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Sample records for qrs complex duration

  1. QRS Duration or QRS Morphology: What Really Matters in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy?

    PubMed

    Poole, Jeanne E; Singh, Jagmeet P; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    The beneficial effects of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have been well established in large, randomized trials. Despite the documented success of this treatment strategy, a significant proportion of patients with heart failure do not achieve the desired response. The aim of this review was to delineate factors contributing to a successful CRT response, emphasizing the interrelated roles of QRS morphology and QRS interval duration. More data are available on QRS duration, as this factor has been used as an enrollment criterion in clinical trials. Response to CRT seems to increase as the QRS duration becomes longer, with greatest benefit in QRS duration ≥150 ms. Recent data have placed more emphasis on QRS morphology, demonstrating variability in clinical response between patients with left bundle branch block, non-left bundle branch block, and right bundle branch block morphology. Notably, myocardial scarring and cardiac dimensions, among other variables, may alter heterogeneity in ventricular activation. Understanding the electrophysiological underpinnings of the QRS complex has become important not only to predict response but also to facilitate the patient-specific delivery of resynchronization therapy. PMID:26940932

  2. Simple and Robust Realtime QRS Detection Algorithm Based on Spatiotemporal Characteristic of the QRS Complex

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jinkwon; Shin, Hangsik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an intuitive and robust realtime QRS detection algorithm based on the physiological characteristics of the electrocardiogram waveform. The proposed algorithm finds the QRS complex based on the dual criteria of the amplitude and duration of QRS complex. It consists of simple operations, such as a finite impulse response filter, differentiation or thresholding without complex and computational operations like a wavelet transformation. The QRS detection performance is evaluated by using both an MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and an AHA ECG database (a total of 435,700 beats). The sensitivity (SE) and positive predictivity value (PPV) were 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. According to the database, the SE and PPV were 99.90% and 99.91% in the MIT-BIH database and 99.84% and 99.84% in the AHA database, respectively. The result of the noisy environment test using record 119 from the MIT-BIH database indicated that the proposed method was scarcely affected by noise above 5 dB SNR (SE = 100%, PPV > 98%) without the need for an additional de-noising or back searching process. PMID:26943949

  3. Simple and Robust Realtime QRS Detection Algorithm Based on Spatiotemporal Characteristic of the QRS Complex.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkwon; Shin, Hangsik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an intuitive and robust realtime QRS detection algorithm based on the physiological characteristics of the electrocardiogram waveform. The proposed algorithm finds the QRS complex based on the dual criteria of the amplitude and duration of QRS complex. It consists of simple operations, such as a finite impulse response filter, differentiation or thresholding without complex and computational operations like a wavelet transformation. The QRS detection performance is evaluated by using both an MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and an AHA ECG database (a total of 435,700 beats). The sensitivity (SE) and positive predictivity value (PPV) were 99.85% and 99.86%, respectively. According to the database, the SE and PPV were 99.90% and 99.91% in the MIT-BIH database and 99.84% and 99.84% in the AHA database, respectively. The result of the noisy environment test using record 119 from the MIT-BIH database indicated that the proposed method was scarcely affected by noise above 5 dB SNR (SE = 100%, PPV > 98%) without the need for an additional de-noising or back searching process. PMID:26943949

  4. ECG low QRS voltage and wide QRS complex predictive of centenarian 360-day mortality.

    PubMed

    Szewieczek, Jan; Gąsior, Zbigniew; Duława, Jan; Francuz, Tomasz; Legierska, Katarzyna; Batko-Szwaczka, Agnieszka; Hornik, Beata; Janusz-Jenczeń, Magdalena; Włodarczyk, Iwona; Wilczyński, Krzysztof

    2016-04-01

    We examined the electrocardiographic (ECG) findings of centenarians and associated them with >360-day survival. Physical and functional assessment, resting electrocardiogram and laboratory tests were performed on 86 study participants 101.9 ± 1.2 years old (mean ± SD) (70 women, 16 men) and followed for at least 360 days. Centenarian ECGs were assessed for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) according to the Romhilt-Estes score, Sokolow-Lyon criteria and Cornell voltage criteria which were positive for 12.8, 6.98, and 10.5 % of participants, respectively. Fifty-two study participants (60 %) survived ≥360 days. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a negative relationship between 360-day survival and the following: R II <0.45 mV adjusted for CRP (odds ratio (OR) = 0.108, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 0.034-0.341, P < .001), R aVF < 0.35 mV adjusted for CRP (OR = 0.151, 95 % CI = 0.039-0.584, P < .006), Sokolow-Lyon voltage <1.45 mV adjusted for CRP (OR = 0.178, 95 % CI = 0.064-0.492, P = .001), QRS ≥90 ms adjusted for CRP (OR = 0.375, 95 % CI = 0.144-0.975, P = .044), and Romhilt-Estes score ≥5 points adjusted for sex and Barthel Index (OR = 0.459, 95 % CI = 0.212-0.993, P = .048) in single variable ECG models. QRS voltage correlated positively with systolic and pulse pressure, serum vitamin B12 level, sodium, calcium, phosphorous, TIMP-1, and eGFR. QRS voltage correlated negatively with BMI, WHR, serum leptin, IL-6, TNF-α, and PAI-1 levels. QRS complex duration correlated positively with CRP; QTc correlated positively with TNF-α. Results suggest that Romhilt-Estes LVH criteria scores ≥5 points, low ECG QRS voltages (Sokolow-Lyon voltage <1.45 mV), and QRS complexes ≥90 ms are predictive of centenarian 360-day mortality. PMID:27039197

  5. Relation of QRS duration to mortality in a community-based cohort with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Bongioanni, Sergio; Bianchi, Francesca; Migliardi, Alessandro; Gnavi, Roberto; Pron, Paolo Giay; Casetta, Marzia; Conte, Maria Rosa

    2007-08-01

    A prolonged QRS duration on the standard electrocardiogram is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death in cardiomyopathies of different origin. However, the relation between QRS duration and prognosis in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) remains undefined. We assessed the relation between QRS duration and cardiovascular death in 241 consecutive patients with HC. The study cohort was divided into 2 groups according to QRS duration: <120 and > or =120 ms. Of the 241 patients, 191 (79%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 50 (21%) a QRS duration > or =120 ms. During a mean follow-up of 7.9 +/- 5.1 years, 35 patients died of cardiovascular causes related to HC. Of these 35 patients, 13 (6%) had a QRS duration <120 ms and 22 (43%) had a QRS duration > or =120 ms (p <0.01). Risk of cardiovascular death was significantly higher in patients with a QRS duration > or =120 ms than in those with a QRS duration <120 ms (relative risk 5.2, p <0.0001). At 8-year follow-up, cumulative risks of HC-related death were 7.1% in patients with a QRS duration <120 ms and 55% in those with a QRS duration > or =120 ms. Multivariate analysis confirmed that a QRS duration > or =120 ms was independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death (hazard ratio 3.2, p = 0.007). New York Heart Association functional class III/IV was the only other clinical variable significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular death. In conclusion, in patients with HC, QRS duration on standard electrocardiogram is directly related to cardiovascular mortality, and a QRS duration > or =120 ms is a strong and independent predictor of prognosis. PMID:17659936

  6. Detecting drug-induced prolongation of the QRS complex: New insights for cardiac safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cros, C.; Skinner, M.; Moors, J.; Lainee, P.; Valentin, J.P.

    2012-12-01

    Background: Drugs slowing the conduction of the cardiac action potential and prolonging QRS complex duration by blocking the sodium current (I{sub Na}) may carry pro-arrhythmic risks. Due to the frequency-dependent block of I{sub Na}, this study assesses whether activity-related spontaneous increases in heart rate (HR) occurring during standard dog telemetry studies can be used to optimise the detection of class I antiarrhythmic-induced QRS prolongation. Methods: Telemetered dogs were orally dosed with quinidine (class Ia), mexiletine (class Ib) or flecainide (class Ic). QRS duration was determined standardly (5 beats averaged at rest) but also prior to and at the plateau of each acute increase in HR (3 beats averaged at steady state), and averaged over 1 h period from 1 h pre-dose to 5 h post-dose. Results: Compared to time-matched vehicle, at rest, only quinidine and flecainide induced increases in QRS duration (E{sub max} 13% and 20% respectively, P < 0.01–0.001) whereas mexiletine had no effect. Importantly, the increase in QRS duration was enhanced at peak HR with an additional effect of + 0.7 ± 0.5 ms (quinidine, NS), + 1.8 ± 0.8 ms (mexiletine, P < 0.05) and + 2.8 ± 0.8 ms (flecainide, P < 0.01) (calculated as QRS at basal HR-QRS at high HR). Conclusion: Electrocardiogram recordings during elevated HR, not considered during routine analysis optimised for detecting QT prolongation, can be used to sensitise the detection of QRS prolongation. This could prove useful when borderline QRS effects are detected. Analysing during acute increases in HR could also be useful for detecting drug-induced effects on other aspects of cardiac function. -- Highlights: ► We aimed to improve detection of drug-induced QRS prolongation in safety screening. ► We used telemetered dogs to test class I antiarrhythmics at low and high heart rate. ► At low heart rate only quinidine and flecainide induced an increase in QRS duration. ► At high heart rate the effects of two out of three antiarrhythmics were enhanced. ► Detection of a drug-induced prolongation of QRS was improved at high heart rate.

  7. The value of electrocardiography for differential diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Pedro A; Pereira, Salomé; Candeias, Rui; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2014-03-01

    Correct diagnosis in wide QRS complex tachycardia remains a challenge. Differential diagnosis between ventricular and supraventricular tachycardia has important therapeutic and prognostic implications, and although data from clinical history and physical examination may suggest a particular origin, it is the 12-lead surface electrocardiogram that usually enables this differentiation. Since 1978, various electrocardiographic criteria have been proposed for the differential diagnosis of wide complex tachycardias, particularly the presence of atrioventricular dissociation, and the axis, duration and morphology of QRS complexes. Despite the wide variety of criteria, diagnosis is still often difficult, and errors can have serious consequences. To reduce such errors, several differential diagnosis algorithms have been proposed since 1991. However, in a small percentage of wide QRS tachycardias the diagnosis remains uncertain and in these the wisest decision is to treat them as ventricular tachycardias. The authors' objective was to review the main electrocardiographic criteria and differential diagnosis algorithms of wide QRS tachycardia. PMID:24656320

  8. Presence of Fragmented QRS Complexes in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sayin, Muhammet Rasit; Altuntas, Murat; Aktop, Ziyaeddin; Oz, Ibrahim I; Yavuz, Nesimi; Akpinar, Ibrahim; Sagatli, Erol; Karabag, Turgut; Aydin, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a disease with increasing prevalence, which is mainly characterized by increased cardiopulmonary mortality and morbidity. It is well-known that OSAS patients have increased prevalence of cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease, heart failure, and arrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of prolonged and fragmented QRS complexes, which have previously been associated with cardiovascular mortality, in OSAS patients. Methods: Our study included 51 patients (mean age 41.6 ± 10.1 years) who were recently diagnosed with OSAS (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥5 events/h) and never received therapy. The control group consisted of 34 volunteers (mean age 43.1 ± 11.6 years) in whom OSAS was excluded (AHI <5 events/h). The longest QRS complexes was measured in the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and the presence of fragmentation in QRS complexes was investigated. Results: Fragmented QRS frequency was significantly higher in patients with OSAS (n = 31 [61%] vs. n = 12 [35%], P = 0.021). QRS and QTc durations were also significantly longer in OSAS patients than controls (99.8 ± 13.9 ms vs. 84.7 ± 14.3 ms, P < 0.001; 411.4 ± 26.9 ms vs. 390.1 ± 32.2 ms, P = 0.001, respectively). Analysis of the patient and controls groups combined revealed a weak-moderate correlation between AHI and QRS duration (r = 0.292, P = 0.070). OSAS group had no correlation between AHI and QRS duration (r = −0.231, P = 0.203). Conclusions: In our study fragmented QRS frequency and QRS duration were found to increase in OSAS patients. Both parameters are related with increased cardiovascular mortality. Considering the prognostic importance of ECG parameters, it may be reasonable to recommend more detailed evaluation of OSAS patients with fragmented or prolonged QRS complexes with respect to presence of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26265605

  9. Frailty severity is significantly associated with electrocardiographic QRS duration in chronic dialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chia-Ter

    2015-01-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients are at increased risk of sudden cardiac death, the risk of which is presumably related to arrhythmia. Electrocardiographic (ECG) parameters have been found to correlate with arrhythmia and predict cardiovascular outcomes in ESRD patients. Frailty is also a common feature in this population. We investigate whether the severity of dialysis frailty is associated with ECG findings, including PR interval, QRS duration, and QTc interval. Presence and severity of frailty was ascertained using six different self-report questionnaires with proven construct validity. Correlation analysis between frailty severity and ECG was made, and those with significant association entered into multiple regression analysis for confirmation. Among a cohort of chronic hemodialysis patients, we found that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale, is significantly associated with QRS duration (r = − 0.3, p < 0.05). Dialysis patients with QRS longer than 120 ms had significantly lower severity of frailty than those with QRS less than 120 ms (p = 0.01 for the Edmonton frailty scale and 0.05 for simple FRAIL scale). Regression analysis showed that frailty severity, assessed by the Edmonton frailty scale and simple FRAIL scale, was significantly associated with QRS duration independent of serum electrolyte levels. In conclusion, a significant relationship exists between the severity of frailty and QRS duration in ESRD patients. This might be an under-recognized link between frailty and its adverse cardiovascular impact in these patients. PMID:26528415

  10. Common variants in 22 loci are associated with QRS duration and cardiac ventricular conduction

    PubMed Central

    Sotoodehnia, Nona; Isaacs, Aaron; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Drr, Marcus; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Nolte, Ilja M.; van der Harst, Pim; Mller, Martina; Eijgelsheim, Mark; Alonso, Alvaro; Hicks, Andrew A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Hayward, Caroline; Smith, Albert Vernon; Polasek, Ozren; Giovannone, Steven; Fu, Jingyuan; Magnani, Jared W.; Marciante, Kristin D.; Pfeufer, Arne; Gharib, Sina A.; Teumer, Alexander; Li, Man; Bis, Joshua C.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Aspelund, Thor; Kttgen, Anna; Johnson, Toby; Rice, Kenneth; Sie, Mark P.S.; Wang, Amanda Ying; Klopp, Norman; Fuchsberger, Christian; Wild, Sarah H.; Leach, Irene Mateo; Estrada, Karol; Vlker, Uwe; Wright, Alan F.; Asselbergs, Folkert W.; Qu, Jiaxiang; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Sinner, Moritz F.; Kors, Jan A.; Petersmann, Astrid; Harris, Tamara B.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Oostra, Ben A.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Perz, Siegfried; de Boer, Rudolf A.; Uitterlinden, Andr G.; Vzke, Henry; Spector, Timothy D.; Liu, Fang-Yu; Boerwinkle, Eric; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Rotter, Jerome I.; van Herpen, G; Levy, Daniel; Wichmann, H.-Erich; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Kao, W.H. Linda; Heckbert, Susan R.; Meitinger, Thomas; Hofman, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Folsom, Aaron R.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Schwienbacher, Christine; ODonnell, Christopher J.; Volpato, Claudia Beu; Caulfield, Mark J.; Connell, John M.; Launer, Lenore; Lu, Xiaowen; Franke, Lude; Fehrmann, Rudolf S.N.; te Meerman, Gerard; Groen, Harry J.M.; Weersma, Rinse K.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Ophoff, Roel A.; Navis, Gerjan; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Wilson, James F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Siscovick, David S.; Wang, Thomas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Felix, Stephan B.; Fishman, Glenn I.; Jamshidi, Yalda; Stricker, Bruno H Ch; Samani, Nilesh J.; Kb, Stefan; Arking, Dan E.

    2010-01-01

    QRS interval on the electrocardiogram reflects ventricular depolarization and conduction time, and is a risk factor for mortality, sudden death, and heart failure. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis in 40,407 European-descent individuals from 14 studies, with further genotyping in 7170 additional Europeans, and identified 22 loci associated with QRS duration (P < 5 10?8). These loci map in or near genes in pathways with established roles in ventricular conduction such as sodium channels, transcription factors, and calcium-handling proteins, but also point to novel biologic processes, such as kinase inhibitors and genes related to tumorigenesis. We demonstrate that SCN10A, a gene at our most significant locus, is expressed in the mouse ventricular conduction system, and treatment with a selective SCN10A blocker prolongs QRS duration. These findings extend our current knowledge of ventricular depolarization and conduction. PMID:21076409

  11. Detection of segments with fetal QRS complex from abdominal maternal ECG recordings using support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Juan A.; Altuve, Miguel; Nabhan Homsi, Masun

    2015-12-01

    This paper introduces a robust method based on the Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm to detect the presence of Fetal QRS (fQRS) complexes in electrocardiogram (ECG) recordings provided by the PhysioNet/CinC challenge 2013. ECG signals are first segmented into contiguous frames of 250 ms duration and then labeled in six classes. Fetal segments are tagged according to the position of fQRS complex within each one. Next, segment features extraction and dimensionality reduction are obtained by applying principal component analysis on Haar-wavelet transform. After that, two sub-datasets are generated to separate representative segments from atypical ones. Imbalanced class problem is dealt by applying sampling without replacement on each sub-dataset. Finally, two SVMs are trained and cross-validated using the two balanced sub-datasets separately. Experimental results show that the proposed approach achieves high performance rates in fetal heartbeats detection that reach up to 90.95% of accuracy, 92.16% of sensitivity, 88.51% of specificity, 94.13% of positive predictive value and 84.96% of negative predictive value. A comparative study is also carried out to show the performance of other two machine learning algorithms for fQRS complex estimation, which are K-nearest neighborhood and Bayesian network.

  12. Termination of acute wide QRS complex atrial fibrillation with ibutilide.

    PubMed

    Sobel, R M; Dhruva, N N

    2000-07-01

    Ibutilide is a Vaughan-Williams class III antiarrhythmic agent approved for chemical cardioversion of acute onset atrial fibrillation/flutter. Emergency physicians rarely use ibutilide despite its proven clinical value. We report a case of successful chemical cardioversion using ibutilide in a patient with atrial fibrillation and delayed ventricular depolarization (wide QRS complex). We recommend that ibutilide be considered for wider use in the emergency department and that further studies be conducted. PMID:10919540

  13. QRS duration: a simple marker for predicting cardiac mortality in ICD patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Bode-Schnurbus, L; Bcker, D; Block, M; Gradaus, R; Heinecke, A; Breithardt, G; Borggrefe, M

    2003-01-01

    Background: Patients resuscitated from ventricular tachyarrhythmias benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) as opposed to medical treatment. Patients with increased QRS duration receiving an ICD in the presence of heart failure are at greatest risk of cardiac death and benefit most from ICD therapy. Objective: To determine whether an increased QRS duration predicts cardiac mortality in ICD recipients. Design: Consecutive patients with heart failure in New York Heart Association functional class III were grouped according to QRS duration (< 150 ms, n = 139, group 1; v ? 150 ms, n = 26, group 2) and followed up for (mean (SD)) 23 (20) months. Patients: 165 patients were studied (80% men, 20% women); 73% had coronary artery disease and 18% had dilated cardiomyopathy. Their mean age was 62 (10) years and mean ejection fraction (EF) was 33 (14)%. They presented either with ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Main outcome measures: Overall and cardiac mortality; recurrence rates of VT, fast VT, or VF. Results: Mean left ventricular EF did not differ between group 1 (33 (13)%) and group 2 (31 (15)%). Forty patients died (34 cardiac deaths). There was no difference in survival between patients with EF > 35% and ? 35%. Cardiac mortality was significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 (31.3% at 12 months and 46.6% at 24 months, v 9.5% at 12 months and 18.2% at 24 months, respectively; p = 0.04). The recurrence rate of VT was similar in both groups. Conclusions: Within subgroups at highest risk of cardiac death, QRS durationa simple non-invasive indexpredicts outcome in ICD recipients in the presence of heart failure. PMID:12975406

  14. A new approach of QRS complex detection based on matched filtering and triangle character analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjun; Yan, Hong; Hong, Feng; Song, Jinzhong

    2012-09-01

    QRS complex detection usually provides the fundamentals to automated electrocardiogram (ECG) analysis. In this paper, a new approach of QRS complex detection without the stage of noise suppression was developed and evaluated, which was based on the combination of two techniques: matched filtering and triangle character analysis. Firstly, a template of QRS complex was selected automatically by the triangle character in ECG, and then it was time-reversed after removing its direct current component. Secondly, matched filtering was implemented at low computational cost by finite impulse response, which further enhanced QRS complex and attenuated non-QRS regions containing P-wave, T-wave and various noise components. Subsequently, triangle structure-based threshold decision was processed to detect QRS complexes. And RR intervals and triangle structures were further analyzed for the reduction of false-positive and false-negative detections. Finally, the performance of the proposed algorithm was tested on all 48 records of the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database. The results demonstrated that the detection rate reached 99.62 %, the sensitivity got 99.78 %, and the positive prediction was 99.85 %. In addition, the proposed method was able to identify QRS complexes reliably even under the condition of poor signal quality. PMID:22806315

  15. Filtered QRS duration on signal-averaged electrocardiography predicts inducibility of ventricular tachycardia in arrhythmogenic right ventricle dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Nasir, Khurram; Tandri, Harikrishna; Rutberg, Julie; Tichnell, Crystal; Spevak, Phil; Crossan, Jane; Baughman, Kenneth L; Kasper, Edward K; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Berger, Ronald; Calkins, Hugh

    2003-10-01

    Treatment of arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia (ARVD) is mostly based on the prevention of sudden cardiac death that results from arrhythmias. A clinical history suggestive of ARVD requires careful evaluation including electrophysiological study. The potential ability to identify those patients who will have inducible VT with electrophysiological study will enable better risk stratification and selection of vulnerable patients for electrophysiologically guided therapy. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the predictive ability of signal-averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) to predict inducibility of VT in patients with ARVD. The patient population consisted of 31 ARVD patients diagnosed with McKenna's criteria who underwent electrophysiological study. Electrophysiological study was considered positive if sustained monomorphic VT was induced. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive accuracy of various SAECG criteria for inducibility of sustained monomorphic VT were also calculated. Twenty-one patients had inducible VT. The filtered QRS duration (fQRS), duration of signal <40 uV (LAS40), and root mean square voltage in the last 40 ms of QRS duration (RMS40) in ARVD patients induced versus noninduced were 122 +/- 21 and 103 +/- 8 ms (P=0.007), 45 +/- 20 and 28 +/- 14 ms (P=0.02), 19 +/- 19 and 32 +/- 22 uV (0.03), respectively. The ejection fractions were comparable in both groups. fQRS duration > or =110 ms had sensitivity of 91%, specificity of 90%, and a total predictive accuracy of 90% in predicting inducibility of VT in these patients. Filtered QRS duration on SAECG is predictive of electrophysiological study outcome in ARVD. Further studies will be needed to determine if SAECG results can predict the development of ventricular arrhythmias during follow-up. PMID:14516335

  16. [Specific features of QRS-complex identification algorithms for real-time ECG systems].

    PubMed

    Nagin, V A; Selishchev, S V

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews the existing methods for identifying QRS complexes. An attempt is made to make a well-defined classification of available algorithms in an approach to QRS detection. Emphasis is laid on the consideration of specific requirements for such algorithms by computer-aided real-time ECG systems. A task of choice of the most suitable method is formulated. An algorithm based on the well-known principles of frequency-time detection is proposed as an alternative solution of this task. The algorithm makes it possible to single out QRS complexes from real-time ECG and to effectively make a digital signal processing by available optimized libraries. The method initially used in the Matlab package has been integrated within the laboratory computerized ECG system. PMID:11837188

  17. Paced QRS duration predicts left ventricular function in patients with permanent pacemakers One-year follow-up study using equilibrium radionuclide angiography (ERNA)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Gautam; Shetkar, Sudhir Suryakant; Patel, Chetan D.; Singh, Harmandeep; Naik, Nitish; Roy, Ambuj; Juneja, Rajnish; Sanders, Prashanthan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Permanent pacing, being non physiological, often results in ventricular dysfunction over time. Narrower paced QRS duration from pacing the right ventricular outflow tract septum, might result in relatively preserved ventricular function over long term follow up. PMID:26937092

  18. Electrocardiogram Derived QRS Duration >120 ms is Associated With Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Levels in a Rural Australian Cross-Sectional Population.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yvonne Lee Yin; Zhou, Yuling; Ke, Honghong; Jelinek, Herbert; McCabe, Joel; Assareh, Hassan; McLachlan, Craig S

    2015-07-01

    Homocysteine levels in the low to moderate range for cardiovascular risk have been previously associated with left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH). Electrocardiogram (ECG) derived QRS duration has also been used as an epidemiological screening marker for cardiac hypertrophy risk. QRS duration cut offs have not been previously modeled to assess homocysteine levels in community populations. Our aims are to determine if QRS duration is associated with an elevated homocysteine level in a cross-sectional Australian aging rural population.A retrospective study design utilizing a rural health diabetic screening clinic database containing observational data from the period January 9, 2002 till September 25, 2012. One hundred seventy-eight individuals (>21 years of age) from the database were included in the study. Inclusion criteria included being nondiabetic and having both a QRS duration measure and a matching homocysteine level within the same subject. All participants were from the Albury-Wodonga area, with a mean age of >64 years for both sexes.Mean population homocysteine plasma levels were 10.4 μmol/L (SD = 3.6). The mean QRS duration was 101.8 ms (SD = 17.4). Groups were stratified on the basis of QRS duration (≤120 ms [n = 157] and >120 ms [n = 21]). QRS duration subgroup (≤120 ms vs >120 ms) mean differences across homocysteine levels were 10.1 μmol/L (SD = 3.3) and 12.2 μmol/L (SD = 4.7), respectively (P = 0.016). Other ECG parameters (PQ interval, QTc interval, and QT dispersion) measurements were not significantly associated with differences in plasma homocysteine (P = not significant).We conclude that in community populations homocysteine may be moderately elevated when QRS durations are >120 ms. Small additional increases in homocysteine levels may suggest a risk factor for ECG diagnosis of LVH. PMID:26166085

  19. Data fusion for QRS complex detection in multi-lead electrocardiogram recordings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledezma, Carlos A.; Perpiñan, Gilberto; Severeyn, Erika; Altuve, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Heart diseases are the main cause of death worldwide. The first step in the diagnose of these diseases is the analysis of the electrocardiographic (ECG) signal. In turn, the ECG analysis begins with the detection of the QRS complex, which is the one with the most energy in the cardiac cycle. Numerous methods have been proposed in the bibliography for QRS complex detection, but few authors have analyzed the possibility of taking advantage of the information redundancy present in multiple ECG leads (simultaneously acquired) to produce accurate QRS detection. In our previous work we presented such an approach, proposing various data fusion techniques to combine the detections made by an algorithm on multiple ECG leads. In this paper we present further studies that show the advantages of this multi-lead detection approach, analyzing how many leads are necessary in order to observe an improvement in the detection performance. A well known QRS detection algorithm was used to test the fusion techniques on the St. Petersburg Institute of Cardiological Technics database. Results show improvement in the detection performance with as little as three leads, but the reliability of these results becomes interesting only after using seven or more leads. Results were evaluated using the detection error rate (DER). The multi-lead detection approach allows an improvement from DER = 3:04% to DER = 1:88%. Further works are to be made in order to improve the detection performance by implementing further fusion steps.

  20. Progressive loss in circulating volume during haemodialysis can be monitored by time voltage integral area of QRS complex: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Claudia; Cammarota, Camillo; Tonnarini, Gianfranco; Pasquali, Marzia

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Time voltage area of QRS is a parameter that showed a close association with modifications in endoventricular volume. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of this parameter in identifying progressive reduction in circulating blood volume (BV) during haemodialytic treatment (HT). Material and methods Thirteen uraemic patients were studied. XYX like leads were monitored before, during and after HT. Summation of areas of each QRS complex was named QRS total area (TA). Results Increase in QRS TA and decrease in BV were found after vs. before HT. Progressive increase in QRS TA is strongly linked to a progressive reduction of BV during HT. Conclusions These findings encourage use of ECG monitoring during HT with a dual purpose: rhythm and haemodynamic control. In fact, excessive or insufficient subtractions of water, with consequent hypotensive or cardiorespiratory crisis, are the most frequent complications in these patients. PMID:23847680

  1. Short-term Prognosis of Fragmented QRS Complex in Patients with Non-ST Elevated Acute Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Li, Min; Wang, Xiao; Mi, Shu-Hua; Chi, Zhe; Chen, Qing; Zhao, Xin; Nie, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background: There remains significant debate as to the relationship between fragmented QRS (fQRS) complexes on electrocardiogram (ECG) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Few studies have reported on this relationship in non-ST elevated AMI (NSTEMI), and thus, we attempt to assess this relationship and its potential short-term prognostic value. Methods: This was a single-center, observational, retrospective cohort study. A total of 513 consecutive patients (399 men, 114 women) with NSTEMI within 24 h who underwent coronary angiography at our department, between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the presence or absence of fQRS complex on the admission ECG. fQRS complexes were defined as the existence of an additional R’ or crochetage wave, notching in the nadir of the S wave, RS fragmentation, or QS complexes on 2 contiguous leads. All patients were followed up for 6 months, and all major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were recorded. Results: In this study, there were 285 patients with fQRS ECG in the 513 patients with NSTEMI. The number of patients with 0–2 coronary arteries narrowed by ≥50% in fQRS group were less while patients with 3 narrowed arteries were more than in the non-fQRS group (P = 0.042). There were fewer Killip Class I patients in the fQRS group (P = 0.019), while Killip Class II, III, and IV patients were more in the fQRS group than in the non-fQRS group (P = 0.019). Left ventricular ejection fraction levels were significantly lower in the fQRS group (P = 0.021). Baseline total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, creatinine, creatine kinase, homocysteine, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), and red blood cells distribution width levels were significantly higher in the fQRS group. Total MACE (MACE, P = 0.028), revascularization (P = 0.005), and recurrent angina (P = 0.005) were also significantly greater in the fQRS group. On final logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for baseline variables, the following variables were independent predictors of fQRS: Coronary artery narrowing (P = 0.035), Killip classification (P = 0.026), and total cholesterol (P = 0.002). The following variables were found to be independent predictors of preoperative MACE: Hemoglobin (P = 0.000), gender (P = 0.026), fQRS (P = 0.016), and time from myocardial infarction to balloon or coronary artery bypasses grafting (P = 0.013). Conclusions: The fQRS complexes are commonly present in NSTEMI and the fQRS complexes are an independent predictor of MACE in NSTEMI patients. The number of narrowed coronary arteries, Killip classification, and total cholesterol are all independent predictors of the fQRS complexes. PMID:26904984

  2. A FPGA system for QRS complex detection based on Integer Wavelet Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojanović, R.; Karadaglić, D.; Mirković, M.; Milošević, D.

    2011-01-01

    Due to complexity of their mathematical computation, many QRS detectors are implemented in software and cannot operate in real time. The paper presents a real-time hardware based solution for this task. To filter ECG signal and to extract QRS complex it employs the Integer Wavelet Transform. The system includes several components and is incorporated in a single FPGA chip what makes it suitable for direct embedding in medical instruments or wearable health care devices. It has sufficient accuracy (about 95%), showing remarkable noise immunity and low cost. Additionally, each system component is composed of several identical blocks/cells what makes the design highly generic. The capacity of today existing FPGAs allows even dozens of detectors to be placed in a single chip. After the theoretical introduction of wavelets and the review of their application in QRS detection, it will be shown how some basic wavelets can be optimized for easy hardware implementation. For this purpose the migration to the integer arithmetic and additional simplifications in calculations has to be done. Further, the system architecture will be presented with the demonstrations in both, software simulation and real testing. At the end, the working performances and preliminary results will be outlined and discussed. The same principle can be applied with other signals where the hardware implementation of wavelet transform can be of benefit.

