG signal processing systems and as a cardiac teaching tool. It generates a Lead II signal which maintains the timing and profile characteristics of a Lead II electrocardiograph signal across a range of heart rates between 45 and 185 bpm in 1 bpm steps. The QRS amplitude can be adjusted in 1 microV increments from 100 microV to 10 mV. The up-slope of the QRS can be set between 15 ms and 45 ms with 1 ms resolution. The P and T wave amplitudes can be adjusted as a 1-100% scaling of the QRS complex amplitude with a 1% resolution. A color LCD with touch screen capability provides the user with facilities for inputting parameters, viewing the output wave parameters and a graphical representation of the resulting output waveform. The signal generator outputs a precision differential signal via a digital to analogue stage which has been designed using low noise techniques to produce accurate signals at the lower end of the QRS amplitude range. PMID:19963789

  2. QRS Fragmentation and Sudden Cardiac Death in the Obese and Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Kumar; Zhang, Lin; Kim, Candice; Uy‐Evanado, Audrey; Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Zheng, Zhi‐Jie; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with significantly greater risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD); however, identifying the obese patient at highest risk remains a challenge. We evaluated the association between QRS fragmentation on the 12‐lead electrocardiogram and SCD, in obese/overweight subjects. Methods and Results In the ongoing prospective, community‐based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population approximately 1 million), we performed a case‐control analysis, comparing obese/overweight SCD victims with obese/overweight controls from the same geographic region. Archived ECGs prior and unrelated to the SCD event were used for cases and all ECG measurements were assessed in blinded fashion. Fragmentation was defined as the presence of RSR’ patterns and/or notching of the R/S wave in at least 2 contiguous leads. Analysis was limited to ECGs with QRS duration <120 ms. Overall prevalence of fragmentation was higher in cases (n=185; 64.9±13.8 years; 67.0% male) compared with controls (n=405; 64.9±11.0 years; 64.7% male) (34.6% versus 26.9%, P=0.06). Lateral fragmentation was significantly more frequent in cases (8.1% versus 2.5%; P<0. 01), with non‐significant differences in anterior and inferior territories. Fragmentation in multiple territories (≥2) was also more likely to be observed in cases (9.7% versus 4.9%, P=0.02). In multivariable analysis with consideration of established SCD risk factors, lateral fragmentation was significantly associated with SCD (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.01 to 8.02; P=0.05). Conclusion QRS fragmentation, especially in the lateral territory is a potential risk marker for SCD independent of the ejection fraction, among obese/overweight subjects in the general population. PMID:25762804

  3. Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Ritter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This document is the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the QRS unit and system tests in support of the ASAC QRS development effort. This document contains an overview of the project background and scope, defines the QRS system and presents the additions made to the QRS this year, explains the assumptions, constraints, and approach used to conduct QRS Unit and System Testing, and presents the schedule used to perform QRS Testing. The document also presents an overview of the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) Test Facility and testing environment and summarizes the QRS Unit and System Test effort and results.

  4. Duration of Purkinje cell complex spikes increases with their firing frequency

    PubMed Central

    Warnaar, Pascal; Couto, Joao; Negrello, Mario; Junker, Marc; Smilgin, Aleksandra; Ignashchenkova, Alla; Giugliano, Michele; Thier, Peter; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Climbing fiber (CF) triggered complex spikes (CS) are massive depolarization bursts in the cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC), showing several high frequency spikelet components (600 Hz). Since its early observations, the CS is known to vary in shape. In this study we describe CS waveforms, extracellularly recorded in awake primates (Macaca mulatta) performing saccades. Every PC analyzed showed a range of CS shapes with profoundly different duration and number of spikelets. The initial part of the CS was rather constant but the later part differed greatly, with a pronounced jitter of the last spikelets causing a large variation in total CS duration. Waveforms did not effect the following pause duration in the simple spike (SS) train, nor were SS firing rates predictive of the waveform shapes or vice versa. The waveforms did not differ between experimental conditions nor was there a preferred sequential order of CS shapes throughout the recordings. Instead, part of their variability, the timing jitter of the CSs last spikelets, strongly correlated with interval length to the preceding CS: shorter CS intervals resulted in later appearance of the last spikelets in the CS burst, and vice versa. A similar phenomenon was observed in rat PCs recorded in vitro upon repeated extracellular stimulation of CFs at different frequencies in slice experiments. All together these results strongly suggest that the variability in the timing of the last spikelet is due to CS frequency dependent changes in PC excitability. PMID:25918500

  5. [A research on real-time ventricular QRS classification methods for single-chip-microcomputers].

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Yang, Z; Li, L; Chen, H; Chen, E; Lin, J

    1997-05-01

    Ventricular QRS classification is key technique of ventricular arrhythmias detection in single-chip-microcomputer based dynamic electrocardiogram real-time analyser. This paper adopts morphological feature vector including QRS amplitude, interval information to reveal QRS morphology. After studying the distribution of QRS morphology feature vector of MIT/BIH DB ventricular arrhythmia files, we use morphological feature vector cluster to classify multi-morphology QRS. Based on the method, morphological feature parameters changing method which is suitable to catch occasional ventricular arrhythmias is presented. Clinical experiments verify missed ventricular arrhythmia is less than 1% by this method. PMID:11189347

  6. Circulating immune complexes and severe sepsis: duration of infection as the main determinant.

    PubMed Central

    Pocidalo, M A; Gibert, C; Verroust, P; Geniteau, M; Adam, C; Madec, Y; Gaudebout, C; Morel-Maroger, L

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the duration of bacterial infection and circulating immune complexes (CIC) level was evaluated using the C1q binding assay in a group of patients with well defined clinical sepsis. Fifty-four patients with endocarditis and 35 with post-open heart surgery mediastinitis were prospectively studied over a period of 2 years. CIC were detected in 42% of patients studied. Interindividual variations were observed but it was found that the level of CIC increased statistically with time (P less than 0.001). CIC were statistically linked with cryoglobulinemia (P less than 0.001), rheumatoid factor (P less than 0.001) and a decreased CH50 (P less than 0.05). CIC were more frequent in patients with endocarditis (53%) than in patients with mediastinitis (24%). However, when the duration of the infection was taken into account the difference was no longer significant. No relation could be evidenced between the incidence of CIC and clinical symptoms including prognosis and renal signs. In our experience, determination of CIC does not have a critical clinical value. PMID:7083630

  7. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)

  8. Louisiana Quality Start Child Care Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Louisiana's Quality Start Child Care Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;

  9. Complex H(sub alpha) Loop Activity in a Long Duration Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debi Prasad, Choudhary; Gary, G. Allen; Ambastha, Ashok K.

    1998-01-01

    A long duration Bare was observed in the active region NOAA 6555 on March 23, 1991 at a location of low magnetic shear. This flare displayed complex H(sub alpha) loop activity during the decay phase. Initially, there were a few long loops orientated at an angle of about 45 degree with the east-west axis followed by the appearance of east-west axis. This configuration was aligned shorter loops. By using different magnetic field models, we have extrapolated the photospheric magnetogram.9 to the chromospheric heights. The magnetic field lines computed by using the potential field model correspond to most of the observed H. loops. In this paper, we report the analysis of high resolution chromospheric observations of the event and describe a possible scenario for the post-flare loop activity.

  10. Real time QRS detection based on M-ary likelihood ratio test on the DFT coefficients.

    PubMed

    Grriz, Juan Manuel; Ramrez, Javier; Olivares, Alberto; Padilla, Pablo; Puntonet, Carlos G; Cantn, Manuel; Laguna, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows an adaptive statistical test for QRS detection of electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The method is based on a M-ary generalized likelihood ratio test (LRT) defined over a multiple observation window in the Fourier domain. The motivations for proposing another detection algorithm based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation are found in the high complexity of the signal model proposed in previous approaches which i) makes them computationally unfeasible or not intended for real time applications such as intensive care monitoring and (ii) in which the parameter selection conditions the overall performance. In this sense, we propose an alternative model based on the independent Gaussian properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) coefficients, which allows to define a simplified MAP probability function. In addition, the proposed approach defines an adaptive MAP statistical test in which a global hypothesis is defined on particular hypotheses of the multiple observation window. In this sense, the observation interval is modeled as a discontinuous transmission discrete-time stochastic process avoiding the inclusion of parameters that constraint the morphology of the QRS complexes. PMID:25356628

  11. Real Time QRS Detection Based on M-ary Likelihood Ratio Test on the DFT Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Grriz, Juan Manuel; Ramrez, Javier; Olivares, Alberto; Padilla, Pablo; Puntonet, Carlos G.; Cantn, Manuel; Laguna, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows an adaptive statistical test for QRS detection of electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The method is based on a M-ary generalized likelihood ratio test (LRT) defined over a multiple observation window in the Fourier domain. The motivations for proposing another detection algorithm based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation are found in the high complexity of the signal model proposed in previous approaches which i) makes them computationally unfeasible or not intended for real time applications such as intensive care monitoring and (ii) in which the parameter selection conditions the overall performance. In this sense, we propose an alternative model based on the independent Gaussian properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) coefficients, which allows to define a simplified MAP probability function. In addition, the proposed approach defines an adaptive MAP statistical test in which a global hypothesis is defined on particular hypotheses of the multiple observation window. In this sense, the observation interval is modeled as a discontinuous transmission discrete-time stochastic process avoiding the inclusion of parameters that constraint the morphology of the QRS complexes. PMID:25356628

  12. [Value of interacardiac recordings in the evaluation of positive QRS in V1 provoked by stimulation of the right ventricle].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Beltrn-Baguena; Befeler, B; Agha, A S; Myerburg, R J

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the common bundle and of the ventrical filtered electrograms has incrased our knowledge of the intraventricular conduction following the simulation of the PVS as well as the different types or reciprocating that can be produced by premature beats. 2. The positive QRS complexes in V1 produced from PVD by St2 can be explained as a greater degree of incomplete recuperation of the right ventricular wall than in the interventricular septum. In contrast with what happened in the basal beats, where the front took longer to reach the TSVD than the VI. 3. The refractarines of the transitional tissues that serve as the phisiological banier was longer than the banal myocardium. The intraventricular propagation, and therefore the morphology and direction of QRS, depended of this one; while the moment of arrival of activation retrogradly to the common bundle was conditioned by the transitional tissues. 4. Episodes of ventricular taquicardies with QRS positive complexes in V1 can be due to a re-entry throught the bundle branches or in (or around) an area that has been recently injured. PMID:1190904

  13. Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paul R.H.; Farrar, Kerrie; Gay, Alan P.; Jensen, Elaine F.; Clifton-Brown, John C.; Donnison, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed. PMID:23599277

  14. Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield.

    PubMed

    Robson, Paul R H; Farrar, Kerrie; Gay, Alan P; Jensen, Elaine F; Clifton-Brown, John C; Donnison, Iain S

    2013-05-01

    Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed. PMID:23599277

  15. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P less than 0.00l). Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  16. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Atiar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods and Results: 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P<0.001). Conclusions: Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  17. [Long QRS tachycardia secondary to Aconitum napellus alkaloid ingestion].

    PubMed

    Gaibazzi, Nicola; Gelmini, Gian Paolo; Montresor, Graziano; Canel, Daniela; Comini, Teresa; Fracalossi, Claudio; Martinetti, Claudio; Poeta, Maria Luisa; Ziacchi, Vigilio

    2002-08-01

    The roots and seeds of the aconite (Aconitum napellus) contain alkaloids with modulatory activity on the sodium voltage-dependent channels; most fatal cases have been determined by ventricular tachycardia and respiratory paralysis. The only established treatment is supportive. We report a case of poisoning from Aconitum napellus, ingested by a husband and wife who thought the plant was "mountain chicory". They both had tachyarrhythmias, but the husband had more malignant episodes of hemodynamically unstable wide QRS tachycardia and respiratory paralysis requiring mechanical ventilation. PMID:12407844

  18. Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; DePalma, Jude L.; Moradi, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    An electronic system that performs real-time analysis of the low-amplitude, high-frequency, ordinarily invisible components of the QRS portion of an electrocardiographic signal in real time has been developed. Whereas the signals readily visible on a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) have amplitudes of the order of a millivolt and are characterized by frequencies <100 Hz, the ordinarily invisible components have amplitudes in the microvolt range and are characterized by frequencies from about 150 to about 250 Hz. Deviations of these high-frequency components from a normal pattern can be indicative of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

  19. Analysis of First-Derivative Based QRS Detection Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Arzeno, Natalia M.; Deng, Zhi-De; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2008-01-01

    Accurate QRS detection is an important first step for the analysis of heart rate variability. Algorithms based on the differentiated ECG are computationally efficient and hence ideal for real-time analysis of large datasets. Here, we analyze traditional first-derivative based squaring function (Hamilton-Tompkins) and Hilbert transform-based methods for QRS detection and their modifications with improved detection thresholds. On a standard ECG dataset, the Hamilton-Tompkins algorithm had the highest detection accuracy (99.68% sensitivity, 99.63% positive predictivity) but also the largest time error. The modified Hamilton-Tompkins algorithm as well as the Hilbert transform-based algorithms had comparable, though slightly lower, accuracy; yet these automated algorithms present an advantage for real-time applications by avoiding human intervention in threshold determination. The high accuracy of the Hilbert transform-based method compared to detection with the second derivative of the ECG is ascribable to its inherently uniform magnitude spectrum. For all algorithms, detection errors occurred mainly in beats with decreased signal slope, such as wide arrhythmic beats or attenuated beats. For best performance, a combination of the squaring function and Hilbert transform-based algorithms can be applied such that differences in detection will point to abnormalities in the signal that can be further analyzed. PMID:18269982

  20. Prosodic Planning: Effects of Phrasal Length and Complexity on Pause Duration

    PubMed Central

    Krivokapi, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Research on pause duration has mainly focused on the impact of syntactic structure on the duration of pauses within an utterance and on the impact of syntax, discourse, and prosodic structure on the likelihood of pause occurrence. Relatively little is known about what factors play a role in determining the duration of pauses between utterances or phrases. Two experiments examining the effect of prosodic structure and phrase length on pause duration are reported. Subjects read sentences varying along the following parameters: a) the length in syllables of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, and b) the prosodic structure of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, specifically whether or not the intonational phrase branches into smaller phrases. In order to minimize variability due to speech rate and individual differences, speakers read sentences synchronously in dyads. The results showed a significant post-boundary effect of prosodic branching and significant pre- and post-boundary phrase length effects. The results are discussed in terms of production units. PMID:18379639

  1. The complex duration perception of emotional faces: effects of face direction

    PubMed Central

    Kliegl, Katrin M.; Limbrecht-Ecklundt, Kerstin; Drr, Lea; Traue, Harald C.; Huckauf, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009) reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the models gaze was oriented toward the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry, and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance, and an evolutionary context. PMID:25852589

  2. Development of a Multi-Channel, High Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePalma, Jude L.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS era and the potential requirement for increased cardiovascular monitoring of crewmembers during extended EVAs, NASA flight surgeons would stand to benefit from an evolving technology that allows for a more rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia compared to standard electrocardiography. Similarly, during the astronaut selection process, NASA flight surgeons and other physicians would also stand to benefit from a completely noninvasive technology that, either at rest or during maximal exercise tests, is more sensitive than standard ECG in identifying the presence of ischemia. Perhaps most importantly, practicing cardiologists and emergency medicine physicians could greatly benefit from such a device as it could augment (or even replace) standard electrocardiography in settings where the rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia (or the lack thereof) is required for proper clinical decision-making. A multi-channel, high-frequency QRS electrocardiograph is currently under development in the Life Sciences Research Laboratories at JSC. Specifically the project consisted of writing software code, some of which contained specially-designed digital filters, which will be incorporated into an existing commercial software program that is already designed to collect, plot and analyze conventional 12-lead ECG signals on a desktop, portable or palm PC. The software will derive the high-frequency QRS signals, which will be analyzed (in numerous ways) and plotted alongside of the conventional ECG signals, giving the PC-viewing clinician advanced diagnostic information that has never been available previously in all 12 ECG leads simultaneously. After the hardware and software for the advanced digital ECG monitor have been fully integrated, plans are to use the monitor to begin clinical studies both on healthy subjects and on patients with known coronary artery disease in both the outpatient and hospital settings. The ultimate goal is to get the technology out into the clinical world, where it has the potential to save lives.

  3. Atlantis Time-Lapse Move to KSC Visitor Complex - Duration: 3 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse cameras captured space shuttle Atlantis making a 10-mile trek from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex whe...

