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1

Fine Mapping and Evolution of a QTL Region on Cattle Chromosome 3  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The goal of my dissertation was to fine map the milk yield and composition quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapped to cattle chromosome 3 (BTA3) by Heyen et al. (1999) and to identify candidate genes affecting these traits. To accomplish this, the region between "BL41" and "TGLA263" was mapped to the cattle genome sequence assembly Btau 3.1 and a…

Donthu, Ravikiran

2009-01-01

2

A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL),\\u000a searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density\\u000a is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily\\u000a map QTL for growth traits in

Chun Ming Wang; Zhi Yi Bai; Xiao Ping He; Grace Lin; Jun Hong Xia; Fei Sun; Loong Chueng Lo; Felicia Feng; Ze Yuan Zhu; Gen Hua Yue

2011-01-01

3

Fine mapping QTL for drought resistance traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.) using bulk segregant analysis.  

PubMed

Drought stress is a major limitation to rice (Oryza sativa L.) yields and its stability, especially in rainfed conditions. Developing rice cultivars with inherent capacity to withstand drought stress would improve rainfed rice production. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) linked to drought resistance traits will help to develop rice cultivars suitable for water-limited environments through molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS) strategy. However, QTL mapping is usually carried out by genotyping large number of progenies, which is labour-intensive, time-consuming and cost-ineffective. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) serves as an affordable strategy for mapping large effect QTLs by genotyping only the extreme phenotypes instead of the entire mapping population. We have previously mapped a QTL linked to leaf rolling and leaf drying in recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from two locally adapted indica rice ecotypes viz., IR20/Nootripathu using BSA. Fine mapping the QTL will facilitate its application in MAS. BSA was done by bulking DNA of 10 drought-resistant and 12 drought-sensitive RI lines. Out of 343 rice microsatellites markers genotyped, RM8085 co-segregated among the RI lines constituting the respective bulks. RM8085 was mapped in the middle of the QTL region on chromosome 1 previously identified in these RI lines thus reducing the QTL interval from 7.9 to 3.8 cM. Further, the study showed that the region, RM212-RM302-RM8085-RM3825 on chromosome 1, harbours large effect QTLs for drought-resistance traits across several genetic backgrounds in rice. Thus, the QTL may be useful for drought resistance improvement in rice through MAS and map-based cloning. PMID:21298364

Salunkhe, Arvindkumar Shivaji; Poornima, R; Prince, K Silvas Jebakumar; Kanagaraj, P; Sheeba, J Annie; Amudha, K; Suji, K K; Senthil, A; Babu, R Chandra

2011-09-01

4

Fine Mapping of a Seed Protein QTL on Soybean Linkage Group I and Its Correlated Effects on Agronomic Traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is primarily grown as a source of protein and oil. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling seed protein concentration was previously mapped to linkage group (LG) I of soybean. The objectives of this study were to fine map the QTL and to determine if additional recombination could reduce the inverse phenotypic relationship between seed protein

D. M. Nichols; K. D. Glover; S. R. Carlson; J. E. Specht; B. W. Diers

2006-01-01

5

A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer  

PubMed Central

Background High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily map QTL for growth traits in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Here, we report a high-resolution linkage map with 790 microsatellites and SNPs, comparative analysis of synteny, fine-mapping of QTL and the identification of potential candidate genes for growth traits. Results A second generation linkage map of Asian seabass was developed with 790 microsatellite and SNP markers. The map spanned a genetic length of 2411.5 cM, with an average intermarker distance of 3.4 cM or 1.1 Mb. This high density map allowed for comparison of the map with Tetraodon nigroviridis genome, which revealed 16 synteny regions between the two species. Moreover, by employing this map we refined QTL to regions of 1.4 and 0.2 cM (or 400 and 50 kb) in linkage groups 2 and 3 in a population containing 380 progeny; potential candidate genes for growth traits in QTL regions were further identified using comparative genome analysis, whose effects on growth traits were investigated. Interestingly, a QTL cluster at Lca371 underlying growth traits of Asian seabass showed similarity to the cathepsin D gene of human, which is related to cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Conclusions We constructed a high resolution linkage map, carried out comparative mapping, refined the positions of QTL, identified candidate genes for growth traits and analyzed their effects on growth. Our study developed a framework that will be indispensable for further identification of genes and analysis of molecular variation within the refined QTL to enhance understanding of the molecular basis of growth and speed up genetic improvement of growth performance, and it also provides critical resource for future genome sequence assembly and comparative genomics studies on the evolution of fish genomes.

2011-01-01

6

Confirmation and fine-mapping of clinical mastitis and somatic cell score QTL in Nordic Holstein cattle.  

PubMed

A genome-wide association study of 2098 progeny-tested Nordic Holstein bulls genotyped for 36 387 SNPs on 29 autosomes was conducted to confirm and fine-map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for mastitis traits identified earlier using linkage analysis with sparse microsatellite markers in the same population. We used linear mixed model analysis where a polygenic genetic effect was fitted as a random effect and single SNPs were successively included as fixed effects in the model. We detected 143 SNP-by-trait significant associations (P < 0.0001) on 20 chromosomes affecting mastitis-related traits. Among them, 21 SNP-by-trait combinations exceeded the genome-wide significant threshold. For 12 chromosomes, both the present association study and the previous linkage study detected QTL, and of these, six were in the same chromosomal locations. Strong associations of SNPs with mastitis traits were observed on bovine autosomes 6, 13, 14 and 20. Possible candidate genes for these QTL were identified. Identification of SNPs in linkage disequilibrium with QTL will enable marker-based selection for mastitis resistance. The candidate genes identified should be further studied to detect candidate polymorphisms underlying these QTL. PMID:23647142

Sahana, G; Guldbrandtsen, B; Thomsen, B; Lund, M S

2013-05-06

7

QTL Fine Mapping by Measuring and Testing for Hardy-Weinberg and Linkage Disequilibrium at a Series of Linked Marker Loci in Extreme Samples of Populations  

PubMed Central

It has recently been demonstrated that fine-scale mapping of a susceptibility locus for a complex disease can be accomplished on the basis of deviations from Hardy-Weinberg (HW) equilibrium at closely linked marker loci among affected individuals. We extend this theory to fine-scale localization of a quantitative-trait locus (QTL) from extreme individuals in populations, by means of HW and linkage-disequilibrium (LD) analyses. QTL mapping and/or linkage analyses can establish a large genomic region (?30 cM) that contains a QTL. The QTL can be fine mapped by examination of the degree of deviation from HW and LD at a series of closely linked marker loci. The tests can be performed for samples of individuals belonging to either high or low percentiles of the phenotype distribution or for combined samples of these extreme individuals. The statistical properties (the power and the size) of the tests of this fine-mapping approach are investigated and are compared extensively, under various genetic models and parameters for the QTL and marker loci. On the basis of the results, a two-stage procedure that uses extreme samples and different tests (for HW and LD) is suggested for QTL fine mapping. This two-step procedure is economic and powerful and can accurately narrow a genomic region containing a QTL from ?30–1 cM, a range that renders physical mapping feasible for identification of the QTL. In addition, the relationship between parameterizations of complex diseases, by means of penetrance, and those of complex quantitative traits, by means of genotypic values, is outlined. This means that many statistical genetic methods developed for searching for susceptibility loci of complex diseases can be directly adopted and/or extended to QTL mapping for quantitative traits.

Deng, Hong-Wen; Chen, Wei-Min; Recker, Robert R.

2000-01-01

8

Fine mapping a domestication-related QTL for spike-related traits in a synthetic wheat.  

PubMed

QTL analysis using a BC5F2:3 mapping population derived from a cross between Am3, a synthetic hexaploid wheat as a donor parent, and Laizhou953, a Chinese winter wheat cultivar as a recurrent parent, showed that variation at the microsatellite locus Xgwm113 on chromosome 4B was associated with variation in grain number per spike (GN), spike length (SL), and spikelet number per spike (SPI). The Qgn.caas-4B, Qsl.caas-4B, and Qspi.caas-4B were responsible for 16.6%-35.6%, 18.0%-32.3%, and 23.7%-25.9% of the phenotypic variation present in two environments, respectively. Segregation for GN fit a Mendelian monogenic ratio. A subpopulation consisting of 497 plants was used to map the QTL to a 1.2 cM interval between Xgwm113 and Xgwm857. The three spike traits, GN, SL, and SPI, were correlated and were thus probably under the pleiotropic control of the QTL. The Am3 allele had a reduction effect on all three spike traits. Evidence for positive selective history on SSR locus Xgwm113 was supported using Ewens-Watterson's statistic test on a germplasm panel of wild and landrace entries, suggesting that this genomic region may contain genes under selection during wheat domestication. PMID:20962886

Wang, Jin; Liao, Xiangzheng; Li, Yulian; Zhou, Ronghua; Yang, Xueju; Gao, Lifeng; Jia, Jizeng

2010-10-01

9

Fine mapping QMi-C11 a major QTL controlling root-knot nematodes resistance in Upland cotton.  

PubMed

The identification and utilization of a high-level of host plant resistance is the most effective and economical approach to control root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). In an earlier study, we identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for resistance to root-knot nematode in the M-120 RNR Upland cotton line (Gossypium hirsutum L.) of the Auburn 623 RNR source. The QTL is located in a 12.9-cM interval flanked by the two SSR markers CIR069 and CIR316 on the distal segment of chromosome 11. To construct a fine map around the target region, a bulked segregation analysis was performed using two DNA pools consisting of five individuals, with each being homozygous for the two parental alleles. From a survey of 1,152 AFLP primer combinations, 9 AFLP markers closely linked to the target region were identified. By screening an additional 1,221 F(2) individuals developed from the initial mapping population, the Mi-C11 locus was delimited to a 3.6-cM interval flanked by the SSR marker CIR069 and the AFLP marker E14M27-375. These results further elucidate the genetic fine structure of the Mi-C11 locus and provide the basis for map-based isolation of the nematode resistance gene in M-120 RNR. PMID:20680610

Shen, Xinlian; He, Yajun; Lubbers, Edward L; Davis, Richard F; Nichols, Robert L; Chee, Peng W

2010-08-01

10

Fine mapping of a malting-quality QTL complex near the chromosome 4H S telomere in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

Malting quality has long been an active objective in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, it is difficult for breeders to manipulate malting-quality traits because of inheritance complexity and difficulty in evaluation of these quantitative traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping provides breeders a promising basis with which to manipulate quantitative trait genes. A malting-quality QTL complex, QTL2, was

W. Gao; J. A. Clancy; F. Han; B. L. Jones; A. Budde; D. M. Wesenberg; A. Kleinhofs; S. E. Ullrich

2004-01-01

11

Confirmation and fine-mapping of a major QTL for resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): population-level associations between markers and trait  

PubMed Central

Background Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is one of the most prevalent and economically devastating diseases in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming worldwide. The disease causes large mortalities at both the fry- and post-smolt stages. Family selection for increased IPN resistance is performed through the use of controlled challenge tests, where survival rates of sib-groups are recorded. However, since challenge-tested animals cannot be used as breeding candidates, within-family selection is not performed and only half of the genetic variation for IPN resistance is being exploited. DNA markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting IPN resistance would therefore be a powerful selection tool. The aim of this study was to identify and fine-map QTL for IPN-resistance in Atlantic salmon, for use in marker-assisted selection to increase the rate of genetic improvement for this trait. Results A genome scan was carried out using 10 large full-sib families of challenge-tested Atlantic salmon post-smolts and microsatellite markers distributed across the genome. One major QTL for IPN-resistance was detected, explaining 29% and 83% of the phenotypic and genetic variances, respectively. This QTL mapped to the same location as a QTL recently detected in a Scottish Atlantic salmon population. The QTL was found to be segregating in 10 out of 20 mapping parents, and subsequent fine-mapping with additional markers narrowed the QTL peak to a 4 cM region on linkage group 21. Challenge-tested fry were used to show that the QTL had the same effect on fry as on post-smolt, with the confidence interval for QTL position in fry overlapping the confidence interval found in post-smolts. A total of 178 parents were tested for segregation of the QTL, identifying 72 QTL-heterozygous parents. Genotypes at QTL-heterozygous parents were used to determine linkage phases between alleles at the underlying DNA polymorphism and alleles at single markers or multi-marker haplotypes. One four-marker haplotype was found to be the best predictor of QTL alleles, and was successfully used to deduce genotypes of the underlying polymorphism in 72% of the parents of the next generation within a breeding nucleus. A highly significant population-level correlation was found between deduced alleles at the underlying polymorphism and survival of offspring groups in the fry challenge test, parents with the three deduced genotypes (QQ, Qq, qq) having mean offspring mortality rates of 0.13, 0.32, and 0.49, respectively. The frequency of the high-resistance allele (Q) in the population was estimated to be 0.30. Apart from this major QTL, one other experiment-wise significant QTL for IPN-resistance was detected, located on linkage group 4. Conclusion The QTL confirmed in this study represents a case of a major gene explaining the bulk of genetic variation for a presumed complex trait. QTL genotypes were deduced within most parents of the 2005 generation of a major breeding company, providing a solid framework for linkage-based MAS within the whole population in subsequent generations. Since haplotype-trait associations valid at the population level were found, there is also a potential for MAS based on linkage disequilibrium (LD). However, in order to use MAS across many generations without reassessment of linkage phases between markers and the underlying polymorphism, the QTL needs to be positioned with even greater accuracy. This will require higher marker densities than are currently available.

Moen, Thomas; Baranski, Matthew; Sonesson, Anna K; Kj?glum, Sissel

2009-01-01

12

Validation and fine mapping of a QTL for ovulation rate on swine chromosome 3  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ovulation rate (OR) is an important component of litter size. The causative mutation(s) in gene(s) underlying OR QTLs have yet to be identified in pigs. Markers within an OR QTL on SSC3 were genotyped in three white composite lines selected for 10 generations for increased OR, uterine capacity (UC)...

13

Human QTL Linkage Mapping  

PubMed Central

Human quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage mapping, although based on classical statistical genetic methods that have been around for many years, has been employed for genome-wide screening for only the last 10-15 years. In this time, there have been many success stories, ranging from QTLs that have been replicated in independent studies to those for which one or more genes underlying the linkage peak have been identified to a few with specific functional variants that have been confirmed in in vitro laboratory assays. Despite these successes, there is a general perception that linkage approaches do not work for complex traits, possibly because many human QTL linkage studies have been limited in sample size and have not employed the family configurations that maximize the power to detect linkage. We predict that human QTL linkage studies will continue to be productive for the next several years, particularly in combination with RNA expression level traits that are showing evidence of regulatory QTLs of large effect sizes and in combination with high-density genome-wide SNP panels. These SNP panels are being used to identify QTLs previously localized by linkage and linkage results are being used to place informative priors on genome-wide association studies.

Almasy, Laura; Blangero, John

2009-01-01

14

Fine mapping of qSB-11(LE), the QTL that confers partial resistance to rice sheath blight.  

PubMed

Sheath blight (SB), caused by Rhizoctonia solani kühn, is one of the most serious global rice diseases. No major resistance genes to SB have been identified so far. All discovered loci are quantitative resistance to rice SB. The qSB-11(LE) resistance quantitative trait locus (QTL) has been previously reported on chromosome 11 of Lemont (LE). In this study, we report the precise location of qSB-11 (LE) . We developed a near isogenic line, NIL-qSB11(TQ), by marker-assisted selection that contains susceptible allele(s) from Teqing (TQ) at the qSB-11 locus in the LE genetic background. NIL-qSB11(TQ) shows higher susceptibility to SB than LE in both field and greenhouse tests, suggesting that this region of LE contains a QTL contributing to SB resistance. In order to eliminate the genetic background effects and increase the accuracy of phenotypic evaluation, a total of 112 chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) with the substituted segment specific to the qSB-11 (LE) region were produced as the fine mapping population. The genetic backgrounds and morphological characteristics of these CSSLs are similar to those of the recurrent parent LE. The donor TQ chromosomal segments in these CSSL lines contiguously overlap to bridge the qSB-11 (LE) region. Through artificial inoculation, all CSSLs were evaluated for resistance to SB in the field in 2005. For the recombinant lines, their phenotypes were evaluated in the field for another 3 years and during the final year were also evaluated in a controlled greenhouse environment, showing a consistent phenotype in SB resistance across years and conditions. After comparing the genotypic profile of each CSSL with its phenotype, we are able to localize qSB-11 (LE) to the region defined by two cleaved-amplified polymorphic sequence markers, Z22-27C and Z23-33C covering 78.871 kb, based on the rice reference genome. Eleven putative genes were annotated within this region and three of them were considered the most likely candidates. The results of this study will greatly facilitate the cloning of the genes responsible for qSB-11 (LE) and marker-assisted breeding to incorporate qSB-11 (LE) into other rice cultivars. PMID:23423653

Zuo, Shimin; Yin, Yuejun; Pan, Cunhong; Chen, Zongxiang; Zhang, Yafang; Gu, Shiliang; Zhu, Lihuang; Pan, Xuebiao

2013-02-20

15

Validation and fine mapping of lyc12.1, a QTL for increased tomato fruit lycopene content.  

PubMed

Lycopene content is a key component of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit quality, and is a focus of many tomato-breeding programs. Two QTLs for increased fruit lycopene content, inherited from a high-lycopene S. pimpinellifolium accession, were previously detected on tomato chromosomes 7 and 12 using a S. lycopersicum × S. pimpinellifolium RIL population, and were identified as potential targets for marker-assisted selection and positional cloning. To validate the phenotypic effect of these two QTLs, a BC2 population was developed from a cross between a select RIL and the S. lycopersicum recurrent parent. The BC2 population was field-grown and evaluated for fruit lycopene content using HPLC. Statistical analyses revealed that while lyc7.1 did not significantly increase lycopene content in the heterozygous condition, individuals harboring lyc12.1 in the heterozygous condition contained 70.3 % higher lycopene than the recurrent parent. To eliminate the potential pleiotropic effect of fruit size and minimize the physical size of the lyc12.1 introgression, a marker-assisted backcross program was undertaken and produced a BC3S1 NIL population (n = 1,500) segregating for lyc12.1. Lycopene contents from lyc12.1 homozygous and heterozygous recombinants in this population were measured and lyc12.1 was localized to a 1.5 cM region. Furthermore, we determined that lyc12.1 was delimited to a ~1.5 Mb sequence of tomato chromosome 12, and provided some insight into potential candidate genes in the region. The derived sub-NILs will be useful for transferring of lyc12.1 to other tomato genetic backgrounds and for further fine-mapping and cloning of the QTL. PMID:23702514

Kinkade, Matthew P; Foolad, Majid R

2013-05-24

16

Fine-mapping of candidate region in Amish and Ashkenazi families confirms linkage of refractive error to a QTL on 1p34-p36  

PubMed Central

Purpose A previous genome-wide study in Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish pedigrees showed significant linkage of ocular refraction to a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) on 1p34-36.1. We carried out a fine-mapping study of this region in Orthodox Ashkenazi Jewish (ASHK) and Old Order Amish (OOA) families to confirm linkage and narrow the candidate region. Methods Families were recruited from ASHK and OOA American communities. The samples included: 402 individuals in 53 OOA families; and 596 members in 68 ASHK families. Families were ascertained to contain multiple myopic individuals. Genotyping of 1,367 SNPs was carried out within a 35cM (~23.9 Mb) candidate QTL region on 1p34-36. Multipoint variance components (VC) and regression-based (REG) linkage analyses were carried out separately in OOA and ASHK groups, and in a combined analysis that included all families. Results Evidence of linkage of refractive error was found in both OOA (VC LOD=3.45, REG LOD=3.38 at ~59 cM) and ASHK families (VC LOD=3.12, REG LOD=4.263 at ~66 cM). Combined analyses showed three highly significant linkage peaks, separated by ~11cM (or 10 Mb), within the candidate region. Conclusion In a fine-mapping linkage study of OOA and ASHK families, we have confirmed linkage of refractive error to a QTL on 1p. The area of linkage has been narrowed down to a gene-rich region at 1p34.2-35.1 containing ~124 genes.

Bailey-Wilson, Joan E.; Stambolian, Dwight

2009-01-01

17

Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Isogenic Recombinant Analysis: A Method for High-Resolution Mapping of QTL Within a Single Population  

PubMed Central

In the quest for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a subcentimorgan scale, several methods that involve the construction of inbred lines and the generation of large progenies of such inbred lines have been developed (Complex Trait Consortium 2003). Here we present an alternative method that significantly speeds up QTL fine mapping by using one segregating population. As a first step, a rough mapping analysis is performed on a small part of the population. Once the QTL have been mapped to a chromosomal interval by standard procedures, a large population of 1000 plants or more is analyzed with markers flanking the defined QTL to select QTL isogenic recombinants (QIRs). QIRs bear a recombination event in the QTL interval of interest, while other QTL have the same homozygous genotype. Only these QIRs are subsequently phenotyped to fine map the QTL. By focusing at an early stage on the informative individuals in the population only, the efforts in population genotyping and phenotyping are significantly reduced as compared to prior methods. The principles of this approach are demonstrated by fine mapping an erucic acid QTL of rapeseed at a subcentimorgan scale.

Peleman, Johan D.; Wye, Crispin; Zethof, Jan; S?rensen, Anker P.; Verbakel, Henk; van Oeveren, Jan; Gerats, Tom; van der Voort, Jeroen Rouppe

2005-01-01

18

Some ways to improve QTL mapping accuracy.  

PubMed

In this paper, we review some approaches for QTL mapping developed by our research group in collaboration with, following the recommendation of, or under inspiration of Moshe Soller. Specifically, we explain at a simple intuitive level the main principles and ideas of: (a) QTL mapping by fractioned DNA pooling, (b) increasing the detection power of QTL mapping (in the case of individual genotyping) by multiple-trait analysis, and (c) the role of variance-covariance effects in QTL mapping. On each of these themes we had long and deep discussions with Soller on the statistical aspects of the proposed procedures. We hope that together we made important contributions towards making QTL mapping procedures easier and more effective. PMID:22742501

Korol, Abraham; Frenkel, Zeev; Orion, Ori; Ronin, Yefim

2012-07-01

19

An Introgression Line Population of Lycopersicon Pennellii in the Cultivated Tomato Enables the Identification and Fine Mapping of Yield-Associated Qtl  

PubMed Central

Methodologies for mapping of genes underlying quantitative traits have advanced considerably but have not been accompanied by a parallel development of new population structures. We present a novel population consisting of 50 introgression lines (ILs) originating from a cross between the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii and the cultivated tomato (cv M82). Each of the lines contains a single homozygous restriction fragment length polymorphism-defined L. pennellii chromosome segment, and together the lines provide complete coverage of the genome and a set of lines nearly isogenic to M82. A field trial of the ILs and their hybrids revealed at least 23 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for total soluble solids content and 18 for fruit mass; these estimates are twice as high as previously reported estimates based on traditional mapping populations. For finer mapping of a QTL affecting fruit mass, the introgressed segment was recombined into smaller fragments that allowed the identification of three linked loci. At least 16 QTL for plant weight, 22 for percentage green fruit weight, 11 for total yield and 14 for total soluble solids yield were identified. Gene action for fruit and plant characteristics was mainly additive, while overdominance (or pseudo-overdominance) of wild species introgressions was detected for yield.

Eshed, Y.; Zamir, D.

1995-01-01

20

Data-driven assessment of eQTL mapping methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) is a potentially powerful way to detect transcriptional regulatory relationships at the genomic scale. However, eQTL data sets often go underexploited because legacy QTL methods are used to map the relationship between the expression trait and genotype. Often these methods are inappropriate for complex traits such as gene expression, particularly in

Jacob J Michaelson; Rudi Alberts; Klaus Schughart; Andreas Beyer

2010-01-01

21

Genetic analysis of root elongation induced by phosphorus deficiency in rice ( Oryza sativa L.): fine QTL mapping and multivariate analysis of related traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Root elongation induced by phosphorus deficiency has been reported as one of the adaptive mechanisms in plants. Genetic differences\\u000a were found in rice for the root elongation under phosphorus deficiency (REP), for which a distinct quantitative trait locus\\u000a (QTL) was detected on the long arm of chromosome 6. Subsequently, the effect and position of the QTL, designated as qREP-6, were

Akifumi Shimizu; Kenji Kato; Akiko Komatsu; Keiji Motomura; Hiroshi Ikehashi

2008-01-01

22

Educational Software for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This educational software was developed to aid teachers and students in their understanding of how the process of identifying the most likely quantitative trait loci (QTL) position is determined between two flanking DNA markers. The objective of the software that we developed was to: (1) show how a QTL is mapped to a position on a chromosome…

Helms, T. C.; Doetkott, C.

2007-01-01

23

A gene frequency model for QTL mapping using Bayesian inference  

PubMed Central

Background Information for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) comes from two sources: linkage disequilibrium (non-random association of allele states) and cosegregation (non-random association of allele origin). Information from LD can be captured by modeling conditional means and variances at the QTL given marker information. Similarly, information from cosegregation can be captured by modeling conditional covariances. Here, we consider a Bayesian model based on gene frequency (BGF) where both conditional means and variances are modeled as a function of the conditional gene frequencies at the QTL. The parameters in this model include these gene frequencies, additive effect of the QTL, its location, and the residual variance. Bayesian methodology was used to estimate these parameters. The priors used were: logit-normal for gene frequencies, normal for the additive effect, uniform for location, and inverse chi-square for the residual variance. Computer simulation was used to compare the power to detect and accuracy to map QTL by this method with those from least squares analysis using a regression model (LSR). Results To simplify the analysis, data from unrelated individuals in a purebred population were simulated, where only LD information contributes to map the QTL. LD was simulated in a chromosomal segment of 1 cM with one QTL by random mating in a population of size 500 for 1000 generations and in a population of size 100 for 50 generations. The comparison was studied under a range of conditions, which included SNP density of 0.1, 0.05 or 0.02 cM, sample size of 500 or 1000, and phenotypic variance explained by QTL of 2 or 5%. Both 1 and 2-SNP models were considered. Power to detect the QTL for the BGF, ranged from 0.4 to 0.99, and close or equal to the power of the regression using least squares (LSR). Precision to map QTL position of BGF, quantified by the mean absolute error, ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 cM for BGF, and was better than the precision of LSR, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 cM. Conclusions In conclusion given a high SNP density, the gene frequency model can be used to map QTL with considerable accuracy even within a 1 cM region.

2010-01-01

24

An Introgression Line Population of Lycopersicon pennellii in the Cultivated Tomato Enables the Identification and Fine Mapping of Yield-Associated QTL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methodologies for mapping of genes underlying quantitative traits have advanced considerably but have not been accompanied by a parallel development of new population structures. We present a novel population consisting of 50 introgression lines (ILs) originating from a cross between the green-fruited species Lycopersicon pennellii and the cultivated tomato (cv M82). Each of the lines contains a single homozygous restriction

Yuval Eshed; Dani Zamir

25

Controlling false positives in the mapping of epistatic QTL.  

PubMed

This study addresses the poorly explored issue of the control of false positive rate (FPR) in the mapping of pair-wise epistatic quantitative trait loci (QTL). A nested test framework was developed to (1) allow pre-identified QTL to be used directly to detect epistasis in one-dimensional genome scans, (2) to detect novel epistatic QTL pairs in two-dimensional genome scans and (3) to derive genome-wide thresholds through permutation and handle multiple testing. We used large-scale simulations to evaluate the performance of both the one- and two-dimensional approaches in mapping different forms and levels of epistasis and to generate profiles of FPR, power and accuracy to inform epistasis mapping studies. We showed that the nested test framework and genome-wide thresholds were essential to control FPR at the 5% level. The one-dimensional approach was generally more powerful than the two-dimensional approach in detecting QTL-associated epistasis and identified nearly all epistatic pairs detected from the two-dimensional approach. However, only the two-dimensional approach could detect epistatic QTL with weak main effects. Combining the two approaches allowed effective mapping of different forms of epistasis, whereas using the nested test framework kept the FPR under control. This approach provides a good search engine for high-throughput epistasis analyses. PMID:19789566

Wei, W-H; Knott, S; Haley, C S; de Koning, D-J

2009-09-30

26

QTL mapping of stalk bending strength in a recombinant inbred line maize population.  

PubMed

Stalk bending strength (SBS) is a reliable indicator for evaluating stalk lodging resistance of maize plants. Based on biomechanical considerations, the maximum load exerted to breaking (F max), the breaking moment (M max) and critical stress (? max) are three important parameters to characterize SBS. We investigated the genetic architecture of SBS by phenotyping F max, M max and ? max of the fourth internode of maize plants in a population of 216 recombinant inbred lines derived from the cross B73 × Ce03005 evaluated in four environments. Heritability of F max, M max and ? max was 0.81, 0.79 and 0.75, respectively. F max and ? max were positively correlated with several other stalk characters. By using a linkage map with 129 SSR markers, we detected two, three and two quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining 22.4, 26.1 and 17.2 % of the genotypic variance for F max, M max and ? max, respectively. The QTL for F max, M max and ? max located in adjacent bins 5.02 and 5.03 as well as in bin 10.04 for F max were detected with high frequencies in cross-validation. As our QTL mapping results suggested a complex polygenic inheritance for SBS-related traits, we also evaluated the prediction accuracy of two genomic prediction methods (GBLUP and BayesB). In general, we found that both explained considerably higher proportions of the genetic variance than the values obtained in QTL mapping with cross-validation. Nevertheless, the identified QTL regions could be used as a starting point for fine mapping and gene cloning. PMID:23737073

Hu, Haixiao; Liu, Wenxin; Fu, Zhiyi; Homann, Linda; Technow, Frank; Wang, Hongwu; Song, Chengliang; Li, Shitu; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Chen, Shaojiang

2013-06-05

27

Construction of genetic linkage map and mapping of QTL for seed color in Brassica rapa.  

PubMed

A genetic linkage map of Brassica rapa L. was constructed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between yellow-seeded cultivar Sampad and a yellowish brown seeded inbred line 3-0026.027. The RILs were evaluated for seed color under three conditions: field plot, greenhouse, and controlled growth chambers. Variation for seed color in the RILs ranged from yellow, like yellow sarson, to dark brown/black even though neither parent had shown brown/black colored seeds. One major QTL (SCA9-2) and one minor QTL (SCA9-1) on linkage group (LG) A9 and two minor QTL (SCA3-1, SCA5-1) on LG A3 and LG A5, respectively, were detected. These collectively explained about 67% of the total phenotypic variance. SCA9-2 mapped in the middle of LG A9, explained about 55% phenotypic variance, and consistently expressed in all environments. The second QTL on LG A9 was ~70 cM away from SCA9-2, suggesting that independent assortment of these QTLs is possible. A digenic epistatic interaction was found between the two main effect QTL on LG A9; and the epistasis × environment interaction was nonsignificant, suggesting stability of the interaction across the environments. The QTL effect on LG A9 was validated using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from the two QTL regions of this LG on a B(1)S(1) population (F(1) backcrossed to Sampad followed by self-pollination) segregating for brown and yellow seed color, and on their self-pollinated progenies (B(1)S(2)). The SSR markers from the QTL region SCA9-2 showed a stronger linkage association with seed color as compared with the marker from SCA9-1. This suggests that the QTL SCA9-2 is the major determinant of seed color in the A genome of B. rapa. PMID:23231600

Kebede, Berisso; Cheema, Kuljit; Greenshields, David L; Li, Changxi; Selvaraj, Gopalan; Rahman, Habibur

2012-11-15

28

FastMap: Fast eQTL mapping in homozygous populations  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Gene expression Quantitative Trait Locus (eQTL) mapping measures the association between transcript expression and genotype in order to find genomic locations likely to regulate transcript expression. The availability of both gene expression and high-density genotype data has improved our ability to perform eQTL mapping in inbred mouse and other homozygous populations. However, existing eQTL mapping software does not scale well when the number of transcripts and markers are on the order of 105 and 105–106, respectively. Results: We propose a new method, FastMap, for fast and efficient eQTL mapping in homozygous inbred populations with binary allele calls. FastMap exploits the discrete nature and structure of the measured single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). In particular, SNPs are organized into a Hamming distance-based tree that minimizes the number of arithmetic operations required to calculate the association of a SNP by making use of the association of its parent SNP in the tree. FastMap's tree can be used to perform both single marker mapping and haplotype association mapping over an m-SNP window. These performance enhancements also permit permutation-based significance testing. Availability: The FastMap program and source code are available at the website: http://cebc.unc.edu/fastmap86.html Contact: iir@unc.edu; nobel@email.unc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Gatti, Daniel M.; Shabalin, Andrey A.; Lam, Tieu-Chong; Wright, Fred A.; Rusyn, Ivan; Nobel, Andrew B.

2009-01-01

29

Region-based and pathway-based QTL mapping using a p-value combination method  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using deep DNA sequencing data is a challenging task. In this study we performed region-based and pathway-based QTL mappings using a p-value combination method to analyze the simulated quantitative traits Q1 and Q4 and the exome sequencing data. The aims were to evaluate the performance of the QTL mapping approaches that were used and to suggest plausible strategies for QTL mapping of DNA sequencing data. We conducted single-locus QTL mappings using a linear regression model with adjustments for age and smoking status, and we also conducted region-based and pathway-based QTL mappings using a truncated product method for combining p-values from the single-locus QTL mapping. To account for the features of rare variants and common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we considered independently rare-variant-only, common-SNP-only, and combined analyses. An analysis of 200 simulated replications showed that the three region-based methods reasonably controlled type I error, whereas the combined analysis yielded the greatest statistical power. Rare-variant-only, common-SNP-only, and combined analyses were also applied to pathway-based QTL mappings. We found that pathway-based QTL mappings had a power of approximately 100% when the significance of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway was evaluated, but type I errors were slightly inflated. Our approach complements single-locus QTL mapping. An integrated approach using single-locus, combined region-based, and combined pathway-based analyses should yield promising results for QTL mapping of DNA sequencing data.

2011-01-01

30

Fine Mapping and Identification of Candidate Pulmonary Adenoma Susceptibility 1 Genes Using Advanced Intercross Lines1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we used newly developed F11 generation mouse advanced intercross lines (AIL) to fine map Pas1-3 quantitative trait loci (QTL). The (A\\/J C57BL\\/6) F11 AIL mouse population was created by crossing lung tumor-resistant C57BL\\/6 mice with lung tumor-susceptible A\\/J mice. By selectively genotyping 30% of the population, we have confirmed the Pas1 QTL and narrowed it to

Min Wang; William J. Lemon; Gongjie Liu; Yian Wang; Fuad A. Iraqi; Alvin M. Malkinson; Ming You

2003-01-01

31

Multi-QTL Mapping for Quantitative Traits Using Epistatic Distorted Markers  

PubMed Central

The interaction between segregation distortion loci (SDL) has been often observed in all kinds of mapping populations. However, little has been known about the effect of epistatic SDL on quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Here we proposed a multi-QTL mapping approach using epistatic distorted markers. Using the corrected linkage groups, epistatic SDL was identified. Then, these SDL parameters were used to correct the conditional probabilities of QTL genotypes, and these corrections were further incorporated into the new QTL mapping approach. Finally, a set of simulated datasets and a real data in 304 mouse F2 individuals were used to validate the new method. As compared with the old method, the new one corrects genetic distance between distorted markers, and considers epistasis between two linked SDL. As a result, the power in the detection of QTL is higher for the new method than for the old one, and significant differences for estimates of QTL parameters between the two methods were observed, except for QTL position. Among two QTL for mouse weight, one significant difference for QTL additive effect between the above two methods was observed, because epistatic SDL between markers C66 and T93 exists (P?=?2.94e-4).

Xie, Shang-Qian; Wen, Jia; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

2013-01-01

32

QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).  

PubMed

A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F(2) population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F(3) plants obtained by selfing of F(2) plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter. The mean disease indexes of the F(3) plants were used for the phenotype of the F(2). The results of two CR tests were analyzed for the presence of QTL. A linkage map was constructed using AFLP and SSR markers; it spanned 554 cM and contained 18 linkage groups. A CR locus was observed in the top region of linkage group 1 in two tests. Therefore, the present results suggest that a large part of radish CR is controlled by a single gene or closely linked genes in this radish population, although minor effects of other genomic areas cannot be ruled out. The CR locus was named Crs1. Markers linked to Crs1 showed sequence homology to the genomic region of the top of chromosome 3 of Arabidopsis, as in the case of Crr3, a CR locus in Brassica rapa. These markers should be useful for breeding CR cultivars of radish. As Japanese radishes are known to be highly resistant or immune to clubroot, these markers may also be useful in the introgression of this CR gene to Brassica crops. PMID:20012934

Kamei, Akito; Tsuro, Masato; Kubo, Nakao; Hayashi, Takeshi; Wang, Ning; Fujimura, Tatsuhito; Hirai, Masashi

2009-12-15

33

DETAILED MAPPING OF THE PORCINE CHROMOSOME X REGION HARBOURING QTL FOR FAT DEPOSITION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The QTL affecting fat deposition on SSCX is well documented in Meishan x Western breed pedigrees. In two German Meishan derived families the QTL has been more pronounced in Wild Boar x Meishan (WxM, n = 335) than in Meishan x Piétrain (MxP, n = 316) pedigree and mapped between microsatellites SW259 ...

34

QTL mapping of flowering and fruiting traits in olive.  

PubMed

One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between 'Olivière' and 'Arbequina' cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either 'ON' or 'OFF' for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from 'Arbequina'. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs. PMID:23690957

Ben Sadok, Inès; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-05-17

35

QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive  

PubMed Central

One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs.

Sadok, Ines Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

2013-01-01

36

Multiple QTL mapping in related plant populations via a pedigree-analysis approach.  

PubMed

QTL mapping experiments in plant breeding may involve multiple populations or pedigrees that are related through their ancestors. These known relationships have often been ignored for the sake of statistical analysis, despite their potential increase in power of mapping. We describe here a Bayesian method for QTL mapping in complex plant populations and reported the results from its application to a (previously analysed) potato data set. This Bayesian method was originally developed for human genetics data, and we have proved that it is useful for complex plant populations as well, based on a sensitivity analysis that was performed here. The method accommodates robustness to complex structures in pedigree data, full flexibility in the estimation of the number of QTL across multiple chromosomes, thereby accounting for uncertainties in the transmission of QTL and marker alleles due to incomplete marker information, and the simultaneous inclusion of non-genetic factors affecting the quantitative trait. PMID:12582634

Bink, M.; Uimari, P.; Sillanpää, J.; Janss, G.; Jansen, C.

2002-03-01

37

Multitrait fine mapping of quantitative trait loci using combined linkage disequilibria and linkage analysis.  

PubMed Central

A novel multitrait fine-mapping method is presented. The method is implemented by a model that treats QTL effects as random variables. The covariance matrix of allelic effects is proportional to the IBD matrix, where each element is the probability that a pair of alleles is identical by descent, given marker information and QTL position. These probabilities are calculated on the basis of similarities of marker haplotypes of individuals of the first generation of genotyped individuals, using "gene dropping" (linkage disequilibrium) and transmission of markers from genotyped parents to genotyped offspring (linkage). A small simulation study based on a granddaughter design was carried out to illustrate that the method provides accurate estimates of QTL position. Results from the simulation also indicate that it is possible to distinguish between a model postulating one pleiotropic QTL affecting two traits vs. one postulating two closely linked loci, each affecting one of the traits.

Lund, M S; S?rensen, P; Guldbrandtsen, B; Sorensen, D A

2003-01-01

38

Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci for improved fruit characteristics from Lycopersicon chmielewskii chromosome 1.  

PubMed

The near-isogenic line (NIL) TA1150 contains a 56-cM introgression from Lycopersicon chmielewskii chromosome 1 and has several interesting phenotypic characteristics including fruit with orange color, high levels of soluble solids, thick pericarp, small stem scars, and good firmness. A set of overlapping recombinant lines (subNILs) was developed and field tested to fine map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling these traits. The results indicated that the solids, pericarp thickness, and firmness QTL are distinct from the color locus. Several of the QTL mapped in this study, including the soluble-solids QTL, probably correspond to QTL mapped in other wild species of tomato. However, analysis of a set of TA523 subNILs containing complementary introgressions from Lycopesicon hirsutum chromosome 1 suggests that this wild species may contain a different locus for improved soluble solids. Thus, it might be possible to combine the L. chmielewskii and L. hirsutum alleles for these loci in a single line with the potential for extremely highly soluble solids. The TA1150 subNIL TA1688 contains the smallest introgression of the solids locus (approximately 19 cM), as well as the pericarp thickness and firmness QTL, with a yield that was equivalent to two of the three control lines. Isolation of recombinant subNILs from TA1688 should break the linkage between orange color and high solids and provide a small introgressed segment for marker-assisted breeding and genetic improvement of processing tomato. PMID:12723039

Frary, A; Doganlar, S; Frampton, A; Fulton, T; Uhlig, J; Yates, H; Tanksley, S

2003-04-01

39

Composite statistics for QTL mapping with moderately discordant sibling pairs.  

PubMed Central

Extreme discordant sibling-pair (EDSP) designs have been shown in theory to be very powerful for mapping quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) in humans. However, their practical applicability has been somewhat limited by the need to phenotype very large populations to find enough pairs that are extremely discordant. In this paper, we demonstrate that there is also substantial power in pairs that are only moderately discordant, and that designs using moderately discordant pairs can yield a more practical balance between phenotyping and genotyping efforts. The power we demonstrate for moderately discordant pairs stems from a new statistical result. Statistical analysis in discordant-pair studies is generally done by testing for reduced identity by descent (IBD) sharing in the pairs. By contrast, the most commonly-used statistical methods for more standard QTL mapping are Haseman-Elston regression and variance-components analysis. Both of these use statistics that are functions of the trait values given IBD information for the pedigree. We show that IBD sharing statistics and "trait value given IBD" statistics contribute complementary rather than redundant information, and thus that statistics of the two types can be combined to form more powerful tests of linkage. We propose a simple composite statistic, and test it with simulation studies. The simulation results show that our composite statistic increases power only minimally for extremely discordant pairs. However, it boosts the power of moderately discordant pairs substantially and makes them a very practical alternative. Our composite statistic is straightforward to calculate with existing software; we give a practical example of its use by applying it to a Genetic Analysis Workshop (GAW) data set.

Forrest, W F; Feingold, E

2000-01-01

40

Short-Term Selective Breeding as a Tool for QTL Mapping: Ethanol Preference Drinking in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-term selective breeding starting from an F2 intercross of two inbred strains is a largely unexploited but potentially useful tool for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. The selection lines can also serve as a valuable confirmation test of recornbinant inbred (RI) QTL results when the same two progenitor strains are used. Starting from an F2 from a C57BL\\/6J (B6) ×

J. K. Belknap; S. P. Richards; L. A. O'Toole; M. L. Helms; T. J. Phillips

1997-01-01

41

Saturation mapping of QTL regions and identification of putative candidate genes for drought tolerance in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed 85 new markers (50 RFLPs, 5 SSRs, 12 DD cDNAs, 9 ESTs, 8 HSP-encoding cDNAs and one BSA-derived AFLP marker) for saturation mapping of QTL regions for drought tolerance in rice, in our efforts to identify putative candidate genes. Thirteen of the markers were localized in the close vicinity of the targeted QTL regions. Fifteen of the

T. T. T. Nguyen; N. Klueva; V. Chamareck; A. Aarti; G. Magpantay; A. C. M. Millena; M. S. Pathan; H. T. Nguyen

2004-01-01

42

Genomic breeding value prediction and QTL mapping of QTLMAS2011 data using Bayesian and GBLUP methods  

PubMed Central

Background The goal of this study was to apply Bayesian and GBLUP methods to predict genomic breeding values (GEBV), map QTL positions and explore the genetic architecture of the trait simulated for the 15th QTL-MAS workshop. Methods Three methods with models considering dominance and epistasis inheritances were used to fit the data: (i) BayesB with a proportion ? = 0.995 of SNPs assumed to have no effect, (ii) BayesC?, where ? is considered as unknown, and (iii) GBLUP, which directly fits animal genetic effects using a genomic relationship matrix. Results BayesB, BayesC? and GBLUP with various fitted models detected 6, 5, and 4 out of 8 simulated QTL, respectively. All five additive QTL were detected by Bayesian methods. When two QTL were in either coupling or repulsion phase, GBLUP only detected one of them and missed the other. In addition, GBLUP yielded more false positives. One imprinted QTL was detected by BayesB and GBLUP despite that only additive gene action was assumed. This QTL was missed by BayesC?. None of the methods found two simulated additive-by-additive epistatic QTL. Variance components estimation correctly detected no evidence for dominance gene-action. Bayesian methods predicted additive genetic merit more accurately than GBLUP, and similar accuracies were observed between BayesB and BayesC?. Conclusions Bayesian methods and GBLUP mapped QTL to similar chromosome regions but Bayesian methods gave fewer false positives. Bayesian methods can be superior to GBLUP in GEBV prediction when genomic architecture is unknown.

2012-01-01

43

High-density genotyping: an overkill for QTL mapping? Lessons learned from a case study in maize and simulations.  

PubMed

High-density genotyping is extensively exploited in genome-wide association mapping studies and genomic selection in maize. By contrast, linkage mapping studies were until now mostly based on low-density genetic maps and theoretical results suggested this to be sufficient. This raises the question, if an increase in marker density would be an overkill for linkage mapping in biparental populations, or if important QTL mapping parameters would benefit from it. In this study, we addressed this question using experimental data and a simulation based on linkage maps with marker densities of 1, 2, and 5 cM. QTL mapping was performed for six diverse traits in a biparental population with 204 doubled haploid maize lines and in a simulation study with varying QTL effects and closely linked QTL for different population sizes. Our results showed that high-density maps neither improved the QTL detection power nor the predictive power for the proportion of explained genotypic variance. By contrast, the precision of QTL localization, the precision of effect estimates of detected QTL, especially for small and medium sized QTL, as well as the power to resolve closely linked QTL profited from an increase in marker density from 5 to 1 cM. In conclusion, the higher costs for high-density genotyping are compensated for by more precise estimates of parameters relevant for knowledge-based breeding, thus making an increase in marker density for linkage mapping attractive. PMID:23860723

Stange, Michael; Utz, H Friedrich; Schrag, Tobias A; Melchinger, Albrecht E; Würschum, Tobias

2013-07-17

44

Linkage Analysis and QTL Mapping Using SNP Dosage Data in a Tetraploid Potato Mapping Population  

PubMed Central

New sequencing and genotyping technologies have enabled researchers to generate high density SNP genotype data for mapping populations. In polyploid species, SNP data usually contain a new type of information, the allele dosage, which is not used by current methodologies for linkage analysis and QTL mapping. Here we extend existing methodology to use dosage data on SNPs in an autotetraploid mapping population. The SNP dosages are inferred from allele intensity ratios using normal mixture models. The steps of the linkage analysis (testing for distorted segregation, clustering SNPs, calculation of recombination fractions and LOD scores, ordering of SNPs and inference of parental phase) are extended to use the dosage information. For QTL analysis, the probability of each possible offspring genotype is inferred at a grid of locations along the chromosome from the ordered parental genotypes and phases and the offspring dosages. A normal mixture model is then used to relate trait values to the offspring genotypes and to identify the most likely locations for QTLs. These methods are applied to analyse a tetraploid potato mapping population of parents and 190 offspring, genotyped using an Infinium 8300 Potato SNP Array. Linkage maps for each of the 12 chromosomes are constructed. The allele intensity ratios are mapped as quantitative traits to check that their position and phase agrees with that of the corresponding SNP. This analysis confirms most SNP positions, and eliminates some problem SNPs to give high-density maps for each chromosome, with between 74 and 152 SNPs mapped and between 100 and 300 further SNPs allocated to approximate bins. Low numbers of double reduction products were detected. Overall 3839 of the 5378 polymorphic SNPs can be assigned putative genetic locations. This methodology can be applied to construct high-density linkage maps in any autotetraploid species, and could also be extended to higher autopolyploids.

Hackett, Christine A.; McLean, Karen; Bryan, Glenn J.

2013-01-01

45

Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Mapping Reveals a Role for Unstudied Genes in Aspergillus Virulence  

PubMed Central

Infections caused by the fungus Aspergillus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. To identify genes required for virulence that could be used as targets for novel treatments, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting virulence in the progeny of a cross between two strains of A. nidulans (FGSC strains A4 and A91). We genotyped 61 progeny at 739 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) spread throughout the genome, and constructed a linkage map that was largely consistent with the genomic sequence, with the exception of one potential inversion of ?527 kb on Chromosome V. The estimated genome size was 3705 cM and the average intermarker spacing was 5.0 cM. The average ratio of physical distance to genetic distance was 8.1 kb/cM, which is similar to previous estimates, and variation in recombination rate was significantly positively correlated with GC content, a pattern seen in other taxa. To map QTL affecting virulence, we measured the ability of each progeny strain to kill model hosts, larvae of the wax moth Galleria mellonella. We detected three QTL affecting in vivo virulence that were distinct from QTL affecting in vitro growth, and mapped the virulence QTL to regions containing 7–24 genes, excluding genes with no sequence variation between the parental strains and genes with only synonymous SNPs. None of the genes in our QTL target regions have been previously associated with virulence in Aspergillus, and almost half of these genes are currently annotated as “hypothetical”. This study is the first to map QTL affecting the virulence of a fungal pathogen in an animal host, and our results illustrate the power of this approach to identify a short list of unknown genes for further investigation.

Christians, Julian K.; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Vergara, Ismael A.; Watt, Cortney A.; Pinto, Linda J.; Chen, Nansheng; Moore, Margo M.

2011-01-01

46

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep.  

PubMed

An (Awassi x Merino) x Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine ovine lactation curve characteristics. Derived milk traits for milk, fat, protein and lactose yield, as well as percentage composition and somatic cell score were used for single and two-QTL approaches using maximum likelihood estimation and regression analysis. A total of 15 significant (P < 0.01) and additional 25 suggestive (P < 0.05) QTL were detected across both single QTL methods and all traits. In preparation of a meta-analysis, all QTL results were compared with a meta-assembly of QTL for milk production traits in dairy ewes from various public domain sources and can be found on the ReproGen ovine gbrowser http://crcidp.vetsci.usyd.edu.au/cgi-bin/gbrowse/oaries_genome/. Many of the QTL for milk production traits have been reported on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 16 and 20. Those on chromosomes 3 and 20 are in strong agreement with the results reported here. In addition, novel QTL were found on chromosomes 7, 8, 9, 14, 22 and 24. In a cross-species comparison, we extended the meta-assembly by comparing QTL regions of sheep and cattle, which provided strong evidence for synteny conservation of QTL regions for milk, fat, protein and somatic cell score data between cattle and sheep. PMID:19849860

Raadsma, Herman W; Jonas, Elisabeth; McGill, David; Hobbs, Matthew; Lam, Mary K; Thomson, Peter C

2009-10-22

47

R/qtlbim: QTL with Bayesian Interval Mapping in experimental crosses.  