  3. Usefulness of Fragmented QRS Complex to Predict Arrhythmic Events and Cardiovascular Mortality in Patients With Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Mehmet Serkan; Ozcan Cetin, Elif Hande; Canpolat, Ugur; Cay, Serkan; Topaloglu, Serkan; Temizhan, Ahmet; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2016-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and prognostic role of fragmented QRS complex (fQRS) in predicting arrhythmic events and cardiovascular mortality in patients with noncompaction cardiomyopathy (NCC). A total of 88 patients (64.8% men, mean age 38.6 ± 17.7 years) with the diagnosis of NCC were enrolled. Median follow-up time was 42.4 months. The fQRS was defined as the presence of ≥1 additional R wave (R') or notch on the R/S waves in ≥2 contiguous leads representing anterior (V1 to V5), inferior (II, III, and aVF), or lateral (I, aVL, and V6) myocardial segments. Compared to patients without fQRS group, patients with fQRS (fQRS (+) group) showed higher rates for total arrhythmic events, ventricular tachycardia, bradyarrhythmia requiring pacemaker, sudden cardiac death, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality. The cut-off point of ≥3 leads for the fQRS was the optimal point discriminating an arrhythmic event and cardiovascular mortality. In Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, total arrhythmic events and cardiovascular mortality occurred more frequently in the fQRS (+) group. In multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis, after adjusting for other confounding factors, the presence of fQRS were found to be as an independent predictor of arrhythmic events (hazard ratio 3.850, 95% CI 1.062 to 9.947, p = 0.002) and cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio 2.719, 95% CI 1.494 to 9.262, p = 0.005). In conclusion, the presence of fQRS complex, as a simple and feasible electrocardiographic marker, seems to be a novel predictor of arrhythmic events and cardiovascular mortality in patients with NCC. This simple parameter may be used in identifying patients at high risk for arrhythmic events and so individualization of specific therapies can be applied. PMID:26979479

  4. Troponin I Assay for Identification of a Significant Coronary Stenosis in Patients with Suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction and Wide QRS Complex

    PubMed Central

    von Jeinsen, Beatrice; Tzikas, Stergios; Pioro, Gerhard; Palapies, Lars; Zeller, Tanja; Bickel, Christoph; Lackner, Karl J.; Baldus, Stephan; Blankenberg, Stefan; Muenzel, Thomas; Zeiher, Andreas M.; Keller, Till

    2016-01-01

    Background Common ECG criteria such as ST-segment changes are of limited value in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and bundle branch block or wide QRS complex. A large proportion of these patients do not suffer from an AMI, whereas those with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) equivalent AMI benefit from an aggressive treatment. Aim of the present study was to evaluate the diagnostic information of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) in hemodynamically stable patients with wide QRS complex and suspected AMI. Methods In 417 out of 1818 patients presenting consecutively between 01/2007 and 12/2008 in a prospective multicenter observational study with suspected AMI a prolonged QRS duration was observed. Of these, n = 117 showed significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) used as diagnostic outcome variable. cTnI was determined at admission. Results Patients with significant CAD had higher cTnI levels compared to individuals without (median 250ng/L vs. 11ng/L; p<0.01). To identify patients needing a coronary intervention, cTnI yielded an area under the receiver operator characteristics curve of 0.849. Optimized cut-offs with respect to a sensitivity driven rule-out and specificity driven rule-in strategy were established (40ng/L/96ng/L). Application of the specificity optimized cut-off value led to a positive predictive value of 71% compared to 59% if using the 99th percentile cut-off. The sensitivity optimized cut-off value was associated with a negative predictive value of 93% compared to 89% provided by application of the 99th percentile threshold. Conclusion cTnI determined in hemodynamically stable patients with suspected AMI and wide QRS complex using optimized diagnostic thresholds improves rule-in and rule-out with respect to presence of a significant obstructive CAD. PMID:27148734

  5. 3DQRS: A method to obtain reliable QRS complex detection within high field MRI using 12-lead ECG traces

    PubMed Central

    Gregory, T. Stan; Schmidt, Ehud J.; Zhang, Shelley Hualei; Tse, Zion Tsz Ho

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To develop a technique that accurately detects the QRS complex in 1.5T, 3T and 7T MRI scanners.” Theory and Methods During early systole, blood is rapidly ejected into the aortic arch, traveling perpendicular to the MRI’s main field, which produces a strong voltage (VMHD) that eclipses the QRS complex. Greater complexity arises in arrhythmia patients, since VMHD can vary between sinus-rhythm and arrhythmic beats. The 3DQRS method uses a kernel consisting of 6 ECG precordial leads, compiled from a 12-lead ECG performed outside the magnet. The kernel is cross-correlated with signals acquired inside the MRI in order to identify the QRS complex in real time. The 3DQRS method was evaluated against a Vectorcardiogram-based (VCG) approach in 2 Premature Ventricular Contraction (PVC) and 2 Atrial Fibrillation (AF) patients, a healthy exercising athlete and 8 healthy volunteers, within 1.5T and 3T MRIs, using a prototype MRI-conditional 12 lead ECG system. 2 volunteers were recorded at 7T using a Holter recorder. Results For QRS complex detection, 3DQRS subject-averaged sensitivity levels, relative to VCG were: 1.5T (100% vs. 96.7%), 3T (98.9% vs. 92.2%), 7T (96.2% vs. 77.7%). Conclusions The 3DQRS method was shown to be more effective in cardiac gating than a conventional VCG-based method. PMID:24453116

  6. Association of fragmented QRS complex with myocardial reperfusion in acute ST-elevated myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Erdem, Fatma Hizal; Tavil, Yusuf; Yazici, Hüseyin; Aygül, Nazif; Abaci, Adnan; Boyaci, Bülent

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the relationship between TIMI myocardial perfusion (TMP) grade, as an indicator of myocardial reperfusion, and fragmented QRS (fQRS) in standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Also, we evaluate fQRS is an additional indicator of myocardial reperfusion. One hundred patients admitted with first STEMI to Coronary Intensive Care Unit and who were used thrombolytic therapy was included in this retrospective study. Standard 12-lead electrocardiogram records of patients simultaneous with coronary angiography (second day) were assessed and analysed for the presence of fQRS. Also, coronary angiography images were analyzed to identify the infarct related artery, TIMI grade of infarct related artery and TMP grade of infarct related artery. The patients with fQRS demonstrated a significantly lower TMP grade, TIMI grade and ejection fraction compared with the non-fQRS patients (P = 0.004, P = 0.003, P = 0.02 respectively). The patients with inadequate myocardial reperfusion demonstrated a significantly higher fQRS compared with the adequate myocardial reperfusion patients. (56.9% versus 23.5%, P = 0.002 respectively). On correlation analysis, there was a significant negative correlation between fQRS and left ventricular ejection fraction (r = -232, P = 0.02) TMP grade and adequate myocardial reperfusion (TMP 3) showed significant negative correlation with fQRS (r = -0.370, P = 0.000; r = -0.318, P = 0.001 respectively). Presence of fragmented QRS in STEMI patients was associated with inadequate myocardial reperfusion and it can be used as a simple, noninvasive parameter to evaluate myocardial reperfusion. PMID:23347028

  7. Transient attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes in the diagnosis of Takotsubo syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives: Currently, there are no specific diagnostic electrocardiogram (ECG) signs for Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) to differentiate it from acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Myocardial oedema has been detected by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients with TTS. Recently it has been postulated that myocardial oedema may be the cause of low QRS voltage (LQRSV) in the admission ECG and attenuation of the amplitude of the QRS complexes (AAQRS) in serial ECGs, noted in a few published cases of patients with TTS. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the admission ECG of patients with documented TTS reveals LQRSV and whether AAQRS is found when serial ECGs are compared in such patients. Methods: This study evaluated the prevalence of LQRSV in the admission ECG and AAQRS in serial ECGs in patients with TTS. ECGs of 368 patients with TTS from published reports in the international literature were evaluated for LQRSV (≤5 mm in limb leads and/or ≤10 mm in precordial leads) and AAQRS in serial ECGs. Results: LQRSV was seen in 91.5% of 200 patients with TTS and one ECG, with a distribution of 49.0, 42.8, 51.0, 52.0, and 46.9%, in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. AAQRS was seen in 93.5% of 168 patients with TTS and two or more ECGs, with a distribution of 78.3, 74.5, 60.1, 70.7, and 74.5% in lead aVR, and inferior, anterior, lateral, and high lateral ECG lead groups, respectively. Conclusions: LQRSV and AAQRS are highly prevalent ECG signs in patients with TTS, and should be useful in aiding in its diagnosis and differentiation from ACS, on first contact with the patient on admission to the hospital, and the ensuing 24 hours, in conjunction with echocardiography and coronary arteriography. PMID:24562801

  8. Radial dyssynchrony assessed by cardiovascular magnetic resonance in relation to left ventricular function, myocardial scarring and QRS duration in patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Intuitively, cardiac dyssynchrony is the inevitable result of myocardial injury. We hypothezised that radial dyssynchrony reflects left ventricular remodeling, myocardial scarring, QRS duration and impaired LV function and that, accordingly, it is detectable in all patients with heart failure. Methods 225 patients with heart failure, grouped according to QRS duration of <120 ms (A, n = 75), between 120-149 ms (B, n = 75) or ≥150 ms (C, n = 75), and 50 healthy controls underwent assessment of radial dyssynchrony using the cardiovascular magnetic resonance tissue synchronization index (CMR-TSI = SD of time to peak inward endocardial motion in up to 60 myocardial segments). Results Compared to 50 healthy controls (21.8 ± 6.3 ms [mean ± SD]), CMR-TSI was higher in A (74.8 ± 34.6 ms), B (92.4 ± 39.5 ms) and C (104.6 ± 45.6 ms) (all p < 0.0001). Adopting a cut-off CMR-TSI of 34.4 ms (21.8 plus 2xSD for controls) for the definition of dyssynchrony, it was present in 91% in A, 95% in B and 99% in C. Amongst patients in NYHA class III or IV, with a LVEF<35% and a QRS>120 ms, 99% had dyssynchrony. Amongst those with a QRS<120 ms, 91% had dyssynchrony. Across the study sample, CMR-TSI was related positively to left ventricular volumes (p < 0.0001) and inversely to LVEF (CMR-TSI = 178.3 e (-0.033 LVEF) ms, p < 0.0001). Conclusion Radial dyssynchrony is almost universal in patients with heart failure. This vies against the notion that a lack of response to CRT is related to a lack of dyssynchrony. PMID:19930713

  9. [Supraventricular tachycardia with wide QRS complexes during Vaughan-Williams class I anti-arrhythmic treatment. Diagnostic and therapeutic implications].

    PubMed

    Aouate, P; Frank, R; Fontaine, G; Tonet, J; Tageddine, R; Benassar, A; Turlure, A; Jacquemin, M; Laborde, J P

    1995-12-01

    The authors report 8 cases of regular tachycardia with wide QRS complexes during treatment with Vaughan-Williams class 1 antiarrhythmic drugs. These antiarrhythmics, prescribed to prevent atrial fibrillation (3 patients) and atrial flutter (5 patients), were flecainide in 4 cases, propafenone in 2 cases and cibenzoline and hydroquinidine respectively associated with digitoxine and propranolol. These wide complex tachycardias were regular atrial tachycardias with 1/1 conduction to the ventricle. The action of the drug, more pronounced on intra-atrial conduction velocities than on atrioventricular node refractoriness resulted in transformation of flutter at 300 cycles/min with 2/1 conduction and a ventricular rate of 150 cycles/min to atrial flutter at 210 cycles/min with 1/1 ventricular conduction. This acceleration of the ventricular rate was accompanied by widening of the QRS complex. Using the new ventricular tachycardia criteria recently published by Brugada resulted in a diagnostic error in 7 out of the 8 cases. The recording of a wide QRS complex tachycardia in a patient on class 1 antiarrhythmic therapy for an atrial arrhythmia should alert the physician to 1/1 atrial tachycardia despite morphological electrocardiographic criteria of ventricular tachycardia. The 1/1 atrial tachycardia may be poorly tolerated and require emergency treatment. The preventive association of a drug which slows conduction through the atrioventricular node is not always effective. PMID:8729368

  10. [Alteration of the QRS complex in electrocardiograms of healthy people in the course of test loading].

    PubMed

    Saltykova, M M

    2014-01-01

    QRS amplitudes were analyzed in ECG records obtained from exercising healthy people to evaluate the sensitivity of QRS waves to exaggerated pulmonary ventilation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR). Seventeen normal subjects aged >35 years were involved in a series of three test loading sessions aimed to define QRS alterations caused by shifting and rotation of the heart, and changes in conductivity of thoracic organs and tissues as a consequence of a different respiration pattern. They also participated in a second series of three loading sessions aimed to trace QRS alterations stemming from changes in central hemodynamics (systolic and diastolic BP and HR). Both series demonstrated a reliable S-wave rise that did not relate to the heart rotation caused by the diaphragm displacement due to deep respiration and change in body positioning but correlated with increases in systolic BP. These observations could have been induced by growth of the transmural myocadial pressure produced by isovolumic contractions during heavy test loading. PMID:25928983

  11. Variations of QRS Morphology in Patients with Dilated Cardiomyopathy; Clinical and Prognostic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Akgun, Taylan; Kalkan, Sedat; Tigen, Mustafa Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The QRS represents the simultaneous activation of the right and left ventricles, although most of the QRS waveform is derived from the larger left ventricular musculature. Although normal QRS duration is <100 millisecond (ms), its duration and shape are quite variable from patient to patient in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). Prolongation of QRS occurs in 14% to 47% of heart failure (HF) patients. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) is far more common than right bundle branch block (RBBB). Dyssynchronous left ventricular activation due to LBBB and other intraventricular conduction blocks provides the rationale for the use of cardiac resynchronization therapy with biventricular pacing in patients with IDCM. Fragmented QRS (fQRS) is a marker of depolarization abnormality and present in significant number of the patients with IDCM and narrow QRS complexes. It is associated with arrhythmic events and intraventricular dyssynchrony. The purpose of this manuscript is to present an overview on some clinical, echocardiographic and prognostic implications of various QRS morphologies in patients with IDCM. PMID:25031822

  12. Stream computing for biomedical signal processing: A QRS complex detection case-study.

    PubMed

    Murphy, B M; O'Driscoll, C; Boylan, G B; Lightbody, G; Marnane, W P

    2015-08-01

    Recent developments in "Big Data" have brought significant gains in the ability to process large amounts of data on commodity server hardware. Stream computing is a relatively new paradigm in this area, addressing the need to process data in real time with very low latency. While this approach has been developed for dealing with large scale data from the world of business, security and finance, there is a natural overlap with clinical needs for physiological signal processing. In this work we present a case study of streams processing applied to a typical physiological signal processing problem: QRS detection from ECG data. PMID:26737641

  13. Design of a cardiac monitor in terms of parameters of QRS complex.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-cheng; Ni, Li-li; Su, Ke-ping; Wang, Hong-yan; Jiang, Da-zong

    2002-08-01

    Objective. To design a portable cardiac monitor system based on the available ordinary ECG machine and works on the basis of QRS parameters. Method. The 80196 single chip microcomputer was used as the central microprocessor and real time electrocardiac signal was collected and analyzed [correction of analysized] in the system. Result. Apart from the performance of an ordinary monitor, this machine possesses also the following functions: arrhythmia analysis, HRV analysis, alarm, freeze, and record of automatic papering. Convenient in carrying, the system is powered by AC or DC sources. Stability, low power and low cost are emphasized in the hardware design; and modularization method is applied in software design. Conclusion. Popular in usage and low cost made the portable monitor system suitable for use under simple conditions. PMID:12422858

  14. Marked QRS complex abnormalities and sodium channel blockade by propoxyphene reversed with lidocaine.

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, D C; Gilliam, F R; Starmer, C F; Grant, A O

    1989-01-01

    The opiate analgesic propoxyphene produces cardiac toxicity when taken in overdose. We recently observed a patient with propoxyphene overdose in whom marked QRS widening was reversed by lidocaine. The reversal is apparently paradoxical as both agents block the inward sodium current (INa). We examined possible mechanisms of the reversal by measuring INa in rabbit atrial myocytes during exposure to propoxyphene and the combination of propoxyphene and lidocaine (60 and 80 microM, respectively). Propoxyphene caused use-dependent block of INa during pulse train stimulation. Block recovered slowly with time constants of 20.8 +/- 3.9 s. Block during lidocaine exposure recovered with time constants of 2-3 s. During exposure to the mixture, block recovered as a double exponential. The half time for recovery during exposure to the mixture was 1.6 +/- .9 s compared with a half-time of 14.3 +/- 2.9 s during exposure to propoxyphene alone. During pulse train stimulation, less steady-state block was observed during exposure to the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone when the interval between pulses was greater than 0.95 s. Both drugs compete for a common receptor during the polarizing phase. The more rapid dissociation of lidocaine during the recovery period leads to less block during the mixture than during exposure to propoxyphene alone. The experiments suggest a mechanism for reversal of the cardiac toxicity of drugs which have slow unbinding kinetics. Images PMID:2553778

  15. [Differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Lewalter, Thorsten

    2015-09-01

    The differential diagnosis of a narrow QRS tachycardia requires on the one hand knowledge about the clinical data of the tachycardia patient but on the other hand a systematic step by step analysis of the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the most successful approach. Apart from the question of regularity or irregularity of the QRS complexes, the presence and detection of P waves is also of importance. The P wave timing in relation to the preceding and the following QRS complexes as well as the numerical relationship of P waves and QRS complexes allow a well-founded suspected diagnosis to be achieved in most cases. Even the differentiation between atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) versus orthodromic AV reentrant tachycardia (AVRT), e.g. by accessory leads, is in most cases possible in a surface ECG. Obviously, there are constellations which need an invasive electrophysiological procedure for a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26287273

  16. High Frequency QRS ECG Accurately Detects Cardiomyopathy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Arenare, Brian; Poulin, Gregory; Moser, Daniel R.; Delgado, Reynolds

    2005-01-01

    High frequency (HF, 150-250 Hz) analysis over the entire QRS interval of the ECG is more sensitive than conventional ECG for detecting myocardial ischemia. However, the accuracy of HF QRS ECG for detecting cardiomyopathy is unknown. We obtained simultaneous resting conventional and HF QRS 12-lead ECGs in 66 patients with cardiomyopathy (EF = 23.2 plus or minus 6.l%, mean plus or minus SD) and in 66 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using PC-based ECG software recently developed at NASA. The single most accurate ECG parameter for detecting cardiomyopathy was an HF QRS morphological score that takes into consideration the total number and severity of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present plus the clustering of RAZs together in contiguous leads. This RAZ score had an area under the receiver operator curve (ROC) of 0.91, and was 88% sensitive, 82% specific and 85% accurate for identifying cardiomyopathy at optimum score cut-off of 140 points. Although conventional ECG parameters such as the QRS and QTc intervals were also significantly longer in patients than controls (P less than 0.001, BBBs excluded), these conventional parameters were less accurate (area under the ROC = 0.77 and 0.77, respectively) than HF QRS morphological parameters for identifying underlying cardiomyopathy. The total amplitude of the HF QRS complexes, as measured by summed root mean square voltages (RMSVs), also differed between patients and controls (33.8 plus or minus 11.5 vs. 41.5 plus or minus 13.6 mV, respectively, P less than 0.003), but this parameter was even less accurate in distinguishing the two groups (area under ROC = 0.67) than the HF QRS morphologic and conventional ECG parameters. Diagnostic accuracy was optimal (86%) when the RAZ score from the HF QRS ECG and the QTc interval from the conventional ECG were used simultaneously with cut-offs of greater than or equal to 40 points and greater than or equal to 445 ms, respectively. In conclusion 12-lead HF QRS ECG employing RAZ scoring is a simple, accurate and inexpensive screening technique for cardiomyopathy. Although HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive for cardiomyopathy, its specificity may be compromised in patients with cardiac pathologies other than cardiomyopathy, such as uncomplicated coronary artery disease or multiple coronary disease risk factors. Further studies are required to determine whether HF QRS might be useful for monitoring cardiomyopathy severity or the efficacy of therapy in a longitudinal fashion.

  17. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  18. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Safety and Efficacy of Cardiac Contractility Modulation in Patients With Moderately Reduced Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and a Narrow QRS Duration: Study Rationale and Design

    PubMed Central

    ABRAHAM, WILLIAM T.; LINDENFELD, JOANN; REDDY, VIVEK Y.; HASENFUSS, GERD; KUCK, KARL-HEINZ; BOSCARDIN, JOHN; GIBBONS, ROBERT; BURKHOFF, DANIEL

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) signals are nonexcitatory electrical signals delivered during the cardiac absolute refractory period that enhance the strength of cardiac muscular contraction. The FIX-HF-5 study was a prospective randomized study comparing CCM plus optimal medical therapy (OMT) to OMT alone that included 428 New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class III or IV heart failure patients with ejection fraction (EF) ≤45% according to core laboratory assessment. The study met its primary safety end point, but did not reach its primary efficacy end point: a responders analysis of changes in ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT). However, in a prespecified subgroup analysis, significant improvements in primary and secondary end points, including the responder VAT end point, were observed in patients with EFs ranging from 25% to 45%, who constituted about one-half of the study subjects. We therefore designed a new study to prospectively confirm the efficacy of CCM in this population. A hierarchic bayesian statistical analysis plan was developed to take advantage of the data already available from the first study. In addition, based on technical difficulties encountered in reliably quantifying VAT and the relatively large amount of nonquantifiable studies, the primary efficacy end point was changed to peak VO2, with significant measures incorporated to minimize the influence of placebo effect. In this paper, we provide the details and rationale of the FIX-HF-5C study design to study CCM plus OMT compared with OMT alone in subjects with normal QRS duration, NYHA functional class III or IV, and EF 25%–45%. This study is registered on www.clinicaltrials.gov with identifier no. NCT01381172. PMID:25285748

  19. Microcontroller-based real-time QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Suppappola, S; Wrublewski, T A

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the design of a system for real-time detection of QRS complexes in the electrocardiogram based on a single-chip microcontroller (Motorola 68HC811). A systematic analysis of the instrumentation requirements for QRS detection and of the various design techniques is also given. Detection algorithms using different nonlinear transforms for the enhancement of QRS complexes are evaluated by using the ECG database of the American Heart Association. The results show that the nonlinear transform involving multiplication of three adjacent, sign-consistent differences in the time domain gives a good performance and a quick response. When implemented with an appropriate sampling rate, this algorithm is also capable of rejecting pacemaker spikes. The eight-bit single-chip microcontroller provides sufficient throughput and shows a satisfactory performance. Implementation of multiple detection algorithms in the same system improves flexibility and reliability. The low chip count in the design also favors maintainability and cost-effectiveness. PMID:1450792

  20. The relation of QRS amplitude to the frontal QRS axis and the heart-electrode distance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    The relation between QRS amplitude, QRS axis deviation and heart position was studied in 360 subjects, using the 12-lead EKG. The height of the V sub 6 R wave was used as the measure of QRS amplitude. The distance from the left lateral border of the heart was used to indicate heart position. The frontal and horizontal QRS axes were determined by noting the isoelectric limb and precordial leads, measured according to Schmitt's values.

  1. Regenerative Therapy Prevents Heart Failure Progression in Dyssynchronous Nonischemic Narrow QRS Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Satsuki; Arrell, D Kent; Martinez-Fernandez, Almudena; Behfar, Atta; Kane, Garvan C; Perez-Terzic, Carmen M; Crespo-Diaz, Ruben J; McDonald, Robert J; Wyles, Saranya P; Zlatkovic-Lindor, Jelena; Nelson, Timothy J; Terzic, Andre

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy using bi-ventricular pacing is proven effective in the management of heart failure (HF) with a wide QRS-complex. In the absence of QRS prolongation, however, device-based resynchronization is reported unsuitable. As an alternative, the present study tests a regenerative cell-based approach in the setting of narrow QRS-complex HF. Methods and Results Progressive cardiac dyssynchrony was provoked in a chronic transgenic model of stress-triggered dilated cardiomyopathy. In contrast to rampant end-stage disease afflicting untreated cohorts, stem cell intervention early in disease, characterized by mechanical dyssynchrony and a narrow QRS-complex, aborted progressive dyssynchronous HF and prevented QRS widening. Stem cell-treated hearts acquired coordinated ventricular contraction and relaxation supporting systolic and diastolic performance. Rescue of contractile dynamics was underpinned by a halted left ventricular dilatation, limited hypertrophy, and reduced fibrosis. Reverse remodeling reflected a restored cardiomyopathic proteome, enforced at systems level through correction of the pathological molecular landscape and nullified adverse cardiac outcomes. Cell therapy of a dyssynchrony-prone cardiomyopathic cohort translated prospectively into improved exercise capacity and prolonged survivorship. Conclusions In narrow QRS HF, a regenerative approach demonstrated functional and structural benefit, introducing the prospect of device-autonomous resynchronization therapy for refractory disease. PMID:25964205

  2. Relationship of ST-segment elevation to eventual QRS loss in acute anterior wall myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bell, A J; Briggs, C M; Nichols, P; Kilpatrick, D

    1993-07-01

    The position of electrocardiographic ST-segment elevation in acute myocardial infarction (MI) is related to the region of infarction, but the relationship between the initial ST-segment elevation and the eventual loss of QRS voltage remains uncertain. The authors examined body surface map data in 76 patients with acute anterior wall MI to clarify this relationship. The patients had no evidence of previous MI, no subsequent MI, and did not receive thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions. Maps were recorded on admission to the hospital, every 24 hours during the hospital stay, and again at follow-up examinations 6-48 months after the index MI. The region of ST-segment elevation on the initial body surface map was compared to the region of developed voltage loss in the QRS complex as measured by the integral 0-30, 0-40, 0-80, and 30-80 ms body surface maps subsequently recorded 24 hours, 48 hours, and over 6 months after the initial body surface map. There was a relationship between the position of the ST-segment elevation and the loss of the QRS segment voltages, which was pronounced early after acute MI and diminished months after the MI. The region of ST-segment elevation in the initial body surface map predicts the QRS loss. In the integral QRS0-30 map versus the initial ST-segment map the mean correlation coefficient was -0.54 +/- 0.33 with a median value of -0.67. The integral QRS0-40 map and ST-segment map had a mean correlation coefficient of 0.60 +/- 0.29 and median of 0.66. The mean correlation coefficient is less for the integral QRS0-80 map and nonexistent in the integral QRS30-80 map. This method may be useful for monitoring acute interventions in acute MI. PMID:8409812

  3. Intra-QRS Spectral Changes Accompany ST Segment Changes During Episodes of Myocardial Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gramatikov, Boris; Iyer, Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Background Coronary artery disease and myocardial ischemia cause substantial morbidity and mortality. While ischemia is traditionally diagnosed on the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) by shifts in the ST segment, electrical changes are also produced within the QRS complex during depolarization of ischemic ventricular tissue, though these are often of small amplitude and can be missed in traditional ECG analysis. We explore the utility of an easily implemented spectral analysis method for detecting intra-QRS changes during episodes of myocardial ischemia, using Holter recordings from the European ST-T database. Methods Time-frequency distributions of QRS complexes from each recording were computed using the continuous wavelet transform. Indices corresponding to frequency content of four overlapping frequency bands were computed: F1 (24–35 Hz), F2 (30–45 Hz), F3 (40–60 Hz), and F4 (50–80 Hz). Values of these indices were compared during annotated episodes of ST change and during a baseline during the recording. Results Marked changes in intra-QRS frequency content were identified during ischemia, grouped by ECG lead analyzed. In lead III, a pronounced and statistically significant increase in the highest frequency sub-bands (F3 and F4) was consistently observed. Analysis of anterior precordial leads also showed significant increases in F4. Conclusions Intra-QRS time-frequency analysis using the continuous wavelet transform can identify a spectral signature corresponding to myocardial ischemia in the range 24–80 Hz. Intra-QRS spectral analysis has the potential for many clinical applications. PMID:25266140

  4. SDO: Complex Mass of Plasma - Duration: 15 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    A small, but complex mass of solar material gyrated and spun about over the course of 40 hours above the surface of the sun on Sept. 1-3, 2015. It was stretched and pulled back and forth by powerfu...

  5. Identification of post-myocardial infarction patients with ventricular tachycardia by time-domain intra-QRS analysis of signal-averaged electrocardiogram and magnetocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Endt, P; Montonen, J; Mäkijärvi, M; Nenonen, J; Steinhoff, U; Trahms, L; Katila, T

    2000-11-01

    A new time-domain analysis method, which quantifies ECG/MCG intra-QRS fragmentation, is applied to parts of the QRS complex to identify post-myocardial infarction patients with ventricular tachycardia. Three leads of signal-averaged electrocardiograms and nine leads of magnetocardiograms were band-pass filtered (74 Hz to 180 Hz). The filtered signals showed fragmentation in the QRS region, which was quantified by the number of peaks M and a score S, that is the product of M and the sum of the peak amplitudes. Both parameters were determined for the first 80 ms of the QRS complex and the total QRS complex in each channel. For classification, the mean-values of the parameters M and S of the three electrical leads and the nine magnetic leads were calculated. Late potential and late field analyses were performed for the same signals. 31 myocardial infarction patients were included, 20 of them with a history of documented ventricular tachycardia (VT). Identification of VT patients using the SAECG led to better results (sensitivity 95%, specificity 91%) considering the entire QRS complex than with the standard late potential analysis suggested by Simson (sensitivity 90%, specificity 73%). For the SAMCG and the entire QRS complex results using the parameters S and M are also better (sensitivity 95%, specificity 100%) than for the late field analysis (sensitivity 90% and specificity 100%). For the first 80 ms, the performance of the parameters M and S is only slightly decreased. PMID:11217884

  6. Integrate and fire pulse train automaton for QRS detection.

    PubMed

    Nallathambi, Gabriel; Prncipe, Jos C

    2014-02-01

    Monitoring heart activity from electrocardiograms (ECG) is crucial to avoid unnecessary fatalities; therefore, detection of QRS complex is fundamental to automated ECG monitoring. Continuous, portable 24/7 ECG monitoring requires wireless technology with constraints on power, bandwidth, area, and resolution. In order to provide continuous remote monitoring of patients and fast transmission of data to medical personnel for instantaneous intervention, we propose a methodology that converts analog inputs into pulses for ultralow power implementation. The signal encoding scheme is the time-based integrate and fire (IF) sampler from which a set of signal descriptors in the pulse domain are proposed. Furthermore, a logical decision rule for QRS detection based on morphological checking is derived. The proposed decision logic depends exclusively on relational and logical operators resulting in ultrafast recognition and can be implemented using combinatorial logic hardware to guarantee power consumption orders of magnitude lower than any microprocessor device. The algorithm was evaluated using the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database and results show that our algorithm performance is comparable to the state-of-the art software-based detection. PMID:24107919

  7. Value of the Qrs-T Angle in Predicting the Induction of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients with Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zampa, Hugo Bizetto; Moreira, Dalmo AR; Ferreira Filho, Carlos Alberto Brandão; Souza, Charles Rios; Menezes, Camila Caldas; Hirata, Henrique Seichii; Armaganijan, Luciana Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Background The QRS-T angle correlates with prognosis in patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease, reflected by an increase in mortality proportional to an increase in the difference between the axes of the QRS complex and T wave in the frontal plane. The value of this correlation in patients with Chagas heart disease is currently unknown. Objective Determine the correlation of the QRS-T angle and the risk of induction of ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation (VT / VF) during electrophysiological study (EPS) in patients with Chagas disease. Methods Case-control study at a tertiary center. Patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS were used as controls. The QRS-T angle was categorized as normal (0-105º), borderline (105-135º) or abnormal (135-180º). Differences between groups for continuous variables were analyzed with the t test or Mann-Whitney test, and for categorical variables with Fisher's exact test. P values < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Of 116 patients undergoing EPS, 37.9% were excluded due to incomplete information / inactive records or due to the impossibility to correctly calculate the QRS-T angle (presence of left bundle branch block and atrial fibrillation). Of 72 patients included in the study, 31 induced VT / VF on EPS. Of these, the QRS-T angle was normal in 41.9%, borderline in 12.9% and abnormal in 45.2%. Among patients without induction of VT / VF on EPS, the QRS-T angle was normal in 63.4%, borderline in 14.6% and abnormal in 17.1% (p = 0.04). When compared with patients with normal QRS-T angle, those with abnormal angle had a fourfold higher risk of inducing ventricular tachycardia / ventricular fibrillation on EPS [odds ratio (OR) 4; confidence interval (CI) 1.298-12.325; p = 0.028]. After adjustment for other variables such as age, ejection fraction (EF) and QRS size, there was a trend for the abnormal QRS-T angle to identify patients with increased risk of inducing VT / VF during EPS (OR 3.95; CI 0.99-15.82; p = 0.052). The EF also emerged as a predictor of induction of VT / VF: for each point increase in EF, there was a 4% reduction in the rate of sustained ventricular arrhythmia on EPS. Conclusions Changes in the QRS-T angle and decreases in EF were associated with an increased risk of induction of VT / VF on EPS. PMID:25590925

  8. Factors affecting the duration effect in pitch perception for unresolved complex tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Louise J.; Plack, Christopher J.

    2003-12-01

    Previous research has shown that fundamental frequency (F0) discrimination thresholds for complex tones containing unresolved harmonics decrease as the duration of the tone increases [White and Plack, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 103, 2051-2063 (1998)]. In this paper F0 discrimination was measured as a function of duration for complexes with F0s of 62.5, 125, and 250 Hz, bandpass filtered into two spectral regions (2750-3750 and 5500-7500 Hz). The harmonics were summed either in sine phase (SINE) or with alternating sine-cosine phase (ALT), which affects the envelope of the waveform and the pitch of the complex. Tone duration was 20, 40, 80, and 160 ms. The improvement in F0 discrimination with duration increased with decreasing F0. When harmonics where spectrally filtered between 2750 and 3750 Hz, for complexes with an F0 of 62.5 Hz, F0 discrimination thresholds decreased from approximately 30% for a 20-ms tone to approximately 3% for a 160-ms tone. For complexes with an F0 of 250 Hz, thresholds decreased from 3% for a 20-ms tone to 1% for a 160-ms tone: a lower envelope repetition rate led to a larger change in performance with increasing duration. The phase manipulation also affected the size of the duration effect, in that the effect was less for an ALT complex compared to a SINE complex with the same F0, consistent with the change in envelope repetition rate. Overall, the results suggest that for unresolved complex tones it is primarily envelope repetition rate, not spectral region, that determines both the F0 discrimination threshold and the size of the duration effect.

  9. Revisiting QRS Detection Methodologies for Portable, Wearable, Battery-Operated, and Wireless ECG Systems

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed; Eskofier, Björn; Dokos, Socrates; Abbott, Derek

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are the number one cause of death worldwide. Currently, portable battery-operated systems such as mobile phones with wireless ECG sensors have the potential to be used in continuous cardiac function assessment that can be easily integrated into daily life. These portable point-of-care diagnostic systems can therefore help unveil and treat cardiovascular diseases. The basis for ECG analysis is a robust detection of the prominent QRS complex, as well as other ECG signal characteristics. However, it is not clear from the literature which ECG analysis algorithms are suited for an implementation on a mobile device. We investigate current QRS detection algorithms based on three assessment criteria: 1) robustness to noise, 2) parameter choice, and 3) numerical efficiency, in order to target a universal fast-robust detector. Furthermore, existing QRS detection algorithms may provide an acceptable solution only on small segments of ECG signals, within a certain amplitude range, or amid particular types of arrhythmia and/or noise. These issues are discussed in the context of a comparison with the most conventional algorithms, followed by future recommendations for developing reliable QRS detection schemes suitable for implementation on battery-operated mobile devices. PMID:24409290

  10. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  11. Minnesota Parent Aware: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Minnesota's Parent Aware prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  12. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…

  13. Iowa Child Care Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Iowa's Child Care Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile is divided into the following categories: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family Child Care Programs;…

  14. New Hampshire Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Hampshire's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  15. Mississippi Quality Step System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS)Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Mississippi's Quality Step System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Application…

  16. Illinois Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Illinois' Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  17. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  18. Colorado Qualistar. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Colorado's Qualistar prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  19. Miami-Dade Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Miami-Dade's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  20. Palm Beach Quality Counts: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Palm Beach's Quality Counts prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  1. Oregon Child Care Quality Indicators Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Oregon's Child Care Quality Indicators Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  2. Maine Quality for ME: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Maine's Quality for ME prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  3. Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Kentucky's STARS for KIDS NOW prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  4. Indiana Paths to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Indiana's Paths to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  5. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  6. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  7. Missouri Quality Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Missouri's Quality Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  8. Ohio Step Up to Quality: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Ohio's Step Up to Quality prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for Family…

  9. Effects of presentation duration on measures of complexity in affective environmental scenes and representational paintings.

    PubMed

    Marin, Manuela M; Leder, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Complexity constitutes an integral part of humans' environment and is inherent to information processing. However, little is known about the dynamics of visual complexity perception of affective environmental scenes (IAPS pictures) and artworks, such as affective representational paintings. In three experiments, we studied the time course of visual complexity perception by varying presentation duration and comparing subjective ratings with objective measures of complexity. In Experiment 1, 60 females rated 96 IAPS pictures, presented either for 1, 5, or 25s, for familiarity, complexity, pleasantness and arousal. In Experiment 2, another 60 females rated 96 representational paintings. Mean ratings of complexity and pleasantness changed according to presentation duration in a similar vein in both experiments, suggesting an inverted U-shape. No common pattern of results was observed for arousal and familiarity ratings across the two picture sets. The correlations between subjective and objective measures of complexity increased with longer exposure durations for IAPS pictures, but results were more ambiguous for paintings. Experiment 3 explored the time course of the multidimensionality of visual complexity perception. Another 109 females rated the number of objects, their disorganization and the differentiation between a figure-ground vs. complex scene composition of pictures presented for 1 and 5s. The multidimensionality of visual complexity only clearly emerged in the 5-s condition. In both picture sets, the strength of the correlations with objective measures depended on the type of subdimension of complexity and was less affected by presentation duration than correlations with general complexity in Experiments 1 and 2. These results have clear implications for perceptual and cognitive theories, especially for those of esthetic experiences, in which the dynamical changes of complexity perception need to be integrated. PMID:26595281

  10. A real-time microprocessor QRS detector system with a 1-ms timing accuracy for the measurement of ambulatory HRV.

    PubMed

    Ruha, A; Sallinen, S; Nissilä, S

    1997-03-01

    The design, test methods and results of an ambulatory QRS detector are presented. The device is intended for the accurate measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) and reliable QRS detection in both ambulatory and clinical use. The aim of the design work was to achieve high QRS detection performance in terms of timing accuracy and reliability, without compromising the size and power consumption of the device. The complete monitor system consists of a host computer and the detector unit. The detector device is constructed of a commonly available digital signal processing (DSP) microprocessor and other components. The QRS detection algorithm uses optimized prefiltering in conjunction with a matched filter and dual edge threshold detection. The purpose of the prefiltering is to attenuate various noise components in order to achieve improved detection reliability. The matched filter further improves signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and symmetries the QRS complex for the threshold detection, which is essential in order to achieve the desired performance. The decision for detection is made in real-time and no search-back method is employed. The host computer is used to configure the detector unit, which includes the setting of the matched filter impulse response, and in the retrieval and postprocessing of the measurement results. The QRS detection timing accuracy and detection reliability of the detector system was tested with an artificially generated electrocardiogram (ECG) signal corrupted with various noise types and a timing standard deviation of less than 1 ms was achieved with most noise types and levels similar to those encountered in real measurements. A QRS detection error rate (ER) of 0.1 and 2.2% was achieved with records 103 and 105 from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database, respectively. PMID:9216129

  11. QRS detection based ECG quality assessment.

    PubMed

    Hayn, Dieter; Jammerbund, Bernhard; Schreier, Günter

    2012-09-01

    Although immediate feedback concerning ECG signal quality during recording is useful, up to now not much literature describing quality measures is available. We have implemented and evaluated four ECG quality measures. Empty lead criterion (A), spike detection criterion (B) and lead crossing point criterion (C) were calculated from basic signal properties. Measure D quantified the robustness of QRS detection when applied to the signal. An advanced Matlab-based algorithm combining all four measures and a simplified algorithm for Android platforms, excluding measure D, were developed. Both algorithms were evaluated by taking part in the Computing in Cardiology Challenge 2011. Each measure's accuracy and computing time was evaluated separately. During the challenge, the advanced algorithm correctly classified 93.3% of the ECGs in the training-set and 91.6 % in the test-set. Scores for the simplified algorithm were 0.834 in event 2 and 0.873 in event 3. Computing time for measure D was almost five times higher than for other measures. Required accuracy levels depend on the application and are related to computing time. While our simplified algorithm may be accurate for real-time feedback during ECG self-recordings, QRS detection based measures can further increase the performance if sufficient computing power is available. PMID:22902864

  12. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  13. Real-time 12-lead high-frequency QRS electrocardiography for enhanced detection of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Todd T; Kulecz, Walter B; DePalma, Jude L; Feiveson, Alan H; Wilson, John S; Rahman, M Atiar; Bungo, Michael W

    2004-03-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease. PMID:15008608

  14. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph with reduced amplitude zone detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as ''RAZs''. RAZs are displayed as ''go, no-go'' signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  15. The Development of Mental Models for Auditory Events: Relational Complexity and Discrimination of Pitch and Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Catherine; Gallagher, Melinda

    2004-01-01

    This experiment investigated relational complexity and relational shift in judgments of auditory patterns. Pitch and duration values were used to construct two-note perceptually similar sequences (unary relations) and four-note relationally similar sequences (binary relations). It was hypothesized that 5-, 8- and 11-year-old children would perform…

  16. [Wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spikes].