  4. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    PubMed Central

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton’s bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  5. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    PubMed

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  6. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  7. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  8. Variation in the T/QRS ratio of fetal electrocardiograms recorded during labour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Newbold, S; Wheeler, T; Clewlow, F; Soul, F

    1989-02-01

    The T/QRS ratio of the fetal ECG was obtained during labour from 25 women with normal pregnancies. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the unprocessed signals, chiefly due to baseline wander, led to a wide variation between individual measurements. This problem was overcome by data averaging, the ratio being expressed as a mean over 1-min epochs. The average T/QRS ratio of each labour record ranged from 4% to 23% with a mean of 10% (for all 25). The average range (between 5th and 95th centile) of the 1-min T/QRS ratios was 13% and there were no significant changes as labour progressed. The effect of contractions on the T/QRS ratio was measured from eight subjects and found to be inconsistent. PMID:2930738

  9. A 0.83- ?W QRS detection processor using quadratic spline wavelet transform for wireless ECG acquisition in 0.35- ?m CMOS.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Chio-In; Mak, Pui-In; Lam, Chi-Pang; Dong, Cheng; Vai, Mang-I; Mak, Peng-Un; Pun, Sio-Hang; Wan, Feng; Martins, Rui P

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare electronics count on the effectiveness of the on-patient signal preprocessing unit to moderate the wireless data transfer for better power efficiency. In order to reduce the system power in long-time ECG acquisition, this work describes an on-patient QRS detection processor for arrhythmia monitoring. It extracts the concerned ECG part, i.e., the RR-interval between the QRS complex for evaluating the heart rate variability. The processor is structured by a scale-3 quadratic spline wavelet transform followed by a maxima modulus recognition stage. The former is implemented via a symmetric FIR filter, whereas the latter includes a number of feature extraction steps: zero-crossing detection, peak (zero-derivative) detection, threshold adjustment and two finite state machines for executing the decision rules. Fabricated in 0.35-?m CMOS the 300-Hz processor draws only 0.83 ?W, which is favorably comparable with the prior arts. In the system tests, the input data is placed via an on-chip 10-bit SAR analog-to-digital converter, while the output data is emitted via an off-the-shelf wireless transmitter (TI CC2500) that is configurable by the processor for different data transmission modes: 1) QRS detection result, 2) raw ECG data or 3) both. Validated with all recordings from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, 99.31% sensitivity and 99.70% predictivity are achieved. Mode 1 with solely the result of QRS detection exhibits 6 reduction of system power over modes 2 and 3. PMID:23853259

  10. District of Columbia Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement System. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of District of Columbia's Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement Systemp repared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for

  11. Mechanical Dyssynchrony Precedes QRS Widening in ATP?Sensitive K+ ChannelDeficient Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Arrell, D. Kent; Kane, Garvan C.; Nelson, Timothy J.; Perez?Terzic, Carmen M.; Behfar, Atta; Purushothaman, Saranya; Prinzen, Frits W.; Auricchio, Angelo; Terzic, Andre

    2013-01-01

    Background Contractile discordance exacerbates cardiac dysfunction, aggravating heart failure outcome. Dissecting the genesis of mechanical dyssynchrony would enable an early diagnosis before advanced disease. Methods and Results High?resolution speckle?tracking echocardiography was applied in a knockout murine surrogate of adult?onset human cardiomyopathy caused by mutations in cardioprotective ATP?sensitive K+ (KATP) channels. Preceding the established criteria of cardiac dyssynchrony, multiparametric speckle?based strain resolved nascent erosion of dysfunctional regions within cardiomyopathic ventricles of the KATP channelnull mutant exposed to hemodynamic stress. Not observed in wild?type counterparts, intraventricular disparity in wall motion, validated by the degree, direction, and delay of myocardial speckle patterns, unmasked the disease substrate from asymptomatic to overt heart failure. Mechanical dyssynchrony preceded widening of the QRS complex and exercise intolerance and progressed into global myocardial discoordination and decompensated cardiac pump function, precipitating a low output syndrome. Conclusions The present study, with the use of high?resolution imaging, prospectively resolved the origin and extent of intraventricular motion disparity in a KATP channelknockout model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Mechanical dyssynchrony established as an early marker of cardiomyopathic disease offers novel insight into the pathodynamics of dyssynchronous heart failure. PMID:24308936

  12. Etanercept Induces Low QRS Voltage and Autonomic Dysfunction in Mice with Experimental Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodrguez-Angulo, Hctor; Garca, Oscar; Castillo, Endher; Cardenas, Edward; Marques, Juan; Mijares, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Chagasic cardiomyopathy is characterized by disorders of autonomic regulation and action potential conduction in the acute and chronic phases of infection. Although tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) has been linked to cardiomyopathy in experimental models and in patients with Chagas disease, other reports suggest that TNF-? may exert anti-parasitic actions during the acute phase of infection. Objectives This study aimed to determine the effects of a soluble TNF-? blocker, etanercept, on electrocardiographic parameters in the acute phase of experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Methods Electrocardiograms were obtained from untreated infected mice and infected mice who were treated with etanercept 7 days after infection. ECG wave and heart rate variability parameters were determined using Chart for Windows. Results Etanercept treatment resulted in a low QRS voltage and decreased heart rate variability compared with no treatment. However, the treated mice exhibited a delay in the fall of the survival curve during the acute phase. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that although etanercept treatment promotes survival in mice infected with a virulent T. cruzi strain, TNF-? blockade generates a low voltage complex and autonomic dysfunction during the acute phase of infection. These findings indicate that mortality during the acute phase can be attributed to a systemic inflammatory response rather than cardiac dysfunction. PMID:23877744

  13. Monitoring complex trace-gas mixtures by long-path laser absorption spectrometry. [in long duration manned mission closed environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods, which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants, include Raman and passive radiometry. The paper discusses a simple long-path laser absorption method which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels. A number of species were selected which are most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Absorption coefficients at CO2 laser wavelengths were measured, accurate to + 3 per cent or better, for each of these species. This data base was then used to determine the presence and concentration of the contaminants in prepared mixtures of 12 to 15 gases. Computer programs have been developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Minimum detectable concentrations for individual species are generally in the ppm range, and are not seriously degraded by interferences even in complex mixtures. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations and comparison with other methods of analysis are discussed

  14. Usefulness of electrocardiographic frontal QRS-T angle to predict increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gotsman, Israel; Keren, Andre; Hellman, Yaron; Banker, Jeffrey; Lotan, Chaim; Zwas, Donna R

    2013-05-15

    The risk of death in heart failure (HF) is high. The electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle reflects changes in the direction of the repolarization sequence and predicts death in the general population. The frontal QRS-T angle is simple to measure but has not been evaluated in a large chronic HF cohort. We examined the significance of the frontal QRS-T angle in predicting the clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with HF. The QRS-T angle was calculated from the frontal QRS and T axis of the baseline 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. The patients were followed for cardiac-related hospitalizations and death; 5,038 patients with HF were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 576 days; 51% were men. Overall survival during the follow-up period was 83%. Cox regression analysis after adjustment for significant predictors, including age, gender, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, pulse, serum hemoglobin, sodium, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urea levels, demonstrated that the QRS-T angle was an incremental predictor of increased mortality in both genders. For women, a QRS-T angle of ?60 had a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.75; p <0.05) and a QRS-T angle of ?120 had a hazard ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.92, p <0.01). For men, a QRS-T angle of ?130 had a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.06, p <0.01). For the whole cohort, a QRS-T angle of ?125 gave a hazard ratio of 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.80, p <0.0001). The QRS-T angle was also a predictor of increased cardiac-related hospitalizations. The QRS-T angle was a predictor in patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular function and in patients with a normal QRS interval. In conclusion, the QRS-T angle was a powerful predictor of outcome in patients with HF. We believe the QRS-T angle should be a part of the electrocardiographic evaluation of patients with HF. PMID:23453457

  15. Correlation of 12 lead ECG QRS score with severity of aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Kishore, A G; Gupta, S K; Gupta, S R; Murthy, J S; Lalitha, A; Reddy, K N

    1990-01-01

    The hemodynamic data and electrocardiograms of thirty-three patients of moderate to severe aortic stenosis were analysed retrospectively to find out if there was any correlation between 12 lead ECG-QRS score and left ventricular peak systolic pressure (LVPSP) and/or peak systolic gradient (PSG) across the aortic valve. The mean age of the study population was 33.33 (+/- 15.02SD) years, with the male to female ratio being 9:2. The mean 12 lead ECG-QRS score in these 33 patients was 281 mm (+/- 46.02SD), the mean LVPSP 203.52 mmHg (+/- 46.62SD) and the mean PSG across the aortic valve was 81.0 mmHg (+/- 41.62SD). There was good correlation of 12 lead ECG-QRS score with LVPSP (r = 0.47, P less than 0.001) and with PSG across the aortic valve (r = 0.58, P less than 0.001), latter being more significant. The best correlation was however found between 12 lead ECG-QRS score and PSG across the aortic valve in patients over 35 years of age (r = 0.88). In conclusion there is a direct relationship between 12 lead ECG-QRS score and peak systolic gradient across the aortic valve and the latter can be approximately calculated non-invasively with the help of regression equation- Peak systolic gradient (in mmHg) = 12 lead ECG-QRS score/3 - 10.6 PMID:2351402

  16. Online digital filter and QRS detector applicable in low resource ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Tabakov, Serafim; Iliev, Ivo; Krasteva, Vessela

    2008-11-01

    The present work describes fast computation methods for real-time digital filtration and QRS detection, both applicable in autonomous personal ECG systems for long-term monitoring. Since such devices work under considerable artifacts of intensive body and electrode movements, the input filtering should provide high-quality ECG signals supporting the accurate ECG interpretation. In this respect, we propose a combined high-pass and power-line interference rejection filter, introducing the simple principle of averaging of samples with a predefined distance between them. In our implementation (sampling frequency of 250 Hz), we applied averaging over 17 samples distanced by 10 samples (Filter10x17), thus realizing a comb filter with a zero at 50 Hz and high-pass cut-off at 1.1 Hz. Filter10x17 affords very fast filtering procedure at the price of minimal computing resources. Another benefit concerns the small ECG distortions introduced by the filter, providing its powerful application in the preprocessing module of diagnostic systems analyzing the ECG morphology. Filter10x17 does not attenuate the QRS amplitude, or introduce significant ST-segment elevation/depression. The filter output produces a constant error, leading to uniform shifting of the entire P-QRS-T segment toward about 5% of the R-peak amplitude. Tests with standardized ECG signals proved that Filter10x17 is capable to remove very strong baseline wanderings, and to fully suppress 50 Hz interferences. By changing the number of the averaged samples and the distance between them, a filter design with different cut-off and zero frequency could be easily achieved. The real-time QRS detector is designed with simplified computations over single channel, low-resolution ECGs. It relies on simple evaluations of amplitudes and slopes, including history of their mean values estimated over the preceding beats, smart adjustable thresholds, as well as linear logical rules for identification of the R-peaks in real-time. The performance of the QRS detector was tested with internationally recognized ECG databases (AHA, MIT-BIH, European ST-T database), showing mean sensitivity of 99.65% and positive predictive value of 99.57%. The performance of the presented QRS detector can be highly rated, comparable and even better than other published real-time QRS detectors. Examples representing some typical unfavorable conditions in real ECGs, illustrate the common operation of Filter10x17 and the QRS detector. PMID:18752068

  17. A real-time QRS detection method based on moving-averaging incorporating with wavelet denoising.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szi-Wen; Chen, Hsiao-Chen; Chan, Hsiao-Lung

    2006-06-01

    In this paper, a simple moving average-based computing method for real-time QRS detection is proposed. In addition, for signal preprocessing our detection algorithm also incorporates a wavelet-based denoising procedure to effectively reduce the noise level for electrocardiogram (ECG) data. The overall computational structure of the proposed algorithm allows the QRS detection to be performed and implemented in real-time with high time- and memory-efficiency. Algorithm performance was evaluated against the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The numerical results indicated that the novel algorithm finally achieved about 99.5% of the detection rate for the standard database, and also, it could function reliably even under the condition of poor signal quality in the measured ECG data. PMID:16716445

  18. Fast QRS Detection with an Optimized Knowledge-Based Method: Evaluation on 11 Standard ECG Databases

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in automatic QRS detection methods show high robustness and almost negligible error rates. In return, the methods are usually based on machine-learning approaches that require sufficient computational resources. However, simple-fast methods can also achieve high detection rates. There is a need to develop numerically efficient algorithms to accommodate the new trend towards battery-driven ECG devices and to analyze long-term recorded signals in a time-efficient manner. A typical QRS detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages that are calibrated by a knowledge base using only two parameters. In contrast to high-accuracy methods, the proposed method can be easily implemented in a digital filter design. PMID:24066054

  19. Clinical meaning of isolated increase of QRS voltages in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy versus athlete's heart.

    PubMed

    Calore, Chiara; Zorzi, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Recent consensus documents have provided modern criteria for interpretation of the athlete's ECG, which are based on a better definition of physiological versus abnormal ECG changes. The aim of these modern criteria is to lower the traditionally high number of false positives and to reduce unnecessary and expensive investigations, maintaining the sensitivity for identification of cardiac diseases at risk of sudden cardiac death during sports such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This article reviews the published studies regarding the ECG changes associated with HCM ("pathologic hypertrophy") and athlete's heart ("physiologic hypertrophy"), with particular reference to the prevalence and clinical significance of the ECG pattern of isolated increase of QRS voltages. Taken together the results of the available studies show that ECG provides good accuracy for differentiating HCM from athlete's heart and allows to preserve the ECG power for detection of athletes with HCM. Patients with either completely normal ECGs or showing isolated QRS voltage criteria for LV hypertrophy have a less severe HCM phenotype, which is associated with a lower arrhythmic risk. These scientific data support the current recommendation that further cardiovascular tests including echocardiography are not systematically indicated in trained athletes showing an isolated increase of QRS voltages. PMID:25595718

  20. Electrocardiogram derived respiratory rate from QRS slopes and R-wave angle.

    PubMed

    Lzaro, Jess; Alcaine, Alejandro; Romero, Daniel; Gil, Eduardo; Laguna, Pablo; Pueyo, Esther; Bailn, Raquel

    2014-10-01

    A method for estimating respiratory rate from electrocardiogram (ECG) signals is presented. It is based on QRS slopes and R-wave angle, which reflect respiration-induced beat morphology variations. The 12 standard leads, 3 leads from vectorcardiogram (VCG), and 2 additional non-standard leads derived from VCG loops were analyzed. The following series were studied as ECG derived respiration (EDR) signals: slope between the peak of Q and R waves, slope between the peak of R and S waves, and the R-wave angle. Information from several EDR signals was combined in order to increase the robustness of estimation. Evaluation is performed over two databases containing ECG and respiratory signals simultaneously recorded during two clinical tests with different characteristics: tilt test, representing abrupt cardiovascular changes, and stress test representing a highly non-stationary and noisy environment. A combination of QRS slopes and R-wave angle series derived from VCG leads obtained a respiratory rate estimation relative error of 0.50 4.11% (measuring 99.84% of the time) for tilt test and 0.52 8.99% (measuring 96.09% of the time) for stress test. These results outperform those obtained by other reported methods, both in tilt and stress testing. PMID:25118665

  1. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although each climatic parameter has its own interglacial duration in this approach, important overall patterns emerge for individual interglacials. Interglacial conditions during the last interglacial, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, as well as most pre-MBE interglacials persisted somewhat longer than the elapsed duration of the Holocene, while MIS 7 was shorter, and MIS 9 and MIS 19 were similar in duration. The longest interglacial durations overall characterized MIS 11, a frequent candidate as a potential Holocene and near future analogue because of similar orbital configurations (similarity shared also with MIS 19). Our study also reveals that interglacial high CO2 levels on the whole are within the duration range of the other paleoclimatic proxies and similar in length with the deuterium EDC record. This suggests that CO2 essentially plays a role of feedback when contributing to interglacial's duration. This exercise highlights the stability and variability in duration of the different interglacials as recorded in various proxy records under natural climate conditions. It may help identify past interglacial periods with conditions similar to those observed in the Holocene thus far, thereby allowing improved understanding of the human impact on climate.

  2. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-12-01

    To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population.All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1-18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population.Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1-V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r' wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed.These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  3. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population. All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1–18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population. Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1–V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r′ wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed. These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  4. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  5. When Deriving the Spatial QRS-T Angle from the 12-lead ECG, which Transform is More Frank: Regression or Inverse Dower?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Cortez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Our primary objective was to ascertain which commonly used 12-to-Frank-lead transformation yields spatial QRS-T angle values closest to those obtained from simultaneously collected true Frank-lead recordings. Simultaneous 12-lead and Frank XYZ-lead recordings were analyzed for 100 post-myocardial infarction patients and 50 controls. Relative agreement, with true Frank-lead results, of 12-to-Frank-lead transformed results for the spatial QRS-T angle using Kors regression versus inverse Dower was assessed via ANOVA, Lin s concordance and Bland-Altman plots. Spatial QRS-T angles from the true Frank leads were not significantly different than those derived from the Kors regression-related transformation but were significantly smaller than those derived from the inverse Dower-related transformation (P less than 0.001). Independent of method, spatial mean QRS-T angles were also always significantly larger than spatial maximum (peaks) QRS-T angles. Spatial QRS-T angles are best approximated by regression-related transforms. Spatial mean and spatial peaks QRS-T angles should also not be used interchangeably.