PubMed

R/qtlbim is an extensible, interactive environment for the Bayesian Interval Mapping of QTL, built on top of R/qtl (Broman et al., 2003), providing Bayesian analysis of multiple interacting quantitative trait loci (QTL) models for continuous, binary and ordinal traits in experimental crosses. It includes several efficient Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithms for evaluating the posterior of genetic architectures, i.e. the number and locations of QTL, their main and epistatic effects and gene-environment interactions. R/qtlbim provides extensive informative graphical and numerical summaries, and model selection and convergence diagnostics of the MCMC output, illustrated through the vignette, example and demo capabilities of R (R Development Core Team 2006). Availability: The package is freely available from cran.r-project.org. PMID:17237038

Yandell, Brian S; Mehta, Tapan; Banerjee, Samprit; Shriner, Daniel; Venkataraman, Ramprasad; Moon, Jee Young; Neely, W Whipple; Wu, Hao; von Smith, Randy; Yi, Nengjun

2007-01-19

48

Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Influencing Wood Property Traits in Loblolly Pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and Candidate Gene Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects,

Garth R. Brown; Daniel L. Bassoni; Geoffrey P. Gill; Joseph R. Fontana; Nicholas C. Wheeler; Robert A. Megraw; Mark F. Davis; Mitchell M. Sewell; Gerald A. Tuskan; David B. Neale

49

In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains  

PubMed Central

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies.

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

2011-01-01

50

In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains.  

PubMed

Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M; Hawthorne, Paula L; Zapala, Matthew A; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J; Anderson, Gregory J; Vulpe, Chris D

2010-11-09

51

Combining mouse mammary gland gene expression and comparative mapping for the identification of candidate genes for QTL of milk production traits in cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Many studies have found segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) for milk production traits in different dairy cattle populations. However, even for relatively large effects with a saturated marker map the confidence interval for QTL location by linkage analysis spans tens of map units, or hundreds of genes. Combining mapping and arraying has been suggested as an approach to identify candidate genes. Thus, gene expression analysis in the mammary gland of genes positioned in the confidence interval of the QTL can bridge the gap between fine mapping and quantitative trait nucleotide (QTN) determination. Results We hybridized Affymetrix microarray (MG-U74v2), containing 12,488 murine probes, with RNA derived from mammary gland of virgin, pregnant, lactating and involuting C57BL/6J mice in a total of nine biological replicates. We combined microarray data from two additional studies that used the same design in mice with a total of 75 biological replicates. The same filtering and normalization was applied to each microarray data using GeneSpring software. Analysis of variance identified 249 differentially expressed probe sets common to the three experiments along the four developmental stages of puberty, pregnancy, lactation and involution. 212 genes were assigned to their bovine map positions through comparative mapping, and thus form a list of candidate genes for previously identified QTLs for milk production traits. A total of 82 of the genes showed mammary gland-specific expression with at least 3-fold expression over the median representing all tissues tested in GeneAtlas. Conclusion This work presents a web tool for candidate genes for QTL (cgQTL) that allows navigation between the map of bovine milk production QTL, potential candidate genes and their level of expression in mammary gland arrays and in GeneAtlas. Three out of four confirmed genes that affect QTL in livestock (ABCG2, DGAT1, GDF8, IGF2) were over expressed in the target organ. Thus, cgQTL can be used to determine priority of candidate genes for QTN analysis based on differential expression in the target organ.

Ron, Micha; Israeli, Galit; Seroussi, Eyal; Weller, Joel I; Gregg, Jeffrey P; Shani, Moshe; Medrano, Juan F

2007-01-01

52

QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F2 population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F3 plants obtained by selfing of F2 plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter.\\u000a The mean disease indexes

Akito Kamei; Masato Tsuro; Nakao Kubo; Takeshi Hayashi; Ning Wang; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Masashi Hirai

2010-01-01

53

Mapping two major effect grain dormancy QTL in rice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intrachromosomal positions of the two grain dormancy quantitative trait loci (QTL) qSdn-1 (chromosome 1) and qSdn-5 (chromosome 5) were obtained from the segregation analysis of the advanced backcross populations derived from the cross between\\u000a rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars N22 (indica) and Nanjing35 (japonica). Marker-assisted selection (MAS) was applied to select derivatives carrying one or both of qSdn-1 and

Bingyue Lu; Kun Xie; Chunyan Yang; Songfeng Wang; Xi Liu; Long Zhang; Ling Jiang; Jianmin Wan

54

Fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for twinning rate using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel and robust method for the fine-scale mapping of genes affecting complex traits, which combines linkage and linkage-disequilibrium information, is proposed. Linkage information refers to recombinations within the marker-genotyped generations and linkage disequilibrium to historical recombinations before genotyping started. The identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities at the quantitative trait locus (QTL) between first generation haplotypes were obtained from the similarity of

Theo H. E. Meuwissen; Astrid Karlsen; Sigbjørn Lien; Ingrid Olsaker; Mike E. Goddard

2002-01-01

55

Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in sheep. III. QTL for carcass composition traits derived from CT scans and aligned with a meta-assembly for sheep and cattle carcass QTL  

PubMed Central

An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino single-sire backcross family with 165 male offspring was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body composition traits on a framework map of 189 microsatellite loci across all autosomes. Two cohorts were created from the experimental progeny to represent alternative maturity classes for body composition assessment. Animals were raised under paddock conditions prior to entering the feedlot for a 90-day fattening phase. Body composition traits were derived in vivo at the end of the experiment prior to slaughter at 2 (cohort 1) and 3.5 (cohort 2) years of age, using computed tomography. Image analysis was used to gain accurate predictions for 13 traits describing major fat depots, lean muscle, bone, body proportions and body weight which were used for single- and two-QTL mapping analysis. Using a maximum-likelihood approach, three highly significant (LOD ? 3), 15 significant (LOD ? 2), and 11 suggestive QTL (1.7 ? LOD < 2) were detected on eleven chromosomes. Regression analysis confirmed 28 of these QTL and an additional 17 suggestive (P < 0.1) and two significant (P < 0.05) QTL were identified using this method. QTL with pleiotropic effects for two or more tissues were identified on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, 14, 16 and 23. No tissue-specific QTL were identified. A meta-assembly of ovine QTL for carcass traits from this study and public domain sources was performed and compared with a corresponding bovine meta-assembly. The assembly demonstrated QTL with effects on carcass composition in homologous regions on OAR1, 2, 6 and 21.

2010-01-01

56

QTL mapping reveals the genetic architecture of loci affecting pre- and post-zygotic isolating barriers in Louisiana Iris  

PubMed Central

Background Hybridization among Louisiana Irises has been well established and the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation is known to affect the potential for and the directionality of introgression between taxa. Here we use co-dominant markers to identify regions where QTL are located both within and between backcross maps to compare the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and fitness traits across treatments and years. Results QTL mapping was used to elucidate the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation between Iris fulva and Iris brevicaulis. Homologous co-dominant EST-SSR markers scored in two backcross populations between I. fulva and I. brevicaulis were used to generate genetic linkage maps. These were used as the framework for mapping QTL associated with variation in 11 phenotypic traits likely responsible for reproductive isolation and fitness. QTL were dispersed throughout the genome, with the exception of one region of a single linkage group (LG) where QTL for flowering time, sterility, and fruit production clustered. In most cases, homologous QTL were not identified in both backcross populations, however, homologous QTL for flowering time, number of growth points per rhizome, number of nodes per inflorescence, and number of flowers per node were identified on several linkage groups. Conclusions Two different traits affecting reproductive isolation, flowering time and sterility, exhibit different genetic architectures, with numerous QTL across the Iris genome controlling flowering time and fewer, less distributed QTL affecting sterility. QTL for traits affecting fitness are largely distributed across the genome with occasional overlap, especially on LG 4, where several QTL increasing fitness and decreasing sterility cluster. Given the distribution and effect direction of QTL affecting reproductive isolation and fitness, we have predicted genomic regions where introgression may be more likely to occur (those regions associated with an increase in fitness and unlinked to loci controlling reproductive isolation) and those that are less likely to exhibit introgression (those regions linked to traits decreasing fitness and reproductive isolation).

2012-01-01

57

Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. II. Meta-assembly and identification of novel QTL for milk production traits in sheep  

Microsoft Academic Search

An (Awassi × Merino) × Merino backcross family of 172 ewes was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for different milk production traits on a framework map of 200 loci across all autosomes. From five previously proposed mathematical models describing lactation curves, the Wood model was considered the most appropriate due to its simplicity and its ability to determine

Herman W Raadsma; Elisabeth Jonas; David McGill; Matthew Hobbs; Mary K Lam; Peter C Thomson

2009-01-01

58

Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Cell Wall Digestibility and Lignification in Silage Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

the European Union for silage making. Forage maize breeding in Europe has been based for a long time on Improving digestibility is a major goal for forage maize (Zea mays the concept that the best hybrids for grain production L.) breeding programs. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting forage maize digestibility-related and agronomic traits were mapped and were also the most

Valérie Méchin; Odile Argillier; Yannick Hébert; Emmanuelle Guingo; Laurence Moreau; Alain Charcosset; Yves Barrière

2001-01-01

59

High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

60

Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A\\/A) for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA),

Henri CM Heuven; Rik H. J. van Wijk; Bert Dibbits; Tony A. van Kampen; Egbert F. Knol; Henk Bovenhuis

2009-01-01

61

Gene-environment interactions in complex diseases: genetic models and methods for QTL mapping in multiple half-sib populations.  

PubMed

An interval quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping method for complex polygenic diseases (as binary traits) showing QTL by environment interactions (QEI) was developed for outbred populations on a within-family basis. The main objectives, within the above context, were to investigate selection of genetic models and to compare liability or generalized interval mapping (GIM) and linear regression interval mapping (RIM) methods. Two different genetic models were used: one with main QTL and QEI effects (QEI model) and the other with only a main QTL effect (QTL model). Over 30 types of binary disease data as well as six types of continuous data were simulated and analysed by RIM and GIM. Using table values for significance testing, results show that RIM had an increased false detection rate (FDR) for testing interactions which was attributable to scale effects on the binary scale. GIM did not suffer from a high FDR for testing interactions. The use of empirical thresholds, which effectively means higher thresholds for RIM for testing interactions, could repair this increased FDR for RIM, but such empirical thresholds would have to be derived for each case because the amount of FDR depends on the incidence on the binary scale. RIM still suffered from higher biases (15-100% over- or under-estimation of true values) and high standard errors in QTL variance and location estimates than GIM for QEI models. Hence GIM is recommended for disease QTL mapping with QEI. In the presence of QEI, the model including QEI has more power (20-80% increase) to detect the QTL when the average QTL effect is small (in a situation where the model with a main QTL only is not too powerful). Top-down model selection is proposed in which a full test for QEI is conducted first and then the model is subsequently simplified. Methods and results will be applicable to human, plant and animal QTL mapping experiments. PMID:16978428

Kadarmideen, Haja N; Li, Yongjun; Janss, Luc L G

2006-09-15

62

Fine mapping implicates two immunity genes in larval resistance to the honey bee brood fungal disease, Chalkbrood  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Chalkbrood infection of honey bee (Apis mellifera) brood by the fungus Ascosphaera apis results in fatal encapsulation of susceptible larvae with a mycelial coat. Recent QTL analysis indicates that some level of physiological resistance exists in individual larvae. We performed a fine mapping anal...

63

Mapping QTL for an adaptive trait: the length of caudal fin in Lates calcarifer.  

PubMed

The caudal fin represents a fundamental design feature of fishes and plays an important role in locomotor dynamics in fishes. The shape of caudal is an important parameter in traditional systematics. However, little is known about genes involved in the development of different forms of caudal fins. This study was conducted to identify and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting the length of caudal fin and the ratio between tail length and standard body length in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). One F1 family containing 380 offspring was generated by crossing two unrelated individuals. One hundred and seventeen microsatellites almost evenly distributed along the whole genome were genotyped. Length of caudal fin at 90 days post-hatch was measured. QTL analysis detected six significant (genome-wide significant) and two suggestive (linkage-group-wide significant) QTL on seven linkage groups. The six significant QTL explained 5.5-16.6% of the phenotypic variance, suggesting these traits were controlled by multiple genes. Comparative genomics analysis identified several potential candidate genes for the length of caudal fin. The QTL for the length of caudal fin detected for the first time in marine fish may provide a starting point for the future identification of genes involved in the development of different forms of caudal fins in fishes. PMID:20352272

Wang, C M; Lo, L C; Zhu, Z Y; Pang, H Y; Liu, H M; Tan, J; Lim, H S; Chou, R; Orban, L; Yue, G H

2010-03-30

64

QTL mapping of terminal heat tolerance in hexaploid wheat (T. aestivum L.).  

PubMed

High temperature (>30 °C) at the time of grain filling is one of the major causes of yield reduction in wheat in many parts of the world, especially in tropical countries. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for heat tolerance under terminal heat stress, a set of 148 recombinant inbred lines was developed by crossing a heat-tolerant hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar (NW1014) and a heat-susceptible (HUW468) cultivar. The F(5), F(6), and F(7) generations were evaluated in two different sowing dates under field conditions for 2 years. Using the trait values from controlled and stressed trials, four different traits (1) heat susceptibility index (HSI) of thousand grain weight (HSITGW); (2) HSI of grain fill duration (HSIGFD); (3) HSI of grain yield (HSIYLD); and (4) canopy temperature depression (CTD) were used to determine heat tolerance. Days to maturity was also investigated. A linkage map comprising 160 simple sequence repeat markers was prepared covering the whole genome of wheat. Using composite interval mapping, significant genomic regions on 2B, 7B and 7D were found to be associated with heat tolerance. Of these, two (2B and 7B) were co-localized QTL and explained more than 15 % phenotypic variation for HSITGW, HSIGFD and CTD. In pooled analysis over three trials, QTL explained phenotypic variation ranging from 9.78 to 20.34 %. No QTL × trial interaction was detected for the identified QTL. The three major QTL obtained can be used in marker-assisted selection for heat stress in wheat. PMID:22476874

Paliwal, Rajneesh; Röder, Marion S; Kumar, Uttam; Srivastava, J P; Joshi, Arun Kumar

2012-04-05

65

Substitution mapping of dth1.1, a flowering-time quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with transgressive variation in rice, reveals multiple sub-QTL.  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL), dth1.1, was associated with transgressive variation for days to heading in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety Jefferson and an accession of the wild rice relative Oryza rufipogon. A series of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different O. rufipogon introgressions across the target region were constructed to dissect dth1.1 using substitution mapping. In contrast to the late-flowering O. rufipogon parent, O. rufipogon alleles in the substitution lines caused early flowering under both short- and long-day lengths and provided evidence for at least two distinct sub-QTL: dth1.1a and dth1.1b. Potential candidate genes underlying these sub-QTL include genes with sequence similarity to Arabidopsis GI, FT, SOC1, and EMF1, and Pharbitis nil PNZIP. Evidence from families with nontarget O. rufipogon introgressions in combination with dth1.1 alleles also detected an early flowering QTL on chromosome 4 and a late-flowering QTL on chromosome 6 and provided evidence for additional sub-QTL in the dth1.1 region. The availability of a series of near-isogenic lines with alleles introgressed from a wild relative of rice provides an opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of transgressive variation in a quantitative trait. PMID:16452146

Thomson, Michael J; Edwards, Jeremy D; Septiningsih, Endang M; Harrington, Sandra E; McCouch, Susan R

2006-02-01

66

Substitution Mapping of dth1.1, a Flowering-Time Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Associated With Transgressive Variation in Rice, Reveals Multiple Sub-QTL  

PubMed Central

A quantitative trait locus (QTL), dth1.1, was associated with transgressive variation for days to heading in an advanced backcross population derived from the Oryza sativa variety Jefferson and an accession of the wild rice relative Oryza rufipogon. A series of near-isogenic lines (NILs) containing different O. rufipogon introgressions across the target region were constructed to dissect dth1.1 using substitution mapping. In contrast to the late-flowering O. rufipogon parent, O. rufipogon alleles in the substitution lines caused early flowering under both short- and long-day lengths and provided evidence for at least two distinct sub-QTL: dth1.1a and dth1.1b. Potential candidate genes underlying these sub-QTL include genes with sequence similarity to Arabidopsis GI, FT, SOC1, and EMF1, and Pharbitis nil PNZIP. Evidence from families with nontarget O. rufipogon introgressions in combination with dth1.1 alleles also detected an early flowering QTL on chromosome 4 and a late-flowering QTL on chromosome 6 and provided evidence for additional sub-QTL in the dth1.1 region. The availability of a series of near-isogenic lines with alleles introgressed from a wild relative of rice provides an opportunity to better understand the molecular basis of transgressive variation in a quantitative trait.

Thomson, Michael J.; Edwards, Jeremy D.; Septiningsih, Endang M.; Harrington, Sandra E.; McCouch, Susan R.

2006-01-01

67

Characterization and precise mapping of a QTL increasing spike number with pleiotropic effects in wheat.  

PubMed

Tiller number (TN) and spike number per plant (SN) are key components of grain yield and/or biomass in wheat. In this study, an introgression line 05210, developed by introgression of chromosomal segments from a synthetic exotic wheat Am3 into an elite cultivar Laizhou953, showed a significantly increased TN and SN, but shorter spike length (SL) and fewer grain number per spike (GNS) than Laizhou953. To investigate the quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for these variations, the introgressed segments in 05210 were screened by SSR markers and one follow-up segregation population was developed from the cross 05210/Laizhou953. The population showed 3:1 segregation ratios for SN, SL and GNS, indicating that QTLs for these traits have been dissected into single Mendelian factors. Bulked segregation analysis showed that the markers located on the 4B introgressed segment were polymorphic between the two bulks. Therefore, they were further analyzed in the F(2) population to construct a linkage map. Three new QTLs, QSn.sdau-4B, QSl.sdau-4B and QGns.sdau-4B, were detected for SN, SL and GNS, respectively, which explained a large portion of the phenotypic variation (30.1-67.6%) for these traits with overlapping peaks. Correlation analysis and multiple-trait, multiple-interval mapping (MMIM) suggested pleiotropic effects of the QTL on SN, SL and GNS. Therefore, the QTL was designated as QSn.sdau-4B. By a progeny test based on F(3) families using SN, the QTL was mapped as a Mendelian factor to the proximal region of 4BL. It is a key QTL responsible for variation in spike number and size, which had not been reported previously. Thus, it is an important QTL for wheat to achieve high and stable biomass and grain yield. Dissection and mapping of this QTL as a Mendelian factor laid a solid foundation for map-based cloning of grain yield-related QTLs in wheat. PMID:20872211

Deng, Shimin; Wu, Xinru; Wu, Yuye; Zhou, Ronghua; Wang, Honggang; Jia, Jizeng; Liu, Shubing

2010-09-26

68

Gramene QTL database: development, content and applications  

PubMed Central

Gramene is a comparative information resource for plants that integrates data across diverse data domains. In this article, we describe the development of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) database and illustrate how it can be used to facilitate both the forward and reverse genetics research. The QTL database contains the largest online collection of rice QTL data in the world. Using flanking markers as anchors, QTLs originally reported on individual genetic maps have been systematically aligned to the rice sequence where they can be searched as standard genomic features. Researchers can determine whether a QTL co-localizes with other QTLs detected in independent experiments and can combine data from multiple studies to improve the resolution of a QTL position. Candidate genes falling within a QTL interval can be identified and their relationship to particular phenotypes can be inferred based on functional annotations provided by ontology terms. Mutations identified in functional genomics populations and association mapping panels can be aligned with QTL regions to facilitate fine mapping and validation of gene–phenotype associations. By assembling and integrating diverse types of data and information across species and levels of biological complexity, the QTL database enhances the potential to understand and utilize QTL information in biological research.

Ni, Junjian; Pujar, Anuradha; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yap, Immanuel; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Tecle, Isaak; Tung, Chih-Wei; Ren, Liya; Spooner, William; Wei, Xuehong; Avraham, Shuly; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; McCouch, Susan

2009-01-01

69

Fine mapping of the Bmgr5 quantitative trait locus for allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice.  

PubMed

To identify novel mechanisms regulating allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment, we used forward genetics and previously described identification, in mice, of a bone marrow (BM) engraftment quantitative trait locus (QTL), termed Bmgr5. This QTL confers dominant and large allele effects for engraftment susceptibility. It was localized to chromosome 16 by quantitative genetic techniques in a segregating backcross bred from susceptible BALB.K and resistant B10.BR mice. We now report verification of the Bmgr5 QTL using reciprocal chromosome 16 consomic strains. The BM engraftment phenotype in these consomic mice shows that Bmgr5 susceptibility alleles are not only sufficient but also indispensable for conferring permissiveness for allogeneic BM engraftment. Using panels of congenic mice, we resolved the Bmgr5 QTL into two separate subloci, termed Bmgr5a (Chr16:14.6-15.8 Mb) and Bmgr5b (Chr16:15.8-17.6 Mb), each conferring permissiveness for the engraftment phenotype and both fine mapped to an interval amenable to positional cloning. Candidate Bmgr5 genes were then prioritized using whole exome DNA sequencing and microarray gene expression data. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the genetic interaction between the Bmgr5a and Bmgr5b QTL and identify causative genes and underlying gene variants. This may lead to new approaches for overcoming the problem of graft rejection in clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:23666360

Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xinjian; Tsai, Schickwann; Thomas, Alun; Shizuru, Judith A; Cao, Thai M

2013-05-12

70

Identification of exercise capacity QTL using association mapping in inbred mice  

PubMed Central

There are large interindividual differences in exercise capacity. It is well established that there is a genetic basis for these differences. However, the genetic factors underlying this variation are undefined. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify novel putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) for exercise capacity by measuring exercise capacity in inbred mice and performing genome-wide association mapping. Exercise capacity, defined as run time and work, was assessed in male mice (n = 6) from 34 strains of classical and wild-derived inbred mice performing a graded treadmill test. Genome-wide association mapping was performed with an efficient mixed-model association (EMMA) algorithm to identify QTL. Exercise capacity was significantly different across strains. Run time varied by 2.7-fold between the highest running strain (C58/J) and the lowest running strain (A/J). These same strains showed a 16.5-fold difference in work. Significant associations were identified for exercise time on chromosomes 1, 2, 7, 11, and 13. The QTL interval on chromosome 2 (?168 Mb) contains one gene, Nfatc2, and overlaps with a suggestive QTL for training responsiveness in humans. These results provide phenotype data on the widest range of inbred strains tested thus far and indicate that genetic background significantly influences exercise capacity. Furthermore, the novel QTLs identified in the current study provide new targets for investigating the underlying mechanisms for variation in exercise capacity.

Courtney, Sean M.

2012-01-01

71

Mapping QTL for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.).  

PubMed

Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Bennett is the most economically important turf disease on golf courses in North America. Dollar spot resistance in a creeping bentgrass cultivar would greatly reduce the frequency, costs, and environmental impacts of fungicide application. Little work has been done to understand the genetics of resistance to dollar spot in creeping bentgrass. Therefore, QTL analysis was used to determine the location, number and effects of genomic regions associated with dollar spot resistance in the field. To meet this objective, field inoculations using a single isolate were performed over 2 years and multiple locations using progeny of a full sib mapping population '549 x 372'. Dollar spot resistance seems to be inherited quantitatively and broad sense heritability for resistance was estimated to be 0.88. We have detected one QTL with large effect on linkage group 7.1 with LOD values ranging from 3.4 to 8.6 and explaining 14-36% of the phenotypic variance. Several smaller effect QTL specific to rating dates, locations and years were also detected. The association of the tightly linked markers with the LG 7.1 QTL based on 106 progeny was further examined by single marker analysis on all 697 progeny. The high significance of the QTL on LG 7.1 at a sample size of 697 (P < 0.0001), along with its consistency across locations, years and ratings dates, indicated that it was stable over environments. Markers tightly linked to the QTL can be utilized for marker-assisted selection in future bentgrass breeding programs. PMID:16969681

Chakraborty, N; Curley, J; Warnke, S; Casler, M D; Jung, G

2006-09-13

72

In the eye of the beholder: the effect of rater variability and different rating scales on QTL mapping.  

PubMed

The agronomic importance of developing durably resistant cultivars has led to substantial research in the field of quantitative disease resistance (QDR) and, in particular, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease resistance. The assessment of QDR is typically conducted by visual estimation of disease severity, which raises concern over the accuracy and precision of visual estimates. Although previous studies have examined the factors affecting the accuracy and precision of visual disease assessment in relation to the true value of disease severity, the impact of this variability on the identification of disease resistance QTL has not been assessed. In this study, the effects of rater variability and rating scales on mapping QTL for northern leaf blight resistance in maize were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population grown under field conditions. The population of 191 lines was evaluated by 22 different raters using a direct percentage estimate, a 0-to-9 ordinal rating scale, or both. It was found that more experienced raters had higher precision and that using a direct percentage estimation of diseased leaf area produced higher precision than using an ordinal scale. QTL mapping was then conducted using the disease estimates from each rater using stepwise general linear model selection (GLM) and inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). For GLM, the same QTL were largely found across raters, though some QTL were only identified by a subset of raters. The magnitudes of estimated allele effects at identified QTL varied drastically, sometimes by as much as threefold. ICIM produced highly consistent results across raters and for the different rating scales in identifying the location of QTL. We conclude that, despite variability between raters, the identification of QTL was largely consistent among raters, particularly when using ICIM. However, care should be taken in estimating QTL allele effects, because this was highly variable and rater dependent. PMID:20955083

Poland, Jesse A; Nelson, Rebecca J

2011-02-01

73

Targeted linkage map densification to improve cell wall related QTL detection and interpretation in maize.  

PubMed

Several QTLs for cell wall degradability and lignin content were previously detected in the F288 × F271 maize RIL progeny, including a set of major QTLs located in bin 6.06. Unexpectedly, allelic sequencing of genes located around the bin 6.06 QTL positions revealed a monomorphous region, suggesting that these QTLs were likely "ghost" QTLs. Refining the positions of all QTLs detected in this population was thus considered, based on a linkage map densification in most important QTL regions, and in several large still unmarked regions. Re-analysis of data with an improved genetic map (173 markers instead of 108) showed that ghost QTLs located in bin 6.06 were then fractionated over two QTL positions located upstream and downstream of the monomorphic region. The area located upstream of bin 6.06 position carried the major QTLs, which explained from 37 to 59 % of the phenotypic variation for per se values and extended on only 6 cM, corresponding to a physical distance of 2.2 Mbp. Among the 92 genes present in the corresponding area of the B73 maize reference genome, nine could putatively be considered as involved in the formation of the secondary cell wall [bHLH, FKBP, laccase, fasciclin, zinc finger C2H2-type and C3HC4-type (two genes), NF-YB, and WRKY]. In addition, based on the currently improved genetic map, eight QTLs were detected in bin 4.09, while only one QTL was highlighted in the initial investigation. Moreover, significant epistatic interaction effects were shown for all traits between these QTLs located in bin 4.09 and the major QTLs located in bin 6.05. Three genes related to secondary cell wall assembly (ZmMYB42, COV1-like, PAL-like) underlay QTL support intervals in this newly identified bin 4.09 region. The current investigations, even if they were based only on one RIL progeny, illustrated the interest of a targeted marker mapping on a genetic map to improve QTL position. PMID:23358861

Courtial, Audrey; Thomas, Justine; Reymond, Matthieu; Méchin, Valérie; Grima-Pettenati, Jacqueline; Barrière, Yves

2013-01-30

74

Conditional QTL mapping for waterlogging tolerance in two RILs populations of wheat.  

PubMed

Waterlogging is a widespread limiting factor for wheat production throughout the world, specially irrigated and high rainfall environments. Only few studies reported QTLs for waterlogging tolerance. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for waterlogging tolerance, root dry weight index (RDWI), shoot dry weight index (SDWI), total dry weight index (TDWI) were measured at seedling stage in two unrelated recombinant inbred lines (RILs) populations. These populations were International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) population 'W7984 / Opata85', and 'SHW-L1 × Chuanmai 32' (SC) population. Conditional QTL mapping and unconditional QTL mapping were studied to dissect the genetic relationship between TDWI and its components of SDWI and TDWI. Total of 36 QTLs for waterlogging tolerance in ITMI population and 10 QTLs in SC population were identified in present study. Of them, 17 alleles from synthetic hexaploid wheat 'W7984' and 3 alleles from synthetic hexaploid wheat 'SHW-L1' contribute positively to waterlogging tolerance. Combinations of conditional and unconditional mapping methods indicate that SDWI showed tighter genetic correlation with TDWI than RDWI. This QTL identification study and dissection provide theoretical basis and application foundation to Marker-assisted selection (MAS) of waterlogging tolerance improvement in wheat. PMID:23750334

Yu, Ma; Chen, Guo-Yue

2013-05-27

75

Precise mapping Fhb5, a major QTL conditioning resistance to Fusarium infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).  

PubMed

Qfhi.nau-5A is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) against Fusarium graminearum infection in the resistant wheat germplasm Wangshuibai. Genetic analysis using BC(3)F(2) and BC(4)F(2) populations, derived from selfing two near-isogenic lines (NIL) heterozygous at Qfhi.nau-5A that were developed, respectively, with Mianyang 99-323 and PH691 as the recurrent parent, showed that Qfhi.nau-5A inherited like a single dominant gene. This QTL was thus designated as Fhb5. To fine map it, these two backcross populations and a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai were screened for recombinants occurring between its two flanking markers Xbarc56 and Xbarc100. Nineteen NIL recombinants were identified from the two backcross populations and nine from the RIL population. In the RIL recombinant selection process, selection against Fhb4 present in the RIL population was incorporated. Genotyping these recombinant lines with ten markers mapping to the Xbarc56-Xbarc100 interval revealed four types of Mianyang 99-323-derived NIL recombinants, three types of PH691-derived NIL recombinants, and four types of RIL recombinants. In different field trials, the percentage of infected spikes of these lines displayed a distinct two-peak distribution. The more resistant class had over 55% less infection than the susceptible class. Common to these resistant genotypes, the 0.3-cM interval flanked by Xgwm304 and Xgwm415 or one of these two loci was derived from Wangshuibai, while none of the susceptible recombinants had Wangshuibai chromatin in this interval. This interval harboring Fhb5 was mapped to the pericentromeric C-5AS3-0.75 bin through deletion bin mapping. The precise localization of Fhb5 will facilitate its utilization in marker-assisted wheat breeding programs. PMID:21739138

Xue, Shulin; Xu, Feng; Tang, Mingzhi; Zhou, Yan; Li, Guoqiang; An, Xia; Lin, Feng; Xu, Haibin; Jia, Haiyan; Zhang, Lixia; Kong, Zhongxin; Ma, Zhengqiang

2011-07-08

76

Mapping of angular leaf spot resistance QTL in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) under different environments  

PubMed Central

Background Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important grain legume for human diet worldwide and the angular leaf spot (ALS) is one of the most devastating diseases of this crop, leading to yield losses as high as 80%. In an attempt to breed resistant cultivars, it is important to first understand the inheritance mode of resistance and to develop tools that could be used in assisted breeding. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling resistance to ALS under natural infection conditions in the field and under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. Results QTL analyses were made using phenotypic data from 346 recombinant inbreed lines from the IAC-UNA x CAL 143 cross, gathered in three experiments, two of which were conducted in the field in different seasons and one in the greenhouse. Joint composite interval mapping analysis of QTL x environment interaction was performed. In all, seven QTLs were mapped on five linkage groups. Most of them, with the exception of two, were significant in all experiments. Among these, ALS10.1DG,UC presented major effects (R2 between 16% - 22%). This QTL was found linked to the GATS11b marker of linkage group B10, which was consistently amplified across a set of common bean lines and was associated with the resistance. Four new QTLs were identified. Between them the ALS5.2 showed an important effect (9.4%) under inoculated conditions in the greenhouse. ALS4.2 was another major QTL, under natural infection in the field, explaining 10.8% of the variability for resistance reaction. The other QTLs showed minor effects on resistance. Conclusions The results indicated a quantitative inheritance pattern of ALS resistance in the common bean line CAL 143. QTL x environment interactions were observed. Moreover, the major QTL identified on linkage group B10 could be important for bean breeding, as it was stable in all the environments. Thereby, the GATS11b marker is a potential tool for marker assisted selection for ALS resistance.

2012-01-01

77

QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).  

PubMed

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 x 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed. PMID:20182696

Billotte, N; Jourjon, M F; Marseillac, N; Berger, A; Flori, A; Asmady, H; Adon, B; Singh, R; Nouy, B; Potier, F; Cheah, S C; Rohde, W; Ritter, E; Courtois, B; Charrier, A; Mangin, B

2010-02-25

78

QTL detection by multi-parent linkage mapping in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)  

PubMed Central

A quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis designed for a multi-parent population was carried out and tested in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.), which is a diploid cross-fertilising perennial species. A new extension of the MCQTL package was especially designed for crosses between heterozygous parents. The algorithm, which is now available for any allogamous species, was used to perform and compare two types of QTL search for small size families, within-family analysis and across-family analysis, using data from a 2 × 2 complete factorial mating experiment involving four parents from three selected gene pools. A consensus genetic map of the factorial design was produced using 251 microsatellite loci, the locus of the Sh major gene controlling fruit shell presence, and an AFLP marker of that gene. A set of 76 QTLs involved in 24 quantitative phenotypic traits was identified. A comparison of the QTL detection results showed that the across-family analysis proved to be efficient due to the interconnected families, but the family size issue is just partially solved. The identification of QTL markers for small progeny numbers and for marker-assisted selection strategies is discussed. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1284-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Jourjon, M. F.; Marseillac, N.; Berger, A.; Flori, A.; Asmady, H.; Adon, B.; Singh, R.; Nouy, B.; Potier, F.; Cheah, S. C.; Rohde, W.; Ritter, E.; Courtois, B.; Charrier, A.; Mangin, B.

2010-01-01

79

Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: QTL mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aimed to dissect tree architectural plasticity into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects over\\u000a the first 4 years of growth of an apple F1 progeny by means of quantitative traits loci (QTL) mapping. Both growth and branching\\u000a processes were phenotyped on the consecutive annual shoots of different axes within a tree. For each studied trait, predicted\\u000a values (best linear

Vincent Segura; Charles-Eric Durel; Evelyne Costes

2009-01-01

80

QTL and candidate gene mapping for polyphenolic composition in apple fruit  

PubMed Central

Background The polyphenolic products of the phenylpropanoid pathway, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols, possess antioxidant properties that may provide health benefits. To investigate the genetic architecture of control of their biosynthesis in apple fruit, various polyphenolic compounds were quantified in progeny from a 'Royal Gala' × 'Braeburn' apple population segregating for antioxidant content, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography of extracts derived from fruit cortex and skin. Results Construction of genetic maps for 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' enabled detection of 79 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for content of 17 fruit polyphenolic compounds. Seven QTL clusters were stable across two years of harvest and included QTLs for content of flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. Alignment of the parental genetic maps with the apple whole genome sequence in silico enabled screening for co-segregation with the QTLs of a range of candidate genes coding for enzymes in the polyphenolic biosynthetic pathway. This co-location was confirmed by genetic mapping of markers derived from the gene sequences. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) co-located with a QTL cluster for the fruit flavanols catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin dimer and five unknown procyanidin oligomers identified near the top of linkage group (LG) 16, while hydroxy cinnamate/quinate transferase (HCT/HQT) co-located with a QTL for chlorogenic acid concentration mapping near the bottom of LG 17. Conclusion We conclude that LAR1 and HCT/HQT are likely to influence the concentration of these compounds in apple fruit and provide useful allele-specific markers for marker assisted selection of trees bearing fruit with healthy attributes.

2012-01-01

81

QTL mapping of fruit-related traits in pepper (Capsicum annuum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

QTL analysis of pepper fruit characters was performed in an F3 population derived from a cross between two Capsicum annuum genotypes, the bell-type cultivar Maor and the Indian small-fruited line Perennial. RFLP, AFLP1, RAPD and morphological markers (a total of 177) were used to construct a comparative pepper-tomato genetic map for this\\u000a cross, and 14 quantitatively inherited traits were evaluated

A. Ben Chaim; I. Paran; R. C. Grube; M. Jahn; R. van Wijk; J. Peleman

2001-01-01

82

Comparative genome and QTL mapping between maritime and loblolly pines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genetic markers developed from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used as orthologous loci for comparative genome studies in the genus Pinus. A total of 309 ESTs derived from conifer gene sequences were tested for amplification and polymorphism in maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.). Electrophoresis-based techniques made it possible to map 50 expressed sequence tag polymorphisms (ESTPs). The map positions of

David Chagné; Garth Brown; Céline Lalanne; Delphine Madur; David Pot; David Neale; Christophe Plomion

2003-01-01

83

PRELIMINARY QTL MAPPING RESULTS TO FROSTY POD AND HORTICULTURAL TRAITS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mapping population was made and evaluated for resistance and horticultural traits at CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica, consisting of 256 F1 progeny from a cross between ‘Pound 7’ x ‘UF 273’. Progeny were used to form a linkage map using 180 markers. It was discovered that two different types of one pa...

84

QTL Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of Telomere Length Control Factors in Maize (Zea mays L.)  

PubMed Central

Telomere length is a quantitative trait important for many cellular functions. Failure to regulate telomere length contributes to genomic instability, cellular senescence, cancer, and apoptosis in humans, but the functional significance of telomere regulation in plants is much less well understood. To gain a better understanding of telomere biology in plants, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genetic elements that control telomere length variation in maize (Zea mays L.). For this purpose, we measured the median and mean telomere lengths from 178 recombinant inbred lines of the IBM mapping population and found multiple regions that collectively accounted for 33–38% of the variation in telomere length. Two-way analysis of variance revealed interaction between the quantitative trait loci at genetic bin positions 2.09 and 5.04. Candidate genes within these and other significant QTL intervals, along with select genes known a priori to regulate telomere length, were tested for correlations between expression levels and telomere length in the IBM population and diverse inbred lines by quantitative real-time PCR. A slight but significant positive correlation between expression levels and telomere length was observed for many of the candidate genes, but Ibp2 was a notable exception, showing instead a negative correlation. A rad51-like protein (TEL-MD_5.04) was strongly supported as a candidate gene by several lines of evidence. Our results highlight the value of QTL mapping plus candidate gene expression analysis in a genetically diverse model system for telomere research.

Brown, Amber N.; Lauter, Nick; Vera, Daniel L.; McLaughlin-Large, Karen A.; Steele, Tace M.; Fredette, Natalie C.; Bass, Hank W.

2011-01-01

85

A doubled haploid rye linkage map with a QTL affecting ?-amylase activity.  

PubMed

A rye doubled haploid (DH) mapping population (Amilo × Voima) segregating for pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) was generated through anther culture of F(1) plants. A linkage map was constructed using DHs, to our knowledge, for the first time in rye. The map was composed of 289 loci: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), microsatellite, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP), inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP), inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) and sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers, and extended altogether 732 cM (one locus in every 2.5 cM). All of the seven rye chromosomes and four unplaced groups were formed. Distorted segregation of markers (P???0.05) was detected on all chromosomes. One major quantitative trait locus (QTL) affecting ?-amylase activity was found, which explained 16.1% of phenotypic variation. The QTL was localized on the long arm of chromosome 5R. Microsatellites SCM74, RMS1115, and SCM77, nearest to the QTL, can be used for marker-assisted selection as a part of a rye breeding program to decrease sprouting damage. PMID:21286900

Tenhola-Roininen, Teija; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan H; Tanhuanpää, Pirjo

2011-02-01

86

Systems genetics, bioinformatics and eQTL mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Jansen and Nap (Trends Genet 17(7):388–391, 2001) and Jansen (Nat Rev Genet 4:145–151, 2003) first proposed the concept of\\u000a genetical genomics, or genome-wide genetic analysis of gene expression data, which is also called transcriptome mapping. In\\u000a this approach, microarrays are used for measuring gene expression levels across genetic mapping populations. These gene expression\\u000a patterns have been used for genome-wide association

Hong Li; Hongwen Deng

2010-01-01

87

Comprehensive QTL mapping survey dissects the complex fruit texture physiology in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.).  

PubMed

Fruit ripening is a complex physiological process in plants whereby cell wall programmed changes occur mainly to promote seed dispersal. Cell wall modification also directly regulates the textural properties, a fundamental aspect of fruit quality. In this study, two full-sib populations of apple, with 'Fuji' as the common maternal parent, crossed with 'Delearly' and 'Pink Lady', were used to understand the control of fruit texture by QTL mapping and in silico gene mining. Texture was dissected with a novel high resolution phenomics strategy, simultaneously profiling both mechanical and acoustic fruit texture components. In 'Fuji × Delearly' nine linkage groups were associated with QTLs accounting from 15.6% to 49% of the total variance, and a highly significant QTL cluster for both textural components was mapped on chromosome 10 and co-located with Md-PG1, a polygalacturonase gene that, in apple, is known to be involved in cell wall metabolism processes. In addition, other candidate genes related to Md-NOR and Md-RIN transcription factors, Md-Pel (pectate lyase), and Md-ACS1 were mapped within statistical intervals. In 'Fuji × Pink Lady', a smaller set of linkage groups associated with the QTLs identified for fruit texture (15.9-34.6% variance) was observed. The analysis of the phenotypic variance over a two-dimensional PCA plot highlighted a transgressive segregation for this progeny, revealing two QTL sets distinctively related to both mechanical and acoustic texture components. The mining of the apple genome allowed the discovery of the gene inventory underlying each QTL, and functional profile assessment unravelled specific gene expression patterns of these candidate genes. PMID:22121200

Longhi, Sara; Moretto, Marco; Viola, Roberto; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Fabrizio

2011-11-25

88

Coding Gene SNP Mapping Reveals QTL Linked to Growth and Stress Response in Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)  

PubMed Central

Growth performance and reduced stress response are traits of major interest in fish production. Growth and stress-related quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been already identified in several salmonid species, but little effort has been devoted to charrs (genus Salvelinus). Moreover, most QTL studies to date focused on one or very few traits, and little investigation has been devoted to QTL identification for gene expression. Here, our objective was to identify QTL for 27 phenotypes related to growth and stress responses in brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis), which is one of the most economically important freshwater aquaculture species in Canada. Phenotypes included 12 growth parameters, six blood and plasma variables, three hepatic variables, and one plasma hormone level as well as the relative expression measurements of five genes of interest linked to growth regulation. QTL analysis relied on a linkage map recently built from S. fontinalis consisting of both single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, n = 266) and microsatellite (n =81) markers in an F2 interstrain hybrid population (n = 171). We identified 63 growth-related QTL and four stress-related QTL across 18 of the 40 linkage groups of the brook charr linkage map. Percent variance explained, confidence interval, and allelic QTL effects also were investigated to provide insight into the genetic architecture of growth- and stress-related QTL. QTL related to growth performance and stress response that were identified could be classified into two groups: (1) a group composed of the numerous, small-effect QTL associated with some traits related to growth (i.e., weight) that may be under the control of a large number of genes or pleiotropic genes, and (2) a group of less numerous QTL associated with growth (i.e., gene expression) and with stress-related QTL that display a larger effect, suggesting that these QTL are under the control of a limited number of genes of major effect. This study represents a first step toward the identification of genes potentially linked to phenotypic variation of growth and stress response in brook charr. The ultimate goal is to provide new tools for developing Molecular Assisted Selection for this species.

Sauvage, Christopher; Vagner, Marie; Derome, Nicolas; Audet, Celine; Bernatchez, Louis

2012-01-01

89

Advanced Intercross Lines, an Experimental Population for Fine Genetic Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

An advanced intercrossed line (AIL) is an experimental population that can provide more accurate estimates of quantitative trait loci (QTL) map location than conventional mapping populations. An AIL is produced by randomly and sequentially intercrossing a population that initially originated from a cross between two inbred lines or some variant thereof. This provides increasing probability of recombination between any two

A. Darvasi; M. Soller

1995-01-01

90

Strategy for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) by Using Human Metapopulations  

PubMed Central

Aim To present a novel strategy for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), using human metapopulations. The strategy is based on the expectation that in geographic clusters of small and distinct human isolates, a combination of founder effect and genetic drift can dramatically increase population frequency of rare QTL variants with large effect. In such cases, the distribution of QT measurements in an “affected” isolate is expected to deviate from that observed in neighboring isolates. Methods We tested this hypothesis in 9 villages from a larger Croatian isolate resource, where 7 Mendelian disorders have been previously reported. The values of 10 physiological and biochemical QTs were measured in a random sample of 1001 individuals (100 inhabitants of each of 9 villages and 101 immigrant controls). Results Significant over- or under- representation of individuals from specific villages in extreme ends of standardized QT measurement distribution was found 10 times more frequently than expected by chance. The large majority of such clusters of individuals with extreme QT values (34/36, 94.4%) originated from the 6 villages with the most pronounced geographic isolation and endogamy. Conclusion Early epidemiological assessment supports the feasibility of the proposed strategy. Clusters of individuals with extreme QT values responsible for over-representation of single villages can usually be linked to a larger pedigree and may be useful for further QTL mapping, using linkage analysis.

Rudan, Igor; Biloglav, Zrinka; Carothers, Andrew D.; Wright, Alan F.; Campbell, Harry

2006-01-01

91

Mapping QTL influencing gastrointestinal nematode burden in Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle  

PubMed Central

Background Parasitic gastroenteritis caused by nematodes is only second to mastitis in terms of health costs to dairy farmers in developed countries. Sustainable control strategies complementing anthelmintics are desired, including selective breeding for enhanced resistance. Results and Conclusion To quantify and characterize the genetic contribution to variation in resistance to gastro-intestinal parasites, we measured the heritability of faecal egg and larval counts in the Dutch Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle population. The heritability of faecal egg counts ranged from 7 to 21% and was generally higher than for larval counts. We performed a whole genome scan in 12 paternal half-daughter groups for a total of 768 cows, corresponding to the ~10% most and least infected daughters within each family (selective genotyping). Two genome-wide significant QTL were identified in an across-family analysis, respectively on chromosomes 9 and 19, coinciding with previous findings in orthologous chromosomal regions in sheep. We identified six more suggestive QTL by within-family analysis. An additional 73 informative SNPs were genotyped on chromosome 19 and the ensuing high density map used in a variance component approach to simultaneously exploit linkage and linkage disequilibrium in an initial inconclusive attempt to refine the QTL map position.

Coppieters, Wouter; Mes, Ted HM; Druet, Tom; Farnir, Frederic; Tamma, Nico; Schrooten, Chris; Cornelissen, Albert WCA; Georges, Michel; Ploeger, Harm W

2009-01-01

92

Brain eQTL Mapping Informs Genetic Studies of Psychiatric Diseases  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have been used to identify genes that increase risk of psychiatric diseases. However, much of the variation in disease risk is still unexplained, suggesting that there are genes still to be discovered. Functional annotation of genetic variants may increase the power of GWASs to identify disease genes by providing prior information that can be used in Bayesian analysis or in reducing the number of tests. Genetic mapping of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) is helping us to reveal novel functional effects of thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The published brain eQTL studies are reviewed here, and major methodological issues and their possible solutions are discussed. We emphasize the frequently-ignored problems of batch effects, covariates, and multiple testing, all of which can lead to false positives and false negatives. The future application of eQTL data to the GWAS analysis is also discussed.

Liu, Chunyu

2011-01-01

93

QTL mapping and molecular marker analysis for the resistance of rice to ozone.  

PubMed

The resistance of rice to ozone (O3) is a quantitative trait controlled by nuclear genes. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and analysis of molecular markers of O3 resistance is important for increasing the resistance of rice to O3 stress. QTL associated with the O3 resistance of rice were mapped on chromosomes 1, 7 and 11 using 164 recombinant inbred (RI) lines from a cross between 'Milyang 23' and 'Gihobyeo'. The quantitative trait loci were tightly linked to the markers RG109, C507 and RG1094 and were detected in each of three replications. The association between these markers and O3 resistance in 26 rice cultivars and doubled haploid (DH) populations was analysed. The markers permit the screening of rice germplasm for O3 resistance and the introduction of resistance into elite lines in breeding programs. PMID:15055542

Kim, Kyung-Min; Kwon, Yong-Sham; Lee, Jong-Jun; Eun, Moo-Young; Sohn, Jae-Keun

2004-02-29

94

Simultaneous Mining of Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium to Fine Map Quantitative Trait Loci in Outbred Half-Sib Pedigrees: Revisiting the Location of a Quantitative Trait Locus With Major Effect on Milk Production on Bovine Chromosome 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

A maximum-likelihood QTL mapping method that simultaneously exploits linkage and linkage disequi- librium and that is applicable in outbred half-sib pedigrees is described. The method is applied to fine map a QTL with major effect on milk fat content in a 3-cM marker interval on proximal BTA14. This proximal location is confirmed by applying a haplotype-based association method referred to

Frederic Farnir; Bernard Grisart; Wouter Coppieters; Juliette Riquet; Paulette Berzi; Nadine Cambisano; Latifa Karim; Myriam Mni; Sirja Moisio; Patricia Simon; Danny Wagenaar; Johanna Vilkki; Michel Georges

95

QTL Mapping and Candidate Gene Analysis of Telomere Length Control Factors in Maize (Zea mays L.).  

PubMed

Telomere length is a quantitative trait important for many cellular functions. Failure to regulate telomere length contributes to genomic instability, cellular senescence, cancer, and apoptosis in humans, but the functional significance of telomere regulation in plants is much less well understood. To gain a better understanding of telomere biology in plants, we used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genetic elements that control telomere length variation in maize (Zea mays L.). For this purpose, we measured the median and mean telomere lengths from 178 recombinant inbred lines of the IBM mapping population and found multiple regions that collectively accounted for 33-38% of the variation in telomere length. Two-way analysis of variance revealed interaction between the quantitative trait loci at genetic bin positions 2.09 and 5.04. Candidate genes within these and other significant QTL intervals, along with select genes known a priori to regulate telomere length, were tested for correlations between expression levels and telomere length in the IBM population and diverse inbred lines by quantitative real-time PCR. A slight but significant positive correlation between expression levels and telomere length was observed for many of the candidate genes, but Ibp2 was a notable exception, showing instead a negative correlation. A rad51-like protein (TEL-MD_5.04) was strongly supported as a candidate gene by several lines of evidence. Our results highlight the value of QTL mapping plus candidate gene expression analysis in a genetically diverse model system for telomere research. PMID:22384354

Brown, Amber N; Lauter, Nick; Vera, Daniel L; McLaughlin-Large, Karen A; Steele, Tace M; Fredette, Natalie C; Bass, Hank W

2011-11-01

96

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep ( Ovis aries)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole

Dario Beraldi; Allan F. McRae; Jacob Gratten; Jill G. Pilkington; Jon Slate; Peter M. Visscher; Josephine M. Pemberton

2007-01-01

97

Teamwork: improved eQTL mapping using combinations of machine learning methods.  