    PubMed

    Romero, M; Aranda, A; Gómez, F J; Jurado, A

    2014-04-01

    The differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of wide QRS tachycardia preceded by pacemaker spike is presented. The pacemaker-mediated tachycardia, tachycardia fibrillo-flutter in patients with pacemakers, and runaway pacemakers, have a similar surface electrocardiogram, but respond to different therapeutic measures. The tachycardia response to the application of a magnet over the pacemaker could help in the differential diagnosis, and in some cases will be therapeutic, as in the case of a tachycardia-mediated pacemaker. Although these conditions are diagnosed and treated in hospitals with catheterization laboratories using the application programmer over the pacemaker, patients presenting in primary care clinic and emergency forced us to make a diagnosis and treat the haemodynamically unstable patient prior to referral. PMID:23768570

  17. [Ventricular pre-excitation revealed by idioventricular rhythm and large QRS tachycardias. Apropos of an operated case].

    PubMed

    Weissenburger, J; Dumoulin, P; Juliard, J M; Frank, R; Kessler, P; Michel, P L; Rozensztajn, L; Valty, J

    1983-06-01

    A 15 year old boy presented with palpitations of sudden onset and termination over a two month period. The heart was clinically and radiologically normal. The electrocardiogramme showed sinus rhythm with a short PR interval (0,11 sec) and narrow QRS complexes (0,08 sec) associated with an intermittent escape accelerated idioventricular rhythm (AIVR). During an attack of palpitations a regular tachycardia (250/min) with wide QRS complexes of the same configuration as those of the AIVR (left side delay). The diagnosis of ventricular tachycardia was retained. Endocavitary electrophysiological recording demonstrated preexcitation of the right ventricle associated with accelerated nodal conduction explaining the narrow QRS complexes in sinus rhythm. The wide complex tachycardias initiated and terminated by paired ventricular stimulation were identical to the spontaneous attacks and were attributed to an antidromic reciprocating rhythm. The hypothesis of a rhythm arising from the accessory pathway is suggested. This would explain the identical configuration of the QRS complexes of the AIVR and of the antidromic reciprocating-rhythm and the disappearance of the AIVR after surgical section of the accessory pathway. PMID:6414416

  18. Month-to-month and year-to-year reproducibility of high frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    High frequency electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. Therefore, we prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones in signal averaged 12-lead high frequency QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of root mean squared voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of root mean squared voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. Reduced amplitude zones were also reproducible up to a rate of 87% and 81%, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead high frequency QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  19. Month-to-Month and Year-to-Year Reproducibility of High Frequency QRS ECG signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batdorf, Niles; Feiveson, Alan H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    High frequency (HF) electrocardiography analyzing the entire QRS complex in the frequency range of 150 to 250 Hz may prove useful in the detection of coronary artery disease, yet the long-term stability of these waveforms has not been fully characterized. We therefore prospectively investigated the reproducibility of the root mean squared (RMS) voltage, kurtosis, and the presence versus absence of reduced amplitude zones (RAzs) in signal averaged 12-lead HF QRS recordings acquired in the supine position one month apart in 16 subjects and one year apart in 27 subjects. Reproducibility of RMS voltage and kurtosis was excellent over these time intervals in the limb leads, and acceptable in the precordial leads using both the V-lead and CR-lead derivations. The relative error of RMS voltage was 12% month-to-month and 16% year-to-year in the serial recordings when averaged over all 12 leads. RAzs were also reproducible at a rate of up to 87% and 8 1 %, respectively, for the month-to-month and year-to-year recordings. We conclude that 12-lead HF QRS electrocardiograms are sufficiently reproducible for clinical use.

  20. QRS slopes for assessment of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueyo, E.; Laciar, E.; Anzuola, E.; Laguna, P.; Jané, R.

    2007-11-01

    In this study the slopes of the QRS complex are evaluated for determination of the degree of myocardial damage in chronic chagasic patients. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of the slope indices to reflect alterations in the conduction velocity of the cardiac impulse. Results obtained in the present study show that chronic chagasic patients have significantly flatter QRS slopes as compared to healthy subjects. Not only that but the extent of slope lessening turns out to be proportional to the degree of myocardial damage caused by the disease. Additionally, when incorporating the slope indices into a classification analysis together with other indices indicative of the presence of ventricular late potentials obtained from high resolution electrocardiography, results show that the percentages of correct classification increase up to 62.5%, which means eight points above the percentages obtained prior to incorporation of the slope indices. It can be concluded that QRS slopes have great potential for assessing the degree of severity associated with Chagas' disease.

  1. [Basic mechanisms of QRS voltage changes on ECG of healthy subjects during the exercise test].

    PubMed

    Saltykova, M M

    2015-01-01

    Electrocardiography is the most commonly used technique for detection stress-induced myocardial ischemia. However, the sensitivity of ECG-criteria is not high. One of the major problem is the difficulty in differentiating ECG changes caused by various factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dependence of the QRS voltage changes during exercise on parameters of central hemodynamics, gender particularities and to reveal mechanisms causing these changes. To eliminate the effect of changes in cardiomyocytes transmembrane potentials under the influence of the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system during stepwise increasing exercises and/or due to a lack of ATP results from inadequate myocardial blood flow only healthy subjects not older than 35 years were included in the study (7 men and 7 women) and only periods of ventricular depolarization (QRS complex on the ECG) were included in the analysis. We compared the changes of QRS waves during exercise sessions with two upper and one lower limbs in both men and women. The exercise load was twice bigger in exercise with one leg relative to exercise with two arms. Responses of heart rate and systolic arterial pressure were similar. Amplitude of S-wave in left chest leads significantly increased in both sessions without significant difference between augmentations in the sessions and in groups of men and women. Significant relationship between the S wave augmentation and the peak systolic arterial pressure were revealed. Furthermore, the QRS changes during the exercise with vertical and a horizontal torso position were compared to assess the impact of diastolic arterial pressure and displacement of the diaphragm and heart rotation due to increase of abdominal pressure during the last steps of exercise. The obtained results allow us to exclude the impact of the heart position and size changes, as well as the exercise load on S-wave changes and make a conclusion about the dependence of this parameter on the value of systolic blood pressure. PMID:25857180

  2. Low power adder based digital filter for QRS detector.

    PubMed

    Murali, L; Chitra, D; Manigandan, T

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65 nm technology library standard cells. PMID:24895649

  3. Low Power Adder Based Digital Filter for QRS Detector

    PubMed Central

    Murali, L.; Chitra, D.; Manigandan, T.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the Biomedical applications use dedicated processors for the implementation of complex signal processing. Among them, sensor network is also a type, which has the constraint of low power consumption. Since the processing elements are the most copiously used operations in the signal processors, the power consumption of this has the major impact on the system level application. In this paper, we introduce low power concept of transistor stacking to reduce leakage power; and new architectures based on stacking to implement the full adder and its significance at the digital filter level for QRS detector are implemented. The proposed concept has lesser leakage power at the adder as well as filter level with trade-off in other quality metrics of the design. This enabled the design to be dealt with as the low-power corner and can be made adaptable to any level of hierarchical abstractions as per the requirement of the application. The proposed architectures are designed, modeled at RTL level using the Verilog-HDL, and synthesized in Synopsys Design Compiler by mapping the design to 65 nm technology library standard cells. PMID:24895649

  4. A precision ECG signal generator providing full Lead II QRS amplitude variability and an accurate timing profile.

    PubMed

    Shorten, Gavin P; Burke, Martin J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the design and development of a precision ECG signal generator intended for use in test and calibration of electrocardiographic equipment, ECG signal processing systems and as a cardiac teaching tool. It generates a Lead II signal which maintains the timing and profile characteristics of a Lead II electrocardiograph signal across a range of heart rates between 45 and 185 bpm in 1 bpm steps. The QRS amplitude can be adjusted in 1 microV increments from 100 microV to 10 mV. The up-slope of the QRS can be set between 15 ms and 45 ms with 1 ms resolution. The P and T wave amplitudes can be adjusted as a 1-100% scaling of the QRS complex amplitude with a 1% resolution. A color LCD with touch screen capability provides the user with facilities for inputting parameters, viewing the output wave parameters and a graphical representation of the resulting output waveform. The signal generator outputs a precision differential signal via a digital to analogue stage which has been designed using low noise techniques to produce accurate signals at the lower end of the QRS amplitude range. PMID:19963789

  5. Duration of Purkinje cell complex spikes increases with their firing frequency

    PubMed Central

    Warnaar, Pascal; Couto, Joao; Negrello, Mario; Junker, Marc; Smilgin, Aleksandra; Ignashchenkova, Alla; Giugliano, Michele; Thier, Peter; De Schutter, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Climbing fiber (CF) triggered complex spikes (CS) are massive depolarization bursts in the cerebellar Purkinje cell (PC), showing several high frequency spikelet components (±600 Hz). Since its early observations, the CS is known to vary in shape. In this study we describe CS waveforms, extracellularly recorded in awake primates (Macaca mulatta) performing saccades. Every PC analyzed showed a range of CS shapes with profoundly different duration and number of spikelets. The initial part of the CS was rather constant but the later part differed greatly, with a pronounced jitter of the last spikelets causing a large variation in total CS duration. Waveforms did not effect the following pause duration in the simple spike (SS) train, nor were SS firing rates predictive of the waveform shapes or vice versa. The waveforms did not differ between experimental conditions nor was there a preferred sequential order of CS shapes throughout the recordings. Instead, part of their variability, the timing jitter of the CS’s last spikelets, strongly correlated with interval length to the preceding CS: shorter CS intervals resulted in later appearance of the last spikelets in the CS burst, and vice versa. A similar phenomenon was observed in rat PCs recorded in vitro upon repeated extracellular stimulation of CFs at different frequencies in slice experiments. All together these results strongly suggest that the variability in the timing of the last spikelet is due to CS frequency dependent changes in PC excitability. PMID:25918500

  6. QRS Fragmentation and Sudden Cardiac Death in the Obese and Overweight

    PubMed Central

    Narayanan, Kumar; Zhang, Lin; Kim, Candice; Uy‐Evanado, Audrey; Teodorescu, Carmen; Reinier, Kyndaron; Zheng, Zhi‐Jie; Gunson, Karen; Jui, Jonathan; Chugh, Sumeet S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity has been associated with significantly greater risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD); however, identifying the obese patient at highest risk remains a challenge. We evaluated the association between QRS fragmentation on the 12‐lead electrocardiogram and SCD, in obese/overweight subjects. Methods and Results In the ongoing prospective, community‐based Oregon Sudden Unexpected Death Study (population approximately 1 million), we performed a case‐control analysis, comparing obese/overweight SCD victims with obese/overweight controls from the same geographic region. Archived ECGs prior and unrelated to the SCD event were used for cases and all ECG measurements were assessed in blinded fashion. Fragmentation was defined as the presence of RSR’ patterns and/or notching of the R/S wave in at least 2 contiguous leads. Analysis was limited to ECGs with QRS duration <120 ms. Overall prevalence of fragmentation was higher in cases (n=185; 64.9±13.8 years; 67.0% male) compared with controls (n=405; 64.9±11.0 years; 64.7% male) (34.6% versus 26.9%, P=0.06). Lateral fragmentation was significantly more frequent in cases (8.1% versus 2.5%; P<0. 01), with non‐significant differences in anterior and inferior territories. Fragmentation in multiple territories (≥2) was also more likely to be observed in cases (9.7% versus 4.9%, P=0.02). In multivariable analysis with consideration of established SCD risk factors, lateral fragmentation was significantly associated with SCD (OR 2.84; 95% CI 1.01 to 8.02; P=0.05). Conclusion QRS fragmentation, especially in the lateral territory is a potential risk marker for SCD independent of the ejection fraction, among obese/overweight subjects in the general population. PMID:25762804

  7. Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Villani, James A.; Ritter, Paul

    1997-01-01

    This document is the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Quick Response System (QRS) Test Report. The purpose of this document is to present the results of the QRS unit and system tests in support of the ASAC QRS development effort. This document contains an overview of the project background and scope, defines the QRS system and presents the additions made to the QRS this year, explains the assumptions, constraints, and approach used to conduct QRS Unit and System Testing, and presents the schedule used to perform QRS Testing. The document also presents an overview of the Logistics Management Institute (LMI) Test Facility and testing environment and summarizes the QRS Unit and System Test effort and results.

  8. Conditional statistical properties of the complex systems having long-duration memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhifu; Ou, Congjie; Lin, Bihong; Su, Guozhen; Chen, Jincan

    2014-09-01

    A new concept of the available force is proposed to investigate the performance of the complex systems having long-duration memory. Since the covariance of average velocity in double time interval and available force equals zero, it is possible to calculate the conditional probability distribution function (CPDF) within the systems. It is found that the asymmetric CPDF of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals can be derived from the symmetrical CPDF between the available force and the double time interval velocity. Two typical currency exchange databases, i.e., EUR/USD and GBP/USD, which collect the minutely opening exchange prices from 1 January 1999 to 31 December 2011, are adopted as examples. It is found that the analytical CPDF needs only six parameters for an arbitrary system. By calculating the CPDF in the currency exchange databases, it is shown that the results are well fitted by our analytical expression. The analytical CPDF can also be used to calculate the conditional expectation and the conditional variance of velocity. Interestingly, the two databases show that the conditional expectation of the velocity between two adjacent time intervals is not monotonic, while the conditional variance tends to monotonic. All of these results are well described by our theory. It is worthwhile to note that the analytical CPDF is a general expression. It is valid not only for current exchange systems but also for any complex systems having long-duration memory.

  9. Complex H(sub alpha) Loop Activity in a Long Duration Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debi Prasad, Choudhary; Gary, G. Allen; Ambastha, Ashok K.

    1998-01-01

    A long duration Bare was observed in the active region NOAA 6555 on March 23, 1991 at a location of low magnetic shear. This flare displayed complex H(sub alpha) loop activity during the decay phase. Initially, there were a few long loops orientated at an angle of about 45 degree with the east-west axis followed by the appearance of east-west axis. This configuration was aligned shorter loops. By using different magnetic field models, we have extrapolated the photospheric magnetogram.9 to the chromospheric heights. The magnetic field lines computed by using the potential field model correspond to most of the observed H. loops. In this paper, we report the analysis of high resolution chromospheric observations of the event and describe a possible scenario for the post-flare loop activity.

  10. [A research on real-time ventricular QRS classification methods for single-chip-microcomputers].

    PubMed

    Peng, L; Yang, Z; Li, L; Chen, H; Chen, E; Lin, J

    1997-05-01

    Ventricular QRS classification is key technique of ventricular arrhythmias detection in single-chip-microcomputer based dynamic electrocardiogram real-time analyser. This paper adopts morphological feature vector including QRS amplitude, interval information to reveal QRS morphology. After studying the distribution of QRS morphology feature vector of MIT/BIH DB ventricular arrhythmia files, we use morphological feature vector cluster to classify multi-morphology QRS. Based on the method, morphological feature parameters changing method which is suitable to catch occasional ventricular arrhythmias is presented. Clinical experiments verify missed ventricular arrhythmia is less than 1% by this method. PMID:11189347

  11. New Mexico Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of New Mexico's Look for the STARS--AIM HIGH prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  12. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  13. Los Angeles County Steps to Excellence Project: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Los Angeles County's Steps to Excellence Project prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…

  14. Louisiana Quality Start Child Care Rating System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Louisiana's Quality Start Child Care Rating System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs;…

  15. QRS pattern and improvement in right and left ventricular function after cardiac resynchronization therapy: a radionuclide study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Predicting response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) remains a challenge. We evaluated the role of baseline QRS pattern to predict response in terms of improvement in biventricular ejection fraction (EF). Methods Consecutive patients (pts) undergoing CRT implantation underwent radionuclide angiography at baseline and at mid-term follow-up. The relationship between baseline QRS pattern and mechanical dyssynchrony using phase analysis was evaluated. Changes in left and right ventricular EF (LVEF and RVEF) were analyzed with regard to baseline QRS pattern. Results We enrolled 56 pts, 32 with left bundle branch block (LBBB), 4 with right bundle branch block (RBBB) and 20 with non-specific intraventricular conduction disturbance (IVCD). A total of 48 pts completed follow-up. LBBB pts had significantly greater improvement in LVEF compared to RBBB or non-specific IVCD pts (+9.6 ± 10.9% vs. +2.6 ± 7.6%, p = 0.003). Response (defined as ≥ 5% increase in LVEF) was observed in 68% of LBBB vs. 24% of non-specific IVCD pts (p = 0.006). None of the RBBB pts were responders. RVEF was significantly improved in LBBB (+5.0 ± 9.0%, p = 0.007), but not in non-specific IVCD and RBBB pts (+0.4 ± 5.8%, p = 0.76). At multivariate analysis, LBBB was the only predictor of LVEF response (OR, 7.45; 95% CI 1.80-30.94; p = 0.006), but not QRS duration or extent of mechanical dyssynchrony. Conclusions Presence of a LBBB is a marker of a positive response to CRT in terms of biventricular improvement. Pts with non-LBBB pattern show significantly less benefit from CRT than those with LBBB. PMID:22494365

  16. Real Time QRS Detection Based on M-ary Likelihood Ratio Test on the DFT Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Górriz, Juan Manuel; Ramírez, Javier; Olivares, Alberto; Padilla, Pablo; Puntonet, Carlos G.; Cantón, Manuel; Laguna, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows an adaptive statistical test for QRS detection of electrocardiography (ECG) signals. The method is based on a M-ary generalized likelihood ratio test (LRT) defined over a multiple observation window in the Fourier domain. The motivations for proposing another detection algorithm based on maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation are found in the high complexity of the signal model proposed in previous approaches which i) makes them computationally unfeasible or not intended for real time applications such as intensive care monitoring and (ii) in which the parameter selection conditions the overall performance. In this sense, we propose an alternative model based on the independent Gaussian properties of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) coefficients, which allows to define a simplified MAP probability function. In addition, the proposed approach defines an adaptive MAP statistical test in which a global hypothesis is defined on particular hypotheses of the multiple observation window. In this sense, the observation interval is modeled as a discontinuous transmission discrete-time stochastic process avoiding the inclusion of parameters that constraint the morphology of the QRS complexes. PMID:25356628

  17. [Value of interacardiac recordings in the evaluation of positive QRS in V1 provoked by stimulation of the right ventricle].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, A; Beltrn-Baguena; Befeler, B; Agha, A S; Myerburg, R J

    1975-01-01

    The analysis of the common bundle and of the ventrical filtered electrograms has incrased our knowledge of the intraventricular conduction following the simulation of the PVS as well as the different types or reciprocating that can be produced by premature beats. 2. The positive QRS complexes in V1 produced from PVD by St2 can be explained as a greater degree of incomplete recuperation of the right ventricular wall than in the interventricular septum. In contrast with what happened in the basal beats, where the front took longer to reach the TSVD than the VI. 3. The refractarines of the transitional tissues that serve as the phisiological banier was longer than the banal myocardium. The intraventricular propagation, and therefore the morphology and direction of QRS, depended of this one; while the moment of arrival of activation retrogradly to the common bundle was conditioned by the transitional tissues. 4. Episodes of ventricular taquicardies with QRS positive complexes in V1 can be due to a re-entry throught the bundle branches or in (or around) an area that has been recently injured. PMID:1190904

  18. Variation in canopy duration in the perennial biofuel crop Miscanthus reveals complex associations with yield

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paul R.H.; Farrar, Kerrie; Gay, Alan P.; Jensen, Elaine F.; Clifton-Brown, John C.; Donnison, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Energy crops can provide a sustainable source of power and fuels, and mitigate the negative effects of CO2 emissions associated with fossil fuel use. Miscanthus is a perennial C4 energy crop capable of producing large biomass yields whilst requiring low levels of input. Miscanthus is largely unimproved and therefore there could be significant opportunities to increase yield. Further increases in yield will improve the economics, energy balance, and carbon mitigation of the crop, as well as reducing land-take. One strategy to increase yield in Miscanthus is to maximize the light captured through an extension of canopy duration. In this study, canopy duration was compared among a diverse collection of 244 Miscanthus genotypes. Canopy duration was determined by calculating the number of days between canopy establishment and senescence. Yield was positively correlated with canopy duration. Earlier establishment and later senescence were also both separately correlated with higher yield. However, although genotypes with short canopy durations were low yielding, not all genotypes with long canopy durations were high yielding. Differences of yield between genotypes with long canopy durations were associated with variation in stem and leaf traits. Different methodologies to assess canopy duration traits were investigated, including visual assessment, image analysis, light interception, and different trait thresholds. The highest correlation coefficients were associated with later assessments of traits and the use of quantum sensors for canopy establishment. A model for trait optimization to enable yield improvement in Miscanthus and other bioenergy crops is discussed. PMID:23599277

  19. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P less than 0.00l). Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  20. High frequency QRS ECG predicts ischemic defects during myocardial perfusion imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Atiar

    2006-01-01

    Background: Changes in high frequency QRS components of the electrocardiogram (HF QRS ECG) (150-250 Hz) are more sensitive than changes in conventional ST segments for detecting myocardial ischemia. We investigated the accuracy of 12-lead HF QRS ECG in detecting ischemia during adenosine tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Methods and Results: 12-lead HF QRS ECG recordings were obtained from 45 patients before and during adenosine technetium-99 tetrofosmin MPI tests. Before the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to a morphological score that incorporated the number, type and location of reduced amplitude zones (RAZs) present in the 12 leads. During the adenosine infusions, recordings of HF QRS were analyzed according to the maximum percentage changes (in both the positive and negative directions) that occurred in root mean square (RMS) voltage amplitudes within the 12 leads. The best set of prospective HF QRS criteria had a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 83% for correctly identifying the MPI result. The sensitivity of simultaneous ST segment changes (18%) was significantly lower than that of any individual HF QRS criterion (P<0.001). Conclusions: Analysis of 12-lead HF QRS ECG is highly sensitive and specific for detecting ischemic perfusion defects during adenosine MPI stress tests and significantly more sensitive than analysis of conventional ST segments.

  1. Progress in resolving the duration of magmatism in the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoates, J. S.; Wall, C. J.; Friedman, R. M.; VanTongeren, J. A.; Mathez, E. A.

    2011-12-01

    Determining precise crystallization ages and assessing the duration of magmatism associated with the Paleoproterozoic Bushveld Complex, the world's largest layered intrusion located in the northern Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, is critical for establishing the genetic relations among its different rock units (Rustenburg Layered Suite, overlying Rooiberg Group felsic volcanic rocks, intrusive Rashoop Granophyres). We report chemical abrasion ID-TIMS U-Pb zircon results (weighted 207Pb/206Pb ages) for samples spanning the uppermost ~3/4 of the igneous stratigraphy of the layered mafic rocks and the roof. The temporal relationship between the Upper Zone and the roof from the Eastern Limb is constrained by the age of a diorite ~52 m below the roof (2056.52 ± 0.81 Ma; n = 6 single grains) and a granodiorite mixed with hornfels (40:60) and interpreted as partially melted roof material (2054.83 ± 0.86 Ma; n = 7). The slightly younger age of the granodiorite may indicate that the overlying melt sheet was kept molten due to continued influx of the latent heat of crystallization from the underlying 8 km-thick stack of cooling cumulates. The PGE-rich Merensky Reef and the UG2 chromitite occur in the Upper Critical Zone above the ultramafic rocks that comprise the base of the complex. Two samples from the Merensky Reef, separated by ~300 km, have overlapping ages: a sample from Farm Driekop in the Eastern Limb yields an age of 2055.30 ± 0.61 Ma (n = 10) and a sample from the Rustenburg mining section in the Western Limb an age of 2056.13 ± 0.70 Ma (n = 8; age revised from [1]). These ages are indistinguishable from the Upper Zone diorite indicating rapid construction of the upper 2/3 of the Bushveld Complex at ca. 2056 Ma. Preliminary results for zircon from a feldspathic orthopyroxenite immediately beneath the UG2 chromitite (Middelpunt mine, Eastern Limb), ~380 m below the Merensky Reef, reveal unusual U-Pb systematics with low U concentrations (2-27 ppm), exceptionally high Th/U (7.3-28.1) and a range of 207Pb/206Pb ages (2057.8 to 2075.0 Ma; n = 6, all results concordant). These results may reflect a combination of the compositional effects of co-existing U-bearing accessory phases (apatite, rutile) and formation by metasomatism and partial melting of the pyroxenite protolith by rising hydrous interstitial melt that accumulated beneath the impermeable chromitite layer [2]. The ages for additional samples in progress will also be presented to further test the proposal that 15-25% of the original magma volume in the intrusion was expelled to form the Upper Rooiberg Group lavas or Rashoop granophyres [3]. [1] Scoates & Friedman (2008) Economic Geology 103, 465-471; [2] Mathez & Mey (2005) Economic Geology 100, 1616-1630; [3] VanTongeren et al. (2010) Journal of Petrology 51, 1891-1912.

  2. Real-Time, High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; DePalma, Jude L.; Moradi, Saeed

    2003-01-01

    An electronic system that performs real-time analysis of the low-amplitude, high-frequency, ordinarily invisible components of the QRS portion of an electrocardiographic signal in real time has been developed. Whereas the signals readily visible on a conventional electrocardiogram (ECG) have amplitudes of the order of a millivolt and are characterized by frequencies <100 Hz, the ordinarily invisible components have amplitudes in the microvolt range and are characterized by frequencies from about 150 to about 250 Hz. Deviations of these high-frequency components from a normal pattern can be indicative of myocardial ischemia or myocardial infarction

  3. Prosodic Planning: Effects of Phrasal Length and Complexity on Pause Duration

    PubMed Central

    Krivokapi, Jelena

    2007-01-01

    Research on pause duration has mainly focused on the impact of syntactic structure on the duration of pauses within an utterance and on the impact of syntax, discourse, and prosodic structure on the likelihood of pause occurrence. Relatively little is known about what factors play a role in determining the duration of pauses between utterances or phrases. Two experiments examining the effect of prosodic structure and phrase length on pause duration are reported. Subjects read sentences varying along the following parameters: a) the length in syllables of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, and b) the prosodic structure of the intonational phrase preceding and following the pause, specifically whether or not the intonational phrase branches into smaller phrases. In order to minimize variability due to speech rate and individual differences, speakers read sentences synchronously in dyads. The results showed a significant post-boundary effect of prosodic branching and significant pre- and post-boundary phrase length effects. The results are discussed in terms of production units. PMID:18379639

  4. A fast and accurate FPGA based QRS detection system.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Ashish; Macchiarulo, Luca

    2008-01-01

    An accurate Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based ECG Analysis system is described in this paper. The design, based on a popular software based QRS detection algorithm, calculates the threshold value for the next peak detection cycle, from the median of eight previously detected peaks. The hardware design has accuracy in excess of 96% in detecting the beats correctly when tested with a subset of five 30 minute data records obtained from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. The design, implemented using a proprietary design tool (System Generator), is an extension of our previous work and uses 76% resources available in a small-sized FPGA device (Xilinx Spartan xc3s500), has a higher detection accuracy as compared to our previous design and takes almost half the analysis time in comparison to software based approach. PMID:19163797

  5. Atlantis Time-Lapse Move to KSC Visitor Complex - Duration: 3 minutes, 21 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Time-lapse cameras captured space shuttle Atlantis making a 10-mile trek from the Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex whe...

  6. Development of a Multi-Channel, High Frequency QRS Electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DePalma, Jude L.

    2003-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS era and the potential requirement for increased cardiovascular monitoring of crewmembers during extended EVAs, NASA flight surgeons would stand to benefit from an evolving technology that allows for a more rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia compared to standard electrocardiography. Similarly, during the astronaut selection process, NASA flight surgeons and other physicians would also stand to benefit from a completely noninvasive technology that, either at rest or during maximal exercise tests, is more sensitive than standard ECG in identifying the presence of ischemia. Perhaps most importantly, practicing cardiologists and emergency medicine physicians could greatly benefit from such a device as it could augment (or even replace) standard electrocardiography in settings where the rapid diagnosis of myocardial ischemia (or the lack thereof) is required for proper clinical decision-making. A multi-channel, high-frequency QRS electrocardiograph is currently under development in the Life Sciences Research Laboratories at JSC. Specifically the project consisted of writing software code, some of which contained specially-designed digital filters, which will be incorporated into an existing commercial software program that is already designed to collect, plot and analyze conventional 12-lead ECG signals on a desktop, portable or palm PC. The software will derive the high-frequency QRS signals, which will be analyzed (in numerous ways) and plotted alongside of the conventional ECG signals, giving the PC-viewing clinician advanced diagnostic information that has never been available previously in all 12 ECG leads simultaneously. After the hardware and software for the advanced digital ECG monitor have been fully integrated, plans are to use the monitor to begin clinical studies both on healthy subjects and on patients with known coronary artery disease in both the outpatient and hospital settings. The ultimate goal is to get the technology out into the clinical world, where it has the potential to save lives.

  7. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats

    PubMed Central

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M.

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton’s bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  8. Sonar sound groups and increased terminal buzz duration reflect task complexity in hunting bats.

    PubMed

    Hulgard, Katrine; Ratcliffe, John M

    2016-01-01

    More difficult tasks are generally regarded as such because they demand greater attention. Echolocators provide rare insight into this relationship because biosonar signals can be monitored. Here we show that bats produce longer terminal buzzes and more sonar sound groups during their approach to prey under presumably more difficult conditions. Specifically, we found Daubenton's bats, Myotis daubentonii, produced longer buzzes when aerial-hawking versus water-trawling prey, but that bats taking revolving air- and water-borne prey produced more sonar sound groups than did the bats when taking stationary prey. Buzz duration and sonar sound groups have been suggested to be independent means by which bats attend to would-be targets and other objects of interest. We suggest that for attacking bats both should be considered as indicators of task difficulty and that the buzz is, essentially, an extended sonar sound group. PMID:26857019

  9. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A.

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  10. Elicitation of the Acoustic Change Complex to Long-Duration Speech Stimuli in Four-Month-Old Infants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke Heng; Small, Susan A

    2015-01-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is an auditory-evoked potential elicited to changes within an ongoing stimulus that indicates discrimination at the level of the auditory cortex. Only a few studies to date have attempted to record ACCs in young infants. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the elicitation of ACCs to long-duration speech stimuli in English-learning 4-month-old infants. ACCs were elicited to consonant contrasts made up of two concatenated speech tokens. The stimuli included native dental-dental /dada/ and dental-labial /daba/ contrasts and a nonnative Hindi dental-retroflex /daDa/ contrast. Each consonant-vowel speech token was 410 ms in duration. Slow cortical responses were recorded to the onset of the stimulus and to the acoustic change from /da/ to either /ba/ or /Da/ within the stimulus with significantly prolonged latencies compared with adults. ACCs were reliably elicited for all stimulus conditions with more robust morphology compared with our previous findings using stimuli that were shorter in duration. The P1 amplitudes elicited to the acoustic change in /daba/ and /daDa/ were significantly larger compared to /dada/ supporting that the brain discriminated between the speech tokens. These findings provide further evidence for the use of ACCs as an index of discrimination ability. PMID:26798343

  11. Earlier onset of QRS in anterior precordial ECG leads: precision of time interval measurements.

    PubMed

    Danzig, M D; Robertson, T L; Webber, L S; Day, G; Dock, D S

    1976-09-01

    Onset of QRS was compared between simultaneously recorded conventional ECG leads in 84 subjects with clinically normal hearts from a defined population sample. Mean onset of QRS was 6.4 msec earlier in lead V1 and 7.4 msec earlier in V2 than in lead II. These differences were statistically significant. The measuring system was adapted from drafting techniques and took into account variations in paper speed which occurred during recording. Interobserver differences equivalent to greater than 1 msec occurred in 3.9% of timeline measurements, but in in 38% of QRS onset measurements. The lower precision in measuring QRS onset may be attributed to baseline oscillations and to the relatively slow rate of voltage change at the onset of ventricular depolarization. PMID:181175

  12. Variation in the T/QRS ratio of fetal electrocardiograms recorded during labour in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Newbold, S; Wheeler, T; Clewlow, F; Soul, F

    1989-02-01

    The T/QRS ratio of the fetal ECG was obtained during labour from 25 women with normal pregnancies. The poor signal-to-noise ratio of the unprocessed signals, chiefly due to baseline wander, led to a wide variation between individual measurements. This problem was overcome by data averaging, the ratio being expressed as a mean over 1-min epochs. The average T/QRS ratio of each labour record ranged from 4% to 23% with a mean of 10% (for all 25). The average range (between 5th and 95th centile) of the 1-min T/QRS ratios was 13% and there were no significant changes as labour progressed. The effect of contractions on the T/QRS ratio was measured from eight subjects and found to be inconsistent. PMID:2930738

  13. A 0.83- μW QRS detection processor using quadratic spline wavelet transform for wireless ECG acquisition in 0.35- μm CMOS.

    PubMed

    Ieong, Chio-In; Mak, Pui-In; Lam, Chi-Pang; Dong, Cheng; Vai, Mang-I; Mak, Peng-Un; Pun, Sio-Hang; Wan, Feng; Martins, Rui P

    2012-12-01

    Healthcare electronics count on the effectiveness of the on-patient signal preprocessing unit to moderate the wireless data transfer for better power efficiency. In order to reduce the system power in long-time ECG acquisition, this work describes an on-patient QRS detection processor for arrhythmia monitoring. It extracts the concerned ECG part, i.e., the RR-interval between the QRS complex for evaluating the heart rate variability. The processor is structured by a scale-3 quadratic spline wavelet transform followed by a maxima modulus recognition stage. The former is implemented via a symmetric FIR filter, whereas the latter includes a number of feature extraction steps: zero-crossing detection, peak (zero-derivative) detection, threshold adjustment and two finite state machines for executing the decision rules. Fabricated in 0.35-μm CMOS the 300-Hz processor draws only 0.83 μW, which is favorably comparable with the prior arts. In the system tests, the input data is placed via an on-chip 10-bit SAR analog-to-digital converter, while the output data is emitted via an off-the-shelf wireless transmitter (TI CC2500) that is configurable by the processor for different data transmission modes: 1) QRS detection result, 2) raw ECG data or 3) both. Validated with all recordings from the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database, 99.31% sensitivity and 99.70% predictivity are achieved. Mode 1 with solely the result of QRS detection exhibits 6× reduction of system power over modes 2 and 3. PMID:23853259

  14. District of Columbia Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement System. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of District of Columbia's Going for the Gold Tiered Rate Reimbursement Systemp repared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for…

  15. Monitoring complex trace-gas mixtures by long-path laser absorption spectrometry. [in long duration manned mission closed environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, B. D.; Steinfeld, J. I.