  6. A 300-mV 220-nW event-driven ADC with real-time QRS detection for wearable ECG sensors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Lian, Yong

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power event-driven analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with real-time QRS detection for wearable electrocardiogram (ECG) sensors in wireless body sensor network (WBSN) applications. Two QRS detection algorithms, pulse-triggered (PUT) and time-assisted PUT (t-PUT), are proposed based on the level-crossing events generated from the ADC. The PUT detector achieves 97.63% sensitivity and 97.33% positive prediction in simulation on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The t-PUT improves the sensitivity and positive prediction to 97.76% and 98.59% respectively. Fabricated in 0.13 ?m CMOS technology, the ADC with QRS detector consumes only 220 nW measured under 300 mV power supply, making it the first nanoWatt compact analog-to-information (A2I) converter with embedded QRS detector. PMID:25608283

  7. Electrocradiographic Qrs Axis, Q Wave and T-wave Changes in 2nd and 3rd Trimester of Normal Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    S., Chandrasekharappa; Brid, S.V

    2014-01-01

    Background: Pregnancy although a physiological phenomena affects all the functions of the maternal body and brings about remarkable changes in the cardiovascular system. The cardiovascular changes and many of the physiological adaptations of normal pregnancy alter the physical findings thus, sometimes misleading the diagnosis of heart disease. Pregnancy also brings about various changes in the electrocardiogram, further confusing with that of heart disease. This study is undertaken to highlight the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave of the Electrocardiogram and thereby helps us to distinguish it from that of pathological changes. Objectives: To study the effect of normal pregnancy on the QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave in the electrocardiogram and to compare with that of normal non pregnant women. Materials and Methods: Fifty normal pregnant women in 2nd and 3rd trimester each between 20 35 y of age and 50 normal non pregnant women of the same age group were selected for the study. A 12 lead ECG was recorded by using ECG machine with special emphasis on QRS axis, Q wave and T-wave changes and all the parameters were analysed. Results: The ECG changes observed in our study include, deviation of QRS axis towards left as pregnancy advanced, significant increased incidence of occurrence of prominent Q waves in lead II, III and avF in pregnant group (p < 0.05 ) and, T-wave abnormalities like flat and inverted T-waves in lead III, V1 V3 were more frequent in pregnant group ( p<0.05 ) than in non pregnant group. Conclusion:Normal pregnancy brings about various changes in ECG. These changes during pregnancy should be interpretated with caution by the physicians. It is necessary to understand the normal physiological changes which in turn help us in better management of those with cardiac disease. PMID:25386425

  8. Effect of QRS morphology on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Sipahi, Ilke; Chou, Josephine C.; Hyden, Marshall; Rowland, Douglas Y.; Simon, Daniel I.; Fang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in reducing clinical events in systolic heart failure patients with a wide QRS. Previous retrospective studies suggest only patients with QRS prolongation due to a left bundle-branch block (LBBB) benefit from CRT. Our objective was to examine this by performing a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of CRT. Methods Systematic searches of MEDLINE and the Food and Drug Administration official website were conducted for randomized controlled CRT trials. Trials reporting adverse clinical events (eg, all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalizations) according to QRS morphology were included in the meta-analysis. Results Four randomized trials totaling 5,356 patients met the inclusion criteria. In patients with LBBB at baseline, there was a highly significant reduction in composite adverse clinical events with CRT (RR = 0.64 [95% CI (0.52–0.77)], P = .00001). However no such benefit was observed for patients with non-LBBB conduction abnormalities (RR = 0.97 [95% CI (0.82–1.15)], P = .75). When examined separately, there was no benefit in patients with right-bundle branch block (RR = 0.91 [95% CI (0.69–1.20)], P = .49) or non-specific intraventricular conduction delay (RR = 1.19 [95% CI (0.87–1.63)], P = .28). There was no heterogeneity among the clinical trials with regards to the lack of benefit in non-LBBB patients (I2 = 0%). When directly compared, the difference in effect of CRT between LBBB versus non-LBBB patients was highly statistically significant (P = .0001 by heterogeneity analysis). Conclusions While CRT was very effective in reducing clinical events in patients with LBBB, it did not reduce such events in patients with wide QRS due to other conduction abnormalities. PMID:22305845

  9. Dynamic Changes of QRS Morphology of Premature Ventricular Contractions During Ablation in the Right Ventricular Outflow Tract

    PubMed Central

    Yue-Chun, Li; Jia-Feng, Lin; Jia-Xuan, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Electrocardiographic characteristics can be useful in differentiating between right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) and aortic sinus cusp (ASC) ventricular arrhythmias. Ventricular arrhythmias originating from ASC, however, show preferential conduction to RVOT that may render the algorithms of electrocardiographic characteristics less reliable. Even though there are few reports describing ventricular arrhythmias with ASC origins and endocardial breakout sites of RVOT, progressive dynamic changes in QRS morphology of the ventricular arrhythmias during ablation obtained were rare. This case report describes a patient with symptomatic premature ventricular contractions of left ASC origin presenting an electrocardiogram (ECG) characteristic of right ventricular outflow tract before ablation. Pacing at right ventricular outflow tract reproduced an excellent pace map. When radiofrequency catheter ablation was applied to the right ventricular outflow tract, the QRS morphology of premature ventricular contractions progressively changed from ECG characteristics of right ventricular outflow tract origin to ECG characteristics of left ASC origin. Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation was achieved at the site of the earliest ventricular activation in the left ASC. The distance between the successful ablation site of the left ASC and the site with an excellent pace map of the RVOT was 20?mm. The ?ndings could be strong evidence for a preferential conduction via the myocardial ?bers from the ASC origin to the breakout site in the right ventricular outflow tract. This case demonstrates that ventricular arrhythmias with a single origin and exit shift may exhibit QRS morphology changes. PMID:26496347

  10. A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since cell membranes are weak sources of electrostatic fields, this ECG interpretation relies on the analogy between cells and electrets. It is here assumed that cell-bound electric fields unite, reach the body surface and the surrounding space and form the thoracic electric field that consists from two concentric structures: the thoracic wall and the heart. If ECG leads measure differences in electric potentials between skin electrodes, they give scalar values that define position of the electric field center along each lead. Repolarised heart muscle acts as a stable positive electric source, while depolarized heart muscle produces much weaker negative electric field. During T-P, P-R and S-T segments electric field is stable, only subtle changes are detectable by skin electrodes. Diastolic electric field forms after ventricular depolarization (T-P segments in the ECG recording). Telediastolic electric field forms after the atria have been depolarized (P-Q segments in the ECG recording). Systolic electric field forms after the ventricular depolarization (S-T segments in the ECG recording). The three ECG waves (P, QRS and T) can then be described as unbalanced transitions of the heart electric field from one stable configuration to the next and in that process the electric field center is temporarily displaced. In the initial phase of QRS, the rapidly diminishing septal electric field makes measured potentials dependent only on positive charges of the corresponding parts of the left and the right heart that lie within the lead axes. If more positive charges are near the "DOWN" electrode than near the "UP" electrode, a Q wave will be seen, otherwise an R wave is expected. Repolarization of the ventricular muscle is dampened by the early septal muscle repolarization that reduces deflection of T waves. Since the "UP" electrode of most leads is near the usually larger left ventricle muscle, T waves are in these leads positive, although of smaller amplitude and longer duration than the QRS wave in the same lead. The proposed interpretation is applied to bundle branch blocks, fascicular (hemi-) blocks and changes during heart muscle ischemia. PMID:24506945

  11. Prevalence and prognostic significance of low QRS voltage among the three main types of cardiac amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Cyrille, Nicole B; Goldsmith, Jeff; Alvarez, Julissa; Maurer, Mathew S

    2014-10-01

    Low voltage is classically reported as an electrocardiographic (ECG) finding in cardiac amyloidosis (CA). We evaluated electrocardiograms to determine the prevalence of low voltage and its association with outcomes. Electrocardiograms in 200 patients with CA were reviewed. The presence of low voltage was assessed by all limb leads?0.5 mV, all precordial leads?1.0 mV, or Sokolow index?.5 mV, and the association with time to adverse outcomes, including hospitalization, orthotopic heart transplant, and death, was assessed by the Cox proportional hazards model. Low voltage prevalence was 60% when using Sokolow index?.5 mV, 34% by QRS amplitude?0.5 mV in each limb lead, and 13% when ?1.0 mV in each precordial lead with no differences in prevalence noted by the type of amyloid. Apart from atrial fibrillation and second-degree atrioventricular block being more common in wild type transthryretin cardiac amyloid (ATTRwt), the prevalence of ECG findings was similar among the 3 types of amyloid. Sokolow?1.5 mV (HR 1.690; 95% CI of 1.069 to 2.672; p=0.0246) was independently associated with adverse outcomes. In conclusion, among the 3 main types of CA, the prevalence of low voltage is dependent on the method used for defining low voltage. Sokolow index?1.5 mV indicated the highest prevalence and was associated with adverse outcomes in CA. Our data suggest that low voltage is a relatively late finding in CA and may not be useful for early identification. PMID:25212550

  12. Utility of Routine Exercise Testing to Detect Rate-Related QRS Widening in Patients Without Structural Heart Disease on Class Ic Antiarrhythmic Agents (Flecainide andPropafenone).

    PubMed

    Vallurupalli, Srikanth; Pothineni, Naga Venkata K; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Paydak, Hakan

    2015-09-01

    Class Ic antiarrhythmic agents are effective in the treatment of various atrial tachyarrhythmias. They are known to cause rate-related QRS widening in the presence of structural heart disease, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias. The role of routine exercise electrocardiography in patients without structural heart disease is unknown. All patients initiated on class Ic antiarrhythmic agents and who had exercise electrocardiography performed from June 2009 to June 2013 were included. Symptom-limited treadmill electrocardiography was performed to detect significant QRS widening at peak exercise (defined as an increase of >25% of baseline QRS). Fifty-six patients were included in the study. All patients were screened for structural heart disease before initiation of the medication. Significant QRS widening and atrial tachycardia occurred in a single patient, which terminated with cessation of exercise. This patient had a history of tachycardia-mediated cardiomyopathy with normalization of ejection fraction 3 years before being placed on flecainide. In conclusion, routine exercise testing to detect QRS widening is not warranted in patients with no structural heart disease. PMID:26100588

  13. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K.

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed.

  14. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients

    SciTech Connect

    DePace, N.L.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r . -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r . -0.77 vs r . -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p . 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF.

  15. Inappropriate Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shock from QRS Double Counting in the Setting of Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Dadlani, Akash; Dukes, Jonathan W; Badhwar, Nitish

    2016-03-01

    This case shows the complexity of arrhythmia management in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) who present with hyperkalemia. In order to prevent inappropriate ICD shock, consideration should be given to the suspension of ICD therapies while intensive care treatment of extreme electrolyte derangements is being pursued. Patients in these setting should be closely monitored until their electrocardiograms have normalized, after which the device can safely be reactivated. PMID:26920190

  16. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. PMID:26603959

  17. Complex Solar Eruption - Duration: 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 around 0855 UT, Earth orbiting satellites detected a C3-class solar flare. The origin of the blast was sunspot 1092. At about the same time, an enormous magnetic filament stretchi...

  18. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  19. Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Eagleman, David M.; Pariyadath, Vani

    2009-01-01

    Perceived duration is conventionally assumed to correspond with objective duration, but a growing literature suggests a more complex picture. For example, repeated stimuli appear briefer in duration than a novel stimulus of equal physical duration. We suggest that such duration illusions appear to parallel the neural phenomenon of repetition suppression, and we marshal evidence for a new hypothesis: the experience of duration is a signature of the amount of energy expended in representing a stimulus, i.e. the coding efficiency. This novel hypothesis offers a unified explanation for almost a dozen illusions in the literature in which subjective duration is modulated by properties of the stimulus such as size, brightness, motion and rate of flicker. PMID:19487187

  20. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Grard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with a minimum risk for population. Telemetry system is based on satellite communication technologies. Housekeeping data and GPS data are transferred to the Ground Station by IRIDIUM network. Gondola is interrogated automatically each hour and all data stocked onboard are downloaded to ground station. Communication takes a few minutes to transfer all data stocked from last request. Tools had been used in SCOUT-MIR campaign 2008 for the first time. The results obtained encourage CNES teams to improve ergonomics and functionalities of these prototype.

  1. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments

    PubMed Central

    Gouva, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.11386.001 PMID:26641377

  2. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. PMID:26641377

  3. Blink duration measurement system for drowsiness detection using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Kato, Masami

    2005-03-01

    Support systems for automobile drivers have been recently developed. One support system prevents drivers from sleeping at the wheel, but an adequate system has not yet been commercialized. Many reports say that when a driver is drowsy, the blinking duration tends to be long. So, we propose a method to prevent drivers from sleeping by detecting the blinking duration. Because this method only uses simple image processing, the algorithm is not complex. The algorithm involves face localization, then eye localization, followed by measurement of the blinking duration. We tested our system on a number of frames, and the correct blinking duration was usually detected.

  4. [Fever of intermediate duration].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Antonio; Zambrana, Jos Luis; Pachn, Jernimo

    2003-03-01

    Fever of intermediate duration (FID) is defined as non-localized fever occurring in the community, lasting from one to four weeks, and having no diagnostic orientation after basic clinical, analytical and radiological evaluations are completed. These may include careful recording of clinical history, physical examination, hemogram, plasma creatinine determination, urinalysis, and chest radiography. The etiology of FID is still not completely defined. In our country, 70% of cases are caused by systemic infectious diseases (rickettsiosis, brucellosis, and mononucleosis syndrome) and 7.7% by localized infections; vasculitis and neoplasms account for less than 2%. In most cases FID can be attended on an outpatient basis, with the guarantee of the easy accessibility. In cases without social support or when there is digestive intolerance or criteria of severe disease, hospital care is required. For the diagnostic approach, it is useful to establish basic rules and to organize the study in several stages, taking into account the most frequent etiologies. The first visit would include elaboration of the clinical history, a hemogram, biochemistry analyses, blood cultures, urine culture, serological studies for the most frequent etiologies, a chest radiograph, and other examinations, as indicated by the clinical history data. The care provided and subsequent diagnostic studies performed will depend on the patient's progression and findings from additional studies. Further works conducted in various geographic settings are necessary to define the complete etiological spectrum of FID. PMID:12586020

  5. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  6. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P. (Grand Forks, ND); McCollor, Don P. (Grand Forks, ND); Selle, Stanley J. (Grand Forks, MN)

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  7. The Latest Developments in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Latest Developments in NASAs Long Duration Balloon Systems Bryan D. Stilwell, bryan.stilwell@csbf.nasa.gov Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas, USA The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, located in Palestine, Texas offers the scientific community a high altitude balloon based communications platform. Scientific payload mass can exceed 2722 kg with balloon float altitudes on average of 40000 km and flight duration of up to 100 days. Many developments in electrical systems have occurred over the more than 25 years of long duration flights. This paper will discuss the latest developments in electronic systems related to long duration flights. Over the years, the long duration flights have increased in durations exceeding 56 days. In order to support these longer flights, the systems have had to increase in complexity and reliability. Several different systems that have been upgraded and/or enhanced will be discussed.

  8. Durational Changes of Apraxic Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skenes, Lina Lilley

    1987-01-01

    The study examined durations of phrases, words, and phones for nine apraxic and five normal adult speakers during normal and fast speaking conditions. Although normal speakers decreased the duration of words during the fast rate condition, there was no evidence that apraxic speakers changed their speaking rates between the conditions. (Author/DB)

  9. Effect of Study Design on the Reported Effect of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) on Quantitative Physiological Measures: Stratified Meta?Analysis in Narrow?QRS Heart Failure and Implications for Planning Future Studies

    PubMed Central

    Jabbour, Richard J.; Shun?Shin, Matthew J.; Finegold, Judith A.; Afzal Sohaib, S. M.; Cook, Christopher; Nijjer, Sukhjinder S.; Whinnett, Zachary I.; Manisty, Charlotte H.; Brugada, Josep; Francis, Darrel P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biventricular pacing (CRT) shows clear benefits in heart failure with wide QRS, but results in narrow QRS have appeared conflicting. We tested the hypothesis that study design might have influenced findings. Method and Results We identified all reports of CRT?P/D therapy in subjects with narrow QRS reporting effects on continuous physiological variables. Twelve studies (2074 patients) met these criteria. Studies were stratified by presence of bias?resistance steps: the presence of a randomized control arm over a single arm, and blinded outcome measurement. Change in each endpoint was quantified using a standardized effect size (Cohen's d). We conducted separate meta?analyses for each variable in turn, stratified by trial quality. In non?randomized, non?blinded studies, the majority of variables (10 of 12, 83%) showed significant improvement, ranging from a standardized mean effect size of +1.57 (95%CI +0.43 to +2.7) for ejection fraction to +2.87 (+1.78 to +3.95) for NYHA class. In the randomized, non?blinded study, only 3 out of 6 variables (50%) showed improvement. For the randomized blinded studies, 0 out of 9 variables (0%) showed benefit, ranging from ?0.04 (?0.31 to +0.22) for ejection fraction to ?0.1 (?0.73 to +0.53) for 6?minute walk test. Conclusions Differences in degrees of resistance to bias, rather than choice of endpoint, explain the variation between studies of CRT in narrow?QRS heart failure addressing physiological variables. When bias?resistance features are implemented, it becomes clear that these patients do not improve in any tested physiological variable. Guidance from studies without careful planning to resist bias may be far less useful than commonly perceived. PMID:25564370

  10. [Difficulties of persistent repolarization following normalization of the QRS wave in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome].

    PubMed

    Laham, J; Frank, R; Fontaine, G; Artigou, Y; Heller, J; Gerbaux, A; Grosgogeat, Y

    1982-06-01

    The normalisation of the ventricular complex in the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome is often accompanied by changes in the repolarisation phase with a deep, symmetric and pointed T wave suggestive of coronary artery disease. In order to study this phenomenon we examined 29 cases of intermittent WPW, 13 of which had abnormalities of the normalised complex. Normalisation occurred spontaneously on 10 occasions, twice on exercise and once after Ajmaline. In the majority of cases (9/13) the preexcitation was a right (4 cases) or left (5 cases) posterior pathway and the T waves were abnormal in the posterior leads (II, III and AVF). In left lateral preexcitation the T waves were negative in lead 1 and AVL. The T wave changes seem to be related to the topography of the preexcitation pathway. They gradually disappeared in the 3 cases in which preexcitation had not recurred. The age of the patients (11 to 45 years, average 31 years) or normal coronary angiography, performed in 3 cases, excluded coronary pathology as did the close relationship between the topography of the preexcitation and the T wave changes and the gradual disappearance of the abnormalities in the cases where preexcitation did not recur. This phenomenon, related to abnormal ventricular activation, seems to be comparable to the changes in ventricular repolarisation observed on termination of ventricular pacing, on the regression of certain intermittent left bundle branch blocks and perhaps, in some cases, of the post-ventricular tachycardia syndrome. PMID:6810795

  11. Duration of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake ground motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghofrani, Hadi; Atkinson, Gail M.

    2015-01-01

    We compared several different duration measures for the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake sequence, because empirical duration models are of great interest for purposes of correlation with structural damage, and the Tohoku mainshock was remarkable for its long duration. Among the three considered definitions, RMS duration (McCann and Shah, Bull Seism Soc Am 69: 1253-1265, 1979) is best able to predict the duration within which pulses or groups of pulses of energy arrive; it is particularly suitable for the Tohoku mainshock, for which source complexity caused time-series with multiple-phase arrivals. Two other considered definitions, both of which tend to underestimate the observed duration, are: (i) duration defined by random vibration theory (RVT); and (ii) the significant duration as defined by the interval between 5 and 75 % or 95 % of the integral of the square of the ground acceleration (known as "Arias intensity" (Arias 1970)) or velocity (known as "energy integral" (Anderson 2004)). In the Tohoku mainshock, significant amplitudes precede the 5 % of the Arias intensity marker; we need to use 0.3 % of the maximum of the accumulated energy as the lower bound marker to appropriately estimate the duration using the significant duration definition. The RVT duration (used in stochastic simulations) can be estimated easily from the 5-75 % of the Arias intensity (significant duration) definition as the two measures give very similar durations. Overall, the significant duration of ground motions observed during the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake increases with distance as 0.19 R cd for the horizontal components or 0.33 R cd for the vertical component, where R cd is the closest distance to the fault plane. By comparison, the duration of four aftershocks ( M4.5-7.7) increases with distance as ~0.10 R hypo where R hypo is the hypocentral distance. For the mainshock, the distance-dependent slope term is greater, presumably due to the large fault plane size.