PubMed

Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a widely used technique to uncover regulatory relationships between genes. A range of methodologies have been developed to map links between expression traits and genotypes. The DREAM (Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) initiative is a community project to objectively assess the relative performance of different computational approaches for solving specific systems biology problems. The goal of one of the DREAM5 challenges was to reverse-engineer genetic interaction networks from synthetic genetic variation and gene expression data, which simulates the problem of eQTL mapping. In this framework, we proposed an approach whose originality resides in the use of a combination of existing machine learning algorithms (committee). Although it was not the best performer, this method was by far the most precise on average. After the competition, we continued in this direction by evaluating other committees using the DREAM5 data and developed a method that relies on Random Forests and LASSO. It achieved a much higher average precision than the DREAM best performer at the cost of slightly lower average sensitivity. PMID:22911718

Ackermann, Marit; Clément-Ziza, Mathieu; Michaelson, Jacob J; Beyer, Andreas

2012-07-24

98

Identification of quantitative trait loci influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.). III. QTL Verification and candidate gene mapping.  

PubMed Central

A long-term series of experiments to map QTL influencing wood property traits in loblolly pine has been completed. These experiments were designed to identify and subsequently verify QTL in multiple genetic backgrounds, environments, and growing seasons. Verification of QTL is necessary to substantiate a biological basis for observed marker-trait associations, to provide precise estimates of the magnitude of QTL effects, and to predict QTL expression at a given age or in a particular environment. Verification was based on the repeated detection of QTL among populations, as well as among multiple growing seasons for each population. Temporal stability of QTL was moderate, with approximately half being detected in multiple seasons. Fewer QTL were common to different populations, but the results are nonetheless encouraging for restricted applications of marker-assisted selection. QTL from larger populations accounted for less phenotypic variation than QTL detected in smaller populations, emphasizing the need for experiments employing much larger families. Additionally, 18 candidate genes related to lignin biosynthesis and cell wall structure were mapped genetically. Several candidate genes colocated with wood property QTL; however, these relationships must be verified in future experiments.

Brown, Garth R; Bassoni, Daniel L; Gill, Geoffrey P; Fontana, Joseph R; Wheeler, Nicholas C; Megraw, Robert A; Davis, Mark F; Sewell, Mitchell M; Tuskan, Gerald A; Neale, David B

2003-01-01

99

Mapping main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL for body composition in a chicken population divergently selected for low or high growth rate  

PubMed Central

Background Delineating the genetic basis of body composition is important to agriculture and medicine. In addition, the incorporation of gene-gene interactions in the statistical model provides further insight into the genetic factors that underlie body composition traits. We used Bayesian model selection to comprehensively map main, epistatic and sex-specific QTL in an F2 reciprocal intercross between two chicken lines divergently selected for high or low growth rate. Results We identified 17 QTL with main effects across 13 chromosomes and several sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for breast meat yield, thigh + drumstick yield and abdominal fatness. Different sets of QTL were found for both breast muscles [Pectoralis (P) major and P. minor], which suggests that they could be controlled by different regulatory mechanisms. Significant interactions of QTL by sex allowed detection of sex-specific and sex-antagonistic QTL for body composition and abdominal fat. We found several female-specific P. major QTL and sex-antagonistic P. minor and abdominal fatness QTL. Also, several QTL on different chromosomes interact with each other to affect body composition and abdominal fatness. Conclusions The detection of main effects, epistasis and sex-dimorphic QTL suggest complex genetic regulation of somatic growth. An understanding of such regulatory mechanisms is key to mapping specific genes that underlie QTL controlling somatic growth in an avian model.

2010-01-01

100

FINE MAPPING OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI AND ASSESSMENT OF POSITIONAL CANDIDATE GENES FOR BACKFAT ON BOVINE CHROMOSOME 14 IN A COMMERCIAL LINE OF BOS TAURUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Backfat thickness is one of the major quantitative traits that affect carcass quality in beef cattle. In this study, we have fine mapped a QTL for backfat EBV on bovine chromosome 14, using an identical-by-descent haplotype-sharing analysis, in a commercial line of Bos taurus. We also examined the...

101

IDENTIFICATION AND FINE MAPPING OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR BACKFAT ON BOVINE CHROMOSOMES 2, 5, 6, 19, 21, AND 23 IN A COMMERCIAL LINE OF BOS TAURUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Backfat thickness is one of the major quantitative traits that affects carcass quality in beef cattle. In this study, we identified and fine-mapped QTL for backfat EBV on bovine chromosomes 2, 5, 6, 19, 21, and 23 using an identical-by-descent haplotype-sharing analysis in a commercial line of Bos ...

102

IDENTIFICATION AND FINE MAPPING OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCI FOR GROWTH TRAITS ON BOVINE CHROMOSOMES 2, 6, 14, 19, 21, AND 23 WITHIN ONE COMMERCIAL LINE OF BOS TAURUS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

We report the identification and fine mapping of QTL for birth weight (BWT), preweaning ADG (PWADG), and postweaning ADG on feed (ADGF) in a commercial line of Bos taurus using an identical-by-descent haplotype sharing method. One hundred seventy-six calves of 12 bulls (9 to 30 male calves from eac...

103

Mapping QTL for resistance to eyespot of wheat in Aegilops longissima.  

PubMed

Eyespot is an economically important disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungi Oculimacula yallundae and O. acuformis. These pathogens infect and colonize the stem base, which results in lodging of diseased plants and reduced grain yield. Disease resistant cultivars are the most desirable control method, but resistance genes are limited in the wheat gene pool. Some accessions of the wheat wild relative Aegilops longissima are resistant to eyespot, but nothing is known about the genetic control of resistance. A recombinant inbred line population was developed from the cross PI 542196 (R) × PI 330486 (S) to map the resistance genes and better understand resistance in Ae. longissima. A genetic linkage map of the S(l) genome was constructed with 169 wheat microsatellite markers covering 1261.3 cM in 7 groups. F(5) lines (189) were tested for reaction to O. yallundae and four QTL were detected in chromosomes 1S(l), 3S(l), 5S(l), and 7S(l). These QTL explained 44 % of the total phenotypic variation in reaction to eyespot based on GUS scores and 63 % for visual disease ratings. These results demonstrate that genetic control of O. yallundae resistance in Ae. longissima is polygenic. This is the first report of multiple QTL conferring resistance to eyespot in Ae. longissima. Markers cfd6, wmc597, wmc415, and cfd2 are tightly linked to Q.Pch.wsu-1S ( l ), Q.Pch.wsu-3S ( l ), Q.Pch.wsu-5S ( l ), and Q.Pch.wsu-7S ( l ), respectively. These markers may be useful in marker-assisted selection for transferring resistance genes to wheat to increase the effectiveness of resistance and broaden the genetic diversity of eyespot resistance. PMID:22406981

Sheng, Hongyan; See, Deven R; Murray, Timothy D

2012-03-11

104

The mouse QTL map helps interpret human genome-wide association studies for HDL cholesterol.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful strategy for identifying susceptibility genes for complex diseases in human populations but results must be confirmed and replicated. Because of the close homology between mouse and human genomes, the mouse can be used to add evidence to genes suggested by human studies. We used the mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) map to interpret results from a GWA study for genes associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. We first positioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a human GWA study on the genomic map for mouse HDL QTL. We then used mouse bioinformatics, sequencing, and expression studies to add evidence for one well-known HDL gene (Abca1) and three newly identified genes (Galnt2, Wwox, and Cdh13), thus supporting the results of the human study. For GWA peaks that occur in human haplotype blocks with multiple genes, we examined the homologous regions in the mouse to prioritize the genes using expression, sequencing, and bioinformatics from the mouse model, showing that some genes were unlikely candidates and adding evidence for candidate genes Mvk and Mmab in one haplotype block and Fads1 and Fads2 in the second haplotype block. Our study highlights the value of mouse genetics for evaluating genes found in human GWA studies. PMID:21444760

Leduc, Magalie S; Lyons, Malcolm; Darvishi, Katayoon; Walsh, Kenneth; Sheehan, Susan; Amend, Sarah; Cox, Allison; Orho-Melander, Marju; Kathiresan, Sekar; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

2011-03-28

105

Genetic map construction and QTL mapping of resistance to blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) disease in Australian canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars.  

PubMed

Genetic map construction and identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for blackleg resistance were performed for four mapping populations derived from five different canola source cultivars. Three of the populations were generated from crosses between single genotypes from the blackleg-resistant cultivars Caiman, Camberra and (AV)Sapphire and the blackleg-susceptible cultivar Westar(10). The fourth population was derived from a cross between genotypes from two blackleg resistant varieties (Rainbow and (AV)Sapphire). Different types of DNA-based markers were designed and characterised from a collection of 20,000 EST sequences generated from multiple Brassica species, including a new set of 445 EST-SSR markers of high value to the international community. Multiple molecular genetic marker systems were used to construct linkage maps with locus numbers varying between 219 and 468, and coverage ranging from 1173 to 1800 cM. The proportion of polymorphic markers assigned to map locations varied from 70 to 89% across the four populations. Publicly available simple sequence repeat markers were used to assign linkage groups to reference nomenclature, and a sub-set of mapped markers were also screened on the Tapidor x Ningyou (T x N) reference population to assist this process. QTL analysis was performed based on percentage survival at low and high disease pressure sites. Multiple QTLs were identified across the four mapping populations, accounting for 13-33% of phenotypic variance (V (p)). QTL-linked marker data are suitable for implementation in breeding for disease resistance in Australian canola cultivars. However, the likelihood of shifts in pathogen race structure across different geographical locations may have implications for the long-term durability of such associations. PMID:19821065

Kaur, S; Cogan, N O I; Ye, G; Baillie, R C; Hand, M L; Ling, A E; McGearey, A K; Kaur, J; Hopkins, C J; Todorovic, M; Mountford, H; Edwards, D; Batley, J; Burton, W; Salisbury, P; Gororo, N; Marcroft, S; Kearney, G; Smith, K F; Forster, J W; Spangenberg, G C

2009-10-11

106

Overview of the MHC fine mapping data  

PubMed Central

Aim The aim of this study was to perform quality control (QC) and initial family-based association analyses on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and microsatellite marker data for the MHC Fine Mapping Workshop through the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium (T1DGC). Methods A random sample of blind duplicates was sent for analysis of QC. DNA samples collected from participants were shipped to the genotyping laboratory from several T1DGC DNA Repository sites. Quality checks including examination of plate-panel yield, marker yield, Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, mismatch error rate, Mendelian error rate and allele distribution across plates were performed. Results Genotypes from 2325 families within nine cohorts were obtained and subjected to QC procedures. The MHC project consisted of three marker panels – two 1536 SNP sets (Illumina Golden Gate platform performed at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Cambridge, UK) and one 66 microsatellite marker panel (performed at deCODE). In the raw SNP data, the overall concordance rate was 99.1% (±0.02). Conclusions The T1DGC MHC Fine Mapping project resulted in a 2300 family, 9992 genotyped individuals database comprising of two 1536 SNP panels and a 66 microsatellite panel to densely cover the 4 Mb MHC core region for use in statistical genetic analyses.

Brown, W. M.; Pierce, J.; Hilner, J. E.; Perdue, L. H.; Lohman, K.; Li, L.; Venkatesh, R. B.; Hunt, S.; Mychaleckyj, J. C.; Deloukas, P.

2009-01-01

107

Association mapping of common bacterial blight resistance QTL in Ontario bean breeding populations  

PubMed Central

Background Common bacterial blight (CBB), incited by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. phaseoli (Xap), is a major yield-limiting factor of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production around the world. Host resistance is practically the most effective and environmentally-sound approach to control CBB. Unlike conventional QTL discovery strategies, in which bi-parental populations (F2, RIL, or DH) need to be developed, association mapping-based strategies can use plant breeding populations to synchronize QTL discovery and cultivar development. Results A population of 469 dry bean lines of different market classes representing plant materials routinely developed in a bean breeding program were used. Of them, 395 lines were evaluated for CBB resistance at 14 and 21 DAI (Days After Inoculation) in the summer of 2009 in an artificially inoculated CBB nursery in south-western Ontario. All lines were genotyped using 132 SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms) evenly distributed across the genome. Of the 132 SNPs, 26 SNPs had more than 20% missing data, 12 SNPs were monomorphic, and 17 SNPs had a MAF (Minor Allelic Frequency) of less than 0.20, therefore only 75 SNPs were used for association study, based on one SNP per locus. The best possible population structure was to assign 36% and 64% of the lines into Andean and Mesoamerican subgroups, respectively. Kinship analysis also revealed complex familial relationships among all lines, which corresponds with the known pedigree history. MLM (Mixed Linear Model) analysis, including population structure and kinship, was used to discover marker-trait associations. Eighteen and 22 markers were significantly associated with CBB rating at 14 and 21 DAI, respectively. Fourteen markers were significant for both dates and the markers UBC420, SU91, g321, g471, and g796 were highly significant (p ? 0.001). Furthermore, 12 significant SNP markers were co-localized with or close to the CBB-QTLs identified previously in bi-parental QTL mapping studies. Conclusions This study demonstrated that association mapping using a reasonable number of markers, distributed across the genome and with application of plant materials that are routinely developed in a plant breeding program can detect significant QTLs for traits of interest.

2011-01-01

108

Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats  

PubMed Central

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D.

Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

2012-01-01

109

QTL detection for forage quality and stem histology in four connected mapping populations of the model legume Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

Forage quality combines traits related to protein content and energy value. High-quality forages contribute to increase farm autonomy by reducing the use of energy or protein-rich supplements. Genetic analyses in forage legume species are complex because of their tetraploidy and allogamy. Indeed, no genetic studies of quality have been published at the molecular level on these species. Nonetheless, mapping populations of the model species M. truncatula can be used to detect QTL for forage quality. Here, we studied a crossing design involving four connected populations of M. truncatula. Each population was composed of ca. 200 recombinant inbred lines (RIL). We sought population-specific QTL and QTL explaining the whole design variation. We grew parents and RIL in a greenhouse for 2 or 3 seasons and analysed plants for chemical composition of vegetative organs (protein content, digestibility, leaf-to-stem ratio) and stem histology (stem cross-section area, tissue proportions). Over the four populations and all the traits, QTL were found on all chromosomes. Among these QTL, only four genomic regions, on chromosomes 1, 3, 7 and 8, contributed to explaining the variations in the whole crossing design. Surprisingly, we found that quality QTL were located in the same genomic regions as morphological QTL. We thus confirmed the quantitative inheritance of quality traits and tight relationships between quality and morphology. Our findings could be explained by a co-location of genes involved in quality and morphology. This study will help to detect candidate genes involved in quantitative variation for quality in forage legume species. PMID:23099818

Lagunes Espinoza, Luz Del Carmen; Julier, Bernadette

2012-10-26

110

QTL consistency and meta-analysis for grain yield components in three generations in maize.  

PubMed

Grain yield is the most important and complex trait in maize. In this study, a total of 258 F(9) recombinant inbred lines (RIL), derived from a cross between dent corn inbred Dan232 and popcorn inbred N04, were evaluated for eight grain yield components under four environments. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their epistatic interactions were detected for all traits under each environment and in combined analysis. Meta-analysis was used to integrate genetic maps and detected QTL across three generations (RIL, F(2:3) and BC(2)F(2)) derived from the same cross. In total, 103 QTL, 42 pairs of epistatic interactions and 16 meta-QTL (mQTL) were detected. Twelve out of 13 QTL with contributions (R(2)) over 15% were consistently detected in 3-4 environments (or in combined analysis) and integrated in mQTL. Only q100GW-7-1 was detected in all four environments and in combined analysis. 100qGW-1-1 had the largest R(2) (19.3-24.6%) in three environments and in combined analysis. In contrast, 35 QTL for 6 grain yield components were detected in the BC(2)F(2) and F(2:3) generations, no common QTL across three generations were located in the same marker intervals. Only 100 grain weight (100GW) QTL on chromosome 5 were located in adjacent marker intervals. Four common QTL were detected across the RIL and F(2:3) generations, and two between the RIL and BC(2)F(2) generations. Each of five important mQTL (mQTL7-1, mQTL10-2, mQTL4-1, mQTL5-1 and mQTL1-3) included 7-12 QTL associated with 2-6 traits. In conclusion, we found evidence of strong influence of genetic structure and environment on QTL detection, high consistency of major QTL across environments and generations, and remarkable QTL co-location for grain yield components. Fine mapping for five major QTL (q100GW-1-1, q100GW-7-1, qGWP-4-1, qERN-4-1 and qKR-4-1) and construction of single chromosome segment lines for genetic regions of five mQTL merit further studies and could be put into use in marker-assisted breeding. PMID:21063866

Li, J Z; Zhang, Z W; Li, Y L; Wang, Q L; Zhou, Y G

2010-11-10

111

Conditional and unconditional QTL mapping of drought-tolerance-related traits of wheat seedling using two related RIL populations.  

PubMed

For discovering the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to early seedling growth and drought tolerance during germination, conditional and unconditional analyses of 12 traits of wheat seedlings: coleoptile length, seedling height, longest root length, root number, seedling fresh weight, stem and leaves fresh weight, root fresh weight, seedling dry weight, stem and leaves dry weight, root dry weight, root to shoot fresh weight ratio, root-to-shoot dry weight ratio, were conducted under two water conditions using two F8:9 recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations. The results of unconditional analysis are as follows: 88 QTLs accounting for 3.33-77.01% of the phenotypic variations were detected on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3A, 3B, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5B, 5D, 6A, 6B, 6D, 7A, 7B and 7D. Among these QTLs, 19 were main-effect QTLs with a contribution rate greater than 10%. The results of the conditional QTL analysis of 12 traits under osmotic stress on normal water conditions were as follows: altogether 22 QTLs concerned with drought tolerance were detected on chromosomes 1B, 2A, 2B, 3B, 4A, 5D, 6A, 6D, 7B, and 7D. Of these QTLs, six were main-effect QTLs. These 22 QTLs were all special loci directly concerned with drought tolerance and most of them could not be detected by unconditional analysis. The finding of these QTLs has an important significance for fine-mapping technique, map-based cloning, and molecular marker-assisted selection of early seedling traits, such as growth and drought tolerance. PMID:23970077

Zhang, Hong; Cui, Fa; Wang, Lin; Li, Jun; Ding, Anming; Zhao, Chunhua; Bao, Yinguang; Yang, Qiuping; Wang, Honggang

2013-08-01

112

solQTL: a tool for QTL analysis, visualization and linking to genomes at SGN database  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: A common approach to understanding the genetic basis of complex traits is through identification of associated quantitative trait loci (QTL). Fine mapping QTLs requires several generations of backcrosses and analysis of large populations, which is time-consuming and costly effort. Furthermore, as entire genomes are being sequenced and an increasing amount of genetic and expression data are being generated, a

Isaak Y. Tecle; Naama Menda; Robert M. Buels; Esther van der Knaap; Lukas A. Mueller

2010-01-01

113

Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.  

PubMed

Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutum × G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense × G. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19 % of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

2013-03-08

114

Radiation hybrid QTL mapping of Tdes2 involved in the first meiotic division of wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Since the dawn of wheat cytogenetics, chromosome 3B has been known to harbor a gene(s) that, when removed, caused chromosome desynapsis and gametic sterility. The lack of natural genetic diversity for this gene(s) has prevented any attempts to fine map and further characterize it. Here, gamma radiat...

115

Development of Genetic Markers Linked to Straighthead Resistance through Fine Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)  

PubMed Central

Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance.

Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

2012-01-01

116

GENOME-WIDE LINKAGE AND QTL MAPPING IN CHICKEN F2 POPULATIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A genome scan was used to identify chromosomal regions and eventually quantitative trait loci (QTL) that affect quantitative traits of economic importance. Two informative chicken F2 populations generated from broiler, Leghorn, and Fayoumi lines have been used for genome-wide linkage and QTL analys...

117

Fine mapping of qhir1 influencing in vivo haploid induction in maize.  

PubMed

Production of haploids by the in vivo haploid induction method has now become routine for generating new inbred lines in maize. In previous studies, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) (qhir1) located in bin 1.04 was detected, explaining up to 66 % of the genotypic variance for haploid induction rate (HIR). Our objectives were to (1) fine-map qhir1 and (2) identify closely linked markers useful for marker-assisted breeding of new inducers. For this purpose, we screened a mapping population of 14,375 F2 plants produced from a cross between haploid inducer UH400 and non-inducer line 1680 to identify recombinants. Based on sequence information from the B73 reference genome, markers polymorphic between the two parents were developed to conduct fine mapping with these recombinants. A progeny test mapping strategy was applied to accurately determine the HIR of the 14 recombinants identified. Furthermore, F3 progeny of recombinant F2 plants were genotyped and in parallel evaluated for HIR. We corroborated earlier studies in that qhir1 has both a significantly positive effect on HIR but also a strong selective disadvantage, as indicated by significant segregation distortion. Altogether, we were able to narrow down the qhir1 locus to a 243 kb region flanked by markers X291 and X263. PMID:23539086

Dong, X; Xu, X; Miao, J; Li, L; Zhang, D; Mi, X; Liu, C; Tian, X; Melchinger, A E; Chen, S

2013-03-29

118

QTL mapping of yield-associated traits in Brassica juncea: meta-analysis and epistatic interactions using two different crosses between east European and Indian gene pool lines.  

PubMed

Genetic analysis of 12 yield-associated traits was undertaken by dissection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) through meta-analysis and epistatic interaction studies in Brassica juncea. A consensus (integrated) map in B. juncea was constructed using two maps. These were VH map, developed earlier in the laboratory by using a DH population from the cross between Varuna and Heera (Pradhan et al. in Theor Appl Genet 106:607-614, 2003; Ramchiary et al. in Theor Appl Genet. 115:807-817, 2007; Panjabi et al. in BMC Genomics 9:113, 2008), and the TD map, developed in the present study using a DH population of 100 lines from the cross between TM-4 and Donskaja-IV. The TD map was constructed with 911 markers consisting of 585 AFLP, 8 SSR and 318 IP markers covering a total genome length of 1,629.9 cM. The consensus map constructed by using the common markers between the two maps contained a total of 2,662 markers and covered a total genome length of 1,927.1 cM. Firstly, QTL analysis of 12 yield-associated traits was undertaken for the TD population based on three-environment phenotypic data. Secondly, the three-environment phenotypic data for the same 12 quantitative traits generated by Ramchiary et al. (2007) were re-analyzed for the QTL detection in the VH map. Comparative analysis identified both common and population-specific QTL. The study revealed the presence of QTL clusters on LG A7, A8 and A10 in both TD and VH maps. Meta-analyses resolved 187 QTL distributed over nine linkage groups of TD and VH maps into 20 meta-QTL. Maximum resolution was recorded for the LG A10 wherein all the 54 QTL were mapped to a single meta-QTL within a confidence interval of 3.0 cM. Digenic epistatic interactions of QTL in both TD and VH maps revealed substantial additive × additive interactions showing a higher frequency of Type 1 and Type 2 interactions than Type 3 interactions. Some of the loci interacted with more than one locus indicating the presence of higher order epistatic interactions. These findings provided some detailed insight into the genetic architecture of the yield-associated traits in B. juncea. PMID:22821338

Yadava, Satish Kumar; Arumugam, N; Mukhopadhyay, Arundhati; Sodhi, Yashpal Singh; Gupta, Vibha; Pental, Deepak; Pradhan, Akshay K

2012-07-22

119

Genetic mapping of a new heart rate QTL on chromosome 8 of spontaneously hypertensive rats  

PubMed Central

Background Tachycardia is commonly observed in hypertensive patients, predominantly mediated by regulatory mechanisms integrated within the autonomic nervous system. The genetic loci and genes associated with increased heart rate in hypertension, however, have not yet been identified. Methods An F2 intercross of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR) × Brown Norway (BN) linkage analysis of quantitative trait loci mapping was utilized to identify candidate genes associated with an increased heart rate in arterial hypertension. Results Basal heart rate in SHR was higher compared to that of normotensive BN rats (365 ± 3 vs. 314 ± 6 bpm, p < 0.05 for SHR and BN, respectively). A total genome scan identified one quantitative trait locus in a 6.78 cM interval on rat chromosome 8 (8q22–q24) that was responsible for elevated heart rate. This interval contained 241 genes, of which 65 are known genes. Conclusion Our data suggest that an influential genetic region located on the rat chromosome 8 contributes to the regulation of heart rate. Candidate genes that have previously been associated with tachycardia and/or hypertension were found within this QTL, strengthening our hypothesis that these genes are, potentially, associated with the increase in heart rate in a hypertension rat model.

Silva, Gustavo JJ; Pereira, Alexandre C; Krieger, Eduardo M; Krieger, Jose E

2007-01-01

120

[Molecular mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for characters of vascular bundles in peduncle related to indica-japonica differentiation in rice (Oryza sativa L.)].  

PubMed

A doubled-haploid population, consisting of 81 DH lines derived from the F1 hybrid of a cross between an indica cultivar and a japonica cultivar, was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling numbers of vascular bundles in peduncle, primary rachis branches and the ratio of vascular bundles to primary rachis branches (V/R ratio). For vascular bundles, three QTL were detected. Among them, the QTL qVB-8 with the largest effect individually accounted for 31.1% of the total variation. Two QTL controlling primary rachis branches were identified and they were co-located with 2 of the 3 QTL for vascular bundles respectively. Three QTL for the V/R ratio were mapped on chromosome 1, 2 and 8, respectively. Of the three QTL, the QTL qV/R-1 with the largest additive effect, explained 25.3% of the total variation, was located on chromosome 1 and found to be closely linked to the gene sh-2, a major gene underlying grain-shattering ability. In addition, four and two pairs of significant epistatic QTL were detected for vascular bundles and the V/R ratio, respectively, but none for rachis branches. Our results suggested that the numbers of vascular bundles and primary rachis branches were independently controlled by different polygenic systems, but the two polygenic systems shared a fraction of quantitative trait loci. It was also shown that the chromosome region carrying the QTL qV/R-1 on chromosome 1 might play an important role in the processes of indica-japonica differentiation in rice. PMID:12645263

Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Li, Ping; Wang, Ling-Xia; Hu, Zhong-Li; Zhu, Ying-Guo; Zhu, Li-Huang

2002-01-01

121

QTL mapping of grain quality traits from the interspecific cross Oryza sativa x O. glaberrima.  

PubMed

International rice export markets are increasing demands for rapid improvements in grain quality characteristics. The African rice Oryza glaberrima is a new potential source of genes that will enhance the eating, cooking, and milling properties of the rice grain. The objective of this research was to identify and characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) among 312 doubled haploid lines derived from the BC3F1 of an interspecific cross of O. sativa x O. glaberrima. Genetic material was planted in replicated plots and evaluated for ten grain quality traits in 2001 in Colombia. A linkage map was constructed with 100 polymorphic microsatellite markers using the mapdisto software program to adjust for segregation distortion. Transgressive segregation was observed for all traits. Interval and composite interval analyses identified 27 QTLs for nine characters located on 11/12 chromosomes. The chromosomal positions of QTLs for percentage amylose, alkali-spreading score, and percentage protein were in agreement with data reported by others, whereas QTL markers for percentage head rice, percentage milled rice, percentage protein, and percentage brown rice were different in our mapping population. Five major QTLs were found to be associated with improved percentage rice bran, percentage amylose, and alkali-spreading score. Seven QTLs for improved percentage rice bran, percentage milled rice, alkali-spreading score, percentage protein, and grain length/width ratio were derived from the O. glaberrima accession. Three new QTLs for percentage rice bran are reported here for the first time. Results from this study suggest that the African rice might be a valuable new source for introgression and improvement of several traits that affect quality traits demanded by the different rice export markets. PMID:15105992

Aluko, G; Martinez, C; Tohme, J; Castano, C; Bergman, C; Oard, J H

2004-04-23

122

Mapping QTL for seed yield and canning quality following processing of black bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted to identify QTL for seed yield and color retention following processing\\u000a of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) black bean population. A population of 96 RILs were derived from the cross of black bean\\u000a cultivars ‘Jaguar’ and 115M and evaluated in replicated trials at one location over 4 years (2004–2007) in Michigan. A 119-point\\u000a genetic

E. M. Wright; J. D. Kelly

2011-01-01

123

Genetic variability and QTL mapping of freezing tolerance and related traits in Medicago truncatula.  

PubMed

Freezing is a major environmental limitation to crop productivity for a number of species including legumes. We investigated the genetic determinism of freezing tolerance in the model legume Medicago truncatula Gaertn (M. truncatula). After having observed a large variation for freezing tolerance among 15 M. truncatula accessions, the progeny of a F6 recombinant inbred line population, derived from a cross between two accessions, was acclimated to low above-freezing temperatures and assessed for: (a) number of leaves (NOL), leaf area (LA), chlorophyll content index (CCI), shoot and root dry weights (SDW and RDW) at the end of the acclimation period and (b) visual freezing damage (FD) during the freezing treatment and 2 weeks after regrowth and foliar electrolyte leakage (EL) 2 weeks after regrowth. Consistent QTL positions with additive effects for FD were found on LG1, LG4 and LG6, the latter being the most explanatory (R (2) ? 40 %). QTL for NOL, QTL for EL, NOL and RDW, and QTL for EL and CCI colocalized with FD QTL on LG1, LG4 and LG6, respectively. Favorable alleles for these additive effects were brought by the same parent suggesting that this accession contributes to superior freezing tolerance by affecting plants' capacity to maintain growth at low above-freezing temperatures. No epistatic effects were found between FD QTL, but for each of the studied traits, 3-6 epistatic effects were detected between loci not detected directly as QTL. These results open the way to the assessment of syntenic relationships between QTL for frost tolerance in M. truncatula and cultivated legume species. PMID:23778689

Avia, Komlan; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Bahrman, Nasser; Baranger, Alain; Delbreil, Bruno; Fontaine, Véronique; Hamon, Céline; Hanocq, Eric; Niarquin, Martine; Sellier, Hélène; Vuylsteker, Christophe; Prosperi, Jean-Marie; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle

2013-06-19

124

QTL mapping for developmental behavior of plant height in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population with 305 lines derived from a cross of Hanxuan 10 × Lumai 14 was used to identify\\u000a the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) for plant height (PH) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Plant heights of RILs were measured at five stages in three environments. Total of seven genomic regions covering PH\\u000a QTL clusters on different chromosomes

Zhenghang WangXianshan; Xianshan Wu; Qian Ren; Xiaoping Chang; Runzhi Li; Ruilian Jing

2010-01-01

125

Advanced backcross QTL mapping of resistance to Fusarium head blight and plant morphological traits in a Triticum macha × T. aestivum population.  

PubMed

While many reports on genetic analysis of Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance in bread wheat have been published during the past decade, only limited information is available on FHB resistance derived from wheat relatives. In this contribution, we report on the genetic analysis of FHB resistance derived from Triticum macha (Georgian spelt wheat). As the origin of T. macha is in the Caucasian region, it is supposed that its FHB resistance differs from other well-investigated resistance sources. To introduce valuable alleles from the landrace T. macha into a modern genetic background, we adopted an advanced backcross QTL mapping scheme. A backcross-derived recombinant-inbred line population of 321 BC(2)F(3) lines was developed from a cross of T. macha with the Austrian winter wheat cultivar Furore. The population was evaluated for Fusarium resistance in seven field experiments during four seasons using artificial inoculations. A total of 300 lines of the population were genetically fingerprinted using SSR and AFLP markers. The resulting linkage map covered 33 linkage groups with 560 markers. Five novel FHB-resistance QTL, all descending from T. macha, were found on four chromosomes (2A, 2B, 5A, 5B). Several QTL for morphological and developmental traits were mapped in the same population, which partly overlapped with FHB-resistance QTL. Only the 2BL FHB-resistance QTL co-located with a plant height QTL. The largest-effect FHB-resistance QTL in this population mapped at the spelt-type locus on chromosome 5A and was associated with the wild-type allele q, but it is unclear whether q has a pleiotropic effect on FHB resistance or is closely linked to a nearby resistance QTL. PMID:21479934

Buerstmayr, Maria; Lemmens, Marc; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

2011-04-11

126

Construction of a linkage map and QTL analysis of horticultural traits for watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (THUNB.) MATSUM & NAKAI] using RAPD, RFLP and ISSR markers.  

PubMed

We have been constructing linkage maps for watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus) on the basis of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) and isozymes using an F(2) population derived from a crossing between a cultivated inbred line (H-7; C. lanatus) and an African wild form (SA-1; C. lanatus). A total of 120 F(2) plants was used for construction of a linkage map using 477 RAPDs, 53 RFLPs, 23 ISSRs and one isozyme markers. Linkage analysis revealed that 554 loci could be mapped to 11 linkage groups that extended for 2,384 centimorgans (cM). While a BC(1) population [(H-7 x SA-1) x H-7] consisting of 60 individuals was grown and scored for quantitative traits. Another linkage map with a total length of 1,729 cM was constructed in the BC(1) using genetic markers found to segregate in the F(2) population. A QTL analysis was applied by means of interval mapping for locating such agronomic traits as hardness of rind, Brix of flesh juice, flesh color (red and yellow) and rind color. The relative order of markers in the BC(1) map was essentially the same as that on the linkage map in the F(2). A total of five QTLs for four agronomic traits was detected. The QTL for hardness of rind was mapped on group 4. The linkage group 8 contained the QTL for sugar content of the flesh as expressed in Brix of the juice. The QTL for red flesh color was detected on groups 2 and 8. The QTL for rind color mapped on the group 3. The present map and QTL analysis may provide a useful tool for breeders by introducing valuable wild watermelon genes to cultivars. PMID:12647050

Hashizume, T; Shimamoto, I; Hirai, M

2003-02-07

127

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping of resistance to strongyles and coccidia in the free-living Soay sheep (Ovis aries).  

PubMed

A genome-wide scan was performed to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasitic keds segregating in the free-living Soay sheep population on St. Kilda (UK). The mapping panel consisted of a single pedigree of 882 individuals of which 588 were genotyped. The Soay linkage map used for the scans comprised 251 markers covering the whole genome at average spacing of 15cM. The traits here investigated were the strongyle faecal egg count (FEC), the coccidia faecal oocyst count (FOC) and a count of keds (Melophagus ovinus). QTL mapping was performed by means of variance component analysis so that the genetic parameters of the study traits were also estimated and compared with previous studies in Soay and domestic sheep. Strongyle FEC and coccidia FOC showed moderate heritability (h(2)=0.26 and 0.22, respectively) in lambs but low heritability in adults (h(2)<0.10). Ked count appeared to have very low h(2) in both lambs and adults. Genome scans were performed for the traits with moderate heritability and two genomic regions reached the level of suggestive linkage for coccidia FOC in lambs (logarithm of the odds=2.68 and 2.21 on chromosomes 3 and X, respectively). We believe this is the first study to report a QTL search for parasite resistance in a free-living animal population and therefore may represent a useful reference for similar studies aimed at understanding the genetics of host-parasite co-evolution in the wild. PMID:17067607

Beraldi, Dario; McRae, Allan F; Gratten, Jacob; Pilkington, Jill G; Slate, Jon; Visscher, Peter M; Pemberton, Josephine M

2006-10-10

128

A fast algorithm for estimating transmission probabilities in QTL detection designs with dense maps  

PubMed Central

Background In the case of an autosomal locus, four transmission events from the parents to progeny are possible, specified by the grand parental origin of the alleles inherited by this individual. Computing the probabilities of these transmission events is essential to perform QTL detection methods. Results A fast algorithm for the estimation of these probabilities conditional to parental phases has been developed. It is adapted to classical QTL detection designs applied to outbred populations, in particular to designs composed of half and/or full sib families. It assumes the absence of interference. Conclusion The theory is fully developed and an example is given.

2009-01-01

129

QTL mapping of vernalization response in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) reveals co-location with an orthologue of wheat VRN1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the vernalization response in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.). The mapping population consisted of 184 F 2 genotypes produced from a cross between one genotype of a synthetic perennial ryegrass variety “Veyo” and one genotype from the perennial ryegrass ecotype “Falster”. Veyo and Falster were chosen

Louise Bach Jensen; Jeppe Reitan Andersen; Ursula Frei; Yongzhong Xing; Chris Taylor; Preben Bach Holm; Thomas Lübberstedt

2005-01-01

130

Mapping QTL Using Naturally Occurring Genetic Variance among Commercial Inbred Lines of Maize (Zea mays L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract ,There are many commercial inbred lines available in crops. Large amount of genetic variation is preserved among,these lines. The genealogical history of the inbred lines is usually well documented. However, quantitative trait loci (QTL) responsible for the genetic variances among,the lines are largely unexplored due to lack of statistical methods. In this study, we show that the pedigree information

Yuan-Ming Zhang; Yongcai Mao; Chongqing Xie; Howie Smith; Lang Luo; Shizhong Xu

2005-01-01

131

Genetic and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance in cotton  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] causes a vascular wilt disease that significantly reduces yield in cotton (Gossypium spp.). Host-plant resistance can be highly effective in limiting FOV-induced yield loss. We conducted genetic and QTL analyses of FOV race 1 resistance by ...

132

COMPARATIVE MAPPING OF A REGION ON CHROMOSOME 10 CONTAINING QTL FOR REPRODUCTION IN SWINE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important reproductive traits (age of puberty, ovulation rate, nipple number and plasma FSH) have been identified on the long arm of porcine chromosome 10. Bi-directional chromosome painting has shown that this region is homologous to human chromosome 10p. ...

133

An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

134

Mapping QTL of Root Morphological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Rice  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Roots are a vital organ for absorbing soil moisture and nutrients and influencing drought resistance. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) with molecular markers may allow the estimation of parameters of genetic architecture and improve root traits by molecular marker-assisted selecti...

135

Genetic mapping of QTL for resistance to Fusarium head blight spread (type 2 resistance) in a Triticum dicoccoides × Triticum durum backcross-derived population.  

PubMed

Improvement of resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a continuous challenge for durum wheat breeders, particularly due to the limited genetic variation within this crop species. We accordingly generated a backcross-derived mapping population using the type 2 FHB resistant Triticum dicoccoides line Mt. Gerizim #36 as donor and the modern Austrian T. durum cultivar Helidur as recipient; 103 BC1F6:7 lines were phenotyped for type 2 FHB resistance using single-spikelet inoculations and genotyped with 421 DNA markers (SSR and AFLP). QTL mapping revealed two highly significant QTL, mapping to chromosomes 3A and 6B, respectively. For both QTL the T. dicoccoides allele improved type 2 FHB resistance. Recombinant lines with both favorable alleles fixed conferred high resistance to FHB similar to that observed in the T. dicoccoides parent. The results appear directly applicable for durum wheat resistance breeding. PMID:23921957

Buerstmayr, Maria; Alimari, Abdallah; Steiner, Barbara; Buerstmayr, Hermann

2013-08-07

136

QTL mapping based on different genetic systems for essential amino acid contents in cottonseeds in different environments.  

PubMed

Cottonseeds are rich in various essential amino acids. However, the inheritance of them at molecular level are still not defined across various genetic systems. In the present study, using a newly developed mapping model that can analyze the embryo and maternal main effects as well as QTL × environment interaction effects on quantitative quality trait loci (QTLs) in cottonseeds, a study on QTL located in the tetraploid embryo and tetraploid maternal plant genomes for essential amino acid contents in cottonseeds under different environments was carried out, using the immortal F2 (IF2) populations from a set of 188 recombinant inbred lines derived from an intraspecific hybrid cross of two upland cotton germplasms HS46 and MARKCBUCAG8US-1-88 as experimental materials. The results showed a total of 35 QTLs associated with these quality traits in cottonseeds. Nineteen QTLs were subsequently mapped on chromosome 5, 6 and 8 in sub-A genome and chromosome 15, 18, 22 and 23 in sub-D genome. Eighteen QTLs were also found having QTL × environment (QE) interaction effects. The genetic main effects from QTLs located on chromosomes in the embryo and maternal plant genomes and their QE effects in different environments were all important for these essential amino acids in cottonseeds. The results suggested that the influence of environmental factors on the expression of some QTLs located in different genetic systems should be considered when improving for these amino acids. This study can serve as the foundation for the improvement of these essential amino acids in cottonseeds. PMID:23555562

Liu, Haiying; Quampah, Alfred; Chen, Jinhong; Li, Jinrong; Huang, Zhuangrong; He, Qiuling; Zhu, Shuijin; Shi, Chunhai

2013-03-29

137

Mapping QTL affecting resistance to Marek's disease in an F6 advanced intercross population of commercial layer chickens  

PubMed Central

Background Marek's disease (MD) is a T-cell lymphoma of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic avian herpesvirus. MD is a major cause of economic loss to the poultry industry and the most serious and persistent infectious disease concern. A full-sib intercross population, consisting of five independent families was generated by crossing and repeated intercrossing of two partially inbred commercial White Leghorn layer lines known to differ in genetic resistance to MD. At the F6 generation, a total of 1615 chicks were produced (98 to 248 per family) and phenotyped for MD resistance measured as survival time in days after challenge with a very virulent plus (vv+) strain of MDV. Results QTL affecting MD resistance were identified by selective DNA pooling using a panel of 15 SNPs and 217 microsatellite markers. Since MHC blood type (BT) is known to affect MD resistance, a total of 18 independent pool pairs were constructed according to family × BT combination, with some combinations represented twice for technical reasons. Twenty-one QTL regions (QTLR) affecting post-challenge survival time were identified, distributed among 11 chromosomes (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15, 18, 26 and Z), with about two-thirds of the MD resistance alleles derived from the more MD resistant parental line. Eight of the QTLR associated with MD resistance, were previously identified in a backcross (BC) mapping study with the same parental lines. Of these, 7 originated from the more resistant line, and one from the less resistant line. Conclusion There was considerable evidence suggesting that MD resistance alleles tend to be recessive. The width of the QTLR for these QTL appeared to be reduced about two-fold in the F6 as compared to that found in the previous BC study. These results provide a firm basis for high-resolution linkage disequilibrium mapping and positional cloning of the resistance genes.

Heifetz, Eliyahu M; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Arthur, James A; Cheng, Hans; Wang, Jing; Soller, Morris; Dekkers, Jack CM

2009-01-01

138

The mouse QTL map helps interpret human genome-wide association studies for HDL cholesterol[S  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association (GWA) studies represent a powerful strategy for identifying susceptibility genes for complex diseases in human populations but results must be confirmed and replicated. Because of the close homology between mouse and human genomes, the mouse can be used to add evidence to genes suggested by human studies. We used the mouse quantitative trait loci (QTL) map to interpret results from a GWA study for genes associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. We first positioned single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from a human GWA study on the genomic map for mouse HDL QTL. We then used mouse bioinformatics, sequencing, and expression studies to add evidence for one well-known HDL gene (Abca1) and three newly identified genes (Galnt2, Wwox, and Cdh13), thus supporting the results of the human study. For GWA peaks that occur in human haplotype blocks with multiple genes, we examined the homologous regions in the mouse to prioritize the genes using expression, sequencing, and bioinformatics from the mouse model, showing that some genes were unlikely candidates and adding evidence for candidate genes Mvk and Mmab in one haplotype block and Fads1 and Fads2 in the second haplotype block. Our study highlights the value of mouse genetics for evaluating genes found in human GWA studies.

Leduc, Magalie S.; Lyons, Malcolm; Darvishi, Katayoon; Walsh, Kenneth; Sheehan, Susan; Amend, Sarah; Cox, Allison; Orho-Melander, Marju; Kathiresan, Sekar; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

2011-01-01

139

Fine-grained nociceptive maps in primary somatosensory cortex.  

PubMed

Topographic maps of the receptive surface are a fundamental feature of neural organization in many sensory systems. While touch is finely mapped in the cerebral cortex, it remains controversial how precise any cortical nociceptive map may be. Given that nociceptive innervation density is relatively low on distal skin regions such as the digits, one might conclude that the nociceptive system lacks fine representation of these regions. Indeed, only gross spatial organization of nociceptive maps has been reported so far. However, here we reveal the existence of fine-grained somatotopy for nociceptive inputs to the digits in human primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Using painful nociceptive-selective laser stimuli to the hand, and phase-encoded functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis methods, we observed somatotopic maps of the digits in contralateral SI. These nociceptive maps were highly aligned with maps of non-painful tactile stimuli, suggesting comparable cortical representations for, and possible interactions between, mechanoreceptive and nociceptive signals. Our findings may also be valuable for future studies tracking the time course and the spatial pattern of plastic changes in cortical organization involved in chronic pain. PMID:23197708

Mancini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Longo, Matthew R; Sereno, Martin I

2012-11-28

140

Fine-grained nociceptive maps in primary somatosensory cortex  

PubMed Central

Topographic maps of the receptive surface are a fundamental feature of neural organization in many sensory systems. While touch is finely mapped in the cerebral cortex, it remains controversial how precise any cortical nociceptive map may be. Given that nociceptive innervation density is relatively low on distal skin regions such as the digits, one might conclude that the nociceptive system lacks fine representation of these regions. Indeed, only gross spatial organization of nociceptive maps has been reported so far. However, here we reveal the existence of fine-grained somatotopy for nociceptive inputs to the digits in human primary somatosensory cortex (SI). Using painful nociceptive-selective laser stimuli to the hand, and phase-encoded fMRI analysis methods, we observed somatotopic maps of the digits in contralateral SI. These nociceptive maps were highly aligned with maps of non-painful tactile stimuli, suggesting comparable cortical representations for, and possible interactions between, mechanoreceptive and nociceptive signals. Our findings may also be valuable for future studies tracking the timecourse and the spatial pattern of plastic changes in cortical organization involved in chronic pain.

Mancini, Flavia; Haggard, Patrick; Iannetti, Gian Domenico; Longo, Matthew R.; Sereno, Martin I.

2012-01-01

141

QTL for several metabolic traits map to loci controlling growth and body composition in an F2 intercross between high- and low-growth chicken lines.  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for metabolic and body composition traits were mapped at 7 and 9 wk, respectively, in an F(2) intercross between high-growth and low-growth chicken lines. These lines also diverged for abdominal fat percentage (AFP) and plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), insulin, and glucose levels. Genotypings were performed with 129 microsatellite markers covering 21 chromosomes. A total of 21 QTL with genomewide level of significance were detected by single-trait analyses for body weight (BW), breast muscle weight (BMW) and percentage (BMP), AF weight (AFW) and percentage (AFP), shank length (ShL) and diameter (ShD), fasting plasma glucose level (Gluc), and body temperature (T(b)). Other suggestive QTL were identified for these parameters and for plasma IGF-I and nonesterified fatty acid levels. QTL controlling adiposity and Gluc were colocalized on GGA3 and GGA5 and QTL for BW, ShL and ShD, adiposity, and T(b) on GGA4. Multitrait analyses revealed two QTL controlling Gluc and AFP on GGA5 and Gluc and T(b) on GGA26. Significant effects of the reciprocal cross were observed on BW, ShD, BMW, and Gluc, which may result from mtDNA and/or maternal effects. Most QTL regions for Gluc and adiposity harbor genes for which alleles have been associated with increased susceptibility to diabetes and/or obesity in humans. Identification of genes responsible for these metabolic QTL will increase our understanding of the constitutive "hyperglycemia" found in chickens. Furthermore, a comparative approach could provide new information on the genetic causes of diabetes and obesity in humans. PMID:19531576

Nadaf, Javad; Pitel, Frédérique; Gilbert, Hélène; Duclos, Michel J; Vignoles, Florence; Beaumont, Catherine; Vignal, Alain; Porter, Tom E; Cogburn, Larry A; Aggrey, Samuel E; Simon, Jean; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth

2009-06-16

142

AnimalQTLdb: a livestock QTL database tool set for positional QTL information mining and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Animal Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) database (AnimalQTLdb) is designed to house all publicly available QTL data on livestock animal species from which researchers can easily locate and compare QTL within species. The database tools are also added to link the QTL data to other types of genomic information, such as radiation hybrid (RH) maps, finger printed contig (FPC) physical

Zhi-liang Hu; Eric Ryan Fritz; James M. Reecy

2007-01-01

143

QTL analysis of pasta quality using a composite microsatellite and SNP map of durum wheat.  

PubMed

Bright yellow color, firmness and low cooking loss are important factors for the production of good-quality pasta products. However, the genetic factors underlying those traits are still poorly understood. To fill this gap we developed a population of 93 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from the cross between experimental line UC1113 (intermediate pasta quality) with the cultivar Kofa (excellent pasta quality). A total of 269 markers, including 23 SNP markers, were arranged on 14 linkage groups covering a total length of 2,140 cM. Samples from each RIL from five different environments were used for complete pasta quality testing and the results from each year were used for QTL analyses. The combined effect of different loci, environment and their interactions were analyzed using factorial ANOVAs for each trait. We identified major QTLs for pasta color on chromosomes 1B, 4B, 6A, 7A and 7B. The 4B QTL was linked to a polymorphic deletion in the Lpx-B1.1 lipoxygenase locus, suggesting that it was associated with pigment degradation during pasta processing. The 7B QTL for pasta color was linked to the Phytoene synthase 1 (Psy-B1) locus suggesting difference in pigment biosynthesis. QTLs affecting pasta firmness and cooking loss were detected on chromosomes 5A and 7B, and in both cases they were overlapping with QTL for grain protein content and wet gluten content. These last two parameters were highly correlated with pasta firmness (R > 0.71) and inversely correlated to cooking loss (R < -0.37). The location and effect of other QTLs affecting grain size and weight, gluten strength, mixing properties, and ash content are also discussed. PMID:18781292

Zhang, W; Chao, S; Manthey, F; Chicaiza, O; Brevis, J C; Echenique, V; Dubcovsky, J

2008-09-09

144

Mapping QTL for climbing ability and component traits in common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) varies in growth habit from aggressive climbing types to bush beans. Growth habit is determined by a combination of factors\\u000a including determinate versus indeterminate growth, total plant height, degree of branching and internode length. Together\\u000a these factors make up climbing ability. The objective of this research was to determine the quantitative trait loci (QTL)\\u000a controlling

Oscar E. Checa; Matthew W. Blair

2008-01-01

145

MAPPING WHEN PHENOTYPE MEASUREMENTS ARE NOT WELL BEHAVED: COMPARISON OF RECUSIVE PARITIONING WITH COMPOSITE INTERVAL QTL MAPPING  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Standard methods for QTL analysis use a summary measure such as the mean of the trait measurement from each line. The phentoype measurements are assumed to be normally distributed. In practice, a good fit to a normal distribution is rare, and transformations are often attempted to correct the dist...

146

QTL mapping and confirmation for tolerance of anaerobic conditions during germination derived from the rice landrace Ma-Zhan Red.  