    1976-01-01

    Laser-based spectrophotometric methods, which have been proposed for the detection of trace concentrations of gaseous contaminants, include Raman and passive radiometry. The paper discusses a simple long-path laser absorption method which is capable of resolving complex mixtures of closely related trace contaminants at ppm levels. A number of species were selected which are most likely to accumulate in closed environments, such as submarines or long-duration manned space flights. Absorption coefficients at CO2 laser wavelengths were measured, accurate to + 3 per cent or better, for each of these species. This data base was then used to determine the presence and concentration of the contaminants in prepared mixtures of 12 to 15 gases. Computer programs have been developed which will permit a real-time analysis of the monitored atmosphere. Minimum detectable concentrations for individual species are generally in the ppm range, and are not seriously degraded by interferences even in complex mixtures. Estimates of the dynamic range of this monitoring technique for various system configurations and comparison with other methods of analysis are discussed

  16. Usefulness of electrocardiographic frontal QRS-T angle to predict increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gotsman, Israel; Keren, Andre; Hellman, Yaron; Banker, Jeffrey; Lotan, Chaim; Zwas, Donna R

    2013-05-15

    The risk of death in heart failure (HF) is high. The electrocardiographic spatial QRS-T angle reflects changes in the direction of the repolarization sequence and predicts death in the general population. The frontal QRS-T angle is simple to measure but has not been evaluated in a large chronic HF cohort. We examined the significance of the frontal QRS-T angle in predicting the clinical outcome in a large cohort of patients with HF. The QRS-T angle was calculated from the frontal QRS and T axis of the baseline 12-lead surface electrocardiogram. The patients were followed for cardiac-related hospitalizations and death; 5,038 patients with HF were evaluated. The mean follow-up period was 576 days; 51% were men. Overall survival during the follow-up period was 83%. Cox regression analysis after adjustment for significant predictors, including age, gender, ischemic heart disease, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, body mass index, pulse, serum hemoglobin, sodium, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and urea levels, demonstrated that the QRS-T angle was an incremental predictor of increased mortality in both genders. For women, a QRS-T angle of ?60 had a hazard ratio of 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.04 to 1.75; p <0.05) and a QRS-T angle of ?120 had a hazard ratio of 1.45 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.92, p <0.01). For men, a QRS-T angle of ?130 had a hazard ratio of 1.53 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 2.06, p <0.01). For the whole cohort, a QRS-T angle of ?125 gave a hazard ratio of 1.47 (95% confidence interval 1.20 to 1.80, p <0.0001). The QRS-T angle was also a predictor of increased cardiac-related hospitalizations. The QRS-T angle was a predictor in patients with reduced and preserved left ventricular function and in patients with a normal QRS interval. In conclusion, the QRS-T angle was a powerful predictor of outcome in patients with HF. We believe the QRS-T angle should be a part of the electrocardiographic evaluation of patients with HF. PMID:23453457

  17. A coordinate axis transformation study of spatial QRS loop in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Takimiya, A; Nakajima, S; Mugikura, M; Mutoh, K; Ibukiyama, C

    1991-01-01

    To obtain an overall view of the QRS loop on vectorcardiograms (VCG) of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), the coordinate axis was transformed using the resolver method. The morphological features and planarity of the loop were compared with hypertrophic patterns and hypertensive heart disease (HHD). The subjects in the present study included 30 normal individuals, 40 patients with HCM and 30 with HHD. The HHD group was selected from patients showing left ventricular hypertrophy on VCG similar to that of HCM patients. The HCM group showed significantly greater values than the HHD group in the thickness/length ratio, which represents the planarity of the spatial QRS loop. The above finding suggests that the HCM group had greater deformation in the QRS loop than the HHD group. This may provide a useful indicator for the differential diagnosis of the two diseases. PMID:1920958

  18. Online digital filter and QRS detector applicable in low resource ECG monitoring systems.

    PubMed

    Tabakov, Serafim; Iliev, Ivo; Krasteva, Vessela

    2008-11-01

    The present work describes fast computation methods for real-time digital filtration and QRS detection, both applicable in autonomous personal ECG systems for long-term monitoring. Since such devices work under considerable artifacts of intensive body and electrode movements, the input filtering should provide high-quality ECG signals supporting the accurate ECG interpretation. In this respect, we propose a combined high-pass and power-line interference rejection filter, introducing the simple principle of averaging of samples with a predefined distance between them. In our implementation (sampling frequency of 250 Hz), we applied averaging over 17 samples distanced by 10 samples (Filter10x17), thus realizing a comb filter with a zero at 50 Hz and high-pass cut-off at 1.1 Hz. Filter10x17 affords very fast filtering procedure at the price of minimal computing resources. Another benefit concerns the small ECG distortions introduced by the filter, providing its powerful application in the preprocessing module of diagnostic systems analyzing the ECG morphology. Filter10x17 does not attenuate the QRS amplitude, or introduce significant ST-segment elevation/depression. The filter output produces a constant error, leading to uniform shifting of the entire P-QRS-T segment toward about 5% of the R-peak amplitude. Tests with standardized ECG signals proved that Filter10x17 is capable to remove very strong baseline wanderings, and to fully suppress 50 Hz interferences. By changing the number of the averaged samples and the distance between them, a filter design with different cut-off and zero frequency could be easily achieved. The real-time QRS detector is designed with simplified computations over single channel, low-resolution ECGs. It relies on simple evaluations of amplitudes and slopes, including history of their mean values estimated over the preceding beats, smart adjustable thresholds, as well as linear logical rules for identification of the R-peaks in real-time. The performance of the QRS detector was tested with internationally recognized ECG databases (AHA, MIT-BIH, European ST-T database), showing mean sensitivity of 99.65% and positive predictive value of 99.57%. The performance of the presented QRS detector can be highly rated, comparable and even better than other published real-time QRS detectors. Examples representing some typical unfavorable conditions in real ECGs, illustrate the common operation of Filter10x17 and the QRS detector. PMID:18752068

  19. Electrocardiographic Total 12-Lead QRS Voltage in Patients Having Operative Resection of Syphilitic Aortic Aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Roberts, William C; Barbin, Clay M; Weissenborn, Matthew R; Ko, Jong M

    2015-09-15

    Electrocardiographic voltage has been used to determine the presence of left ventricular hypertrophy for about 70 years. Varying electrocardiographic criteria have been applied. We have found total 12-lead QRS voltage to be most useful in this regard. We measured total 12-lead QRS voltage in 24 patients in whom an ascending aortic aneurysm was resected and histologic study of its wall was classic of syphilitic aortitis. In these 24 patients total 12-lead QRS voltage ranged from 57 to 161 mm, averaging 120 ± 32 in the 11 men and 106 ± 24 mm in the 13 women. If normal 12-lead QRS voltage in adults is considered to be >175 mm not a single one of the 24 patients had normal voltage. Indeed, most were in the low normal area. Thus, this study provides some evidence via this indirect means that the heart itself is infrequently involved by syphilitic aortitis which produces an ascending aortic aneurysm of sufficient size to warrant resection. PMID:26209115

  20. Fast QRS Detection with an Optimized Knowledge-Based Method: Evaluation on 11 Standard ECG Databases

    PubMed Central

    Elgendi, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in automatic QRS detection methods show high robustness and almost negligible error rates. In return, the methods are usually based on machine-learning approaches that require sufficient computational resources. However, simple-fast methods can also achieve high detection rates. There is a need to develop numerically efficient algorithms to accommodate the new trend towards battery-driven ECG devices and to analyze long-term recorded signals in a time-efficient manner. A typical QRS detection method has been reduced to a basic approach consisting of two moving averages that are calibrated by a knowledge base using only two parameters. In contrast to high-accuracy methods, the proposed method can be easily implemented in a digital filter design. PMID:24066054

  1. Clinical meaning of isolated increase of QRS voltages in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy versus athlete's heart.

    PubMed

    Calore, Chiara; Zorzi, Alessandro; Corrado, Domenico

    2015-01-01

    Recent consensus documents have provided modern criteria for interpretation of the athlete's ECG, which are based on a better definition of physiological versus abnormal ECG changes. The aim of these modern criteria is to lower the traditionally high number of false positives and to reduce unnecessary and expensive investigations, maintaining the sensitivity for identification of cardiac diseases at risk of sudden cardiac death during sports such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). This article reviews the published studies regarding the ECG changes associated with HCM ("pathologic hypertrophy") and athlete's heart ("physiologic hypertrophy"), with particular reference to the prevalence and clinical significance of the ECG pattern of isolated increase of QRS voltages. Taken together the results of the available studies show that ECG provides good accuracy for differentiating HCM from athlete's heart and allows to preserve the ECG power for detection of athletes with HCM. Patients with either completely normal ECGs or showing isolated QRS voltage criteria for LV hypertrophy have a less severe HCM phenotype, which is associated with a lower arrhythmic risk. These scientific data support the current recommendation that further cardiovascular tests including echocardiography are not systematically indicated in trained athletes showing an isolated increase of QRS voltages. PMID:25595718

  2. Delineation of QRS offset by instantaneous changes in ECG vector angle can improve detection of acute inferior myocardial infarctions.

    PubMed

    Starc, Vito; Schlegel, Todd T

    2016-01-01

    We developed an automated new method for determining QRS offset, based on angular velocity (AV) changes around the QRS loop, and compared the method's performance to that of manual and more established automated methods for determining QRS offset in both healthy subjects and patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Specifically, using Frank leads reconstructed from standard 12-lead ECGs, we determined AV in the direction of change raised to the 4th power, d(t). We found that the d(t)-determined AV transition (ΔAV) nearly coincided with manually determined QRS offset in healthy subjects, and in 27 patients with anterior AMI. However, in 31 patients with inferior AMI, ΔAV typically preceded that of QRS offset determined by the established automated methods, and by more than 10ms in 32% of cases. While this "ΔAV precedence" coincided with diagnostic ST elevation in only a minority of patients with recent inferior AMI, the use of ΔAV precedence as a complement to traditional determination of ST elevation increased the sensitivity for detecting inferior AMIs from 23 to 42%. PMID:26979381

  3. Interglacial Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangili, Clara; McManus, Jerry F.; Raynaud, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    In the context of future global warming induced by human activities, it is essential to assess the role of natural climatic variations. Precise knowledge of the duration of past interglacial periods is fundamental to the understanding of the potential future evolution of the Holocene. Past ice age cycles provide a natural laboratory for exploring the progression and duration of interglacial climate. Palaeorecords from ice, land and oceans extend over the last 800 ka, revealing eight glacial-interglacial cycles, with a range of insolation and greenhouse gas influences. The interglacials display a correspondingly large variety of intensity and duration, thus providing an opportunity for major insights into the mechanisms involved in the behaviour of interglacial climates. A comparison of the duration of these interglacials, however, is often difficult, as the definition of an interglacial depends on the archive that is considered. Therefore, to compare interglacial length and climate conditions from different archives, a consistent definition of interglacial conditions is required, ideally one that is not bound to the method nor to the archive under consideration. Here we present a method to identify interglacials and to calculate their length by mean of a simple statistical approach. We based our method on ~ 400 ka windows of time to determine mean climatic conditions while allowing for the possibility of long term evolution of the climatic baseline. For our study of interglacials of the past 800 ka, we used two windows that largely align with the pre- (800-430 ka ago) and post- (430-0 ka ago) mid-Brunhes event (MBE), although the resulting conclusions are not sensitive to this particular division. We applied this method to the last 800 ka of a few palaeoclimate records: the deuterium ice core (EDC) record as a climatic proxy, the benthic δ18O stack (LR04) as a proxy for sea level/ice volume, ice core (Vostok, EDC) atmospheric CO2 and additional records. Although each climatic parameter has its own interglacial duration in this approach, important overall patterns emerge for individual interglacials. Interglacial conditions during the last interglacial, marine isotope stage (MIS) 5, as well as most pre-MBE interglacials persisted somewhat longer than the elapsed duration of the Holocene, while MIS 7 was shorter, and MIS 9 and MIS 19 were similar in duration. The longest interglacial durations overall characterized MIS 11, a frequent candidate as a potential Holocene and near future analogue because of similar orbital configurations (similarity shared also with MIS 19). Our study also reveals that interglacial high CO2 levels on the whole are within the duration range of the other paleoclimatic proxies and similar in length with the deuterium EDC record. This suggests that CO2 essentially plays a role of feedback when contributing to interglacial's duration. This exercise highlights the stability and variability in duration of the different interglacials as recorded in various proxy records under natural climate conditions. It may help identify past interglacial periods with conditions similar to those observed in the Holocene thus far, thereby allowing improved understanding of the human impact on climate.

  4. Automatic Real-Time Embedded QRS Complex Detection for a Novel Patch-Type Electrocardiogram Recorder

    PubMed Central

    Tanev, George; Flintrup, Morten; Osmanagic, Armin; Egstrup, Kenneth; Hoppe, Karsten; Jennum, Poul; Jeppesen, Jørgen L.; Iversen, Helle K.; Sorensen, Helge B. D.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are projected to remain the single leading cause of death globally. Timely diagnosis and treatment of these diseases are crucial to prevent death and dangerous complications. One of the important tools in early diagnosis of arrhythmias is analysis of electrocardiograms (ECGs) obtained from ambulatory long-term recordings. The design of novel patch-type ECG recorders has increased the accessibility of these long-term recordings. In many applications, it is furthermore an advantage for these devices that the recorded ECGs can be analyzed automatically in real time. The purpose of this study was therefore to design a novel algorithm for automatic heart beat detection, and embed the algorithm in the CE marked ePatch heart monitor. The algorithm is based on a novel cascade of computationally efficient filters, optimized adaptive thresholding, and a refined search back mechanism. The design and optimization of the algorithm was performed on two different databases: The MIT-BIH arrhythmia database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.90$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P^{+}=99.87$ \\end{document}) and a private ePatch training database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.88$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P^{+}=99.37$ \\end{document}%). The offline validation was conducted on the European ST-T database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.84$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P^{+}=99.71$ \\end{document}%). Finally, a double-blinded validation of the embedded algorithm was conducted on a private ePatch validation database (\\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$Se=99.91$ \\end{document}%, \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts} \\usepackage{amssymb} \\usepackage{amsbsy} \\usepackage{upgreek} \\usepackage{mathrsfs} \\setlength{\\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \\begin{document} }{}$P^{+}=99.79$ \\end{document}%). The algorithm was thus validated with high clinical performance on more than 300 ECG records from 189 different subjects with a high number of different abnormal beat morphologies. This demonstrates the strengths of the algorithm, and the potential for this embedded algorithm to improve the possibilities of early diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-12-01

    To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population.All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1-18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population.Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1-V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r' wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed.These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  6. Validation of Standard and New Criteria for the Differential Diagnosis of Narrow QRS Tachycardia in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deutsch, Karol; Stec, Sebastian; Kukla, Piotr; Morka, Aleksandra; Jastrzebski, Marek; Baszko, Artur; Pitak, Maciej; Sledz, Janusz; Fijorek, Kamil; Mazij, Mariusz; Ludwik, Bartosz; Gubaro, Marcin; Szydlowski, Leslaw

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To establish an appropriate treatment strategy and determine if ablation is indicated for patients with narrow QRS complex supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), analysis of a standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is required, which can differentiate between the 2 most common mechanisms underlying SVT: atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia (AVNRT) and orthodromic atrioventricular reentry tachycardia (OAVRT). Recently, new, highly accurate electrocardiographic criteria for the differential diagnosis of SVT in adults were proposed; however, those criteria have not yet been validated in a pediatric population. All ECGs were recorded during invasive electrophysiology study of pediatric patients (n = 212; age: 13.2 ± 3.5, range: 1–18; girls: 48%). We assessed the diagnostic value of the 2 new and 7 standard criteria for differentiating AVNRT from OAVRT in a pediatric population. Two of the standard criteria were found significantly more often in ECGs from the OAVRT group than from the AVNRT group (retrograde P waves [63% vs 11%, P < 0.001] and ST-segment depression in the II, III, aVF, V1–V6 leads [42% vs 27%; P < 0.05]), whereas 1 standard criterion was found significantly more often in ECGs from the AVNRT group than from the OAVRT group (pseudo r′ wave in V1 lead [39% vs 10%, P < 0.001]). The remaining 6 criteria did not reach statistical significance for differentiating SVT, and the accuracy of prediction did not exceed 70%. Based on these results, a multivariable decision rule to evaluate differential diagnosis of SVT was performed. These results indicate that both the standard and new electrocardiographic criteria for discriminating between AVNRT and OAVRT have lower diagnostic values in children and adolescents than in adults. A decision model based on 5 simple clinical and ECG parameters may predict a final diagnosis with better accuracy. PMID:26705217

  7. Fragmented QRS on surface electrocardiogram is not a reliable predictor of myocardial scar, angiographic coronary disease or long term adverse outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dee Dee; Tibrewala, Amit; Nguygen, Phuc; Swadia, Tanmay; Jacobsen, Gordon; Khan, Arfaat

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Conflicting evidence remains regarding the value of fragmented QRS (fQRS) on surface electrocardiogram (EKG). We present the 5-year outcome of patients with fQRS on EKG and its correlation to SPECT and coronary angiography (CA). Methods We retrospectively studied EKG’s in 248 consecutive patients undergoing SPECT and CA with known or suspected coronary artery disease (CAD). The presence of fQRS or Q waves in two contiguous EKG leads was correlated with major coronary artery distributions on SPECT and cath. Patients with bundle-branch block, paced-rhythm or absence of EKG within one month of SPECT were excluded. The final EKG data for 238 patients were analyzed and compared with myocardial scar on SPECT and the presence of significant (>50%) coronary stenosis on CA. Predictors of MACE (death, MI, heart failure) were evaluated. Freedom from all-cause mortality was assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results Of 238 patients, no significant difference was noted in the presence of scar on SPECT in fQRS (3/77; 3.8%) versus no fQRS (11/161; 6.8%) (P=0.56); or CA based CAD (55/77; 71% fQRS) and no fQRS (99/161, 61.4%) (P=0.20). EKG Q wave presence was similar in both groups: (12/77; 15.5% fQRS), (17/161; 10.5% no fQRS) (P=0.3). Patients with CA based significant LAD disease were 3.680 times more likely to have fQRS (P=0.04), however, fQRS was not significantly associated with MACE (P=0.92) or all-cause mortality (P=0.93). Conclusions This study does not support routine assessment of fQRS on surface EKG as a reliable predictor of SPECT myocardial scar, MACE or all-cause mortality over a long period of follow-up. PMID:25276613

  8. When Deriving the Spatial QRS-T Angle from the 12-lead ECG, which Transform is More Frank: Regression or Inverse Dower?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Cortez, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Our primary objective was to ascertain which commonly used 12-to-Frank-lead transformation yields spatial QRS-T angle values closest to those obtained from simultaneously collected true Frank-lead recordings. Simultaneous 12-lead and Frank XYZ-lead recordings were analyzed for 100 post-myocardial infarction patients and 50 controls. Relative agreement, with true Frank-lead results, of 12-to-Frank-lead transformed results for the spatial QRS-T angle using Kors regression versus inverse Dower was assessed via ANOVA, Lin s concordance and Bland-Altman plots. Spatial QRS-T angles from the true Frank leads were not significantly different than those derived from the Kors regression-related transformation but were significantly smaller than those derived from the inverse Dower-related transformation (P less than 0.001). Independent of method, spatial mean QRS-T angles were also always significantly larger than spatial maximum (peaks) QRS-T angles. Spatial QRS-T angles are best approximated by regression-related transforms. Spatial mean and spatial peaks QRS-T angles should also not be used interchangeably.

  9. A Literature Review of the Use of Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of QRS Widening.

    PubMed

    Bruccoleri, Rebecca E; Burns, Michele M

    2016-03-01

    Sodium bicarbonate is a well-known antidote for tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) poisoning. It has been used for over half a century to treat toxin-induced sodium channel blockade as evidenced by QRS widening on the electrocardiogram (ECG). The purpose of this review is to describe the literature regarding electrophysiological mechanisms and clinical use of this antidote after poisoning by tricyclic antidepressants and other agents. This article will also address the literature supporting an increased serum sodium concentration, alkalemia, or the combination of both as the responsible mechanism(s) for sodium bicarbonate's antidotal properties. While sodium bicarbonate has been used as a treatment for cardiac sodium channel blockade for multiple other agents including citalopram, cocaine, flecainide, diphenhydramine, propoxyphene, and lamotrigine, it has uncertain efficacy with bupropion, propranolol, and taxine-containing plants. PMID:26159649

  10. Effect of QRS morphology on clinical event reduction with cardiac resynchronization therapy: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Sipahi, Ilke; Chou, Josephine C.; Hyden, Marshall; Rowland, Douglas Y.; Simon, Daniel I.; Fang, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is effective in reducing clinical events in systolic heart failure patients with a wide QRS. Previous retrospective studies suggest only patients with QRS prolongation due to a left bundle-branch block (LBBB) benefit from CRT. Our objective was to examine this by performing a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials of CRT. Methods Systematic searches of MEDLINE and the Food and Drug Administration official website were conducted for randomized controlled CRT trials. Trials reporting adverse clinical events (eg, all-cause mortality, heart failure hospitalizations) according to QRS morphology were included in the meta-analysis. Results Four randomized trials totaling 5,356 patients met the inclusion criteria. In patients with LBBB at baseline, there was a highly significant reduction in composite adverse clinical events with CRT (RR = 0.64 [95% CI (0.52–0.77)], P = .00001). However no such benefit was observed for patients with non-LBBB conduction abnormalities (RR = 0.97 [95% CI (0.82–1.15)], P = .75). When examined separately, there was no benefit in patients with right-bundle branch block (RR = 0.91 [95% CI (0.69–1.20)], P = .49) or non-specific intraventricular conduction delay (RR = 1.19 [95% CI (0.87–1.63)], P = .28). There was no heterogeneity among the clinical trials with regards to the lack of benefit in non-LBBB patients (I2 = 0%). When directly compared, the difference in effect of CRT between LBBB versus non-LBBB patients was highly statistically significant (P = .0001 by heterogeneity analysis). Conclusions While CRT was very effective in reducing clinical events in patients with LBBB, it did not reduce such events in patients with wide QRS due to other conduction abnormalities. PMID:22305845

  11. A vector-free ECG interpretation with P, QRS & T waves as unbalanced transitions between stable configurations of the heart electric field during P-R, S-T & T-P segments.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Since cell membranes are weak sources of electrostatic fields, this ECG interpretation relies on the analogy between cells and electrets. It is here assumed that cell-bound electric fields unite, reach the body surface and the surrounding space and form the thoracic electric field that consists from two concentric structures: the thoracic wall and the heart. If ECG leads measure differences in electric potentials between skin electrodes, they give scalar values that define position of the electric field center along each lead. Repolarised heart muscle acts as a stable positive electric source, while depolarized heart muscle produces much weaker negative electric field. During T-P, P-R and S-T segments electric field is stable, only subtle changes are detectable by skin electrodes.Diastolic electric field forms after ventricular depolarization (T-P segments in the ECG recording). Telediastolic electric field forms after the atria have been depolarized (P-Q segments in the ECG recording). Systolic electric field forms after the ventricular depolarization (S-T segments in the ECG recording). The three ECG waves (P, QRS and T) can then be described as unbalanced transitions of the heart electric field from one stable configuration to the next and in that process the electric field center is temporarily displaced. In the initial phase of QRS, the rapidly diminishing septal electric field makes measured potentials dependent only on positive charges of the corresponding parts of the left and the right heart that lie within the lead axes. If more positive charges are near the "DOWN" electrode than near the "UP" electrode, a Q wave will be seen, otherwise an R wave is expected. Repolarization of the ventricular muscle is dampened by the early septal muscle repolarization that reduces deflection of T waves. Since the "UP" electrode of most leads is near the usually larger left ventricle muscle, T waves are in these leads positive, although of smaller amplitude and longer duration than the QRS wave in the same lead. The proposed interpretation is applied to bundle branch blocks, fascicular (hemi-) blocks and changes during heart muscle ischemia. PMID:24506945

  12. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries.

    PubMed

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered - complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  13. Diagnostic dilemma with a narrow QRS regular rhythm at normal rates in a patient with corrected transposition of great arteries

    PubMed Central

    Shenthar, Jayaprakash; Rai, Maneesh K.

    2015-01-01

    A 35 year old male, known case of corrected transposition of great arteries presented with exertional dyspnea and recurrent pre-syncope. 12 lead electrocardiogram revealed a regular rhythm at 75 beats per minute, P waves occurring on the upstroke of T waves and apparent 1:1 P-QRS relationship. The possibilities to be considered – complete AV block with junctional escape, junctional rhythm with 1:1 retrograde conduction, junctional rhythm with isorhythmic AV dissociation and prolonged PR interval have been discussed. PMID:26937115

  14. Temporal correction of detected R-peaks in ECG signals: A crucial step to improve QRS detection algorithms.

    PubMed

    Gradl, Stefan; Leutheuser, Heike; Elgendi, Mohamed; Lang, Nadine; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade the interest for heart rate variability analysis has increased tremendously. Related algorithms depend on accurate temporal localization of the heartbeat, e.g. the R-peak in electrocardiogram signals, especially in the presence of arrhythmia. This localization can be delivered by numerous solutions found in the literature which all lack an exact specification of their temporal precision. We implemented three different state-of-the-art algorithms and evaluated the precision of their R-peak localization. We suggest a method to estimate the overall R-peak temporal inaccuracy-dubbed beat slackness-of QRS detectors with respect to normal and abnormal beats. We also propose a simple algorithm that can complement existing detectors to reduce this slackness. Furthermore we define improvements to one of the three detectors allowing it to be used in real-time on mobile devices or embedded hardware. Across the entire MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database, the average slackness of all the tested algorithms was 9ms for normal beats and 13ms for abnormal beats. Using our complementing algorithm this could be reduced to 4ms for normal beats and to 7ms for abnormal beats. The presented methods can be used to significantly improve the precision of R-peak detection and provide an additional measurement for QRS detector performance. PMID:26736314

  15. Ten consecutive cases of complex regional pain syndrome of less than 12 months duration in active duty United States military personnel treated with spinal cord stimulation.

    PubMed

    Verdolin, Michael H; Stedje-Larsen, Eric T; Hickey, Anita H

    2007-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome describes a constellation of symptoms that may involve the sympathetic nervous system. Emerging consensus recommends early intervention with spinal cord stimulation to facilitate physical therapy. Isolated case reports suggest this may be an effective treatment. Ten consecutive active duty United States military personnel with newly diagnosed complex regional pain syndrome underwent early intervention with spinal cord stimulation with favorable results, including decreased pain scores and decreased opioid intake. Six received injuries directly as a result of service in Iraq or Afghanistan. These patients also had posttraumatic stress disorder, but it did not interfere with successful pain control. Additionally, 6 of 10 patients continued on active duty. PMID:17513657

  16. Effects of resting ischemia assessed by thallium scintigraphy on QRS scoring system for estimating left ventricular function quantified by radionuclide angiography in acute myocardial infarction patients

    SciTech Connect

    DePace, N.L.; Hakki, A.H.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether resting ischemia limits the usefulness of the QRS scoring system in predicting left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) in patients with acute infarction. We studied 48 patients after acute infarction by means of 12-lead ECG, thallium-201 scintigraphy, and radionuclide angiography. The thallium-201 scintigrams showed fixed defects in 25 patients, perfusion defects with partial or complete redistribution in the delayed images in 19 patients, and normal images in the remaining four patients. In the 48 patients there was a significant correlation between the QRS score and LVEF (r . -0.67; p less than 0.001). Patients with fixed defects showed a better correlation than patients with resting ischemia (r . -0.77 vs r . -0.60). A QRS score of 3 or less was used to separate patients with LVEF of 40% or greater from those with lower LVEF in patients with fixed defects (p . 0.0005), but this cutoff did not categorize patients with resting ischemia as to LVEF. Thus the presence of rest ischemia in patients with acute infarction may affect the correlation between QRS score and LVEF.

  17. Status epilepticus and wide-complex tachycardia secondary to diphenhydramine overdose

    PubMed Central

    JANG, DAVID H.; MANINI, ALEX F.; TRUEGER, NATHAN S.; DUQUE, DANNY; NESTOR, NESTOR B.; NELSON, LEWIS S.; HOFFMAN, ROBERT S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Diphenhydramine is an H1 histamine antagonist that is commonly used for allergic reactions, colds and cough, and as a sleep aid. In addition to anticholinergic and antihistaminergic effects, sodium channel blockade becomes evident following diphenhydramine overdose. While seizures may occur following overdose of a diphenhydramine, status epilepticus is distinctly uncommon. We report a case with both status epilepticus and wide-complex dysrhythmias following an intentional diphenhydramine overdose. Case report A 36-year-old woman with a medical history of hypothyroidism on levothyroxine was brought to the emergency department with active seizures by emergency medical services after what was later determined to be a diphenhydramine overdose. One hour after an argument with her husband he found her lethargic in a locked room. Initial vital signs were: blood pressure, 90/55 mmHg; heart rate, 160 beats/min; respiratory rate 18 breaths/min; room air oxygen saturation, 99%; temperature, 99.8°F; rapid point-of-care glucose, 130 mg/dL. The generalized seizures continued for duration of 30 min, despite the intravenous administration of 8 mg of lorazepam. The patient underwent endotracheal intubation and a propofol infusion terminated her seizures. An electrocardiogram after the status was terminated which revealed a wide-complex tachycardia with QRS duration of 127 ms. The QRS narrowed after 200 mEq of intravenous sodium bicarbonate was administrated. The patient was neurologically intact upon extubation on hospital day 2. The serum diphenhydramine concentration drawn on arrival to the ED was 1200 ng/mL (9–120 ng/ mL); a tricyclic screen was negative. Discussion While seizures and sodium channel blockade are recognized complications of diphenhydramine toxicity, reported cases of status epilepticus from diphenhydramine overdose are rare. Elements of the patient’s presentation were similar to a tricyclic overdose and management required aggressive control of her seizures, sodium bicarbonate therapy, and recognizing that physostigmine was contraindicated due to wide complex tachycardia. Conclusions Diphenhydramine overdose may cause status epilepticus and wide-complex tachycardia. Management should focus on antidotal therapy with sodium bicarbonate and supportive neurological management with appropriate anticonvulsants and airway protection if clinically indicated. PMID:21171853

  18. Sequential biventricular pacing improves regional contractility, longitudinal function and dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aims Biventricular pacing (BiP) is an effective treatment in systolic heart failure (HF) patients with prolonged QRS. However, approximately 35% of the patients receiving BiP are classified as non-responders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the acute effects of VV-optimization on systolic heart function. Methods Twenty-one HF patients aged 72 (46-88) years, QRS 154 (120-190) ms, were studied with echocardiography, Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) and 3D-echo the first day after receiving a BiP device. TDI was performed; during simultaneous pacing (LV-lead pacing 4 ms before the RV-lead) and during sequential pacing (LV 20 and 40 ms before RV and RV 20 and 40 ms before LV-lead pacing). Systolic heart function was studied by tissue tracking (TT) for longitudinal function and systolic maximal velocity (SMV) for regional contractility and signs of dyssynchrony assessed by time-delays standard deviation of aortic valve opening to SMV, AVO-SMV/SD and tissue synchronization imaging (TSI). Results The TT mean value preoperatively was 4,2 ± 1,5 and increased at simultaneous pacing to 5,0 ± 1,2 mm (p < 0,05), and at best VV-interval to 5,4 ± 1,2 (p < 0,001). Simultaneous pacing achieved better TT distance compared with preoperative in 16 patients (76%). However, it was still higher after VV-optimization in 12 patients 57%. Corresponding figures for SMV were 3,0 ± 0,7, 3,5 ± 0,8 (p < 0,01), and 3,6 ± 0,8 (p < 0,001). Also dyssynchrony improved. Conclusions VV-optimization in the acute phase improves systolic heart function more than simultaneous BiP pacing. Long-term effects should be evaluated in prospective randomized trials. PMID:20384995

  19. Implications of Franciscan Complex graywacke geochemistry for sediment transport, provenance determination, burial-exposure duration, and fluid exchange with cosubducted metabasites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghatak, Arundhuti; Basu, Asish R.; Wakabayashi, John

    2013-09-01

    of graywacke provenance has long been used to evaluate the record of tectonic process in orogenic belts. Our geochemical data from graywackes of the Franciscan subduction complex, California, show that the connection between sedimentary record and geologic processes may be more complex than previously believed. Trace elements and Nd-Sr-Pb isotopes of Franciscan graywackes indicate two sources types. One group lacking negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* > 0.9), shows slightly concave-up heavy rare earth elements, arc-like trace element patterns, and western Pacific island arc-like Pb isotopes, reflecting derivation from older accreted oceanic-arc terranes in the Sierra Nevada-Klamath Mountains. The other group displays small negative Eu anomalies, with trace element patterns resembling post-Archean Australian shale and Pb isotopes similar to Jurassic-Cretaceous Sierran batholith. There is no systematic separation of these two groups by depositional ages. Thus, geochemistry of the graywackes may partly reflect variation in location of sediment delivery systems, rather than solely reflecting evolution of the neighboring arc. Variation of Nd-Sr isotopes with stratigraphic-age for the graywackes mimics the trends of the coeval Great Valley Group clastic-rocks, suggesting that (1) they share the same sediment sources, (2) there are no "exotic" sediment sources that fed the Franciscan trench, and (3) burial-exposure cycles for Franciscan clastic rocks were comparatively brief. Comparison of Franciscan graywacke and metabasite geochemistry corroborates earlier conclusions that metabasites had little or no chemical exchange with fluids from cosubducted graywacke. Detrital zircon age populations, major element chemistry, and detrital framework modes, when compared to our data suggest that the former three parameters underrepresent the mafic component of clastic sediment provenance.

  20. Icon Duration and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gummerman, Kent; And Others

    In this study, developmental changes in duration of the icon (visual sensory store) were investigated with three converging tachistoscopic tasks. (1) Stimulus interuption detection (SID), a variation of the two-flash threshold method, was performed by 29 first- and 32 fifth-graders, and 32 undergraduates. Icon duration was estimated by stimulus…

  1. [Sleep duration and metabolism].

    PubMed

    Viot-Blanc, V

    2015-12-01

    Sleep duration has gradually diminished during the last decade while obesity and type 2 diabetes have become epidemics. Experimental sleep curtailment leads to increased appetite, hormonal disturbances and, especially, insulin resistance. Numerous epidemiological studies have therefore examined whether habitual short sleep is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. A large majority of cross-sectional studies have confirmed an association between short, and also long sleep duration and obesity in adults more than in the elderly. Short sleep is strongly associated to obesity in children and adolescents. Prospective studies, including studies in children, are not conclusive with regard to the effect of short sleep on the incidence of obesity. Both short and long sleep durations are associated with diabetes, but only short sleep duration seems predictive of future diabetes. Insomnia seems to be a strong contributor to short sleep duration but the association of insomnia with obesity is not clear. Insomnia is associated with type 2 diabetes and also predictive of a higher incidence. Other studies have shown that short sleep duration and insomnia are associated with, and sometime predictive of, other components of the metabolic syndrome, especially hypertension and the risk of coronary disease. The treatment of short sleep duration and insomnia with regard to their effects on the metabolic syndrome merits further study. PMID:26603959

  2. Cognitive Complexity and Duration of Classroom Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Briefly reviews psycholinguistic research, describes six categories of utterance, and reports on research into the relationship between level of thought and length of speech. Results indicate that both teachers and students take successively longer to express higher-cognitive types of utterances. (EAO)

  3. Complex Solar Eruption - Duration: 3 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 around 0855 UT, Earth orbiting satellites detected a C3-class solar flare. The origin of the blast was sunspot 1092. At about the same time, an enormous magnetic filament stretchi...

  4. Intra-QRS high-frequency ECG changes with ischemia. Is it possible to evaluate these changes using the signal-averaged Holter ECG in dogs?

    PubMed

    Yakubo, S; Ozawa, Y; Komaki, K

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment is to study the possibility of intra-QRS high-frequency electrocardiographic (HFECG) changes for the evaluation of and recovery from myocardial ischemia in both the time-domain and spectral-turbulence analyses on the signal-averaged ECG using the Holter ECG monitoring (Holter SAECG) system. A balloon catheter was inserted into the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD of 8 mongrel dogs and was maintained inflated for 2 hours to occlude the LAD and then was deflated to allow for reperfusion. The cardiac signal from the three orthogonal leads of the surface ECG (X, Y, and Z) was recorded and analyzed with a Del Mar Avionics (model 459, Irvine, CA) recorder and analyzer (model 563). The Holter SAECG was assessed before the LAD occlusion phase (control), during the coronary occlusion phase (ischemia), after the reperfusion phase (recovery). To evaluate intra-QRS ECG changes in the time-domain analysis, root-mean-square (RMS) voltage of the entire QRS in 40-250 HZ (40 RMS), 100-250 Hz (100 RMS), and 150-250 Hz (150 RMS) were studied and the vector magnitude of the QRS was depicted. In the spectral-turbulence analysis and spectrocardiogram to study the discordance of the ECG wave front velocity by fast Fourier transformation analysis, the interslice correlation mean (IC mean) and interslice correlation standard deviation (IC SD), which were calculated as the mean and standard deviation of the Pearson correlation coefficient of each time slice with its neighbor, were investigated. In the time-domain analysis, the LAD occlusion by balloon catheter at ischemia produced a reduction in 40 RMS, 100 RMS, and 150 RMS, while a restoration was seen at recovery in 40 RMS and 100 RMS. In the spectral-turbulence analysis, LAD occlusion at ischemia caused a decrease in IC mean and an increase in IC SD. The waveform of the vector magnitude and the spectrocardiogram seen at control showed changes with ischemia and was restored at recovery with the coronary reperfusion. It was thought possible to capture the intra-QRS HFECG changes that occur during myocardial ischemia and recovery from it in the time-domain analysis and spectral-turbulence analysis on the Holter SAECG system in spite of the limitation of this methodology. To evaluate myocardial ischemia and recovery, this method should be useful clinically. PMID:8656120

  5. Inappropriate Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shock from QRS Double Counting in the Setting of Hyperkalemia.