  12. The derivation of the spatial QRS-T angle and the spatial ventricular gradient using the Mason-Likar 12-lead electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Guldenring, Daniel; Finlay, Dewar D; Bond, Raymond R; Kennedy, Alan; McLaughlin, James; Galeotti, Loriano; Strauss, David G

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that the 'spatial QRS-T angle' (SA) and the 'spatial ventricular gradient' (SVG) have clinical value in a number of different applications. The determination of the SA and the SVG requires vectorcardiographic data. Such data is seldom recorded in clinical practice. The SA and the SVG are therefore frequently derived from 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) data using linear lead transformation matrices. This research compares the performance of two previously published linear lead transformation matrices (Kors and ML2VCG) in deriving the SA and the SVG from Mason-Likar (ML) 12-lead ECG data. This comparison was performed through an analysis of the estimation errors that are made when deriving the SA and the SVG for all 181 subjects in the study population. The estimation errors were quantified as the systematic error (mean difference) and the random error (span of the Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement). The random error was found to be the dominating error component for both the Kors and the ML2VCG matrix. The random error [ML2VCG; Kors; result of the paired, two-sided Pitman-Morgan test for statistical significance of differences in the error variance between ML2VCG and Kors] for the vectorcardiographic parameters SA, magnitude of the SVG, elevation of the SVG and azimuth of the SVG were found to be [37.33; 50.52; p<0.001], [30.17mVms; 39.09mVms; p<0.001], [36.77; 47.62; p=0.001] and [63.45; 80.32; p<0.001] respectively. The findings of this research indicate that in comparison to the Kors matrix the ML2VCG provides greater precision for estimating the SA and SVG from ML 12-lead ECG data. PMID:26381798

  13. Electrocardiogram of Clinically Healthy Mithun (Bos frontalis): Variation among Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, Sagar; Das, Pradip Kumar; Ghosh, Probal Ranjan; Das, Kinsuk; Vupru, Kezha V.; Rajkhowa, Chandan; Mondal, Mohan

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to establish the normal electrocardiogram in four different genetic strains of mithun (Bos frontalis). Electrocardiography, cardiac electrical axis, heart rate, rectal temperature and respiration rate were recorded in a total of 32 adult male mithun of four strains (n = 8 each). It was found that the respiration and heart rates were higher (P < .05) in Manipur than other three strains. Amplitude (P < .05) and duration of P wave and QRS complex differed (P < .01) among the strains. Mizoram strain had the highest amplitude and duration of P wave and QRS complex. On the other hand, higher (P < .05) amplitude and duration of T wave were recorded in Arunachalee and Mizoram strains. The mean electrical axis of QRS complex that were recorded for Arunachalee and Manipur strains were similar to that reported for other bovine species; whereas the electrical axis of QRS for Nagamese and Mizoram strains were more close to feline and caprine species, respectively. In conclusion, electrocardiogram of mithun revealed that the amplitude and duration of P wave, QRS complex and T wave were different among four different genetic strains of mithun and the electrical axis of QRS complex for Nagamese and Mizoram mithuns are dissimilar to bovine species. PMID:20886013

  14. Duration of an Elastic Collision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-01-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding

  15. Voice attractiveness: influence of stimulus duration and type.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, C; Patel, S; Mehu-Blantar, I; Khidasheli, M; Sander, D; Delplanque, S

    2013-06-01

    Voice attractiveness is a relatively new area of research. Some aspects of the methodology used in this domain deserve particular attention. Especially, the duration of voice samples is often neglected as a factor and happens to be manipulated without the perceptual consequences of these manipulations being known. Moreover, the type of voice stimulus varies from a single vowel to complex sentences. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the extent to which stimulus duration (nonmanipulated vs. normalized) and type (vowel vs. word) influence perceived voice attractiveness. Twenty-seven male and female raters made attractiveness judgments of 30 male and female voice samples. Voice samples included a single vowel /a/, a three-vowel series /i a o/, and the French word "bonjour" (i.e., "hello"). These samples were presented in three conditions: nonmanipulated, shortened, and lengthened duration. Duration manipulation was performed using the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) algorithm implemented in Praat. Results for the effect of stimulus type showed that word length samples were more attractive to the opposite sex than vowels. Results for the effect of duration showed that the nonmanipulated sound sample duration was not predictive of perceived attractiveness. Duration manipulation, on the other hand, altered perceived attractiveness for the lengthening condition. In particular, there was a linear decrease in attractiveness as a function of modification percentage (especially for the word, as compared with the vowels). Recommendations for voice sample normalization with the PSOLA algorithm are thus to prefer shortening over lengthening and, if not possible, to limit the extent of duration manipulation-for example, by normalizing to the mean sample duration. PMID:23239065

  16. FLUOROSCOPY DURATION IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Joao Caron La; de Moraes, Pablo Reis; Ammar, Tiago Yossef; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the mean length of radiation emission from fluoroscopic devices during several types of orthopedic surgery and which of these required greater use of radiation. Methods: The times taken to perform sixteen different types of surgery (total of 80 procedures) were measured. At the end of each procedure, the length of time for which fluoroscopy was used directly from the image intensifier was ascertained. Results: The mean time required for fluoroscopy per operation was 61 seconds. The procedures that demanded greatest mean duration of radiation use were bilateral proximal femoral epiphysiodesis (5.1 minutes) and femoral shaft osteosynthesis using a locked intramedullary nail (3.33 min). Conclusion: The mean duration of fluoroscopy use in orthopedic operations was 61 seconds. The procedures using an intramedullary device were the ones that required greatest radiation emission.

  17. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations

    PubMed Central

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour. PMID:26926425

  18. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour. PMID:26926425

  19. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  20. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth - Duration: 53 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  1. Irregular Wide Complex Tachycardia in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Paydak, Hakan

    2016-02-01

    Wolf Parkinson White syndrome is a pre-excitation syndrome due to an accessory conduction pathway. Electrocardiography demonstrates a short PR interval, long QRS interval and delta waves in normal sinus rhythm. Atrial fibrillation with underlying Wolf Parkinson White syndrome presents with irregular wide complex tachycardia, and can cause sudden cardiac death by precipitating ventricular fibrillation. Irregular wide complex tachycardia may be the first presentation of this underlying conduction abnormality in young patients. Emergency management for irregular wide complex tachycardia in hemodynamically unstable patients involves synchronized cardioversion, while intra-venous Procainamide can be used in hemodynamically stable patients. AV nodal blocking agents should be avoided. Treatment of choice for WPW syndrome is radiofrequency ablation. PMID:26939470

  2. The Case for Durative Actions: A Commentary on PDDL2.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.

    2003-01-01

    The addition of durative actions to PDDL2.1 sparked some controversy. Fox and Long argued that actions should be considered as instantaneous, but can start and stop processes. Ultimately, a limited notion of durative actions was incorporated into the language. I argue that this notion is impoverished, and that the underlying philosophical position of regarding durative actions as being a shorthand for a start action, process, and stop action ignores the realities of modelling and execution for complex systems.

  3. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates 21.181 Duration. (a) Unless sooner surrendered... FAA prescribes a shorter period. The duration of an experimental certificate issued for...

  4. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Duration. (a) Educational service agreements are for an indefinite duration and remain in effect...

  5. 14 CFR 21.77 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.77 Section 21.77 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Type Certificates 21.77 Duration. (a) Unless sooner... type certificate is effective for the duration of the amended certificate. (e) A provisional...

  6. 14 CFR 21.217 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.217 Section 21.217 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates 21.217 Duration. Unless sooner... effective for the duration of the corresponding provisional type certificate, amendment to a...

  7. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates 21.181 Duration. (a) Unless sooner surrendered... FAA prescribes a shorter period. The duration of an experimental certificate issued for...

  8. 14 CFR 21.217 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.217 Section 21.217 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates 21.217 Duration. Unless sooner... effective for the duration of the corresponding provisional type certificate, amendment to a...

  9. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Duration. (a) Educational service agreements are for an indefinite duration and remain in effect...

  10. 14 CFR 21.77 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.77 Section 21.77 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Type Certificates 21.77 Duration. (a) Unless sooner... type certificate is effective for the duration of the amended certificate. (e) A provisional...

  11. 14 CFR 21.77 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.77 Section 21.77 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Type Certificates 21.77 Duration. (a) Unless sooner... type certificate is effective for the duration of the amended certificate. (e) A provisional...

  12. 14 CFR 21.217 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.217 Section 21.217 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates 21.217 Duration. Unless sooner... effective for the duration of the corresponding provisional type certificate, amendment to a...

  13. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Duration. (a) Educational service agreements are for an indefinite duration and remain in effect...

  14. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates 21.181 Duration. (a) Unless sooner surrendered... FAA prescribes a shorter period. The duration of an experimental certificate issued for...

  15. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF... Duration. (a) Educational service agreements are for an indefinite duration and remain in effect...

  16. 14 CFR 21.77 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.77 Section 21.77 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Type Certificates 21.77 Duration. (a) Unless sooner... type certificate is effective for the duration of the amended certificate. (e) A provisional...

  17. 14 CFR 21.217 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.217 Section 21.217 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Provisional Airworthiness Certificates 21.217 Duration. Unless sooner... effective for the duration of the corresponding provisional type certificate, amendment to a...

  18. 14 CFR 21.181 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.181 Section 21.181 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Airworthiness Certificates 21.181 Duration. (a) Unless sooner surrendered... FAA prescribes a shorter period. The duration of an experimental certificate issued for...

  19. Should HRT be duration limited?

    PubMed

    Pitkin, Joan

    2013-12-01

    Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) has received consistently bad press, despite re-analysis of previous data new studies and supporting Consensus Statements from leading national and international societies. Many women have been convinced by women's journals and the media not to even consider HRT as an option and, General Practitioners, still limit duration to 5 years or, will, arbitrarily, discontinue prescriptions in the early 50s. This article seeks to make sense of our current position. Previous and new evidence on the safety of HRT is reviewed. New data on the long-term consequences of non-treatment of women with Premature Ovarian Insufficiency (POI) is presented and the dichotomy of the older female workforce is explored. From this, a logical plan of management emerges. PMID:24336246

  20. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  1. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  2. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  3. Health care delivery system for long duration manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.; Shulman, E. L.; Johnson, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Specific requirements for medical support of a long-duration manned facility in a low earth orbit derive from inflight medical experience, projected medical scenarios, mission related spacecraft and environmental hazards, health maintenance, and preventive medicine. A sequential buildup of medical capabilities tailored to increasing mission complexity is proposed. The space station health maintenance facility must provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic medical support as immediate rescue capability may not exist.

  4. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  5. An optimization principle for determining movement duration.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Hirokazu; Krakauer, John W; Qian, Ning

    2006-06-01

    Movement duration is an integral component of motor control, but nearly all extant optimization models of motor planning prefix duration instead of explaining it. Here we propose a new optimization principle that predicts movement duration. The model assumes that the brain attempts to minimize movement duration under the constraint of meeting an accuracy criterion. The criterion is task and context dependent but is fixed for a given task and context. The model determines a unique duration as a trade-off between speed (time optimality) and accuracy (acceptable endpoint scatter). We analyzed the model for a linear motor plant, and obtained a closed-form equation for determining movement duration. By solving the equation numerically with specific plant parameters for the eye and arm, we found that the model can reproduce saccade duration as a function of amplitude (the main sequence), and arm-movement duration as a function of the ratio of target distance to size (Fitts's law). In addition, it explains the dependency of peak saccadic speed on amplitude and the dependency of saccadic duration on initial eye position. Furthermore, for arm movements, the model predicts a scaling relationship between peak velocity and distance and a reduction in movement duration with a moderate increase in viscosity. Finally, for a linear plant, our model predicts a neural control signal identical to that of the minimum-variance model set to the same movement duration. This control signal is a smooth function of time (except at the endpoint), in contrast to the discontinuous bang-bang control found in the time-optimal control literature. We suggest that one aspect of movement planning, as revealed by movement duration, may be to assign an endpoint accuracy criterion for a given task and context. PMID:16571740

  6. Determinants of breastfeeding duration in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Awang, H; Salleh, A L

    2000-01-01

    The health benefits of breastfeeding to infants and mothers have been well recognised. This study applies linear regression analysis to assess the determinants of breastfeeding duration of first born using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey. The proportion of women who breastfed their first child is 82 percent, of which 97 percent reported their breastfeeding duration. The distribution of breastfeeding duration has a mean of 5.7 months and a median of two months. Important determinants of breastfeeding duration include maternal age, ethnicity, period of first birth, husband's occupation and work status of the woman. PMID:11836918

  7. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  8. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

  9. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 420.43 Section 420.43 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions 420.43 Duration....

  10. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 420.43 Section 420.43 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions 420.43 Duration....

  11. 14 CFR 21.51 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.51 Section 21.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates 21.51 Duration. A type certificate is effective...

  12. 14 CFR 21.613 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.613 Section 21.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals 21.613 Duration. (a) A...

  13. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not been...

  14. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration...

  15. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 890.1302 Section 890.1302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Demonstration Project 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  16. 14 CFR 21.143 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.143 Section 21.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates 21.143 Duration. A production certificate...

  17. 14 CFR 21.313 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration. 21.313 Section 21.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals 21.313 Duration. A PMA is effective...

  18. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 890.1302 Section 890.1302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Demonstration Project 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  19. 14 CFR 21.51 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.51 Section 21.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates 21.51 Duration. A type certificate is effective...

  20. 14 CFR 21.313 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.313 Section 21.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals 21.313 Duration. A PMA is effective...

  1. 14 CFR 21.143 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.143 Section 21.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates 21.143 Duration. A production certificate...

  2. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration of...

  3. 14 CFR 21.143 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.143 Section 21.143 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates 21.143 Duration. A production certificate...

  4. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration...

  5. 14 CFR 21.313 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.313 Section 21.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Parts Manufacturer Approvals 21.313 Duration. A PMA is effective...

  6. 14 CFR 21.613 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.613 Section 21.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals 21.613 Duration. (a) A...

  7. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not...

  8. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not been...

  9. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 890.1302 Section 890.1302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Demonstration Project 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  10. 14 CFR 21.613 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 21.613 Section 21.613 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Technical Standard Order Approvals 21.613 Duration. (a) A...

  11. 14 CFR 21.51 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration. 21.51 Section 21.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates 21.51 Duration. A type certificate is effective...

  12. 18 CFR 430.33 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration. 430.33 Section 430.33 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION SPECIAL REGULATIONS GROUND WATER PROTECTION AREA: PENNSYLVANIA 430.33 Duration. The delineation and declaration...

  13. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND... District of Columbia Department of Corrections 330.1102 Duration. This program terminates 1 year...

  14. 14 CFR 21.159 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.159 Section 21.159 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates 21.159 Duration. A production certificate...

  15. 14 CFR 21.51 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.51 Section 21.51 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Type Certificates 21.51 Duration. A type certificate is effective...

  16. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 420.43 Section 420.43 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions 420.43 Duration....

  17. 5 CFR 890.1302 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 890.1302 Section 890.1302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL... Demonstration Project 890.1302 Duration. The demonstration project will run from January 1, 2000,...

  18. 14 CFR 21.243 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.243 Section 21.243 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Delegation Option Authorization Procedures 21.243 Duration. A...

  19. 14 CFR 420.43 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration. 420.43 Section 420.43 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LICENSE TO OPERATE A LAUNCH SITE License Terms and Conditions 420.43 Duration....

  20. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli

  1. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not been...

  2. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not been...

  3. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  4. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  5. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social self-confidence than did mothers providing breast milk exclusively. PMID:22945984

  6. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author

  7. Perceived duration of chromatic and achromatic light.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Haruyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-15

    Luminance and color information are considered to be processed in parallel systems. The integration of information from these two separate systems is crucial for the visual system to produce a coherent percept. To investigate how luminance and color lights are perceived in time, we measured the perceived duration of light stimuli with and without colors in a paradigm involving simultaneous perception with presentation of two successive stimulus frames. Luminance contrast and color contrast of the stimuli were set with a chromatic substitution technique. In Experiment 1, the perceived duration of both chromatic stimuli and achromatic stimuli increased as the luminance contrast decreased. Experiment 2 tested if the duration of the percept was influenced by color contrast which was defined by colorimetric purity of the stimuli, when luminance contrast was set as low as practically possible. The result showed that the duration of the percept decreased with increasing color contrast of the stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the trend of perceived duration was consistent with the four primary colors, provided that the effective color contrast of stimulus was corrected based on the contrast sensitivity to the color. These experiments indicate that, with a high luminance contrast level, perceived duration of a stimulus is predominantly defined by luminance contrast, whereas in low luminance contrast conditions, the duration depends on the color contrast. The perceived duration of color stimuli showed an "inverse color contrast effect", similar to the well-known "inverse intensity effect" for luminance stimuli. The similarities and the differences between the two systems, as well as their priorities in processing temporal information of visual stimuli are further discussed. PMID:22133595

  8. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  9. Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration

    PubMed Central

    Gouva, Thiago S.; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V.; Paton, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473

  10. Does knowing speaker sex facilitate vowel recognition at short durations?

    PubMed

    Smith, David R R

    2014-05-01

    A man, woman or child saying the same vowel do so with very different voices. The auditory system solves the complex problem of extracting what the man, woman or child has said despite substantial differences in the acoustic properties of their voices. Much of the acoustic variation between the voices of men and woman is due to changes in the underlying anatomical mechanisms for producing speech. If the auditory system knew the sex of the speaker then it could potentially correct for speaker sex related acoustic variation thus facilitating vowel recognition. This study measured the minimum stimulus duration necessary to accurately discriminate whether a brief vowel segment was spoken by a man or woman, and the minimum stimulus duration necessary to accuately recognise what vowel was spoken. Results showed that reliable vowel recognition precedesreliable speaker sex discrimination, thus questioning the use of speaker sex information in compensating for speaker sex related acoustic variation in the voice. Furthermore, the pattern of performance across experiments where the fundamental frequency and formant frequency information of speaker's voices were systematically varied, was markedly different depending on whether the task was speaker-sex discrimination or vowel recognition. This argues for there being little relationship between perception of speaker sex (indexical information) and perception of what has been said (linguistic information) at short durations. PMID:24486810

  11. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations. Results: The magnetostimulation limits decreased with increasing pulse duration (T{sub pulse}). For T{sub pulse} < 18 ms, the thresholds were significantly higher than at the longest pulse durations (p < 0.01, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The normalized magnetostimulation threshold (B{sub Norm}) vs duration curve at all three frequencies agreed almost identically, indicating that the observed effect is independent of the operating frequency. At the shortest pulse duration (T{sub pulse} ≈ 2 ms), the thresholds were approximately 24% higher than at the asymptotes. The thresholds decreased to within 4% of their asymptotic values for T{sub pulse} > 20 ms. These trends were well characterized (R{sup 2} = 0.78) by a stretched exponential function given by B{sub Norm}=1+αe{sup −(T{sub p}{sub u}{sub l}{sub s}{sub e}/β){sup γ}}, where the fitted parameters were α = 0.44, β = 4.32, and γ = 0.60. Conclusions: This work shows for the first time that the magnetostimulation thresholds decrease with increasing pulse duration, and that this effect is independent of the operating frequency. Normalized threshold vs duration trends are almost identical for a 20-fold range of frequencies: the thresholds are significantly higher at short pulse durations and settle to within 4% of their asymptotic values for durations longer than 20 ms. These results emphasize the importance of matching the human-subject experiments to the imaging conditions of a particular setup. Knowing the dependence of the safety limits to all contributing factors is critical for increasing the time-efficiency of imaging systems that utilize time-varying magnetic fields.