PubMed

Wide adoption of direct-seeded rice practices has been hindered by poorly leveled fields, heavy rainfall and poor drainage, which cause accumulation of water in the fields shortly after sowing, leading to poor crop establishment. This is due to the inability of most rice varieties to germinate and reach the water surface under complete submergence. Hence, tolerance of anaerobic conditions during germination is an essential trait for direct-seeded rice cultivation in both rainfed and irrigated ecosystems. A QTL study was conducted to unravel the genetic basis of tolerance of anaerobic conditions during germination using a population derived from a cross between IR42, a susceptible variety, and Ma-Zhan Red, a tolerant landrace from China. Phenotypic data was collected based on the survival rates of the seedlings at 21 days after sowing of dry seeds under 10 cm of water. QTL analysis of the mapping population consisting of 175 F2:3 families genotyped with 118 SSR markers identified six significant QTLs on chromosomes 2, 5, 6, and 7, and in all cases the tolerant alleles were contributed by Ma-Zhan Red. The largest QTL on chromosome 7, having a LOD score of 14.5 and an R (2) of 31.7 %, was confirmed using a BC2F3 population. The QTLs detected in this study provide promising targets for further genetic characterization and for use in marker-assisted selection to rapidly develop varieties with improved tolerance to anaerobic condition during germination. Ultimately, this trait can be combined with other abiotic stress tolerance QTLs to provide resilient varieties for direct-seeded systems. PMID:23417074

Septiningsih, Endang M; Ignacio, John Carlos I; Sendon, Pamella M D; Sanchez, Darlene L; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Mackill, David J

2013-02-16

147

A Hidden Markov Model Combining Linkage and Linkage Disequilibrium Information for Haplotype Reconstruction and Quantitative Trait Locus Fine Mapping  

PubMed Central

Faithful reconstruction of haplotypes from diploid marker data (phasing) is important for many kinds of genetic analyses, including mapping of trait loci, prediction of genomic breeding values, and identification of signatures of selection. In human genetics, phasing most often exploits population information (linkage disequilibrium), while in animal genetics the primary source of information is familial (Mendelian segregation and linkage). We herein develop and evaluate a method that simultaneously exploits both sources of information. It builds on hidden Markov models that were initially developed to exploit population information only. We demonstrate that the approach improves the accuracy of allele phasing as well as imputation of missing genotypes. Reconstructed haplotypes are assigned to hidden states that are shown to correspond to clusters of genealogically related chromosomes. We show that these cluster states can directly be used to fine map QTL. The method is computationally effective at handling large data sets based on high-density SNP panels.

Druet, Tom; Georges, Michel

2010-01-01

148

Meta-analyses of QTL for grain yield and anthesis silking interval in 18 maize populations evaluated under water-stressed and well-watered environments  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of QTL with large phenotypic effects conserved across genetic backgrounds and environments is one of the prerequisites for crop improvement using marker assisted selection (MAS). The objectives of this study were to identify meta-QTL (mQTL) for grain yield (GY) and anthesis silking interval (ASI) across 18 bi-parental maize populations evaluated in the same conditions across 2-4 managed water stressed and 3-4 well watered environments. Results The meta-analyses identified 68 mQTL (9 QTL specific to ASI, 15 specific to GY, and 44 for both GY and ASI). Mean phenotypic variance explained by each mQTL varied from 1.2 to 13.1% and the overall average was 6.5%. Few QTL were detected under both environmental treatments and/or multiple (>4 populations) genetic backgrounds. The number and 95% genetic and physical confidence intervals of the mQTL were highly reduced compared to the QTL identified in the original studies. Each physical interval of the mQTL consisted of 5 to 926 candidate genes. Conclusions Meta-analyses reduced the number of QTL by 68% and narrowed the confidence intervals up to 12-fold. At least the 4 mQTL (mQTL2.2, mQTL6.1, mQTL7.5 and mQTL9.2) associated with GY under both water-stressed and well-watered environments and detected up to 6 populations may be considered for fine mapping and validation to confirm effects in different genetic backgrounds and pyramid them into new drought resistant breeding lines. This is the first extensive report on meta-analysis of data from over 3100 individuals genotyped using the same SNP platform and evaluated in the same conditions across a wide range of managed water-stressed and well-watered environments.

2013-01-01

149

Identification of genetic loci associated with fire blight resistance in Malus through combined use of QTL and association mapping.  

PubMed

Fire blight, incited by the enterobacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of Rosaceae, particularly of apples and pears. There are reports on the molecular mechanisms underlying E. amylovora pathogenesis and how the host activates its resistance mechanism. The host's resistance mechanism is quantitatively controlled, although some major genes might also be involved. Thus far, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping and differential expression studies have been used to elucidate those genes and/or genomic regions underlying quantitative resistance present in the apple genome. In this study, an effort is undertaken to dissect the genetic basis of fire blight resistance in apple using both QTL and genome-wide association mapping. On the basis of an F1 pedigree of 'Coop 16'?×?'Coop 17' and a genome-wide association study (GWAS) mapping population of Malus accessions (species, old and new cultivars and selections), new QTLs and associations have been identified. A total of three QTLs for resistance to fire blight, with above 95% significant logarithm of odds threshold value of 2.5, have been identified on linkage groups (LGs) 02, 06, and 15 of the apple genome with phenotypic variation explained values of 14.7, 20.1 and 17.4, respectively. Although elevated P-values with signals for marker-trait associations are observed for some LGs, these are not found to be significant. However, a total of 34 significant associations, with P-values ?0.02, have been detected including 8 for lesion length at 7?days following inoculation (PL1), 14 for lesion length at 14?days following inoculation (PL2), and 12 for shoot length. PMID:23627651

Khan, M Awais; Zhao, Youfu Frank; Korban, Schuyler S

2013-05-24

150

Fine Structure Mapping in Yeast with Sunlamp Radiation  

PubMed Central

The X-ray mapping procedure of Manney and Mortimer (1964) is the most widely applicable and convenient method for fine structure analysis in yeast, but suffers the disadvantage that suitable X-ray machines or gamma ray sources are very expensive. Although many other recombinogens are known, none gives a linear dose-response like X-rays and few are as convenient or give as reproducible results. Experiments with Saccharomyces cerevisiae reported in this paper show, however, that the near-ultraviolet radiation emitted by fluorescent sunlamps gives linear dose-response relations, as reproducible results as ionizing radiations, and map distances which correlate highly with those obtained by using 60Co gamma rays. It is suggested that this convenient recombinogen may be a suitable low-cost substitute for ionizing radiations in fine structure mapping.

Lawrence, Christopher W.; Christensen, Roshan

1974-01-01

151

Genetic Mapping and QTL Analysis of Flour Color and Milling Yield Related Traits Using Recombinant Inbred Lines in Hard Red Spring Wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour ash content and color are very important properties used to assess flour quality, because they greatly affect the quality of the final product. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing flour color and milling properties of hard red spring wheat were mapped on a ge...

152

Combining QTL mapping and transcriptome profiling of bulked RILs for identification of functional polymorphism for salt tolerance genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Identification of genes for quantitative traits is difficult using any single approach due to complex inheritance of the traits and limited resolving power of the individual techniques. Here a combination of genetic mapping and bulked transcriptome profiling was used to narrow down the number of differentially expressed salt-responsive genes in rice in order to identify functional polymorphism of genes underlying the quantitative trait loci (QTL). A population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross between salt-tolerant variety CSR 27 and salt-sensitive variety MI 48 was used to map QTL for salt ion concentrations in different tissues and salt stress susceptibility index (SSI) for spikelet fertility, grain weight, and grain yield. Eight significant QTL intervals were mapped on chromosomes 1, 8, and 12 for the salt ion concentrations and a QTL controlling SSI for spikelet fertility was co-located in one of these intervals on chromosome 8. However, there were total 2,681 genes in these QTL intervals, making it difficult to pinpoint the genes responsible for the functional differences for the traits. Similarly, transcriptome profiling of the seedlings of tolerant and sensitive parents grown under control and salt-stress conditions showed 798 and 2,407 differentially expressed gene probes, respectively. By analyzing pools of RNA extracted from ten each of extremely tolerant and extremely sensitive RILs to normalize the background noise, the number of differentially expressed genes under salt stress was drastically reduced to 30 only. Two of these genes, an integral transmembrane protein DUF6 and a cation chloride cotransporter, were not only co-located in the QTL intervals but also showed the expected distortion of allele frequencies in the extreme tolerant and sensitive RILs, and therefore are suitable for future validation studies and development of functional markers for salt tolerance in rice to facilitate marker-assisted breeding. PMID:20602115

Pandit, Awadhesh; Rai, Vandna; Bal, Subhashis; Sinha, Shikha; Kumar, Vinod; Chauhan, Mahesh; Gautam, Raj K; Singh, Rakesh; Sharma, Prakash C; Singh, Ashok K; Gaikwad, Kishor; Sharma, Tilak R; Mohapatra, Trilochan; Singh, Nagendra K

2010-07-03

153

Genomic breeding value prediction and QTL mapping of QTLMAS2010 data using Bayesian Methods  

PubMed Central

Background Bayesian methods allow prediction of genomic breeding values (GEBVs) using high-density single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering the whole genome with effective shrinkage of SNP effects using appropriate priors. In this study we applied a modification of the well-known BayesA and BayesB methods to estimate the proportion of SNPs with zero effects (?) and a common variance for non-zero effects. The method, termed BayesC?, was used to predict the GEBVs of the last generation of the QTLMAS2010 data. The accuracy of GEBVs from various methods was estimated by the correlation with phenotypes in the last generation. The methods were BayesCPi and BayesB with different ? values, both with and without polygenic effects, and best linear unbiased prediction using an animal model with a genomic or numerator relationship matrix. Positions of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified based on the variances of GEBVs for windows of 10 consecutive SNPs. We also proposed a novel approach to set significance thresholds for claiming QTL in this specific case by using pedigree-based simulation of genotypes. All analyses were focused on detecting and evaluating QTL with additive effects. Results The accuracy of GEBVs was highest for BayesC?, but the accuracy of BayesB with ? equal to 0.99 was similar to that of BayesC?. The accuracy of BayesB dropped with a decrease in ?. Including polygenic effects into the model only had marginal effects on accuracy and bias of predictions. The number of QTL identified was 15 when based on a stringent 10% chromosome-wise threshold and increased to 21 when a 20% chromosome-wise threshold was used. Conclusions The BayesC? method without polygenic effects was identified to be the best method for the QTLMAS2010 dataset, because it had highest accuracy and least bias. The significance criterion based on variance of 10-SNP windows allowed detection of more than half of the QTL, with few false positives.

2011-01-01

154

A whole genome scan for QTL affecting milk protein percentage in Italian Holstein cattle, applying selective milk DNA pooling and multiple marker mapping in a daughter design.  

PubMed

We report on a complete genome scan for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting milk protein percentage (PP) in the Italian Holstein-Friesian cattle population, applying a selective DNA pooling strategy in a daughter design. Ten Holstein-Friesian sires were chosen, and for each sire, about 200 daughters, each from the high and low tails of estimated breeding value for PP, were used to construct milk DNA pools. Sires and pools were genotyped for 181 dinucleotide microsatellites covering all cattle autosomes. Sire marker allele frequencies in the pools were obtained by shadow correction of peak height in the electropherograms. After quality control, pool data from eight sires were used for all subsequent analyses. The QTL heterozygosity estimate was lower than that of similar studies in other cattle populations. Multiple marker mapping identified 19 QTL located on 14 chromosomes (BTA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 12, 14, 17, 20, 23 and 27). The sires were also genotyped for seven polymorphic sites in six candidate genes (ABCG2, SPP1, casein kappa, DGAT1, GHR and PRLR) located within QTL regions of BTA6, 14 and 20 found in this study. The results confirmed or excluded the involvement of some of the analysed markers as the causative polymorphic sites of the identified QTL. The QTL identified, combined with genotype data of these candidate genes, will help to identify other quantitative trait genes and clarify the complex QTL patterns observed for a few chromosomes. Overall, the results are consistent with the Italian Holstein population having been under long-term selection for high PP. PMID:22742505

Russo, V; Fontanesi, L; Dolezal, M; Lipkin, E; Scotti, E; Zambonelli, P; Dall'Olio, S; Bigi, D; Davoli, R; Canavesi, F; Medugorac, I; Föster, M; Sölkner, J; Schiavini, F; Bagnato, A; Soller, M

2012-07-01

155

Use of Genome Sequence Information for Meat Quality Trait QTL Mining for Causal Genes and Mutations on Pig Chromosome 17  

PubMed Central

The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining.

Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.

2011-01-01

156

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications.  

PubMed

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei . PMID:24086466

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-09-25

157

Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Growth-Related Traits in Litopenaeus vannamei for Selective Breeding Applications  

PubMed Central

Growth is a priority trait from the point of view of genetic improvement. Molecular markers linked to quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been regarded as useful for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in complex traits as growth. Using an intermediate F2 cross of slow and fast growth parents, a genetic linkage map of Pacific whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeusvannamei, based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers was constructed. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for growth-related traits. The linkage map consisted of 451 marker loci (429 AFLPs and 22 SSRs) which formed 49 linkage groups with an average marker space of 7.6 cM; they spanned a total length of 3627.6 cM, covering 79.50% of estimated genome size. 14 QTLs were identified for growth-related traits, including three QTLs for body weight (BW), total length (TL) and partial carapace length (PCL), two QTLs for body length (BL), one QTL for first abdominal segment depth (FASD), third abdominal segment depth (TASD) and first abdominal segment width (FASW), which explained 2.62 to 61.42% of phenotypic variation. Moreover, comparison of linkage maps between L. vannamei and Penaeusjaponicus was applied, providing a new insight into the genetic base of QTL affecting the growth-related traits. The new results will be useful for conducting MAS breeding schemes in L. vannamei.

Andriantahina, Farafidy; Liu, Xiaolin; Huang, Hao

2013-01-01

158

DNA variation and brain region-specific expression profiles exhibit different relationships between inbred mouse strains: implications for eQTL mapping studies  

PubMed Central

Background Expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping is used to find loci that are responsible for the transcriptional activity of a particular gene. In recent eQTL studies, expression profiles were derived from either homogenized whole brain or collections of large brain regions. However, the brain is a very heterogeneous organ, and expression profiles of different brain regions vary significantly. Because of the importance and potential power of eQTL studies in identifying regulatory networks, we analyzed gene expression patterns in different brain regions from multiple inbred mouse strains and investigated the implications for the design and analysis of eQTL studies. Results Gene expression profiles of five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains were studied. Few genes exhibited a significant strain-specific expression pattern, whereas a large number of genes exhibited brain region-specific patterns. We constructed phylogenetic trees based on the expression relationships between the strains and compared them with a DNA-level relationship tree. The trees based on the expression of strain-specific genes were constant across brain regions and mirrored DNA-level variation. However, the trees based on region-specific genes exhibited a different set of strain relationships, depending on the brain region. An eQTL analysis showed enrichment of cis-acting regulators among strain-specific genes, whereas brain region-specific genes appear to be mainly regulated by trans-acting elements. Conclusion Our results suggest that many regulatory networks are highly brain region specific and indicate the importance of conducting eQTL mapping studies using data from brain regions or tissues that are physiologically and phenotypically relevant to the trait of interest.

Hovatta, Iiris; Zapala, Matthew A; Broide, Ron S; Schadt, Eric E; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Lockhart, David J; Barlow, Carrolee

2007-01-01

159

Leaf Rubisco turnover in a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mapping population: genetic variation, identification of associated QTL, and correlation with plant morphology and yield.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypotheses that: (i) genetic variation in Rubisco turnover may exist in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); (ii) such variation might affect nitrogen use efficiency and plant yield; and (iii) genetic control of Rubisco turnover might be amenable to identification by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. A set of 135 full-sib F1 perennial ryegrass plants derived from a pair cross between genotypes from the cultivars 'Grasslands Impact' and 'Grasslands Samson' was studied to test these hypotheses. Leaf Rubisco concentration at different leaf ages was measured and modelled as a log-normal curve described by three mathematical parameters: D (peak Rubisco concentration), G (time of D), and F (curve standard deviation). Herbage dry matter (DM) yield and morphological traits (tiller weight (TW), tiller number (TN), leaf lamina length (LL), and an index of competitive ability (PI)) were also measured. The progeny exhibited continuous variation for all traits. Simple correlation and principal component analyses indicated that plant productivity was associated with peak Rubisco concentration and not Rubisco turnover. Lower DM was associated with higher leaf Rubisco concentration indicating that Rubisco turnover effects on plant productivity may relate to energy cost of Rubisco synthesis rather than photosynthetic capacity. QTL detection by a multiple QTL model identified seven significant QTL for Rubisco turnover and nine QTL for DM and morphological traits. An indication of the genetic interdependence of DM and the measures of Rubisco turnover was the support interval overlap involving QTL for D and QTL for TN on linkage group 5 in a cluster involving QTL for DM and PI. In this region, alleles associated with increased TN, DM, and PI were associated with decreased D, indicating that this region may regulate Rubisco concentration and plant productivity via increased tillering. A second cluster involving QTL for LL, TN, PI and DM was found on linkage group 2. The two clusters represent marker-trait associations that might be useful for marker-assisted plant breeding applications. In silico comparative analysis indicated conservation of the genetic loci controlling Rubisco concentration in perennial ryegrass and rice. PMID:23505311

Khaembah, Edith N; Irving, Louis J; Thom, Errol R; Faville, Marty J; Easton, H Sydney; Matthew, Cory

2013-03-01

160

Fine-scale mapping of meiotic recombination in Asians  

PubMed Central

Background Meiotic recombination causes a shuffling of homologous chromosomes as they are passed from parents to children. Finding the genomic locations where these crossovers occur is important for genetic association studies, understanding population genetic variation, and predicting disease-causing structural rearrangements. There have been several reports that recombination hotspot usage differs between human populations. But while fine-scale genetic maps exist for European and African populations, none have been constructed for Asians. Results Here we present the first Asian genetic map with resolution high enough to reveal hotspot usage. We constructed this map by applying a hidden Markov model to genotype data for over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphism markers from Korean and Mongolian pedigrees which include 980 meioses. We identified 32,922 crossovers with a precision rate of 99%, 97% sensitivity, and a median resolution of 105,949 bp. For direct comparison of genetic maps between ethnic groups, we also constructed a map for CEPH families using identical methods. We found high levels of concordance with known hotspots, with approximately 72% of recombination occurring in these regions. We investigated the hypothesized contribution of recombination problems to age-related aneuploidy. Our large sample size allowed us to detect a weak but significant negative effect of maternal age on recombination rate. Conclusions We have constructed the first fine-scale Asian genetic map. This fills an important gap in the understanding of recombination pattern variation and will be a valuable resource for future research in population genetics. Our map will improve the accuracy of linkage studies and inform the design of genome-wide association studies in the Asian population.

2013-01-01

161

Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).  

PubMed

A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other CBB resistance QTL have been identified but none of them have been physically mapped. Four molecular markers tightly linked to this QTL have been identified suitable for marker assisted selection and physical mapping of the resistance gene. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from high molecular weight DNA of HR45 and is composed of 33,024 clones. The size of individual BAC clone inserts ranges from 30 kb to 280 kb with an average size of 107 kb. The library is estimated to represent approximately sixfold genome coverage. The BAC library was screened as BAC pools using four PCR-based molecular markers. Two to seven BAC clones were identified by each marker. Two clones were found to have both markers PV-tttc001 and STS183. One preliminary contig was assembled based on DNA finger printing of those positive BAC clones. The minimum tiling path of the contig contains 6 BAC clones spanning an estimated size of 750 kb covering the QTL region. PMID:20419470

Liu, S Y; Yu, K; Huffner, M; Park, S J; Banik, M; Pauls, K P; Crosby, W

2010-04-25

162

Genetic Architecture of Sexual Selection: QTL Mapping of Male Song and Female Receiver Traits in an Acoustic Moth  

PubMed Central

Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings on species recognition suggest that such linkage disequilibria may result from physical linkage or pleiotropy, but very little work has addressed this possibility within the context of sexual selection. We studied the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits by analyzing signals and preferences in an acoustic moth, Achroia grisella, in which males attract females with a train of ultrasound pulses and females prefer loud songs and a fast pulse rhythm. Both male signal characters and female preferences are repeatable and heritable traits. Moreover, female choice is based largely on male song, while males do not appear to provide direct benefits at mating. Thus, some genetic correlation between song and preference traits is expected. We employed a standard crossing design between inbred lines and used AFLP markers to build a linkage map for this species and locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence male song and female preference. Our analyses mostly revealed QTLs of moderate strength that influence various male signal and female receiver traits, but one QTL was found that exerts a major influence on the pulse-pair rate of male song, a critical trait in female attraction. However, we found no evidence of specific co-localization of QTLs influencing male signal and female receiver traits on the same linkage groups. This finding suggests that the sexual selection process would proceed at a modest rate in A. grisella and that evolution toward exaggerated character states may be tempered. We suggest that this equilibrium state may be more the norm than the exception among animal species.

Limousin, Denis; Streiff, Rejane; Courtois, Brigitte; Dupuy, Virginie; Alem, Sylvain; Greenfield, Michael D.

2012-01-01

163

AN EXPANDED COMPARATIVE MAP OF BOVINE CHROMOSOME 27 TARGETING DAIRY FORM QTL REGIONS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

At present, the density of genes on the bovine maps is extremely limited and current resolution of the human-bovine comparative map is insufficient for selection of candidate genes controlling many economic traits of interest in dairy cattle. This study describes the chromosomal mapping of 12 select...

164

QTL mapping of leukocyte telomere length in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study.  

PubMed

Telomeres play a central role in cellular senescence and are associated with a variety of age-related disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Telomere length varies greatly among individuals of the same age, and is heritable. Here we performed a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured by quantitative PCR in 3,665 American Indians (aged 14 - 93 years) from 94 large, multi-generational families. All participants were recruited by the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS), a prospective study to identify genetic factors for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in American Indians residing in Oklahoma, Arizona and Dakota. LTL heritability was estimated to be between 51% and 62%, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition to interindividual variation of LTL in this population. Significant QTLs were localized to chromosome 13 (Logarithm of odds score (LOD) = 3.9) at 13q12.11, to 18q22.2 (LOD = 3.2) and to 3p14.1 (LOD = 3.0) for Oklahoma. This is the first study to identify susceptibility loci influencing leukocyte telomere variation in American Indians, a minority group suffering from a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes and other age-related disorders. PMID:24036517

Zhu, Yun; Voruganti, V Saroja; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Best, Lyle G; Lee, Elisa T; Maccluer, Jean W; Cole, Shelley A; Zhao, Jinying

2013-09-01

165

QTL mapping of leukocyte telomere length in American Indians: The Strong Heart Family Study  

PubMed Central

Telomeres play a central role in cellular senescence and are associated with a variety of age-related disorders such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Telomere length varies greatly among individuals of the same age, and is heritable. Here we performed a genome-wide linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measured by quantitative PCR in 3,665 American Indians (aged 14 – 93 years) from 94 large, multi-generational families. All participants were recruited by the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS), a prospective study to identify genetic factors for cardiovascular disease and its risk factors in American Indians residing in Oklahoma, Arizona and Dakota. LTL heritability was estimated to be between 51% and 62%, suggesting a strong genetic predisposition to interindividual variation of LTL in this population. Significant QTLs were localized to chromosome 13 (Logarithm of odds score (LOD) = 3.9) at 13q12.11, to 18q22.2 (LOD = 3.2) and to 3p14.1 (LOD = 3.0) for Oklahoma. This is the first study to identify susceptibility loci influencing leukocyte telomere variation in American Indians, a minority group suffering from a disproportionately high rate of type 2 diabetes and other age-related disorders.

Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Best, Lyle G.; Lee, Elisa T.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Cole, Shelley A.; Zhao, Jinying

2013-01-01

166

QTL mapping and correlation analysis for 1000-grain weight and percentage of grains with chalkiness in rice.  

PubMed

The study of 1000-grain weight (TGW) and percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC) is very important in rice. In this study, a set of introgression lines (ILs), derived from Sasanishiki/Habataki with Sasanishiki as the recurrent parent, were used to detect correlations and quantitative trait loci (QTL) on TGW and PGWC in two different environments. Phenotypic correlation analysis showed that there was no significant correlation between TGW and PGWC in both environments, which indicated that the linkage of TGW and PGWC traits could be broken via suitable population. A total of 20 QTL were detected in both environments, nine QTL for 1000-paddy-grain weight (PTGW), five QTL for 1000-brown-grain weight (BTGW) and six QTL for percentage of grains with chalkiness (PGWC). Moreover, five QTL, qPTGW3, qPTGW8.2, qPTGW11.1 for PTGW and qPGWC1.1, qPGWC1.2 for PGWC, were stably expressed in both environments. Phenotypic values were significantly different (P < 0.01) between the introgression lines carrying these five QTL alleles and the genetic background parent, Sasanishiki. The introgression lines carrying these QTL also represent a useful genetic resource in the context of rice yield and quality improvement via a design-breeding approach. PMID:23970084

Bian, Jian-Min; Shi, Huan; Li, Cui-Juan; Zhu, Chang-Lan; Yu, Qiu-Ying; Peng, Xiao-Song; Fu, Jun-Ru; He, Xiao-Peng; Chen, Xiao-Rong; Hu, Li-Fang; Ouyang, Lin-Juan; He, Hao-Hua

2013-08-01

167

A Consensus Microsatellite-Based Linkage Map for the Hermaphroditic Bay Scallop (Argopecten irradians) and Its Application in Size-Related QTL Analysis  

PubMed Central

Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color) markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs), which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13?1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL), shell height (SH), shell width (SW) and total weight (TW) were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively) were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH) was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS) in bay scallop.

Li, Hongjun; Liu, Xiao; Zhang, Guofan

2012-01-01

168

QTL-seq: rapid mapping of quantitative trait loci in rice by whole genome resequencing of DNA from two bulked populations.  

PubMed

The majority of agronomically important crop traits are quantitative, meaning that they are controlled by multiple genes each with a small effect (quantitative trait loci, QTLs). Mapping and isolation of QTLs is important for efficient crop breeding by marker-assisted selection (MAS) and for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the traits. However, since it requires the development and selection of DNA markers for linkage analysis, QTL analysis has been time-consuming and labor-intensive. Here we report the rapid identification of plant QTLs by whole-genome resequencing of DNAs from two populations each composed of 20-50 individuals showing extreme opposite trait values for a given phenotype in a segregating progeny. We propose to name this approach QTL-seq as applied to plant species. We applied QTL-seq to rice recombinant inbred lines and F2 populations and successfully identified QTLs for important agronomic traits, such as partial resistance to the fungal rice blast disease and seedling vigor. Simulation study showed that QTL-seq is able to detect QTLs over wide ranges of experimental variables, and the method can be generally applied in population genomics studies to rapidly identify genomic regions that underwent artificial or natural selective sweeps. PMID:23289725

Takagi, Hiroki; Abe, Akira; Yoshida, Kentaro; Kosugi, Shunichi; Natsume, Satoshi; Mitsuoka, Chikako; Uemura, Aiko; Utsushi, Hiroe; Tamiru, Muluneh; Takuno, Shohei; Innan, Hideki; Cano, Liliana M; Kamoun, Sophien; Terauchi, Ryohei

2013-02-18

169

Bayesian mapping QTL for fruit and growth phenological traits in Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to map the QTLs for the agronomic traits in Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet, we designed an F2 population derived from lablab accession ('Meidou2012' and 'Nanhui23') for construction of genetic linkage map and repeatedly measured three fruit traits (pod length, pod diameter and pod fresh thickness) and three growth phenological traits (flowering time, podding time and harvest maturity period)

Juan Yuan; Runqing Yang; Tianlong Wu

2009-01-01

170

QTL mapping of the production of wine aroma compounds by yeast  

PubMed Central

Background Wine aroma results from the combination of numerous volatile compounds, some produced by yeast and others produced in the grapes and further metabolized by yeast. However, little is known about the consequences of the genetic variation of yeast on the production of these volatile metabolites, or on the metabolic pathways involved in the metabolism of grape compounds. As a tool to decipher how wine aroma develops, we analyzed, under two experimental conditions, the production of 44 compounds by a population of 30 segregants from a cross between a laboratory strain and an industrial strain genotyped at high density. Results We detected eight genomic regions explaining the diversity concerning 15 compounds, some produced de novo by yeast, such as nerolidol, ethyl esters and phenyl ethanol, and others derived from grape compounds such as citronellol, and cis-rose oxide. In three of these eight regions, we identified genes involved in the phenotype. Hemizygote comparison allowed the attribution of differences in the production of nerolidol and 2-phenyl ethanol to the PDR8 and ABZ1 genes, respectively. Deletion of a PLB2 gene confirmed its involvement in the production of ethyl esters. A comparison of allelic variants of PDR8 and ABZ1 in a set of available sequences revealed that both genes present a higher than expected number of non-synonymous mutations indicating possible balancing selection. Conclusions This study illustrates the value of QTL analysis for the analysis of metabolic traits, and in particular the production of wine aromas. It also identifies the particular role of the PDR8 gene in the production of farnesyldiphosphate derivatives, of ABZ1 in the production of numerous compounds and of PLB2 in ethyl ester synthesis. This work also provides a basis for elucidating the metabolism of various grape compounds, such as citronellol and cis-rose oxide.

2012-01-01

171

QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population  

PubMed Central

Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical pathways. To this end we conducted genome scans of seven rainbow trout families from a single broodstock population to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) having an effect on stress response to crowding as measured by plasma cortisol concentration. Our goal was to estimate the number of major genes having large effects on this trait in our broodstock population through the identification of QTL. Results A genome scan including 380 microsatellite markers representing 29 chromosomes resulted in the de novo construction of genetic maps which were in good agreement with the NCCCWA genetic map. Unique sets of QTL were detected for two traits which were defined after observing a low correlation between repeated measurements of plasma cortisol concentration in response to stress. A highly significant QTL was detected in three independent analyses on Omy16, many additional suggestive and significant QTL were also identified. With linkage-based methods of QTL analysis such as half-sib regression interval mapping and a variance component method, we determined that the significant and suggestive QTL explain about 40-43% and 13-27% of the phenotypic trait variation, respectively. Conclusions The cortisol response to crowding stress is a complex trait controlled in a sub-sample of our broodstock population by multiple QTL on at least 8 chromosomes. These QTL are largely different from others previously identified for a similar trait, documenting that population specific genetic variants independently affect cortisol response in ways that may result in different impacts on growth. Also, mapping QTL for multiple traits associated with stress response detected trait specific QTL which indicate the significance of the first plasma cortisol measurement in defining the trait. Fine mapping these QTL can lead towards the identification of genes affecting stress response and may influence approaches to selection for this economically important stress response trait.

2012-01-01

172

Genetic dissection of rice blast resistance by QTL mapping approach using an F3 population.  

PubMed

Rice blast is one of the major fungal diseases that badly reduce rice production in Asia including Malaysia. There is not much information on identification of QTLs as well as linked markers and their association with blast resistance within local rice cultivars. In order to understanding of the genetic control of blast in the F3 families from indica rice cross Pongsu seribu2/Mahsuri, an analysis of quantitative trait loci against one of the highly virulent Malaysian rice blast isolate Magnaporthe oryzae, P5.0 was carried out. Result indicated that partial resistance to this pathotype observed in the present study was controlled by multiple loci or different QTLs. In QTL analysis in F3 progeny fifteen QTLs on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 11 and 12 for resistance to blast nursery tests was identified. Three of detected QTLs (qRBr-6.1, qRBr-11.4, and qRBr-12.1) had significant threshold (LOD >3) and approved by both IM and CIM methods. Twelve suggestive QTLs, qRBr-1.2, qRBr-2.1, qRBr-4.1, qRBr-5.1, qRBr-6.2, qRBr-6.3, qRBr-8.1, qRBr-10.1, qRBr-10.2, qRBr-11.1, qRBr-11.2 and qRBr-11.3) with Logarithmic of Odds (LOD) <3.0 or LRS <15) were distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 11. Most of the QTLs detected using single isolate had the resistant alleles from Pongsu seribu 2 which involved in the resistance in the greenhouse. We found that QTLs detected for deferent traits for the using isolate were frequently located in similar genomic regions. Inheritance study showed among F3 lines resistance segregated in the expected ratio of 15: 1 for resistant to susceptible. The average score for blast resistance measured in the green house was 3.15, 1.98 and 29.95 % for three traits, BLD, BLT and % DLA, respectively. PMID:23203411

Ashkani, S; Rafii, M Y; Rahim, H A; Latif, M A

2012-12-01

173

xQTL workbench: a scalable web environment for multi-level QTL analysis  

PubMed Central

Summary: xQTL workbench is a scalable web platform for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at multiple levels: for example gene expression (eQTL), protein abundance (pQTL), metabolite abundance (mQTL) and phenotype (phQTL) data. Popular QTL mapping methods for model organism and human populations are accessible via the web user interface. Large calculations scale easily on to multi-core computers, clusters and Cloud. All data involved can be uploaded and queried online: markers, genotypes, microarrays, NGS, LC-MS, GC-MS, NMR, etc. When new data types come available, xQTL workbench is quickly customized using the Molgenis software generator. Availability: xQTL workbench runs on all common platforms, including Linux, Mac OS X and Windows. An online demo system, installation guide, tutorials, software and source code are available under the LGPL3 license from http://www.xqtl.org. Contact: m.a.swertz@rug.nl

Arends, Danny; van der Velde, K. Joeri; Prins, Pjotr; Broman, Karl W.; Moller, Steffen; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Swertz, Morris A.

2012-01-01

174

Mapping QTL for popping expansion volume in popcorn with simple sequence repeat markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Popping expansion volume is the most important quality trait in popcorn (Zea mays L.), but its genetics is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for popping expansion volume in a popcorn 2 dent corn cross, and to compare the predicted efficiencies of phenotypic selection, marker-based selection, and marker-assisted selection for

H.-J. Lu; R. Bernardo; H. Ohm

2003-01-01

175

Genetic Mapping of Sulfur Assimilation Genes Reveals a QTL for Onion Bulb Pungency  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Onion exhibits wide genetic and environmental variation in bioactive organosulfur compounds that impart pungency and health benefits. A PCR-based molecular marker map that included candidate genes for sulfur assimilation was used to identify genomic regions affecting pungency in the cross 'W202A' x ...

176

Fine Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping of Carbon and Nitrogen Metabolism Enzyme Activities and Seedling Biomass in the Maize IBM Mapping Population1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Understanding the genetic basis of nitrogen and carbon metabolism will accelerate the development of plant varieties with high yield and improved nitrogen use efficiency. A robotized platform was used to measure the activities of 10 enzymes from carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the maize (Zea mays) intermated B73 × Mo17 mapping population, which provides almost a 4-fold increase in genetic map distance compared with conventional mapping populations. Seedling/juvenile biomass was included to identify its genetic factors and relationships with enzyme activities. All 10 enzymes showed heritable variation in activity. There were strong positive correlations between activities of different enzymes, indicating that they are coregulated. Negative correlations were detected between biomass and the activity of six enzymes. In total, 73 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found that influence the activity of these 10 enzymes and eight QTL that influence biomass. While some QTL were shared by different enzymes or biomass, we critically evaluated the probability that this may be fortuitous. All enzyme activity QTL were in trans to the known genomic locations of structural genes, except for single cis-QTL for nitrate reductase, Glu dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase; the low frequency and low additive magnitude compared with trans-QTL indicate that cis-regulation is relatively unimportant versus trans-regulation. Two-gene epistatic interactions were identified for eight enzymes and for biomass, with three epistatic QTL being shared by two other traits; however, epistasis explained on average only 2.8% of the genetic variance. Overall, this study identifies more QTL at a higher resolution than previous studies of genetic variation in metabolism.

Zhang, Nengyi; Gibon, Yves; Gur, Amit; Chen, Charles; Lepak, Nicholas; Hohne, Melanie; Zhang, Zhiwu; Kroon, Dallas; Tschoep, Hendrik; Stitt, Mark; Buckler, Edward

2010-01-01

177

Fine quantitative trait loci mapping of carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzyme activities and seedling biomass in the maize IBM mapping population.  

PubMed

Understanding the genetic basis of nitrogen and carbon metabolism will accelerate the development of plant varieties with high yield and improved nitrogen use efficiency. A robotized platform was used to measure the activities of 10 enzymes from carbon and nitrogen metabolism in the maize (Zea mays) intermated B73 × Mo17 mapping population, which provides almost a 4-fold increase in genetic map distance compared with conventional mapping populations. Seedling/juvenile biomass was included to identify its genetic factors and relationships with enzyme activities. All 10 enzymes showed heritable variation in activity. There were strong positive correlations between activities of different enzymes, indicating that they are coregulated. Negative correlations were detected between biomass and the activity of six enzymes. In total, 73 significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) were found that influence the activity of these 10 enzymes and eight QTL that influence biomass. While some QTL were shared by different enzymes or biomass, we critically evaluated the probability that this may be fortuitous. All enzyme activity QTL were in trans to the known genomic locations of structural genes, except for single cis-QTL for nitrate reductase, Glu dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase; the low frequency and low additive magnitude compared with trans-QTL indicate that cis-regulation is relatively unimportant versus trans-regulation. Two-gene epistatic interactions were identified for eight enzymes and for biomass, with three epistatic QTL being shared by two other traits; however, epistasis explained on average only 2.8% of the genetic variance. Overall, this study identifies more QTL at a higher resolution than previous studies of genetic variation in metabolism. PMID:20971858

Zhang, Nengyi; Gibon, Yves; Gur, Amit; Chen, Charles; Lepak, Nicholas; Höhne, Melanie; Zhang, Zhiwu; Kroon, Dallas; Tschoep, Hendrik; Stitt, Mark; Buckler, Edward

2010-10-22

178

Mapping minor QTL for increased stearic acid content in sunflower seed oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased stearic acid (C18:0) content in the seed oil of sunflower would improve the oil quality for some edible uses. The sunflower line CAS-20 (C18:0 genotype Es1Es1es2es2), developed from the high C18:0 mutant line CAS-3 (C18:0 genotype es1es1es2es2; 25% C18:0), shows increased C18:0 levels in its seed oil (8.6%). The objective of this research was to map quantitative trait loci

Begoña Pérez-Vich; Steven J. Knapp; Alberto J. Leon; José M. Fernández-Martínez; Simon T. Berry

2004-01-01

179

Abundance and Distribution of Transposable Elements in Two Drosophila QTL Mapping Resources  

PubMed Central

Here we present computational machinery to efficiently and accurately identify transposable element (TE) insertions in 146 next-generation sequenced inbred strains of Drosophila melanogaster. The panel of lines we use in our study is composed of strains from a pair of genetic mapping resources: the Drosophila Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP) and the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource (DSPR). We identified 23,087 TE insertions in these lines, of which 83.3% are found in only one line. There are marked differences in the distribution of elements over the genome, with TEs found at higher densities on the X chromosome, and in regions of low recombination. We also identified many more TEs per base pair of intronic sequence and fewer TEs per base pair of exonic sequence than expected if TEs are located at random locations in the euchromatic genome. There was substantial variation in TE load across genes. For example, the paralogs derailed and derailed-2 show a significant difference in the number of TE insertions, potentially reflecting differences in the selection acting on these loci. When considering TE families, we find a very weak effect of gene family size on TE insertions per gene, indicating that as gene family size increases the number of TE insertions in a given gene within that family also increases. TEs are known to be associated with certain phenotypes, and our data will allow investigators using the DGRP and DSPR to assess the functional role of TE insertions in complex trait variation more generally. Notably, because most TEs are very rare and often private to a single line, causative TEs resulting in phenotypic differences among individuals may typically fail to replicate across mapping panels since individual elements are unlikely to segregate in both panels. Our data suggest that “burden tests” that test for the effect of TEs as a class may be more fruitful.

Cridland, Julie M.; Macdonald, Stuart J.; Long, Anthony D.; Thornton, Kevin R.

2013-01-01

180

Mapping Novel Pathways in Cardiovascular Disease Using eQTL Data: The Past, Present, and Future of Gene Expression Analysis  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genetic variants associated with numerous cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Newly identified polymorphisms associated with myocardial infarction, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and insulin resistance suggest novel mechanistic pathways that underlie these and other complex diseases. Working out the connections between the polymorphisms identified in GWAS and their biological mechanisms has been especially challenging given the number of non-coding variants identified thus far. In this review, we discuss the utility of expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) databases in the study of non-coding variants with respect to cardiovascular and metabolic phenotypes. Recent successes in using eQTL data to link variants with functional candidate genes will be reviewed, and the shortcomings of this approach will be outlined. Finally, we discuss the emerging next generation of eQTL studies that take advantage of the ability to generate induced pluripotent stem cell lines from population cohorts.

Gupta, Rajat M.; Musunuru, Kiran

2013-01-01

181

QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat*  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

Pushpendra, Kumar Gupta; Harindra, Singh Balyan; Pawan, Laxminarayan Kulwal; Neeraj, Kumar; Ajay, Kumar; Reyazul, Rouf Mir; Amita, Mohan; Jitendra, Kumar

2007-01-01

182

Microarray-assisted fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci for cold tolerance in rice.  

PubMed

Many important agronomic traits, including cold stress resistance, are complex and controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Isolation of these QTLs will greatly benefit the agricultural industry but it is a challenging task. This study explored an integrated strategy by combining microarray with QTL-mapping in order to identify cold-tolerant QTLs from a cold-tolerant variety IL112 at early-seedling stage. All the early seedlings of IL112 survived normally for 9 d at 4-5°C, while Guichao2 (GC2), an indica cultivar, died after 4 d under the same conditions. Using the F2:3 population derived from the progeny of GC2 and IL112, we identified seven QTLs for cold tolerance. Furthermore, we performed Affymetrix rice whole-genome array hybridization and obtained the expression profiles of IL112 and GC2 under both low-temperature and normal conditions. Four genes were selected as cold QTL-related candidates, based on microarray data mining and QTL-mapping. One candidate gene, LOC_Os07g22494, was shown to be highly associated with cold tolerance in a number of rice varieties and in the F2:3 population, and its overexpression transgenic rice plants displayed strong tolerance to low temperature at early-seedling stage. The results indicated that overexpression of this gene (LOC_Os07g22494) could increase cold tolerance in rice seedlings. Therefore, this study provides a promising strategy for identifying candidate genes in defined QTL regions. PMID:23267004

Liu, Fengxia; Xu, Wenying; Song, Qian; Tan, Lubin; Liu, Jiayong; Zhu, Zuofeng; Fu, Yongcai; Su, Zhen; Sun, Chuanqing

2012-12-23

183

Fine mapping of the 9q31 Hirschsprung's disease locus  

PubMed Central

Hirschsprung’s disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterised by the absence of ganglia along variable lengths of the intestine. The RET gene is the major HSCR gene. Reduced penetrance of RET mutations and phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional modifying genes in the disease. A RET-dependent modifier locus was mapped to 9q31 in families bearing no coding sequence (CDS) RET mutations. Yet, the 9q31 causative locus is to be identified. To fine-map the 9q31 region, we genotyped 301 tag-SNPs spanning 7 Mb on 137 HSCR Dutch trios. This revealed two HSCR-associated regions that were further investigated in 173 Chinese HSCR patients and 436 controls using the genotype data obtained from a genome-wide association study recently conducted. Within one of the two identified regions SVEP1 SNPs were found associated with Dutch HSCR patients in the absence of RET mutations. This ratifies the reported linkage to the 9q31 region in HSCR families with no RET CDS mutations. However, this finding could not be replicated. In Chinese, HSCR was found associated with IKBKAP. In contrast, this association was stronger in patients carrying RET CDS mutations with p = 5.10 × 10?6 [OR = 3.32 (1.99, 5.59)] after replication. The HSCR-association found for IKBKAP in Chinese suggests population specificity and implies that RET mutation carriers may have an additional risk. Our finding is supported by the role of IKBKAP in the development of the nervous system. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00439-010-0813-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Tang, C. S.; Sribudiani, Y.; Miao, X. P.; de Vries, A. R.; Burzynski, G.; So, M. T.; Leon, Y. Y.; Yip, B. H.; Osinga, J.; Hui, K. J. W. S.; Verheij, J. B. G. M.; Cherny, S. S.; Tam, P. K. H.; Sham, P. C.

2010-01-01

184

Fine mapping of the 9q31 Hirschsprung's disease locus.  

PubMed

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterised by the absence of ganglia along variable lengths of the intestine. The RET gene is the major HSCR gene. Reduced penetrance of RET mutations and phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional modifying genes in the disease. A RET-dependent modifier locus was mapped to 9q31 in families bearing no coding sequence (CDS) RET mutations. Yet, the 9q31 causative locus is to be identified. To fine-map the 9q31 region, we genotyped 301 tag-SNPs spanning 7 Mb on 137 HSCR Dutch trios. This revealed two HSCR-associated regions that were further investigated in 173 Chinese HSCR patients and 436 controls using the genotype data obtained from a genome-wide association study recently conducted. Within one of the two identified regions SVEP1 SNPs were found associated with Dutch HSCR patients in the absence of RET mutations. This ratifies the reported linkage to the 9q31 region in HSCR families with no RET CDS mutations. However, this finding could not be replicated. In Chinese, HSCR was found associated with IKBKAP. In contrast, this association was stronger in patients carrying RET CDS mutations with p = 5.10 x 10(-6) [OR = 3.32 (1.99, 5.59)] after replication. The HSCR-association found for IKBKAP in Chinese suggests population specificity and implies that RET mutation carriers may have an additional risk. Our finding is supported by the role of IKBKAP in the development of the nervous system. PMID:20361209

Tang, C S; Sribudiani, Y; Miao, X P; de Vries, A R; Burzynski, G; So, M T; Leon, Y Y; Yip, B H; Osinga, J; Hui, K J W S; Verheij, J B G M; Cherny, S S; Tam, P K H; Sham, P C; Hofstra, R M W; Garcia-Barceló, M M

2010-04-02

185

Mapping and comparative analysis of QTL for crown rust resistance in an Italian x perennial ryegrass population  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Crown rust (Puccinia coronata f.sp. lolli) is a serious fungal foliar disease of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum L.) which are important forage and turf species. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for crown rust resistance were previously identifie...

186

Fine mapping, phenotypic characterization and validation of non-race-specific resistance to powdery mildew in a wheat-Triticum militinae introgression line.  

PubMed

Introgression of several genomic loci from tetraploid Triticum militinae into bread wheat cv. Tähti has increased resistance of introgression line 8.1 to powdery mildew in seedlings and adult plants. In our previous work, only a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4AL of the line 8.1 contributed significantly to resistance, whereas QTL on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 5A and 5B were detected merely on a suggestive level. To verify and characterize all QTLs in the line 8.1, a mapping population of double haploid lines was established. Testing for seedling resistance to 16 different races/mixtures of Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici revealed four highly significant non-race-specific resistance QTL including the main QTL on chromosome 4AL, and a race-specific QTL on chromosome 5B. The major QTL on chromosome 4AL (QPm.tut-4A) as well as QTL on chromosome 5AL and a newly detected QTL on 7AL were highly effective at the adult stage. The QPm.tut-4A QTL accounts on average for 33-49 % of the variation in resistance in the double haploid population. Interactions between the main QTL QPm.tut-4A and the minor QTL were evaluated and discussed. A population of 98 F(2) plants from a cross of susceptible cv. Chinese Spring and the line 8.1 was created that allowed mapping the QPm.tut-4A locus to the proximal 2.5-cM region of the introgressed segment on chromosome 4AL. The results obtained in this work make it feasible to use QPm.tut-4A in resistance breeding and provide a solid basis for positional cloning of the major QTL. PMID:22534789

Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Tiidema, Anu; Peusha, Hilma; Timofejeva, Ljudmilla; Valárik, Miroslav; Kladivová, Monika; Simková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri

2012-04-26

187

The genetic architecture of selection response. Inferences from fine-scale mapping of bristle number quantitative trait loci in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting responses and correlated responses to selection for abdominal and sternopleural bristle number have been mapped with high resolution to the X and third chromosomes. Advanced intercross recombinant isogenic chromosomes were constructed from high and low selection lines in an unselected inbred background, and QTL were detected using composite interval mapping and high density transposable element marker maps. We mapped a total of 26 bristle number QTL with large effects, which were in or immediately adjacent to intervals previously inferred to contain bristle number QTL on these chromosomes. The QTL contributing to response to selection for high bristle number were not the same as those contributing to response to selection for low bristle number, suggesting that distributions of allelic effects per locus may be asymmetrical. Correlated responses were more often attributable to loose linkage than pleiotropy or close linkage. Bristle number QTL mapping to the same locations have been inferred in studies with different parental strains. Of the 26 QTL, 20 mapped to locations consistent with candidate genes affecting peripheral nervous system development and/or bristle number. This facilitates determining the molecular basis of quantitative variation and allele frequencies by associating molecular variation at the candidate genes with phenotypic variation in bristle number in samples of alleles from nature.

Nuzhdin, S V; Dilda, C L; Mackay, T F

1999-01-01

188

Verification of QTL for Grain Starch Content and Its Genetic Correlation with Oil Content Using Two Connected RIL Populations in High-Oil Maize  

PubMed Central

Grain oil content is negatively correlated with starch content in maize in general. In this study, 282 and 263 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred and two normal dent maize inbreds were evaluated for grain starch content and its correlation with oil content under four environments. Single-trait QTL for starch content in single-population and joint-population analysis, and multiple-trait QTL for both starch and oil content were detected, and compared with the result obtained in the two related F2?3 populations. Totally, 20 single-population QTL for grain starch content were detected. No QTL was simultaneously detected across all ten cases. QTL at bins 5.03 and 9.03 were all detected in both populations and in 4 and 5 cases, respectively. Only 2 of the 16 joint-population QTL had significant effects in both populations. Three single-population QTL and 8 joint-population QTL at bins 1.03, 1.04–1.05, 3.05, 8.04–8.05, 9.03, and 9.05 could be considered as fine-mapped. Common QTL across F2?3 and RIL generations were observed at bins 5.04, 8.04 and 8.05 in population 1 (Pop.1), and at bin 5.03 in population 2 (Pop.2). QTL at bins 3.02–3.03, 3.05, 8.04–8.05 and 9.03 should be focused in high-starch maize breeding. In multiple-trait QTL analysis, 17 starch-oil QTL were detected, 10 in Pop.1 and 7 in Pop.2. And 22 single-trait QTL failed to show significance in multiple-trait analysis, 13 QTL for starch content and 9 QTL for oil content. However, QTL at bins 1.03, 6.03–6.04 and 8.03–8.04 might increase grain starch content and/or grain oil content without reduction in another trait. Further research should be conducted to validate the effect of these QTL in the simultaneous improvement of grain starch and oil content in maize.

Yang, Guohu; Dong, Yongbin; Li, Yuling; Wang, Qilei; Shi, Qingling; Zhou, Qiang

2013-01-01

189

Mapping of QTL for tiller number at different stages of growth in wheat using double haploid and immortalized F2 populations.  