    PubMed

    Dadlani, Akash; Dukes, Jonathan W; Badhwar, Nitish

    2016-03-01

    This case shows the complexity of arrhythmia management in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) who present with hyperkalemia. In order to prevent inappropriate ICD shock, consideration should be given to the suspension of ICD therapies while intensive care treatment of extreme electrolyte derangements is being pursued. Patients in these setting should be closely monitored until their electrocardiograms have normalized, after which the device can safely be reactivated. PMID:26920190

  6. Long duration balloon flights

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, R.J. )

    1993-06-15

    New developments in long duration balloon flight techniques will make it possible to routinely obtain flights of several hundred hours at altitudes above 4 grams/cm[sup 2], with payloads on the order of 1 ton.

  7. PULSE DURATION LENGTHENER

    DOEpatents

    Aiken, W.R.

    1958-02-01

    This patent pertains to pulse modifying apparatus and, more particularly, describes a device to provide a rise time and time base expander for signal pulses having a very short duration. The basic element of the device is a vacuum tube comprising a charged particie beam, grid control means, an accelerating electrode, a drift tube, and a collector electrode. As the short duration input pulse modulates the particle beam through the grid control means, the voltage between the drift tube and accelerating electrode is caused to vary, whereby the output signal from the collector is a pulse having longer rise time, expanded duration and proportionate characteristics of the original pulse. The invention is particuiarly useful where subsequent pulse circultry does not have the frequency bandwidth to handle the short duration pulse without distorting it.

  8. Word Durations in Non-Native English

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Rachel E.; Baese-Berk, Melissa; Bonnasse-Gahot, Laurent; Kim, Midam; Van Engen, Kristin J.; Bradlow, Ann R.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we compare the effects of English lexical features on word duration for native and non-native English speakers and for non-native speakers with different L1s and a range of L2 experience. We also examine whether non-native word durations lead to judgments of a stronger foreign accent. We measured word durations in English paragraphs read by 12 American English (AE), 20 Korean, and 20 Chinese speakers. We also had AE listeners rate the `accentedness' of these non-native speakers. AE speech had shorter durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, greater reduction of function words, and less between-speaker variance than non-native speech. However, both AE and non-native speakers showed sensitivity to lexical predictability by reducing second mentions and high frequency words. Non-native speakers with more native-like word durations, greater within-speaker word duration variance, and greater function word reduction were perceived as less accented. Overall, these findings identify word duration as an important and complex feature of foreign-accented English. PMID:21516172

  9. Association of frontal QRS-T angle--age risk score on admission electrocardiogram with mortality in patients admitted with an acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lown, Mark T; Munyombwe, Theresa; Harrison, Wendy; West, Robert M; Hall, Christiana A; Morrell, Christine; Jackson, Beryl M; Sapsford, Robert J; Kilcullen, Niamh; Pepper, Christopher B; Batin, Phil D; Hall, Alistair S; Gale, Chris P

    2012-02-01

    Risk assessment is central to the management of acute coronary syndromes. Often, however, assessment is not complete until the troponin concentration is available. Using 2 multicenter prospective observational studies (Evaluation of Methods and Management of Acute Coronary Events [EMMACE] 2, test cohort, 1,843 patients; and EMMACE-1, validation cohort, 550 patients) of unselected patients with acute coronary syndromes, a point-of-admission risk stratification tool using frontal QRS-T angle derived from automated measurements and age for the prediction of 30-day and 2-year mortality was evaluated. Two-year mortality was lowest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles <38° and highest in patients with frontal QRS-T angles >104° (44.7% vs 14.8%, p <0.001). Increasing frontal QRS-T angle-age risk (FAAR) scores were associated with increasing 30-day and 2-year mortality (for 2-year mortality, score 0 = 3.7%, score 4 = 57%; p <0.001). The FAAR score was a good discriminator of mortality (C statistics 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.78] at 30 days and 0.77 [95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.79] at 2 years), maintained its performance in the EMMACE-1 cohort at 30 days (C statistics 0.76 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.8] at 30 days and 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.75 to 0.83] at 2 years), in men and women, in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, and compared favorably with the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score. The integrated discrimination improvement (age to FAAR score at 30 days and at 2 years in EMMACE-1 and EMMACE-2) was p <0.001. In conclusion, the FAAR score is a point-of-admission risk tool that predicts 30-day and 2-year mortality from 2 variables across a spectrum of patients with acute coronary syndromes. It does not require the results of biomarker assays or rely on the subjective interpretation of electrocardiograms. PMID:22071208

  10. Is subjective duration a signature of coding efficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Eagleman, David M.; Pariyadath, Vani

    2009-01-01

    Perceived duration is conventionally assumed to correspond with objective duration, but a growing literature suggests a more complex picture. For example, repeated stimuli appear briefer in duration than a novel stimulus of equal physical duration. We suggest that such duration illusions appear to parallel the neural phenomenon of repetition suppression, and we marshal evidence for a new hypothesis: the experience of duration is a signature of the amount of energy expended in representing a stimulus, i.e. the coding efficiency. This novel hypothesis offers a unified explanation for almost a dozen illusions in the literature in which subjective duration is modulated by properties of the stimulus such as size, brightness, motion and rate of flicker. PMID:19487187

  11. Long duration flights management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosa-Sesma, Sergio; Letrenne, Gérard; Spel, Martin; Charbonnier, Jean-Marc

    Long duration flights (LDF) require a special management to take the best decisions in terms of ballast consumption and instant of separation. As a contrast to short duration flights, where meteorological conditions are relatively well known, for LDF we need to include the meteorological model accuracy in trajectory simulations. Dispersions on the fields of model (wind, temperature and IR fluxes) could make the mission incompatible with safety rules, authorized zones and others flight requirements. Last CNES developments for LDF act on three main axes: 1. Although ECMWF-NCEP forecast allows generating simulations from a 4D point (altitude, latitude, longitude and UT time), result is not statistical, it is determinist. To take into account model dispersion a meteorological NCEP data base was analyzed. A comparison between Analysis (AN) and Forecast (FC) for the same time frame had been done. Result obtained from this work allows implementing wind and temperature dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 2. For IR fluxes, NCEP does not provide ascending IR fluxes in AN mode but only in FC mode. To obtain the IR fluxes for each time frame, satellite images are used. A comparison between FC and satellites measurements had been done. Results obtained from this work allow implementing flux dispersions on balloon flight simulator. 3. An improved cartography containing a vast data base had been included in balloon flight simulator. Mixing these three points with balloon flight dynamics we have obtained two new tools for observing balloon evolution and risk, one of them is called ASTERISK (Statistic Tool for Evaluation of Risk) for calculations and the other one is called OBERISK (Observing Balloon Evolution and Risk) for visualization. Depending on the balloon type (super pressure, zero pressure or MIR) relevant information for the flight manager is different. The goal is to take the best decision according to the global situation to obtain the largest flight duration with a minimum risk for population. Telemetry system is based on satellite communication technologies. Housekeeping data and GPS data are transferred to the Ground Station by IRIDIUM network. Gondola is interrogated automatically each hour and all data stocked onboard are downloaded to ground station. Communication takes a few minutes to transfer all data stocked from last request. Tools had been used in SCOUT-MIR campaign 2008 for the first time. The results obtained encourage CNES teams to improve ergonomics and functionalities of these prototype.

  12. Striatal dynamics explain duration judgments.

    PubMed

    Gouvêa, Thiago S; Monteiro, Tiago; Motiwala, Asma; Soares, Sofia; Machens, Christian; Paton, Joseph J

    2015-01-01

    The striatum is an input structure of the basal ganglia implicated in several time-dependent functions including reinforcement learning, decision making, and interval timing. To determine whether striatal ensembles drive subjects' judgments of duration, we manipulated and recorded from striatal neurons in rats performing a duration categorization psychophysical task. We found that the dynamics of striatal neurons predicted duration judgments, and that simultaneously recorded ensembles could judge duration as well as the animal. Furthermore, striatal neurons were necessary for duration judgments, as muscimol infusions produced a specific impairment in animals' duration sensitivity. Lastly, we show that time as encoded by striatal populations ran faster or slower when rats judged a duration as longer or shorter, respectively. These results demonstrate that the speed with which striatal population state changes supports the fundamental ability of animals to judge the passage of time. PMID:26641377

  13. Prevalence and inter-relationship of different Doppler measures of dyssynchrony in patients with heart failure and prolonged QRS: a report from CARE-HF

    PubMed Central

    Edner, Magnus; Kim, Yong; Hansen, Knud Norregaard; Nissen, Henrik; Espersen, Geert; La Rosee, Karl; Maru, Fikru; Freemantle, Nick; Cleland, John; Sogaard, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Background Cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) improves mortality and morbidity in heart failure patients with wide QRS. Observational studies suggest that patients having more left ventricular dyssynchrony pre-implantation obtain greater benefit on ventricular function and symptoms with CRT. Aim To provide an analysis of the prevalence and type of dyssynchrony in patients included in the CARE-HF trial. Methods 100 patients 67 (58 to 71) years were examined with echocardiography including tissue doppler imaging before receiving a CRT-pacemaker. Atrio-ventricular dyssynchrony (LVFT/RR) was defined as left ventricular filling time <40% of the RR-interval. Inter-ventricular mechanical delay (IVMD) was measured as the difference in onset of Doppler-flow in the pulmonary and aortic outflow tracts >40 ms. Intra-ventricular (regional) dyssynchrony in a 16-segment model was expressed either as a delayed longitudinal contraction (DLC) during the postsystolic phase or by tissue synchronisation imaging (TSI) with a predefined time-difference in systolic maximal velocities >85 ms. Results LVFT/RR was present in 34% and IVMD in 60% of patients while intra-ventricular dyssynchrony was present in 85% (DLC) and 86% (TSI) with a high agreement between the measures (Kappascore 0.86–1.00), indicating the methods being interchangeable. Patients with cardiomyopathy (53%) were more likely to have LVFT/RR <40% (45% vs. 21% (p= 0.02)) and more segments affected by intra-ventricular dyssynchrony 4(3, 5) vs. 3(1, 4), p = 0.002, compared to patients with ischemic heart disease. Conclusion The prevalence of intra-ventricular dyssynchrony is high in patients with heart failure, wide QRS and depressed systolic function. Most important, TSI appears to be a fast and reliable method to identify patients with intra-ventricular dyssynchrony likely to benefit from CRT. PMID:19128462

  14. Blink duration measurement system for drowsiness detection using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Takayuki; Kato, Masami

    2005-03-01

    Support systems for automobile drivers have been recently developed. One support system prevents drivers from sleeping at the wheel, but an adequate system has not yet been commercialized. Many reports say that when a driver is drowsy, the blinking duration tends to be long. So, we propose a method to prevent drivers from sleeping by detecting the blinking duration. Because this method only uses simple image processing, the algorithm is not complex. The algorithm involves face localization, then eye localization, followed by measurement of the blinking duration. We tested our system on a number of frames, and the correct blinking duration was usually detected.

  15. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, J.P.; McCollor, D.P.; Selle, S.J.

    1994-07-26

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during soot blowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon. 8 figs.

  16. Long duration ash probe

    DOEpatents

    Hurley, John P.; McCollor, Don P.; Selle, Stanley J.

    1994-01-01

    A long duration ash probe includes a pressure shell connected to a port in a combustor with a sample coupon mounted on a retractable carriage so as to retract the sample coupon within the pressure shell during sootblowing operation of the combustor. A valve mounted at the forward end of the pressure shell is selectively closeable to seal the sample coupon within the shell, and a heating element in the shell is operable to maintain the desired temperature of the sample coupon while retracted within the shell. The carriage is operably mounted on a pair of rails within the shell for longitudinal movement within the shell. A hollow carrier tube connects the hollow cylindrical sample coupon to the carriage, and extends through the carriage and out the rearward end thereof. Air lines are connected to the rearward end of the carrier tube and are operable to permit coolant to pass through the air lines and thence through the carrier tube to the sample coupon so as to cool the sample coupon.

  17. The Latest Developments in NASA's Long Duration Balloon Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stilwell, Bryan D.

    The Latest Developments in NASA’s Long Duration Balloon Systems Bryan D. Stilwell, bryan.stilwell@csbf.nasa.gov Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, Palestine, Texas, USA The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility, located in Palestine, Texas offers the scientific community a high altitude balloon based communications platform. Scientific payload mass can exceed 2722 kg with balloon float altitudes on average of 40000 km and flight duration of up to 100 days. Many developments in electrical systems have occurred over the more than 25 years of long duration flights. This paper will discuss the latest developments in electronic systems related to long duration flights. Over the years, the long duration flights have increased in durations exceeding 56 days. In order to support these longer flights, the systems have had to increase in complexity and reliability. Several different systems that have been upgraded and/or enhanced will be discussed.

  18. ESTIMATING THE DURATION OF SPECIATION FROM PHYLOGENIES

    PubMed Central

    Etienne, Rampal S; Morlon, Hélène; Lambert, Amaury

    2014-01-01

    Speciation is not instantaneous but takes time. The protracted birth–death diversification model incorporates this fact and predicts the often observed slowdown of lineage accumulation toward the present. The mathematical complexity of the protracted speciation model has barred estimation of its parameters until recently a method to compute the likelihood of phylogenetic branching times under this model was outlined (Lambert et al. 2014). Here, we implement this method and study using simulated phylogenies of extant species how well we can estimate the model parameters (rate of initiation of speciation, rate of extinction of incipient and good species, and rate of completion of speciation) as well as the duration of speciation, which is a combination of the aforementioned parameters. We illustrate our approach by applying it to a primate phylogeny. The simulations show that phylogenies often do not contain enough information to provide unbiased estimates of the speciation-initiation rate and the extinction rate, but the duration of speciation can be estimated without much bias. The estimate of the duration of speciation for the primate clade is consistent with literature estimates. We conclude that phylogenies combined with the protracted speciation model provide a promising way to estimate the duration of speciation. PMID:24758256

  19. Durational Changes of Apraxic Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skenes, Lina Lilley

    1987-01-01

    The study examined durations of phrases, words, and phones for nine apraxic and five normal adult speakers during normal and fast speaking conditions. Although normal speakers decreased the duration of words during the fast rate condition, there was no evidence that apraxic speakers changed their speaking rates between the conditions. (Author/DB)

  20. Duration of an elastic collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Izarra, Charles

    2012-07-01

    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.

  1. Deletion of FoxO1 Leads to Shortening of QRS by Increasing Na+ Channel Activity through Enhanced Expression of both Cardiac NaV1.5 and β3 Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Benzhi; Wang, Ning; Mao, Weike; You, Tao; Lu, Yan; Li, Xiang; Ye, Bo; Li, Faqian; Xu, Haodong

    2014-01-01

    Our in vitro studies revealed that a transcription factor, Forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1), negatively regulates the expression of NaV1.5, a main α subunit of the cardiac Na+ channel, by altering the promoter activity of SCN5a in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. The in vivo role of FoxO1 in the regulation of cardiac NaV1.5 expression remains unknown. The present study aimed to define the role of FoxO1 in the regulation of NaV1.5 expression and cardiac Na+ channel activity in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes and assess the cardiac electrophysiological phenotype of mice with cardiac FoxO1 deletion. Tamoxifen-induced and cardiac-specific FoxO1 deletion was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Cardiac FoxO1 deletion failed to result in either cardiac functional changes or hypertrophy as assessed by echocardiography and individual ventricular cell capacitances, respectively. Western blotting showed that FoxO1 was significantly decreased while NaV1.5 protein level was significantly increased in mouse hearts with FoxO1 deletion. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that FoxO1 deletion led to an increase in NaV1.5 and Na+ channel subunit β3 mRNA, but not β1, 2, 4, or connexin 43. Whole patch-clamp recordings demonstrated that cardiac Na+ currents were significantly augmented by FoxO1 deletion without affecting the steady-state activation and inactivation, leading to accelerated depolarization of action potentials in mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Electrocardiogram recordings showed that the QRS complex was significantly shortened and P wave amplitude was significantly increased in conscious and unrestrained mice with cardiac FoxO1 deletion. NaV1.5 expression was decreased in the peri-infarct (border-zone) of mice with myocardial infarction and FoxO1 accumulated in the cardiomyocyte nuclei of chronic ischemic human hearts. Our findings indicate that FoxO1 plays an important role in the regulation of NaV1.5 and β3 subunit expression as well as Na+ channel activity in the heart and that FoxO1 is involved in the modulation of NaV1.5 expression in ischemic heart disease. PMID:24956219

  2. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, T.; Iwai, J.; Lord, J.J.; Strausz, S.; Wilkes, R.J. ); Dake, S.; Oda, H. ); Miyamura, O. ); Fuki, M. ); Jones, W.V. ); Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Takahashi, U. ); Tominaga,

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1-100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed. 5 refs., 2 figs.

  3. JACEE long duration balloon flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, T.; Dake, S.; Derrickson, J.; Fountain, W.; Fuki, M.; Gregory, J.; Hayashi, T.; Holynski, R.; Iwai, J.; Jones, W. V.

    1989-01-01

    JACEE balloon-borne emulsion chamber detectors are used to observe the spectra and interactions of cosmic ray protons and nuclei in the energy range 1 to 100A TeV. Experience with long duration mid-latitude balloon flights and characteristics of the detector system that make it ideal for planned Antarctic balloon flights are discussed.

  4. The effects of cold acclimation on electrocardiogram parameters in five species of turtles.

    PubMed

    Risher, J F; Claussen, D L

    1987-01-01

    The effects of thermal acclimation at 25 or 5 degrees C on electrical activity in the heart were investigated in Pseudemys scripta, Terrapene carolina, Chrysemys picta marginata, Chrysemys picta dorsalis, Chelydra serpentina, and Sternotherus odoratus. The durations of the QRS complex and P-R, R-T and R-R intervals were found to increase with decreasing body temperature in all animals tested. The amplitudes of the P and T waves and QRS complex were dependent upon both acclimation temperature and test temperature. Differences between acclimation groups in the change in QRS amplitudes between 20 and 0 degrees C were statistically significant for all species. PMID:2886260

  5. Voice attractiveness: influence of stimulus duration and type.

    PubMed

    Ferdenzi, C; Patel, S; Mehu-Blantar, I; Khidasheli, M; Sander, D; Delplanque, S

    2013-06-01

    Voice attractiveness is a relatively new area of research. Some aspects of the methodology used in this domain deserve particular attention. Especially, the duration of voice samples is often neglected as a factor and happens to be manipulated without the perceptual consequences of these manipulations being known. Moreover, the type of voice stimulus varies from a single vowel to complex sentences. The aim of this experiment was to investigate the extent to which stimulus duration (nonmanipulated vs. normalized) and type (vowel vs. word) influence perceived voice attractiveness. Twenty-seven male and female raters made attractiveness judgments of 30 male and female voice samples. Voice samples included a single vowel /a/, a three-vowel series /i a o/, and the French word "bonjour" (i.e., "hello"). These samples were presented in three conditions: nonmanipulated, shortened, and lengthened duration. Duration manipulation was performed using the pitch synchronous overlap and add (PSOLA) algorithm implemented in Praat. Results for the effect of stimulus type showed that word length samples were more attractive to the opposite sex than vowels. Results for the effect of duration showed that the nonmanipulated sound sample duration was not predictive of perceived attractiveness. Duration manipulation, on the other hand, altered perceived attractiveness for the lengthening condition. In particular, there was a linear decrease in attractiveness as a function of modification percentage (especially for the word, as compared with the vowels). Recommendations for voice sample normalization with the PSOLA algorithm are thus to prefer shortening over lengthening and, if not possible, to limit the extent of duration manipulation-for example, by normalizing to the mean sample duration. PMID:23239065

  6. FLUOROSCOPY DURATION IN ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY

    PubMed Central

    Salvia, Joao Caron La; de Moraes, Pablo Reis; Ammar, Tiago Yossef; Schwartsmann, Carlos Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain the mean length of radiation emission from fluoroscopic devices during several types of orthopedic surgery and which of these required greater use of radiation. Methods: The times taken to perform sixteen different types of surgery (total of 80 procedures) were measured. At the end of each procedure, the length of time for which fluoroscopy was used directly from the image intensifier was ascertained. Results: The mean time required for fluoroscopy per operation was 61 seconds. The procedures that demanded greatest mean duration of radiation use were bilateral proximal femoral epiphysiodesis (5.1 minutes) and femoral shaft osteosynthesis using a locked intramedullary nail (3.33 min). Conclusion: The mean duration of fluoroscopy use in orthopedic operations was 61 seconds. The procedures using an intramedullary device were the ones that required greatest radiation emission. PMID:27027000

  7. LRO Exposes the Moon's Complex, Turbulent Youth - Duration: 53 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Using the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter’s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA), NASA scientists have created the first-ever comprehensive catalog of large craters on the moon. In this animation, lun...

  8. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour.

  9. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations.

    PubMed

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour. PMID:26926425

  10. On a Possible Unified Scaling Law for Volcanic Eruption Durations

    PubMed Central

    Cannavò, Flavio; Nunnari, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Volcanoes constitute dissipative systems with many degrees of freedom. Their eruptions are the result of complex processes that involve interacting chemical-physical systems. At present, due to the complexity of involved phenomena and to the lack of precise measurements, both analytical and numerical models are unable to simultaneously include the main processes involved in eruptions thus making forecasts of volcanic dynamics rather unreliable. On the other hand, accurate forecasts of some eruption parameters, such as the duration, could be a key factor in natural hazard estimation and mitigation. Analyzing a large database with most of all the known volcanic eruptions, we have determined that the duration of eruptions seems to be described by a universal distribution which characterizes eruption duration dynamics. In particular, this paper presents a plausible global power-law distribution of durations of volcanic eruptions that holds worldwide for different volcanic environments. We also introduce a new, simple and realistic pipe model that can follow the same found empirical distribution. Since the proposed model belongs to the family of the self-organized systems it may support the hypothesis that simple mechanisms can lead naturally to the emergent complexity in volcanic behaviour. PMID:26926425

  11. Irregular Wide Complex Tachycardia in a Young Man.

    PubMed

    Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Paydak, Hakan

    2016-02-01

    Wolf Parkinson White syndrome is a pre-excitation syndrome due to an accessory conduction pathway. Electrocardiography demonstrates a short PR interval, long QRS interval and delta waves in normal sinus rhythm. Atrial fibrillation with underlying Wolf Parkinson White syndrome presents with irregular wide complex tachycardia, and can cause sudden cardiac death by precipitating ventricular fibrillation. Irregular wide complex tachycardia may be the first presentation of this underlying conduction abnormality in young patients. Emergency management for irregular wide complex tachycardia in hemodynamically unstable patients involves synchronized cardioversion, while intra-venous Procainamide can be used in hemodynamically stable patients. AV nodal blocking agents should be avoided. Treatment of choice for WPW syndrome is radiofrequency ablation. PMID:26939470

  12. Visual duration aftereffect is position invariant

    PubMed Central

    Li, Baolin; Yuan, Xiangyong; Chen, Youguo; Liu, Peiduo; Huang, Xiting

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation to relatively long or short sensory events leads to a negative aftereffect, such that the durations of the subsequent events within a certain range appear to be contracted or expanded. The distortion in perceived duration is presumed to arise from the adaptation of duration detectors. Here, we focus on the positional sensitivity of those visual duration detectors by exploring whether the duration aftereffect may be constrained by the visual location of stimuli. We adopted two different paradigms, one that tests for transfer across visual hemifields, and the other that tests for simultaneous selectivity between visual hemifields. By employing these experimental designs, we show that the duration aftereffect strongly transfers across visual hemifields and is not contingent on them. The lack of position specificity suggests that duration detectors in the visual system may operate at a relatively later stage of sensory processing. PMID:26500591

  13. Icing Encounter Duration Sensitivity Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Harold E., Jr.; Lee, Sam

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a study performed to investigate how aerodynamic performance degradation progresses with time throughout an exposure to icing conditions. It is one of the first documented studies of the effects of ice contamination on aerodynamic performance at various points in time throughout an icing encounter. Both a 1.5 and 6 ft chord, two-dimensional, NACA-23012 airfoils were subjected to icing conditions in the NASA Icing Research Tunnel for varying lengths of time. At the end of each run, lift, drag, and pitching moment measurements were made. Measurements with the 1.5 ft chord model showed that maximum lift and pitching moment degraded more rapidly early in the exposure and degraded more slowly as time progressed. Drag for the 1.5 ft chord model degraded more linearly with time, although drag for very short exposure durations was slightly higher than expected. Only drag measurements were made with the 6 ft chord airfoil. Here, drag for the long exposures was higher than expected. Novel comparison of drag measurements versus an icing scaling parameter, accumulation parameter times collection efficiency was used to compare the data from the two different size model. The comparisons provided a means of assessing the level of fidelity needed for accurate icing simulation.

  14. Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawin, Charles F. (Editor); Taylor, Gerald R. (Editor); Smith, Wanda L. (Editor); Brown, J. Travis (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Biomedical issues have presented a challenge to flight physicians, scientists, and engineers ever since the advent of high-speed, high-altitude airplane flight in the 1940s. In 1958, preparations began for the first manned space flights of Project Mercury. The medical data and flight experience gained through Mercury's six flights and the Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab projects, as well as subsequent space flights, comprised the knowledge base that was used to develop and implement the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP). The EDOMP yielded substantial amounts of data in six areas of space biomedical research. In addition, a significant amount of hardware was developed and tested under the EDOMP. This hardware was designed to improve data gathering capabilities and maintain crew physical fitness, while minimizing the overall impact to the microgravity environment. The biomedical findings as well as the hardware development results realized from the EDOMP have been important to the continuing success of extended Space Shuttle flights and have formed the basis for medical studies of crew members living for three to five months aboard the Russian space station, Mir. EDOMP data and hardware are also being used in preparation for the construction and habitation of International Space Station. All data sets were grouped to be non-attributable to individuals, and submitted to NASA s Life Sciences Data Archive.

  15. Duration perception in crossmodally-defined intervals.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Katja M; Di Luca, Massimiliano; Ernst, Marc O

    2014-03-01

    How humans perform duration judgments with multisensory stimuli is an ongoing debate. Here, we investigated how sub-second duration judgments are achieved by asking participants to compare the duration of a continuous sound to the duration of an empty interval in which onset and offset were marked by signals of different modalities using all combinations of visual, auditory and tactile stimuli. The pattern of perceived durations across five stimulus durations (ranging from 100 ms to 900 ms) follows the Vierordt Law. Furthermore, intervals with a sound as onset (audio-visual, audio-tactile) are perceived longer than intervals with a sound as offset. No modality ordering effect is found for visualtactile intervals. To infer whether a single modality-independent or multiple modality-dependent time-keeping mechanisms exist we tested whether perceived duration follows a summative or a multiplicative distortion pattern by fitting a model to all modality combinations and durations. The results confirm that perceived duration depends on sensory latency (summative distortion). Instead, we did not find evidence for multiplicative distortions. The results of the model and the behavioural data support the concept of a single time-keeping mechanism that allows for judgments of durations marked by multisensory stimuli. PMID:23953664

  16. Botulinum toxin: examining duration of effect in facial aesthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Timothy Corcoran

    2010-01-01

    Patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin treatment is a key success factor in aesthetic procedures and is governed by the interaction of numerous variables. Duration of effect is important because it influences retreatment intervals as well as affecting cost and convenience to the patient. In order to review the evidence on the duration of benefit associated with various commercial formulations of botulinum toxin, MEDLINE was searched using the following terms: 'botulinum' and 'duration'/'retreatment' (limits: 'clinical trials,' 'meta-analyses,' 'English'). I also searched my existing reference files, reference lists of identified articles, and meeting/conference abstracts to ensure completeness. The focus was on clinical medicine and aesthetic trials. To be eligible for the analysis, studies had to include efficacy assessments at multiple timepoints. To estimate duration of benefit, the following outcomes were examined and summarized: responder rates, mean wrinkle severity scores at various timepoints (with or without changes from baseline), and relapse rates. Duration at both repose and maximum attempted muscle contraction was considered when provided. Where possible, duration was assessed by formulation and dose. The initial search yielded 164 articles. Of these, 35 included an adequate measure of duration in aesthetic indications. The majority of these (22) were on the glabellar area. Study designs and endpoints were highly heterogeneous, and duration of effect varied between studies. Several studies with the BOTOX Cosmetic (onabotulinumtoxinA; Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA) formulation of botulinum toxin type A (BoNTA) included relapse rates, defined conservatively as return to baseline levels of line severity for two consecutive visits approximately 30 days apart (at repose and maximum contraction). In these studies, duration of effect ranged from 3 to 5 months in female patients and from 4 to 6 months in male patients. Individual patients had longer durations of response. Across all studies providing relapse rates, most patients relapsed by 6 months. In studies assessing patient satisfaction, satisfaction remained high throughout the duration of the studies ( approximately 4 months). With the Dysport formulation (abobotulinumtoxinA, clostridium botulinum type A toxin-hemagglutinin complex; Ipsen Biopharm Ltd, Wrexham, England), retreatment intervals were estimated at a mean of 3.9 months (median = 3.3 months). These results were consistent with responder rates from another Dysport study in which the active treatment differed from placebo at 3 but not 4 months. A single comparative study demonstrated that the proportion of patients relapsing at week 16 was 23% (95% CI 11.5, 41.6) in the BOTOX Cosmetic group as compared with 40% (95% CI 25.2, 60.1) in the Dysport group. Myobloc (rimabotulinumtoxinB, botulinum toxin type B; Solstice Neurosciences, Inc., South San Francisco, CA, USA) was associated with shorter durations of action (2-3 months). Data from facial areas other than the glabella, although more limited, supported a duration of at least 3-4 months. The addition of BoNTA to dermal fillers or light/laser therapy appeared to increase the degree of effect. Repeated BoNTA treatments may prolong duration of effect or potentiate the effect. In conclusion, patients can expect treatments to last > or =3 months but often as many as 4-5 months depending on the facial area, dose, and formulation. Additional research should help clarify the impact of age, baseline rhytid severity, patient sex, repeated treatments, and combination treatment on longevity of effect. PMID:20369902

  17. Health care delivery system for long duration manned space operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, J. S.; Shulman, E. L.; Johnson, P. C.

    1983-01-01

    Specific requirements for medical support of a long-duration manned facility in a low earth orbit derive from inflight medical experience, projected medical scenarios, mission related spacecraft and environmental hazards, health maintenance, and preventive medicine. A sequential buildup of medical capabilities tailored to increasing mission complexity is proposed. The space station health maintenance facility must provide preventive, diagnostic, and therapeutic medical support as immediate rescue capability may not exist.

  18. Training for long duration space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Joseph H.

    1987-01-01

    The successful completion of an extended duration manned mission to Mars will require renewed research effort in the areas of crew training and skill retention techniques. The current estimate of inflight transit time is about nine months each way, with a six month surface visit, an order of magnitude beyond previous U.S. space missions. Concerns arise when considering the level of skill retention required for highly critical, one time operations such as an emergency procedure or a Mars orbit injection. The factors responsible for the level of complex skill retention are reviewed, optimal ways of refreshing degraded skills are suggested, and a conceptual crew training design for a Mars mission is outlined. Currently proposed crew activities during a Mars mission were reviewed to identify the spectrum of skills which must be retained over a long time period. Skill retention literature was reviewed to identify those factors which must be considered in deciding when and which tasks need retraining. Task, training, and retention interval factors were identified. These factors were then interpreted in light of the current state of spaceflight and adaptive training systems.

  19. Determinants of breastfeeding duration in Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Awang, H; Salleh, A L

    2000-01-01

    The health benefits of breastfeeding to infants and mothers have been well recognised. This study applies linear regression analysis to assess the determinants of breastfeeding duration of first born using data from the Second Malaysian Family Life Survey. The proportion of women who breastfed their first child is 82 percent, of which 97 percent reported their breastfeeding duration. The distribution of breastfeeding duration has a mean of 5.7 months and a median of two months. Important determinants of breastfeeding duration include maternal age, ethnicity, period of first birth, husband's occupation and work status of the woman. PMID:11836918

  20. Incorporating Duration Information in Activity Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Priyanka; Scotney, Bryan; McClean, Sally; Zhang, Shuai; Nugent, Chris

    Activity recognition has become a key issue in smart home environments. The problem involves learning high level activities from low level sensor data. Activity recognition can depend on several variables; one such variable is duration of engagement with sensorised items or duration of intervals between sensor activations that can provide useful information about personal behaviour. In this paper a probabilistic learning algorithm is proposed that incorporates episode, time and duration information to determine inhabitant identity and the activity being undertaken from low level sensor data. Our results verify that incorporating duration information consistently improves the accuracy.

  1. Repair of Electronics for Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettegrew, Richard D.; Easton, John; Struk, Peter

    2007-01-01

    To reduce mission risk, long duration spaceflight and exploration activities will require greater degrees of self-sufficiency with regards to repair capability than have ever been employed before in space exploration. The current repair paradigm of replacing Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs) of malfunctioning avionics and electronic hardware will be impractical, since carrying all of the spares that could possibly be needed for a long duration mission would require upmass and volume at unprecedented and unacceptable levels. A strategy of component-level repair for electronics, however, could significantly reduce the mass and volume necessary for spares and enhance mission safety via a generic contingency capability. This approach is already used to varying degrees by the U.S. Navy, where vessels at sea experience some similar constraints such as the need for self sufficiency for moderately long time periods, and restrictions on volume of repair spares and infrastructure. The concept of conducting component-level repairs of electronics in spacecraft requires the development of design guidelines for future avionics (to enable repair), development of diagnostic techniques to allow an astronaut to pinpoint the faulty component aboard a vastly complex vehicle, and development of tools and methodologies for dealing with the physical processes of replacing the component. This physical process includes tasks such as conformal coating removal and replacement, component removal, replacement, and alignment--all in the difficulty of a reduced gravity environment. Further, the gravitational effects on the soldering process must be characterized and accounted for to ensure reliability of the newly repaired components. The Component-Level Electronics-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) project under the NASA Supportability program was established to develop and demonstrate the practicality of this repair approach. CLEAR involves collaborative efforts between NASA s Glenn Research Center, Langley Research Center, Johnson Space Center, the National Center for Space Exploration Research, and the U.S. Navy. The project goals are 1) develop and demonstrate a manually-operated electronics repair capability to be conducted in a spacecraft environment; and 2) develop guidelines for designs of electronics that facilitates component-level repair for future space exploration efforts. This multi-faceted program utilizes a cross-disciplinary approach to examine pre- and post-repair diagnostics, conformal coating removal and replacement, component soldering, and electronics design for supportability. These areas are investigated by a combination of trade studies, ground based testing, reduced gravity aircraft testing, and actual spaceflight testing on the International Space Station (ISS) in multiple experiments. This paper details the efforts of this program, with emphasis on early trade study results, ground-based efforts, and two upcoming ISS experiments.

  2. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS § 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as— (a) This part has not been...

  3. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli…

  4. Stimulus Intensity and the Perception of Duration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, William J.; Stewart, Neil; Wearden, John H.

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the widely reported finding that the subjective duration of a stimulus is positively related to its magnitude. In Experiments 1 and 2 we show that, for both auditory and visual stimuli, the effect of stimulus magnitude on the perception of duration depends upon the background: Against a high intensity background, weak stimuli

  5. Enhancing duration processing with parietal brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Dormal, Valérie; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Pesenti, Mauro; Walsh, Vincent; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2016-05-01

    Numerosity and duration are thought to share common magnitude-based mechanisms in brain regions including the right parietal and frontal cortices like the supplementary motor area, SMA. Numerosity and duration are, however, also different in several intrinsic features. For instance, in a quantification context, numerosity is known for being more automatically accessed than temporal events, and durations are by definition sequential whereas numerosity can be both sequential and simultaneous. Moreover, numerosity and duration processing diverge in terms of their neuronal correlates. Whether these observed neuronal specificities can be accounted for by differences in automaticity or presentation-mode is however not clear. To address this issue, we used brain stimulation (transcranial random noise stimulation, tRNS) to the right parietal cortex or the SMA combined with experimental stimuli differing in their level of automaticity (numerosity and duration) and presentation mode (sequential or simultaneous). Compared to a no stimulation group, performance changed in duration but not in numerosity categorisation following right parietal but not SMA stimulation. These results indicate that the right parietal cortex is critical for duration processing, and suggest that tRNS has a stronger effect on less automatic processes such as duration. PMID:27037043

  6. 12 CFR 1252.2 - Effective duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective duration. 1252.2 Section 1252.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES PORTFOLIO HOLDINGS 1252.2 Effective duration. This part shall be in effect for each Enterprise so long as (a) This part has not been...