  12. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required during the initial fabrication and also refurbishing processes of flight hardware systems. The recent use of microcontrollers in the design of both LDB flight hardware and test equipment has shown some examples of the adaptability and usefulness they have provided for our workplace.

  13. Evidence that gestation duration and lactation duration are coupled traits in primates.

    PubMed

    Dubman, Evgenia; Collard, Mark; Mooers, Arne

    2012-12-23

    Gestation duration and lactation duration are usually treated as independently evolving traits in primates, but the metabolic theory of ecology (MTE) suggests both durations should be determined by metabolic rate. We used phylogenetic generalized least-squares linear regression to test these different perspectives. We found that the allometries of the durations are divergent from each other and different from the scaling exponent predicted by the MTE (0.25). Gestation duration increases much more slowly (0.06 < m < 0.12), and lactation duration much more quickly (0.36 < m < 0.52) with body mass than the MTE predicts. By contrast, we found that the combined duration of gestation and lactation is consistent with the MTE's predictions (0.22 < m < 0.35). These results suggest that gestation duration and lactation duration might best be viewed as distinct but coupled adaptations. When transferring energy to their offspring, primate mothers must meet metabolically dictated physiological requirements while optimizing the timing of the switch from gestation to lactation in relation to some as-yet-unidentified body-size-related factor. PMID:22915631

  14. Duration of Immunity to Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kirsten; Gambhir, Manoj; Leon, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model was parameterized from the literature and also fit to age-specific incidence data from England and Wales by using maximum likelihood. We developed several scenarios to determine the effect of unknowns regarding transmission and immunity on estimates of the duration of immunity. In the various models, duration of immunity to NoV gastroenteritis was estimated at 4.1 (95% CI 3.2–5.1) to 8.7 (95% CI 6.8–11.3) years. Moreover, we calculated that children (<5 years) are much more infectious than older children and adults. If a vaccine can achieve protection for duration of natural immunity indicated by our results, its potential health and economic benefits could be substantial. PMID:23876612

  15. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

  16. Estimating magnitude and duration of incident delays

    SciTech Connect

    Garib, A.; Radwan, A.E.; Al-Deek, H.

    1997-11-01

    Traffic congestion is a major operational problem on urban freeways. In the case of recurring congestion, travelers can plan their trips according to the expected occurrence and severity of recurring congestion. However, nonrecurring congestion cannot be managed without real-time prediction. Evaluating the efficiency of intelligent transportation systems (ITS) technologies in reducing incident effects requires developing models that can accurately predict incident duration along with the magnitude of nonrecurring congestion. This paper provides two statistical models for estimating incident delay and a model for predicting incident duration. The incident delay models showed that up to 85% of variation in incident delay can be explained by incident duration, number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, and traffic demand before the incident. The incident duration prediction model showed that 81% of variation in incident duration can be predicted by number of lanes affected, number of vehicles involved, truck involvement, time of day, police response time, and weather condition. These findings have implications for on-line applications within the context of advanced traveler information systems (ATIS).

  17. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  18. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  19. Impaired duration mismatch negativity in developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Corbera, Slvia; Escera, Carles; Artigas, Josep

    2006-07-17

    A mismatch negativity event-related potential protocol was administered to dyslexic children and their respective controls to test whether a specific auditory deficit concerning phonetic processing or a lower level auditory processing deficit was present in developmental dyslexia. Three different contrast conditions were explored, including nonphonological sounds, contrasted in pitch and duration, and phonemes. Mismatch negativity amplitudes differed significantly between groups in the duration condition, whereas no differences were found in the frequency and phoneme conditions. Moreover, the dyslexic children had delayed mismatch negativity latencies in the three contrast conditions. Our results suggest a deficit in low-level auditory discrimination in dyslexic children, in particular when detecting stimulus duration, and support the rapid auditory processing theory of dyslexia. PMID:16791102

  20. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  1. Effect of Bolus Volume and Consistency on Swallowing Events Duration in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Weslania V; Cassiani, Rachel A; Santos, Carla M; Dantas, Roberto O

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Swallowing is a complex function with the control of the swallowing center being located in the brain stem. Our aim in this investigation was to evaluate, in healthy volunteers, the oral and pharyngeal transit of 2 bolus volumes and 2 consistencies, and the influence of these boluses on the proportion of pharyngeal clearance duration/hyoid movement duration. Methods Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows was performed in 30 healthy volunteers, aged 2977 years (mean 58 years). The subjects swallowed in duplicate of 5 mL and 10 mL of thick liquid barium and honey thick barium. We measured the duration of oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement, oropharyngeal transit, and the relation pharyngeal clearance duration/hyoid movement duration. Results A 10 mL bolus volume caused a longer UES opening duration than a 5 mL bolus volume, for both consistencies. The pharyngeal transit was longer for honey thick bolus consistency than for thick liquid, with both the volumes of 5 mL and 10 mL. For pharyngeal clearance, the difference was significant only with the 10 mL bolus volume. There was no difference associated with bolus volume or consistency in the relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration. Conclusions Increase in the swallowed bolus volume causes a longer UES opening duration and an increase in bolus consistency from thick liquid to honey thick causes a longer pharyngeal transit duration. The proportion between pharyngeal clearance and hyoid movement does not change with bolus volume or bolus consistency. PMID:25540944

  2. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  3. The Prevalence and Diagnostic Validity of Short-Duration Hypomanic Episodes and Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shefali; Dennehy, Ellen B; Suppes, Trisha

    2016-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic episode, as outlined in both the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and DSM-5), require a minimum duration of four consecutive days of symptoms of mood elevation. The 4-day criterion for duration of hypomania has been challenged as arbitrary and lacking empirical support, with many arguing that shorter-duration hypomanic episodes are highly prevalent and that those experiencing these episodes are clinically more similar to patients with bipolar disorder than to those with unipolar major depressive disorder. We review the current evidence regarding the prevalence, diagnostic validity, and longitudinal illness correlates of shorter-duration hypomanic episodes and summarize the arguments for and against broadening the diagnostic criteria for hypomania to include shorter-duration variants. Accumulating findings suggest that patients with major depressive episodes and shorter-duration hypomanic episodes represent a complex clinical phenotype, perhaps best conceptualized as being on the continuum between those with unipolar depressive episodes alone and those with DSM-5-defined bipolar II disorder. Further investigation is warranted, ideally involving large prospective, controlled studies, to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications of depression with shorter-duration hypomanic episodes. PMID:26830885

  4. 5 CFR 330.1102 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration. 330.1102 Section 330.1102 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Federal Employment Priority Consideration Program for Displaced Employees of...

  5. 14 CFR 21.313 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.313 Section 21.313 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Approval of Materials, Parts, Processes, and Appliances 21.313...

  6. 14 CFR 21.443 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration. 21.443 Section 21.443 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Designated Alteration Station Authorization Procedures 21.443...

  7. long duration dust storm sequences on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Observer Camera (MOC) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Mars Color Imager (MARCI) Mars daily global maps have revealed new characteristics for long duration dust storm sequences. These dust storm sequences have long histories of more than a week, travel long distances out of their origination region, and influence large areas in different regions of the planet. During the Ls = 180 - 360 season, except for global dust storms which involve multiple remote dust lifting centers and generally expand explosively from the southern hemisphere northward, other long-lived dust storm sequences usually travel southward through the Acidalia-Chryse, Utopia-Isidis or Arcadia-Amazonis channels with subsequent dust lifting along the way. Sometimes, they penetrate remarkably deep to the southern high latitudes, producing fantastic display of dust band. During the rest of the year, long duration dust storm sequences usually originate from the Argyre/Solis, Hellas/Noachis, or Cimmeria/Sirenum area and travel northward toward the southern low latitudes. Each route exhibits its own peculiar characteristics. We will present our results about these long duration dust storm sequences summarized from the complete archive of MGS MOC daily global maps and two years of MRO MARCI daily global maps. The systematic daily nearly global coverage of these maps makes it feasible to reconstruct the history of long duration dust storm sequences with detail.

  8. Influence of acupuncture on duration of labor.

    PubMed

    Zeisler, H; Tempfer, C; Mayerhofer, K; Barrada, M; Husslein, P

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the thus far controversially discussed influence of acupuncture (AP) on the duration of labor. Fifty-seven women with AP treatment (group A) were included in our study after spontaneous vaginal full-term delivery. The control group included 63 women (group B). Median duration of the first stage of labor was 196 min in group A and 321 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p < 0.0001). Median duration of the second stage of labor was 57 min in group A and 57 min in group B (Wilcoxon 2-sample test, p = 0.82). Thirty women had a premature rupture of the membranes (PROM), in group A 66.7% and in group B 33.3% (chi2 test, p = 0.02). Women without AP (group B) received significantly more often oxytocin during the first stage of labor compared with group A women (85 and 15%, respectively, chi2 test, p = 0.01) as well as during the second stage of labor (72 and 28%, respectively, chi2 test, p = 0.03). Our study suggests that AP treatment is a recommendable form of childbirth preparation due to its positive effect on the duration of labor, namely by shortening the first stage of labor. PMID:9692336

  9. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  10. 48 CFR 237.7203 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration. 237.7203 Section 237.7203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Educational Service Agreements...

  11. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  12. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  13. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  14. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  15. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  16. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  17. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Classification 2001.12 Duration of classification. (a) Determining duration of classification for information... section when determining the duration of classification for information originally classified under this... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section...

  18. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  19. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  20. Flow Duration at Selected Stream-Sites in Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinones, F.; Kiesler, J.; Macy, J.

    1980-01-01

    Flow duration characteristics were determined for 195 streamflow stations in Kentucky. The data includes flow duration tables for the period of record of the stations based on mean daily discharges. Seasonal flow durations are also presented from monthly analysis of the data. At sites affected by regulation, tables are published showing both the before and after regulation flow duration data. (USGS)

  1. Extended duration Orbiter life support definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Extending the baseline seven-day Orbiter mission to 30 days or longer and operating with a solar power module as the primary source for electrical power requires changes to the existing environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. The existing ECLS system imposes penalties on longer missions which limit the Orbiter capabilities and changes are required to enhance overall mission objectives. Some of these penalties are: large quantities of expendables, the need to dump or store large quantities of waste material, the need to schedule fuel cell operation, and a high landing weight penalty. This paper presents the study ground rules and examines the limitations of the present ECLS system against Extended Duration Orbiter mission requirements. Alternate methods of accomplishing ECLS functions for the Extended Duration Orbiter are discussed. The overall impact of integrating these options into the Orbiter are evaluated and significant Orbiter weight and volume savings with the recommended approaches are described.

  2. Extended Duration Orbiter - Meeting the challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucier, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper overviews the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program designed to provide an on-orbit stay capability of 16 days using the Orbiter Vehicle OV-102. Special attention is given to the EDO's subsystems and substructures, including the cryogenic pallet, the cryogenic storage tanks, the cryogenic solenoid valves, the regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, and the waste collection system. The EDO program will start with the STS-50 U.S. Microgravity Lab mission planned for June 1992.

  3. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  4. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  5. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma. One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally significant increase in exclusive BF at six months in women receiving a booklet plus video plus lactation consultation (LC) compared with the booklet plus video only. Two studies compared multiple methods of BF education versus routine care. The combination of BF booklet plus video plus LC was significantly better than routine care for exclusive BF at three months. Authors’ conclusions Because there were significant methodological limitations and the observed effect sizes were small, it is not appropriate to recommend any antenatal BF education. There is an urgent need to conduct RCTs study with adequate power to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education. PMID:22071830

  6. Sexual motivation and the duration of partnership.

    PubMed

    Klusmann, Dietrich

    2002-06-01

    The variation of sexual motivation with duration of partnership is analyzed in data from a survey of German students. The sample of 1865 includes only students aged 19-32 who reported to be heterosexual and to live in a steady partnership. Main results are (1) sexual activity and sexual satisfaction decline in women and men as the duration of partnership increases; (2) sexual desire only declines in women; and (3) desire for tenderness declines in men and rises in women. Because these results are based on cross-sectional data, a longitudinal explanation is precarious. Individual differences in mating strategy associated with the probability of having a partnership of shorter or longer duration at the time of the survey may account for some part of the findings. This possibility set aside, post hoc explanations for the results as reflecting a modal time course of partnership are evaluated with regard to habituation, routine, gender role prescriptions, and polarization of roles. In addition, an explanation from evolutionary psychology is offered, entailing the following ideas: the psychological mechanisms of attachment in an adult pair bond have evolved from the parent-child bond. Due to this nonsexual origin, a stable pair-bond does not require high levels of sexual desire, after an initial phase of infatuation has passed. Nevertheless, male sexual desire should stay at a high level because it was selected for in evolutionary history as a precaution against the risk of sperm competition. The course of female sexual desire is assumed to reflect an adaptive function: to boost attachment in order to establish the bond. PMID:12049023

  7. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Arajo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  8. Postintervention duration of anticoagulation in venous surgery.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate-Hoek, A J; Prins, M H; Wittens, C H A; ten Cate, H

    2013-03-01

    For a substantial proportion of patients with deep venous thrombosis (DVT), current treatment strategies are suboptimal and new treatment options are needed. Especially for the group of patients who are at the highest risk for post-thrombotic syndrome, new treatment modalities such as catheter-directed thrombolysis and additional stenting are being investigated. With current clinical studies addressing new technical options, the medical management of patients following these interventions deserves attention. The duration of anticoagulant treatment following surgical or radiological interventions for DVT seems not to be influenced by the presence of a venous stent. According to recent ACCP 2012 guidelines the anticoagulant management in patients who have had any method of thrombus removal performed, the same intensity and duration of anticoagulant therapy as in comparable patients who do not undergo thrombosis removal is recommended (Grade 1B). In the acute phase of thrombosis, irrespective of the technique and whether or not stenting is applied, immediate anticoagulation following the procedure is pertinent to reduce the risk of recurrent thrombosis and thrombus propagation. The long-term treatment duration after venous interventions therefore may be tailored based on common risk factors for recurrent thrombosis and the individual risk for bleeding. Selected thrombophilia factors, d-dimer assessment and residual venous thrombosis provide markers for recurrent DVT. Currently, vitamin K antagonists) provide the main anticoagulants for (prolonged) anticoagulation, while the new oral anticoagulants emerge as promising alternatives. In case prolonged anticoagulation after unprovoked DVT is not indicated, cardiovascular risk management is warranted because of an increased rate of arterial thrombotic events after DVT; aspirin may be indicated as secondary prevention against recurrent thrombosis (while providing primary prevention against arterial thrombosis). PMID:23482544

  9. The long duration exposure facility structural interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of an efficient structural interface between the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. Thermal gradients and manufacturing tolerances restrict the number of retention points in the shuttle to four with no more than three in one plane. Loads during the powered exit, high drag reentry, and landing are also critical factors in the location of retention points. A LDEF design is described that meets all requirements while avoiding the structural weight penalties associated with an asymmetrical arrangement. The ground handling and assembly problems are resolved in an economical and effective manner.

  10. Long Duration Exposure Facility space optics handbook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemp, William T.; Taylor, Edward; Bloemker, Carl; White, Frank; Rensner, Gary; Watts, Alan

    1993-09-01

    This handbook provides a user a space optics design guide to materials based on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Space Optics Experiments. The materials covered are refractive optics, coatings, filters, mirrors, second surface mirrors, quartz microbalances, and fiber optics. The guide presents the data and the experience learned from the LDEF Space Optics Experiments in one volume in a user-friendly fashion. The data reported in the handbook are a compilation of the data published by the individual experimenters. Natural space environment data with an emphasis on the microparticle environment are also presented.

  11. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  12. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  13. The extended duration orbiter waste collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brasseaux, Hubert J., Jr.; Winkler, H. E.; North, Jeffrey D.; Orlando, Samuel P.

    1990-01-01

    A new waste collection system (WCS) is undergoing development for use in the extended duration orbiter (EDO). Requirements for missions up to 18 days and the capability for missions up to 30 days necessitate the development of a new WCS that will have the appropriate capacity. The new system incorporates design features from both Skylab and Space Shuttle Orbiter WCSs. The system for EDO utilizes redundant fans and urine separators. Plans call for the new WCS to be implemented for OV-105 (Endeavor) as well as for EDO. This paper describes the design and development status of the new WCS.

  14. Dietary nutrients associated with short and long sleep duration. Data from a nationally representative sample?

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A.; Jackson, Nicholas; Gerstner, Jason R.; Knutson, Kristen L.