PubMed

Effective tiller number is one of the most important traits for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield, but the inheritance of tillering is poorly understood. A set of 168 doubled haploid (DH) lines derivatives of a cross between two winter wheat cultivars (Huapei 3 and Yumai 57), and an immortalized F(2) (IF(2)) population generated by randomly permutated intermating of these DHs were investigated, and QTLs of tillering related to the maximum tillering of pre-winter (MTW), maximum tillering in spring (MTS), and effective tillering in harvest (ETH) were mapped. Phenotypic data were collected for the two populations from two different environments. Using inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM), a total of 9 and 18 significant QTL were detected across environments for tillering in the DH and IF(2) populations, respectively. Four QTLs were common between two populations. A major QTL located on the 5D chromosome with the allele originating from Yumai 57 was detected and increased 1.92 and 3.55 tillers in MTW and MTS, respectively. QTLs (QMts6D, QEth6D) having a neighbouring marker interval at Xswes679.1 and Xcfa2129 on chromosome 6D was detected in MTS and ETH. These results provide a better understanding of the genetic factors for selectively expressing the control of tiller number in different growth stages and facilitate marker-assisted selection strategy in breeding. PMID:21273691

Li, Zhuokun; Peng, Tao; Xie, Quangang; Han, Shuxiao; Tian, Jichun

2010-12-01

190

Discovery and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for QTL mapping of early life-history traits in Atlantic salmon  

PubMed Central

Background For decades, linkage mapping has been one of the most powerful and widely used approaches for elucidating the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits of medical, agricultural and evolutionary importance. However, successful mapping of Mendelian and quantitative phenotypic traits depends critically on the availability of fast and preferably high-throughput genotyping platforms. Several array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms have been developed for genetic model organisms during recent years but most of these methods become prohibitively expensive for screening large numbers of individuals. Therefore, inexpensive, simple and flexible genotyping solutions that enable rapid screening of intermediate numbers of loci (~75-300) in hundreds to thousands of individuals are still needed for QTL mapping applications in a broad range of organisms. Results Here we describe the discovery of and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for cost-efficient medium throughput genotyping that enables analysis of >75 loci in a single automated sequencer electrophoresis column with standard laboratory equipment. Genotyping of INDELs requires low start-up costs, includes few standard sample handling steps and is applicable to a broad range of species for which expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are available. As a proof of principle, we generated a partial INDEL linkage map in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rapidly identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting early life-history traits that are expected to have important fitness consequences in the natural environment. Conclusions The INDEL genotyping enabled fast coarse-mapping of chromosomal regions containing QTL, thus providing an efficient means for characterization of genetic architecture in multiple crosses and large pedigrees. This enables not only the discovery of larger number of QTLs with relatively smaller phenotypic effect but also provides a cost-effective means for evaluation of the frequency of segregating QTLs in outbred populations which is important for further understanding how genetic variation underlying phenotypic traits is maintained in the wild.

2010-01-01

191

A BAC\\/BIBAC-based physical map of chickpea, Cicer arietinum L  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is the third most important pulse crop worldwide. Despite its importance, relatively little is known about its genome. The availability of a genome-wide physical map allows rapid fine mapping of QTL, development of high-density genome maps, and sequencing of the entire genome. However, no such a physical map has been developed in chickpea. RESULTS: We

Xiaojun Zhang; Chantel F Scheuring; Meiping Zhang; Jennifer J Dong; Yang Zhang; James J Huang; Mi-Kyung Lee; Shahal Abbo; Amir Sherman; Dani Shtienberg; Weidong Chen; Fred Muehlbauer; Hong-Bin Zhang

2010-01-01

192

QTL MatchMaker: a multi-species quantitative trait loci (QTL) database and query system for annotation of genes and QTL  

PubMed Central

Identifying genes that underlie quantitative trait loci (QTL) is a challenging task. Here, we present a new QTL software system, named QTL MatchMaker. The system is designed to integrate and mine QTL information across human, mouse and rat genomes and to annotate functional genomic data. It combines and organizes information from relevant public databases and publications and integrates QTL, physical, genetic and cytogenetic maps across human, mouse and rat. To make this application available to the research community we have developed a website for high-throughput mapping of expressed sequences to QTL and for selection of candidate genes in the physiological genomics context of complex traits. QTL MatchMaker is accessible at

Star, Kremena V.; Song, Quingbin; Zhu, Andy; Bottinger, Erwin P.

2006-01-01

193

QTL mapping of slow-rusting, adult plant resistance to race Ug99 of stem rust fungus in PBW343/Muu RIL population.  

PubMed

Races of stem rust fungus pose a major threat to wheat production worldwide. We mapped adult plant resistance (APR) to Ug99 in 141 lines of a PBW343/Muu recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population by phenotyping them for three seasons at Njoro, Kenya in field trials and genotyping them with Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. Moderately susceptible parent PBW343 and APR parent Muu displayed mean stem rust severities of 66.6 and 5 %, respectively. The mean disease severity of RILs ranged from 1 to 100 %, with an average of 23.3 %. Variance components for stem rust severity were highly significant (p < 0.001) for RILs and seasons and the heritability (h (2)) for the disease ranged between 0.78 and 0.89. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis identified four consistent genomic regions on chromosomes 2BS, 3BS, 5BL, and 7AS; three contributed by Muu (QSr.cim-2BS, QSr.cim-3BS and QSr.cim-7AS) and one (QSr.cim-5BL) derived from PBW343. RILs with flanking markers for these QTLs had significantly lower severities than those lacking the markers, and combinations of QTLs had an additive effect, significantly enhancing APR. The QTL identified on chromosome 3BS mapped to the matching region as the known APR gene Sr2. Four additional QTLs on chromosomes 1D, 3A, 4B, and 6A reduced disease severity significantly at least once in three seasons. Our results show a complex nature of APR to stem rust where Sr2 and other minor slow rusting resistance genes can confer a higher level of resistance when present together. PMID:23440380

Singh, Sukhwinder; Singh, Ravi P; Bhavani, Sridhar; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Eugenio, Lopez-Vera Eric

2013-02-26

194

Fine mapping and characterization of linked quantitative trait loci involved in the transition of the maize apical meristem from vegetative to generative structures.  

PubMed Central

Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has detected two linked QTL in the 8L chromosome arm segment introgressed from Gaspé Flint (a Northern Flint open-pollinated population) into the background of N28 (a Corn Belt Dent inbred line). Homozygous recombinant lines, with a variable length of the introgressed segment, confirmed the presence of the two previously identified, linked QTL. In the N28 background, Gaspé Flint QTL alleles at both loci induce a reduction in node number, height, and days to anthesis (pollen shed). Given the determinate growth pattern of maize, the phenotypic effects indicate that the two QTL are involved in the transition of the apical meristem from vegetative to generative structures. Relative to the effects of the two QTL in the background of N28, we distinguish two general developmental factors affecting the timing of pollen shed. The primary factor is the timing of the transition of the apical meristem. The second, derivative factor is the global extent of internode elongation. Having separated the two linked QTL, we have laid the foundation for the positional cloning of the QTL with a larger effect.

Vladutu, C; McLaughlin, J; Phillips, R L

1999-01-01

195

Genetic dissection of rice grain shape using a recombinant inbred line population derived from two contrasting parents and fine mapping a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus qGL7  

PubMed Central

Background The three-dimensional shape of grain, measured as grain length, width, and thickness (GL, GW, and GT), is one of the most important components of grain appearance in rice. Determining the genetic basis of variations in grain shape could facilitate efficient improvements in grain appearance. In this study, an F7:8 recombinant inbred line population (RIL) derived from a cross between indica and japonica cultivars (Nanyangzhan and Chuan7) contrasting in grain size was used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed with 164 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The major aim of this study was to detect a QTL for grain shape and to fine map a minor QTL, qGL7. Results Four QTLs for GL were detected on chromosomes 3 and 7, and 10 QTLs for GW and 9 QTLs for GT were identified on chromosomes 2, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 10, respectively. A total of 28 QTLs were identified, of which several are reported for the first time; four major QTLs and six minor QTLs for grain shape were also commonly detected in both years. The minor QTL, qGL7, exhibited pleiotropic effects on GL, GW, GT, 1000-grain weight (TGW), and spikelets per panicle (SPP) and was further validated in a near isogenic F2 population (NIL-F2). Finally, qGL7 was narrowed down to an interval between InDel marker RID711 and SSR marker RM6389, covering a 258-kb region in the Nipponbare genome, and cosegregated with InDel markers RID710 and RID76. Conclusion Materials with very different phenotypes were used to develop mapping populations to detect QTLs because of their complex genetic background. Progeny tests proved that the minor QTL, qGL7, could display a single mendelian characteristic. Therefore, we suggested that minor QTLs for traits with high heritability could be isolated using a map-based cloning strategy in a large NIL-F2 population. In addition, combinations of different QTLs produced diverse grain shapes, which provide the ability to breed more varieties of rice to satisfy consumer preferences.

2010-01-01

196

QTL mapping of adult-plant resistances to stripe rust and leaf rust in Chinese wheat cultivar Bainong 64.  

PubMed

Stripe rust and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis Westend. f. sp. tritici Erikss. and P. triticina, respectively, are devastating fungal diseases of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Chinese wheat cultivar Bainong 64 has maintained acceptable adult-plant resistance (APR) to stripe rust, leaf rust and powdery mildew for more than 10 years. The aim of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci/locus (QTL) for resistance to the two rusts in a population of 179 doubled haploid (DH) lines derived from Bainong 64 × Jingshuang 16. The DH lines were planted in randomized complete blocks with three replicates at four locations. Stripe rust tests were conducted using a mixture of currently prevalent P. striiformis races, and leaf rust tests were performed with P. triticina race THTT. Leaf rust severities were scored two or three times, whereas maximum disease severities (MDS) were recorded for stripe rust. Using bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, five independent loci for APR to two rusts were detected. The QTL on chromosomes 1BL and 6BS contributed by Bainong 64 conferred resistance to both diseases. The loci identified on chromosomes 7AS and 4DL had minor effects on stripe rust response, whereas another locus, close to the centromere on chromosome 6BS, had a significant effect only on leaf rust response. The loci located on chromosomes 1BL and 4DL also had significant effects on powdery mildew response. These were located at the same positions as the Yr29/Lr46 and Yr46/Lr67 genes, respectively. The multiple disease resistance locus for APR on chromosome 6BS appears to be new. All three genes and their closely linked molecular markers could be used in breeding wheat cultivars with durable resistance to multiple diseases. PMID:22806327

Ren, Yan; Li, Zaifeng; He, Zhonghu; Wu, Ling; Bai, Bin; Lan, Caixia; Wang, Cuifen; Zhou, Gang; Zhu, Huazhong; Xia, Xianchun

2012-07-18

197

New algorithm improves fine structure of the barley consensus SNP map  

PubMed Central

Background The need to integrate information from multiple linkage maps is a long-standing problem in genetics. One way to visualize the complex ordinal relationships is with a directed graph, where each vertex in the graph is a bin of markers. When there are no ordering conflicts between the linkage maps, the result is a directed acyclic graph, or DAG, which can then be linearized to produce a consensus map. Results New algorithms for the simplification and linearization of consensus graphs have been implemented as a package for the R computing environment called DAGGER. The simplified consensus graphs produced by DAGGER exactly capture the ordinal relationships present in a series of linkage maps. Using either linear or quadratic programming, DAGGER generates a consensus map with minimum error relative to the linkage maps while remaining ordinally consistent with them. Both linearization methods produce consensus maps that are compressed relative to the mean of the linkage maps. After rescaling, however, the consensus maps had higher accuracy (and higher marker density) than the individual linkage maps in genetic simulations. When applied to four barley linkage maps genotyped at nearly 3000 SNP markers, DAGGER produced a consensus map with improved fine structure compared to the existing barley consensus SNP map. The root-mean-squared error between the linkage maps and the DAGGER map was 0.82 cM per marker interval compared to 2.28 cM for the existing consensus map. Examination of the barley hardness locus at the 5HS telomere, for which there is a physical map, confirmed that the DAGGER output was more accurate for fine structure analysis. Conclusions The R package DAGGER is an effective, freely available resource for integrating the information from a set of consistent linkage maps.

2011-01-01

198

hi2-1, a QTL which improves harvest index, earliness and alters metabolite accumulation of processing tomatoes.  

PubMed

Harvest index, defined as the ratio of reproductive yield to total plant biomass, and early ripening are traits with important agronomic value in processing tomatoes. The Solanum pennellii introgression-line (IL) population shows variation for harvest index and earliness. Most of the QTL mapped for these traits display negative agronomic effects; however, hi2-1 is a unique QTL displaying improved harvest index and earliness. This introgression was tested over several years and under different genetic backgrounds. Thirty-one nearly isogenic sub-lines segregating for the 18 cM TG33-TG276 interval were used for fine mapping of this multi-phenotypic QTL. Based on this analysis the phenotypic effects for plant weight, Brix, total yield and earliness were co-mapped to the same region. In a different mapping experiment these sub-lines were tested as heterozygotes in order to map the harvest index QTL which were only expressed in the heterozygous state. These QTL mapped to the same candidate region, suggesting that hi2-1 is either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or represents linked genes independently affecting these traits. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pericarp revealed that a number of metabolic QTL co-segregate with the harvest index trait including those for important transport assimilates such as sugars and amino acids. Analysis of the flowering pattern of these lines revealed induced flowering at IL2-1 plants, suggest that hi2-1 may also affect harvest index and early ripening by changing plant architecture and flowering rate. PMID:20680612

Gur, Amit; Osorio, Sonia; Fridman, Eyal; Fernie, Alisdair R; Zamir, Dani

2010-08-03

199

hi2-1, A QTL which improves harvest index, earliness and alters metabolite accumulation of processing tomatoes  

PubMed Central

Harvest index, defined as the ratio of reproductive yield to total plant biomass, and early ripening are traits with important agronomic value in processing tomatoes. The Solanum pennellii introgression-line (IL) population shows variation for harvest index and earliness. Most of the QTL mapped for these traits display negative agronomic effects; however, hi2-1 is a unique QTL displaying improved harvest index and earliness. This introgression was tested over several years and under different genetic backgrounds. Thirty-one nearly isogenic sub-lines segregating for the 18 cM TG33–TG276 interval were used for fine mapping of this multi-phenotypic QTL. Based on this analysis the phenotypic effects for plant weight, Brix, total yield and earliness were co-mapped to the same region. In a different mapping experiment these sub-lines were tested as heterozygotes in order to map the harvest index QTL which were only expressed in the heterozygous state. These QTL mapped to the same candidate region, suggesting that hi2-1 is either a single gene with pleiotropic effects or represents linked genes independently affecting these traits. Metabolite profiling of the fruit pericarp revealed that a number of metabolic QTL co-segregate with the harvest index trait including those for important transport assimilates such as sugars and amino acids. Analysis of the flowering pattern of these lines revealed induced flowering at IL2-1 plants, suggest that hi2-1 may also affect harvest index and early ripening by changing plant architecture and flowering rate. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1412-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

Gur, Amit; Osorio, Sonia; Fridman, Eyal; Zamir, Dani

2010-01-01

200

Deficiency mapping of quantitative trait loci affecting longevity in Drosophila melanogaster.  

PubMed Central

In a previous study, sex-specific quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting adult longevity were mapped by linkage to polymorphic roo transposable element markers, in a population of recombinant inbred lines derived from the Oregon and 2b strains of Drosophila melanogaster. Two life span QTL were each located on chromosomes 2 and 3, within sections 33E-46C and 65D-85F on the cytological map, respectively. We used quantitative deficiency complementation mapping to further resolve the locations of life span QTL within these regions. The Oregon and 2b strains were each crossed to 47 deficiencies spanning cytological regions 32F-44E and 64C-76B, and quantitative failure of the QTL alleles to complement the deficiencies was assessed. We initially detected a minimum of five and four QTL in the chromosome 2 and 3 regions, respectively, illustrating that multiple linked factors contribute to each QTL detected by recombination mapping. The QTL locations inferred from deficiency mapping did not generally correspond to those of candidate genes affecting oxidative and thermal stress or glucose metabolism. The chromosome 2 QTL in the 35B-E region was further resolved to a minimum of three tightly linked QTL, containing six genetically defined loci, 24 genes, and predicted genes that are positional candidates corresponding to life span QTL. This region was also associated with quantitative variation in life span in a sample of 10 genotypes collected from nature. Quantitative deficiency complementation is an efficient method for fine-scale QTL mapping in Drosophila and can be further improved by controlling the background genotype of the strains to be tested.

Pasyukova, E G; Vieira, C; Mackay, T F

2000-01-01

201

FINE MAPPING OF GENES REGULATING HEAT LOSS IN MICE  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Three mapping populations have been produced from lines of mice that have undergone 16 generations of divergent selection for high and low heat loss using direct calorimetry. Two populations consisted of F2 intercrosses originating from either outbred (MH x ML, n=560) or inbred (IH x IL, n=640) high...

202

Fine mapping of the 9q31 Hirschsprung's disease locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hirschsprung's disease (HSCR) is a congenital disorder characterised by the absence of ganglia along variable lengths of the intestine. The RET gene is the major HSCR gene. Reduced penetrance of RET mutations and phenotypic variability suggest the involvement of additional modifying genes in the disease. A RET-dependent modifier locus was mapped to 9q31 in families bearing no coding sequence (CDS)

C. S. Tang; Y. Sribudiani; X. P. Miao; A. R. de Vries; G. Burzynski; M. T. So; Y. Y. Leon; B. H. Yip; J. Osinga; K. J. Hui; J. B. Verheij; S. S. Cherny; P. K. Tam; P. C. Sham; R. M. Hofstra; M. M. Garcia-Barcelo

2010-01-01

203

Fine scale association mapping of disease loci using simplex families  

Microsoft Academic Search

summary We present a new method for the ne scale mapping of disease loci based on samples of simplex families, each containing an affected child. The method is based on a generalisation of a single locus allele transmission model to multiple marker loci. The model is developed under the assumption of a single ancestral mutation and allows for the calculation

A. P. MORRIS; J. C. WHITTAKER

2000-01-01

204

Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Rrs2 gene confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium\\u000a secalis which causes leaf scald, a major barley disease. The Rrs2 gene was fine mapped to an interval of 0.08 cM between markers 693M6_6 and P1D23R on the distal end of barley chromosome\\u000a 7HS using an Atlas (resistant) × Steffi (susceptible) mapping population of 9,179 F2-plants. The establishment of a physical map of

Anja Hanemann; Günther F. Schweizer; Roberto Cossu; Thomas Wicker; Marion S. Röder

2009-01-01

205

Fine-Scale Mapping of Disease Loci via Shattered Coalescent Modeling of Genealogies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a Bayesian, Markov-chain Monte Carlo method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. The method explicitly models the genealogy underlying a sample of case chro- mosomes in the vicinity of a putative disease locus, in contrast with the assumption of a star-shaped tree made by many existing multipoint methods. Within this modeling framework, we can allow

A. P. Morris; J. C. Whittaker; D. J. Balding

2002-01-01

206

Saturation of an intra-gene pool linkage map: towards a unified consensus linkage map for fine mapping and synteny analysis in common bean.  

PubMed

Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364 × BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364 × G19833 (DG) and BAT93 × JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

Galeano, Carlos H; Fernandez, Andrea C; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A; McClean, Phillip E; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W

2011-12-08

207

Fine mapping of a replication origin of human DNA.  

PubMed Central

A highly sensitive procedure was developed for the identification of the origin of bidirectional DNA synthesis in single-copy replicons of mammalian cells. The method, which does not require cell synchronization or permeabilization, entails the absolute quantification, by a competitive PCR procedure in newly synthesized DNA samples, of the abundance of neighboring DNA fragments distributed along a given genomic region. This procedure was utilized for mapping the start site of DNA replication in a 13.7-kb region of human chromosome 19 coding for lamin B2, which is replicated immediately after the onset of S phase in HL-60 cells. Within this region, DNA replication initiates in a 474-bp area corresponding to the 3' noncoding end of the lamin B2 gene and the nontranscribed spacer between this gene and the 5' end of another highly transcribed one. This localization was obtained both in aphidicolin-synchronized and in exponentially growing HL-60 cells. Images

Giacca, M; Zentilin, L; Norio, P; Diviacco, S; Dimitrova, D; Contreas, G; Biamonti, G; Perini, G; Weighardt, F; Riva, S

1994-01-01

208

Fine Genetic Mapping Localizes Cucumber Scab Resistance Gene Ccu into an R Gene Cluster  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The scab caused by Cladosporium cucumerinum, is an important disease of cucumber, Cucumis sativus. In this study, we conducted fine genetic mapping of the single dominant scab resistance gene, Ccu, with 148 F9 recombination inbreeding lines (RILs) and 1,944 F2 plants derived from the resistant cucum...

209

Characterization and Mapping of Very Fine Particles in an Engine Machining and Assembly Facility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Very fine particle number and mass concentrations were mapped in an engine machining and assembly facility in the winter and summer. A condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in the 0.01 ? m to 1 ? m range, and an optical particle counter (OPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in 15 channels between

William A. Heitbrink; Douglas E. Evans; Thomas M. Peters; Thomas J. Slavin

2007-01-01

210

Combining DNA pooling with selective recombinant genotyping for increased efficiency in fine mapping  

PubMed Central

One of the key steps in positional cloning and marker-aided selection is to identify marker(s) tightly linked to the target gene (i.e., fine mapping). Selective genotyping such as selective recombinant genotyping (SRG) is commonly used in fine mapping for cost-saving. To further decrease genotyping effort and rapidly screen for tightly linked markers, we propose here a combined DNA pooling and SRG strategy. A two-stage pooled genotyping can be used for identifying recombinants between a pair of flanking markers more efficiently, and a joint use of bulked DNA analysis and two-stage pooling can also save cost for genotyping recombinants. The combined DNA pooling and SRG strategy can further be extended to fine mapping for polygenic traits. The numerical results based on hypothetical scenarios and an illustrative application to fine mapping of a mutant gene, called xl(t), in rice suggest that the proposed strategy can remarkably reduce genotyping amount compared with the conventional SRG.

Chi, Xiao-Fei; Shu, Qing-Yao

2010-01-01

211

Mapping QTL for resistance to frosty pod and black pod diseases, and for horticultural traits in Theobroma cacao L.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

An F1 heterozygous mapping population of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) was created and evaluated for resistance to frosty pod (Moniliophthora roreri [Cif. and Par.]), black pod (Phytophtora palmivora [Butl.] Butl.) and for five horticultural traits at CATIE in Turrialba, Costa Rica. The population cons...

212

Mapping QTL for agronomic traits on wheat chromosome 3A and a comparison of recombinant inbred chromosome line populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Variation for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain yield and its component traits was documented in a ‘Cheyenne’ x Cheyenne (‘Wichita’ 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome line population. In the present study, a population of 223 Cheyenne (Wichita 3A) recombinant inbred chromosome lines was used to map ...

213

Fine mapping of the chicken congenital loco locus on chromosome 12.  

PubMed

Congenital loco in chicks is characterized by an apparent lack of control of the muscles of the neck. This disorder is inherited as a simple Mendelian recessive disease, caused by an autosomal recessive gene, lo. To date, there are no reports on the localization of this gene. The objective of this study was therefore to identify the genomic region of the lo locus. The experimental congenital loco population used here were selected from a Rhode Island Red (RIR) line and consisted of six generations, resulting in 124 chickens. A total of 113 DNA samples from offspring of four generations (G3, G4, G5, and G6) were used for genotyping. At first, genome-wide linkage mapping was performed using 122 microsatellite markers on 22 autosomal chromosomes, and the lo locus was mapped to chromosome 12. We then performed fine mapping in two steps on chromosome 12. First, the lo locus was mapped to the interval between GGA12_5 and GGA12_11 using 13 new polymorphic markers. In the second step, fine mapping was performed by adding new families and 11 additional new polymorphic markers. Linkage mapping and haplotype information enabled the localization of the lo locus to a 1.1-Mb region between GGA12_28 and GGA12_30. Genetic markers between GGA12_28 and GGA12_30 may be used to remove the carriers of congenital loco through this RIR line. PMID:23742667

Okumura, Y; Ohtake, T; Uemoto, Y; Sato, S; Sato, S; Kobayashi, E

2013-06-07

214

QTL mapping of the domestication traits pre-harvest sprouting and dormancy in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. )  

Microsoft Academic Search

A set of 75 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the ITMI mapping population was grown under field conditions in Gatersleben. The lines were evaluated for the domestication traits pre-harvest sprouting and dormancy (germinability). Main QTLs could be localized for pre-harvest sprouting on chromosome 4AL and dormancy on chromosome 3AL. In addition, 85 Triticum aestivum cv. “Chinese Spring”-Aegilops tauschii introgression lines

Ulrike Lohwasser; Marion S. Röder; Andreas Börner

2005-01-01

215

Regulatory Variation at Glypican-3 Underlies a Major Growth QTL in Mice  

PubMed Central

The genetic basis of variation in complex traits remains poorly understood, and few genes underlying variation have been identified. Previous work identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL) responsible for much of the response to selection on growth in mice, effecting a change in body mass of approximately 20%. By fine-mapping, we have resolved the location of this QTL to a 660-kb region containing only two genes of known function, Gpc3 and Gpc4, and two other putative genes of unknown function. There are no non-synonymous polymorphisms in any of these genes, indicating that the QTL affects gene regulation. Mice carrying the high-growth QTL allele have approximately 15% lower Gpc3 mRNA expression in kidney and liver, whereas expression differences at Gpc4 are non-significant. Expression profiles of the two other genes within the region are inconsistent with a factor responsible for a general effect on growth. Polymorphisms in the 3? untranslated region of Gpc3 are strong candidates for the causal sequence variation. Gpc3 loss-of-function mutations in humans and mice cause overgrowth and developmental abnormalities. However, no deleterious side-effects were detected in our mice, indicating that genes involved in Mendelian diseases also contribute to complex trait variation. Furthermore, these findings show that small changes in gene expression can have substantial phenotypic effects.

2005-01-01

216

Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

PubMed Central

Background Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the mapping of BAC clones to the linkage map. Results This BAC library consisted of 49,152 clones with an average insert size of 98 kb, representing 6.9-fold haploid genome coverage. Screening the library with 24 microsatellites and 15 ESTs/genes demonstrated that the library had good genome coverage. In addition, 62 novel microsatellites each isolated from 62 BAC clones were mapped onto the first generation linkage map. A total of 86 BAC clones were anchored on the linkage map with at least one BAC clone on each linkage group. Conclusion We have constructed the first BAC library for L. calcarifer and mapped 86 BAC clones to the first generation linkage map. This BAC library and the improved linkage map with 302 DNA markers not only supply an indispensable tool to the integration of physical and linkage maps, the fine mapping of QTL and map based cloning genes located in QTL of commercial importance, but also contribute to comparative genomic studies and eventually whole genome sequencing.

Wang, Chun Ming; Lo, Loong Chueng; Feng, Felicia; Gong, Ping; Li, Jian; Zhu, Ze Yuan; Lin, Grace; Yue, Gen Hua

2008-01-01

217

QTL mapping of root traits in a doubled haploid population from a cross between upland and lowland japonica rice in three environments.  

PubMed

To genetically dissect drought resistance associated with japonica upland rice, we evaluated a doubled haploid (DH) population from a cross between two japonica cultivars for seven root traits under three different growing conditions (upland, lowland and upland in PVC pipe). The traits included basal root thickness (BRT), total root number (RN), maximum root length (MRL), root fresh weight (RFW), root dry weight (RDW), ratio of root fresh weight to shoot fresh weight (RFW/SFW) and ratio of root dry weight to shoot dry weight (RDW/SDW). The BRT was significantly correlated with the index of drought resistance, which was defined as the ratio of yield under the stress of the upland condition to that under the normal lowland condition. A complete genetic linkage map with 165 molecular markers covering 1,535 cM was constructed. Seven additive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and 15 pairs of epistatic loci for BRT and RN were identified under upland and lowland conditions, and 12 additive QTLs and 17 pairs of epistatic QTLs for BRT, RN, MRL, RFW, RFW/SFW and RDW/SDW were identified under the PVC pipe condition. Four additive QTLs and one pair of epistatic QTLs controlling IDR were also found. These QTLs individually explained up to 25.6% of the phenotypic variance. QTL x environment (Q x E) interactions were detected for all root traits, and the contributions of these interactions ranged from 1.1% to 19.9%. Five co-localized QTLs controlling RFW and RDW, RFW/SFW, RDW/SDW and IDR, BRT and RN, RN, MRL and IDR were found. Four types of QTLs governing BRT and RN were classified by their detection in the upland and lowland conditions. Some common QTLs for root traits across different backgrounds were also revealed. These co-localized QTLs and common QTLs will facilitate marker-assisted selection for root traits in rice breeding programs. PMID:15765223

Li, Zichao; Mu, Ping; Li, Chunping; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Zhikang; Gao, Yongming; Wang, Xiangkun

2005-03-12

218

Fine-mapping quantitative trait loci with a medium density marker panel: efficiency of population structures and comparison of linkage disequilibrium linkage analysis models  

PubMed Central

Summary Recently, a Haley–Knott-type regression method using combined linkage disequilibrium and linkage analyses (LDLA) was proposed to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Chromosome of 5 and 25 cM with 0·25 and 0·05 cM, respectively, between markers were simulated. The differences between the LDLA approaches with regard to QTL position accuracy were very limited, with a significantly better mean square error (MSE) with the LDLA regression (LDLA_reg) in sparse map cases; the contrary was observed, but not significantly, in dense map situations. The computing time required for the LDLA variance components (LDLA_vc) model was much higher than the LDLA_reg model. The precision of QTL position estimation was compared for four numbers of half-sib families, four different family sizes and two experimental designs (half-sibs, and full- and half-sibs). Regarding the number of families, MSE values were lowest for 15 or 50 half-sib families, differences not being significant. We observed that the greater the number of progenies per sire, the more accurate the QTL position. However, for a fixed population size, reducing the number of families (e.g. using a small number of large full-sib families) could lead to less accuracy of estimated QTL position.

ROLDAN, DANA L; GILBERT, HELENE; HENSHALL, JOHN M; LEGARRA, ANDRES; ELSEN, JEAN-MICHEL

2012-01-01

219

Detection of growth-related QTL in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus)  

PubMed Central

Background The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a highly appreciated European aquaculture species. Growth related traits constitute the main goal of the ongoing genetic breeding programs of this species. The recent construction of a consensus linkage map in this species has allowed the selection of a panel of 100 homogeneously distributed markers covering the 26 linkage groups (LG) suitable for QTL search. In this study we addressed the detection of QTL with effect on body weight, length and Fulton's condition factor. Results Eight families from two genetic breeding programs comprising 814 individuals were used to search for growth related QTL using the panel of microsatellites available for QTL screening. Two different approaches, maximum likelihood and regression interval mapping, were used in order to search for QTL. Up to eleven significant QTL were detected with both methods in at least one family: four for weight on LGs 5, 14, 15 and 16; five for length on LGs 5, 6, 12, 14 and 15; and two for Fulton's condition factor on LGs 3 and 16. In these LGs an association analysis was performed to ascertain the microsatellite marker with the highest apparent effect on the trait, in order to test the possibility of using them for marker assisted selection. Conclusions The use of regression interval mapping and maximum likelihood methods for QTL detection provided consistent results in many cases, although the high variation observed for traits mean among families made it difficult to evaluate QTL effects. Finer mapping of detected QTL, looking for tightly linked markers to the causative mutation, and comparative genomics are suggested to deepen in the analysis of QTL in turbot so they can be applied in marker assisted selection programs.

2011-01-01

220

Whole Genome Mapping in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population Using SSRs and TRAPS and the Identification of QTL for Agronomic Traits  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis allows the identification of genomic regions associated with quantitative traits, which provides an estimation of the number and chromosomal location of genes involved and leads to the identification of molecular markers suitable for marker-assisted selection (...

221

QTL for nodal root angle in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) co-locate with QTL for traits associated with drought adaptation.  

PubMed

Nodal root angle in sorghum influences vertical and horizontal root distribution in the soil profile and is thus relevant to drought adaptation. In this study, we report for the first time on the mapping of four QTL for nodal root angle (qRA) in sorghum, in addition to three QTL for root dry weight, two for shoot dry weight, and three for plant leaf area. Phenotyping was done at the six leaf stage for a mapping population (n = 141) developed by crossing two inbred sorghum lines with contrasting root angle. Nodal root angle QTL explained 58.2% of the phenotypic variance and were validated across a range of diverse inbred lines. Three of the four nodal root angle QTL showed homology to previously identified root angle QTL in rice and maize, whereas all four QTL co-located with previously identified QTL for stay-green in sorghum. A putative association between nodal root angle QTL and grain yield was identified through single marker analysis on field testing data from a subset of the mapping population grown in hybrid combination with three different tester lines. Furthermore, a putative association between nodal root angle QTL and stay-green was identified using data sets from selected sorghum nested association mapping populations segregating for root angle. The identification of nodal root angle QTL presents new opportunities for improving drought adaptation mechanisms via molecular breeding to manipulate a trait for which selection has previously been very difficult. PMID:21938475

Mace, E S; Singh, V; Van Oosterom, E J; Hammer, G L; Hunt, C H; Jordan, D R

2011-09-22

222

Fine-mapping at three loci known to affect fetal hemoglobin levels explains additional genetic variation.  

PubMed

We used resequencing and genotyping in African Americans with sickle cell anemia (SCA) to characterize associations with fetal hemoglobin (HbF) levels at the BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB and ?-globin loci. Fine-mapping of HbF association signals at these loci confirmed seven SNPs with independent effects and increased the explained heritable variation in HbF levels from 38.6% to 49.5%. We also identified rare missense variants that causally implicate MYB in HbF production. PMID:21057501

Galarneau, Geneviève; Palmer, Cameron D; Sankaran, Vijay G; Orkin, Stuart H; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Lettre, Guillaume

2010-11-07

223

Increasing the density of markers around a major QTL controlling resistance to angular leaf spot in common bean.  

PubMed

Angular leaf spot (ALS) causes major yield losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), an important protein source in the human diet. This study describes the saturation around a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) region, ALS10.1, controlling resistance to ALS located on linkage group Pv10 and explores the genomic context of this region using available data from the P. vulgaris genome sequence. DArT-derived markers (STS-DArT) selected by bulk segregant analysis and SCAR and SSR markers were used to increase the resolution of the QTL, reducing the confidence interval of ALS10.1 from 13.4 to 3.0 cM. The position of the SSR ATA220 coincided with the maximum LOD score of the QTL. Moreover, a new QTL (ALS10.2(UC)) was identified at the end of the same linkage group. Sequence analysis using the P. vulgaris genome located ten SSRs and seven STS-DArT on chromosome 10 (Pv10). Coincident linkage and genome positions of five markers enabled the definition of a core region for ALS10.1 spanning 5.3 Mb. These markers are linked to putative genes related to disease resistance such as glycosyl transferase, ankyrin repeat-containing, phospholipase, and squamosa-promoter binding protein. Synteny analysis between ALS10.1 markers and the genome of soybean suggested a dynamic evolution of this locus in the common bean. The present study resulted in the identification of new candidate genes and markers closely linked to a major ALS disease resistance QTL, which can be used in marker-assisted selection, fine mapping and positional QTL cloning. PMID:23832048

Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Cardoso Perseguini, Juliana Morini Kupper; Baroni, Renata Moro; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Mondego, Jorge Mauricio Costa; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

2013-07-06

224

Interrogating local population structure for fine mapping in genome-wide association studies  

PubMed Central

Motivation: Adjustment for population structure is necessary to avoid bias in genetic association studies of susceptibility variants for complex diseases. Population structure may differ from one genomic region to another due to the variability of individual ancestry associated with migration, random genetic drift or natural selection. Current association methods for correcting population stratification usually involve adjustment of global ancestry between study subjects. Results: We suggest interrogating local population structure for fine mapping to more accurately locate true casual genes by better adjusting the confounding effect due to local ancestry. By extensive simulations on genome-wide datasets, we show that adjusting global ancestry may lead to false positives when local population structure is an important confounding factor. In contrast, adjusting local ancestry can effectively prevent false positives due to local population structure and thus can improve fine mapping for disease gene localization. We applied the local and global adjustments to the analysis of datasets from three genome-wide association studies, including European Americans, African Americans and Nigerians. Both European Americans and African Americans demonstrate greater variability in local ancestry than Nigerians. Adjusting local ancestry successfully eliminated the known spurious association between SNPs in the LCT gene and height due to the population structure existed in European Americans. Contact: xiaofeng.zhu@case.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Qin, Huaizhen; Morris, Nathan; Kang, Sun J.; Li, Mingyao; Tayo, Bamidele; Lyon, Helen; Hirschhorn, Joel; Cooper, Richard S.; Zhu, Xiaofeng

2010-01-01

225

Transferability and Fine Mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans  

PubMed Central

Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits.

2012-01-01

226

A QTL for broad-spectrum resistance to cyst nematode species (Globodera spp.) maps to a resistance gene cluster in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Broad-spectrum resistance in potato to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida is commonly regarded as a polygenically inherited trait. Yet, by use of QTL analysis and a selected set of PCN populations,\\u000a resistance to both PCN species could be ascribed to the action of locus Grp1. Grp1 confers major resistance to G. rostochiensis line Ro5-22

J. N. A. M. Rouppe van der Voort; W. Lindeman; R. Folkertsma; R. C. B. Hutten; H. Overmars; E. van der Vossen; E. Jacobsen; J. Bakker

1998-01-01

227

Construction of a BAC library and a physical map of a major QTL for CBB resistance of common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A major quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning common bacterial blight (CBB) resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines HR45 and HR67 was derived from XAN159, a resistant line obtained from an interspecific cross between common bean\\u000a lines and the tepary bean (P. acutifolius L.) line PI319443. This source of CBB resistance is widely used in bean breeding. Several other

S. Y. Liu; K. Yu; M. Huffner; S. J. Park; M. Banik; K. P. Pauls; W. Crosby

2010-01-01

228

Recalculation of 23 mouse HDL QTL datasets improves accuracy and allows for better candidate gene analysis.  

PubMed

In the past 15 years, the quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping approach has been applied to crosses between different inbred mouse strains to identify genetic loci associated with plasma HDL cholesterol levels. Although successful, a disadvantage of this method is low mapping resolution, as often several hundred candidate genes fall within the confidence interval for each locus. Methods have been developed to narrow these loci by combining the data from the different crosses, but they rely on the accurate mapping of the QTL and the treatment of the data in a consistent manner. We collected 23 raw datasets used for the mapping of previously published HDL QTL and reanalyzed the data from each cross using a consistent method and the latest mouse genetic map. By utilizing this approach, we identified novel QTL and QTL that were mapped to the wrong part of chromosomes. Our new HDL QTL map allows for reliable combining of QTL data and candidate gene analysis, which we demonstrate by identifying Grin3a and Etv6, as candidate genes for QTL on chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively. In addition, we were able to narrow a QTL on Chr 19 to five candidates. PMID:23393305

Ackert-Bicknell, Cheryl; Paigen, Beverly; Korstanje, Ron

2013-02-07

229

MHC fine mapping of human type 1 diabetes using the T1DGC data  

PubMed Central

Aim The human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a highly polymorphic genomic region occupying approximately 4 Mb on chromosome 6p21.3. The relationship between human MHC and type 1 diabetes (T1D) has been previously investigated. To fine map the disease locus in this region, we carried out both linkage and association analyses using the Type 1 Diabetes Genetics Consortium data. Methods Two-point linkage analysis was performed with a set of microsatellite markers assuming a fully recessive inheritance model, where we found clustering of high LOD (logarithm of the odds) scores across the MHC region. To narrow down the linkage region, we performed association analyses using both microsatellite and two sets of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. We focused on the nuclear families containing a discordant sib-pair (an affected and unaffected sib). For the microsatellite markers, we computed the average repeat length for each individual and carried out a paired t-test. Results Microsatellite marker D6S2884 showed the highest association in a sharp peak with a p value of 3.15E–24. We confirmed this finding when using also SNP markers performing a McNemar's test for association. The SNPs that showed the most significant evidence of association mapped to almost the same location as the microsatellite markers. Conclusions Besides the main goal of fine mapping of T1D genes, our results also illustrated the differences and the advantage of using both linkage and association analyses. After the identification of a wide peak with linkage analysis, we were able to dramatically narrow down the region by performing association analysis.

He, C.; Hamon, S.; Li, D.; Barral-Rodriguez, S.; Ott, J.

2009-01-01

230

Fine mapping of QTLs of chromosome 2 affecting the fruit architecture and composition of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

Negative correlations between quality traits and fruit size may hamper the breeding of fresh market tomato varieties for better organoleptic qualities. In a recent QTL analysis, QTLs with large effects on fruit weight, locule number and several quality traits were detected in the distal 50 cM of chromosome 2, but favorable alleles for fruit weight and locule number were unfavorable

L. Lecomte; V. Saliba-Colombani; A. Gautier; M. C. Gomez-Jimenez; P. Duffé; M. Buret; M. Causse

2004-01-01

231

Bayesian Fine-Scale Mapping of Disease Loci, by Hidden Markov Models  

PubMed Central

We present a new multilocus method for the fine-scale mapping of genes contributing to human diseases. The method is designed for use with multiple biallelic markers—in particular, single-nucleotide polymorphisms for which high-density genetic maps will soon be available. We model disease-marker association in a candidate region via a hidden Markov process and allow for correlation between linked marker loci. Using Markov-chain–Monte Carlo simulation methods, we obtain posterior distributions of model parameter estimates including disease-gene location and the age of the disease-predisposing mutation. In addition, we allow for heterogeneity in recombination rates, across the candidate region, to account for recombination hot and cold spots. We also obtain, for the ancestral marker haplotype, a posterior distribution that is unique to our method and that, unlike maximum-likelihood estimation, can properly account for uncertainty. We apply the method to data for cystic fibrosis and Huntington disease, for which mutations in disease genes have already been identified. The new method performs well compared with existing multi-locus mapping methods.

Morris, A. P.; Whittaker, J. C.; Balding, D. J.

2000-01-01

232

Fine mapping of 10q and 18q for familial Alzheimer's disease in Caribbean Hispanics  

PubMed Central

Familial Alzheimer’s disease (AD [MIM 104300]) has been a focus of intense investigation, primarily in Caucasian families from Europe and North America families. Although the late-onset form of familial AD, beginning after age 65 years, has been linked to regions on chromosomes 10q and 12p, the specific genetic variants have not yet been consistently identified. Using a unique cohort of families of Caribbean Hispanics ancestry, we screened the genome using 340 markers on 490 family members from 96 families with predominantly late-onset AD. We observed the strongest support for linkage on 18q (LOD=3.14). However, 17 additional markers (chromosomes 1-6, 8, 10, 12, and 14) exceeded a two-point LOD score of 1.0 under the affecteds-only autosomal dominant model or affected sibpair model. As we previously reported the fine-mapping effort on 12p showing modest evidence of linkage, we focused our fine-mapping efforts on two other candidate regions in the current report, namely 10q and 18q. We added 31 family members and eight additional Caribbean Hispanic families to fine map 10q and 18q. With additional microsatellite markers, the evidence for linkage for 18q strengthened near 112 cM, where the two-point LOD score for D18S541 was 3.37 and the highest NPL score in that region was 3.65 (P=0.000177). This narrow region contains a small number of genes expressed in the brain. However, at 10q (134-138 cM), the NPL score decreased from 3.15 (P=0.000486) to 2.1 (P=0.0218), but two broad peaks remained overlapping with previously reported peaks. Our results provide modest support for linkage on 10q and 12p in this cohort of Caribbean Hispanic families with familial Alzheimer’s disease, and strong evidence for a new locus on 18q.

Lee, JH; Mayeux, R; Mayo, D; Mo, J; Santana, V; Williamson, J; Flaquer, A; Ciappa, A; Rondon, H; Estevez, P; Lantigua, R; Kawarai, T; Toulina, A; Medrano, M; Torres, M; Stern, Y; Tycko, B; Rogaeva, E; George-Hyslop, P St.; Knowles, JA

2006-01-01

233

Vibrational fine structure of C5 via anion slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-resolution anion photoelectron spectra of cryogenically cooled C5- clusters are reported using slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. We resolve vibronic transitions to the ?2 stretching mode and multiply excited ?5, ?6, and ?7 bending modes of neutral C5 with significantly higher accuracy than previous experiments. Weak transitions to Franck-Condon (FC) forbidden singly excited bending modes are made possible by Herzberg-Teller coupling between electronic states of the neutral cluster. In addition, we resolve vibrational fine structure corresponding to different angular momentum states of multiply excited bending modes. The observation of this multiplet structure, some of which is FC forbidden, is attributed to Renner-Teller coupling between vibrational levels in the C5- ground electronic state.

Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Neumark, Daniel M.

2013-10-01

234

Discovery and Fine Mapping of Serum Protein Loci through Transethnic Meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Many disorders are associated with altered serum protein concentrations, including malnutrition, cancer, and cardiovascular, kidney, and inflammatory diseases. Although these protein concentrations are highly heritable, relatively little is known about their underlying genetic determinants. Through transethnic meta-analysis of European-ancestry and Japanese genome-wide association studies, we identified six loci at genome-wide significance (p < 5 × 10?8) for serum albumin (HPN-SCN1B, GCKR-FNDC4, SERPINF2-WDR81, TNFRSF11A-ZCCHC2, FRMD5-WDR76, and RPS11-FCGRT, in up to 53,190 European-ancestry and 9,380 Japanese individuals) and three loci for total protein (TNFRS13B, 6q21.3, and ELL2, in up to 25,539 European-ancestry and 10,168 Japanese individuals). We observed little evidence of heterogeneity in allelic effects at these loci between groups of European and Japanese ancestry but obtained substantial improvements in the resolution of fine mapping of potential causal variants by leveraging transethnic differences in the distribution of linkage disequilibrium. We demonstrated a functional role for the most strongly associated serum albumin locus, HPN, for which Hpn knockout mice manifest low plasma albumin concentrations. Other loci associated with serum albumin harbor genes related to ribosome function, protein translation, and proteasomal degradation, whereas those associated with serum total protein include genes related to immune function. Our results highlight the advantages of transethnic meta-analysis for the discovery and fine mapping of complex trait loci and have provided initial insights into the underlying genetic architecture of serum protein concentrations and their association with human disease.

Franceschini, Nora; van Rooij, Frank J.A.; Prins, Bram P.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Karakas, Mahir; Eckfeldt, John H.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Kopp, Jeffrey; Vaez, Ahmad; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Baumert, Jens; Boraska, Vesna; Broer, Linda; Hayward, Caroline; Ngwa, Julius S.; Okada, Yukinori; Polasek, Ozren; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wang, Ying A.; Del Greco M., Fabiola; Glazer, Nicole L.; Kapur, Karen; Kema, Ido P.; Lopez, Lorna M.; Schillert, Arne; Smith, Albert V.; Winkler, Cheryl A.; Zgaga, Lina; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bergmann, Sven; Boban, Mladen; Bochud, Murielle; Chen, Y.D.; Davies, Gail; Dehghan, Abbas; Ding, Jingzhong; Doering, Angela; Durda, J. Peter; Ferrucci, Luigi; Franco, Oscar H.; Franke, Lude; Gunjaca, Grog; Hofman, Albert; Hsu, Fang-Chi; Kolcic, Ivana; Kraja, Aldi; Kubo, Michiaki; Lackner, Karl J.; Launer, Lenore; Loehr, Laura R.; Li, Guo; Meisinger, Christa; Nakamura, Yusuke; Schwienbacher, Christine; Starr, John M.; Takahashi, Atsushi; Torlak, Vesela; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Vitart, Veronique; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wild, Philipp S.; Kirin, Mirna; Zeller, Tanja; Zemunik, Tatijana; Zhang, Qunyuan; Ziegler, Andreas; Blankenberg, Stefan; Boerwinkle, Eric; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Campbell, Harry; Deary, Ian J.; Frayling, Timothy M.; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B.; Hicks, Andrew A.; Koenig, Wolfgang; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Fox, Caroline S.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Reiner, Alex P.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rudan, Igor; Snieder, Harold; Tanaka, Toshihiro; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Wilson, James F.; Witteman, Jacqueline C.M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Wright, Alan F.; Wu, Qingyu; Liu, Yongmei; Jenny, Nancy S.; North, Kari E.; Felix, Janine F.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Perry, John R.B.; Morris, Andrew P.

2012-01-01

235

QTL detection for a medium density SNP panel: comparison of different LD and LA methods  

PubMed Central

Background New molecular technologies allow high throughput genotyping for QTL mapping with dense genetic maps. Therefore, the interest of linkage analysis models against linkage disequilibrium could be questioned. As these two strategies are very sensitive to marker density, experimental design structures, linkage disequilibrium extent and QTL effect, we propose to investigate these parameters effects on QTL detection. Methods The XIIIth QTLMAS workshop simulated dataset was analysed using three linkage disequilibrium models and a linkage analysis model. Interval mapping, multivariate and interaction between QTL analyses were performed using QTLMAP. Results The linkage analysis models identified 13 QTL, from which 10 mapped close of the 18 which were simulated and three other positions being falsely mapped as containing a QTL. Most of the QTLs identified by interval mapping analysis are not clearly detected by any linkage disequilibrium model. In addition, QTL effects are evolving during the time which was not observed using the linkage disequilibrium models. Conclusions Our results show that for such a marker density the interval mapping strategy is still better than using the linkage disequilibrium only. While the experimental design structure gives a lot of power to both approaches, the marker density and informativity clearly affect linkage disequilibrium efficiency for QTL detection.

Filangi, Olivier; Le Roy, Pascale

2010-01-01

236

Dissection of two soybean QTL conferring partial resistance to Phytophthora sojae through sequence and gene expression analysis  

PubMed Central

Background Phytophthora sojae is the primary pathogen of soybeans that are grown on poorly drained soils. Race-specific resistance to P. sojae in soybean is gene-for-gene, although in many areas of the US and worldwide there are populations that have adapted to the most commonly deployed resistance to P. sojae ( Rps) genes. Hence, this system has received increased attention towards identifying mechanisms and molecular markers associated with partial resistance to this pathogen. Several quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been identified in the soybean cultivar ‘Conrad’ that contributes to the expression of partial resistance to multiple P. sojae isolates. Results In this study, two of the Conrad QTL on chromosome 19 were dissected through sequence and expression analysis of genes in both resistant (Conrad) and susceptible (‘Sloan’) genotypes. There were 1025 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 87 of 153 genes sequenced from Conrad and Sloan. There were 304 SNPs in 54 genes sequenced from Conrad compared to those from both Sloan and Williams 82, of which 11 genes had SNPs unique to Conrad. Eleven of 19 genes in these regions analyzed with qRT-PCR had significant differences in fold change of transcript abundance in response to infection with P. sojae in lines with QTL haplotype from the resistant parent compared to those with the susceptible parent haplotype. From these, 8 of the 11 genes had SNPs in the upstream, untranslated region, exon, intron, and/or downstream region. These 11 candidate genes encode proteins potentially involved in signal transduction, hormone-mediated pathways, plant cell structural modification, ubiquitination, and basal resistance. Conclusions These findings may indicate a complex defense network with multiple mechanisms underlying these two soybean QTL conferring resistance to P. sojae. SNP markers derived from these candidate genes can contribute to fine mapping of QTL and marker assisted breeding for resistance to P. sojae.