  7. Multivariate analysis to simplify the differential diagnosis of broad complex tachycardia.

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, M J; de Belder, M A; Linker, N J; Ward, D E; Camm, A J

    1991-01-01

    Univariate analysis has identified several criteria that aid the differential diagnosis of broad complex tachycardia. In this study of 102 consecutive patients multivariate analysis was performed to identify which of 15 clinical and 11 electrocardiographic variables were independent predictors of ventricular tachycardia. These were shown to be a history of myocardial infarction, the QRS waveforms in leads aVF and V1, and a change in axis from sinus rhythm to tachycardia of more than 40 degrees. If none of the criteria was met, the diagnosis was almost certainly supraventricular tachycardia. If one criterion was met the diagnosis was probably supraventricular tachycardia. If two criteria were met then the diagnosis was probably ventricular tachycardia. If three or four criteria were met, the diagnosis was almost certainly ventricular tachycardia. The predictive accuracy was 93%. This was increased to 95% by including two other criteria--definite independent P wave activity and ventricular extrasystoles with the same QRS configuration as that in tachycardia. These criteria were not included in the multivariate analysis because though they were 100% specific they were seldom seen. These four criteria can be used as simple rules in determining the origin of a broad complex tachycardia. PMID:1883669

  8. Attentional entrainment and perceived event duration

    PubMed Central

    McAuley, J. Devin; Fromboluti, Elisa Kim

    2014-01-01

    This study considered the contribution of dynamic attending theory (DAT) and attentional entrainment to systematic distortions in perceived event duration. Three experiments were conducted using an auditory oddball paradigm, in which listeners judged the duration of a deviant (oddball) stimulus embedded within a series of identical (standard) stimuli. To test for a role of attentional entrainment in perceived oddball duration, oddballs were presented at either temporally expected (on time) or unexpectedly early or late time points relative to extrapolation of the context rhythm. Consistent with involvement of attentional entrainment in perceived duration, duration judgements about the oddball were least distorted when the oddball occurred on time with respect to the entrained rhythm, whereas durations of early and late oddballs were perceived to be shorter and longer, respectively. This pattern of results was independent of the absolute time interval preceding the oddball. Moreover, as expected, an irregularly timed sequence context weakened observed differences between oddballs with on-time and late onsets. Combined with other recent work on the role of temporal preparation in duration distortions, the present findings allot at least a portion of the oddball effect to increased attention to events that are more expected, rather than on their unexpected nature per se. PMID:25385779

  9. Repetition enhancement and memory effects for duration.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Martin; Thompson, James C

    2015-06-01

    A remarkable aspect of conscious perception is that moments carryover from one to the next, also known as temporal continuity. This ability is thus crucial for detecting regularities, such as in speech and music, and may rely on an accurate perception of time. Investigations of human time perception have detailed two electroencephalographic (EEG) components associated with timing, the contingent negative variation (CNV) and late positive component of timing (LPCt); however, the precise roles of these components in timing remain elusive. Recently, we demonstrated that the perception of duration is influenced by durations presented on prior trials, which we explained by the creation of an implicit memory standard that adapts to local changes in sequence presentation. Here, we turn to the neural basis of this effect. Human participants performed a temporal bisection task in which they were required to classify the duration of auditory stimuli into short and long duration categories; crucially, the presentation order was first-order counterbalanced, allowing us to measure the effect of each presented duration on the next. EEG recordings revealed that the CNV and LPCt signals both covaried with the duration presented on the current trial, with CNV predicting reaction time and LPCt predicting choice. Additionally, both signals covaried with the duration presented in the prior trial but in different ways, with the CNV amplitude reflecting the change in the memory standard and the LPCt reflecting decision uncertainty. Furthermore, we observed a repetition enhancement effect of duration only for the CNV, suggesting that this signal additionally indexes the similarity of successive durations. These findings demonstrate dissociable roles for the CNV and LPCt, and demonstrate that both signals are continuously updated on a trial-by-trial basis that reflects shifts in temporal decisions. PMID:25818689

  10. Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author

  11. Perceived duration of chromatic and achromatic light.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Haruyuki; Kawabata, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-15

    Luminance and color information are considered to be processed in parallel systems. The integration of information from these two separate systems is crucial for the visual system to produce a coherent percept. To investigate how luminance and color lights are perceived in time, we measured the perceived duration of light stimuli with and without colors in a paradigm involving simultaneous perception with presentation of two successive stimulus frames. Luminance contrast and color contrast of the stimuli were set with a chromatic substitution technique. In Experiment 1, the perceived duration of both chromatic stimuli and achromatic stimuli increased as the luminance contrast decreased. Experiment 2 tested if the duration of the percept was influenced by color contrast which was defined by colorimetric purity of the stimuli, when luminance contrast was set as low as practically possible. The result showed that the duration of the percept decreased with increasing color contrast of the stimuli. Moreover, Experiment 3 demonstrated that the trend of perceived duration was consistent with the four primary colors, provided that the effective color contrast of stimulus was corrected based on the contrast sensitivity to the color. These experiments indicate that, with a high luminance contrast level, perceived duration of a stimulus is predominantly defined by luminance contrast, whereas in low luminance contrast conditions, the duration depends on the color contrast. The perceived duration of color stimuli showed an "inverse color contrast effect", similar to the well-known "inverse intensity effect" for luminance stimuli. The similarities and the differences between the two systems, as well as their priorities in processing temporal information of visual stimuli are further discussed. PMID:22133595

  12. Interaction of Factors Related to Lactation Duration

    PubMed Central

    Boettcher, Joan P; Chezem, Jo Carol; Roepke, Judith; Whitaker, Tracy Adams

    1999-01-01

    Perceived social support and interpersonal dependency were studied as potential factors associated with lactation duration based upon previous breastfeeding experience. Inexperienced breastfeeding mothers perceived more social support than experienced breastfeeding mothers did. Perceived social support was not significantly correlated with lactation duration. An ancillary finding was that women providing a combination of breast milk and human milk substitutes had significantly lower social self-confidence than did mothers providing breast milk exclusively. PMID:22945984

  13. Strong motion duration and earthquake magnitude relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, M.W.; Short, S.A.; Kennedy, R.P.

    1992-06-01

    Earthquake duration is the total time of ground shaking from the arrival of seismic waves until the return to ambient conditions. Much of this time is at relatively low shaking levels which have little effect on seismic structural response and on earthquake damage potential. As a result, a parameter termed ``strong motion duration`` has been defined by a number of investigators to be used for the purpose of evaluating seismic response and assessing the potential for structural damage due to earthquakes. This report presents methods for determining strong motion duration and a time history envelope function appropriate for various evaluation purposes, for earthquake magnitude and distance, and for site soil properties. There are numerous definitions of strong motion duration. For most of these definitions, empirical studies have been completed which relate duration to earthquake magnitude and distance and to site soil properties. Each of these definitions recognizes that only the portion of an earthquake record which has sufficiently high acceleration amplitude, energy content, or some other parameters significantly affects seismic response. Studies have been performed which indicate that the portion of an earthquake record in which the power (average rate of energy input) is maximum correlates most closely with potential damage to stiff nuclear power plant structures. Hence, this report will concentrate on energy based strong motion duration definitions.

  14. Effects of pulse duration on magnetostimulation thresholds

    SciTech Connect

    Saritas, Emine U.; Goodwill, Patrick W.; Conolly, Steven M.

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Medical imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging and magnetic particle imaging (MPI) utilize time-varying magnetic fields that are subject to magnetostimulation limits, which often limit the speed of the imaging process. Various human-subject experiments have studied the amplitude and frequency dependence of these thresholds for gradient or homogeneous magnetic fields. Another contributing factor was shown to be number of cycles in a magnetic pulse, where the thresholds decreased with longer pulses. The latter result was demonstrated on two subjects only, at a single frequency of 1.27 kHz. Hence, whether the observed effect was due to the number of cycles or due to the pulse duration was not specified. In addition, a gradient-type field was utilized; hence, whether the same phenomenon applies to homogeneous magnetic fields remained unknown. Here, the authors investigate the pulse duration dependence of magnetostimulation limits for a 20-fold range of frequencies using homogeneous magnetic fields, such as the ones used for the drive field in MPI. Methods: Magnetostimulation thresholds were measured in the arms of six healthy subjects (age: 27 ± 5 yr). Each experiment comprised testing the thresholds at eight different pulse durations between 2 and 125 ms at a single frequency, which took approximately 30–40 min/subject. A total of 34 experiments were performed at three different frequencies: 1.2, 5.7, and 25.5 kHz. A solenoid coil providing homogeneous magnetic field was used to induce stimulation, and the field amplitude was measured in real time. A pre-emphasis based pulse shaping method was employed to accurately control the pulse durations. Subjects reported stimulation via a mouse click whenever they felt a twitching/tingling sensation. A sigmoid function was fitted to the subject responses to find the threshold at a specific frequency and duration, and the whole procedure was repeated at all relevant frequencies and pulse durations. Results: The magnetostimulation limits decreased with increasing pulse duration (T{sub pulse}). For T{sub pulse} < 18 ms, the thresholds were significantly higher than at the longest pulse durations (p < 0.01, paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test). The normalized magnetostimulation threshold (B{sub Norm}) vs duration curve at all three frequencies agreed almost identically, indicating that the observed effect is independent of the operating frequency. At the shortest pulse duration (T{sub pulse} ≈ 2 ms), the thresholds were approximately 24% higher than at the asymptotes. The thresholds decreased to within 4% of their asymptotic values for T{sub pulse} > 20 ms. These trends were well characterized (R{sup 2} = 0.78) by a stretched exponential function given by B{sub Norm}=1+αe{sup −(T{sub p}{sub u}{sub l}{sub s}{sub e}/β){sup γ}}, where the fitted parameters were α = 0.44, β = 4.32, and γ = 0.60. Conclusions: This work shows for the first time that the magnetostimulation thresholds decrease with increasing pulse duration, and that this effect is independent of the operating frequency. Normalized threshold vs duration trends are almost identical for a 20-fold range of frequencies: the thresholds are significantly higher at short pulse durations and settle to within 4% of their asymptotic values for durations longer than 20 ms. These results emphasize the importance of matching the human-subject experiments to the imaging conditions of a particular setup. Knowing the dependence of the safety limits to all contributing factors is critical for increasing the time-efficiency of imaging systems that utilize time-varying magnetic fields.

  15. Ongoing behavior predicts perceptual report of interval duration

    PubMed Central

    Gouvêa, Thiago S.; Monteiro, Tiago; Soares, Sofia; Atallah, Bassam V.; Paton, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to estimate the passage of time is essential for adaptive behavior in complex environments. Yet, it is not known how the brain encodes time over the durations necessary to explain animal behavior. Under temporally structured reinforcement schedules, animals tend to develop temporally structured behavior, and interval timing has been suggested to be accomplished by learning sequences of behavioral states. If this is true, trial to trial fluctuations in behavioral sequences should be predictive of fluctuations in time estimation. We trained rodents in an duration categorization task while continuously monitoring their behavior with a high speed camera. Animals developed highly reproducible behavioral sequences during the interval being timed. Moreover, those sequences were often predictive of perceptual report from early in the trial, providing support to the idea that animals may use learned behavioral patterns to estimate the duration of time intervals. To better resolve the issue, we propose that continuous and simultaneous behavioral and neural monitoring will enable identification of neural activity related to time perception that is not explained by ongoing behavior. PMID:24672473

  16. Microcontroller uses in Long-Duration Ballooning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Joseph

    This paper discusses how microcontrollers are being utilized to fulfill the demands of long duration ballooning (LDB) and the advantages of doing so. The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility (CSBF) offers the service of launching high altitude balloons (120k ft) which provide an over the horizon telemetry system and platform for scientific research payloads to collect data. CSBF has utilized microcontrollers to address multiple tasks and functions which were previously performed by more complex systems. A microcontroller system has been recently developed and programmed in house to replace our previous backup navigation system which is used on all LDB flights. A similar microcontroller system was developed to be independently launched in Antarctica before the actual scientific payload. This system's function is to transmit its GPS position and a small housekeeping packet so that we can confirm the upper level float winds are as predicted from satellite derived models. Microcontrollers have also been used to create test equipment to functionally check out the flight hardware used in our telemetry systems. One test system which was developed can be used to quickly determine if our communication link we are providing for the science payloads is functioning properly. Another system was developed to provide us with the ability to easily determine the status of one of our over the horizon communication links through a closed loop system. This test system has given us the capability to provide more field support to science groups than we were able to in years past. The trend of utilizing microcontrollers has taken place for a number of reasons. By using microcontrollers to fill these needs, it has given us the ability to quickly design and implement systems which meet flight critical needs, as well as perform many of the everyday tasks in LDB. This route has also allowed us to reduce the amount of time required for personnel to perform a number of the tasks required during the initial fabrication and also refurbishing processes of flight hardware systems. The recent use of microcontrollers in the design of both LDB flight hardware and test equipment has shown some examples of the adaptability and usefulness they have provided for our workplace.

  17. Sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Grandner, Michael A; Sands-Lincoln, Megan R; Pak, Victoria M; Garland, Sheila N

    2013-01-01

    Habitual sleep duration has been associated with cardiometabolic disease, via several mechanistic pathways, but few have been thoroughly explored. One hypothesis is that short and/or long sleep duration is associated with a proinflammatory state, which could increase risk for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. This hypothesis has been largely explored in the context of experimental sleep deprivation studies which have attempted to demonstrate changes in proinflammatory markers following acute sleep loss in the laboratory. Despite the controlled environment available in these studies, samples tend to lack generalization to the population at large and acute sleep deprivation may not be a perfect analog for short sleep. To address these limitations, population based studies have explored associations between proinflammatory markers and habitual sleep duration. This review summarizes what is known from experimental and cross-sectional studies about the association between sleep duration, cardiovascular disease, and proinflammatory biomarkers. First, the association between sleep duration with both morbidity and mortality, with a focus on cardiovascular disease, is reviewed. Then, a brief review of the potential role of proinflammatory markers in cardiovascular disease is presented. The majority of this review details specific findings related to specific molecules, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins-1, -6, and -17, C-reactive protein, coagulation molecules, cellular adhesion molecules, and visfatin. Finally, a discussion of the limitations of current studies and future directions is provided. PMID:23901303

  18. Duration of Immunity to Norovirus Gastroenteritis

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Kirsten; Gambhir, Manoj; Leon, Juan

    2013-01-01

    The duration of immunity to norovirus (NoV) gastroenteritis has been believed to be from 6 months to 2 years. However, several observations are inconsistent with this short period. To gain better estimates of the duration of immunity to NoV, we developed a mathematical model of community NoV transmission. The model was parameterized from the literature and also fit to age-specific incidence data from England and Wales by using maximum likelihood. We developed several scenarios to determine the effect of unknowns regarding transmission and immunity on estimates of the duration of immunity. In the various models, duration of immunity to NoV gastroenteritis was estimated at 4.1 (95% CI 3.2–5.1) to 8.7 (95% CI 6.8–11.3) years. Moreover, we calculated that children (<5 years) are much more infectious than older children and adults. If a vaccine can achieve protection for duration of natural immunity indicated by our results, its potential health and economic benefits could be substantial. PMID:23876612

  19. STS mission duration enhancement study: (orbiter habitability)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, A. D.

    1979-01-01

    Habitability improvements for early flights that could be implemented with minimum impact were investigated. These included: (1) launching the water dispenser in the on-orbit position instead of in a locker; (2) the sleep pallet concept; and (3) suction cup foot restraints. Past studies that used volumetric terms and requirements for crew size versus mission duration were reviewed and common definitions of key habitability terms were established. An accurately dimensioned drawing of the orbiter mid-deck, locating all of the known major elements was developed. Finally, it was established that orbiter duration and crew size can be increased with minimum modification and impact to the crew module. Preliminary concepts of the aft med-deck, external versions of expanded tunnel adapters (ETA), and interior concepts of ETA-3 were developed and comparison charts showing the various factors of volume, weight, duration, size, impact to orbiter, and number of sleep stations were generated.

  20. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  1. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Orr, Martin; Arias, Diana; Rueger, Melanie; Johnston, Smith; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    While ground research has clearly shown that preserving adequate quantities of sleep is essential for optimal health and performance, changes in the progression, order and /or duration of specific stages of sleep is also associated with deleterious outcomes. As seen in Figure 1, in healthy individuals, REM and Non-REM sleep alternate cyclically, with stages of Non-REM sleep structured chronologically. In the early parts of the night, for instance, Non-REM stages 3 and 4 (Slow Wave Sleep, or SWS) last longer while REM sleep spans shorter; as night progresses, the length of SWS is reduced as REM sleep lengthens. This process allows for SWS to establish precedence , with increases in SWS seen when recovering from sleep deprivation. SWS is indeed regarded as the most restorative portion of sleep. During SWS, physiological activities such as hormone secretion, muscle recovery, and immune responses are underway, while neurological processes required for long term learning and memory consolidation, also occur. The structure and duration of specific sleep stages may vary independent of total sleep duration, and changes in the structure and duration have been shown to be associated with deleterious outcomes. Individuals with narcolepsy enter sleep through REM as opposed to stage 1 of NREM. Disrupting slow wave sleep for several consecutive nights without reducing total sleep duration or sleep efficiency is associated with decreased pain threshold, increased discomfort, fatigue, and the inflammatory flare response in skin. Depression has been shown to be associated with a reduction of slow wave sleep and increased REM sleep. Given research that shows deleterious outcomes are associated with changes in sleep structure, it is essential to characterize and mitigate not only total sleep duration, but also changes in sleep stages.

  2. Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy is an important strategy for optimizing patient care and reducing the spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is best used in the context of an overall approach to infection management that includes a focus on selecting the right initial drug and dosing regimen for empiric therapy, and de-escalation to a more narrowly focused drug regimen (or termination) based on subsequent culture results and clinical data. In addition to reducing resistance, other potential benefits of shorter antimicrobial courses include lowered antimicrobial costs, reduced risk of superinfections (including Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea), reduced risk of antimicrobial-related organ toxicity, and improved drug compliance. There have been relatively few randomized clinical trials that study the optimal treatment durations for such serious infections as pneumonia (community- and healthcare/hospital-acquired), complicated intra-abdominal infection, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). Nonetheless, a growing number of studies have explored the possibilities of reducing the duration of antimicrobial therapy for at least certain patients with these infections, under certain circumstances. Professional organizations have compiled these data and used them to develop clinical practice guidelines to aid clinicians in choosing optimal treatment durations for individual patients. Many patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or healthcare-associated pneumonia can be treated for 7-8 days, while 4-7 days and 14-day treatment durations may suffice for many patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections and uncomplicated CRBSI, respectively. This article first provides a general background on the rationale and data supporting shortened courses of antimicrobial therapy, before using 3 case studies to explore the practical implications of current knowledge and treatment guidelines when making decisions about treatment duration for individual patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infection, and CRBSI. PMID:23677632

  3. Duration and cessation of antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M

    2012-01-01

    Shortening the duration of antimicrobial therapy is an important strategy for optimizing patient care and reducing the spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is best used in the context of an overall approach to infection management that includes a focus on selecting the right initial drug and dosing regimen for empiric therapy, and de-escalation to a more narrowly focused drug regimen (or termination) based on subsequent culture results and clinical data. In addition to reducing resistance, other potential benefits of shorter antimicrobial courses include lowered antimicrobial costs, reduced risk of superinfections (including Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea), reduced risk of antimicrobial-related organ toxicity, and improved drug compliance. There have been relatively few randomized clinical trials that study the optimal treatment durations for such serious infections as pneumonia (community- and healthcare/hospital-acquired), complicated intra-abdominal infection, and catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI). Nonetheless, a growing number of studies have explored the possibilities of reducing the duration of antimicrobial therapy for at least certain patients with these infections, under certain circumstances. Professional organizations have compiled these data and used them to develop clinical practice guidelines to aid clinicians in choosing optimal treatment durations for individual patients. Many patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, or healthcare-associated pneumonia can be treated for 7-8 days, while 4-7 days and 14-day treatment durations may suffice for many patients with complicated intra-abdominal infections and uncomplicated CRBSI, respectively. This article first provides a general background on the rationale and data supporting shortened courses of antimicrobial therapy, before using 3 case studies to explore the practical implications of current knowledge and treatment guidelines when making decisions about treatment duration for individual patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia, complicated intra-abdominal infection, and CRBSI. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2012;7:S22-S33. © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine. PMID:23737335

  4. Statistical analysis of random duration times

    SciTech Connect

    Engelhardt, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    This report presents basic statistical methods for analyzing data obtained by observing random time durations. It gives nonparametric estimates of the cumulative distribution function, reliability function and cumulative hazard function. These results can be applied with either complete or censored data. Several models which are commonly used with time data are discussed, and methods for model checking and goodness-of-fit tests are discussed. Maximum likelihood estimates and confidence limits are given for the various models considered. Some results for situations where repeated durations such as repairable systems are also discussed.

  5. Slow Wave Sleep and Long Duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orr, M.; Whitmire, A.; Arias, D.; Leveton, L.

    2011-01-01

    To review the literature on slow wave sleep (SWS) in long duration space flight, and place this within the context of the broader literature on SWS particularly with respect to analogous environments such as the Antarctic. Explore how SWS could be measured within the International Space Station (ISS) context with the aim to utilize the ISS as an analog for future extra-orbital long duration missions. Discuss the potential use of emergent minimally intrusive wireless technologies like ZEO for integrated prelaunch, flight, and return to Earth analysis and optimization of SWS (and general quality of sleep).

  6. Effects of Duration of Electronic Cigarette Use

    PubMed Central

    Tackett, Alayna P.; Grant, DeMond M.; Tahirkheli, Noor N.; Driskill, Leslie M.; Wagener, Theodore L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study examined the effect of duration electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use on e-cigarette dependence, frequency of use, and strength of nicotine solution as well as number of cigarettes smoked per day. Methods: Individuals were recruited at e-cigarette retail locations in a large Midwestern metropolitan city of the United States in July 2013. A total of 159 participants completed a brief 29-item self-report measure that assessed behaviors and perceptions of use. The mean age of the participants was 35.8 years; 84.4% were White, and 53.7% were male. Results: Increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with fewer cigarettes smoked per day and differing patterns of dependence to e-cigarettes contingent upon smoking history. Additionally, increased duration of e-cigarette use was associated with increased frequency of use; however, this finding became nonsignificant when current tobacco cigarette use was accounted for, suggesting that individuals may increase e-cigarette use frequency as they decrease cigarette use. Overall, e-cigarette users tended to decrease the strength of nicotine in their e-cigarette products regardless of duration of use. Conclusions: Although preliminary in nature, this study identifies several factors that are important to consider when examining the effects of prolonged e-cigarette use. The implications of the current results should be informative to future studies that examine these variables in longitudinal designs. PMID:24827788

  7. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  8. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  9. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  10. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  11. 7 CFR 550.6 - Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE POLICY FOR NON-ASSISTANCE COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General 550.6 Duration. REE may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements for a period not to exceed five years....

  12. Short-Duration Simulations from Measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Dean J.; Enghauser, Michael

    2014-08-01

    A method is presented that ascribes proper statistical variability to simulations that are derived from longer-duration measurements. This method is applicable to simulations of either real-value or integer-value data. An example is presented that demonstrates the applicability of this technique to the synthesis of gamma-ray spectra.

  13. The Prevalence and Diagnostic Validity of Short-Duration Hypomanic Episodes and Major Depressive Episodes.

    PubMed

    Miller, Shefali; Dennehy, Ellen B; Suppes, Trisha

    2016-03-01

    Current diagnostic criteria for a hypomanic episode, as outlined in both the fourth and fifth editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV and DSM-5), require a minimum duration of four consecutive days of symptoms of mood elevation. The 4-day criterion for duration of hypomania has been challenged as arbitrary and lacking empirical support, with many arguing that shorter-duration hypomanic episodes are highly prevalent and that those experiencing these episodes are clinically more similar to patients with bipolar disorder than to those with unipolar major depressive disorder. We review the current evidence regarding the prevalence, diagnostic validity, and longitudinal illness correlates of shorter-duration hypomanic episodes and summarize the arguments for and against broadening the diagnostic criteria for hypomania to include shorter-duration variants. Accumulating findings suggest that patients with major depressive episodes and shorter-duration hypomanic episodes represent a complex clinical phenotype, perhaps best conceptualized as being on the continuum between those with unipolar depressive episodes alone and those with DSM-5-defined bipolar II disorder. Further investigation is warranted, ideally involving large prospective, controlled studies, to elucidate the diagnostic and treatment implications of depression with shorter-duration hypomanic episodes. PMID:26830885

  14. Childhood Sleep Duration and Lifelong Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Katherine A.; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Kern, Margaret L.; Friedman, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sleep duration is known to significantly affect health in adults and children, but little is understood about long-term associations. This prospective cohort study is the first to examine whether childhood sleep duration is associated with lifelong mortality risk. Methods Data from childhood were refined and mortality data collected for 1,145 participants from the Terman Life Cycle Study. Participants were born between 1904 and 1915, lived to at least 1940, and had complete age, bedtime, and waketime data at initial data collection (1917–1926). Homogeneity of the cohort sample (intelligent, mostly white) limits generality but provides natural control of common confounds. Through 2009, 1,039 participants had confirmed deaths. Sleep duration was calculated as the difference between each child’s bed and wake times. Age-adjusted sleep (deviation from that predicted by age) was computed. Cox proportional hazards survival models evaluated childhood sleep duration as a predictor of mortality separately by sex, controlling for baseline age. Results For males, a quadratic relation emerged: male children who under-slept or over-slept compared to peers were at increased risk of lifelong all-cause mortality (HR = 1.15, CI = 1.05 – 1.27). Effect sizes were smaller and non-significant in females (HR = 1.02, CI = 0.91 – 1.14). Conclusions Male children with shorter or longer sleep durations than expected for their age were at increased risk of death at any given age in adulthood. The findings suggest that sleep may be a core biobehavioral trait, with implications for new models of sleep and health throughout the entire lifespan. PMID:24588628

  15. Effects of the shock duration on the response of CFRP composite laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Elise; Berthe, Laurent; Boustie, Michel; Arrigoni, Michel; Buzaud, Eric

    2014-11-01

    Shock loads induce a local tensile stress within a sample. The location and amplitude of this high strain rate stress can be monitored respectively by the duration and intensity of the shock. The process is applied to carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites, involved in aeronautic or defense industry. This paper describes the response of CFRP laminates of different thicknesses to a shock load normal to the fibres direction. The effects of the shock duration on the wave propagation are key issues of this work. Experiments have been performed on high power laser facilities and on a high power pulsed generator to get a wide range of pulse duration from fs to µs. Numerical simulation provides a comprehensive approach of the wave propagation and tensile stress generation within these complex materials. The main result concerns the relation between the load duration, the tensile stress and the induced delamination within 1, 4 and 8 ply composite laminates.

  16. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  17. 16 CFR 613.1 - Duration of active duty alerts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of active duty alerts. 613.1 Section 613.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION THE FAIR CREDIT REPORTING ACT DURATION OF ACTIVE DUTY ALERTS 613.1 Duration of active duty alerts. The duration of an active duty alert shall...

  18. Cryogenic systems for Long Duration Balloon experiments .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nat, L.; Calv, M.; de Bernardi, P.; Fiadin, P.; Lamagn, L.; Mas, S.; Piacentin, F.; Rispol, R.

    We describe typical long duration cryostats, suitable for cooling large balloon-borne photometers for mm and sub-mm range. The idea, well tested in several experiments, is to thermally insulate the coldest part of the system from the room temperature shell by interposing layers with gradually decreasing temperature. In this way the heat load on the cold system is remarkably reduced. The target of a long hold time is achieved reducing the radiative loads by means of a super-insulation blanket for the nitrogen tank and a vapor-cooled shield for the helium tank. All the components are supported by fiberglass tubes. This class of cryostats operates autonomously without external power, for all the long duration balloon flight, that is typically longer than two weeks.

  19. Extended duration Orbiter life support definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, G. N.; Thompson, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    Extending the baseline seven-day Orbiter mission to 30 days or longer and operating with a solar power module as the primary source for electrical power requires changes to the existing environmental control and life support (ECLS) system. The existing ECLS system imposes penalties on longer missions which limit the Orbiter capabilities and changes are required to enhance overall mission objectives. Some of these penalties are: large quantities of expendables, the need to dump or store large quantities of waste material, the need to schedule fuel cell operation, and a high landing weight penalty. This paper presents the study ground rules and examines the limitations of the present ECLS system against Extended Duration Orbiter mission requirements. Alternate methods of accomplishing ECLS functions for the Extended Duration Orbiter are discussed. The overall impact of integrating these options into the Orbiter are evaluated and significant Orbiter weight and volume savings with the recommended approaches are described.

  20. Extended Duration Orbiter - Meeting the challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saucier, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    The paper overviews the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program designed to provide an on-orbit stay capability of 16 days using the Orbiter Vehicle OV-102. Special attention is given to the EDO's subsystems and substructures, including the cryogenic pallet, the cryogenic storage tanks, the cryogenic solenoid valves, the regenerable carbon dioxide removal system, and the waste collection system. The EDO program will start with the STS-50 U.S. Microgravity Lab mission planned for June 1992.

  1. Evaluation of Long Duration Flight on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Colozza, Anthony J.

    2006-01-01

    An analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of utilizing either an airship or aircraft as a flight platform for long duration flight within the atmosphere of Venus. In order to achieve long-duration flight, the power system for the vehicle had to be capable of operating for extended periods of time. To accomplish these, two types of power systems were considered, a solar energy-based power system utilizing a photovoltaic array as the main power source and a radioisotope heat source power system utilizing a Stirling engine as the heat conversion device. Both types of vehicles and power systems were analyzed to determine their flight altitude range. This analysis was performed for a station-keeping mission where the vehicle had to maintain a flight over a location on the ground. This requires the vehicle to be capable of flying faster than the wind speed at a particular altitude. An analysis was also performed to evaluate the altitude range and maximum duration for a vehicle that was not required to maintain station over a specified location. The results of the analysis show that each type of flight vehicle and power system was capable of flight within certain portions of Venus s atmosphere. The aircraft, both solar and radioisotope power proved to be the most versatile and provided the greatest range of coverage both for station-keeping and non-station-keeping missions.

  2. Does Sexual Satisfaction Change With Relationship Duration?

    PubMed

    Schmiedeberg, Claudia; Schröder, Jette

    2016-01-01

    Despite a large body of empirical literature on sexual satisfaction, its development over the course of a relationship is still unclear. Only a small number of studies, most of which have relied on cross-sectional data of convenience samples, have explicitly focused on relationship duration, and empirical evidence is mixed. We analyzed how sexual satisfaction changes over the course of a relationship using three waves of the German Family Panel study (pairfam). We concentrated our analyses on young and middle-aged heterosexual individuals in committed relationships (N = 2,814) and applied fixed effects regression models, which have the advantage of estimations based on changes within individuals over time. We found a positive development of sexual satisfaction in the first year of a relationship, followed by a steady decline. This pattern persisted even when controlling for the frequency of intercourse, although the effects were, in part, mediated by intercourse frequency. We explained the non-linear effect of relationship duration on sexual satisfaction with an initial learning effect regarding partner-specific sexual skills, which is then outweighed by a decline in passion at later stages of a relationship. Moreover, we found significant effects for the control variables of health status, intimacy in couple communication, and conflict style, as expected. In contrast to past research, however, cohabitation and marriage were not found to play a role for sexual satisfaction in our data. Further research is required to deepen the understanding of the reasons why sexual satisfaction changes with relationship duration. PMID:26246315

  3. Underwater loudness for pure tones: Duration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cudahy, Edward A.; Schwaller, Derek; Fothergill, David; Wolgemuth, Keith

    2003-04-01

    The loudness of underwater pure tones was measured by loudness matching for pure tones from 100 to 16,000 Hz. The standard was a one second tone at 1000 Hz. The signal duration was varied from 20 milliseconds to 5 seconds. Subjects were instructed to match the loudness of the comparison tone at one of the test frequencies to the loudness of the standard tone. Loudness was measured at the threshold, the most comfortable loudness, and the maximum tolerable loudness. The intensity of the standard was varied randomly across the test series. The subjects were bareheaded U.S. Navy divers tested at a depth of 3 meters. All subjects had normal in-air hearing. Tones were presented to the right side of the subject from an array of underwater sound projectors. The sound pressure level was calibrated at the location of the subject's head with the subject absent. Loudness increased and threshold decreased as duration increased. The effect was greatest at the lowest and highest frequencies. The shape of the loudness contours across frequency and duration derived from these measurements are different from in-air measurements. [Research supported by ONR.

  4. Antenatal breastfeeding education for increasing breastfeeding duration

    PubMed Central

    Lumbiganon, Pisake; Martis, Ruth; Laopaiboon, Malinee; Festin, Mario R; Ho, Jacqueline J; Hakimi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding (BF) is well recognised as the best food for infants. The impact of antenatal BF education on the duration of BF has not been evaluated. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education for increasing BF initiation and duration. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register (21 April 2010), CENTRAL (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to April 2010) and SCOPUS (January 1985 to April 2010). We contacted experts and searched reference lists of retrieved articles. We updated the search of the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group’s Trials Register on 28 September 2011 and added the results to the awaiting classification section of the review. Selection criteria All identified published, unpublished and ongoing randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of formal antenatal BF education or comparing two different methods of formal antenatal BF education, on duration of BF. We excluded RCTs that also included intrapartum or postpartum BF education. Data collection and analysis We assessed all potential studies identified as a result of the search strategy. Two review authors extracted data from each included study using the agreed form and assessed risk of bias. We resolved discrepancies through discussion. Main results We included 17 studies with 7131 women in the review and 14 studies involving 6932 women contributed data to the analyses. We did not do any meta-analysis because there was only one study for each comparison. Five studies compared a single method of BF education with routine care. Peer counselling significantly increased BF initiation. Three studies compared one form of BF education versus another. No intervention was significantly more effective than another intervention in increasing initiation or duration of BF. Seven studies compared multiple methods versus a single method of BF education. Combined BF educational interventions were not significantly better than a single intervention in initiating or increasing BF duration. However, in one trial a combined BF education significantly reduced nipple pain and trauma. One study compared different combinations of interventions. There was a marginally significant increase in exclusive BF at six months in women receiving a booklet plus video plus lactation consultation (LC) compared with the booklet plus video only. Two studies compared multiple methods of BF education versus routine care. The combination of BF booklet plus video plus LC was significantly better than routine care for exclusive BF at three months. Authors’ conclusions Because there were significant methodological limitations and the observed effect sizes were small, it is not appropriate to recommend any antenatal BF education. There is an urgent need to conduct RCTs study with adequate power to evaluate the effectiveness of antenatal BF education. PMID:22071830

  5. Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lodato, Francesca; Araújo, Joana; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla; Agodi, Antonella; Barchitta, Martina; Ramos, Elisabete

    2013-09-01

    In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents. PMID:24034572

  6. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brenda K.

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Archive System is designed to provide spacecraft designers and space environment researchers single point access to all available resources from LDEF. These include data, micrographs, photographs, technical reports, papers, hardware and test specimens, as well as technical expertise. Further, the LDEF Archive System is planned such that it could be the foundation for a NASA Space Environments and Effects (SEE) Archive System, with the addition of other spaceflight, laboratory and theoretical space environments and effects data and associated materials. This paper describes the current status and plans of the LDEF Archive System.

  7. Long duration human exposure to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntoon, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    Looking toward the era of long duration manned spaceflight, questions remain regarding human adaptation to the weightless environment. In particular, bone calcium loss, cardiovascular deconditioning, and effects of radiation require further study. NASA has undertaken a series of experiments to increase the knowledge base of human adaptation to spaceflight. To date, results in the area of cardiovascular deconditioning countermeasures are the furthest advanced. The results from the upcoming SLS-1 mission will enhance knowledge in all areas. With continued research, there is every confidence that astronauts will be able to be kept healthy for long periods of time.