    2013-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with weight gain and obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, psychiatric illness, and performance deficits. Likewise, long sleep duration is also associated with poor physical and mental health. The role of a healthy diet in habitual sleep duration represents a largely unexplored pathway linking sleep and health. This study evaluated associations between habitual sleep parameters and dietary/nutritional variables obtained via the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 20072008. We hypothesized that habitual very short (<5 h) short (56 h) and long (9+ h) sleep durations are associated with intake of a number of dietary nutrient variables. Overall, energy intake varied across very short (2036 kcal), short (2201 kcal), and long (1926 kcal) sleep duration, relative to normal (2151 kcal) sleep duration (p = 0.001). Normal sleep duration was associated with the greatest food variety (17.8), compared to very short (14.0), short (16.5) and long (16.3) sleep duration (p < 0.001). Associations between sleep duration were found across nutrient categories, with significant associations between habitual sleep duration and proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. In stepwise analyses, significant contributors of unique variance included theobromine (long sleep RR = 0.910, p < 0.05), vitamin C (short sleep RR = 0.890, p < 0.05), tap water (short sleep RR = 0.952, p < 0.001; very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.941, p < 0.05), lutein + zeaxanthin (short sleep RR = 1.123, p < 0.05), dodecanoic acid (long sleep RR = 0.812, p < 0.05), choline (long sleep RR = 0.450, p = 0.001), lycopene (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.950, p <0.05), total carbohydrate (very short (<5 h) sleep RR = 0.494, p <0.05; long sleep RR = 0.509, p <0.05), selenium (short sleep RR = 0.670, p <0.01) and alcohol (long sleep RR = 1.172, p < 0.01). Overall, many nutrient variables were associated with short and/or long sleep duration, which may be explained by differences in food variety. Future studies should assess whether these associations are due to appetite dysregulation, due to short/long sleep and/or whether these nutrients have physiologic effects on sleep regulation. In addition, these data may help us better understand the complex relationship between diet and sleep and the potential role of diet in the relationship between sleep and obesity and other cardiometabolic risks. PMID:23339991

  15. Association between Total Sleep Duration and Suicidal Ideation among the Korean General Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Cho, Woo-Hyun; Park, Jong-Yeon; Choi, Won-Jung; Chang, Hoo-Sun

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine the association between sleep duration and suicidal ideation in Korean adults. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Data obtained by the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, and probability-cluster survey of civilian non-institutionalized Korean residents. Participants: A total of 15,236 subjects (6,638 males and 8,598 females) ? 19 years old. Measurements and Results: The weighted prevalence of self-reported short sleep duration (? 5 h/day) was 11.7% in males and 15% in females, and of long sleep duration (? 9 h/day) was 6.7% in males and 8.9% in females. A U-shaped relationship existed, with both short and long sleep durations associated with a higher suicidal ideation risk. Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the relationship between sleep duration and suicidal ideation, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health status. After controlling for covariates, people with short sleep were 38.1% more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR = 1.381, 95% CI 1.156-1.650) than people with sleep duration of 7 h/day. Suicidal ideation was 1.196 times higher (95% CI: 0.950-1.507) in long-sleeping people than people sleeping 7 h/day, although statistically not significant. Inclusion of depressive mood (a potential confounder) in multiple logistic regression models attenuated but did not eliminate the sleep duration/suicidal ideation association. Limitations: Sleep duration and suicidal ideation were assessed only by self-report. Conclusions: The sleep duration/suicidal ideation relationship is U-shaped in the Korean adult population. Self-reported habitual sleep duration may be a useful behavioral indicator for both individual and societal suicidal ideation risk. Citation: Kim JH; Park EC; Cho WH; Park JY; Choi WJ; Chang HS. Association between total sleep duration and suicidal ideation among the Korean general adult population. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1563-1572. PMID:24082316

  16. Electrocardiographical case. Narrow complex tachycardia provoked by the Valsalva manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Koh, C H; Foo, D; Ng, K S; Chong, C H

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old Chinese man presented with tachyarrhythmia during a human centrifuge session while performing a Valsalva manoeuvre at near normal (+1.4 Gz) centripetal forces. It was likely that the hydrostatic effects of sustained centrifugal forces, the distortion of the heart's shape, as well as swings in the autonomic dominance pre- and post-Valsalva manoeuvre, contributed to the tachyarrhythmia. The 12-lead ECG showed a narrow complex tachycardia with visible P-waves after the QRS complexes consistent with a long R-P' tachycardia. The intracardiac electrogram demonstrated a concentric retrograde atrial activation during narrow complex tachycardia. The V-A interval was 150 ms which was much longer than in typical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which is usually less than 70 ms. The A-H interval was short and the H-A interval was long, indicating that antegrade activation was over the fast pathway and retrograde activation was over the slow pathway. The diagnosis was atypical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and radiofrequency ablation was successfully applied to the slow AV nodal pathway. PMID:19421691

  17. Correlating beam radiation with sunshine duration

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, M. )

    1992-01-01

    For seven locations in north and central India, monthly averaged data of daily beam irradiation on a horizontal surface, I, have been correlated with bright sunshine duration, s, using the relation (I/I{sub o}) = b{sub o}(s/S{prime}) where I{sub o} is the monthly mean value of extraterrestrial irradiation over a day, S{prime} is the corresponding duration over which Campbell-Stokes type sunshine recorders remain sensitive. It is found that b{sub o} is a constant that is period and region dependent. Monthly estimates of beam radiation using the relation above show that for the seven stations rms errors are within 3-6%. Tests made for other stations in India also gave good estimates. For the computation of I, global radiation is not required unlike most estimation techniques and therefore the method should find a wide application. It may be observed that b{sub o} values turn out to be roughly equal to exp({minus}md{sub R}T{sub L}) where m is the relative airmass, d{sub R} is the Raleigh optical thickness and T{sub L} is the Linke turbidity factor.

  18. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5±69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. PMID:26701828

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  1. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  2. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  3. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  4. Rare Cause of Wide QRS Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Nikolay Yu.; Mironova, Natalia A.; Saidova, Marina A.; Stukalova, Olga V.; Golitsyn, Sergey P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is a well-known feature of neuromuscular diseases. Most commonly cardiac manifestations occur later in the course of the disease. Occasionally severe cardiac disease, including conduction disturbances, life-threatening arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy, with its impact on prognosis, may be dissociated from peripheral myopathy. We report a case of bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia as primary manifestation of myotonic dystrophy and discuss associated diagnostic and treatment challenges. PMID:26788375

  5. Integrated Approach for Fetal QRS Detection

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, R. B.; Hatton, Jeff O.; Lowery, Curtis L.; Preissl, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Fetal magnetocardiography provides reliable signals of the fetal heart dynamics with high temporal resolution that can be used in a clinical setting. We present a robust Hilbert transform method for extraction of the fetal heart rate. Our method may be applied to signals derived from a single channel or an array of channels. In the case of multichannel data, the channels can be combined to improve signal-to-noise ratio for the extraction of fetal heart data. The method is inherently insensitive to fetal position or movement and, in addition, can be automated. We demonstrate that the determination of R-wave timing is relatively insensitive to waveform morphology. The method can also be applied if the data were preprocessed by independent component analysis (ICA). We compared the Hilbert method, ICA, ICA + Hilbert, and raw signals and found that the Hilbert method gave the best overall performance. We demonstrated that there were approximately 171 errors in 46 789 fetal heart beats. PMID:18713688

  6. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) 725.210...

  7. 37 CFR 150.5 - Duration of proclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of proclamation. 150... 17 U.S.C. 902(a)(2) 150.5 Duration of proclamation. (a) The recommendation for the issuance of a proclamation may include terms and conditions regarding the duration of the proclamation. (b) Requests for...

  8. 5 CFR 1312.6 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Declassification of National Security Information 1312.6 Duration of classification. (a)(1) When determining the... years at a time. Records determined to be of historical value may not exceed the duration of 25 years... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of classification....

  9. 40 CFR 270.50 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of permits. 270.50 Section... Permits 270.50 Duration of permits. (a) RCRA permits shall be effective for a fixed term not to exceed... modification beyond the maximum duration specified in this section. (c) The Director may issue any permit for...

  10. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709... CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President may consider in setting or amending the duration of any suspension imposed pursuant to these...

  11. 36 CFR 223.31 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of contracts. 223.31... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions 223.31 Duration of contracts. Sale contracts shall not exceed 10 years in duration, unless there is a finding by the Chief, Forest Service, that...

  12. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1... Committees 1784.1-2 Duration, termination, and renewal. (a) An advisory committee not mandated by statute... than 2 years after the date of its establishment unless its duration is otherwise provided by law....

  13. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for which... duration of a model year is one calendar year plus 364 days....

  14. 7 CFR 1410.7 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1410.7 Section 1410.7... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM 1410.7 Duration... duration of the contract between 10 years and 15 years in length. (c) All contracts shall expire...

  15. 27 CFR 1.43 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permits. 1.43 Section 1.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits 1.43 Duration of permits. A basic permit shall continue in...

  16. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891.165 Section 891.165 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... General Program Requirements 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund...

  17. 7 CFR 1410.7 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1410.7 Section 1410.7... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM 1410.7 Duration... duration of the contract between 10 years and 15 years in length. (c) All contracts shall expire...

  18. 28 CFR 17.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of classification. 17.24 Section... ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Classified Information 17.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the... based on the duration of the national security sensitivity of the information. If the...

  19. 15 CFR 4a.5 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of classification. 4a.5..., DECLASSIFICATION, AND PUBLIC AVAILABILITY OF NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION 4a.5 Duration of classification. (a... indefinite duration of classification under predecessor orders to E.O. 12958 shall be declassified...

  20. 7 CFR 1410.7 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1410.7 Section 1410.7... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM 1410.7 Duration... duration of the contract between 10 years and 15 years in length. (c) All contracts shall expire...

  1. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for which... duration of a model year is one calendar year plus 364 days....

  2. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend 2400.53 Duration of stipend. Stipends for... fellowships. However, the duration of stipend payments will be subject to the maximum payment limits,...

  3. 27 CFR 1.43 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permits. 1.43 Section 1.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits 1.43 Duration of permits. A basic permit shall continue in...

  4. 7 CFR 3430.308 - Duration of awards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of awards. 3430.308 Section 3430.308... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative 3430.308 Duration of awards. The Secretary... statutory limitations. The duration of individual awards may vary as specified in the RFA and is subject...

  5. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for which... duration of a model year is one calendar year plus 364 days....

  6. 24 CFR 891.165 - Duration of capital advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of capital advance. 891.165 Section 891.165 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... General Program Requirements 891.165 Duration of capital advance. The duration of the fund...

  7. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) 725.210...

  8. 5 CFR 301.203 - Duration of appointment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of appointment. 301.203 Section... EMPLOYMENT Overseas Limited Appointment 301.203 Duration of appointment. (a) An appointment under this subpart is of indefinite duration unless otherwise limited. (b) An agency may make an overseas...

  9. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of leases. 211.27 Section 211.27 Indians BUREAU... DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases 211.27 Duration of leases. (a) All leases shall be for a term not to exceed a primary term of lease duration of ten (10) years and, absent specific lease provisions to...

  10. 5 CFR 1312.6 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Declassification of National Security Information 1312.6 Duration of classification. (a)(1) When determining the... years at a time. Records determined to be of historical value may not exceed the duration of 25 years... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of classification....

  11. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53... FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend 2400.53 Duration of stipend. Stipends for... fellowships. However, the duration of stipend payments will be subject to the maximum payment limits,...

  12. 5 CFR 1312.6 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Declassification of National Security Information 1312.6 Duration of classification. (a)(1) When determining the... years at a time. Records determined to be of historical value may not exceed the duration of 25 years... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of classification....

  13. 37 CFR 150.5 - Duration of proclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of proclamation. 150... 17 U.S.C. 902(a)(2) 150.5 Duration of proclamation. (a) The recommendation for the issuance of a proclamation may include terms and conditions regarding the duration of the proclamation. (b) Requests for...

  14. 36 CFR 223.31 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of contracts. 223.31... Sale Contracts Contract Conditions and Provisions 223.31 Duration of contracts. Sale contracts shall not exceed 10 years in duration, unless there is a finding by the Chief, Forest Service, that...

  15. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1... Committees 1784.1-2 Duration, termination, and renewal. (a) An advisory committee not mandated by statute... than 2 years after the date of its establishment unless its duration is otherwise provided by law....

  16. 43 CFR 1784.1-2 - Duration, termination, and renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration, termination, and renewal. 1784.1... Committees 1784.1-2 Duration, termination, and renewal. (a) An advisory committee not mandated by statute... than 2 years after the date of its establishment unless its duration is otherwise provided by law....

  17. 37 CFR 150.5 - Duration of proclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of proclamation. 150... 17 U.S.C. 902(a)(2) 150.5 Duration of proclamation. (a) The recommendation for the issuance of a proclamation may include terms and conditions regarding the duration of the proclamation. (b) Requests for...

  18. 27 CFR 1.43 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of permits. 1.43 Section 1.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Amendment and Duration of Basic Permits 1.43 Duration of permits. A basic permit shall continue in...

  19. 36 CFR 223.31 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of contracts. 223.31 Section 223.31 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND... Duration of contracts. Sale contracts shall not exceed 10 years in duration, unless there is a finding...

  20. 37 CFR 150.5 - Duration of proclamation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of proclamation. 150... 17 U.S.C. 902(a)(2) 150.5 Duration of proclamation. (a) The recommendation for the issuance of a proclamation may include terms and conditions regarding the duration of the proclamation. (b) Requests for...

  1. 7 CFR 1410.7 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1410.7 Section 1410.7... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM 1410.7 Duration... duration of the contract between 10 years and 15 years in length. (c) All contracts shall expire...

  2. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary... (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging... transplant or chemotherapy, eligible persons may be furnished temporary lodging for the duration of...

  3. 5 CFR 1312.6 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Declassification of National Security Information 1312.6 Duration of classification. (a)(1) When determining the... years at a time. Records determined to be of historical value may not exceed the duration of 25 years... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification....

  4. 40 CFR 270.50 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of permits. 270.50 Section... Permits 270.50 Duration of permits. (a) RCRA permits shall be effective for a fixed term not to exceed... modification beyond the maximum duration specified in this section. (c) The Director may issue any permit for...

  5. 20 CFR 725.210 - Duration of augmented benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of augmented benefits. 725.210... FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT, AS AMENDED Persons Entitled to Benefits, Conditions, and Duration of Entitlement Conditions and Duration of Entitlement: Miner's Dependents (augmented Benefits) 725.210...

  6. Time in Language: Event Duration in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll-Florit, Marta; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how we process and represent event duration in on-line language comprehension. Specifically, it examines how events of different duration are processed and what type of knowledge underlies their representations. Studies 1-4 examined verbs and phrases in different contexts. They showed that durative events took longer to

  7. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen; Faure, Paul A

    2014-11-15

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  8. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  9. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  10. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  11. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  12. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  13. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  14. Why Are Teams Important? - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kelvin Kirby, deputy director for the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, explains how the complexity of space radiation m...

  15. Shuttle Showcase: STS-124 - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The second in a series of flights to assemble the Japanese segment of the International Space Station saw the mammoth Kibo module delivered to the complex complements of Discovery and its crew on t...

  16. HIAD at NFAC - Duration: 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Timelapse video of a six-meter (19.7 ft), inflatable Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) article being prepared for testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Moffet...

  17. Prediction of Daily Flow Duration Curves and Streamflow for Ungauged Catchments Using Regional Flow Duration Curves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents a method to predict flow duration curves (FDCs) and streamflow for ungauged catchments in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. We selected 29 catchments from the Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont physiographic provinces to develop and test the propo...

  18. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  19. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  20. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibratedi.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  1. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  2. Artificial gravity for long duration spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Malcolm M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the fundamental physical properties of gravitational and centrifugal forces, describes the physiological changes that result from long-term exposure to the nearly gravity-free environment of space, and explores the nature of these changes. The paper then cites currently employed and advanced techniques that can be used to prevent some of these changes. Following this review, the paper examines the potential use of artificial gravity as the ultimate technique to maintain terrestrial levels of physiological functioning in space, and indicates some of the critical studies that must be conducted and some of the trade-offs that must be made before artificial gravity can intelligently be used for long duration spaceflight.

  3. Expanded capabilities of the Extended Duration Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cerna, Peter J.; Williams, David E.

    1990-01-01

    The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) is presented emphasizing the ability of the program to enhance the stay times of Spacelab, Spacehab, and Commercially Developed Space Facility missions. An overview of EDO is given with particular attention given to the modifications required for the implementation of Environmental Control and Life Support Systems specific to the Space Shuttle. The configuration, operation, and location of proposed regenerative CO2 removal, N2 supply, improved waste-collection, and power-reactant storage and distribution systems are described in detail. The EDO also includes a trash compactor, additional cryogenic hydrogen and oxygen, extra gaseous nitrogen, and a method for reducing stowed lithium hydroxide. The first utilization of the EDO system is a 13-day mission on the space shuttle Columbia planned for March 1992.

  4. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  5. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  6. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of this study. PMID:24450057

  7. Evaluating observational methods to quantify snow duration under diverse forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Martin, Kael A.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Gersonde, Rolf; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-02-01

    Forests cover almost 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow-covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three diverse forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow-covered area and snow duration metrics from the colocated instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration, and snow duration differences between forest treatments. The fiber-optic cable and the cameras indicated that mean snow duration was 8 days longer in the gap plots than in the control plots (p < 0.001). We conducted Monte Carlo experiments for observing mean snow duration in a 40 m forest plot, and found the 95% confidence interval was 5 days for 10 m spacing between instruments and 3 days for 6 m spacing. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  8. The influence of stimulus repetition on duration judgments with simple stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Birngruber, Teresa; Schrter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of stimulus repetition vs. stimulus novelty on perceived duration. In a reminder task, a standard and a comparison stimulus were presented consecutively in each trial, and the comparison was either a repetition of the standard or a different stimulus. Pseudowords (Experiment 1) or strings of consonants (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the standard and the comparison was either constant or variable. Participants were asked to judge whether the comparison was shorter or longer than the standard. In both experiments, we observed shorter judged durations for repeated than for novel comparisons whereas the manipulation of the ISI had no pronounced effects on duration judgments. The finding of shorter duration judgments for repeated as compared to novel nonwords replicates the results of a previous study (Matthews, 2011) which employed highly complex stimulus material. The present study shows that changes of simple, semantically meaningless stimuli are sufficient to result in a shorter perceived duration of repeated as compared to novel stimuli. PMID:26347682

  9. How hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension: using eye fixations to investigate the duration of speech processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  10. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  11. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.61.1 s). We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias. PMID:26506613

  12. Using wavelet transform and fuzzy neural network for VPC detection from the Holter ECG.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Liang-Yu; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Hu, Weichih

    2004-07-01

    A novel method for detecting ventricular premature contraction (VPC) from the Holter system is proposed using wavelet transform (WT) and fuzzy neural network (FNN). The basic ideal and major advantage of this method is to reuse information that is used during QRS detection, a necessary step for most ECG classification algorithm, for VPC detection. To reduce the influence of different artifacts, the filter bank property of quadratic spline WT is explored. The QRS duration in scale three and the area under the QRS complex in scale four are selected as the characteristic features. It is found that the R wave amplitude has a marked influence on the computation of proposed characteristic features. Thus, it is necessary to normalize these features. This normalization process can reduce the effect of alternating R wave amplitude and achieve reliable VPC detection. After normalization and excluding the left bundle branch block beats, the accuracies for VPC classification using FNN is 99.79%. Features that are extracted using quadratic spline wavelet were used successfully by previous investigators for QRS detection. In this study, using the same wavelet, it is demonstrated that the proposed feature extraction method from different WT scales can effectively eliminate the influence of high and low-frequency noise and achieve reliable VPC classification. The two primary advantages of using same wavelet for QRS detection and VPC classification are less computation and less complexity during actual implementation. PMID:15248543

  13. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  14. Local and Duration Magnitudes in Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgun, E.; Comoglu, M.; Koseoglu Kusmezer, A.; Kekovali, K.; Kalafat, D.