2012-01-01

237

Three QTL in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. suppress reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor.  

PubMed

Varroa destructor is a highly virulent ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee Apis mellifera and a major cause of colony losses for global apiculture. Typically, chemical treatment is essential to control the parasite population in the honey bee colony. Nevertheless a few honey bee populations survive mite infestation without any treatment. We used one such Varroa mite tolerant honey bee lineage from the island of Gotland, Sweden, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling reduced mite reproduction. We crossed a queen from this tolerant population with drones from susceptible colonies to rear hybrid queens. Two hybrid queens were used to produce a mapping population of haploid drones. We discriminated drone pupae with and without mite reproduction, and screened the genome for potential QTL using a total of 216 heterozygous microsatellite markers in a bulk segregant analysis. Subsequently, we fine mapped three candidate target regions on chromosomes 4, 7, and 9. Although the individual effect of these three QTL was found to be relatively small, the set of all three had significant impact on suppression of V. destructor reproduction by epistasis. Although it is in principle possible to use these loci for marker-assisted selection, the strong epistatic effects between the three loci complicate selective breeding programs with the Gotland Varroa tolerant honey bee stock. PMID:22393513

Behrens, Dieter; Huang, Qiang; Geßner, Cornelia; Rosenkranz, Peter; Frey, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F B

2011-12-01

238

Three QTL in the honey bee Apis mellifera L. suppress reproduction of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor  

PubMed Central

Varroa destructor is a highly virulent ectoparasitic mite of the honey bee Apis mellifera and a major cause of colony losses for global apiculture. Typically, chemical treatment is essential to control the parasite population in the honey bee colony. Nevertheless a few honey bee populations survive mite infestation without any treatment. We used one such Varroa mite tolerant honey bee lineage from the island of Gotland, Sweden, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling reduced mite reproduction. We crossed a queen from this tolerant population with drones from susceptible colonies to rear hybrid queens. Two hybrid queens were used to produce a mapping population of haploid drones. We discriminated drone pupae with and without mite reproduction, and screened the genome for potential QTL using a total of 216 heterozygous microsatellite markers in a bulk segregant analysis. Subsequently, we fine mapped three candidate target regions on chromosomes 4, 7, and 9. Although the individual effect of these three QTL was found to be relatively small, the set of all three had significant impact on suppression of V. destructor reproduction by epistasis. Although it is in principle possible to use these loci for marker-assisted selection, the strong epistatic effects between the three loci complicate selective breeding programs with the Gotland Varroa tolerant honey bee stock.

Behrens, Dieter; Huang, Qiang; Gessner, Cornelia; Rosenkranz, Peter; Frey, Eva; Locke, Barbara; Moritz, Robin F A; Kraus, F B

2011-01-01

239

Fine mapping of RppP25, a southern rust resistance gene in maize.  

PubMed

Southern rust (Puccinia polysora Underw.) is a major disease that can cause severe yield losses in maize (Zea mays L.). In our previous study, a major gene RppP25 that confers resistance to southern rust was identified in inbred line P25. Here, we report the fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of RppP25 from the near-isogenic line F939, which harbors RppP25 in the genetic background of the susceptible inbred line F349. The inheritance of resistance to southern rust was investigated in the BC1 F1 and BC3 F1 populations, which were derived from a cross between F939 and F349 (as the recurrent parent). The 1:1 segregation ratio of resistance to susceptible plants in these two populations indicated that the resistance is controlled by a single dominant gene. Ten markers, including three simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and seven insertion/deletion (InDel) markers, were developed in the RppP25 region. RppP25 was delimited to an interval between P091 and M271, with an estimated length of 40 kb based on the physical map of B73. In this region, a candidate gene was identified that was predicted to encode a putative nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) protein. Two co-segregated markers will aid in pyramiding diverse southern rust resistance alleles into elite materials, and thereby improve southern rust resistance worldwide. PMID:23302046

Zhao, Panfeng; Zhang, Guobin; Wu, Xiaojun; Li, Na; Shi, Dianyi; Zhang, Dengfeng; Ji, Chunfang; Xu, Mingliang; Wang, Shoucai

2013-04-11

240

Analysis of digenic epistatic effects and QE interaction effects QTL controlling grain weight in rice.  

PubMed

Immortalized F(2) population of rice (Oryza sativa L.) was developed by randomly mating F(1) among recombinant inbred (RI) lines derived from (Zhenshan 97B x Minghui 63), which allowed replications within and across environments. QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping analysis on kilo-grain weight of immortalized F(2) population was performed by using newly developed software for QTL mapping, QTLMapper 2.0. Eleven distinctly digenic epistatic loci included a total of 15 QTL were located on eight chromosomes. QTL main effects of additive, dominance, and additive x additive, additive x dominance, and dominance x dominance interactions were estimated. Interaction effects between QTL main effects and environments (QE) were predicted. Less than 40% of single effects, most of which were additive effects, for identified QTL were significant at 5% level. The directional difference for QTL main effects suggested that these QTL were distributed in parents in the repulsion phase. This should make it feasible to improve kilo-grain weight of both parents by selecting appropriate new recombinants. Only few of the QE interaction effects were significant. Application prospect for QTL mapping achievements in genetic breeding was discussed. PMID:14994424

Gao, Yong-ming; Zhu, Jun; Song, You-shen; He, Ci-xin; Shi, Chun-hai; Xing, Yong-zhong

2004-04-01

241

Dense fine-mapping study identifies new susceptibility loci for primary biliary cirrhosis  

PubMed Central

We genotyped 2,861 cases from the UK PBC consortium and 8,514 UK population controls across 196,524 variants within 186 known autoimmune risk loci. We identified three loci newly associated with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) (with P<5×10?8), increasing the number of known susceptibility loci to 25. The most associated variant at 19p12 is a low-frequency non-synonymous SNP in TYK2, further implicating JAK/STAT and cytokine signalling in disease pathogenesis. A further five loci contained non-synonymous variants in high linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r2>0.8) with the most associated variant at the locus. We found multiple independent common, low-frequency and rare variant association signals at five loci. Of the 26 independent non-HLA signals tagged on Immunochip, 15 have SNPs in B-lymphoblastoid open-chromatin regions in high LD (r2>0.8) with the most associated variant. This study demonstrates how dense fine-mapping arrays coupled with functional genomic data can be utilized to identify candidate causal variants for functional follow-up.

Liu, Jimmy Z; Almarri, Mohamed A; Gaffney, Daniel J; Mells, George F; Jostins, Luke; Cordell, Heather J; Ducker, Samantha J; Day, Darren B; Heneghan, Michael A; Neuberger, James M.; Donaldson, Peter T; Bathgate, Andrew J; Burroughs, Andrew; Davies, Mervyn H; Jones, David E; Alexander, Graeme J; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Sandford, Richard N; Anderson, Carl A

2012-01-01

242

Intensity Mapping of Atomic Fine Structure Line Emission from Dusty Star-Forming Galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We explore the possibility of measuring power spectra of fine structure emission from metals in the ISM of dusty star-forming galaxies at z ~ 1. We present predictions for the power spectra of [CII]158um, which, combined with ancillary data on the star formation rate, could be used to trace evolution in the [CII]-FIR ratio and star formation mode. Such an experiment could serve as a pilot study for future experiments set during the Epoch or Reionization, with the ultimate purpose of cross-correlating with the 21cm signal. Additionally, we examine the use of intensity mapped line ratios to extract evolution in closely related physical properties affecting the ISM such as metallicity, radiation hardness, and properties of the stellar IMF. Such line ratios (e.g., [OIII]88/[NII]122 for color temperature of the ionizing sources) have proven useful in observations of individual objects in the local universe, and we aim to understand how this translates to line ratios of an aggregate of galaxies in the power spectrum.

Uzgil, Bade; Aguirre, J. E.; Bradford, M.

2013-01-01

243

Fine Mapping of Prostate Cancer Aggressiveness Loci on Chromosome 7q22-35  

PubMed Central

Background Deciphering the genetic basis of prostate cancer aggressiveness could provide valuable information for the screening and treatment of this common but complex disease. We previously detected linkage between a broad region on chromosome 7q22-35 and Gleason score—a strong predictor of prostate cancer aggressiveness. To further clarify this finding and focus on the potentially causative gene, we undertook a fine-mapping study across the 7q22-35 region. Methods Our study population encompassed 698 siblings diagnosed with prostate cancer. 3,072 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning the chromosome 7q22-35 region were genotyped using the Illumina GoldenGate assay. The impact of SNPs on Gleason scores were evaluated using affected sibling pair linkage and family-based association tests. Results We confirmed the previous linkage signal and narrowed the 7q22-35 prostate cancer aggressiveness locus to a 370 kb region. Centered under the linkage peak is the gene KLRG2 (killer cell lectin-like receptor subfamily G, member 2). Association tests indicated that the potentially functional non-synonymous SNP rs17160911 in KLRG2 was significantly associated with Gleason score (p = 0.0007). Conclusions These findings suggest that genetic variants in the gene KLRG2 may affect Gleason score at diagnosis and hence the aggressiveness of prostate cancer.

Liu, Xin; Cheng, Iona; Plummer, Sarah J; Suarez, Brian; Casey, Graham; Catalona, William J.; Witte, John S.

2010-01-01

244

A Genome-Wide, Fine-Scale Map of Natural Pigmentation Variation in Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome.

Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stobe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlotterer, Christian

2013-01-01

245

A multivariate approach to the problem of QTL localization.  

PubMed

QTL mapping with statistical likelihood-based procedures or asymptotically equivalent regression methods is usually carried out in a univariate way, even if many traits were observed in the experiment. Some proposals for multivariate QTL mapping by an extension of the maximum likelihood method for mixture models or by an application of the canonical transformation have been given in the literature. This paper describes a method of analysis of multitrait data sets, aimed at localization of QTLs contributing to many traits simultaneously, which is based on the linear model of multivariate multiple regression. A special form of the canonical analysis is employed to decompose the test statistic for the general no-QTL hypothesis into components pertaining to individual traits and individual, putative QTLs. Extended linear hypotheses are used to formulate conjectures concerning pleiotropy. A practical mapping algorithm is described. The theory is illustrated with the analysis of data from a study of maize drought resistance. PMID:10866532

Cali?ski, T; Kaczmarek, Z; Krajewski, P; Frova, C; Sari-Gorla, M

2000-03-01

246

Identification and fine mapping of qCTH4, a quantitative trait loci controlling the chlorophyll content from tillering to heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

The chlorophyll content is one of the most important traits selected by breeders, and it is controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) derived from natural variations in rice. We analyzed the QTL controlling chlorophyll content by using 94 RILs derived from a cross between 2 japonica rice cultivars, Lijiangxintuanheigu (LTH) and Shennong265 (SN265). Twenty-two QTLs controlling chlorophyll content at tillering stage, heading stage, and maturity stage were detected, respectively. Among them, Rice cv. LTH had a positive allele only at 1 locus (qCTH4) on chromosome 4. Further analysis indicated that the genetic effect of qCTH4 was the net effects within the period from tillering to heading. The QTL qCTH4 controlling chlorophyll content from tillering to heading locates between RM255 and RM349 on chromosome 4 with a LOD score 19.41, and the QTL qCTH4 explains 61.42% of phenotypic variation. In order to eliminate the influence of other QTLs, 1 single residual heterozygous plant, RH-qCTH4, was selected based on the genotypes of 114 Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. Using the segregating population derived from RH-qCTH4 by self-crossing, this region was narrowed down to an interval between RM3276 and RM17494 in an approximately 771kb target region. These results are useful for map-based cloning of qCTH4 and for marker-assisted selection of high photosynthetic efficiency variety. PMID:22851681

Jiang, Shukun; Zhang, Xijuan; Zhang, Fengming; Xu, Zhengjin; Chen, Wenfu; Li, Yuhua

2012-07-31

247

Robust Score Statistics for QTL Linkage Analysis  

PubMed Central

The traditional variance components approach for quantitative trait locus (QTL) linkage analysis is sensitive to violations of normality and fails for selected sampling schemes. Recently, a number of new methods have been developed for QTL mapping in humans. Most of the new methods are based on score statistics or regression-based statistics and are expected to be relatively robust to non-normality of the trait distribution and also to selected sampling, at least in terms of type I error. Whereas the theoretical development of these statistics is more or less complete, some practical issues concerning their implementation still need to be addressed. Here we study some of these issues such as the choice of denominator variance estimates, weighting of pedigrees, effect of parameter misspecification, effect of non-normality of the trait distribution, and effect of incorporating dominance. We present a comprehensive discussion of the theoretical properties of various denominator variance estimates and of the weighting issue and then perform simulation studies for nuclear families to compare the methods in terms of power and robustness. Based on our analytical and simulation results, we provide general guidelines regarding the choice of appropriate QTL mapping statistics in practical situations.

Bhattacharjee, Samsiddhi; Kuo, Chia-Ling; Mukhopadhyay, Nandita; Brock, Guy N.; Weeks, Daniel E.; Feingold, Eleanor

2008-01-01

248

Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus  

PubMed Central

Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought.

2011-01-01

249

Meta-analysis of QTL involved in silage quality of maize and comparison with the position of candidate genes.  

PubMed

A meta-analysis of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with plant digestibility and cell wall composition in maize was carried out using results from 11 different mapping experiments. Statistical methods implemented in "MetaQTL" software were used to build a consensus map, project QTL positions and perform meta-analysis. Fifty-nine QTL for traits associated with digestibility and 150 QTL for traits associated with cell wall composition were included in the analysis. We identified 26 and 42 metaQTL for digestibility and cell wall composition traits, respectively. Fifteen metaQTL with confidence interval (CI) smaller than 10 cM were identified. As expected from trait correlations, 42% of metaQTL for digestibility displayed overlapping CIs with metaQTL for cell wall composition traits. Coincidences were particularly strong on chromosomes 1 and 3. In a second step, 356 genes selected from the MAIZEWALL database as candidates for the cell wall biosynthesis pathway were positioned on our consensus map. Colocalizations between candidate genes and metaQTL positions appeared globally significant based on ?(2) tests. This study contributed in identifying key chromosomal regions involved in silage quality and potentially associated genes for most of these regions. These genes deserve further investigation, in particular through association mapping. PMID:20658277

Truntzler, M; Barrière, Y; Sawkins, M C; Lespinasse, D; Betran, J; Charcosset, A; Moreau, L

2010-07-25

250

Epistasis in allelic expression at upper temperature tolerance QTL in rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have mapped the location of QTL affecting upper temperature tolerance in three backcross families of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) derived from matings between an F1 male (high (H)×low (L) temperature tolerance selected lines) and two H and one L line females using variation at 61 microsatellite loci. Physiological epistasis was observed among paternally inherited QTL alleles and this depended

Roy G. Danzmann; Timothy R. Jackson; Moira M. Ferguson

1999-01-01

251

Fine Mapping on Chromosome 10q22-q23 Implicates Neuregulin 3 in Schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

Linkage studies have implicated 10q22-q23 as a schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility locus in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) and Han Chinese from Taiwan populations. To further explore our previous linkage signal in the AJ population (NPL score: 4.27, empirical p = 2 × 10?5), we performed a peakwide association fine mapping study by using 1414 SNPs across ?12.5 Mb in 10q22-q23. We genotyped 1515 AJ individuals, including 285 parent-child trios, 173 unrelated cases, and 487 unrelated controls. We analyzed the binary diagnostic phenotype of SZ and 9 heritable quantitative traits derived from a principal components factor analysis of 73 items from our consensus diagnostic ratings and direct assessment interviews. Although no marker withstood multiple test correction for association with the binary SZ phenotype, we found strong evidence of association by using the “delusion” factor as the quantitative trait at three SNPs (rs10883866, rs10748842, and rs6584400) located in a 13 kb interval in intron 1 of Neuregulin 3 (NRG3). Our best p value from family-based association analysis was 7.26 × 10?7. We replicated this association in the collection of 173 unrelated AJ cases (p = 1.55 × 10?2), with a combined p value of 2.30 × 10?7. After performing 10,000 permutations of each of the phenotypes, we estimated the empirical study-wide significance across all 9 factors (90,000 permutations) to be p = 2.7 × 10?3. NRG3 is primarily expressed in the central nervous system and is one of three paralogs of NRG1, a gene strongly implicated in SZ. These biological properties together with our linkage and association results strongly support NRG3 as a gene involved in SZ.

Chen, Pei-Lung; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Lasseter, Virginia K.; McGrath, John A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald; Feng, Ningping; Steel, Gary; Cutting, Andrew S.; Wolyniec, Paula; Pulver, Ann E.; Valle, David

2009-01-01

252

Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk.  

PubMed

Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case-control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10(-8) with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10(-24)). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r(2)= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10(-23)) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10(-8)); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10(-10)), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer. PMID:21576123

Berndt, Sonja I; Sampson, Joshua; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Wang, Zhaoming; Hutchinson, Amy; Chung, Charles; Orr, Nick; Wacholder, Sholom; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yu, Kai; Kraft, Peter; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J; Diver, W Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Andriole, Gerald L; Crawford, E David; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Kolonel, Laurence; Le Marchand, Loic; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Travis, Ruth C; Kaaks, Rudolf; Isaacs, William; Isaacs, Sarah; Wiley, Kathleen E; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Stattin, Pär; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Vatten, Lars J; Hveem, Kristian; Njølstad, Inger; Gerhard, Daniela S; Tucker, Margaret; Hayes, Richard B; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Chanock, Stephen J

2011-05-16

253

Large-scale fine mapping of the HNF1B locus and prostate cancer risk  

PubMed Central

Previous genome-wide association studies have identified two independent variants in HNF1B as susceptibility loci for prostate cancer risk. To fine-map common genetic variation in this region, we genotyped 79 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 17q12 region harboring HNF1B in 10 272 prostate cancer cases and 9123 controls of European ancestry from 10 case–control studies as part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. Ten SNPs were significantly related to prostate cancer risk at a genome-wide significance level of P < 5 × 10?8 with the most significant association with rs4430796 (P = 1.62 × 10?24). However, risk within this first locus was not entirely explained by rs4430796. Although modestly correlated (r2= 0.64), rs7405696 was also associated with risk (P = 9.35 × 10?23) even after adjustment for rs4430769 (P = 0.007). As expected, rs11649743 was related to prostate cancer risk (P = 3.54 × 10?8); however, the association within this second locus was stronger for rs4794758 (P = 4.95 × 10?10), which explained all of the risk observed with rs11649743 when both SNPs were included in the same model (P = 0.32 for rs11649743; P = 0.002 for rs4794758). Sequential conditional analyses indicated that five SNPs (rs4430796, rs7405696, rs4794758, rs1016990 and rs3094509) together comprise the best model for risk in this region. This study demonstrates a complex relationship between variants in the HNF1B region and prostate cancer risk. Further studies are needed to investigate the biological basis of the association of variants in 17q12 with prostate cancer.

Berndt, Sonja I.; Sampson, Joshua; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Wang, Zhaoming; Hutchinson, Amy; Chung, Charles; Orr, Nick; Wacholder, Sholom; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Yu, Kai; Kraft, Peter; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Andriole, Gerald L.; Crawford, E. David; Haiman, Christopher; Henderson, Brian; Kolonel, Laurence; Le Marchand, Loic; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Travis, Ruth C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Isaacs, William; Isaacs, Sarah; Wiley, Kathleen E.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Stattin, Par; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S. Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Vatten, Lars J.; Hveem, Kristian; Nj?lstad, Inger; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Tucker, Margaret; Hayes, Richard B.; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Hunter, David J.; Thomas, Gilles; Chanock, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

254

Pathotype-specific QTL for stem rust resistance in Lolium perenne.  

PubMed

A genetic map populated with RAD and SSR markers was created from F1 progeny of a stem rust-susceptible and stem rust-resistant parent of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). The map supplements a previous map of this population by having markers in common with several other Lolium spp. maps including EST-SSR anchor markers from a consensus map published by other researchers. A QTL analysis was conducted with disease severity and infection type data obtained by controlled inoculation of the population with each of two previously characterized pathotypes of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola that differ in virulence to different host plant genotypes in the F1 population. Each pathotype activated a specific QTL on one linkage group (LG): qLpPg1 on LG7 for pathotype 101, or qLpPg2 on LG1 for pathotype 106. Both pathotypes also activated a third QTL in common, qLpPg3 on LG6. Anchor markers, present on a consensus map, were located in proximity to each of the three QTL. These QTL had been detected also in previous experiments in which a genetically heterogeneous inoculum of the stem rust pathogen activated all three QTL together. The results of this and a previous study are consistent with the involvement of the pathotype-specific QTL in pathogen recognition and the pathotype-nonspecific QTL in a generalized resistance response. By aligning the markers common to other published reports, it appears that two and possibly all three of the stem rust QTL reported here are in the same general genomic regions containing some of the L. perenne QTL reported to be activated in response to the crown rust pathogen (P. coronata). PMID:23361523

Pfender, W F; Slabaugh, M E

2013-01-30

255

Fine mapping of the chromosome 10q11-q21 linkage region in Alzheimer's disease cases and controls  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously reported strong linkage on chromosome 10q in pedigrees transmitting Alzheimer's disease through the mother,\\u000a overlapping with many significant linkage reports including the largest reported study. Here, we report the most comprehensive\\u000a fine mapping of this region to date. In a sample of 638 late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD) cases and controls including\\u000a 104 maternal LOAD cases, we genotyped

Margaret Daniele Fallin; Megan Szymanski; Ruihua Wang; Adrian Gherman; Susan S. Bassett; Dimitrios Avramopoulos

2010-01-01

256

Extensive QTL and association analyses of the QTLMAS2009 Data  

PubMed Central

Background We applied a range of genome-wide association (GWA) methods to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the simulated dataset provided by the QTLMAS2009 workshop to derive a comprehensive set of results. A Gompertz curve was modelled on the yield data and showed good predictive properties. QTL analyses were done on the raw measurements and on the individual parameters of the Gompertz curve and its predicted growth for each interval. Half-sib and variance component linkage analysis revealed QTL with different modes of inheritance but with low resolution. This was complemented by association studies using single markers or haplotypes, and additive, dominance, parent-of-origin and epistatic QTL effects. All association analyses were done on phenotypes pre-corrected for pedigree effects. These methods detected QTL positions with high concordance to each other and with greater refinement of the linkage signals. Two-locus interaction analysis detected no epistatic pairs of QTL. Overall, using stringent thresholds we identified QTL regions using linkage analyses, corroborated by 6 individual SNPs with significant effects as well as two putatively imprinted SNPs. Conclusions We obtained consistent results across a combination of intra- and inter- family based methods using flexible linear models to evaluate a variety of models. The Gompertz curve fitted the data really well, and provided complementary information on the detected QTL. Retrospective comparisons of the results with actual data simulated showed that best results were obtained by including both yield and the parameters from the Gompertz curve despite the data being simulated using a logistic function.

2010-01-01

257

TAGGING AND MAPPING OF GENES AND QTL AND MOLECULAR MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR TRAITS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN BEAN AND COWPEA  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (B/C CRSP) scientists have successfully integrated consensus maps of the 11 linkage groups in both bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The bean map is approximately 1200 cM with some 500 markers and an additional 500 marker...

258

Fractionation, Stability, and Isolate-Specificity of QTL for Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)  

PubMed Central

Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to late blight, a major disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, but quantitative resistance exists in the wild tomato species S. habrochaites. Previously, we mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) from S. habrochaites and then introgressed each individually into S. lycopersicum. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, each containing a single introgressed QTL on chromosome 5 or 11. NILs were used to create two recombinant sub-NIL populations, one for each target chromosome region, for higher-resolution mapping. The sub-NIL populations were evaluated for foliar and stem resistance to P. infestans in replicated field experiments over two years, and in replicated growth chamber experiments for resistance to three California isolates. Each of the original single QTL on chromosomes 5 and 11 fractionated into between two and six QTL for both foliar and stem resistance, indicating a complex genetic architecture. The majority of QTL from the field experiments were detected in multiple locations or years, and two of the seven QTL detected in growth chambers were co-located with QTL detected in field experiments, indicating stability of some QTL across environments. QTL that confer foliar and stem resistance frequently co-localized, suggesting that pleiotropy and/or tightly linked genes control the trait phenotypes. Other QTL exhibited isolate-specificity and QTL × environment interactions. Map-based comparisons between QTL mapped in this study and Solanaceae resistance genes/QTL detected in other published studies revealed multiple cases of co-location, suggesting conservation of gene function.

Johnson, Emily B.; Haggard, J. Erron; St.Clair, Dina A.

2012-01-01

259

Confirmation and fine-mapping of a major QTL for resistance to infectious pancreatic necrosis in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): population-level associations between markers and trait  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Infectious pancreatic necrosis (IPN) is one of the most prevalent and economically devastating diseases in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farming worldwide. The disease causes large mortalities at both the fry- and post-smolt stages. Family selection for increased IPN resistance is performed through the use of controlled challenge tests, where survival rates of sib-groups are recorded. However, since challenge-tested animals

Thomas Moen; Matthew Baranski; Anna K Sonesson; Sissel Kjøglum

2009-01-01

260

Influence of dent corn genetic backgrounds on QTL detection for plant-height traits and their relationships in high-oil maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

QTL mapping for plant-height traits has not been hitherto reported in high-oil maize. A high-oil maize inbred ‘GY220’ was\\u000a crossed with two dent maize inbreds (‘8984’ and ‘8622’) to generate two connected F2:3 populations. Four plant-height traits were evaluated in 284 and 265 F2:3 families. Single-trait QTL mapping and multiple-trait joint QTL mapping was used to detect QTLs for the

M. Wei; J. Fu; X. Li; Y. Wang; Y. Li

2009-01-01

261

Genomic Correlates of Relationship QTL Involved in Fore- versus Hind Limb Divergence in Mice  

PubMed Central

Divergence of serially homologous elements of organisms is a common evolutionary pattern contributing to increased phenotypic complexity. Here, we study the genomic intervals affecting the variational independence of fore- and hind limb traits within an experimental mouse population. We use an advanced intercross of inbred mouse strains to map the loci associated with the degree of autonomy between fore- and hind limb long bone lengths (loci affecting the relationship between traits, relationship quantitative trait loci [rQTL]). These loci have been proposed to interact locally with the products of pleiotropic genes, thereby freeing the local trait from the variational constraint due to pleiotropic mutations. Using the known polymorphisms (single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]) between the parental strains, we characterized and compared the genomic regions in which the rQTL, as well as their interaction partners (intQTL), reside. We find that these two classes of QTL intervals harbor different kinds of molecular variation. SNPs in rQTL intervals more frequently reside in limb-specific cis-regulatory regions than SNPs in intQTL intervals. The intQTL loci modified by the rQTL, in contrast, show the signature of protein-coding variation. This result is consistent with the widely accepted view that protein-coding mutations have broader pleiotropic effects than cis-regulatory polymorphisms. For both types of QTL intervals, the underlying candidate genes are enriched for genes involved in protein binding. This finding suggests that rQTL effects are caused by local interactions among the products of the causal genes harbored in rQTL and intQTL intervals. This is the first study to systematically document the population-level molecular variation underlying the evolution of character individuation.

Pavlicev, Mihaela; Wagner, Gunter P.; Noonan, James P.; Hallgrimsson, Benedikt; Cheverud, James M.

2013-01-01

262

Integrating sorghum whole genome sequence information with a compendium of sorghum QTL studies reveals uneven distribution of QTL and of gene-rich regions with significant implications for crop improvement  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive analysis was conducted using 48 sorghum QTL studies published from 1995 to 2010 to make information from historical\\u000a sorghum QTL experiments available in a form that could be more readily used by sorghum researchers and plant breeders. In\\u000a total, 771 QTL relating to 161 unique traits from 44 studies were projected onto a sorghum consensus map. Confidence intervals

E. S. Mace; D. R. Jordan

2011-01-01

263

QTL x Genetic Background Interaction: Application to Predicting Progeny Value  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Failures of the additive infinitesimal model continue to provide incentive to study other modes of gene action, in particular, epistasis. Epistasis can be modeled as a QTL by genetic background interaction. Association mapping models lend themselves to fitting such an interaction because they often ...

264

Fine Mapping of Wheat Stripe Rust Resistance Gene Yr26 Based on Collinearity of Wheat with Brachypodium distachyon and Rice  

PubMed Central

The Yr26 gene, conferring resistance to all currently important races of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) in China, was previously mapped to wheat chromosome deletion bin C-1BL-6-0.32 with low-density markers. In this study, collinearity of wheat to Brachypodium distachyon and rice was used to develop markers to saturate the chromosomal region containing the Yr26 locus, and a total of 2,341 F2 plants and 551 F2?3 progenies derived from Avocet S×92R137 were used to develop a fine map of Yr26. Wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs) located in deletion bin C-1BL-6-0.32 were used to develop sequence tagged site (STS) markers. The EST-STS markers flanking Yr26 were used to identify collinear regions of the rice and B. distachyon genomes. Wheat ESTs with significant similarities in the two collinear regions were selected to develop conserved markers for fine mapping of Yr26. Thirty-one markers were mapped to the Yr26 region, and six of them cosegregated with the resistance gene. Marker orders were highly conserved between rice and B. distachyon, but some rearrangements were observed between rice and wheat. Two flanking markers (CON-4 and CON-12) further narrowed the genomic region containing Yr26 to a 1.92 Mb region in B. distachyon chromosome 3 and a 1.17 Mb region in rice chromosome 10, and two putative resistance gene analogs were identified in the collinear region of B. distachyon. The markers developed in this study provide a potential target site for further map-based cloning of Yr26 and should be useful in marker assisted selection for pyramiding the gene with other resistance genes.

Zeng, Qingdong; Duan, Yinghui; Yuan, Fengping; Shi, Jingdong; Wang, Qilin; Wu, Jianhui; Huang, Lili; Kang, Zhensheng

2013-01-01

265

Lineage-specific mapping of quantitative trait loci.  

PubMed

We present an approach for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, termed as 'lineage-specific QTL mapping', for inferring allelic changes of QTL evolution along with branches in a phylogeny. We describe and analyze the simplest case: by adding a third taxon into the normal procedure of QTL mapping between pairs of taxa, such inferences can be made along lineages to a presumed common ancestor. Although comparisons of QTL maps among species can identify homology of QTLs by apparent co-location, lineage-specific mapping of QTL can classify homology into (1) orthology (shared origin of QTL) versus (2) paralogy (independent origin of QTL within resolution of map distance). In this light, we present a graphical method that identifies six modes of QTL evolution in a three taxon comparison. We then apply our model to map lineage-specific QTLs for inbreeding among three taxa of yellow monkey-flower: Mimulus guttatus and two inbreeders M. platycalyx and M. micranthus, but critically assuming outcrossing was the ancestral state. The two most common modes of homology across traits were orthologous (shared ancestry of mutation for QTL alleles). The outbreeder M. guttatus had the fewest lineage-specific QTL, in accordance with the presumed ancestry of outbreeding. Extensions of lineage-specific QTL mapping to other types of data and crosses, and to inference of ancestral QTL state, are discussed. PMID:23612690

Chen, C; Ritland, K

2013-04-24

266

Mapping and validation of Yr48 and other QTL conferring partial resistance to broadly virulent post-2000 North American races of stripe rust in hexaploid wheat  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A mapping population of 188 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between UC1110, an adapted California spring wheat, and PI610750, a synthetic derivative from CIMMYT's wide-cross program, was evaluated for its response to current California races of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f.sp....

267

Fine Mapping Links the FTa1 Flowering Time Regulator to the Dominant Spring1 Locus in Medicago  

PubMed Central

To extend our understanding of flowering time control in eudicots, we screened for mutants in the model legume Medicago truncatula (Medicago). We identified an early flowering mutant, spring1, in a T-DNA mutant screen, but spring1 was not tagged and was deemed a somaclonal mutant. We backcrossed the mutant to wild type R108. The F1 plants and the majority of F2 plants were early flowering like spring1, strongly indicating that spring1 conferred monogenic, dominant early flowering. We hypothesized that the spring1 phenotype resulted from over expression of an activator of flowering. Previously, a major QTL for flowering time in different Medicago accessions was located to an interval on chromosome 7 with six candidate flowering- time activators, including a CONSTANS gene, MtCO, and three FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes. Hence we embarked upon linkage mapping using 29 markers from the MtCO/FT region on chromosome 7 on two populations developed by crossing spring1 with Jester. Spring1 mapped to an interval of ?0.5 Mb on chromosome 7 that excluded MtCO, but contained 78 genes, including the three FT genes. Of these FT genes, only FTa1 was up-regulated in spring1 plants. We then investigated global gene expression in spring1 and R108 by microarray analysis. Overall, they had highly similar gene expression and apart from FTa1, no genes in the mapping interval were differentially expressed. Two MADS transcription factor genes, FRUITFULLb (FULb) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVER EXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1a (SOC1a), that were up-regulated in spring1, were also up-regulated in transgenic Medicago over-expressing FTa1. This suggested that their differential expression in spring1 resulted from the increased abundance of FTa1. A 6255 bp genomic FTa1 fragment, including the complete 5? region, was sequenced, but no changes were observed indicating that the spring1 mutation is not a DNA sequence difference in the FTa1 promoter or introns.

Yeoh, Chin Chin; Balcerowicz, Martin; Zhang, Lulu; Jaudal, Mauren; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Putterill, Joanna

2013-01-01

268

Genetic architecture of adiposity and organ weight using combined generation QTL analysis.  

PubMed

We present here a detailed study of the genetic contributions to adult body size and adiposity in the LG,SM advanced intercross line (AIL), an obesity model. This study represents a first step in fine-mapping obesity quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in an AIL. QTLs for adiposity in this model were previously isolated to chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 13, and 18. This study focuses on heritable contributions and the genetic architecture of fatpad and organ weights. We analyzed both the F(2) and F(3) generations of the LG,SM AIL population single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyped with a marker density of approximately 4 cM. We replicate 88% of the previously identified obesity QTLs and identify 13 new obesity QTLs. Nearly half of the single-trait QTLs were sex-specific. Several broad QTL regions were resolved into multiple, narrower peaks. The 113 single-trait QTLs for organs and body weight clustered into 27 pleiotropic loci. A large number of epistatic interactions are described which begin to elucidate potential interacting molecular networks. We present a relatively rapid means to obtain fine-mapping details from AILs using dense marker maps and consecutive generations. Analysis of the complex genetic architecture underlying fatpad and organ weights in this model may eventually help to elucidate not only heritable contributions to obesity but also common gene sets for obesity and its comorbidities. PMID:18551125

Fawcett, Gloria L; Roseman, Charles C; Jarvis, Joseph P; Wang, Bing; Wolf, Jason B; Cheverud, James M

2008-06-12

269

Fine-Scale Mapping of the Nasonia Genome to Chromosomes Using a High-Density Genotyping Microarray  

PubMed Central

Nasonia, a genus of four closely related parasitoid insect species, is a model system for genetic research. Their haplodiploid genetics (haploid males and diploid females) and interfertile species are advantageous for the genetic analysis of complex traits and the genetic basis of species differences. A fine-scale genomic map is an important tool for advancing genetic studies in this system. We developed and used a hybrid genotyping microarray to generate a high-resolution genetic map that covers 79% of the sequenced genome of Nasonia vitripennis. The microarray is based on differential hybridization of species-specific oligos between N. vitripennis and Nasonia giraulti at more than 20,000 markers spanning the Nasonia genome. The map places 729 scaffolds onto the five linkage groups of Nasonia, including locating many smaller scaffolds that would be difficult to map by other means. The microarray was used to characterize 26 segmental introgression lines containing chromosomal regions from one species in the genetic background of another. These segmental introgression lines have been used for rapid screening and mapping of quantitative trait loci involved in species differences. Finally, the microarray is extended to bulk-segregant analysis and genotyping of other Nasonia species combinations. These resources should further expand the usefulness of Nasonia for studies of the genetic basis and architecture of complex traits and speciation.

Desjardins, Christopher A.; Gadau, Jurgen; Lopez, Jacqueline A.; Niehuis, Oliver; Avery, Amanda R.; Loehlin, David W.; Richards, Stephen; Colbourne, John K.; Werren, John H.

2013-01-01

270

Characterization of fs10.1 , a major QTL controlling fruit elongation in Capsicum  

Microsoft Academic Search

We previously identified fs10.1 as a major QTL controlling fruit shape (index of length to width) in an interspecific F2 cross of Capsicum annuum (round fruit) × C. chinense (elongated fruit) in pepper. To more precisely map and characterize the QTL, we constructed near-isogenic lines for fs10.1 and mapped it in a BC4F2 population. In this population, fs10.1 segregated as a Mendelian

Yelena Borovsky; Ilan Paran

271

An SSR-based linkage map of yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) and QTL analysis of pod length.  

PubMed

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC(1)F(1) ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F(2) population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. PMID:22242703

Kongjaimun, Alisa; Kaga, Akito; Tomooka, Norihiko; Somta, Prakit; Shimizu, Takehiko; Shu, Yujian; Isemura, Takehisa; Vaughan, Duncan A; Srinives, Peerasak

2012-01-13

272

Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription  

PubMed Central

Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation.

Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

2013-01-01

273

Genomics of a metamorphic timing QTL: met1 maps to a unique genomic position and regulates morph and species-specific patterns of brain transcription.  

PubMed

Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

Page, Robert B; Boley, Meredith A; Kump, David K; Voss, Stephen R

2013-01-01

274

Mapping fire regimes across time and space: Understanding coarse and fine-scale fire patterns  

Microsoft Academic Search

Maps of fire frequency, severity, size, and pattern are useful for strategically planning fire and natural resource management, assessing risk and ecological conditions, illustrating change in disturbance regimes through time, identifying knowledge gaps, and learning how climate, topography, vegetation, and land use influence fire regimes. We review and compare alternative data sources and approaches for mapping fire regimes at national,

Penelope MorganA; Colin C. HardyB; Thomas W. SwetnamC; Matthew G. RollinsB; Donald G. LongB

275

Fine mapping in tomato using microsynteny with the Arabidopsis genome: the Diageotropica (Dgt) locus  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence provides a catalog of reference genes applicable to comparative microsynteny analysis of other species, facilitating map-based cloning in economically important crops. We have applied such an analysis to the tomato expressed sequence tag (EST) database to expedite high-resolution mapping of the Diageotropica (Dgt) gene within the distal end of chromosome 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon

KwangChul Oh; Kristine Hardeman; Maria G Ivanchenko; Mary Ellard-Ivey; Andreas Nebenführ; TJ White; Terri L Lomax

2002-01-01

276

QTL analyses of drought tolerance and growth for a Salix dasyclados x Salix viminalis hybrid in contrasting water regimes.  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth traits and water-use efficiency have been identified in two water regimes (normal and drought-treated) and for a treatment index. A tetraploid hybrid F2 population originating from a cross between a Salix dasyclados clone (SW901290) and a Salix viminalis clone ('Jorunn') was used in the study. The growth response of each individual including both above and below ground dry-matter production (i.e. shoot length, shoot diameter, aboveground and root dry weight, internode length, root dry weight/total dry weight, relative growth rate and leaf nitrogen content) was analysed in a replicated block experiment with two water treatments. A composite interval mapping approach was used to estimate number of QTL, the magnitude of the QTL and their position on genetic linkage maps. QTL specific for each treatment and for the treatment index were found, but QTL common across the treatments and the treatment index were also detected. Each QTL explained from 8% to 29% of the phenotypic variation, depending on trait and treatment. Clusters of QTL for different traits were mapped close to each other at several linkage groups, indicating either a common genetic base or tightly linked QTL. Common QTL identified between treatments and treatment index in the complex trait dry weight can be useful tools in the breeding and selection for drought stress tolerance in Salix. PMID:15619077

Rönnberg-Wästljung, A C; Glynn, C; Weih, M

2004-12-24

277

Breed relationships facilitate fine-mapping studies: A 7.8-kb deletion cosegregates with Collie eye anomaly across multiple dog breeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The features of modern dog breeds that increase the ease of mapping common diseases, such as reduced heterogeneity and extensive linkage disequilibrium, may also increase the difficulty associated with fine mapping and identifying causative mutations. One way to address this problem is by combining data from multiple breeds segregating the same trait after initial linkage has been determined. The multibreed

Heidi C. Parker; Anna V. Kukekovat; Dayna T. Ake; Orly Coldstein; Ewen F. KirknessI; Kathleen C. Baysac; Custavo D. Aguirre; Gregory M. Acland; Elaine A. Ostrander

2008-01-01

278

Fine and domain-level epitope mapping of botulinum neurotoxin type A neutralizing antibodies by yeast surface display  

PubMed Central

Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the most poisonous substance known, causes naturally occurring human disease (botulism) and is one of the top six biothreat agents. Botulism is treated with polyclonal antibodies produced in horses which are associated with a high incidence of systemic reactions. Human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are under development as a safer therapy. Identifying neutralizing epitopes on BoNTs is an important step in generating neutralizing mAbs, and also has implications for vaccine development. Here we show that the three domains of BoNT serotype A (BoNT/A) can be displayed on the surface of yeast and used to epitope map six mAbs to the toxin domains they bind. The use of yeast obviates the need to express and purify each domain, and it should prove possible to display domains of other BoNT subtypes and serotypes for epitope mapping. Using a library of yeast displayed BoNT/A binding domain (HC) mutants and selecting for loss of binding, the fine epitopes of three neutralizing BoNT/A mAbs were identified. Two mAbs bind the C-terminal subdomain of HC, with one binding near the toxin sialoganglioside binding site. The most potently neutralizing mAb binds the N-terminal subdomain of HC, in an area not previously thought to be functionally important. Modeling the epitopes shows how all three mAbs could bind BoNT/A simultaneously and may partially explain the dramatic synergy observed on in vivo toxin neutralization when these antibodies are combined. The results demonstrate how yeast display can be used for domain-level and fine mapping of conformational BoNT antibody epitopes and the mapping results identify three neutralizing BoNT/A epitopes.

Levy, R.; Forsyth, C.M.; LaPorte, S.L; Geren, I.N.; Smith, L.A.; Marks, J.D.

2007-01-01

279

Searching QTL by gene expression: analysis of diabesity  

PubMed Central

Background Recent developments in sequence databases provide the opportunity to relate the expression pattern of genes to their genomic position, thus creating a transcriptome map. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) are phenotypically-defined chromosomal regions that contribute to allelically variant biological traits, and by overlaying QTL on the transcriptome, the search for candidate genes becomes extremely focused. Results We used our novel data mining tool, ExQuest, to select genes within known diabesity QTL showing enriched expression in primary diabesity affected tissues. We then quantified transcripts in adipose, pancreas, and liver tissue from Tally Ho mice, a multigenic model for Type II diabetes (T2D), and from diabesity-resistant C57BL/6J controls. Analysis of the resulting quantitative PCR data using the Global Pattern Recognition analytical algorithm identified a number of genes whose expression is altered, and thus are novel candidates for diabesity QTL and/or pathways associated with diabesity. Conclusion Transcription-based data mining of genes in QTL-limited intervals followed by efficient quantitative PCR methods is an effective strategy for identifying genes that may contribute to complex pathophysiological processes.

Brown, Aaron C; Olver, William I; Donnelly, Charles J; May, Marjorie E; Naggert, Jurgen K; Shaffer, Daniel J; Roopenian, Derry C

2005-01-01

280

Expression QTL Modules as Functional Components Underlying Higher-Order Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Systems genetics studies often involve the mapping of numerous regulatory relations between genetic loci and expression traits. These regulatory relations form a bipartite network consisting of genetic loci and expression phenotypes. Modular network organizations may arise from the pleiotropic and polygenic regulation of gene expression. Here we analyzed the expression QTL (eQTL) networks derived from expression genetic data of yeast and mouse liver and found 65 and 98 modules respectively. Computer simulation result showed that such modules rarely occurred in randomized networks with the same number of nodes and edges and same degree distribution. We also found significant within-module functional coherence. The analysis of genetic overlaps and the evidences from biomedical literature have linked some eQTL modules to physiological phenotypes. Functional coherence within the eQTL modules and genetic overlaps between the modules and physiological phenotypes suggests that eQTL modules may act as functional units underlying the higher-order phenotypes.

Bao, Lei; Xia, Xuefeng; Cui, Yan

2010-01-01

281

Fine-Mapping in African Americans of Eight Recently Discovered Genetic Loci for Plasma Lipids: The Jackson Heart Study  

PubMed Central

Background Genome-wide association studies in cohorts of European descent have identified novel genomic regions as associated with lipids, but their relevance in African Americans remains unclear. Methods and Results We genotyped 8 index SNPs and 488 tagging SNPs across 8 novel lipid loci in the Jackson Heart Study, a community-based cohort of 4605 African Americans. For each trait, we calculated residuals adjusted for age, sex, and global ancestry and performed multivariable linear regression to detect genotype-phenotype association with adjustment for local ancestry. To explore admixture effects, we conducted stratified analyses in individuals with a high probability of 2 African ancestral alleles or at least 1 European allele at each locus. We confirmed 2 index SNPs as associated with lipid traits in African Americans, with suggestive association for 3 more. However, the effect sizes for 4 of the 5 associated SNPs were larger in the European local ancestry subgroup compared to the African local ancestry subgroup, suggesting that the replication is driven by European ancestry segments. Through fine-mapping, we discovered 3 new SNPs with significant associations, two with consistent effect on triglyceride levels across ancestral groups: rs636523 near DOCK7/ANGPTL3 and rs780093 in GCKR. African LD patterns did not assist in narrowing association signals. Conclusions We confirm that 5 genetic regions associated with lipid traits in European-derived populations are relevant in African Americans. To further evaluate these loci, fine-mapping in larger African American cohorts and/or resequencing will be required.

Keebler, Mary E.; Deo, Rahul C.; Surti, Aarti; Konieczkowski, David; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Sarpong, Daniel F.; Steffes, Michael W.; Wilson, James G.; Taylor, Herman A.; Kathiresan, Sekar

2011-01-01

282

A fine structure genomic map of the region of 12q13 containing SAS and CDK4  

SciTech Connect

We have recently adapted a method, originally described by Rackwitz, to the rapid restriction mapping of multiple cosmid DNA samples. Linearization of the cosmids at the lambda cohesive site using lambda terminase is followed by partial digestion with selected restriction enzymes and hybridization to oligonucleotides specific for the right or left hand termini. Partial digestions are performed in a microtiter plate thus allowing up to 12 cosmid clones to be digested with one restriction enzyme. We have applied this rapid restriction mapping method to cosmids derived from a region of chromosome 12q13 that has recently been shown to be amplified in a variety of cancers including malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma, liposarcoma, osteosarcoma and brain tumors. A small segment of this amplification unit containing three genes, SAS (a membrane protein), CDK4 (a cyclin dependent kinase) and OS-9 (a recently described cDNA) has been analyzed with the system described above. This fine structure genomic map will be useful for completing the expression map of this region as well as characterizing its pattern of amplification in tumor specimens.

Linder, C.Y.; Elkahloun, A.G.; Su, Y.A. [National Center for Human Genome Research, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

283

Fine mapping in tomato using microsynteny with the Arabidopsis genome: the Diageotropica (Dgt) locus  

PubMed Central

Background The Arabidopsis thaliana genome sequence provides a catalog of reference genes applicable to comparative microsynteny analysis of other species, facilitating map-based cloning in economically important crops. We have applied such an analysis to the tomato expressed sequence tag (EST) database to expedite high-resolution mapping of the Diageotropica (Dgt) gene within the distal end of chromosome 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). Results A BLAST search of the Arabidopsis database with nucleotide sequences of markers that flank the tomato dgt locus revealed regions of microsynteny between the distal end of chromosome 1 in tomato, two regions of Arabidopsis chromosome 4, and one on chromosome 2. Tomato ESTs homeologous to Arabidopsis gene sequences within those regions were converted into co-dominant molecular markers via cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence (CAPS) analysis and scored against an informative backcross mapping population. Six new microsyntenic EST (MEST) markers were rapidly identified in the dgt region, two of which further defined the placement of the Dgt gene and permitted the selection of a candidate tomato bacterial artificial chromosome clone for sequence analysis. Conclusions Microsynteny-based comparative mapping combined with CAPS analysis of recombinant plants rapidly and economically narrowed the dgt mapping region from 0.8 to 0.15 cM. This approach should contribute to developing high-density maps of molecular markers to target-specific regions for positional cloning and marker-assisted selection in a variety of plants.

Oh, KwangChul; Hardeman, Kristine; Ivanchenko, Maria G; Ellard-Ivey, Mary; Nebenfuhr, Andreas; White, TJ; Lomax, Terri L

2002-01-01

284

Effect of family relatedness on characteristics of estimated IBD probabilities in relation to precision of QTL estimates  

PubMed Central

Background A random QTL effects model uses a function of probabilities that two alleles in the same or in different animals at a particular genomic position are identical by descent (IBD). Estimates of such IBD probabilities and therefore, modeling and estimating QTL variances, depend on marker polymorphism, strength of linkage and linkage disequilibrium of markers and QTL, and the relatedness of animals in the pedigree. The effect of relatedness of animals in a pedigree on IBD probabilities and their characteristics was examined in a simulation study. Results The study based on nine multi-generational family structures, similar to a pedigree structure of a real dairy population, distinguished by an increased level of inbreeding from zero to 28% across the studied population. Highest inbreeding level in the pedigree, connected with highest relatedness, was accompanied by highest IBD probabilities of two alleles at the same locus, and by lower relative variation coefficients. Profiles of correlation coefficients of IBD probabilities along the marked chromosomal segment with those at the true QTL position were steepest when the inbreeding coefficient in the pedigree was highest. Precision of estimated QTL location increased with increasing inbreeding and pedigree relatedness. A method to assess the optimum level of inbreeding for QTL detection is proposed, depending on population parameters. Conclusions An increased overall relationship in a QTL mapping design has positive effects on precision of QTL position estimates. But the relationship of inbreeding level and the capacity for QTL detection depending on the recombination rate of QTL and adjacent informative marker is not linear.

2010-01-01

285

Integrating sorghum whole genome sequence information with a compendium of sorghum QTL studies reveals uneven distribution of QTL and of gene-rich regions with significant implications for crop improvement.  