  8. Duration test of an annular colloid thruster.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perel, J.; Mahoney, J. F.; Daley, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    An annular colloid thruster was continuously operated for 1023 hours. Performance was stable with no sparking and negligible drain currents observed. An average thrust of 25.1 micropounds and an average specific impulse of 1160 seconds were obtained at an accelerating voltage of 15 k he thruster exhaust beam was continuously neutralized using electrons and electrostatic vectoring was demonstrated periodically. The only clear trend with time was an increase in specific impulse during the last third of the test period. From these results the thruster lifetime was estimated to be over an order of magnitude greater than the test duration.

  9. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  10. The long duration exposure facility structural interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development of an efficient structural interface between the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and the space shuttle orbiter is discussed. Thermal gradients and manufacturing tolerances restrict the number of retention points in the shuttle to four with no more than three in one plane. Loads during the powered exit, high drag reentry, and landing are also critical factors in the location of retention points. A LDEF design is described that meets all requirements while avoiding the structural weight penalties associated with an asymmetrical arrangement. The ground handling and assembly problems are resolved in an economical and effective manner.

  11. Speech segment durations and quantity in Icelandic.

    PubMed

    Pind, J

    1999-08-01

    Icelandic has a phonologic contrast of quantity, distinguishing long and short vowels and consonants. Perceptual studies have shown that a major cue for quantity in perception is relational, involving the vowel-to-rhyme ratio. This cue is approximately invariant under transformations of rate, thus yielding a higher-order invariant for the perception of quantity in Icelandic. Recently it has, however, been shown that vowel spectra can also influence the perception of quantity. This holds for vowels which have different spectra in their long and short varieties. This finding raises the question of whether the durational contrast is less well articulated in those cases where vowel spectra provide another cue for quantity. To test this possibility, production measurements were carried out on vowels and consonants in words which were spoken by a number of speakers at different utterance rates in two experiments. A simple neural network was then trained on the production measurements. Using the network to classify the training stimuli shows that the durational distinctions between long and short phonemes are as clearly articulated whether or not there is a secondary, spectral, cue to quantity. PMID:10462809

  12. Rate and duration memory of naturalistic sounds.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Marilyn G

    2010-10-01

    Research has shown that the tempi of familiar songs are remarkably well-remembered with a high degree of accuracy. The goal of the present research was to determine whether this ability generalizes to various types of ecological sounds and, if so, how rate information is encoded into the cognitive system. Across three experiments, participants were familiarized with a set of sounds and later asked to remember the rate of each. Experiment 1 revealed that the inherent rate of sounds is incidentally learned such that subsequent recognition is comparable across both prospective and retrospective paradigms. Experiment 2 confirmed these findings through an adjustment task and further demonstrated that memory for event rate remains highly accurate regardless if attending is initially directed toward a sound's rate and/or pitch qualities. Lastly, Experiment 3 assessed the ability to recognize event rate vs. duration when the two dimensions systematically co-vary with one another and revealed that rate variations influence duration recognition but not vice versa. These overall findings are discussed relative to a framework that emphasizes the role of event structure in time judgment behavior. PMID:20605012

  13. Stretching Effects: High-intensity & Moderate-duration vs. Low-intensity & Long-duration.

    PubMed

    Freitas, S R; Vaz, J R; Bruno, P M; Andrade, R; Mil-Homens, P

    2016-03-01

    This study examined whether a high-intensity, moderate-duration bout of stretching would produce the same acute effects as a low-intensity, long-duration bout of stretching. 17 volunteers performed 2 knee-flexor stretching protocols: a high-intensity stretch (i. e., 100% of maximum tolerable passive torque) with a moderate duration (243.5±69.5-s); and a low-intensity stretch (50% of tolerable passive torque) with a long duration (900-s). Passive torque at a given sub-maximal angle, peak passive torque, maximal range of motion (ROM), and muscle activity were assessed before and after each stretching protocol (at intervals of 1, 30 and 60 min). The maximal ROM and tolerable passive torque increased for all time points following the high-intensity stretching (p<0.05), but not after the low-intensity protocol (p>0.05). 1 min post-stretching, the passive torque decreased in both protocols, but to a greater extent in the low-intensity protocol. 30 min post-test, torque returned to baseline for the low-intensity protocol and had increased above the baseline for the high-intensity stretches. The following can be concluded: 1) High-intensity stretching increases the maximal ROM and peak passive torque compared to low-intensity stretching; 2) low-intensity, long-duration stretching is the best way to acutely decrease passive torque; and 3) high-intensity, moderate-duration stretching increases passive torque above the baseline 30 min after stretching. PMID:26701828

  14. Electrocardiographical case. Narrow complex tachycardia provoked by the Valsalva manoeuvre.

    PubMed

    Koh, C H; Foo, D; Ng, K S; Chong, C H

    2009-04-01

    A 19-year-old Chinese man presented with tachyarrhythmia during a human centrifuge session while performing a Valsalva manoeuvre at near normal (+1.4 Gz) centripetal forces. It was likely that the hydrostatic effects of sustained centrifugal forces, the distortion of the heart's shape, as well as swings in the autonomic dominance pre- and post-Valsalva manoeuvre, contributed to the tachyarrhythmia. The 12-lead ECG showed a narrow complex tachycardia with visible P-waves after the QRS complexes consistent with a long R-P' tachycardia. The intracardiac electrogram demonstrated a concentric retrograde atrial activation during narrow complex tachycardia. The V-A interval was 150 ms which was much longer than in typical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which is usually less than 70 ms. The A-H interval was short and the H-A interval was long, indicating that antegrade activation was over the fast pathway and retrograde activation was over the slow pathway. The diagnosis was atypical atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, and radiofrequency ablation was successfully applied to the slow AV nodal pathway. PMID:19421691

  15. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  16. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  17. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  18. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  19. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period....

  20. Shuttle Showcase: STS-124 - Duration: 61 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    The second in a series of flights to assemble the Japanese segment of the International Space Station saw the mammoth Kibo module delivered to the complex complements of Discovery and its crew on t...

  1. HIAD at NFAC - Duration: 9 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Timelapse video of a six-meter (19.7 ft), inflatable Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) article being prepared for testing in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamic Complex at Moffet...

  2. Why Are Teams Important? - Duration: 88 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kelvin Kirby, deputy director for the Center for Radiation Engineering and Science for Space Exploration, or CRESSE, at Prairie View A&M University, explains how the complexity of space radiation m...

  3. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the...

  4. Time in Language: Event Duration in Language Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coll-Florit, Marta; Gennari, Silvia P.

    2011-01-01

    This work investigates how we process and represent event duration in on-line language comprehension. Specifically, it examines how events of different duration are processed and what type of knowledge underlies their representations. Studies 1-4 examined verbs and phrases in different contexts. They showed that durative events took longer to…

  5. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain.

    PubMed

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen; Faure, Paul A

    2014-11-15

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  6. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.12 Duration of classification. (a) Determining duration of classification for...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.12 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of classification. 2001.12 Section 2001.12 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense INFORMATION SECURITY OVERSIGHT... Classification § 2001.12 Duration of classification. (a) Determining duration of classification for...

  8. Decoding stimulus duration from neural responses in the auditory midbrain

    PubMed Central

    Aubie, Brandon; Sayegh, Riziq; Fremouw, Thane; Covey, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Neurons with responses selective for the duration of an auditory stimulus are called duration-tuned neurons (DTNs). Temporal specificity in their spiking suggests that one function of DTNs is to encode stimulus duration; however, the efficacy of duration encoding by DTNs has yet to be investigated. Herein, we characterize the information content of individual cells and a population of DTNs from the mammalian inferior colliculus (IC) by measuring the stimulus-specific information (SSI) and estimated Fisher information (FI) of spike count responses. We found that SSI was typically greatest for those stimulus durations that evoked maximum spike counts, defined as best duration (BD) stimuli, and that FI was maximal for stimulus durations off BD where sensitivity to a change in duration was greatest. Using population data, we demonstrate that a maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) can accurately decode stimulus duration from evoked spike counts. We also simulated a two-alternative forced choice task by having MLE models decide whether two durations were the same or different. With this task we measured the just-noticeable difference threshold for stimulus duration and calculated the corresponding Weber fractions across the stimulus domain. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the spiking responses of DTNs from the mammalian IC contain sufficient information for the CNS to encode, decode, and discriminate behaviorally relevant auditory signal durations. PMID:25122706

  9. Prediction of Daily Flow Duration Curves and Streamflow for Ungauged Catchments Using Regional Flow Duration Curves

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents a method to predict flow duration curves (FDCs) and streamflow for ungauged catchments in the Mid-Atlantic Region, USA. We selected 29 catchments from the Appalachian Plateau, Ridge and Valley, and Piedmont physiographic provinces to develop and test the propo...

  10. Long Duration Exposure Facility: A general overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, Robert L.; Lightner, E. Burton

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) is a large, low-cost, reusable, unmanned, free-flying spacecraft which accommodates technology, science, and applications experiments for long-term exposure to the space environment. The LDEF was designed and built by the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) for NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology. Specifically, the LDEF was designed to transport experiments into space via the Space Shuttle, to free fly in Earth orbit for an extended period, and be retrieved on a later Space Shuttle flight allowing experiments to be returned to Earth for postflight analysis in the laboratory. The LDEF with a full complement of experiments was placed in Earth orbit in April 1984 by Challenger and retrieved from orbit in January 1990 by Columbia. A general overview of the LDEF, its mission, systems, experiments, and operations is presented. Excerpts from various NASA documents are extensively used.

  11. Rail commuting duration and passenger stress.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Wener, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    Over 100 million Americans commute to work every weekday. Little is known, however, about how this aspect of work, which may indeed be the most stressful aspect of the job for some, affects human health and well-being. The authors studied a sample of 208 male and female suburban rail commuters who took the train to Manhattan, New York. The greater the duration of the commute, the larger the magnitude of salivary cortisol elevations in reference to resting baseline levels, the less the commuter's persistence on a task at the end of the commute, and the greater the levels of perceived stress. These effects were not moderated by gender. Commuting stress is an important and largely overlooked aspect of environmental health. PMID:16719613

  12. Short Duration Base Heating Test Improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bender, Robert L.; Dagostino, Mark G.; Engel, Bradley A.; Engel, Carl D.

    1999-01-01

    Significant improvements have been made to a short duration space launch vehicle base heating test technique. This technique was first developed during the 1960's to investigate launch vehicle plume induced convective environments. Recent improvements include the use of coiled nitrogen buffer gas lines upstream of the hydrogen / oxygen propellant charge tubes, fast acting solenoid valves, stand alone gas delivery and data acquisition systems, and an integrated model design code. Technique improvements were successfully demonstrated during a 2.25% scale X-33 base heating test conducted in the NASA/MSFC Nozzle Test Facility in early 1999. Cost savings of approximately an order of magnitude over previous tests were realized due in large part to these improvements.

  13. Feeding the Astronauts During Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the issues surrounding feeding astronauts during long duration missions. There is a brief history from the food and food packaging available during Project Mercury through the current food requirements. It shows the packaging and the requirements that have been used. The current food system includes thermostabilized and irradiated foods to reduce the potential of harmful microorganisms. There is an explanation of drinks available, rehydratable foods, and natural forms of food, (i.e., commercially available foods that are packaged in individual serving sizes). There is also discussion of the requirements for future missions, and the research gap for requirements for food that will last 5 years, with packaging and nutrients intact.

  14. Drug stability analyzer for long duration spaceflights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shende, Chetan; Smith, Wayne; Brouillette, Carl; Farquharson, Stuart

    2014-06-01

    Crewmembers of current and future long duration spaceflights require drugs to overcome the deleterious effects of weightlessness, sickness and injuries. Unfortunately, recent studies have shown that some of the drugs currently used may degrade more rapidly in space, losing their potency well before their expiration dates. To complicate matters, the degradation products of some drugs can be toxic. Consequently there is a need for an analyzer that can determine if a drug is safe at the time of use, as well as to monitor and understand space-induced degradation, so that drug types, formulations, and packaging can be improved. Towards this goal we have been investigating the ability of Raman spectroscopy to monitor and quantify drug degradation. Here we present preliminary data by measuring acetaminophen, and its degradation product, p-aminophenol, as pure samples, and during forced degradation reactions.

  15. Long Duration Backlighter Experiments at Omega

    SciTech Connect

    Reighard, A; Glendinning, S; Young, P; Hsing, W; Foord, M; Schneider, M; Lu, K; Dittrich, T; Wallace, R; Sorce, C

    2008-05-01

    We have successfully demonstrated a 7.5 ns-duration pinhole-apertured backlighter at the Omega laser facility. Pinhole-apertured point-projection backlighting for 8 ns will be useful for imaging evolving features in experiments at the National Ignition Facility. The backlighter consisted of a 20 {micro}m diameter pinhole in a 75 {micro}m thick Ta substrate separated from a Zn emitter (9 keV) by a 400 {micro}m thick high-density carbon piece. The carbon prevented the shock from the laser-driven surface from reaching the substrate before 8 ns and helped minimize x-ray ablation of the pinhole substrate. Grid wires in x-ray framing camera images of a gold grid have a source-limited resolution significantly smaller than the pinhole diameter due to the high aspect ratio of the pinhole, but do not become much smaller at late times.

  16. Period and pulse duration with "strobe" lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birriel, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Strobe lights have traditionally been discussed in The Physics Teacher in the context of stop action strobe photography. During the Halloween season most department and hardware stores sell inexpensive, compact "strobe" lights (although these can be found online year round). These lights generally sell for under 10 and usually employ LED lights. Most such devices have a rotary switch to adjust the rate at which the LED bulbs flash. This rotary switch is not calibrated—i.e., it has no markings to indicate the rate, but in general the greater the rotation of the switch from the off position, the faster the rate of flashing. We show how these simple devices can be used with a light sensor to study both the frequency of flashing and the duration of the light pulse. We briefly discuss if these devices are truly strobe lights.

  17. Architectural considerations for lunar long duration habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami, Payam

    The future of space exploration science and technology is expected to move toward long duration missions. During this long duration missions the most important factor to success will be the habitation system, the place that crew will live and work. The broad range of future space exploration, new advances in technology and increasing demand for space travel and space tourism will create great opportunities for architects to use their special abilities and skills in the realm of space. The lunar habitat is defined as a multidisciplinary task and cannot be considered an independent project from the main module. Therefore, habitability will become the most important aspect of future human exploration. A successful design strategy should integrate architecture, structure and other disciplines and should bring in elements such as psychological and physiological factors, human interfaces, and privacy. The current research provides "Habitat Architectural Design System (HADS)" in order to evaluate lunar habitat concepts based on habitability, functional optimization, and human factors. HADS helps to promote parametric studied and evaluation of habitat concepts. It will provide a guideline dependent upon mission objectives to standardize architectural needs within the engineering applications and scientific demands. The significance of this research is the process of developing lunar habitat concepts using an architectural system to evaluate the quality of each concept via habitability aspects. This process can be employed during the early stage of design development and is flexible enough to be adjusted by different parameters according to the objectives of lunar mission, limitations, and cost. It also emphasizes the importance of architecture involvement in space projects, especially habitats.

  18. Coding rate and duration of vocalizations of the frog, Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Zornik, Erik; Yamaguchi, Ayako

    2012-08-29

    Vocalizations involve complex rhythmic motor patterns, but the underlying temporal coding mechanisms in the nervous system are poorly understood. Using a recently developed whole-brain preparation from which "fictive" vocalizations are readily elicited in vitro, we investigated the cellular basis of temporal complexity of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). Male advertisement calls contain two alternating components--fast trills (∼300 ms) and slow trills (∼700 ms) that contain clicks repeated at ∼60 and ∼30 Hz, respectively. We found that males can alter the duration of fast trills without changing click rates. This finding led us to hypothesize that call rate and duration are regulated by independent mechanisms. We tested this by obtaining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in the "fictively" calling isolated brain. We discovered a single type of premotor neuron with activity patterns correlated with both the rate and duration of fast trills. These "fast-trill neurons" (FTNs) exhibited long-lasting depolarizations (LLDs) correlated with each fast trill and action potentials that were phase-locked with motor output-neural correlates of call duration and rate, respectively. When depolarized without central pattern generator activation, FTNs produced subthreshold oscillations and action potentials at fast-trill rates, indicating FTN resonance properties are tuned to, and may dictate, the fast-trill rhythm. NMDA receptor (NMDAR) blockade eliminated LLDs in FTNs, and NMDAR activation in synaptically isolated FTNs induced repetitive LLDs. These results suggest FTNs contain an NMDAR-dependent mechanism that may regulate fast-trill duration. We conclude that a single premotor neuron population employs distinct mechanisms to regulate call rate and duration. PMID:22933794

  19. Rare Cause of Wide QRS Tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Mironov, Nikolay Yu.; Mironova, Natalia A.; Saidova, Marina A.; Stukalova, Olga V.; Golitsyn, Sergey P.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is a well-known feature of neuromuscular diseases. Most commonly cardiac manifestations occur later in the course of the disease. Occasionally severe cardiac disease, including conduction disturbances, life-threatening arrhythmias, and cardiomyopathy, with its impact on prognosis, may be dissociated from peripheral myopathy. We report a case of bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia as primary manifestation of myotonic dystrophy and discuss associated diagnostic and treatment challenges. PMID:26788375

  20. Evaluating observational methods to quantify snow duration under diverse forest canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, Susan E.; Lutz, James A.; Martin, Kael A.; Raleigh, Mark S.; Gersonde, Rolf; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2015-02-01

    Forests cover almost 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow-covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three diverse forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow-covered area and snow duration metrics from the colocated instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration, and snow duration differences between forest treatments. The fiber-optic cable and the cameras indicated that mean snow duration was 8 days longer in the gap plots than in the control plots (p < 0.001). We conducted Monte Carlo experiments for observing mean snow duration in a 40 m forest plot, and found the 95% confidence interval was ±5 days for 10 m spacing between instruments and ±3 days for 6 m spacing. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  1. Electrocardiograms of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) out of water: habituated collection versus wild postcapture animals.

    PubMed

    Harms, Craig A; Jensen, Eric D; Townsend, Forrest I; Hansen, Larry J; Schwacke, Lori H; Rowles, Teresa K

    2013-12-01

    Electrocardiography (ECG) was performed on captured free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) during a health assessment exercise and compared with that of a Navy collection of dolphins habituated to handling out of water in order to assess possible cardiovascular impacts of capture and handling. Six-lead recordings (I, II, III, aVr, aVl, and aVf) in the frontal plane and direct thorax leads were collected from both groups, with a modified base-apex lead additionally employed with the Navy collection dolphins. Measured and calculated parameters included amplitudes of P, R, S, and T waves and total QRS complex; T:S and T:QRS ratios; heart rate; durations of P wave; QRS complex, PR, QT, and RR intervals; maximum minus minimum RR interval; ST segment elevation-depression; and mean electrical axis (MEA). Physiologically minor but statistically significant differences were detected in S wave amplitude, PR interval, QRS duration, and MEA. The PR interval, QRS duration, and S wave amplitude were slightly greater and the MEA oriented slightly rightward in wild postcapture dolphins compared to Navy collection dolphins. There were no differences in heart rate or maximum minus minimum RR interval, which serves as a proxy for the expected sinus arrhythmia of dolphins. The base-apex lead resulted in greater QRS amplitude than lead II, as expected for the category B ventricular activation of dolphins. The left-side direct thorax lead was more consistent than that of the right side. Clinically, ECG was a useful adjunct to auscultation and thoracic palpation for monitoring heart rate and rhythm and generated a record for archiving. Safe capture and handling protocols in place, under which dolphins are immediately returned to the water at progressive signs of distress, may make cardiovascular decompensation less likely to be detected by ECG. It appears that the dolphin cardiovascular system compensates suitably well to capture, as measured by ECG under the conditions of this study. PMID:24450057

  2. The influence of stimulus repetition on duration judgments with simple stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Birngruber, Teresa; Schröter, Hannes; Ulrich, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the effects of stimulus repetition vs. stimulus novelty on perceived duration. In a reminder task, a standard and a comparison stimulus were presented consecutively in each trial, and the comparison was either a repetition of the standard or a different stimulus. Pseudowords (Experiment 1) or strings of consonants (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli and the inter-stimulus interval (ISI) between the standard and the comparison was either constant or variable. Participants were asked to judge whether the comparison was shorter or longer than the standard. In both experiments, we observed shorter judged durations for repeated than for novel comparisons whereas the manipulation of the ISI had no pronounced effects on duration judgments. The finding of shorter duration judgments for repeated as compared to novel nonwords replicates the results of a previous study (Matthews, 2011) which employed highly complex stimulus material. The present study shows that changes of simple, semantically meaningless stimuli are sufficient to result in a shorter perceived duration of repeated as compared to novel stimuli. PMID:26347682

  3. Mental Summation of Temporal Duration within and across Senses

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2015-01-01

    Perceiving, memorizing, and estimating temporal durations are key cognitive functions in everyday life. In this study, a duration summation paradigm was used to examine whether summation of temporal durations introduces an underestimation or overestimation bias, and whether this bias is common to visual and auditory modalities. Two within- or across-modality stimuli were presented sequentially for variable durations. Participants were asked to reproduce the sum of the two durations (0.6–1.1 s). We found that the sum of two durations was overestimated regardless of stimulus modalities. A subsequent control experiment indicated that the overestimation bias arose from the summation process, not perceptual or memory processes. Furthermore, we observed strong positive correlations between the overestimation bias for different sensory modalities within participants. These results suggest that the sum of two durations is overestimated, and that supra-modal processes may be responsible for this overestimation bias. PMID:26506613

  4. How Hearing Impairment Affects Sentence Comprehension: Using Eye Fixations to Investigate the Duration of Speech Processing

    PubMed Central

    Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  5. How hearing impairment affects sentence comprehension: using eye fixations to investigate the duration of speech processing.

    PubMed

    Wendt, Dorothea; Kollmeier, Birger; Brand, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the extent to which hearing impairment influences the duration of sentence processing. An eye-tracking paradigm is introduced that provides an online measure of how hearing impairment prolongs processing of linguistically complex sentences; this measure uses eye fixations recorded while the participant listens to a sentence. Eye fixations toward a target picture (which matches the aurally presented sentence) were measured in the presence of a competitor picture. Based on the recorded eye fixations, the single target detection amplitude, which reflects the tendency of the participant to fixate the target picture, was used as a metric to estimate the duration of sentence processing. The single target detection amplitude was calculated for sentence structures with different levels of linguistic complexity and for different listening conditions: in quiet and in two different noise conditions. Participants with hearing impairment spent more time processing sentences, even at high levels of speech intelligibility. In addition, the relationship between the proposed online measure and listener-specific factors, such as hearing aid use and cognitive abilities, was investigated. Longer processing durations were measured for participants with hearing impairment who were not accustomed to using a hearing aid. Moreover, significant correlations were found between sentence processing duration and individual cognitive abilities (such as working memory capacity or susceptibility to interference). These findings are discussed with respect to audiological applications. PMID:25910503

  6. Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, David; Schmidt, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Center on Materials for Space Structures (CMSS) at Case Western Reserve University is one of seventeen Commercial Centers for the Development of Space. It was founded to: (1) produce and evaluate materials for space structures; (2) develop passive and active facilities for materials exposure and analysis in space; and (3) develop improved material systems for space structures. A major active facility for materials exposure is proposed to be mounted on the exterior truss of the Space Station Freedom (SSF). This Long Duration Space Materials Exposure (LDSE) experiment will be an approximately 6 1/2 ft. x 4 ft. panel facing into the velocity vector (RAM) to provide long term exposure (up to 30 years) to atomic oxygen, UV, micro meteorites, and other low earth orbit effects. It can expose large or small active (instrumented) or passive samples. These samples may be mounted in a removable Materials Flight Experiment (MFLEX) carrier which may be periodically brought into the SSF for examination by CMSS's other SSF facility, the Space Materials Evaluation Facility (SMEF), which will contain a Scanning Electron Microscope, a Variable Angle & Scanning Ellipsometer, a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer, and other analysis equipment. These facilities will allow commercial firms to test their materials in space and promptly obtain information on their materials survivability in the LEO environment.

  7. The Long Duration Exposure Facility material experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinard, William H.; Jones, James L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    In the early 1970s, the NASA Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) approved the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Project. The LDEF project provided NASA and other U.S. and foreign research organizations with opportunities to perform critical technology and science experiments in space using the LDEF and the Space Shuttle. Many of the experiments which were developed and are flying on the first LDEF mission are experiments to investigate the effects of the space environment on materials. An overview is provided for these materials experiments. The LDEF was placed in orbit by the shuttle orbiter Challenger in April 1984, and it was to have been retrieved approximately 1 year later. The Challenger accident, however, has delayed the retrieval more than 4 years. The LDEF retrieval is now manifested on Flight 32 in July 1989. Since the facility and experiments will have been in space almost 5-1/4 years when they are retrieved, they will be a national trove of science and technology data.

  8. Immune changes during short-duration missions.

    PubMed

    Taylor, G R

    1993-09-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight. PMID:8371049

  9. Pegaso: Long durations balloons from polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G. R.; di Stefano, G. D. S.; di Felice, F. D. F.; Masi, S. M.; Cardillo, A. C.; Musso, I. M.; Ibba, R. I.; Palangio, P. P.; Caprara, F. C.; Peterzen, S. P.; Pegaso Group

    Launched from the Mario Zuccelli Station Baia Terra Nova in Antarctica during the 2005 06 austral summer the PEGASO-D payload lifted into the stratospheric anticyclone over the southern polar region This effort marks the first Long Duration Scientific payload to be launched from this location and is the fourth such payload launched in the polar regions Performing in the framework of the NOBILE AMUNDSEN collaborative LDB development between ASI-ARR The Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology INGV with the sponsorship of the Italian Antarctic Program PNRA and the Italian Space Agency ASI designed and built the Ultra-Light system together with three Universities in Italy The Pegaso program has been created to investigate the Earth magnetic field and provide a precursor series of small payload launches for the bigger LDB program such as OLIMPO BOOMERanG and BArSPOrt through this collaboration between ASI and ARR The Italian scientific community aware of the big advantages that LDB balloons can offer to their experiments proposed to extend the LDB program to Southern polar regions besides performing launches from the newly initiated Nobile Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Center in Svalbard Norway Three PEGASO Polar Explorer for Geomagnetics And other Scientific Observations payloads have been launched from the Svalbard No in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range ASI and ISTAR Operations and logistics during the past two northern summers These stratospheric altitude m 35000 small 10kmc balloons have floated in the stratosphere between 14 to

  10. Immune changes during short-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.

    1993-01-01

    Spaceflight materially influences the immune mechanism of humans and animals. Effects resulting from missions of less than 1 month are examined. Effects from longer missions are discussed in the companion paper by Konstantinova et al. Most immunology studies have involved analyses of subjects and samples from subjects obtained after flight, with the data being compared with similar data obtained before flight. These studies have demonstrated that short-duration missions can result in a postflight depression in blast cell transformation, major changes in cytokine function, and alterations in the relative numbers of immune cell populations. In addition to these post- vs. preflight studies, some data have been produced in flight. However, these in vitro analyses have been less than satisfactory because of differences between in-flight and ground-control conditions. Recently, both the U.S. and Russian space programs have started collecting in-flight, in vivo, cell-mediated immunity data. These studies have confirmed that the human cell-mediated immune system is blunted during spaceflight.

  11. Local and Duration Magnitudes in Western Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgun, E.; Comoglu, M.; Koseoglu Kusmezer, A.; Kekovali, K.; Kalafat, D.

    2010-12-01

    Kandilli Observatory and Earthquake Research Institute (KOERI) National Earthquake Monitoring Center (NEMC) has a well-designed broadband seismic network throughout Turkey. The network consists of 107 broadband seismometers (CMG-3T, CMG-3ESP/C, CMG-40T). Two types of magnitude scales used for broadband stations at NEMC. Local magnitude (Ml) and duration magnitude (Md) are calibrated using broadband stations. From 2006 through 2010, we calculate Ml values for western Anatolia earthquakes using maximum amplitudes on digital records from synthetic Wood-Anderson seismographs. We determine empirical Ml station corrections that minimize differences between Mls calculated from different type of broadband sensors. Application of these station corrections, in combination with distance corrections from Richter (1958) which have been in use at NEMC since 2003, produces Ml values that do not show any significant distance dependence. Ml determinations for western Anatolia (Marmara and Aegean regions) for 2006-2010 using our station corrections and Richters distance corrections have provided a reliable data set for recalibrating the Md scales for these regions. Our revised Ml values are consistent with available moment magnitude determinations for the western Anatolia earthquakes. Finally Md is calibrated against revised Ml and empirical equations are determined both magnitude scales.

  12. NASA's extended duration orbiter medical program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, Sam Lee; Sawin, Charles F.

    1992-01-01

    The physiological issues involved in safely extending Shuttle flights from 10 to 16 days have been viewed by some as academic. After all, they reasoned, humans already have lived and worked in space for periods exceeding even 28 days in the United States Skylab Program and onboard the Russian space stations. The difference in the Shuttle program is in the physical position of the astronauts as they reenter the Earth's atmosphere. Crewmembers in the earlier Apollo, Skylab, and Russian programs were returned to Earth in the supine position. Space Shuttle crewmembers, in contrast, are seated upright during reentry and landing; reexperiencing the Earth's g forces in this position has far more pronounced effects on the crewmember's physiological functions. The goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) Medical Project (EDOMP) has been to ensure that crewmembers maintain physiological reserves sufficient to perform entry, landing, and egress safely. Early in the Shuttle Program, it became clear that physiological deconditioning during space flight could produce significant symptoms upon return to Earth. The signs and symptoms observed during the entry, landing, and egress after Shuttle missions have included very high heart rates and low blood pressures upon standing. Dizziness, 'graying out,' and fainting have occurred on ambulation or shortly thereafter. Other symptoms at landing have included headache, light-headedness, nausea and vomitting, leg cramping, inability to stand for several minutes after wheel-stop, and unsteadiness of gait.

  13. Acute propafenone toxicity after two exposures at standard dosing

    PubMed Central

    Yeung, Adam; Shanks, David; Parwana, Harjinder; Gin, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with a decreased level of consciousness and hypotension. The initial electrocardiogram demonstrated atrial fibrillation with a wide QRS complex. Her medical history revealed that she had just been started on propafenone. A diagnosis of propafenone toxicity was made and sodium bicarbonate was administered. A rare phenomenon in which toxicity occurred at therapeutic dosing is reported. Acute propafenone toxicity manifests in a wide range of organ systems; in particular, cardiovascular compromise in the form of hypotension, bradycardia and QRS widening can occur. Sodium bicarbonate therapy is advocated to directly counteract the toxic effects of propafenone. In the case described, this treatment resulted in rapid normalization of the QRS duration and stabilization of the hemodynamic profile. PMID:20548984

  14. The ATIC Long Duration Balloon Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzik, T.

    Long Duration Balloon (LDB) scientific experiments, launched to circumnavigate the south pole over Antarctica, have particular advantages compared to Shuttle or other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions in terms of cost, weight, scientific "duty factor" and work force development. The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) cosmic ray astrophysics experiment is a good example of a university-based project that takes full advantage of current LDB capability and could effectively use future expansion in launch weight and flight duration. The ATIC experiment is currently being shipped to Antarctica in preparation for its first LDB science flight that will investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 101 0 to 10 1 4 eV. The instrument is built around a fully active, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in a thick carbon target. A highly segmented silicon matrix, located above the target, provides good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the "backscattered" particles from the interaction. Trajectory reconstruction is based on the cascade profile in the BGO calorimeter, plus information from the three scintillator hodoscope layers in the target section above it. The hodoscope planes also provide the primary event trigger to initiate the detector readout, another measure of the incident particle charge and an indicator of the interaction point in the carbon material. The scientific payload weighs ~1,540 kg and consumes ~300 Watts of power supplied by a ~580 Watt solar array system. A full evaluation of the experiment was performed during a test flight occurring between 28 December 2000 and 13 January 2001 where ATIC was carried3 to an altitude of ~37 km above Antarctica by a ~850,000 m helium filled balloon for one circumnavigation of the continent. All systems behaved well, the detectors performed as expected, >43 Gbytes of engineering and cosmic ray event data was returned and these data are now undergoing preliminary data analysis. During the coming 2002-2003 ATIC science flight we will be attempting two circumnavigations of Antarctica or ~30 days of continuous science data collection in the near-space environment of LDB float altitudes. An equivalent scientific "duty factor" is very difficult to achieve in LEO without the expenditure of 100's of millions. Finally, over the course of the ATIC project >60 students (undergraduate and graduate) at the collaborating institutions have gained experience in aerospace systems design, development, fabrication, testing, programming, operation and analysis that would be difficult or impossible to do with a space flight experiment. During the presentation we will discuss the ATIC experiment and detector technologies, the design considerations imposed by LDB launch, termination and recovery constraints, preliminary results from the ATIC test flight, plans for the upcoming science flight and consideration of university-based LDB science projects to the development of tomorrow's aerospace engineers and scientists.

  15. The ATIC Long Duration Balloon Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzik, T. G.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazely, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Granger, D.; Gunasingha, R.

    2003-01-01

    Long Duration Balloon (LDB) scientific experiments, launched to circumnavigate the south pole over Antarctica, have particular advantages compared to Shuttle or other Low Earth Orbit (LEO) missions in terms of cost, weight, scientific 'duty factor' and work force development. The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) cosmic ray astrophysics experiment is a good example of a university-based project that takes full advantage of current LDB capability. The ATIC experiment is currently being prepared for its first LDB science flight that will investigate the charge composition and energy spectra of primary cosmic rays over the energy range from about 10(exp 10) to 10(exp 14) eV. The instrument is built around a fully active, Bismuth Germanate (BGO) ionization calorimeter to measure the energy deposited by the cascades formed by particles interacting in a thick carbon target. A highly segmented silicon matrix, located above the target, provides good incident charge resolution plus rejection of the 'backscattered' particles from the interaction. Trajectory reconstruction is based on the cascade profile in the BGO calorimeter, plus information from the three pairs of scintillator hodoscope layers in the target section above it. A full evaluation of the experiment was performed during a test flight occurring between 28 December 2000 and 13 January 2001 where ATIC was carried to an altitude of approx. 37 km above Antarctica by an approx. 850,000 cu m helium filled balloon for one circumnavigation of the continent. All systems behaved well, the detectors performed as expected, more than 43 gigabytes of engineering and cosmic ray event data was returned and these data are now undergoing preliminary data analysis. During the coming 2002-2003 Antarctica summer season, we are preparing for a ATIC science flight with approx. 15 to 30 days of continuous data collection in the near-space environment of LDB float altitudes.

  16. Duration of anticoagulation after isolated pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Palareti, Gualtiero; Cosmi, Benilde; Antonucci, Emilia; Legnani, Cristina; Erba, Nicoletta; Ghirarduzzi, Angelo; Poli, Daniela; Testa, Sophie; Tosetto, Alberto; Pengo, Vittorio; Prandoni, Paolo

    2016-05-01

    In the D-dimer and ULtrasonography in Combination Italian Study (DULCIS), serial D-dimer measurement in combination with assessment of residual thrombosis (in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT)) identified patients who safely discontinued anticoagulation after an unprovoked venous thromboembolism (VTE).In this subgroup analysis, the value of D-dimer tests was assessed in patients with isolated pulmonary embolism (PE) compared with those with DVT, with or without PE (DVT/PE). The DULCIS database was reanalysed in relation to this target.26.8% of the DULCIS patients had isolated PE as the index event; this was more prevalent in females (34.1%) than in males (21.1%; p<0.0001). The rate of positive D-dimer was similar in isolated PE and DVT/PE. The rate of recurrences was not different in isolated PE or DVT/PE patients (4.8% ppy versus 3.8% ppy; nonsignificant) who stopped anticoagulation for negative D-dimer, but it was markedly high (11.2% ppy; p<0.0001) in those with isolated PE who remained without anticoagulation despite positive D-dimer. Recurrences were more frequently new isolated PE in patients with isolated PE than with DVT/PE (six (46.2%) out of 13 versus two (7.4%) out of 27; p=0.0085).Serial D-dimer assessment can inform on the risk of recurrent VTE and help determine the duration of anticoagulation in patients with isolated PE. PMID:26917615

  17. Enhancing Team Performance for Long-Duration Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith M.

    2009-01-01

    Success of exploration missions will depend on skilled performance by a distributed team that includes both the astronauts in space and Mission Control personnel. Coordinated and collaborative teamwork will be required to cope with challenging complex problems in a hostile environment. While thorough preflight training and procedures will equip creW'S to address technical problems that can be anticipated, preparing them to solve novel problems is much more challenging. This presentation will review components of effective team performance, challenges to effective teamwork, and strategies for ensuring effective team performance. Teamwork skills essential for successful team performance include the behaviors involved in developing shared mental models, team situation awareness, collaborative decision making, adaptive coordination behaviors, effective team communication, and team cohesion. Challenges to teamwork include both chronic and acute stressors. Chronic stressors are associated with the isolated and confined environment and include monotony, noise, temperatures, weightlessness, poor sleep and circadian disruptions. Acute stressors include high workload, time pressure, imminent danger, and specific task-related stressors. Of particular concern are social and organizational stressors that can disrupt individual resilience and effective mission performance. Effective team performance can be developed by training teamwork skills, techniques for coping with team conflict, intracrew and intercrew communication, and working in a multicultural team; leadership and teamwork skills can be fostered through outdoor survival training exercises. The presentation will conclude with an evaluation of the special requirements associated with preparing crews to function autonomously in long-duration missions.