    2010-12-01

    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) has a well-designed broadband seismic network throughout Turkey. The network consists of 107 broadband seismometers (CMG-3T, CMG-3ESP/C, CMG-40T). Two types of magnitude scales used for broadband stations at NEMC. Local magnitude (Ml) and duration magnitude (Md) are calibrated using broadband stations. From 2006 through 2010, we calculate Ml values for western Anatolia earthquakes using maximum amplitudes on digital records from synthetic Wood-Anderson seismographs. We determine empirical Ml station corrections that minimize differences between Mls calculated from different type of broadband sensors. Application of these station corrections, in combination with distance corrections from Richter (1958) which have been in use at NEMC since 2003, produces Ml values that do not show any significant distance dependence. Ml determinations for western Anatolia (Marmara and Aegean regions) for 2006-2010 using our station corrections and Richters distance corrections have provided a reliable data set for recalibrating the Md scales for these regions. Our revised Ml values are consistent with available moment magnitude determinations for the western Anatolia earthquakes. Finally Md is calibrated against revised Ml and empirical equations are determined both magnitude scales.

  15. Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, David; Schmidt, Robert

    The Center on Materials for Space Structures (CMSS) at Case Western Reserve University is one of seventeen Commercial Centers for the Development of Space. It was founded to: (1) produce and evaluate materials for space structures; (2) develop passive and active facilities for materials exposure and analysis in space; and (3) develop improved material systems for space structures. A major active facility for materials exposure is proposed to be mounted on the exterior truss of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). This Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE) experiment will be an approximately 6 1/2 ft. x 4 ft. panel facing into the velocity vector (RAM) to provide long term exposure (up to 30 years) to atomic oxygen, UV, micro meteorites, and other low earth orbit effects. It can expose large or small active (instrumented) or passive samples. These samples may be mounted in a removable Materials Flight Experiment (MFLEX) carrier which may be periodically brought into the SSF for examination by CMSS's other SSF facility, the Space Materials Evaluation Facility (SMEF), which will contain a Scanning Electron Microscope, a Variable Angle & Scanning Ellipsometer, a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, and other analysis equipment. These facilities will allow commercial firms to test their materials in space and promptly obtain information on their materials survivability in the LEO environment.

  16. Confusion Regarding Duration of Insulin Action

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Ruth; Heinemann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    People with diabetes on insulin pumps often use a bolus calculator (BC) to obtain insulin dose recommendations. After the first bolus of the day, residual insulin activity, called bolus insulin on board (BOB), must be correctly accounted for to reduce the size of subsequent boluses and minimize the insulin stacking that would otherwise occur. Critical to achieving this calculation is having an appropriate duration of insulin action (DIA) setting in the BC. Unfortunately, the widespread use of inappropriately short DIAs may be causing unrecognized stacking of insulin that leads to unexplained hypoglycemic events. Currently, there is no widely accepted definition or value of the DIA for use in a BC. Various shortcomings regarding the selection of an appropriate DIA setting have led to considerable confusion among clinicians and insulin pump users about this important concept. Traditional pharmacological studies used to determine the pharmacodynamic (PD) properties of rapid-acting insulins create a misleading impression that insulin action times (IATs) in daily life vary from 3 to 5 hours and cause IATs to appear more variable than they actually are. These IAT time ranges are not appropriate for use as the DIA time value required to obtain an accurate bolus recommendation from a BC. We highlight the problems that arise when an inappropriately short DIA leads to excessive bolus recommendations, provide a research protocol to accurately measure DIA, and suggest appropriate DIA time recommendations for use in current clinical practice. PMID:24876553

  17. Effects of learning duration on implicit transfer.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kanji; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-10-01

    Implicit learning and transfer in sequence acquisition play important roles in daily life. Several previous studies have found that even when participants are not aware that a transfer sequence has been transformed from the learning sequence, they are able to perform the transfer sequence faster and more accurately; this suggests implicit transfer of visuomotor sequences. Here, we investigated whether implicit transfer could be modulated by the number of trials completed in a learning session. Participants learned a sequence through trial and error, known as the m n task (Hikosaka et al. in J Neurophysiol 74:1652-1661, 1995). In the learning session, participants were required to successfully perform the same sequence 4, 12, 16, or 20 times. In the transfer session, participants then learned one of two other sequences: one where the button configuration Vertically Mirrored the learning sequence, or a randomly generated sequence. Our results show that even when participants did not notice the alternation rule (i.e., vertical mirroring), their total working time was less and their total number of errors was lower in the transfer session compared with those who performed a Random sequence, irrespective of the number of trials completed in the learning session. This result suggests that implicit transfer likely occurs even over a shorter learning duration. PMID:26070899

  18. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  19. Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David; Schmidt, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Center on Materials for Space Structures (CMSS) at Case Western Reserve University is one of seventeen Commercial Centers for the Development of Space. It was founded to: (1) produce and evaluate materials for space structures; (2) develop passive and active facilities for materials exposure and analysis in space; and (3) develop improved material systems for space structures. A major active facility for materials exposure is proposed to be mounted on the exterior truss of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). This Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE) experiment will be an approximately 6 1/2 ft. x 4 ft. panel facing into the velocity vector (RAM) to provide long term exposure (up to 30 years) to atomic oxygen, UV, micro meteorites, and other low earth orbit effects. It can expose large or small active (instrumented) or passive samples. These samples may be mounted in a removable Materials Flight Experiment (MFLEX) carrier which may be periodically brought into the SSF for examination by CMSS's other SSF facility, the Space Materials Evaluation Facility (SMEF), which will contain a Scanning Electron Microscope, a Variable Angle & Scanning Ellipsometer, a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, and other analysis equipment. These facilities will allow commercial firms to test their materials in space and promptly obtain information on their materials survivability in the LEO environment.

  20. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  1. Analysis of the duration of migraine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Silva-Nto, Raimundo Pereira; Almeida, Kelson James; Bernardino, Silvya Neri

    2014-02-15

    To determine the minimum duration of migraine prophylaxis, after patients become pain-free. Migraine patients diagnosed according to criteria of International Classification of Headache Disorders-2 were treated prophylactically. After becoming pain-free, they were divided into two equal groups: in group 1, prophylaxis was maintained for another 12 months and in group 2, for 24 months. Each group was followed for more three years after prophylaxis period. Of the 50 patients, 39 (78%) were female and 11 (22%) were male. The age ranged from 18 to 50 years. Before treatment, the attack frequency for groups 1 and 2 was, respectively, 16.3 12.8 and 16.4 11.8 days per month (p = 0.769). Patients in groups 1 and 2 have become pain-free, respectively, with 21.4 11.2 and 16.8 9.9 months (p = 0.161). During three years without treatment, groups 1 and 2 maintained an annual frequency of respectively 3.2 and 0.5 headache days. Of the patients in group 2, 76.0% (19/25) remained pain-free during follow-up, versus 44.0% (11/25) of group 1, with a significant difference (p=0.001). The best results were obtained when migraine prophylaxis was maintained for 24 months after patients became pain-free. PMID:24308946

  2. The ATIC Long Duration Balloon Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T.

    Long Duration Balloon (LDB) scientific experiments, launched to circumnavigate the south pole over Antarctica, have particular advantages compared to Shuttle or other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions in terms of cost, weight, scientific "duty factor" and work force development. The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) cosmic ray astrophysics experiment is a good example of a university-based project that takes full advantage of current LDB capability and could effectively use future expansion in launch weight and flight duration. The ATIC experiment is currently being shipped to Antarctica in preparation for its first LDB science flight that will investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 101 0 to 10 1 4 eV. The instrument is built around a fully active, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in a thick carbon target. A highly segmented silicon matrix, located above the target, provides good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the "backscattered" particles from the interaction. Trajectory reconstruction is based on the cascade profile in the BGO calorimeter, plus information from the three scintillator hodoscope layers in the target section above it. The hodoscope planes also provide the primary event trigger to initiate the detector readout, another measure of the incident particle charge and an indicator of the interaction point in the carbon material. The scientific payload weighs ~1,540 kg and consumes ~300 Watts of power supplied by a ~580 Watt solar array system. A full evaluation of the experiment was performed during a test flight occurring between 28 December 2000 and 13 January 2001 where ATIC was carried3 to an altitude of ~37 km above Antarctica by a ~850,000 m helium filled balloon for one circumnavigation of the continent. All systems behaved well, the detectors performed as expected, >43 Gbytes of engineering and cosmic ray event data was returned and these data are now undergoing preliminary data analysis. During the coming 2002-2003 ATIC science flight we will be attempting two circumnavigations of Antarctica or ~30 days of continuous science data collection in the near-space environment of LDB float altitudes. An equivalent scientific "duty factor" is very difficult to achieve in LEO without the expenditure of 100's of millions. Finally, over the course of the ATIC project >60 students (undergraduate and graduate) at the collaborating institutions have gained experience in aerospace systems design, development, fabrication, testing, programming, operation and analysis that would be difficult or impossible to do with a space flight experiment. During the presentation we will discuss the ATIC experiment and detector technologies, the design considerations imposed by LDB launch, termination and recovery constraints, preliminary results from the ATIC test flight, plans for the upcoming science flight and consideration of university-based LDB science projects to the development of tomorrow's aerospace engineers and scientists.

  3. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  4. Evaluating Observational Methods to Quantify Snow Duration under Diverse Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, S. E.; Lutz, J. A.; Martin, K.; Raleigh, M. S.; Gersonde, R.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Forests cover over 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three different forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow covered area and snow duration metrics from the co-located instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration. The fiber-optic cable and the camera detected a significant difference of 8 days in mean snow duration between the gap and control plots. Monte Carlo experiments based on our results suggest that 10 m spacing of self-recording ground temperature sensors across a 40 m forest plot will capture mean snow duration to 5 days whereas 6 m spacing reduces the 95% confidence interval to 3 days. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  5. The ATIC Long Duration Balloon Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Gunasingha, R.

    2003-01-01

    Long Duration Balloon (LDB) scientific experiments, launched to circumnavigate the south pole over Antarctica, have particular advantages compared to Shuttle or other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions in terms of cost, weight, scientific 'duty factor' and work force development. The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) cosmic ray astrophysics experiment is a good example of a university-based project that takes full advantage of current LDB capability. The ATIC experiment is currently being prepared for its first LDB science flight that will investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 10(exp 10) to 10(exp 14) eV. The instrument is built around a fully active, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in a thick carbon target. A highly segmented silicon matrix, located above the target, provides good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the 'backscattered' particles from the interaction. Trajectory reconstruction is based on the cascade profile in the BGO calorimeter, plus information from the three pairs of scintillator hodoscope layers in the target section above it. A full evaluation of the experiment was performed during a test flight occurring between 28 December 2000 and 13 January 2001 where ATIC was carried to an altitude of approx. 37 km above Antarctica by an approx. 850,000 cu m helium filled balloon for one circumnavigation of the continent. All systems behaved well, the detectors performed as expected, more than 43 gigabytes of engineering and cosmic ray event data was returned and these data are now undergoing preliminary data analysis. During the coming 2002-2003 Antarctica summer season, we are preparing for a ATIC science flight with approx. 15 to 30 days of continuous data collection in the near-space environment of LDB float altitudes.

  6. Rashes and Exanthems on Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilscus, L.S.; Johnston, S.L.; Moynihan, S.; Kerstman, E.L.; Marshall, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As NASA expands its human space exploration to the Moon, Mars and beyond, it will be presented with many challenges, not the least of which will be dealing with medical conditions, which on earth are simple, but take on new levels of complexity in space habitats. Skin conditions exemplify this complexity. METHODS AND RESULTS: While skin conditions account for 7 % of outpatient presentations to a primary care provider in the United States, NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database indicates that cutaneous manifestations are significantly prevalent on-orbit. Reviewing this data for US astronauts, there have been 90 total cases of skin rashes during 27.34 person-years of spaceflight, or 3.29 cases/person. Specifically, STS-1 though 114 had 56 cases, ISS Expeditions 1 though 13 had 7 cases, Mir had 4 cases, Skylab had 5 cases and the Apollo program had 18 cases. If there was a period of 24 hours or more between rashes in the same crewmember, this was counted as an additional case. DISCUSSION: This prevalence is likely due, in some part, to constraints of hygiene and to immunologic changes that occur. The stresses of microgravity and austere Earth environments such as the Antarctic, submarine and military deployments, no doubt, similarly contribute to cutaneous reactions; but the difference of the environments are significant enough to warrant further study and discussion. This paper will discuss rashes, exanthems, and cutaneous reactions in space habitats; it will address diagnosis, causation, mitigation and treatment of skin conditions seen on orbit, to date, with a look to anticipating what may be seen with larger crews on future extended duration expeditions.

  7. Assessment of QT and JT Intervals in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Peyman; Keikhavani, Ala; Haghjoo, Majid; Fazelifar, Amirfarjam; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Zeighami, Mahbobeh; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Alizadeh, Abolfath

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolongation of the QT interval is considered a risk factor for cardiac adverse events and mortality. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) lengthens the QT interval. The corrected QT interval (QTc) is most likely overestimated because its prolongation is caused by increases in depolarization duration and not in repolarization. Objectives In this study, we aimed to apply corrected JT interval (JTc) as an appropriate measure of ventricular repolarization for predicting QTc in a formula. Patients and Methods The study population consisted of 101 patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and narrow QRS complexes (< 120 milliseconds). All patients underwent electrophysiology studies or ablation. A diagnostic catheter was positioned in the right ventricular apex (RVA) to induce LBBB at two different cycle lengths (CLs; 600 and 700 mv). The intrinsic QRS complex, QT time, and JT time were measured during SR and subsequent RVA pacing. The JTc was derived simply by subtracting the QRS duration from the QTc. Results Stimulation from the RVA increased the QTc from 456.20 ± 38.63 ms to 530.67 ± 47.73 ms at a CL of 600 (P < 0.0001) and to 502.32 ± 47.26 ms at 700 CL (P < 0.0001). JTc showed no significant changes with stimulation from the RVA (102.97 ± 11.35 ms vs. 103.59 ± 10.67 ms, P = 0.24). There was no significant correlation between JTc and QRS complex duration. A significant correlation was seen between QRS and QTc at both CLs. The ROC curve indicated that sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 67% were obtained with JTc duration of 92.6 ms. Conclusions Right ventricular pacing increases the QT interval without increasing the JT interval. Our results confirm that JTc, as an index of repolarization, is independent of ventricular depolarization. Therefore, it can be applied for predicting QTc in patients with LBBB. PMID:26949694

  8. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  9. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  10. Sleep Duration and Depressive Symptoms: A Gene-Environment Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Harden, Kathryn Paige; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Pack, Allan I.; Strachan, Eric; Goldberg, Jack

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether sleep duration modifies genetic and environmental influences on depressive symptoms. Method: Participants were 1,788 adult twins from 894 same-sex twin pairs (192 male and 412 female monozygotic [MZ] pairs, and 81 male and 209 female dizygotic [DZ] pairs] from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Data were analyzed using quantitative genetic interaction models, which allowed the magnitude of additive genetic, shared environmental, and non-shared environmental influences on depressive symptoms to vary with sleep duration. Results: Within MZ twin pairs, the twin who reported longer sleep duration reported fewer depressive symptoms (ec = -0.17, SE = 0.06, P < 0.05). There was a significant gene sleep duration interaction effect on depressive symptoms (a'c = 0.23, SE = 0.08, P < 0.05), with the interaction occurring on genetic influences that are common to both sleep duration and depressive symptoms. Among individuals with sleep duration within the normal range (7-8.9 h/night), the total heritability (h2) of depressive symptoms was approximately 27%. However, among individuals with sleep duration within the low (< 7 h/night) or high (? 9 h/night) range, increased genetic influence on depressive symptoms was observed, particularly at sleep duration extremes (5 h/night: h2 = 53%; 10 h/night: h2 = 49%). Conclusion: Genetic contributions to depressive symptoms increase at both short and long sleep durations. Citation: Watson NF; Harden KP; Buchwald D; Vitiello MV; Pack AI; Stachan E; Goldberg J. Sleep duration and depressive symptoms: a gene-environment interaction. SLEEP 2014;37(2):351-358. PMID:24497663

  11. Intensity-Duration Relation in the Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Christoph; Rust, Henning; Ulbrich, Uwe; Nvir, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For several hydrological modelling tasks precipitation time series with a high (sub-daily) resolution are indispensable. This data is, however, not always available and thus replaced by model data. A canonical class of stochastic models for sub-daily precipitation is the class of Poisson cluster processes, e.g. the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model (BLRPM). The BLRPM has been shown to be able to well reproduce certain characteristics found in observations. Our focus is on intensity-duration relationship which are of particular importance in the context of hydrological modelling. We analyse several high resolution precipitation time series (5min) from Berlin and derive empirical intensity-duration relations for several return levels of intensities (intensity-duration-frequency curves, IDF curves). In a second step, we investigate to what extend the variants of a BLRPM are able to reproduce these relations (i.e., the IDF curves) for different situations (e.g., seasons) and for the various return-levels of intensities. By means of a sensitivity study with the BLRPM, we investigate to what extend the ability to reproduce the intensity-duration relationships is related to certain relations between the model parameters. Such relations are typically useful to reduce the complexity of the model and thus robustify and facilitate parameter estimation.