PubMed

A comprehensive analysis was conducted using 48 sorghum QTL studies published from 1995 to 2010 to make information from historical sorghum QTL experiments available in a form that could be more readily used by sorghum researchers and plant breeders. In total, 771 QTL relating to 161 unique traits from 44 studies were projected onto a sorghum consensus map. Confidence intervals (CI) of QTL were estimated so that valid comparisons could be made between studies. The method accounted for the number of lines used and the phenotypic variation explained by individual QTL from each study. In addition, estimated centimorgan (cM) locations were calculated for the predicted sorghum gene models identified in Phytozome (JGI GeneModels SBI v1.4) and compared with QTL distribution genome-wide, both on genetic linkage (cM) and physical (base-pair/bp) map scales. QTL and genes were distributed unevenly across the genome. Heterochromatic enrichment for QTL was observed, with approximately 22% of QTL either entirely or partially located in the heterochromatic regions. Heterochromatic gene enrichment was also observed based on their predicted cM locations on the sorghum consensus map, due to suppressed recombination in heterochromatic regions, in contrast to the euchromatic gene enrichment observed on the physical, sequence-based map. The finding of high gene density in recombination-poor regions, coupled with the association with increased QTL density, has implications for the development of more efficient breeding systems in sorghum to better exploit heterosis. The projected QTL information described, combined with the physical locations of sorghum sequence-based markers and predicted gene models, provides sorghum researchers with a useful resource for more detailed analysis of traits and development of efficient marker-assisted breeding strategies. PMID:21484332

Mace, E S; Jordan, D R

2011-04-12

286

Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL), we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed) reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (%)) and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL

Mehar S Khatkar; Peter C Thomson; Imke Tammen; Herman W Raadsma

2004-01-01

287

Fine mapping and candidate gene prediction of a pleiotropic quantitative trait locus for yield-related trait in Zea mays.  

PubMed

The yield of maize grain is a highly complex quantitative trait that is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with small effects, and is frequently influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Thus, it is challenging to clone a QTL for grain yield in the maize genome. Previously, we identified a major QTL, qKNPR6, for kernel number per row (KNPR) across multiple environments, and developed two nearly isogenic lines, SL57-6 and Ye478, which differ only in the allelic constitution at the short segment harboring the QTL. Recently, qKNPR6 was re-evaluated in segregating populations derived from SL57-6×Ye478, and was narrowed down to a 2.8 cM interval, which explained 56.3% of the phenotypic variance of KNPR in 201 F(2?3) families. The QTL simultaneously affected ear length, kernel weight and grain yield. Furthermore, a large F(2) population with more than 12,800 plants, 191 recombinant chromosomes and 10 overlapping recombinant lines placed qKNPR6 into a 0.91 cM interval corresponding to 198Kb of the B73 reference genome. In this region, six genes with expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence were annotated. The expression pattern and DNA diversity of the six genes were assayed in Ye478 and SL57-6. The possible candidate gene and the pathway involved in inflorescence development were discussed. PMID:23185451

Liu, Ruixiang; Jia, Haitao; Cao, Xiaoliang; Huang, Jun; Li, Feng; Tao, Yongsheng; Qiu, Fazhan; Zheng, Yonglian; Zhang, Zuxin

2012-11-21

288

Fine Mapping and Candidate Gene Prediction of a Pleiotropic Quantitative Trait Locus for Yield-Related Trait in Zea mays  

PubMed Central

The yield of maize grain is a highly complex quantitative trait that is controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with small effects, and is frequently influenced by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Thus, it is challenging to clone a QTL for grain yield in the maize genome. Previously, we identified a major QTL, qKNPR6, for kernel number per row (KNPR) across multiple environments, and developed two nearly isogenic lines, SL57-6 and Ye478, which differ only in the allelic constitution at the short segment harboring the QTL. Recently, qKNPR6 was re-evaluated in segregating populations derived from SL57-6×Ye478, and was narrowed down to a 2.8 cM interval, which explained 56.3% of the phenotypic variance of KNPR in 201 F2?3 families. The QTL simultaneously affected ear length, kernel weight and grain yield. Furthermore, a large F2 population with more than 12,800 plants, 191 recombinant chromosomes and 10 overlapping recombinant lines placed qKNPR6 into a 0.91 cM interval corresponding to 198Kb of the B73 reference genome. In this region, six genes with expressed sequence tag (EST) evidence were annotated. The expression pattern and DNA diversity of the six genes were assayed in Ye478 and SL57-6. The possible candidate gene and the pathway involved in inflorescence development were discussed.

Liu, Ruixiang; Jia, Haitao; Cao, Xiaoliang; Huang, Jun; Li, Feng; Tao, Yongsheng; Qiu, Fazhan; Zheng, Yonglian; Zhang, Zuxin

2012-01-01

289

Second-Generation Genetic Linkage Map of Catfish and Its Integration with the BAC-Based Physical Map  

PubMed Central

Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ?52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds.

Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W.; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

2012-01-01

290

High-Resolution Mapping of a Fruit Firmness-Related Quantitative Trait Locus in Tomato Reveals Epistatic Interactions Associated with a Complex Combinatorial Locus1[W][OA  

PubMed Central

Fruit firmness in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is determined by a number of factors including cell wall structure, turgor, and cuticle properties. Firmness is a complex polygenic trait involving the coregulation of many genes and has proved especially challenging to unravel. In this study, a quantitative trait locus (QTL) for fruit firmness was mapped to tomato chromosome 2 using the Zamir Solanum pennellii interspecific introgression lines (ILs) and fine-mapped in a population consisting of 7,500 F2 and F3 lines from IL 2-3 and IL 2-4. This firmness QTL contained five distinct subpeaks, Firs.p.QTL2.1 to Firs.p.QTL2.5, and an effect on a distal region of IL 2-4 that was nonoverlapping with IL 2-3. All these effects were located within an 8.6-Mb region. Using genetic markers, each subpeak within this combinatorial locus was mapped to a physical location within the genome, and an ethylene response factor (ERF) underlying Firs.p.QTL2.2 and a region containing three pectin methylesterase (PME) genes underlying Firs.p.QTL2.5 were nominated as QTL candidate genes. Statistical models used to explain the observed variability between lines indicated that these candidates and the nonoverlapping portion of IL 2-4 were sufficient to account for the majority of the fruit firmness effects. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify the expression of each candidate gene. ERF showed increased expression associated with soft fruit texture in the mapping population. In contrast, PME expression was tightly linked with firm fruit texture. Analysis of a range of recombinant lines revealed evidence for an epistatic interaction that was associated with this combinatorial locus.

Chapman, Natalie H.; Bonnet, Julien; Grivet, Laurent; Lynn, James; Graham, Neil; Smith, Rebecca; Sun, Guiping; Walley, Peter G.; Poole, Mervin; Causse, Mathilde; King, Graham J.; Baxter, Charles; Seymour, Graham B.

2012-01-01

291

Fine mapping of the congenital chloride diarrhea gene by linkage disequilibrium.  

PubMed Central

Congenital chloride diarrhea is a recessively inherited intestinal disorder affecting electrolyte transportation. The clinical presentation is a life-threatening watery diarrhea with a high chloride content. Recently, the congenital chloride diarrhea gene (CLD) was assigned to chromosome 7 by linkage in eight Finnish families. In the present study, refined mapping of CLD was performed by studying linkage and linkage disequilibrium in 24 Finnish and 4 Swedish families. Recombination mapping assigned CLD to an approximately 10-cM region flanked by D7S515 and D7S799. Linkage disequilibrium was detected over this large genetic region, with the strongest allelic association at D7S496. Application of the Luria and Delbrück-derived analysis allowed for a further narrowing of the CLD region to approximately 0.37 cM from the marker D7S496. Haplotype analysis placed CLD unequivocally between D7S501 and D7S692, very close to D7S496 and most likely on the distal side of D7S496. This combined analytical approach allowed highly accurate mapping of CLD, each component adding complementary and consistent mapping information. Images Figure 1

Hoglund, P; Sistonen, P; Norio, R; Holmberg, C; Dimberg, A; Gustavson, K H; de la Chapelle, A; Kere, J

1995-01-01

292

Mapping of Mcs30, a New Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL30) on Rat Chromosome 12: Identification of Fry as a Candidate Mcs Gene  

PubMed Central

Rat strains differ dramatically in their susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. On the assumption that susceptibility genes are conserved across mammalian species and hence inform human carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have used genetic linkage studies in rats to identify genes responsible for differential susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Using a genetic backcross between the resistant Copenhagen (Cop) and susceptible Fischer 344 (F344) strains, we mapped a novel mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs30) locus to the centromeric region on chromosome 12 (LOD score of ?8.6 at the D12Rat59 marker). The Mcs30 locus comprises approximately 12 Mbp on the long arm of rat RNO12 whose synteny is conserved on human chromosome 13q12 to 13q13. After analyzing numerous genes comprising this locus, we identified Fry, the rat ortholog of the furry gene of Drosophila melanogaster, as a candidate Mcs gene. We cloned and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 13 kbp Fry mRNA. Sequence analysis indicated that the Fry gene was highly conserved across evolution, with 90% similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence among eutherian mammals. Comparison of the Fry sequence in the Cop and F344 strains identified two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one of which creates a putative, de novo phosphorylation site. Further analysis showed that the expression of the Fry gene is reduced in a majority of rat mammary tumors. Our results also suggested that FRY activity was reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines as a result of reduced levels or mutation. This study is the first to identify the Fry gene as a candidate Mcs gene. Our data suggest that the SNPs within the Fry gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the F344 rat strain to mammary carcinogenesis. These results provide the foundation for analyzing the role of the human FRY gene in cancer susceptibility and progression.

Ren, Xuefeng; Graham, Jessica C.; Jing, Lichen; Mikheev, Andrei M.; Gao, Yuan; Lew, Jenny Pan; Xie, Hong; Kim, Andrea S.; Shang, Xiuling; Friedman, Cynthia; Vail, Graham; Fang, Ming Zhu; Bromberg, Yana; Zarbl, Helmut

2013-01-01

293

Mapping of Mcs30, a New Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL30) on Rat Chromosome 12: Identification of Fry as a Candidate Mcs Gene.  

PubMed

Rat strains differ dramatically in their susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. On the assumption that susceptibility genes are conserved across mammalian species and hence inform human carcinogenesis, numerous investigators have used genetic linkage studies in rats to identify genes responsible for differential susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Using a genetic backcross between the resistant Copenhagen (Cop) and susceptible Fischer 344 (F344) strains, we mapped a novel mammary carcinoma susceptibility (Mcs30) locus to the centromeric region on chromosome 12 (LOD score of ?8.6 at the D12Rat59 marker). The Mcs30 locus comprises approximately 12 Mbp on the long arm of rat RNO12 whose synteny is conserved on human chromosome 13q12 to 13q13. After analyzing numerous genes comprising this locus, we identified Fry, the rat ortholog of the furry gene of Drosophila melanogaster, as a candidate Mcs gene. We cloned and determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 13 kbp Fry mRNA. Sequence analysis indicated that the Fry gene was highly conserved across evolution, with 90% similarity of the predicted amino acid sequence among eutherian mammals. Comparison of the Fry sequence in the Cop and F344 strains identified two non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), one of which creates a putative, de novo phosphorylation site. Further analysis showed that the expression of the Fry gene is reduced in a majority of rat mammary tumors. Our results also suggested that FRY activity was reduced in human breast carcinoma cell lines as a result of reduced levels or mutation. This study is the first to identify the Fry gene as a candidate Mcs gene. Our data suggest that the SNPs within the Fry gene contribute to the genetic susceptibility of the F344 rat strain to mammary carcinogenesis. These results provide the foundation for analyzing the role of the human FRY gene in cancer susceptibility and progression. PMID:24023717

Ren, Xuefeng; Graham, Jessica C; Jing, Lichen; Mikheev, Andrei M; Gao, Yuan; Lew, Jenny Pan; Xie, Hong; Kim, Andrea S; Shang, Xiuling; Friedman, Cynthia; Vail, Graham; Fang, Ming Zhu; Bromberg, Yana; Zarbl, Helmut

2013-09-02

294

3D g-Factor Mapping: Fine Structure Effects in Single Quantum Dots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have employed a novel fibre-based confocal microscope to measure the magneto-photoluminescence of single InGaAs quantum dots at arbitrary angles, of tilt and rotation, with respect to magnetic fields of up to 10 T. Modelling the bright and dark exciton emissions as a function of the field strength and angle using the spin Hamiltonian derived by Van Kesteren et al. gives access to a unique set of 9 parameters (electron and hole g-factors and exchange terms) for the 3D fine structure of each quantum dot. We find strong asymmetries for the in-plane to growth direction tensor components, but little to no significant in-plane variations in our sample. Interestingly, anti-crossings at intermediate tilt angles provide a direct measure of the in-plane electron and hole g-factor.

Ediger, M.; Wilson, A. M.; Piper, I. M.; Phillips, R. T.; Hugues, M.; Hopkinson, M.

2011-12-01

295

Fusion of RADARSAT fine-beam SAR and QuickBird data for land-cover mapping and change detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The objective of this research is to evaluate multitemporal RADARSAT Fine-Beam C-HH SAR data, QuickBird MS data, and fusion of SAR and MS for urban land-cover mapping and change detection One scene of QuickBird imagery was acquired on July 18, 2002 and five-date RADARSAT fine-beam SAR images were acquired during May to August in 2002. Landsat TM imagery from 1988 was used for change detection. QucikBird images were classified using an object-based and rule-based approach. RADARSAR SAR texture images were classified using a hybrid approach. The results demonstrated that, for identifying 19 land-cover classes, object-based and rule-based classification of Quickbird data yielded an overall classification accuracy of 86.7% (kappa 0.857). For identifying 11 land-cover classes, ANN classification of the combined Mean, Standard Deviation and Correlation texture images yielded an overall accuracy: 71.4%, (Kappa: 0.69). The hybrid classification of RADARSAT fine-beam SAR data improved the ANN classification accuracy to 83.56% (kappa: 0.803). Decision level fusion of RADARSAT SAR and QuickBird data improved the classification accuracy of several land cover classes. The post-classification change detection was able to identify the areas of significant change, for example, major new roads, new low-density and high-density builtup areas and golf courses, even though the change detection results contained large amount of noise due to classification errors of individual images. QuickBrid classification result was able add detailed change information to the major changes identified.

Ban, Yifang; Hu, Hongtao; Rangel, Irene

2007-08-01

296

Fine mapping of trypanosomiasis resistance loci in murine advanced intercross lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   We have previously reported the results of genome-wide searches in two murine F2 populations for QTLs that influence survival following Trypanosoma congolense infection. Three loci, Tir1, Tir2, and Tir3, were identified and mapped to mouse Chromosomes (Chrs) 17, 5, and 1 respectively, with confidence intervals (CIs) in the\\u000a range 10–40 cM. The size of these CIs is to a

Fuad Iraqi; Steven J. Clapcott; Praveen Kumari; Chris S. Haley; Stephen J. Kemp; Alan J. Teale

2000-01-01

297

Genetic fine mapping of the Miyoshi myopathy locus and exclusion of eight candidate genes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Miyoshi myopathy (MM) is an early adult-onset, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by weakness and muscular atrophy\\u000a starting in the distal muscles. The disease locus has been previously mapped by linkage analysis to chromsome 2p using the\\u000a microsatellite marker D2S291. Initial haplotype analysis of markers in families from three different origins (North American,\\u000a Japanese, and Tunisian) suggested that the MM gene

K. Bejaoui; J. Liu; D. McKenna-Yasek; D. Le Paslier; K. Bossie; D. M. Gilligan; R. H. Brown

1998-01-01

298

Unsupervised learning techniques for fine-tuning fuzzy cognitive map causal links  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) constitute an attractive knowledge-based methodology, combining the robust properties of fuzzy logic and neural networks. FCMs represent causal knowledge,as a signed directed graph,with feedback,and,provide an intuitive framework which incorporates,the experts’ knowledge. FCMs handle,available information and knowledge from an abstract point of view. They develop behavioural,model,of the system exploiting the experience and knowledge,of experts. The construction

Elpiniki I. Papageorgiou; Chrysostomos D. Stylios; Peter P. Groumpos

2006-01-01

299

Identification and fine mapping of AvrPi15 , a novel avirulence gene of Magnaporthe grisea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Avirulence of Magnaporthe grisea isolate CHL346 on rice cultivar GA25 was studied with 242 ascospore progenies derived from the cross CHL346 × CHL42. Segregation analysis of the avirulence in the progeny population was in agreement with the existence of a single avirulence (Avr) gene, designated as AvrPi15. For mapping the Avr gene, we developed a total of 121 microsatellite DNA markers [simple

Jun-Hong Ma; Ling Wang; Shu-Jie Feng; Fei Lin; Yi Xiao; Qing-Hua Pan

2006-01-01

300

Fine mapping of the clubroot resistance gene, Crr3 , in Brassica rapa  

Microsoft Academic Search

A linkage map of Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa) was constructed to localize the clubroot resistance (CR) gene, Crr3. Quantitative trait loci analysis using an F3 population revealed a sharp peak in the logarithm of odds score around the sequence-tagged site (STS) marker, OPC11-2S. Therefore, this region contained Crr3. Nucleotide sequences of OPC11-2S and its proximal markers showed homology to sequences

M. Saito; N. Kubo; S. Matsumoto; K. Suwabe; M. Tsukada; M. Hirai

2006-01-01

301

Fine Scale Soil Texture Estimation Using Soil Maps and Profile Descriptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Soil scientists have often to face problems of accurate data scarcity. More than the amount of available data, limitations\\u000a may occur from the estimation algorithms that are used. Classical methods like Simple Kriging (SK) are not able to take into\\u000a account the soft information provided by a soil map without making approximations. An example of such approximation would\\u000a be to

D. D’or; P. Bogaert

302

Fine mapping of pepper trichome locus 1 controlling trichome formation in Capsicum annuum L. CM334.  

PubMed

Trichomes are present on nearly all land plants and protect plants against insect herbivores, drought and UV radiation. The trichome-bearing phenotype is conferred by the dominant allele of the pepper trichome locus 1 (Ptl1) in Capsicum annuum, Mexican 'Criollo de Morelos-334' (CM334). A genetic analysis using simple sequence repeats from pepper cDNA identified the HpmsE031 marker as tightly linked to Ptl1 in 653 individuals of an F(2) population derived from a cross between CM334 and Chilsungcho varieties. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library from CM334 covering 12x of the genome was screened using the HpmsE031 SSR marker as a probe and three BAC clones were identified. The Ptl1 region was covered by one 80 kb BAC clone, TT1B7. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) confirmed that TT1B7 localized to pepper chromosome 10. One co-dominant marker, Tco, and one dominant marker, Tsca, were successfully developed from the TT1B7 BAC sequence. Tco mapped 0.33 cM up from Ptl1 and Tsca mapped 0.75 cM down from Ptl1. Analysis of the BAC sequence predicts the presence of 14 open reading frames including 60S ribosomal protein L21-like protein (Solanum demissum), protein kinase 2 (Nicotiana tabacum), hypothetical proteins, and unnamed protein products. These results will provide not only useful information for map-based cloning of Ptl1 in Capsicum but also the starting points for analysis of R-gene cluster inked with Ptl1. PMID:20033390

Kim, Hyun Jung; Han, Jung-Heon; Kwon, Jin-Kyung; Park, Minkyu; Kim, Byung-Dong; Choi, Doil

2009-12-24

303

Fine Mapping in 94 Inbred Mouse Strains Using a High-Density Haplotype Resource  

PubMed Central

The genetics of phenotypic variation in inbred mice has for nearly a century provided a primary weapon in the medical research arsenal. A catalog of the genetic variation among inbred mouse strains, however, is required to enable powerful positional cloning and association techniques. A recent whole-genome resequencing study of 15 inbred mouse strains captured a significant fraction of the genetic variation among a limited number of strains, yet the common use of hundreds of inbred strains in medical research motivates the need for a high-density variation map of a larger set of strains. Here we report a dense set of genotypes from 94 inbred mouse strains containing 10.77 million genotypes over 121,433 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), dispersed at 20-kb intervals on average across the genome, with an average concordance of 99.94% with previous SNP sets. Through pairwise comparisons of the strains, we identified an average of 4.70 distinct segments over 73 classical inbred strains in each region of the genome, suggesting limited genetic diversity between the strains. Combining these data with genotypes of 7570 gap-filling SNPs, we further imputed the untyped or missing genotypes of 94 strains over 8.27 million Perlegen SNPs. The imputation accuracy among classical inbred strains is estimated at 99.7% for the genotypes imputed with high confidence. We demonstrated the utility of these data in high-resolution linkage mapping through power simulations and statistical power analysis and provide guidelines for developing such studies. We also provide a resource of in silico association mapping between the complex traits deposited in the Mouse Phenome Database with our genotypes. We expect that these resources will facilitate effective designs of both human and mouse studies for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits.

Kirby, Andrew; Kang, Hyun Min; Wade, Claire M.; Cotsapas, Chris; Kostem, Emrah; Han, Buhm; Furlotte, Nick; Kang, Eun Yong; Rivas, Manuel; Bogue, Molly A.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Johnson, Frank M.; Beilharz, Erica J.; Cox, David R.; Eskin, Eleazar; Daly, Mark J.

2010-01-01

304

Fine-mapping the POLL locus in Brahman cattle yields the diagnostic marker CSAFG29.  

PubMed

The POLL locus has been mapped to the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) in both taurine breeds and taurine-indicine crosses in an interval of approximately 1 Mb. It has not yet been mapped in pure-bred zebu cattle. Despite several efforts, neither causative mutations in candidate genes nor a singular diagnostic DNA marker has been identified. In this study, we genotyped a total of 68 Brahman cattle and 20 Hereford cattle informative for the POLL locus for 33 DNA microsatellites, 16 of which we identified de novo from the bovine genome sequence, mapping the POLL locus to the region of the genes IFNAR2 and SYNJ1. The 303-bp allele of the new microsatellite, CSAFG29, showed strong association with the POLL allele. We then genotyped 855 Brahman cattle for CSAFG29 and confirmed the association between the 303-bp allele and POLL. To determine whether the same association was found in taurine breeds, we genotyped 334 animals of the Angus, Hereford and Limousin breeds and 376 animals of the Brangus, Droughtmaster and Santa Gertrudis composite taurine-zebu breeds. The association between the 303-bp allele and POLL was confirmed in these breeds; however, an additional allele (305 bp) was also associated but not fully predictive of POLL. Across the data, CSAFG29 was in sufficient linkage disequilibrium to the POLL allele in Australian Brahman cattle that it could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker in that breed, but this may not be the case in other breeds. Further, we provide confirmatory evidence that the scur phenotype generally occurs in animals that are heterozygous for the POLL allele. PMID:22497221

Mariasegaram, Maxy; Harrison, Blair E; Bolton, Jennifer A; Tier, Bruce; Henshall, John M; Barendse, William; Prayaga, Kishore C

2012-03-16

305

Identification and fine-mapping of Xa33, a novel gene for resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae.  

PubMed

Broadening of the genetic base for identification and transfer of genes for resistance to insect pests and diseases from wild relatives of rice is an important strategy in resistance breeding programs across the world. An accession of Oryza nivara, International Rice Germplasm Collection (IRGC) accession number 105710, was identified to exhibit high level and broad-spectrum resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. In order to study the genetics of resistance and to tag and map the resistance gene or genes present in IRGC 105710, it was crossed with the bacterial blight (BB)-susceptible varieties 'TN1' and 'Samba Mahsuri' (SM) and then backcrossed to generate backcross mapping populations. Analysis of these populations and their progeny testing revealed that a single dominant gene controls resistance in IRGC 105710. The BC(1)F(2) population derived from the cross IRGC 105710/TN1//TN1 was screened with a set of 72 polymorphic simple-sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed across the rice genome and the resistance gene was coarse mapped on chromosome 7 between the SSR markers RM5711 and RM6728 at a genetic distance of 17.0 and 19.3 centimorgans (cM), respectively. After analysis involving 49 SSR markers located between the genomic interval spanned by RM5711 and RM6728, and BC(2)F(2) population consisting of 2,011 individuals derived from the cross IRGC 105710/TN1//TN1, the gene was fine mapped between two SSR markers (RMWR7.1 and RMWR7.6) located at a genetic distance of 0.9 and 1.2 cM, respectively, from the gene and flanking it. The linkage distances were validated in a BC(1)F(2) mapping population derived from the cross IRGC 105710/SM//2 × SM. The BB resistance gene present in the O. nivara accession was identified to be novel based on its unique map location on chromosome 7 and wider spectrum of BB resistance; this gene has been named Xa33. The genomic region between the two closely flanking SSR markers was in silico analyzed for putatively expressed candidate genes. In total, eight genes were identified in the region and a putative gene encoding serinethreonine kinase appears to be a candidate for the Xa33 gene. PMID:21970567

Kumar, P Natraj; Sujatha, K; Laha, G S; Rao, K Srinivasa; Mishra, B; Viraktamath, B C; Hari, Y; Reddy, C S; Balachandran, S M; Ram, T; Madhav, M Sheshu; Rani, N Shobha; Neeraja, C N; Reddy, G Ashok; Shaik, H; Sundaram, R M

2012-02-01

306

A First Generation BAC-Based Physical Map of the Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer)  

PubMed Central

Background The Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) is an important marine foodfish species in Southeast Asia and Australia. Genetic improvement of this species has been achieved to some extent through selective breeding programs since 1990s. Several genomic tools such as DNA markers, a linkage map, cDNA and BAC libraries have been developed to assist selective breeding. A physical map is still lacking, although it is essential for positional cloning of genes located in quantitative trait loci (QTL) and assembly of whole genome sequences. Methodology/Principal Findings A genome-wide physical map of the Asian seabass was constructed by restriction fingerprinting of 38,208 BAC clones with SNaPshot HICF FPC technique. A total of 30,454 were assembled into 2,865 contigs. The physical length of the assembled contigs summed up to 665 Mb. Analyses of some contigs using different methods demonstrated the reliability of the assembly. Conclusions/Significance The present physical map is the first physical map for Asian seabass. This physical map will facilitate the fine mapping of QTL for economically important traits and the positional cloning of genes located in QTL. It will also be useful for the whole genome sequencing and assembly. Detailed information about BAC-contigs and BAC clones are available upon request.

Xia, Jun Hong; Feng, Felicia; Lin, Grace; Wang, Chun Ming; Yue, Gen Hua

2010-01-01

307

Fine Mapping of "Mini-Muscle," a Recessive Mutation Causing Reduced Hindlimb Muscle Mass in Mice  

PubMed Central

Prolonged selective breeding of Hsd:ICR mice for high levels of voluntary wheel running has favored an unusual phenotype (mini-muscle [MM]), apparently caused by a single Mendelian recessive allele, in which hindlimb muscle mass is reduced by almost 50%. We recently described the creation and phenotypic characterization of a population suitable for mapping the genomic location of the MM gene. Specifically, we crossed females from a high-runner line fixed for the MM allele with male C57BL/6J. F1 males were then backcrossed to the MM parent females. Backcross (BC) mice exhibited a 50:50 ratio of normal to MM phenotypes. Here, we report on linkage mapping of MM in this BC population to a 2.6335-Mb interval on MMU11. This region harbors ?100 expressed or predicted genes, many of which have known roles in muscle development and/or function. Identification of the genetic variation that underlies MM could potentially be very important in understanding both normal muscle function and disregulation of muscle physiology leading to disease.

Hartmann, John; Garland, Theodore; Hannon, Robert M.; Kelly, Scott A.; Munoz, Gloria

2008-01-01

308

Fine mapping of the Ph-3 gene conferring resistance to late blight (Phytophthora infestans) in tomato.  

PubMed

Late blight, caused by the oomycete pathogen Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary, is a devastating disease for tomato and potato crops. In the past decades, many late blight resistance (R) genes have been characterized in potato. In contrast, less work has been conducted on tomato. The Ph-3 gene from Solanum pimpinellifolium was introgressed into cultivated tomatoes and conferred broad-spectrum resistance to P. infestans. It was previously assigned to the long arm of chromosome 9. In this study, a high-resolution genetic map covering the Ph-3 locus was constructed using an F2 population of a cross between Solanum lycopersicum CLN2037B (containing Ph-3) and S. lycopersicum LA4084. Ph-3 was mapped in a 0.5 cM interval between two markers, Indel_3 and P55. Eight putative genes were found in the corresponding 74 kb region of the tomato Heinz1706 reference genome. Four of these genes are resistance gene analogs (RGAs) with a typical nucleotide-binding adaptor shared by APAF-1, R proteins, and CED-4 domain. Each RGA showed high homology to the late blight R gene Rpi-vnt1.1 from Solanum venturii. Transient gene silencing indicated that a member of this RGA family is required for Ph-3-mediated resistance to late blight in tomato. Furthermore, this RGA family was also found in the potato genome, but the number of the RGAs was higher than in tomato. PMID:23921955

Zhang, Chunzhi; Liu, Lei; Zheng, Zheng; Sun, Yuyan; Zhou, Longxi; Yang, Yuhong; Cheng, Feng; Zhang, Zhonghua; Wang, Xiaowu; Huang, Sanwen; Xie, Bingyan; Du, Yongchen; Bai, Yuling; Li, Junming

2013-08-07

309

Fine Mapping of ui6.1, a Gametophytic Factor Controlling Pollen-Side Unilateral Incompatibility in Interspecific Solanum Hybrids  

PubMed Central

Unilateral incompatibility (UI) is a prezygotic reproductive barrier in plants that prevents fertilization by foreign (interspecific) pollen through the inhibition of pollen tube growth. Incompatibility occurs in one direction only, most often when the female is a self-incompatible species and the male is self-compatible (the “SI × SC rule”). Pistils of the wild tomato relative Solanum lycopersicoides (SI) reject pollen of cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum, SC), but accept pollen of S. pennellii (SC accession). Expression of pistil-side UI is weakened in S. lycopersicum × S. lycopersicoides hybrids, as pollen tube rejection occurs lower in the style. Two gametophytic factors are sufficient for pollen compatibility on allotriploid hybrids: ui1.1 on chromosome 1 (near the S locus), and ui6.1 on chromosome 6. We report herein a fine-scale map of the ui6.1 region. Recombination around ui6.1 was suppressed in lines containing a short S. pennellii introgression, but less so in lines containing a longer introgression. More recombinants were obtained from female than male meioses. A high-resolution genetic map of this region delineated the location of ui6.1 to ?0.128 MU, or 160 kb. Identification of the underlying gene should elucidate the mechanism of interspecific pollen rejection and its relationship to self-incompatibility.

Li, Wentao; Royer, Suzanne; Chetelat, Roger T.

2010-01-01

310

QTL analysis of early-season cold tolerance in sorghum.  

PubMed

Cool temperatures during the early-growing season are a major limitation to growing sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] in temperate areas. Several landraces from China have been found to exhibit higher emergence and greater seedling vigor under cool conditions than most breeding lines currently available, but tend to lack desirable agronomic characteristics. The introgression of desirable genes from Chinese landraces into elite lines could be expedited by marker-assisted selection. Using a population of 153 RI lines, developed from a cross between Chinese landrace 'Shan Qui Red,' (SQR, cold-tolerant) and SRN39 (cold-sensitive), QTL associated with early-season performance under both cold and optimal conditions were identified by single marker analysis, simple interval mapping (SIM), and composite interval mapping (CIM). Germination was observed under controlled conditions, and other traits were measured in field plantings. Two QTL for germination were identified: one on linkage group SBI-03a, derived from SRN39, was significant under cold and optimal temperatures. The other, on group SBI-07b, showed greater significance under cold temperatures and was contributed by SQR. A region of group SBI-01a, derived from SQR, showed strong associations with seedling emergence and seedling vigor scores under early and late field plantings. A QTL for both early and late emergence was identified by CIM on SBI-02 which favored the SRN39 allele. SIM identified a QTL for early vigor on SBI-04 favoring the SQR genotype. Further studies are needed to validate the effects of these QTL, but they represent the first step in development of a marker-assisted breeding effort to improve early-season performance in sorghum. PMID:18097644

Knoll, Joseph; Gunaratna, Nilupa; Ejeta, Gebisa

2007-12-21

311

Fine mapping and functional analysis of a common variant in MSMB on chromosome 10q11.2 associated with prostate cancer susceptibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two recent genome-wide association studies have independently identified a prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 10q11.2. The most significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker reported, rs10993994, is 57 bp centromeric of the first exon of the MSMB gene, which encodes beta-microseminoprotein (prostatic secretory protein 94). In this study, a fine-mapping analysis using HapMap SNPs was conducted across a ≈65-kb region (chr10:

Hong Lou; Meredith Yeager; Hongchuan Li; Jesus Gonzalez Bosquet; Richard B. Hayes; Nick Orr; Kai Yu; Amy Hutchinson; Kevin B. Jacobs; Peter Kraft; Sholom Wacholder; Nilanjan Chatterjee; Heather Spencer Feigelson; Michael J. Thun; W. Ryan Diver; Demetrius Albanes; Jarmo Virtamo; Stephanie Weinstein; Jing Ma; J. Michael Gaziano; Meir Stampfer; Fredrick R. Schumacher; Edward Giovannucci; Geraldine Cancel-Tassin; Olivier Cussenot; Antoine Valeri; Gerald L. Andriole; E. David Crawford; Stephen K. Anderson; Margaret Tucker; Robert N. Hoover; Joseph F. Fraumeni; Gilles Thomas; David J. Hunter; Michael Dean; Stephen J. Chanock

2009-01-01

312

INTENSITY MAPPING OF THE [C II] FINE STRUCTURE LINE DURING THE EPOCH OF REIONIZATION  

SciTech Connect

The atomic C II fine-structure line is one of the brightest lines in a typical star-forming galaxy spectrum with a luminosity {approx}0.1%-1% of the bolometric luminosity. It is potentially a reliable tracer of the dense gas distribution at high redshifts and could provide an additional probe to the era of reionization. By taking into account the spontaneous, stimulated, and collisional emission of the C II line, we calculate the spin temperature and the mean intensity as a function of the redshift. When averaged over a cosmologically large volume, we find that the C II emission from ionized carbon in individual galaxies is larger than the signal generated by carbon in the intergalactic medium. Assuming that the C II luminosity is proportional to the carbon mass in dark matter halos, we also compute the power spectrum of the C II line intensity at various redshifts. In order to avoid the contamination from CO rotational lines at low redshift when targeting a C II survey at high redshifts, we propose the cross-correlation of C II and 21 cm line emission from high redshifts. To explore the detectability of the C II signal from reionization, we also evaluate the expected errors on the C II power spectrum and C II-21 cm cross power spectrum based on the design of the future millimeter surveys. We note that the C II-21 cm cross power spectrum contains interesting features that capture physics during reionization, including the ionized bubble sizes and the mean ionization fraction, which are challenging to measure from 21 cm data alone. We propose an instrumental concept for the reionization C II experiment targeting the frequency range of {approx}200-300 GHz with 1, 3, and 10 m apertures and a bolometric spectrometer array with 64 independent spectral pixels with about 20,000 bolometers.

Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Silva, Marta; Santos, Mario G. [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Bock, James; Bradford, C. Matt; Zemcov, Michael [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2012-01-20

313

Fine Mapping a Locus Controlling Leg Morphology in the Domestic Dog  

PubMed Central

The domestic dog offers a remarkable opportunity to disentangle the genetics of complex phenotypes. Here, we explore a locus, previously identified in the Portuguese water dog (PWD), associated with PC2, a morphological principal component characterized as leg width versus leg length. The locus was initially mapped to a region of 26 Mb on canine chromosome 12 (CFA12) following a genome-wide scan. Subsequent and extensive genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype analysis in both the PWD and selected breeds representing phenotypic extremes of PC2 reduced the region from 26 Mb to 500 kb. The proximity of the critical interval to two collagen genes suggests that the phenotype may be controlled by cis-acting mechanisms.

Quignon, P.; Schoenebeck, J.J.; Chase, K.; Parker, H.G.; Mosher, D.S.; Johnson, G.S.; Lark, K.G.; Ostrander, E.A.

2012-01-01

314

Meta-analysis of Polyploid Cotton QTL Shows Unequal Contributions of Subgenomes to a Complex Network of Genes and Gene Clusters Implicated in Lint Fiber Development  

PubMed Central

QTL mapping experiments yield heterogeneous results due to the use of different genotypes, environments, and sampling variation. Compilation of QTL mapping results yields a more complete picture of the genetic control of a trait and reveals patterns in organization of trait variation. A total of 432 QTL mapped in one diploid and 10 tetraploid interspecific cotton populations were aligned using a reference map and depicted in a CMap resource. Early demonstrations that genes from the non-fiber-producing diploid ancestor contribute to tetraploid lint fiber genetics gain further support from multiple populations and environments and advanced-generation studies detecting QTL of small phenotypic effect. Both tetraploid subgenomes contribute QTL at largely non-homeologous locations, suggesting divergent selection acting on many corresponding genes before and/or after polyploid formation. QTL correspondence across studies was only modest, suggesting that additional QTL for the target traits remain to be discovered. Crosses between closely-related genotypes differing by single-gene mutants yield profoundly different QTL landscapes, suggesting that fiber variation involves a complex network of interacting genes. Members of the lint fiber development network appear clustered, with cluster members showing heterogeneous phenotypic effects. Meta-analysis linked to synteny-based and expression-based information provides clues about specific genes and families involved in QTL networks.

Rong, Junkang; Feltus, F. Alex; Waghmare, Vijay N.; Pierce, Gary J.; Chee, Peng W.; Draye, Xavier; Saranga, Yehoshua; Wright, Robert J.; Wilkins, Thea A.; May, O. Lloyd; Smith, C. Wayne; Gannaway, John R.; Wendel, Jonathan F.; Paterson, Andrew H.

2007-01-01

315

Fine mapping a gene for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux on human chromosome 13q14.  

PubMed

We previously mapped a gene for severe pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease ( GERD1) to a 9-cM interval on chromosome 13q14. In this report, we present the results of DNA sequencing and allelic association analyses that were done in an attempt to clone the GERD1 gene. Using a candidate transcript approach, we screened affected individuals for mutations in all transcribed regions of all genes, putative genes, and ESTs identified within the 6.2-Mb GERD1 locus based on alignments with the GenBank cDNA databases. From a total of 50 identifiable genes and 99 EST clusters in the GERD1 locus, we identified 163 polymorphisms (143 SNPs and 20 INDELs) in 21 genes and 37 ESTs. The patterns of inheritance and/or the high population frequencies of all polymorphic alleles identified in this study argued against causative relationships between any of the alleles and the GERD phenotype. Using a subset of 51 SNPs distributed throughout the GERD1 locus, we performed case-control and family (TDT) allelic association analyses on two sets of samples. The case-control study was performed with 73 GERD cases and 93 controls, and the family study was performed using 22 small families. SNP 160 (position 38,925,329 Mb, UCSChg15 map) gave a significant P value prior to multiple test correction in both the case control and family studies, while SNP168 (at 40,442,903 Mb) showed significant association after multiple test correction in the case-control sample, but was uninformative in the family sample. The results suggest that the GERD1 gene might be located near SNP160 or SNP168. PMID:15014979

Hu, Fen Ze; Donfack, Joseph; Ahmed, Azad; Dopico, Richard; Johnson, Sandra; Post, J Christopher; Ehrlich, Garth D; Preston, Robert A

2004-03-10

316

Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.  

PubMed

Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

2011-10-19

317

Mapping Drought QTL in Tall Fescue Populations  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tall fescue [Lolium arundinacetum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] growth and persistence are adversely affected by the hot-dry summers in the Southern Great Plains (Hopkins, 2005). Both forage yield and drought tolerance are difficult to select for because of large genotype-by-environment interactions. The ob...

318

Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

319

Little Loss of Information Due to Unknown Phase for Fine-Scale Linkage-Disequilibrium Mapping with Single-Nucleotide–Polymorphism Genotype Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present the results of a simulation study that indicate that true haplotypes at multiple, tightly linked loci often provide little extra information for linkage-disequilibrium fine mapping, compared with the information provided by corresponding genotypes, provided that an appropriate statistical analysis method is used. In contrast, a two- stage approach to analyzing genotype data, in which haplotypes are inferred and

A. P. Morris; J. C. Whittaker; D. J. Balding

2004-01-01

320

QTL analysis of variation for vigour in rose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of energy efficiency in the greenhouse production of cut rose and pot rose can be achieved through the use\\u000a of rose cultivars having vigorous growth. A better understanding of the inheritance of vigour and its related traits will\\u000a assist the breeding activities. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were performed with the help of an integrated linkage\\u000a map of

Z. Yan; P. B. Visser; T. Hendriks; T. W. Prins; P. Stam; O. Dolstra

2007-01-01

321

Characterization of OAR1 and OAR18 QTL associated with muscle depth in British commercial terminal sire sheep.  

PubMed

This study aimed at verifying previously identified QTL affecting growth and carcass traits on ovine chromosome 18 (OAR18) in Texel sheep (n?=?1844), and on OAR1 in Charollais (n?=?851) and Suffolk (n?=?998) sheep. The QTL were investigated using regression and variance component mapping (VCA) of body weight, muscle and fat depth measurements. In addition, the mode of inheritance of the Texel OAR18 QTL was explored, using data from 4376 Texel sheep, fitting VCA models testing for additive and imprinting effects. We also simulated a 480-sheep population with different QTL imprinting models and various available levels of marker information to understand the behaviour of the VCA results under different assumed genetic models. In summary, the previously identified QTL were successfully verified using both interval mapping and VCA in the three breeds. We propose a polar overdominance mode of inheritance for the OAR18 QTL in Texel sheep, and we present methods to dissect the QTL mode of inheritance, using the Texel OAR18 QTL as an example. PMID:20880338

Matika, O; Sechi, S; Pong-Wong, R; Houston, R D; Clop, A; Woolliams, J A; Bishop, S C

2010-09-30

322

Identification and verification of QTL associated with growth traits in two genetic backgrounds of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer).  

PubMed

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth traits have previously been mapped in linkage groups (LG) 2, 3 and 23 of Barramundi (Lates carcalifer), but these QTL have not been verified in different genetic backgrounds and environments. Here, we report the identification and verification of QTL for growth traits on LG2, 3, 10 and 23 in F(1) families constructed using brooders from the Singapore Marine Aquaculture Center (MAC) and from wild stocks collected in Thailand (THAI). The previously detected QTL for body weight and length linked to marker Lca371 on LG2 were confirmed in both the MAC and THAI families, whereas other QTL previously mapped to LG3 and 23 were only detected in one of the two families. QTL for body weight and length were identified in the MAC family, but not in the THAI family, in a region where the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TH1) genes are located on LG10. Significant epistatic interactions were identified between markers Lca287 on LG2 and IGF2 on LG10 for growth trait QTL in the MAC family, but not in the THAI family. Effects of the IGF2, TH1 and parvalbumin 1 candidate genes were family-specific. Our results indicate that some but not all QTL are family-specific in Barramundi. PMID:18076743

Wang, C M; Lo, L C; Feng, F; Zhu, Z Y; Yue, G H

2007-12-12

323

Characterization, fine mapping and expression profiling of Ragged leaves1 in maize.  

PubMed

The Ragged leaves1 (Rg1) maize mutant frequently develops lesions on leaves, leaf sheaths, and ear bracts. Lesion formation is independent of biotic stress. High-level accumulation of H(2)O(2) revealed by staining Rg1 leaves, with 3',3'-diaminobenzidine and trypan blue, suggested that lesion formation appeared to be due to cell death. Rg1 was initially mapped to an interval around 70.5 Mb in bin 3.04 on the short arm of chromosome 3. Utilizing 15 newly developed markers, Rg1 was delimitated to an interval around 17 kb using 16,356 individuals of a BC1 segregating population. There was only one gene, rp3, predicted in this region according to the B73 genome. Analysis of transcriptome data revealed that 441 genes significantly up-regulated in Rg1 leaves were functionally over-represented. Among those genes, several were involved in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results suggested that lesions of Rg1 maize arose probably due to an aberrant rust resistance allele of Rp3, which elicited the accumulation of ROS independent of biotic stress. PMID:22648613

Guan, Haiying; Liu, Chaoxian; Zhao, Yuanzeng; Zeng, Biao; Zhao, Hainan; Jiang, Yi; Song, Weibin; Lai, Jinsheng

2012-05-31

324

Characterization and fine mapping of the rice premature senescence mutant ospse1.  

PubMed

Premature senescence can limit crop productivity by limiting the growth phase. In the present study, a spontaneous premature senescence mutant was identified in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Genetic analysis revealed that the premature senescence phenotype was controlled by a recessive mutation, which we named Oryza sativa premature senescence1 (ospse1). The ospse1 mutants showed premature leaf senescence from the booting stage and exhibited more severe symptoms during reproductive and ripening stages. Key yield-related agronomic traits such as 1,000-grain weight and seed-setting rate, but not panicle grain number, were significantly reduced in ospse1 plants. Chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, and transpiration rate of ospse1 flag leaves were similar to the wild-type plants in vegetative stages, but these parameters decreased steeply in the mutant after the heading stage. Consistent with this, the senescence-associated genes OsNYC1 and OsSgr were up-regulated in ospse1 mutant during premature leaf senescence. The ospse1 locus was mapped to a 38-kb region on chromosome 1 and sequence analysis of this region identified a single-nucleotide deletion in the 3' region of an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a putative pectate lyase, leading to a frame shift and a longer ORF. Our results suggested that the premature senescence of the ospse1 may be regulated by a novel mechanism mediated by pectate lyase. PMID:23624440

Wu, Hai-Bin; Wang, Bin; Chen, Yuanling; Liu, Yao-Guang; Chen, Letian

2013-04-27

325

Fine Mapping of Posttranslational Modifications of the Linker Histone H1 from Drosophila melanogaster  

PubMed Central

The linker histone H1 binds to the DNA in between adjacent nucleosomes and contributes to chromatin organization and transcriptional control. It is known that H1 carries diverse posttranslational modifications (PTMs), including phosphorylation, lysine methylation and ADP-ribosylation. Their biological functions, however, remain largely unclear. This is in part due to the fact that most of the studies have been performed in organisms that have several H1 variants, which complicates the analyses. We have chosen Drosophila melanogaster, a model organism, which has a single H1 variant, to approach the study of the role of H1 PTMs during embryonic development. Mass spectrometry mapping of the entire sequence of the protein showed phosphorylation only in the ten N-terminal amino acids, mostly at S10. For the first time, changes in the PTMs of a linker H1 during the development of a multicellular organism are reported. The abundance of H1 monophosphorylated at S10 decreases as the embryos age, which suggests that this PTM is related to cell cycle progression and/or cell differentiation. Additionally, we have found a polymorphism in the protein sequence that can be mistaken with lysine methylation if the analysis is not rigorous.

Villar-Garea, Ana; Imhof, Axel

2008-01-01

326

PROBING REIONIZATION WITH INTENSITY MAPPING OF MOLECULAR AND FINE-STRUCTURE LINES  

SciTech Connect

We propose observations of the molecular gas distribution during the era of reionization. At z{approx} 6-8, the {sup 12}CO(J = 1-0) line intensity results in a mean brightness temperature of about 0.5 {mu}K with an rms fluctuation of 0.1 {mu}K at 1-10 Mpc spatial scales, corresponding to 30 arcminute angular scales. This intensity fluctuations can be mapped with an interferometer, similar to existing and planned 21 cm background experiments, but operating at {approx}12-17 GHz. We discuss the feasibility of detecting the cross-correlation between H I and CO molecular gas since such a cross-correlation has the advantage that it will be independent of systematics and most foregrounds in each of the 21 cm and CO(1-0) line experiments. Additional instruments tuned to higher-order transitions of the CO molecule or an instrument operating with high spectral resolution at millimeter wavelengths targeting 158 {mu}m C II could further improve the reionization studies with molecular gas. The combined 21 cm and CO line observations has the potential to establish the relative distribution of gas in the intergalactic medium and molecular gas that are clumped in individual first-light galaxies that are closely connected to the formation of massive stars in these galaxies.

Gong Yan; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Silva, Marta B.; Santos, Mario G. [CENTRA, Instituto Superior Teecnico, Lisboa 1049-001 (Portugal); Lubin, Phillip [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

2011-02-20

327

Fine mapping of sequential neutralization epitopes on the subunit protein VP8 of human rotavirus.  

PubMed Central

The epitopes of the HRV (human rotavirus), especially those involved in virus neutralization, have not been determined in their entirety, and would have significant implications for HRV vaccine development. In the present study, we report on the epitope mapping and identification of sequential neutralization epitopes, on the Wa strain HRV subunit protein VP8, using synthetic overlapping peptides. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant Wa VP8 were produced previously in chicken, and purified from egg yolk, which showed neutralizing activity against HRV in vitro. Overlapping VP8 peptide fragments were synthesized and probed with the anti-VP8 antibodies, revealing five sequential epitopes on VP8. Further analysis suggested that three of the five epitopes detected, M1-L10, I55-D66 and L223-P234, were involved in virus neutralization, indicating that sequential epitopes may also be important for the HRV neutralization. The interactions of the antibodies with the five epitopes were characterized by an examination of the critical amino acids involved in antibody binding. Epitopes comprised primarily of hydrophobic amino acid residues, followed by polar and charged residues. The more critical amino acids appeared to be located near the centre of the epitopes, with proline, isoleucine, serine, glutamine and arginine playing an important role in the binding of antibody to the VP8 epitopes.

Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Yoo, Dongwan; Mine, Yoshinori

2003-01-01

328

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and uniparental disomy 11p: fine mapping of the recombination breakpoints and evaluation of several techniques  

PubMed Central

Beckwith–Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous overgrowth syndrome characterized by somatic overgrowth, macroglossia and abdominal wall defects. Other usual findings are hemihyperplasia, embryonal tumours, adrenocortical cytomegaly, ear anomalies, visceromegaly, renal abnormalities, neonatal hypoglycaemia, cleft palate, polydactyly and a positive family history. BWS is a complex, multigenic disorder associated, in up to 90% of patients, with alteration in the expression or function of one or more genes in the 11p15.5 imprinted gene cluster. There are several molecular anomalies associated with BWS and the large proportion of cases, about 85%, is sporadic and karyotypically normal. One of the major categories of BWS molecular alteration (10–20% of cases) is represented by mosaic paternal uniparental disomy (pUPD), namely patients with two paternally derived copies of chromosome 11p15 and no maternal contribution for that. In these patients, in addition to the effects of IGF2 overexpression, a decreased level of the maternally expressed gene CDKN1C may contribute to the BWS phenotype. In this paper, we reviewed a series of nine patients with BWS because of pUPD using several methods with the aim to evaluate the percentage of mosaicism, the methylation status at both loci, the extension of the pUPD at the short arm and the breakpoints of recombination. Fine mapping of mitotic recombination breakpoints by single-nucleotide polymorphism-array in individuals with UPD and fine estimation of epigenetic defects will provide a basis for understanding the aetiology of BWS, allowing more accurate prognostic predictions and facilitating management and surveillance of individuals with this disorder.