  18. Rashes and Exanthems on Long Duration Space Flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilscus, L.S.; Johnston, S.L.; Moynihan, S.; Kerstman, E.L.; Marshall, G.D.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As NASA expands its human space exploration to the Moon, Mars and beyond, it will be presented with many challenges, not the least of which will be dealing with medical conditions, which on earth are simple, but take on new levels of complexity in space habitats. Skin conditions exemplify this complexity. METHODS AND RESULTS: While skin conditions account for 7 % of outpatient presentations to a primary care provider in the United States, NASA Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH) database indicates that cutaneous manifestations are significantly prevalent on-orbit. Reviewing this data for US astronauts, there have been 90 total cases of skin rashes during 27.34 person-years of spaceflight, or 3.29 cases/person. Specifically, STS-1 though 114 had 56 cases, ISS Expeditions 1 though 13 had 7 cases, Mir had 4 cases, Skylab had 5 cases and the Apollo program had 18 cases. If there was a period of 24 hours or more between rashes in the same crewmember, this was counted as an additional case. DISCUSSION: This prevalence is likely due, in some part, to constraints of hygiene and to immunologic changes that occur. The stresses of microgravity and austere Earth environments such as the Antarctic, submarine and military deployments, no doubt, similarly contribute to cutaneous reactions; but the difference of the environments are significant enough to warrant further study and discussion. This paper will discuss rashes, exanthems, and cutaneous reactions in space habitats; it will address diagnosis, causation, mitigation and treatment of skin conditions seen on orbit, to date, with a look to anticipating what may be seen with larger crews on future extended duration expeditions.

  19. Simultaneous optimization of power and duration of radio-frequency pulse in PARACEST MRI.

    PubMed

    Rezaeian, Mohammad-Reza; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid

    2016-07-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) MRI is increasingly used to probe mobile proteins and microenvironment properties, and shows great promise for tumor and stroke diagnosis. The CEST effect is complex and depends not only on the CEST agent concentration, exchange rates, the characteristic of the magnetization transfer (MT), and the relaxation properties of the tissue, but also varies with the experimental conditions such as radio-frequency (RF) pulse power and duration. The RF pulse is one of the most important factors that promote the CEST effect for biological properties such as pH, temperature and protein content, especially for contrast agents with intermediate to fast exchange rates. The CEST effect is susceptible to the RF duration and power. The present study aims at determining the optimal power and the corresponding optimal duration (that maximize the CEST effect) using an off-resonance scheme through a new definition of the CEST effect. This definition is formulated by solving the Bloch-McConnell equation through the R1ρ method (based on the eigenspace solution) for both of the MT and CEST effects as well as their interactions. The proposed formulations of the optimal RF pulse power and duration are the first formulations in which the MT effect is considered. The extracted optimal RF pulse duration and power are compared with those of the MTR asymmetry model in two- and three-pool systems, using synthetic data that are similar to the muscle tissue. To validate them further, the formulations are compared with the empirical formulation of the CEST effect and other findings of the previous researches. By extending our formulations, the optimal power and the corresponding optimal duration (in the biological systems with many chemical exchange sites) can be determined. PMID:26956610

  20. Evaluating Observational Methods to Quantify Snow Duration under Diverse Forest Canopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickerson-Lange, S. E.; Lutz, J. A.; Martin, K.; Raleigh, M. S.; Gersonde, R.; Lundquist, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    Forests cover over 40% of the seasonally snow-covered regions in North America. However, operational snow networks are located primarily in forest clearings, and optical remote sensing cannot see through tree canopies to detect forest snowpack. Due to the complex influence of the forest on snowpack duration, ground observations in forests are essential. We therefore consider the effectiveness of different strategies to observe snow covered area under forests. At our study location in the Pacific Northwest, we simultaneously deployed fiber-optic cable, stand-alone ground temperature sensors, and time-lapse digital cameras in three different forest treatments: control second-growth forest, thinned forest, and forest gaps (one tree height in diameter). We derived fractional snow covered area and snow duration metrics from the co-located instruments to assess optimal spatial resolution and sampling configuration. The fiber-optic cable and the camera detected a significant difference of 8 days in mean snow duration between the gap and control plots. Monte Carlo experiments based on our results suggest that 10 m spacing of self-recording ground temperature sensors across a 40 m forest plot will capture mean snow duration to ± 5 days whereas 6 m spacing reduces the 95% confidence interval to ± 3 days. We further tested the representativeness of sampling one plot per treatment group by observing snow duration across replicated forest plots at the same elevation, and at a set of forest plots 250 m higher. Relative relationships between snow duration in the forest treatments are consistent between replicated plots, elevation, and two winters of data.

  1. Dutch and English listeners’ interpretation of vowel duration

    PubMed Central

    van der Feest, Suzanne V. H.; Swingley, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Dutch and English listeners’ interpretation of vowel duration changes was examined in a word transcription task. Listeners were presented with spoken words realized with canonical or altered vowel durations. Dutch listeners often misperceived lengthened short vowels and shortened long vowels, identifying them as the short∕long counterpart of the target, whereas English listeners more rarely misidentified words with altered vowel duration. Although Dutch and English are similar prosodically and phonologically, listeners’ treatment of vowel duration in clear speech is different across the two languages. PMID:21428468

  2. Hazard based models for freeway traffic incident duration.

    PubMed

    Tavassoli Hojati, Ahmad; Ferreira, Luis; Washington, Simon; Charles, Phil

    2013-03-01

    Assessing and prioritising cost-effective strategies to mitigate the impacts of traffic incidents and accidents on non-recurrent congestion on major roads represents a significant challenge for road network managers. This research examines the influence of numerous factors associated with incidents of various types on their duration. It presents a comprehensive traffic incident data mining and analysis by developing an incident duration model based on twelve months of incident data obtained from the Australian freeway network. Parametric accelerated failure time (AFT) survival models of incident duration were developed, including log-logistic, lognormal, and Weibul-considering both fixed and random parameters, as well as a Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity. The Weibull AFT models with random parameters were appropriate for modelling incident duration arising from crashes and hazards. A Weibull model with gamma heterogeneity was most suitable for modelling incident duration of stationary vehicles. Significant variables affecting incident duration include characteristics of the incidents (severity, type, towing requirements, etc.), and location, time of day, and traffic characteristics of the incident. Moreover, the findings reveal no significant effects of infrastructure and weather on incident duration. A significant and unique contribution of this paper is that the durations of each type of incident are uniquely different and respond to different factors. The results of this study are useful for traffic incident management agencies to implement strategies to reduce incident duration, leading to reduced congestion, secondary incidents, and the associated human and economic losses. PMID:23333698

  3. Assessment of QT and JT Intervals in Patients With Left Bundle Branch Block

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaei, Peyman; Keikhavani, Ala; Haghjoo, Majid; Fazelifar, Amirfarjam; Emkanjoo, Zahra; Zeighami, Mahbobeh; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Ghadrdoost, Behshid; Alizadeh, Abolfath

    2016-01-01

    Background Prolongation of the QT interval is considered a risk factor for cardiac adverse events and mortality. Left bundle branch block (LBBB) lengthens the QT interval. The corrected QT interval (QTc) is most likely overestimated because its prolongation is caused by increases in depolarization duration and not in repolarization. Objectives In this study, we aimed to apply corrected JT interval (JTc) as an appropriate measure of ventricular repolarization for predicting QTc in a formula. Patients and Methods The study population consisted of 101 patients with sinus rhythm (SR) and narrow QRS complexes (< 120 milliseconds). All patients underwent electrophysiology studies or ablation. A diagnostic catheter was positioned in the right ventricular apex (RVA) to induce LBBB at two different cycle lengths (CLs; 600 and 700 mv). The intrinsic QRS complex, QT time, and JT time were measured during SR and subsequent RVA pacing. The JTc was derived simply by subtracting the QRS duration from the QTc. Results Stimulation from the RVA increased the QTc from 456.20 ± 38.63 ms to 530.67 ± 47.73 ms at a CL of 600 (P < 0.0001) and to 502.32 ± 47.26 ms at 700 CL (P < 0.0001). JTc showed no significant changes with stimulation from the RVA (102.97 ± 11.35 ms vs. 103.59 ± 10.67 ms, P = 0.24). There was no significant correlation between JTc and QRS complex duration. A significant correlation was seen between QRS and QTc at both CLs. The ROC curve indicated that sensitivity of 80% and specificity of 67% were obtained with JTc duration of 92.6 ms. Conclusions Right ventricular pacing increases the QT interval without increasing the JT interval. Our results confirm that JTc, as an index of repolarization, is independent of ventricular depolarization. Therefore, it can be applied for predicting QTc in patients with LBBB. PMID:26949694

  4. Personal growth following long-duration spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2012-10-01

    IntroductionSalutogenesis and posttraumatic growth represent personal growth and improved functioning as a result of experiencing major challenging events. These developments are not simply resilience (a return to a baseline level of well-being), but positive change in such characteristics as self-understanding, relations with others, personal values, and life goals. Space agencies and space psychologists, primarily concerned with deleterious effects and their countermeasures, have not paid much attention to such beneficial long-term aftereffects of spaceflight. PurposeTo document what changes veterans of the Soviet/Russian space program report as a consequence of their experiences. MethodTwenty retired male cosmonauts Mir and/or ISS cosmonauts filled out relevant self-report questionnaires. Results: Although there was little change in the relative rankings of a list of values, the scale showed an overall increase in the rated importance of all personal values, although only the increase in Self-Direction reached statistical significance. Responses to one of two post-space growth questionnaires based on the Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (PTGI) were compared to the means of two comparison groups: 152 first-time mothers, and 926 respondents who had experienced various forms of trauma. The cosmonauts reported higher scores on the dimension of New Possibilities when compared to the new mothers and the traumatized group, and higher scores on Personal Strength and Overall PTG compared to the latter. Respondents who had spent more than a year in space, and those who flew on both Mir and ISS, were the most likely to report positive change in the domain Appreciation of Life. The other post-space career questionnaire reflected major changes in Perceptions of the Earth and of Space, and increases on a number of other dimensions, including New Possibilities and Changes in Daily Life, with positive scores that significantly exceeded the original report. DiscussionIt appears that cosmonauts do experience various aspects of positive personal growth following their space flights. As long-duration missions are (and will remain) the norm, it is important for the space agencies and the voyagers themselves to develop a better understanding and possible enhancement of this phenomenon.

  5. The Impact of Attention on Judgments of Frequency and Duration

    PubMed Central

    Winkler, Isabell; Glauer, Madlen; Betsch, Tilmann; Sedlmeier, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that examined human judgments of frequency and duration found an asymmetrical relationship: While frequency judgments were quite accurate and independent of stimulus duration, duration judgments were highly dependent upon stimulus frequency. A potential explanation for these findings is that the asymmetry is moderated by the amount of attention directed to the stimuli. In the current experiment, participants' attention was manipulated in two ways: (a) intrinsically, by varying the type and arousal potential of the stimuli (names, low-arousal and high-arousal pictures), and (b) extrinsically, by varying the physical effort participants expended during the stimulus presentation (by lifting a dumbbell vs. relaxing the arm). Participants processed stimuli with varying presentation frequencies and durations and were subsequently asked to estimate the frequency and duration of each stimulus. Sensitivity to duration increased for pictures in general, especially when processed under physical effort. A large effect of stimulus frequency on duration judgments was obtained for all experimental conditions, but a similar large effect of presentation duration on frequency judgments emerged only in the conditions that could be expected to draw high amounts of attention to the stimuli: when pictures were judged under high physical effort. Almost no difference in the mutual impact of frequency and duration was obtained for low-arousal or high-arousal pictures. The mechanisms underlying the simultaneous processing of frequency and duration are discussed with respect to existing models derived from animal research. Options for the extension of such models to human processing of frequency and duration are suggested. PMID:26000712

  6. Effect of pulsation rest phase duration on teat end congestion.

    PubMed

    Upton, J; Penry, J F; Rasmussen, M D; Thompson, P D; Reinemann, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of d-phase (rest phase) duration of pulsation on the teat canal cross-sectional area during the period of peak milk flow from bovine teats. A secondary objective was to test if the effect of d-phase duration on teat canal cross-sectional area was influenced by milking system vacuum level, milking phase (b-phase) duration, and liner overpressure. During the d-phase of the pulsation cycle, liner compression facilitates venous flow and removal of fluids accumulated in teat-end tissues. It was hypothesized that a short-duration d-phase would result in congestion of teat-end tissue and a corresponding reduction in the cross-sectional area of the teat canal. A quarter milking device, designed and built at the Milking Research and Instruction Laboratory at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, was used to implement an experiment to test this hypothesis. Pulsator rate and ratios were adjusted to achieve 7 levels of d-phase duration: 50, 100, 150, 175, 200, 250, and 300ms. These 7 d-phase durations were applied during one milking session and were repeated for 2 vacuum levels (40 and 50kPa), 2 milking phase durations (575 and 775ms), and 2 levels of liner overpressure (9.8 and 18kPa). We observed a significant reduction in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal with d-phase durations of 50 and 100ms when compared with d-phase durations of 150, 175, 225, 250, and 300ms. No significant difference was found in the estimated cross-sectional area of the teat canal for d-phase durations from 150 to 300ms. No significant interaction was observed between the effect of d-phase and b-phase durations, vacuum level, or liner overpressure. PMID:26947293

  7. The depth dependence of earthquake duration and implications for rupture mechanisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vidale, J.E.; Houston, H.

    1993-01-01

    THE duration of rupture is a fundamental characteristic of earthquakes, and is important for understanding the mechanics of faulting1,2. The complexity of the seismic source and the incoherence of the high-frequency seismic wavefield often inhibit the identification, location and timing of features in the later part of earthquake rupture. Here we sum many teleseismic records from regional seismic arrays, producing an unusually clear depiction of the earthquake source at short periods by suppressing background noise and coda generated near the receivers. The ending, as well as the beginning, of rupture is clearly identifiable for most earthquakes examined. Measurements of 130 large earthquakes show that near 100 km depth, rupture duration averages 11s when scaled to a moment of 1026 dyn cm; this decreases to 5.5 s at 650 km depth. Models of faulting suggest that duration should be inversely proportional to the shear-wave velocity and the cube root of stress drop. Thus, to explain the observed twofold decrease in duration with depth, stress drops would have to increase by a factor of four, as shear velocity increases with depth by only about 20%. However, observed stress drops show no strong trend with depth3,4, suggesting that the faulting process changes with depth.

  8. Intensity-Duration Relation in the Bartlett-Lewis Rectangular Pulse Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritschel, Christoph; Rust, Henning; Ulbrich, Uwe; Nvir, Peter

    2015-04-01

    For several hydrological modelling tasks precipitation time series with a high (sub-daily) resolution are indispensable. This data is, however, not always available and thus replaced by model data. A canonical class of stochastic models for sub-daily precipitation is the class of Poisson cluster processes, e.g. the Bartlett-Lewis rectangular pulse model (BLRPM). The BLRPM has been shown to be able to well reproduce certain characteristics found in observations. Our focus is on intensity-duration relationship which are of particular importance in the context of hydrological modelling. We analyse several high resolution precipitation time series (5min) from Berlin and derive empirical intensity-duration relations for several return levels of intensities (intensity-duration-frequency curves, IDF curves). In a second step, we investigate to what extend the variants of a BLRPM are able to reproduce these relations (i.e., the IDF curves) for different situations (e.g., seasons) and for the various return-levels of intensities. By means of a sensitivity study with the BLRPM, we investigate to what extend the ability to reproduce the intensity-duration relationships is related to certain relations between the model parameters. Such relations are typically useful to reduce the complexity of the model and thus robustify and facilitate parameter estimation.

  9. Duration Adaptation Occurs Across the Sub- and Supra-Second Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shima, Shuhei; Murai, Yuki; Hashimoto, Yuki; Yotsumoto, Yuko

    2016-01-01

    After repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively short duration, a subsequent stimulus of long duration is perceived as being even longer, and after repetitive exposure to a stimulus of relatively long duration, a subsequent stimulus of short duration is perceived as being even shorter. This phenomenon is called duration adaptation, and has been reported only for sub-second durations. We examined whether duration adaptation also occurs for supra-second durations (Experiment 1) and whether duration adaptation occurs across sub- and supra-second durations (Experiment 2). Duration adaptation occurred not only for sub-second durations, but also for supra-second durations and across sub- and supra-second durations. These results suggest that duration adaptation involves an interval-independent system or two functionally related systems that are associated with both the sub- and supra-second durations. PMID:26903920

  10. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  11. Investigation of laser temporal pulse duration on Rayleigh scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Nee, T.A.; Roberts, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    Relative Rayleigh-scattering cross sections from nitrogen have been measured for various pulse durations and wavelengths of incident laser radiation. No pulse-duration dependence has been observed for laser pulses as short as 5 ns, and classical theory is found to be still valid over the pulse-width range (5< or =..delta..t< or =110 ns) of our observations.

  12. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  13. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  14. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  15. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  16. 15 CFR 255.6 - Duration of fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of fellowships. 255.6 Section... OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FELLOWSHIPS AND RESEARCH ASSOCIATES FELLOWSHIPS... Duration of fellowships. Fellowships may be awarded for periods of varying length, not exceeding one...

  17. 20 CFR 410.202 - Duration of entitlement; miner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; miner. 410.202 Section 410.202 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Requirements for Entitlement; Duration of...

  18. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  19. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  20. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  1. 25 CFR 211.27 - Duration of leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ENERGY AND MINERALS LEASING OF TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL... duration shall be measured from the date of approval by the Secretary. (b) An oil and gas or geothermal... duration without actual production of oil, gas, or geothermal resources. Provided, that this extension...

  2. Internal Clock Processes and the Filled-Duration Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearden, John H.; Norton, Roger; Martin, Simon; Montford-Bebb, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors compared duration judgments of filled stimuli (tones) with unfilled ones (intervals defined by clicks or gaps in tones). Temporal generalization procedures (Experiment 1) and verbal estimation procedures (Experiments 2 and 3) all showed that subjective durations of the tones were considerably longer than those of…

  3. Changes in apparent duration follow shifts in perceptual timing

    PubMed Central

    Bruno, Aurelio; Ayhan, Inci; Johnston, Alan

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the apparent duration of moving visual objects is greater at higher as compared to slower speeds. Here we report the effects of acceleration and deceleration on the perceived duration of a drifting grating with average speed kept constant (10°/s).For acceleration, increasing the speed range progressively reduced perceived duration. The magnitude of apparent duration compression was determined by speed rather than temporal frequency and was proportional to speed range (independent of standard duration) rather than acceleration. The perceived duration reduction was also proportional to the standard length. The effects of increases and decreases in speed were highly asymmetric. Reducing speed through the interval induced a moderate increase in perceived duration. These results could not be explained by changes in apparent onset or offset or differences in perceived average speed between intervals containing increasing speed and intervals containing decreasing speed. Paradoxically, for intervals combining increasing speed and decreasing speed, compression only occurred when increasing speed occurred in the second half of the interval. We show that this pattern of results in the duration domain was concomitant with changes in the reported direction of apparent motion of Gaussian blobs, embedded in intervals of increasing or decreasing speed, that could be predicted from adaptive changes in the temporal impulse response function. We detected similar changes after flicker adaptation, suggesting that the two effects might be linked through changes in the temporal tuning of visual filters. PMID:26024450

  4. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  5. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  6. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  7. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  8. 10 CFR 52.173 - Duration of manufacturing license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of manufacturing license. 52.173 Section 52.173... POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.173 Duration of manufacturing license. A manufacturing license... issuance. A holder of a manufacturing license may not initiate the manufacture of a reactor less than...

  9. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  10. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  11. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  12. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  13. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  14. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  16. 30 CFR 57.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Electric Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to be initiated from powerlines or lighting circuits, the time of current flow... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 57.6406 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  18. 30 CFR 56.6406 - Duration of current flow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of current flow. 56.6406 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Explosives Electric Blasting § 56.6406 Duration of current flow. If any part of a blast is connected in parallel and is to...

  19. 20 CFR 702.402 - Employer's duty to furnish; duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Care and Supervision § 702.402 Employer's duty to furnish; duration. It is the duty of the employer to furnish appropriate medical care (as defined in § 702.401(a)) for the employee's injury, and for such... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's duty to furnish; duration....

  20. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  1. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  2. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  3. 22 CFR 709.6 - Suspension duration criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension duration criteria. 709.6 Section 709.6 Foreign Relations OVERSEAS PRIVATE INVESTMENT CORPORATION ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS FOREIGN CORRUPT PRACTICES ACT OF 1977 § 709.6 Suspension duration criteria. Factors which the President...

  4. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... § 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the operations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.679 Section 19.679 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  5. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the operations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duration of permit. 19.679 Section 19.679 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU,...

  6. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the operations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of permit....

  7. 27 CFR 19.679 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use Obtaining A Permit § 19.679 Duration of permit. The proprietor of an alcohol fuel plant may conduct the operations... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of permit....

  8. The Effect of Student Aid on the Duration of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glocker, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    In this paper I evaluate the effect of student aid on the success of academic studies. I focus on two dimensions, the duration of study and the probability of actually graduating with a degree. To determine the impact of financial student aid, I estimate a discrete-time duration model allowing for competing risks to account for different exit…

  9. 7 CFR 1410.7 - Duration of contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of contracts. 1410.7 Section 1410.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS CONSERVATION RESERVE PROGRAM § 1410.7 Duration of contracts. (a) Except as provided...

  10. 49 CFR 543.8 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 543.8 Section 543.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 543.8 Duration...

  11. 49 CFR 543.8 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 543.8 Section 543.8 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTION FROM VEHICLE THEFT PREVENTION STANDARD § 543.8 Duration...

  12. 29 CFR 1919.5 - Duration and renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration and renewal of accreditation. 1919.5 Section 1919..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Procedure Governing Accreditation § 1919.5 Duration and renewal of accreditation. The period of accreditation shall not exceed three years. Applications...

  13. 29 CFR 1919.5 - Duration and renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration and renewal of accreditation. 1919.5 Section 1919..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Procedure Governing Accreditation § 1919.5 Duration and renewal of accreditation. The period of accreditation shall not exceed three years. Applications...

  14. 29 CFR 1919.5 - Duration and renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration and renewal of accreditation. 1919.5 Section 1919..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Procedure Governing Accreditation § 1919.5 Duration and renewal of accreditation. The period of accreditation shall not exceed three years. Applications...

  15. 29 CFR 1919.5 - Duration and renewal of accreditation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration and renewal of accreditation. 1919.5 Section 1919..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) GEAR CERTIFICATION Procedure Governing Accreditation § 1919.5 Duration and renewal of accreditation. The period of accreditation shall not exceed three years. Applications...

  16. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  17. 6 CFR 7.24 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 7.24 Section 7.24 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Classified Information § 7.24 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of...

  18. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  19. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  20. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  1. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  2. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  3. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  4. 49 CFR 385.117 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.117... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Mexico-Domiciled Carriers § 385.117 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each Mexico-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart will remain in...

  5. 49 CFR 385.715 - Duration of safety monitoring system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of safety monitoring system. 385.715... SAFETY FITNESS PROCEDURES Safety Monitoring System for Non-North American Carriers § 385.715 Duration of safety monitoring system. (a) Each non-North America-domiciled carrier subject to this subpart...

  6. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  7. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  8. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  9. 7 CFR 924.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 924.67 Section 924.67 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 924.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  10. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  11. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  12. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  13. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  14. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  15. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  16. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  17. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  18. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  19. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  20. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  1. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  2. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  3. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  4. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  5. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  6. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  7. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  8. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  9. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  10. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  11. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  12. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  13. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  14. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  15. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  16. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  17. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  18. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  19. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  20. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  1. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  2. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  3. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  4. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  5. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  6. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  7. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  8. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  9. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  10. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  11. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  12. 7 CFR 947.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 947.83 Section 947.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Miscellaneous Provisions § 947.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities...

  13. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  14. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  15. 7 CFR 915.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 915.67 Section 915.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 915.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  16. 7 CFR 983.85 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 983.85 Section 983.85..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Miscellaneous Provisions § 983.85 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  17. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  18. 7 CFR 985.69 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 985.69 Section 985.69 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING....69 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  19. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  20. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  1. 7 CFR 948.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 948.87 Section 948.87... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 948.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  2. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  3. 7 CFR 946.73 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 946.73 Section 946.73... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 946.73 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  4. 7 CFR 982.84 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 982.84 Section 982.84... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 982.84 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon...

  5. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  6. 7 CFR 927.72 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 927.72 Section 927.72... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 927.72 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon termination hereof,...

  7. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  8. 7 CFR 916.67 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 916.67 Section 916.67... Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 916.67 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this part shall cease upon its...

  9. 7 CFR 953.78 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 953.78 Section 953.78... SOUTHEASTERN STATES Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 953.78 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease...

  10. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  11. 7 CFR 945.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 945.86 Section 945.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 945.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  12. 7 CFR 930.86 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 930.86 Section 930.86 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 930.86 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and...

  13. 7 CFR 989.88 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 989.88 Section 989.88... GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 989.88 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this amended...

  14. 7 CFR 958.83 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 958.83 Section 958.83 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING... § 958.83 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person...

  15. 7 CFR 959.87 - Duration of immunities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of immunities. 959.87 Section 959.87... Regulating Handling Miscellaneous Provisions § 959.87 Duration of immunities. The benefits, privileges, and immunities conferred upon any person by virtue of this subpart shall cease upon the termination of...

  16. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  19. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  20. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  1. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  2. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...

  3. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  4. SEIZURE DURATION AND RELATED ISSUES IN ECT FOR ENDOGENOUS DEPRESSION

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    1993-01-01

    SUMMARY In a study comparing sinusoidal wave and brief-pulse ECT in endogenous depression, seizure duration was monitored by the cuff method in 29 patients over 180 treatment sessions. Mean seizure duration across all treatments was 26.5 secs, and the mean for individual patients across their ECT course ranged from a minimum of 15.7 secs to maximum of38.5 secs. Regression analysis found no variable which significantly predicted mean seizure duration. Of the 22 good responders in the study, response to ECT was associated with a mean seizure duration of secs in 1 patient, ando cs in 11 patients; as just 2 of 7poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of <20 secs in 1 patients, <25 secs in 11 patients, of the 22 good responders in the study; as just 2 of 7 poor responders to ECT had a mean seizure duration of <25 secs, it appears that a cuff seizure duration of over 20 secs may suffice for the seizure to be therapeutic in depression. With (constant current) brief pulse ECT, seizure threshold significantly increased with successive ECTs; thresholds did not however differ between the good and poor responders. There was a trend for seizure duration to decrease over time; again, good and poor responders did not differ. These findings provide little support for the anticonvulsant hypothesis for the antidepressant effect of ECT, but support the literature that ECT exerts an anticonvulsant effect. PMID:21776168

  5. Duration of Sleep and ADHD Tendency among Adolescents in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Lawrence T.; Yang, L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study investigates the association between duration of sleep and ADHD tendency among adolescents. Method: This population-based health survey uses a two-stage random cluster sampling design. Participants ages 13 to 17 are recruited from the total population of adolescents attending high school in one city of China. Duration of…

  6. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  7. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  8. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  9. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  10. 25 CFR 163.24 - Duration of timber contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Duration of timber contracts. 163.24 Section 163.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.24 Duration of timber contracts. After the effective date of...

  11. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  12. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  13. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  14. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  15. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  16. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  17. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  18. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  19. 42 CFR 61.13 - Duration and continuation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration and continuation. 61.13 Section 61.13 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Regular Fellowships § 61.13 Duration and continuation. An award period may be...

  20. 42 CFR 61.38 - Duration of service fellowships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Duration of service fellowships. 61.38 Section 61.38 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES FELLOWSHIPS, INTERNSHIPS, TRAINING FELLOWSHIPS Service Fellowships § 61.38 Duration of service fellowships....

  1. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  2. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  3. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  4. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  5. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  6. 5 CFR 843.303 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 843.303... Former Spouse Benefits § 843.303 Marriage duration requirements. (a) The current spouse of a retiree, an... marriage, as explained in paragraph (c) of this section; or (3) The death of the retiree, employee,...

  7. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  8. 5 CFR 831.642 - Marriage duration requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marriage duration requirements. 831.642... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Survivor Annuities Eligibility § 831.642 Marriage duration requirements. (a... in paragraph (b) of this section; or (2) A child was born of the marriage, as explained in...

  9. Correcting memory improves accuracy of predicted task duration.

    PubMed

    Roy, Michael M; Mitten, Scott T; Christenfeld, Nicholas J S

    2008-09-01

    People are often inaccurate in predicting task duration. The memory bias explanation holds that this error is due to people having incorrect memories of how long previous tasks have taken, and these biased memories cause biased predictions. Therefore, the authors examined the effect on increasing predictive accuracy of correcting memory through supplying feedback for actual task duration. For Experiments 1 (paper-counting task) and 2 (essay-writing task), college students were supplied with duration information about their previous performance on a similar task before predicting task duration. For Experiment 3, participants were recruited at various locations, such as fast food restaurants and video arcades, and supplied with average task duration for others before predicting how long the task would take. In all 3 experiments, supplying feedback increased predictive accuracy. Overall, results indicate that, when predicting duration, people do well when they rely not on memory of past task duration but instead on measures of actual duration, whether their own or that of others. PMID:18808280

  10. Internal Clock Processes and the Filled-Duration Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wearden, John H.; Norton, Roger; Martin, Simon; Montford-Bebb, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors compared duration judgments of filled stimuli (tones) with unfilled ones (intervals defined by clicks or gaps in tones). Temporal generalization procedures (Experiment 1) and verbal estimation procedures (Experiments 2 and 3) all showed that subjective durations of the tones were considerably longer than those of

  11. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  12. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child. 410.213...; Filing of Claims and Evidence § 410.213 Duration of entitlement; child. (a) An individual is entitled to benefits as a child for each month beginning with the first month in which all of the conditions...

  13. 32 CFR 552.93 - Permit deadline and duration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Permit deadline and duration. 552.93 Section 552.93 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Fort Lewis Land Use Policy § 552.93 Permit deadline and duration. (a) Permits...

  14. 10 CFR 430.57 - Duration of temporary exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of temporary exemption. 430.57 Section 430.57 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Small Business Exemptions § 430.57 Duration of temporary exemption. A temporary exemption terminates according...

  15. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of stipend. Stipends...

  16. 45 CFR 2400.53 - Duration of stipend.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of stipend. 2400.53 Section 2400.53 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Fellowship Stipend § 2400.53 Duration of stipend. Stipends...

  17. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  18. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  19. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  20. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary lodging may be furnished to eligible persons...

  1. Neuronal representation of duration discrimination in the monkey striatum

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Atsushi; Oshio, Ken-ichi; Inase, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Functional imaging and lesion studies in humans and animals suggest that the basal ganglia are crucial for temporal information processing. To elucidate neuronal mechanisms of interval timing in the basal ganglia, we recorded single-unit activity from the striatum of two monkeys while they performed a visual duration discrimination task. In the task, blue and red cues of different durations (0.2–2.0 sec) were successively presented. Each of the two cues was followed by a 1.0 sec delay period. The animals were instructed to choose the longer presented colored stimulus after the second delay period. A total of 498 phasically active neurons were recorded from the striatum, and 269 neurons were defined as task related. Two types of neuronal activity were distinguished during the delay periods. First, the activity gradually changed depending on the duration of the cue presented just before. This activity may represent the signal duration for later comparison between two cue durations. The activity during the second cue period also represented duration of the first cue. Second, the activity changed differently depending on whether the first or second cue was presented longer. This activity may represent discrimination results after the comparison between the two cue durations. These findings support the assumption that striatal neurons represent timing information of sensory signals for duration discrimination. PMID:25677545

  2. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Environmental and duration tests. 2.1509... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Environmental and Operational Test Procedures § 2.1509 Environmental and duration tests. The environmental and operational tests in § 2.1509 (a) through (e) are to...

  3. 47 CFR 2.1509 - Environmental and duration tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Environmental and duration tests. 2.1509... Position Indicating Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) Environmental and Operational Test Procedures § 2.1509 Environmental and duration tests. The environmental and operational tests in § 2.1509 (a) through (e) are to...

  4. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407 Section 1203.407 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) At the time of original classification, the...

  5. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 525.9 Duration...

  6. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 525.9 Duration...

  7. 49 CFR 525.9 - Duration of exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duration of exemption. 525.9 Section 525.9 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EXEMPTIONS FROM AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS 525.9 Duration of exemption. An exemption may be...

  8. Stimulus Duration Preference at Electrode Sites Yielding Elicited Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, V. C.

    1970-01-01

    The latency to display eating or drinking during hypothalamic stimulation was compared with the preferred duration of the same stimulus intensity in a self-stimulation situation. All the animals preferred longer stimulus durations than those required to elicit eating or drinking

  9. 38 CFR 60.7 - Duration of temporary lodging.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of temporary lodging. 60.7 Section 60.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) FISHER HOUSES AND OTHER TEMPORARY LODGING § 60.7 Duration of temporary lodging. Temporary...

  10. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  11. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  12. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  13. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  14. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  15. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  16. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  17. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  18. 10 CFR 52.55 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of certification. 52.55 Section 52.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.55 Duration of certification. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  19. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  20. 10 CFR 52.26 - Duration of permit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of permit. 52.26 Section 52.26 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.26 Duration of permit. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, an early...

  1. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  2. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  3. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  4. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  5. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  6. 10 CFR 52.33 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.33 Section 52.33 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Early Site Permits § 52.33 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of an early site permit may be for not less than 10,...

  7. 10 CFR 52.61 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.61 Section 52.61 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Standard Design Certifications § 52.61 Duration of renewal. Each renewal of certification for a standard...

  8. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  9. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  10. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  11. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  12. 40 CFR 85.2303 - Duration of model year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of model year. 85.2303... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Determination of Model Year for Motor Vehicles and... Duration of model year. A specific model year must always include January 1 of the calendar year for...

  13. 14 CFR 1203.407 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.407... PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.407 Duration of classification. (a) Information shall be... date or event for declassification shall be set by the original classification authority at the...

  14. 14 CFR 1203.702 - Duration of classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of classification. 1203.702 Section 1203.702 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Foreign Government Information § 1203.702 Duration of classification. Unless the guidelines...

  15. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  16. 40 CFR 166.45 - Duration of crisis exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duration of crisis exemption. 166.45... EXEMPTION OF FEDERAL AND STATE AGENCIES FOR USE OF PESTICIDES UNDER EMERGENCY CONDITIONS Crisis Exemptions § 166.45 Duration of crisis exemption. A crisis exemption may be authorized for: (a) Only as long as...

  17. 7 CFR 3434.7 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of certification. 3434.7 Section 3434.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.7 Duration...

  18. 7 CFR 3434.7 - Duration of certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of certification. 3434.7 Section 3434.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURE HISPANIC-SERVING AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES AND UNIVERSITIES CERTIFICATION PROCESS § 3434.7 Duration...

  19. 10 CFR 52.181 - Duration of renewal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of renewal. 52.181 Section 52.181 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Manufacturing Licenses § 52.181 Duration of renewal. A renewed manufacturing license may be issued for a term...

  20. 10 CFR 52.104 - Duration of combined license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of combined license. 52.104 Section 52.104 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS Combined Licenses § 52.104 Duration of combined license. A combined license is issued for a...