  12. The depth dependence of earthquake duration and implications for rupture mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vidale, J.E.; Houston, H.

    1993-01-01

    THE duration of rupture is a fundamental characteristic of earthquakes, and is important for understanding the mechanics of faulting1,2. The complexity of the seismic source and the incoherence of the high-frequency seismic wavefield often inhibit the identification, location and timing of features in the later part of earthquake rupture. Here we sum many teleseismic records from regional seismic arrays, producing an unusually clear depiction of the earthquake source at short periods by suppressing background noise and coda generated near the receivers. The ending, as well as the beginning, of rupture is clearly identifiable for most earthquakes examined. Measurements of 130 large earthquakes show that near 100 km depth, rupture duration averages 11s when scaled to a moment of 1026 dyn cm; this decreases to 5.5 s at 650 km depth. Models of faulting suggest that duration should be inversely proportional to the shear-wave velocity and the cube root of stress drop. Thus, to explain the observed twofold decrease in duration with depth, stress drops would have to increase by a factor of four, as shear velocity increases with depth by only about 20%. However, observed stress drops show no strong trend with depth3,4, suggesting that the faulting process changes with depth.

  13. Duration Adaptation Occurs Across the Sub- and Supra-Second Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1) and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2). Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations. PMID:26903920

  14. Internal Clock Processes and the Filled-Duration Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearden, John H.; Norton, Roger; Martin, Simon; Montford-Bebb, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors compared duration judgments of filled stimuli (tones) with unfilled ones (intervals defined by clicks or gaps in tones). Temporal generalization procedures (Experiment 1) and verbal estimation procedures (Experiments 2 and 3) all showed that subjective durations of the tones were considerably longer than those of

  15. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  16. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  17. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  18. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  19. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  20. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  1. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  2. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  3. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  4. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT OFFICE, NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classification 2001.12 Duration of classification....

  6. 32 CFR 552.93 - Permit deadline and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Permit deadline and duration. 552.93 Section 552.93 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.93 Permit deadline and duration. (a) Permits...

  7. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  8. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  9. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  10. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  11. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  12. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  13. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  14. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  15. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  18. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  19. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  20. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  1. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according to its terms but not later than...

  2. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  3. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  4. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  5. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  6. 20 CFR 617.15 - Duration of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of TRA. 617.15 Section 617.15... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) 617.15 Duration of TRA... as determined under 617.3 (m)(1), 617.3(t), and 617.67(e). (b) Additional weeks. (1) To assist...

  7. 43 CFR 3583.4-4 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3583.4-4 Section 3583.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area 3583.4-4 Duration of lease. Leases shall be issued...

  8. 7 CFR 1430.211 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1430.211 Section 1430.211 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program 1430.211 Duration of contracts. (a) Except as provided in 1430.205, or elsewhere in...

  9. 49 CFR 543.8 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 543.8 Section 543.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD 543.8 Duration...

  10. 46 CFR 71.75-20 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of certificates. 71.75-20 Section 71.75-20... Duration of certificates. (a) The certificates are issued for a period of not more than 12 months, with... at any time when it is determined the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable...

  11. 27 CFR 22.49 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permits. 22.49 Section 22.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... User Permit, Form 5150.9 22.49 Duration of permits. Permits to withdraw and use tax-free alcohol...

  12. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be classified as long as required by national security considerations. When it can be determined, a...

  13. 27 CFR 19.98 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc 19.98 Duration of permit....

  14. 22 CFR 1414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Duration of prohibition. 1414.4 Section 1414.4 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... PROVISIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS 1414.4 Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by...

  15. 43 CFR 3110.3-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3110.3-1 Section 3110.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. All noncompetitive leases shall be for a primary term of 10 years....

  16. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  17. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 525.9 Duration...

  18. 43 CFR 2310.3-4 - Duration of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of withdrawals. 2310.3-4 Section...: Procedure 2310.3-4 Duration of withdrawals. (a) An order initially withdrawing 5,000 or more acres of land... made: (1) For such time as the Secretary determines desirable for a resource use; (2) For not more...

  19. 27 CFR 20.49 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permits. 20.49 Section 20.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Users Industrial Alcohol User Permit, Form 5150.9 20.49 Duration of permits. Permits to...

  20. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24... INFORMATION Classified Information 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original... automatically declassified. If the original classification authority cannot determine an earlier specific...

  1. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.679 Section 19.679 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the...

  2. 40 CFR 176.11 - Duration of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of a tolerance. 176.11... TIME-LIMITED TOLERANCES FOR EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS 176.11 Duration of a tolerance. (a) Tolerances...) The Administrator may revoke a tolerance at any time if the Administrator determines that...

  3. 43 CFR 3475.2 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of leases. 3475.2 Section 3475.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... 3475.2 Duration of leases. Leases shall be issued for a period of 20 years and so long thereafter...

  4. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45 Section 166.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  5. 34 CFR 600.58 - Duration of eligibility determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of eligibility determination. 600.58 Section... Education Loan (FFEL) Programs 600.58 Duration of eligibility determination. (a) The eligibility of a... the terms described in 600.53(b). (b) A foreign institution that has been determined eligible...

  6. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40 Section 91..., 1974 91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for a... it is determined that the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable requirements. (See ...

  7. 43 CFR 3120.2-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3120.2-1 Section 3120.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. Competitive leases shall be issued for a primary term of 10 years....

  8. 40 CFR 144.36 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of permits. 144.36 Section...) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit 144.36 Duration of permits. (a) Permits for... years to determine whether it should be modified, revoked and reissued, terminated or a...

  9. 40 CFR 166.28 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of exemption. 166.28 Section 166.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS..., Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions 166.28 Duration of exemption. (a) Specific or public...

  10. 29 CFR 500.50 - Duration of certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of certificate. 500.50 Section 500.50 Labor... Contractors Engaged in Farm Labor Contracting Activities Action on Application 500.50 Duration of... determined by the Secretary. (2) A certificate issued under the Act and these regulations may be renewed...

  11. 43 CFR 3430.6-3 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of leases. 3430.6-3 Section 3430.6-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases 3430.6-3 Duration of leases. Preference right leases shall be issued for a term of 20 years...

  12. 40 CFR 147.2917 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of permits. 147.2917 Section...-Class II Wells 147.2917 Duration of permits. Unless otherwise specified in the permit, the permits... Administrator will review each issued permit at least once every five years to determine whether it should...

  13. 5 CFR 2414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of prohibition. 2414.4 Section 2414.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by specific order of the Authority entered in...

  14. 40 CFR 176.11 - Duration of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of a tolerance. 176.11... TIME-LIMITED TOLERANCES FOR EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS 176.11 Duration of a tolerance. (a) Tolerances...) The Administrator may revoke a tolerance at any time if the Administrator determines that...

  15. 43 CFR 3430.6-3 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of leases. 3430.6-3 Section 3430.6-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases 3430.6-3 Duration of leases. Preference right leases shall be issued for a term of 20 years...

  16. 5 CFR 2414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of prohibition. 2414.4 Section 2414.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by specific order of the Authority entered in...

  17. 46 CFR 91.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 91.60-40 Section 91..., 1974 91.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for a... it is determined that the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable requirements. (See ...

  18. 15 CFR 970.515 - Duration of a license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of a license. 970.515 Section... Duration of a license. (a) Each exploration license will be issued for a period of 10 years. (b) If the... consistent with the Act and this part for a period of not more than 5 years. In determining...

  19. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 525.9 Duration...

  20. 25 CFR 82.11 - Duration of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of petition. 82.11 Section 82.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PETITIONING PROCEDURES FOR TRIBES REORGANIZED UNDER FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES 82.11 Duration of petition. Any...

  1. 5 CFR 330.208 - Duration of RPL registration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of RPL registration. 330.208 Section 330.208 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) 330.208 Duration of...

  2. 32 CFR 2700.13 - Duration of original classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of original classification. 2700.13 Section 2700.13 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE FOR MICRONESIAN STATUS NEGOTIATIONS SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS Original Classification 2700.13 Duration...

  3. 34 CFR 600.58 - Duration of eligibility determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of eligibility determination. 600.58 Section... Education Loan (FFEL) Programs 600.58 Duration of eligibility determination. (a) The eligibility of a... the terms described in 600.53(b). (b) A foreign institution that has been determined eligible...

  4. 42 CFR 441.304 - Duration of a waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of a waiver. 441.304 Section 441.304... Home and Community-Based Services: Waiver Requirements 441.304 Duration of a waiver. (a) The... the extension period. (b) CMS will determine whether a request for extension of an existing waiver...

  5. 43 CFR 3110.3-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3110.3-1 Section 3110.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. All noncompetitive leases shall be for a primary term of 10 years....

  6. 20 CFR 617.15 - Duration of TRA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of TRA. 617.15 Section 617.15... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Trade Readjustment Allowances (TRA) 617.15 Duration of TRA... as determined under 617.3 (m)(1), 617.3(t), and 617.67(e). (b) Additional weeks. (1) To assist...

  7. 27 CFR 20.49 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permits. 20.49 Section 20.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Users Industrial Alcohol User Permit, Form 5150.9 20.49 Duration of permits. Permits to...

  8. 5 CFR 2414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of prohibition. 2414.4 Section 2414.4 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR... Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by specific order of the Authority entered in...

  9. 25 CFR 212.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of leases. 212.27 Section 212.27 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT How To Acquire Leases 212.27 Duration of leases. The provisions of 211.27 of...

  10. 43 CFR 2310.3-4 - Duration of withdrawals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of withdrawals. 2310.3-4 Section...: Procedure 2310.3-4 Duration of withdrawals. (a) An order initially withdrawing 5,000 or more acres of land... made: (1) For such time as the Secretary determines desirable for a resource use; (2) For not more...

  11. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  12. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45 Section 166.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  13. 43 CFR 3120.2-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3120.2-1 Section 3120.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. Competitive leases shall be issued for a primary term of 10 years....

  14. 24 CFR 203.267 - Duration of periodic MIP.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of periodic MIP. 203.267 Section 203.267 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... Payment 203.267 Duration of periodic MIP. The mortgagee shall pay the MIP to the Commissioner until...

  15. 46 CFR 71.75-20 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of certificates. 71.75-20 Section 71.75-20... Duration of certificates. (a) The certificates are issued for a period of not more than 12 months, with... at any time when it is determined the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable...

  16. 42 CFR 86.36 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 86.36 Section 86.36 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND... Occupational Safety and Health Direct Traineeships 86.36 Duration and continuation. Direct traineeship...

  17. 46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40 Section..., 1974 189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for a... time when it is determined that the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable...

  18. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.679 Section 19.679 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the...

  19. 22 CFR 1414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of prohibition. 1414.4 Section 1414.4 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... PROVISIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS 1414.4 Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by...

  20. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.679 Section 19.679 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the...

  1. 19 CFR 112.26 - Duration of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of license. 112.26 Section 112.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Licensing of Cartmen and Lightermen 112.26 Duration of license....

  2. 27 CFR 20.49 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of permits. 20.49 Section 20.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Users Industrial Alcohol User Permit, Form 5150.9 20.49 Duration of permits. Permits to...

  3. 40 CFR 147.2917 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of permits. 147.2917 Section...-Class II Wells 147.2917 Duration of permits. Unless otherwise specified in the permit, the permits... Administrator will review each issued permit at least once every five years to determine whether it should...

  4. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45 Section 166.45 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS... 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  5. 49 CFR 543.8 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 543.8 Section 543.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD 543.8 Duration...

  6. 5 CFR 316.401 - Purpose and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and duration. 316.401 Section 316.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS TEMPORARY AND TERM EMPLOYMENT Temporary Limited Employment 316.401 Purpose and duration. (a) Appropriate use....

  7. 14 CFR 63.15 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of certificates. 63.15 Section 63.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS General 63.15 Duration of certificates....

  8. 40 CFR 40.125-1 - Limitations on duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Limitations on duration. 40.125-1 Section 40.125-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS 40.125-1 Limitations on duration. (a) (b) No research...

  9. 40 CFR 40.125-1 - Limitations on duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Limitations on duration. 40.125-1 Section 40.125-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION GRANTS 40.125-1 Limitations on duration. (a) (b) No research...

  10. 43 CFR 3120.2-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3120.2-1 Section 3120.2-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. Competitive leases shall be issued for a primary term of 10 years....

  11. 40 CFR 144.36 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of permits. 144.36 Section...) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Authorization by Permit 144.36 Duration of permits. (a) Permits for... years to determine whether it should be modified, revoked and reissued, terminated or a...

  12. 40 CFR 176.11 - Duration of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of a tolerance. 176.11... TIME-LIMITED TOLERANCES FOR EMERGENCY EXEMPTIONS 176.11 Duration of a tolerance. (a) Tolerances...) The Administrator may revoke a tolerance at any time if the Administrator determines that...

  13. 22 CFR 1414.4 - Duration of prohibition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Duration of prohibition. 1414.4 Section 1414.4 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL... PROVISIONS EX PARTE COMMUNICATIONS 1414.4 Duration of prohibition. Unless otherwise provided by...

  14. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24... INFORMATION Classified Information 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original... automatically declassified. If the original classification authority cannot determine an earlier specific...

  15. 14 CFR 65.15 - Duration of certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of certificates. 65.15 Section 65.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS General 65.15 Duration of certificates....

  16. 17 CFR 201.524 - Suspension of registrations: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension of registrations: Duration. 201.524 Section 201.524 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION... Suspension of registrations: Duration. Unless set aside, limited or suspended by order of the Commission,...

  17. 15 CFR 256.5 - Duration of projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of projects. 256.5 Section 256.5 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE... ASSOCIATE PROGRAM 256.5 Duration of projects. The work of a Research Associate is generally conducted on...

  18. 14 CFR 139.109 - Duration of certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of certificate. 139.109 Section 139.109 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... AIRPORTS Certification 139.109 Duration of certificate. An Airport Operating Certificate issued...

  19. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24... INFORMATION Classified Information 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original... automatically declassified. If the original classification authority cannot determine an earlier specific...

  20. 46 CFR 189.60-40 - Duration of Convention certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of Convention certificates. 189.60-40 Section..., 1974 189.60-40 Duration of Convention certificates. (a) The following certificates are valid for a... time when it is determined that the vessel is no longer in compliance with applicable...

  1. 5 CFR 352.704 - Duration of reemployment rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of reemployment rights. 352.704 Section 352.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS... After Service Under the Indian Self-Determination Act in Tribal Organizations 352.704 Duration...

  2. 43 CFR 3430.6-3 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of leases. 3430.6-3 Section 3430.6-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases 3430.6-3 Duration of leases. Preference right leases shall be issued for a term of 20 years...

  3. 29 CFR 500.50 - Duration of certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of certificate. 500.50 Section 500.50 Labor... Contractors Engaged in Farm Labor Contracting Activities Action on Application 500.50 Duration of... determined by the Secretary. (2) A certificate issued under the Act and these regulations may be renewed...

  4. 7 CFR 1430.211 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1430.211 Section 1430.211 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT... Program 1430.211 Duration of contracts. (a) Except as provided in 1430.205, or elsewhere in...

  5. 45 CFR 400.113 - Duration of eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Duration of eligibility. 400.113 Section 400.113 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR... Services 400.113 Duration of eligibility. (a) Except as specified in paragraph (b), a refugee child...

  6. 43 CFR 3475.2 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of leases. 3475.2 Section 3475.2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... 3475.2 Duration of leases. Leases shall be issued for a period of 20 years and so long thereafter...

  7. 43 CFR 3583.4-4 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3583.4-4 Section 3583.4-4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Whiskeytown-Shasta-Trinity National Recreation Area 3583.4-4 Duration of lease. Leases shall be issued...

  8. 42 CFR 488.454 - Duration of remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of remedies. 488.454 Section 488.454... Compliance for Long-Term Care Facilities with Deficiencies 488.454 Duration of remedies. (a) Except as... has achieved substantial compliance, as determined by CMS or the State based upon a revisit or...

  9. 27 CFR 22.49 - Duration of permits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permits. 22.49 Section 22.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... User Permit, Form 5150.9 22.49 Duration of permits. Permits to withdraw and use tax-free alcohol...

  10. 43 CFR 3110.3-1 - Duration of lease.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of lease. 3110.3-1 Section 3110.3-1 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Duration of lease. All noncompetitive leases shall be for a primary term of 10 years....

  11. 27 CFR 19.98 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc 19.98 Duration of permit....

  12. 5 CFR 316.301 - Purpose and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Purpose and duration. 316.301 Section 316... TERM EMPLOYMENT Term Employment 316.301 Purpose and duration. (a) An agency may make a term... appointments made for more than 1 year but less than 4 years up to the 4-year limit in increments determined...

  13. 27 CFR 19.98 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.98 Section 19.98 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Obtaining a Permit Requirements for An Operating Permit Under the Irc 19.98 Duration of permit....

  14. 20 CFR 416.2171 - Duration of agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of agreement. 416.2171 Section 416.2171 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Medicaid Eligibility Determinations 416.2171 Duration of agreement. An...

  15. 19 CFR 112.26 - Duration of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of license. 112.26 Section 112.26 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARRIERS, CARTMEN, AND LIGHTERMEN Licensing of Cartmen and Lightermen 112.26 Duration of license....

  16. 40 CFR 166.28 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of exemption. 166.28 Section 166.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS..., Quarantine, and Public Health Exemptions 166.28 Duration of exemption. (a) Specific or public...

  17. 15 CFR 971.415 - Duration of a permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of a permit. 971.415 Section 971.415 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued....415 Duration of a permit. (a) Unless suspended or revoked pursuant to 971.406 and 971.417,...

  18. 25 CFR 82.11 - Duration of petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of petition. 82.11 Section 82.11 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT PETITIONING PROCEDURES FOR TRIBES REORGANIZED UNDER FEDERAL STATUTE AND OTHER ORGANIZED TRIBES 82.11 Duration of petition. Any...

  19. 27 CFR 478.49 - Duration of license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of license. 478.49 Section 478.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND....49 Duration of license. The license entitles the person to whom issued to engage in the business...

  20. 49 CFR 92.27 - Duration of deductions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of deductions. 92.27 Section 92.27 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation RECOVERING DEBTS TO THE UNITED STATES BY SALARY OFFSET 92.27 Duration of deductions. Debts shall be collected in one lump sum where possible. However,...