Romanelli, Valeria; Meneses, Heloisa N M; Fernandez, Luis; Martinez-Glez, Victor; Gracia-Bouthelier, Ricardo; F Fraga, Mario; Guillen, Encarna; Nevado, Julian; Gean, Esther; Martorell, Loreto; Marfil, Victoria Esteban; Garcia-Minaur, Sixto; Lapunzina, Pablo

2011-01-01

329

[QTL analysis for epistatic effects and QTL x environment interaction effects on final height of rice (Oryza sativa L.)].  

PubMed

QTLs with epistatic effects and environmental interaction effects for final height of rice were studied by mixed-model based QTL mapping with a doubled haploid population from IR64/Azucena in four environments. The results demonstrated the importance of epistasis as a genetic basis of the quantitative traits and also revealed several important features of this phenomenon. In the results, 100 per cent of QTLs were involved in epistasis, of which 64 per cent were found with significant additive effects. This might mean that the usual estimates of the QTL additive effects could be confounded by epistatic interactions and result in biased estimation unless epistatic effect is separated. The other 36 per cent did not have any significant additive effects of their own but were involved in 48 per cent of the identified epistatic interactions. Such loci might play the role of modifying agents that tend to activate other loci or modify the action of other loci. The other features of epistasis include as follows: it was fairly common for the same locus to get involved in interactions with more than one locus; the QTLs with relatively high magnitude of effects might also be involved in epistasis; and epistasis was sensitive to environmental interactions for their expression. QTL x environment (QE) interaction effects were detected more often than QTL main effects for plant height behavior, as might indicate that gene expression could be greatly affected by environments. PMID:11233257

Cao, G Q; Zhu, J; He, C X; Gao, Y M; Wu, P

2001-01-01

330

Analysis of Cytoplasmic Effects and Fine-Mapping of a Genic Male Sterile Line in Rice  

PubMed Central

Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS), including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS), have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA) for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction.

Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingtian; Li, Shigui

2013-01-01

331

Analysis of cytoplasmic effects and fine-mapping of a genic male sterile line in rice.  

PubMed

Cytoplasm has substantial genetic effects on progeny and is important for yield improvement in rice breeding. Studies on the cytoplasmic effects of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) show that most types of CMS have negative effects on yield-related traits and that these negative effects vary among CMS. Some types of genic male sterility (GMS), including photo-thermo sensitive male sterility (PTMS), have been widely used in rice breeding, but the cytoplasmic effects of GMS remain unknown. Here, we identified a GMS mutant line, h2s, which exhibited small, white anthers and failed to produce mature pollen. Unlike CMS, the h2s had significant positive cytoplasmic effects on the seed set rate, weight per panicle, yield, and general combining ability (GCA) for plant height, seed set rate, weight per panicle, and yield. These effects indicated that h2s cytoplasm may show promise for the improvement of rice yield. Genetic analysis suggested that the phenotype of h2s was controlled by a single recessive locus. We mapped h2s to a 152 kb region on chromosome 6, where 22 candidate genes were predicted. None of the 22 genes had previously been reported to be responsible for the phenotypes of h2s. Sequencing analysis showed a 12 bp deletion in the sixth exon of Loc_Os06g40550 in h2s in comparison to wild type, suggesting that Loc_Os06g40550 is the best candidate gene. These results lay a strong foundation for cloning of the H2S gene to elucidate the molecular mechanism of male reproduction. PMID:23613915

Qin, Peng; Wang, Yuping; Li, Yuanyuan; Ma, Bingtian; Li, Shigui

2013-04-16

332

Fine mapping of a region of rat chromosome 12 close to the aspermia (as) locus and comparison with the human orthologous regions.  

PubMed

The aspermia mutation of the rat exhibits male sterility caused by arrest of spermatogenesis, which is controlled by an autosomal single recessive gene (as). The as locus has been mapped on rat chromosome 12. We recently identified a causative mutation for the aspermia phenotype of the as homozygous rats in the gene encoding Fkbp6, a member of the immunophilins FK506 binding proteins. In this paper, we report the fine mapping of the as locus by linkage analysis combined with comparative mapping using rat, mouse, and human genomic sequences and expression analysis of genes located in the as region. We constructed a fine linkage map of the region of rat chromosome 12 close to the as locus by using 13 microsatellite markers and localized the as locus to a 1.0-cM interval. Comparison of the linkage map with physical maps of rat, mouse, and human refined the as critical region in a 2.2-Mb segment of the rat physical map between the D12Nas3 and D12Nas8 genes, which includes the Fkbp6 gene. A centromeric part of this segment corresponds to the region commonly deleted in Williams syndrome, a human complex developmental disorder, on human chromosome 7q11.23. The expression analysis of 23 genes located on the 2.2-Mb segments in various mouse tissues identified genes exclusively or strongly expressed in the testis. PMID:15516791

Noguchi, Junko; Kobayashi, Eiji; Akiyama, Kouyou; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Ozawa, Manabu; Ohnuma, Katsuhiko; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Kunieda, Tetsuo

2004-10-01

333

Identification of the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying water soluble protein content in soybean.  

PubMed

Water soluble protein content (SPC) plays an important role in the functional efficacy of protein in food products. Therefore, for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with SPC, 212 F(2:9) lines of the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the cross of ZDD09454 × Yudou12 were grown along with the parents, in six different environments (location × year) to determine inheritance and map solubility-related genes. A linkage map comprising of 301 SSR markers covering 3,576.81 cM was constructed in the RIL population. Seed SPC was quantified with a macro-Kjeldahl procedure in samples collected over multiple years from three locations (Nantong in 2007 and 2008, Zhengzhou in 2007 and 2008, and Xinxiang in 2008 and 2009). SPC demonstrated transgressive segregation, indicating a complementary genetic structure between the parents. Eleven putative QTL were associated with SPC explaining 4.5-18.2 % of the observed phenotypic variation across the 6 year/location environments. Among these, two QTL (qsp8-4, qsp8-5) near GMENOD2B and Sat_215 showed an association with SPC in multiple environments, suggesting that they were key QTL related to protein solubility. The QTL × environment interaction demonstrated the complex genetic mechanism of SPC. These SPC-associated QTL and linked markers in soybean will provide important information that can be utilized by breeders to improve the functional quality of soybean varieties. PMID:23052024

Lu, Weiguo; Wen, Zixiang; Li, Haichao; Yuan, Daohua; Li, Jinying; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Zhongwen; Cui, Shiyou; Du, Weiijun

2012-10-07

334

Fine mapping of the MLK-3 gene within 11q13 and its exclusion as the MEN1 susceptibility gene.  

PubMed

MLK-3 kinase is a widely expressed serine/ threonine kinase that bears multiple protein interaction domains and regulates signals mediated by the stress-responsive pathway. Thus, MLK-3 signaling affects numerous cellular processes, raising the possibility that MLK-3 might play a role in oncogenesis. In this report, we describe the fine mapping of the MLK-3 gene within the 11q13.1 chromosomal region. By integrating data from somatic cell hybrids and double color fluorescence in situ hybridization on metaphase chromosomes and DNA fibers. MLK-3 has been assigned approximately 1 Mb telomeric of PYGM, close to the D11S546 locus. Since the MEN1 susceptibility locus is also located within the 11q13.1 region, we have carried out Southern and Northern blot analyses, as well as protein truncation assays to establish whether abnormalities in MLK-3 lead to the development of this familial cancer syndrome. Our observations exclude MLK-3 as the MEN1 gene. PMID:9187672

Lassam, N J; Lin, Z; Shennan, M G; Courseaux, A; Teh, B T; Gaudray, P; Larsson, C

1997-06-01

335

Fine mapping of T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain gene 1 failed to detect a significant association with multiple sclerosis.  

PubMed

The T-cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) gene family encodes receptors on T-cells that regulate Th1- and Th2-cell-mediated immunity. Recently published data implied differential expression of human TIM molecules by mononuclear cells in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might therefore be involved in different phases of the pathogenesis of MS. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of TIM1 gene polymorphism with susceptibility to and clinical progression in MS. In total, 272 patients with MS and 272 sex- and age-matched healthy blood donors from Western Austria were genotyped for 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Five SNPs were located in the promoter region of TIM1 (rs7702920, rs41297577, rs41297579, rs9313422 and rs34333511). Another five SNPs were selected in exon 4 (rs1553316 and rs12522248) and in the intronic regions 4 and 7 of TIM1 (rs1553318, rs2279804 and rs2277025), respectively. None of these SNPs showed a significant association with MS after correction for multiple comparisons. Haplotype analysis of our data resulted in 11 haplotypes and showed no significant differences between MS patients and controls. Our findings suggest that even fine mapping of TIM1 shows no significant association of this gene with multiple sclerosis. PMID:20070602

Grabmer, C; Nachbauer, W; Schanda, K; Feurle, P; Loacker, K; Scholz, E; Schennach, H; Berger, T; Reindl, M; Gassner, C

2010-01-11

336

Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry  

PubMed Central

Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h2 ?0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain ?10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P?=?3.4×10?12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P?=?1.2×10?8). As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P?=?1.7×10?4 for overall replication). Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01). Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Mathias, Rasika A.; Ding, Jingzhong; Nalls, Michael A.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Veronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Britton, Angela; Casey, Graham; Chanock, Stephen J.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming, Sandra L.; Diver, W. Ryan; Fox, Caroline; Harris, Tamara B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hu, Jennifer J.; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Johnson, Craig; Keating, Brendan; Kittles, Rick A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lohman, Kurt; Liu, Jiankang; Millikan, Robert C.; Murphy, Adam; Musani, Solomon; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; North, Kari E.; Nyante, Sarah; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Papanicolaou, George; Patel, Sanjay; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Press, Michael F.; Redline, Susan; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Rotimi, Charles; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Salako, Babatunde; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stram, Alex H.; Stram, Daniel O.; Strom, Sara S.; Suktitipat, Bhoom; Thun, Michael J.; Witte, John S.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zheng, Wei; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.; Liu, Yongmei; Becker, Diane M.; Cooper, Richard S.; Pastinen, Tomi; Henderson, Brian E.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Lettre, Guillaume; Haiman, Christopher A.

2011-01-01

337

Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression  

PubMed Central

Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease.

Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M.; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y.; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Tessier, Daniel C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

2013-01-01

338

The Flowering Repressor SVP Underlies a Novel Arabidopsis thaliana QTL Interacting with the Genetic Background  

PubMed Central

The timing of flowering initiation is a fundamental trait for the adaptation of annual plants to different environments. Large amounts of intraspecific quantitative variation have been described for it among natural accessions of many species, but the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this genetic variation are mainly being determined in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To find novel A. thaliana flowering QTL, we developed introgression lines from the Japanese accession Fuk, which was selected based on the substantial transgression observed in an F2 population with the reference strain Ler. Analysis of an early flowering line carrying a single Fuk introgression identified Flowering Arabidopsis QTL1 (FAQ1). We fine-mapped FAQ1 in an 11 kb genomic region containing the MADS transcription factor gene SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP). Complementation of the early flowering phenotype of FAQ1-Fuk with a SVP-Ler transgen demonstrated that FAQ1 is SVP. We further proved by directed mutagenesis and transgenesis that a single amino acid substitution in SVP causes the loss-of-function and early flowering of Fuk allele. Analysis of a worldwide collection of accessions detected FAQ1/SVP-Fuk allele only in Asia, with the highest frequency appearing in Japan, where we could also detect a potential ancestral genotype of FAQ1/SVP-Fuk. In addition, we evaluated allelic and epistatic interactions of SVP natural alleles by analysing more than one hundred transgenic lines carrying Ler or Fuk SVP alleles in five genetic backgrounds. Quantitative analyses of these lines showed that FAQ1/SVP effects vary from large to small depending on the genetic background. These results support that the flowering repressor SVP has been recently selected in A. thaliana as a target for early flowering, and evidence the relevance of genetic interactions for the intraspecific evolution of FAQ1/SVP and flowering time.

Mendez-Vigo, Belen; Martinez-Zapater, Jose M.; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-01

339

The flowering repressor SVP underlies a novel Arabidopsis thaliana QTL interacting with the genetic background.  

PubMed

The timing of flowering initiation is a fundamental trait for the adaptation of annual plants to different environments. Large amounts of intraspecific quantitative variation have been described for it among natural accessions of many species, but the molecular and evolutionary mechanisms underlying this genetic variation are mainly being determined in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. To find novel A. thaliana flowering QTL, we developed introgression lines from the Japanese accession Fuk, which was selected based on the substantial transgression observed in an F(2) population with the reference strain Ler. Analysis of an early flowering line carrying a single Fuk introgression identified Flowering Arabidopsis QTL1 (FAQ1). We fine-mapped FAQ1 in an 11 kb genomic region containing the MADS transcription factor gene SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP). Complementation of the early flowering phenotype of FAQ1-Fuk with a SVP-Ler transgen demonstrated that FAQ1 is SVP. We further proved by directed mutagenesis and transgenesis that a single amino acid substitution in SVP causes the loss-of-function and early flowering of Fuk allele. Analysis of a worldwide collection of accessions detected FAQ1/SVP-Fuk allele only in Asia, with the highest frequency appearing in Japan, where we could also detect a potential ancestral genotype of FAQ1/SVP-Fuk. In addition, we evaluated allelic and epistatic interactions of SVP natural alleles by analysing more than one hundred transgenic lines carrying Ler or Fuk SVP alleles in five genetic backgrounds. Quantitative analyses of these lines showed that FAQ1/SVP effects vary from large to small depending on the genetic background. These results support that the flowering repressor SVP has been recently selected in A. thaliana as a target for early flowering, and evidence the relevance of genetic interactions for the intraspecific evolution of FAQ1/SVP and flowering time. PMID:23382706

Méndez-Vigo, Belén; Martínez-Zapater, José M; Alonso-Blanco, Carlos

2013-01-31

340

Fine mapping of a region of chromosome 11q13 reveals multiple independent loci associated with risk of prostate cancer  

PubMed Central

Genome-wide association studies have identified prostate cancer susceptibility alleles on chromosome 11q13. As part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative, the region flanking the most significant marker, rs10896449, was fine mapped in 10 272 cases and 9123 controls of European origin (10 studies) using 120 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by a two-staged tagging strategy using HapMap SNPs. Single-locus analysis identified 18 SNPs below genome-wide significance (P< 10?8) with rs10896449 the most significant (P= 7.94 × 10?19). Multi-locus models that included significant SNPs sequentially identified a second association at rs12793759 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P= 4.76 × 10?5, adjusted P= 0.004] that is independent of rs10896449 and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing within the region. rs10896438, a proxy of previously reported rs12418451 (r2= 0.96), independent of both rs10896449 and rs12793759 was detected (OR = 1.07, P= 5.92 × 10?3, adjusted P= 0.054). Our observation of a recombination hotspot that separates rs10896438 from rs10896449 and rs12793759, and low linkage disequilibrium (rs10896449–rs12793759, r2= 0.17; rs10896449–rs10896438, r2= 0.10; rs12793759–rs10896438, r2= 0.12) corroborate our finding of three independent signals. By analysis of tagged SNPs across ?123 kb using next generation sequencing of 63 controls of European origin, 1000 Genome and HapMap data, we observed multiple surrogates for the three independent signals marked by rs10896449 (n= 31), rs10896438 (n= 24) and rs12793759 (n= 8). Our results indicate that a complex architecture underlying the common variants contributing to prostate cancer risk at 11q13. We estimate that at least 63 common variants should be considered in future studies designed to investigate the biological basis of the multiple association signals.

Chung, Charles C.; Ciampa, Julia; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Berndt, Sonja I.; Hayes, Richard B.; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Kraft, Peter; Wacholder, Sholom; Orr, Nick; Yu, Kai; Hutchinson, Amy; Boland, Joseph; Chen, Quan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J.; Diver, W. Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Andriole, Gerald L.; Crawford, E. David; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kolonel, Laurence; Le Marchand, Loic; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Isaacs, William B.; Isaacs, Sarah D.; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Vatten, Lars J.; Hveem, Kristian; Njolstad, Inger; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Tucker, Margaret; Hoover, Robert N.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Hunter, David J.; Thomas, Gilles; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chanock, Stephen J.

2011-01-01

341

Fine mapping of a region of chromosome 11q13 reveals multiple independent loci associated with risk of prostate cancer.  

PubMed

Genome-wide association studies have identified prostate cancer susceptibility alleles on chromosome 11q13. As part of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) Initiative, the region flanking the most significant marker, rs10896449, was fine mapped in 10 272 cases and 9123 controls of European origin (10 studies) using 120 common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected by a two-staged tagging strategy using HapMap SNPs. Single-locus analysis identified 18 SNPs below genome-wide significance (P< 10(-8)) with rs10896449 the most significant (P= 7.94 × 10(-19)). Multi-locus models that included significant SNPs sequentially identified a second association at rs12793759 [odds ratio (OR) = 1.14, P= 4.76 × 10(-5), adjusted P= 0.004] that is independent of rs10896449 and remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing within the region. rs10896438, a proxy of previously reported rs12418451 (r(2)= 0.96), independent of both rs10896449 and rs12793759 was detected (OR = 1.07, P= 5.92 × 10(-3), adjusted P= 0.054). Our observation of a recombination hotspot that separates rs10896438 from rs10896449 and rs12793759, and low linkage disequilibrium (rs10896449-rs12793759, r(2)= 0.17; rs10896449-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.10; rs12793759-rs10896438, r(2)= 0.12) corroborate our finding of three independent signals. By analysis of tagged SNPs across ?123 kb using next generation sequencing of 63 controls of European origin, 1000 Genome and HapMap data, we observed multiple surrogates for the three independent signals marked by rs10896449 (n= 31), rs10896438 (n= 24) and rs12793759 (n= 8). Our results indicate that a complex architecture underlying the common variants contributing to prostate cancer risk at 11q13. We estimate that at least 63 common variants should be considered in future studies designed to investigate the biological basis of the multiple association signals. PMID:21531787

Chung, Charles C; Ciampa, Julia; Yeager, Meredith; Jacobs, Kevin B; Berndt, Sonja I; Hayes, Richard B; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Kraft, Peter; Wacholder, Sholom; Orr, Nick; Yu, Kai; Hutchinson, Amy; Boland, Joseph; Chen, Quan; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J; Diver, W Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Andriole, Gerald L; Crawford, E David; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence; Le Marchand, Loic; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Isaacs, William B; Isaacs, Sarah D; Grönberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Xu, Jianfeng; Vatten, Lars J; Hveem, Kristian; Njolstad, Inger; Gerhard, Daniela S; Tucker, Margaret; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Chanock, Stephen J

2011-04-29

342

Dissecting a wheat QTL for yield present in a range of environments: from the QTL to candidate genes.  

PubMed

Previous studies with 95 bread wheat doubled haploid lines (DHLs) from the cross Chinese Spring (CS)xSQ1 trialled over 24 yearxtreatmentxlocations identified major yield quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in homoeologous locations on 7AL and 7BL, expressed mainly under stressed and non-stressed conditions, respectively. SQ1 and CS contributed alleles increasing yield on 7AL and 7BL, respectively. The yield component most strongly associated with these QTLs was grains per ear. Additional results which focus on the 7AL yield QTL are presented here. Trials monitoring agronomic, morphological, physiological, and anatomical traits revealed that the 7AL yield QTL was not associated with differences in flowering time or plant height, but with significant differences in biomass at maturity and anthesis, biomass per tiller, and biomass during tillering. In some trials, flag leaf chlorophyll content and leaf width at tillering were also associated with the QTL. Thus, it is likely that the yield gene(s) on 7AL affects plant productivity. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) for the 7AL yield QTL with CS or SQ1 alleles in an SQ1 background showed the SQ1 allele to be associated with >20% higher yield per ear, significantly higher flag leaf chlorophyll content, and wider flag leaves. Epidermal cell width and distance between leaf vascular bundles did not differ significantly between NILs, so the yield-associated gene may influence the number of cell files across the leaf through effects on cell division. Interestingly, comparative mapping with rice identified AINTEGUMENTA and G-protein subunit genes affecting lateral cell division at locations homologous to the wheat 7AL yield QTL. PMID:16831847

Quarrie, Sa; Pekic Quarrie, S; Radosevic, R; Rancic, D; Kaminska, A; Barnes, J D; Leverington, M; Ceoloni, C; Dodig, D

2006-07-10

343

QTL meta-analysis provides a comprehensive view of loci controlling partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in four sources of resistance in pea  

PubMed Central

Background Development of durable plant genetic resistance to pathogens through strategies of QTL pyramiding and diversification requires in depth knowledge of polygenic resistance within the available germplasm. Polygenic partial resistance to Aphanomyces root rot, caused by Aphanomyces euteiches, one of the most damaging pathogens of pea worldwide, was previously dissected in individual mapping populations. However, there are no data available regarding the diversity of the resistance QTL across a broader collection of pea germplasm. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis of Aphanomyces root rot resistance QTL in the four main sources of resistance in pea and compared their genomic localization with genes/QTL controlling morphological or phenological traits and with putative candidate genes. Results Meta-analysis, conducted using 244 individual QTL reported previously in three mapping populations (Puget x 90–2079, Baccara x PI180693 and Baccara x 552) and in a fourth mapping population in this study (DSP x 90–2131), resulted in the identification of 27 meta-QTL for resistance to A. euteiches. Confidence intervals of meta-QTL were, on average, reduced four-fold compared to mean confidence intervals of individual QTL. Eleven consistent meta-QTL, which highlight seven highly consistent genomic regions, were identified. Few meta-QTL specificities were observed among mapping populations, suggesting that sources of resistance are not independent. Seven resistance meta-QTL, including six of the highly consistent genomic regions, co-localized with six of the meta-QTL identified in this study for earliness and plant height and with three morphological genes (Af, A, R). Alleles contributing to the resistance were often associated with undesirable alleles for dry pea breeding. Candidate genes underlying six main meta-QTL regions were identified using colinearity between the pea and Medicago truncatula genomes. Conclusions QTL meta-analysis provided an overview of the moderately low diversity of loci controlling partial resistance to A. euteiches in four main sources of resistance in pea. Seven highly consistent genomic regions with potential use in marker-assisted-selection were identified. Confidence intervals at several main QTL regions were reduced and co-segregation among resistance and morphological/phenological alleles was identified. Further work will be required to identify the best combinations of QTL for durably increasing partial resistance to A. euteiches.

2013-01-01

344

QTL methodology for response curves on the basis of non-linear mixed models, with an illustration to senescence in potato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The improvement of quantitative traits in plant breeding will in general benefit from a better understanding of the genetic basis underlying their development. In this paper, a QTL mapping strategy is presented for modelling the development of phenotypic traits over time. Traditionally, crop growth models are used to study development. We propose an integration of crop growth models and QTL

M. Malosetti; R. G. F. Visser; C. Celis-Gamboa; F. A. van Eeuwijk

2006-01-01

345

Estimation of the contribution of quantitative trait loci (QTL) to the variance of a quantitative trait by means of genetic markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The estimation of the contribution of an individual quantitative trait locus (QTL) to the variance of a quantitative trait is considered in the framework of an analysis of variance (ANOVA). ANOVA mean squares expectations which are appropriate to the specific case of QTL mapping experiments are derived. These expectations allow the specificities associated with the limited number of genotypes at

A. Charcosset; A. Gallais

1996-01-01

346

Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits.

Siriluck Ponsuksili; Eduard Murani; Manfred Schwerin; Karl Schellander; Klaus Wimmers

2010-01-01

347

Transferability and fine mapping of type 2 diabetes loci in African Americans: the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study.  

PubMed

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) disproportionally affects African Americans (AfA) but, to date, genetic variants identified from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are primarily from European and Asian populations. We examined the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and locus transferability of 40 reported T2D loci in six AfA GWAS consisting of 2,806 T2D case subjects with or without end-stage renal disease and 4,265 control subjects from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Plus Study. Our results revealed that seven index SNPs at the TCF7L2, KLF14, KCNQ1, ADCY5, CDKAL1, JAZF1, and GCKR loci were significantly associated with T2D (P < 0.05). The strongest association was observed at TCF7L2 rs7903146 (odds ratio [OR] 1.30; P = 6.86 × 10??). Locus-wide analysis demonstrated significant associations (P(emp) < 0.05) at regional best SNPs in the TCF7L2, KLF14, and HMGA2 loci as well as suggestive signals in KCNQ1 after correction for the effective number of SNPs at each locus. Of these loci, the regional best SNPs were in differential linkage disequilibrium (LD) with the index and adjacent SNPs. Our findings suggest that some loci discovered in prior reports affect T2D susceptibility in AfA with similar effect sizes. The reduced and differential LD pattern in AfA compared with European and Asian populations may facilitate fine mapping of causal variants at loci shared across populations. PMID:23193183

Ng, Maggie C Y; Saxena, Richa; Li, Jiang; Palmer, Nicholette D; Dimitrov, Latchezar; Xu, Jianzhao; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Zmuda, Joseph M; Siscovick, David S; Patel, Sanjay R; Crook, Errol D; Sims, Mario; Chen, Yii-Der I; Bertoni, Alain G; Li, Mingyao; Grant, Struan F A; Dupuis, Josée; Meigs, James B; Psaty, Bruce M; Pankow, James S; Langefeld, Carl D; Freedman, Barry I; Rotter, Jerome I; Wilson, James G; Bowden, Donald W

2012-11-27

348

Fine mapping and characterization of a novel dwarf and narrow-leaf mutant dnl1 in rice.  

PubMed

Plant height is one of the most important agronomic traits of rice (Oryza sativa). Dwarf mutants are ideal materials for research on the mechanisms of regulation of rice plant height. We examined a new dwarf and narrow-leaf mutant dnl1. Phenotypic analysis showed that the dnl1 mutant has a thinner culm and more tillers, but the number of grains per panicle, the seed setting rate and the grain weight of dnl1 mutant were found to be significantly lower than in the wild-type. Based on scanning electron microscopic observations, the number of cells in the y-axis in internodes was significantly lower than in the wild-type. In phytohormone induction experiments, dnl1 was gibberellic acid-insensitive. The expression of some genes involved in the gibberellins metabolic pathways was affected in the dnl1 mutant, based on the real-time PCR analysis, suggesting that the dnl1 gene likely plays a role in gibberellin metabolic pathways. Genetic analysis showed that the dwarf and narrow leaf phenotype is controlled by a novel single recessive gene, here referred to as the dwarf and narrow leaf 1 (dnl1), which is located within the region between markers Ind12-11 and RM8214 on the short arm of chromosome 12. By means of fine-mapping strategy, the dnl1 gene was localized within an interval of 285.75 kb physical distance. These results will be useful for dnl1 gene cloning and to improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of growth and development of rice. PMID:24085445

Wei, X J; Tang, S Q; Shao, G N; Chen, M L; Hu, Y C; Hu, P S

2013-09-23

349

Fine mapping of type 1 diabetes regions Idd9.1 and Idd9.2 reveals genetic complexity.  

PubMed

Nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice congenic for C57BL/10 (B10)-derived genes in the Idd9 region of chromosome 4 are highly protected from type 1 diabetes (T1D). Idd9 has been divided into three protective subregions (Idd9.1, 9.2, and 9.3), each of which partially prevents disease. In this study we have fine-mapped the Idd9.1 and Idd9.2 regions, revealing further genetic complexity with at least two additional subregions contributing to protection from T1D. Using the NOD sequence from bacterial artificial chromosome clones of the Idd9.1 and Idd9.2 regions as well as whole-genome sequence data recently made available, sequence polymorphisms within the regions highlight a high degree of polymorphism between the NOD and B10 strains in the Idd9 regions. Among numerous candidate genes are several with immunological importance. The Idd9.1 region has been separated into Idd9.1 and Idd9.4, with Lck remaining a candidate gene within Idd9.1. One of the Idd9.2 regions contains the candidate genes Masp2 (encoding mannan-binding lectin serine peptidase 2) and Mtor (encoding mammalian target of rapamycin). From mRNA expression analyses, we have also identified several other differentially expressed candidate genes within the Idd9.1 and Idd9.2 regions. These findings highlight that multiple, relatively small genetic effects combine and interact to produce significant changes in immune tolerance and diabetes onset. PMID:23934554

Hamilton-Williams, Emma E; Rainbow, Daniel B; Cheung, Jocelyn; Christensen, Mikkel; Lyons, Paul A; Peterson, Laurence B; Steward, Charles A; Sherman, Linda A; Wicker, Linda S

2013-08-11

350

Fine Mapping of the Psoriasis Susceptibility Locus PSORS1 Supports HLA-C as the Susceptibility Gene in the Han Chinese Population  

Microsoft Academic Search

PSORS1 (psoriasis susceptibility gene 1) is a major susceptibility locus for psoriasis. Several fine-mapping studies have highlighted a 300-kb candidate region of PSORS1 where multiple biologically plausible candidate genes were suggested. The most recent study has indicated HLA-Cw6 as the primary PSORS1 risk allele within the candidate region in a Caucasian population. In this study, a family-based association analysis of

Xing Fan; Sen Yang; Wei Huang; Zhi-Min Wang; Liang-Dan Sun; Yan-Hua Liang; Min Gao; Yue-Qing Ren; Kai-Yue Zhang; Wen-Hui Du; Yu-Jun Shen; Jian-Jun Liu; Xue-Jun Zhang

2008-01-01

351

Comprehensive fine mapping of chr12q12-14 and follow-up replication identify activin receptor 1B (ACVR1B) as a muscle strength gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Muscle strength is important in functional activities of daily living and the prevention of common pathologies. We describe the two-staged fine mapping of a previously identified linkage peak for knee strength on chr12q12-14. First, 209 tagSNPs in\\/around 74 prioritized genes were genotyped in 500 Caucasian brothers from the Leuven Genes for Muscular Strength study (LGfMS). Combined linkage and family-based association

An Windelinckx; Gunther De Mars; Wim Huygens; Maarten W Peeters; Barbara Vincent; Cisca Wijmenga; Diether Lambrechts; Christophe Delecluse; Stephen M Roth; E Jeffrey Metter; Luigi Ferrucci; Jeroen Aerssens; Robert Vlietinck; Gaston P Beunen; Martine A Thomis

2011-01-01

352

QTL analysis of cleistogamy in soybean.  

PubMed

Early-maturing cultivars of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] native to the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin and Kuril Islands) and eastern Hokkaido (northern Japan) have a strong tendency to produce cleistogamous flowers throughout their blooming period. A previous study revealed that cleistogamy is controlled by a minimum of two genes with epistatic interaction, one of which is associated with a maturity gene responsible for insensitivity to incandescent long daylength (ILD). This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of cleistogamy in more detail by QTL mapping. F2 to F4 progenies derived from a cross between a cleistogamous cv. Karafuto-1 and a chasmogamous cv. Toyosuzu were used. A molecular linkage map spanning 2,180 cM comprising 500 markers was constructed using 89 F2 plants. The markers were distributed in 25 linkage groups. An interval mapping method to analyze categorical traits identified four QTLs for cleistogamy, cl1, cl2, cl3 and cl4, in molecular linkage groups (MLGs) C2, D1a, I and L, respectively. Alleles derived from Karafuto-1 had additive effects to increase probability of cleistogamy at cl3 and cl4, whereas the alleles had additive effects to decrease the probablity at cl1 and cl2. Progeny test confirmed the effects of cl3, which had the highest LOD score (5.20). Composite interval mapping revealed four QTLs for flowering date, fd5-fd8. Judging from relative location with markers and association with ILD responses, fd7 and fd8 may correspond to maturity genes E4 and E3, respectively. cl3 and cl4 were located at similar positions as fd7 and fd8, suggesting that the two maturity genes may control cleistogamy by either pleiotropy or close linkage. PMID:18506418

Khan, Nisar A; Githiri, Stephen M; Benitez, Eduardo R; Abe, Jun; Kawasaki, Shinji; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryoji

2008-05-27

353

Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci Controlling Adaptive Traits in Coastal Douglas Fir. III. Quantitative Trait Loci-by-Environment Interactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were mapped in the woody perennial Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) for complex traits controlling the timing of growth initiation and growth cessation. QTL were estimated under controlled environmental conditions to identify QTL interactions with photoperiod, moisture stress, winter chilling, and spring temperatures. A three-generation mapping population of 460 cloned progeny was used

Kathleen D. Jermstad; Daniel L. Bassoni; Keith S. Jech; Gary A. Ritchie; Nicholas C. Wheeler; David B. Neale

354

A Modified Algorithm for the Improvement of Composite Interval Mapping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Composite interval mapping (CIM) is the most commonly used method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) with populations derived from biparental crosses. However, the algorithm implemented in the popular QTL Cartographer software may not completely ensure all its advantageous properties. In addition, different background marker selection methods may give very different mapping results, and the nature of the preferred method

Huihui Li; Guoyou Ye; Jiankang Wang

2007-01-01

355

A new QTL for resistance to Fusarium ear rot in maize.  

PubMed

Understanding the inheritance of resistance to Fusarium ear rot is a basic prerequisite for an efficient resistance breeding in maize. In this study, 250 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) along with their resistant (BT-1) and susceptible (N6) parents were planted in Zhengzhou with three replications in 2007 and 2008. Each line was artificially inoculated using the nail-punch method. Significant genotypic variation in response to Fusarium ear rot was detected in both years. Based on a genetic map containing 207 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with average genetic distances of 8.83 cM, the ear rot resistance quantitative trait loci (QTL) were analyzed by composite interval mapping with a mixed model (MCIM) across the environments. In total, four QTL were detected on chromosomes 3, 4, 5, and 6. The resistance allele at each of these four QTL was contributed by resistant parent BT-1, and accounted for 2.5-10.2% of the phenotypic variation. However, no significant epistasis interaction effect was detected after a two-dimensional genome scan. Among the four QTL, one QTL with the largest effect on chromosome 4 (bin 4.06) can be suggested to be a new locus for resistance to Fusarium ear rot, which broadens the genetic base for resistance to the disease and can be used for further genetic improvement in maize-breeding programs. PMID:21559994

Li, Zhi-Min; Ding, Jun-Qiang; Wang, Rui-Xia; Chen, Jia-Fa; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Wei; Song, Wei-Bin; Dong, Hua-Fang; Dai, Xiao-Dong; Xia, Zong-Liang; Wu, Jian-Yu

2011-05-11

356

Construction of a BAC library and mapping BAC clones to the linkage map of Barramundi, Lates calcarifer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Barramundi (Lates calcarifer) is an important farmed marine food fish species. Its first generation linkage map has been applied to map QTL for growth traits. To identify genes located in QTL responsible for specific traits, genomic large insert libraries are of crucial importance. We reported herein a bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library and the mapping of BAC clones to

Chun Ming Wang; Loong Chueng Lo; Felicia Feng; Ping Gong; Jian Li; Ze Yuan Zhu; Grace Lin; Gen Hua Yue

2008-01-01

357

An example of association mapping in Cacao.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Association mapping and genomic selection have become important methodologies in perennial crop breeding improvement programs for accelerating breeding efforts and increasing the efficiency of selection. They are good alternatives to the classical Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping approach.The ...

358

Expression QTL mapping in regulatory and helper T cells from the BXD family of strains reveals novel cell-specific genes, gene-gene interactions and candidate genes for auto-immune disease  

PubMed Central

Background Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an essential role in the control of the immune response. Treg cells represent important targets for therapeutic interventions of the immune system. Therefore, it will be very important to understand in more detail which genes are specifically activated in Treg cells versus T helper (Th) cells, and which gene regulatory circuits may be involved in specifying and maintaining Treg cell homeostasis. Results We isolated Treg and Th cells from a genetically diverse family of 31 BXD type recombinant inbred strains and the fully inbred parental strains of this family--C57BL/6J and DBA/2J. Subsequently genome-wide gene expression studies were performed from the isolated Treg and Th cells. A comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of these cell populations allowed us to identify many novel differentially expressed genes. Analysis of cis- and trans-expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTLs) highlighted common and unique regulatory mechanisms that are active in the two cell types. Trans-eQTL regions were found for the Treg functional genes Nrp1, Stat3 and Ikzf4. Analyses of the respective QTL intervals suggested several candidate genes that may be involved in regulating these genes in Treg cells. Similarly, possible candidate genes were found which may regulate the expression of F2rl1, Ctla4, Klrb1f. In addition, we identified a focused group of candidate genes that may be important for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of allergy. Conclusions Variation of expression across the strains allowed us to find many novel gene-interaction networks in both T cell subsets. In addition, these two data sets enabled us to identify many differentially expressed genes and to nominate candidate genes that may have important functions for the maintenance of self-tolerance and the prevention of allergy.

2011-01-01

359

Genetic, Physiological, and Gene Expression Analyses Reveal That Multiple QTL Enhance Yield of Rice Mega-Variety IR64 under Drought  

PubMed Central

Background Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a highly drought sensitive crop, and most semi dwarf rice varieties suffer severe yield losses from reproductive stage drought stress. The genetic complexity of drought tolerance has deterred the identification of agronomically relevant quantitative trait loci (QTL) that can be deployed to improve rice yield under drought in rice. Convergent evidence from physiological characterization, genetic mapping, and multi-location field evaluation was used to address this challenge. Methodology/Principal Findings Two pairs of backcross inbred lines (BILs) from a cross between drought-tolerant donor Aday Sel and high-yielding but drought-susceptible rice variety IR64 were produced. From six BC4F3 mapping populations produced by crossing the +QTL BILs with the ?QTL BILs and IR64, four major-effect QTL - one each on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10 - were identified. Meta-analysis of transcriptome data from the +QTL/?QTL BILs identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly associated with QTL on chromosomes 2, 4, 9, and 10. Physiological characterization of BILs showed increased water uptake ability under drought. The enrichment of DEGs associated with root traits points to differential regulation of root development and function as contributing to drought tolerance in these BILs. BC4F3-derived lines with the QTL conferred yield advantages of 528 to 1875 kg ha?1 over IR64 under reproductive-stage drought stress in the targeted ecosystems of South Asia. Conclusions/Significance Given the importance of rice in daily food consumption and the popularity of IR64, the BC4F3 lines with multiple QTL could provide higher livelihood security to farmers in drought-prone environments. Candidate genes were shortlisted for further characterization to confirm their role in drought tolerance. Differential yield advantages of different combinations of the four QTL reported here indicate that future research should include optimizing QTL combinations in different genetic backgrounds to maximize yield advantage under drought.

Swamy B. P., Mallikarjuna; Ahmed, Helal Uddin; Henry, Amelia; Mauleon, Ramil; Dixit, Shalabh; Vikram, Prashant; Tilatto, Ram; Verulkar, Satish B.; Perraju, Puvvada; Mandal, Nimai P.; Variar, Mukund; S., Robin; Chandrababu, Ranganath; Singh, Onkar N.; Dwivedi, Jawaharlal L.; Das, Sankar Prasad; Mishra, Krishna K.; Yadaw, Ram B.; Aditya, Tamal Lata; Karmakar, Biswajit; Satoh, Kouji; Moumeni, Ali; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Leung, Hei; Kumar, Arvind

2013-01-01

360

eQED: an efficient method for interpreting eQTL associations using protein networks.  

PubMed

Analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) is an emerging technique in which individuals are genotyped across a panel of genetic markers and, simultaneously, phenotyped using DNA microarrays. Because of the spacing of markers and linkage disequilibrium, each marker may be near many genes making it difficult to finely map which of these genes are the causal factors responsible for the observed changes in the downstream expression. To address this challenge, we present an efficient method for prioritizing candidate genes at a locus. This approach, called 'eQTL electrical diagrams' (eQED), integrates eQTLs with protein interaction networks by modeling the two data sets as a wiring diagram of current sources and resistors. eQED achieved a 79% accuracy in recovering a reference set of regulator-target pairs in yeast, which is significantly higher than the performance of three competing methods. eQED also annotates 368 protein-protein interactions with their directionality of information flow with an accuracy of approximately 75%. PMID:18319721

Suthram, Silpa; Beyer, Andreas; Karp, Richard M; Eldar, Yonina; Ideker, Trey

2008-03-04

361

Fine-mapping of the spinal muscular atrophy locus to a region flanked by MAP1B and D5S6.  

PubMed

The microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B) locus has been mapped in close proximity to spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) on chromosome 5q13. We have identified a second microsatellite within a MAP1B intron, which increases the heterozygosity of this locus to 94%. Two unambiguous recombination events establish MAP1B as a closely linked, distal flanking marker for the disease locus, while a third recombinant establishes D5S6 as the proximal flanking marker. The combination of key recombinants and linkage analysis place the SMA gene in an approximately 2-cM interval between loci D5S6 and MAP1B. Physical mapping and cloning locate MAP1B within 250 kb of locus D5S112. The identification and characterization of a highly polymorphic gene locus tightly linked to SMA will facilitate isolation of the disease gene, evaluation of heterogeneity, and development of a prenatal test for SMA. PMID:1505990

Brzustowicz, L M; Kleyn, P W; Boyce, F M; Lien, L L; Monaco, A P; Penchaszadeh, G K; Das, K; Wang, C H; Munsat, T L; Ott, J

1992-08-01

362

A strategy for the integration of QTL, gene expression, and sequence analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although hundreds if not thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTL) have been described for a wide variety of complex traits, only a very small number of these QTLs have been reduced to quantitative trait genes (QTGs) and quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs). A strategy, Multiple Cross Mapping (MCM), is described for detecting QTGs and QTNs that is based on leveraging the

Robert Hitzemann; Barry Malmanger; Cheryl Reed; Maureen Lawler; Barbara Hitzemann; Shannon Coulombe; Kari Buck; Brooks Rademacher; Nicole Walter; Yekatrina Polyakov; James Sikela; Brenda Gensler; Sonya Burgers; Robert W. Williams; Ken Manly; Jonathan Flint; Christopher Talbot

2003-01-01

363

Unravelling enzymatic discoloration in potato through a combined approach of candidate genes, QTL, and expression analysis  

PubMed Central

Enzymatic discoloration (ED) of potato tubers was investigated in an attempt to unravel the underlying genetic factors. Both enzyme and substrate concentration have been reported to influence the degree of discoloration and as such this trait can be regarded as polygenic. The diploid mapping population C × E, consisting of 249 individuals, was assayed for the degree of ED and levels of chlorogenic acid and tyrosine. Using this data, Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) analysis was performed. Three QTLs for ED have been found on parental chromosomes C3, C8, E1, and E8. For chlorogenic acid a QTL has been identified on C2 and for tyrosine levels, a QTL has been detected on C8. None of the QTLs overlap, indicating the absence of genetic correlations between these components underlying ED, in contrast to earlier reports in literature. An obvious candidate gene for the QTL for ED on Chromosome 8 is polyphenol oxidase (PPO), which was previously mapped on chromosome 8. With gene-specific primers for PPO gene POT32 a CAPS marker was developed. Three different alleles (POT32-1, -2, and -3) could be discriminated. The segregating POT32 alleles were used to map the POT32 CAPS marker and QTL analysis was redone, showing that POT32 coincides with the QTL peak. A clear correlation between allele combinations and degree of discoloration was observed. In addition, analysis of POT32 gene expression in a subset of genotypes indicated a correlation between the level of gene expression and allele composition. On average, genotypes having two copies of allele 1 had both the highest degree of discoloration as well as the highest level of POT32 gene expression.

Kloosterman, Bjorn; Celis-Gamboa, Carolina; de Vos, C. H. Ric; America, Twan; Visser, Richard G. F.; Bachem, Christian W. B.

2007-01-01

364

A knockout mutation in the lignin biosynthesis gene CCR1 explains a major QTL for acid detergent lignin content in Brassica napus seeds.  

PubMed

Seed coat phenolic compounds represent important antinutritive fibre components that cause a considerable reduction in value of seed meals from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The nutritionally most important fibre compound is acid detergent lignin (ADL), to which a significant contribution is made by phenylpropanoid-derived lignin precursors. In this study, we used bulked-segregant analysis in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of the Chinese oilseed rape lines GH06 (yellow seed, low ADL) and P174 (black seed, high ADL) to identify markers with tight linkage to a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed ADL content. Fine mapping of the QTL was performed in a backcross population comprising 872 BC(1)F(2) plants from a cross of an F(7) RIL from the above-mentioned population, which was heterozygous for this major QTL and P174. A 3:1 phenotypic segregation for seed ADL content indicated that a single, dominant, major locus causes a substantial reduction in ADL. This locus was successively narrowed to 0.75 cM using in silico markers derived from a homologous Brassica rapa sequence contig spanning the QTL. Subsequently, we located a B. rapa orthologue of the key lignin biosynthesis gene CINNAMOYL CO-A REDUCTASE 1 (CCR1) only 600 kbp (0.75 cM) upstream of the nearest linked marker. Sequencing of PCR amplicons, covering the full-length coding sequences of Bna.CCR1 homologues, revealed a locus in P174 whose sequence corresponds to the Brassica oleracea wild-type allele from chromosome C8. In GH06, however, this allele is replaced by a homologue derived from chromosome A9 that contains a loss-of-function frameshift mutation in exon 1. Genetic and physical map data infer that this loss-of-function allele has replaced a functional Bna.CCR1 locus on chromosome C8 in GH06 by homoeologous non-reciprocal translocation. PMID:22350089

Liu, Liezhao; Stein, Anna; Wittkop, Benjamin; Sarvari, Pouya; Li, Jiana; Yan, Xingying; Dreyer, Felix; Frauen, Martin; Friedt, Wolfgang; Snowdon, Rod J

2012-02-15

365

Dynamic QTL analysis for fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content in a Solanum lycopersicum x S. pimpinellifolium cross.  

PubMed

Fruit lycopene content and total soluble solid content are important factors determining fruit quality of tomatoes; however, the dynamic quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling lycopene and soluble solid content have not been well studied. We mapped the chromosomal regions controlling these traits in different periods in F(2:3) families derived from a cross between the domestic and wild tomato species Solanum lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium. Fifteen QTLs for lycopene and soluble solid content and other related traits analyzed at three different fruit ripening stages were detected with a composite interval mapping method. These QTLs explained 7-33% of the individual phenotypic variation. QTLs detected in the color-changing period were different from those detected in the other two periods. On chromosome 1, the soluble solid content QTL was located in the same region during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. On chromosome 4, the same QTL for lycopene content was found during the color-changing and full-ripe periods. The QTL for lycopene content on chromosome 4 co-located with the QTL for soluble solid content during the full-ripe period. Co-location of lycopene content QTL and soluble solid content QTLs may be due to pleiotropic effects of a single gene or a cluster of genes via physiological relationships among traits. On chromosome 9, the same two QTLs for lycopene content at two different fruit ripening periods may reflect genes controlling lycopene content that are always expressed in tomato fruit development. PMID:22930431

Sun, Y D; Liang, Y; Wu, J M; Li, Y Z; Cui, X; Qin, L

2012-10-11

366

WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp  

PubMed Central

Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype–phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.

Snoek, L. Basten; Van der Velde, K. Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O.; Poulin, Gino B.; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Swertz, Morris A.

2013-01-01

367

Fine-scale mapping of a locus for severe bipolar mood disorder on chromosome 18p11.3 in the Costa Rican population  

PubMed Central

We have searched for genes predisposing to bipolar disorder (BP) by studying individuals with the most extreme form of the affected phenotype, BP-I, ascertained from the genetically isolated population of the Central Valley of Costa Rica (CVCR). The results of a previous linkage analysis on two extended CVCR BP-I pedigrees, CR001 and CR004, and of linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses of a CVCR population sample of BP-I patients implicated a candidate region on 18p11.3. We further investigated this region by creating a physical map and developing 4 new microsatellite and 26 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers for typing in the pedigree and population samples. We report the results of fine-scale association analyses in the population sample, as well as evaluation of haplotypes in pedigree CR001. Our results suggest a candidate region containing six genes but also highlight the complexities of LD mapping of common disorders.

McInnes, L. Alison; Service, Susan K.; Reus, Victor I.; Barnes, Glenn; Charlat, Olga; Jawahar, Satya; Lewitzky, Steve; Yang, Qing; Duong, Quyen; Spesny, Mitzi; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Gallegos, Alvaro; Meza, Luis; Molina, Julio; Ramirez, Rolando; Mendez, Roxana; Silva, Sandra; Fournier, Eduardo; Batki, Steven L.; Mathews, Carol A.; Neylan, Thomas; Glatt, Charles E.; Escamilla, Michael A.; Luo, David; Gajiwala, Paresh; Song, Terry; Crook, Stephen; Nguyen, Jasmine B.; Roche, Erin; Meyer, Joanne M.; Leon, Pedro; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Freimer, Nelson B.; Chen, Hong

2001-01-01

368

Combining SNP discovery from next-generation sequencing data with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to fine-map genes in polyploid wheat  

PubMed Central

Background Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new ways to accelerate fine-mapping and gene isolation in many species. To date, the majority of these efforts have focused on diploid organisms with readily available whole genome sequence information. In this study, as a proof of concept, we tested the use of NGS for SNP discovery in tetraploid wheat lines differing for the previously cloned grain protein content (GPC) gene GPC-B1. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to define a subset of putative SNPs within the candidate gene region, which were then used to fine-map GPC-B1. Results We used Illumina paired end technology to sequence mRNA (RNAseq) from near isogenic lines differing across a ~30-cM interval including the GPC-B1 locus. After discriminating for SNPs between the two homoeologous wheat genomes and additional quality filtering, we identified inter-varietal SNPs in wheat unigenes between the parental lines. The relative frequency of these SNPs was examined by RNAseq in two bulked samples made up of homozygous recombinant lines differing for their GPC phenotype. SNPs that were enriched at least 3-fold in the corresponding pool (6.5% of all SNPs) were further evaluated. Marker assays were designed for a subset of the enriched SNPs and mapped using DNA from individuals of each bulk. Thirty nine new SNP markers, corresponding to 67% of the validated SNPs, mapped across a 12.2-cM interval including GPC-B1. This translated to 1 SNP marker per 0.31 cM defining the GPC-B1 gene to within 13-18 genes in syntenic cereal genomes and to a 0.4 cM interval in wheat. Conclusions This study exemplifies the use of RNAseq for SNP discovery in polyploid species and supports the use of BSA as an effective way to target SNPs to specific genetic intervals to fine-map genes in unsequenced genomes.

2012-01-01

369

Identification of enzymatic and regulatory genes of plant metabolism through QTL analysis in Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

The biochemical diversity in the plant kingdom is estimated to well exceed 100,000 distinct compounds (Weckwerth, 2003) and 4000 to 20,000 metabolites per species seem likely (Fernie et al., 2004). In recent years extensive progress has been made towards the identification of enzymes and regulatory genes working in a complex network to generate this large arsenal of metabolites. Genetic loci influencing quantitative traits, e.g. metabolites or biomass, may be mapped to associated molecular markers, a method called quant