Sample records for qtl fine mapping

  1. A high-resolution linkage map for comparative genome analysis and QTL fine mapping in Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun Ming Wang; Zhi Yi Bai; Xiao Ping He; Grace Lin; Jun Hong Xia; Fei Sun; Loong Chueng Lo; Felicia Feng; Ze Yuan Zhu; Gen Hua Yue

    2011-01-01

    Background  High density linkage maps are essential for comparative analysis of synteny, fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL),\\u000a searching for candidate genes and facilitating genome sequence assembly. However, in most foodfish species, marker density\\u000a is still low. We previously reported a first generation linkage map with 240 DNA markers and its application to preliminarily\\u000a map QTL for growth traits in

  2. Fine Mapping of a Seed Protein QTL on Soybean Linkage Group I and Its Correlated Effects on Agronomic Traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. M. Nichols; K. D. Glover; S. R. Carlson; J. E. Specht; B. W. Diers

    2006-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is primarily grown as a source of protein and oil. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling seed protein concentration was previously mapped to linkage group (LG) I of soybean. The objectives of this study were to fine map the QTL and to determine if additional recombination could reduce the inverse phenotypic relationship between seed protein

  3. Fine-mapping QTL for nipple number in the pig

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of functional nipples is an important trait in pigs. Selection for increased litter size has resulted in number of live born piglets exceeding the number of functional nipples in prolific sows. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for nipple number have been consistently found in various populat...

  4. Using haplotypes for the prediction of allelic identity to fine-map QTL: characterization and properties

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Numerous methods have been developed over the last decade to predict allelic identity at unobserved loci between pairs of chromosome segments along the genome. These loci are often unobserved positions tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The main objective of this study was to understand from a theoretical standpoint the relation between linkage disequilibrium (LD) and allelic identity prediction when using haplotypes for fine mapping of QTL. In addition, six allelic identity predictors (AIP) were also compared in this study to determine which one performed best in theory and application. Results A criterion based on a simple measure of matrix distance was used to study the relation between LD and allelic identity prediction when using haplotypes. The consistency of this criterion with the accuracy of QTL localization, another criterion commonly used to compare AIP, was evaluated on a set of real chromosomes. For this set of chromosomes, the criterion was consistent with the mapping accuracy of a simulated QTL with either low or high effect. As measured by the matrix distance, the best AIP for QTL mapping were those that best captured LD between a tested position and a QTL. Moreover the matrix distance between a tested position and a QTL was shown to decrease for some AIP when LD increased. However, the matrix distance for AIP with continuous predictions in the [0,1] interval was algebraically proven to decrease less rapidly up to a lower bound with increasing LD in the simplest situations, than the discrete predictor based on identity by state between haplotypes (IBS hap), for which there was no lower bound. The expected LD between haplotypes at a tested position and alleles at a QTL is a quantity that increases naturally when the tested position gets closer to the QTL. This behavior was demonstrated with pig and unrelated human chromosomes. Conclusions When the density of markers is high, and therefore LD between adjacent loci can be assumed to be high, the discrete predictor IBS hap is recommended since it predicts allele identity correctly when taking LD into account. PMID:25022866

  5. Fine mapping Fhb4 , a major QTL conditioning resistance to Fusarium infection in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shulin Xue; Guoqiang Li; Haiyan Jia; Feng Xu; Feng Lin; Mingzhi Tang; Yao Wang; Xia An; Haibin Xu; Lixia Zhang; Zhongxin Kong; Zhengqiang Ma

    2010-01-01

    Qfhi.nau-4B is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) against Fusarium graminearum infection identified in the Fusarium head blight-resistant germplasm Wangshuibai. To fine map this QTL, a recombinant inbred\\u000a line (RIL) population of 530 lines derived from Nanda2419 × Wangshuibai and the BC3F2 population derived from the cross of a Qfhi.nau-4B near isogenic line (NIL) with susceptible cultivar Mianyang 99-323 as the recurrent

  6. FINE MAPPING OF A MALTING-QUALITY QTL COMPLEX NEAR THE CHROMOSOME 4H S TELOMERE IN BARLEY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Malting quality has long been an active objective in barley breeding programs. However it is difficult for breeders to manipulate malting quality traits because of inheritance complexity and difficulty in evaluation of these quantitative traits. Quantitative trait Locus (QTL) mapping provides breede...

  7. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) isogenic recombinant analysis: a method for high-resolution mapping of QTL within a single population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Johan D. Peleman; Crispin Wye; Jan Zethof; A. P. Sorensen; Henk Verbakel; Jan van Oeveren; A. G. M. Gerats; Jeroen Rouppe van der Voort

    2005-01-01

    In the quest for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) at a subcentimorgan scale, several methods that involve the construction of inbred lines and the generation of large progenies of such inbred lines have been developed (Complex Trait Consortium 2003). Here we present an alternative method that significantly speeds up QTL fine mapping by using one segregating population. As a

  8. QTL fine-mapping with recombinant-inbred heterogeneous stocks and in vitro heterogeneous stocks

    E-print Network

    Valdar, William

    William S.J. Valdar, Jonathan Flint, Richard Mott Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, Roosevelt the difficulty of obtaining sufficiently high resolution genetic map- ping to enable positional cloning that happen to have different alleles in the founding strains. Heterogeneous stocks (HS) (Demarest et al. 2001

  9. Identification and fine-mapping of a QTL, qMrdd1, that confers recessive resistance to maize rough dwarf disease

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) is a devastating viral disease that results in considerable yield losses worldwide. Three major strains of virus cause MRDD, including maize rough dwarf virus in Europe, Mal de Río Cuarto virus in South America, and rice black-streaked dwarf virus in East Asia. These viral pathogens belong to the genus fijivirus in the family Reoviridae. Resistance against MRDD is a complex trait that involves a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL). The primary approach used to minimize yield losses from these viruses is to breed and deploy resistant maize hybrids. Results Of the 50 heterogeneous inbred families (HIFs), 24 showed consistent responses to MRDD across different years and locations, in which 9 were resistant and 15 were susceptible. We performed trait-marker association analysis on the 24 HIFs and found six chromosomal regions which were putatively associated with MRDD resistance. We then conducted QTL analysis and detected a major resistance QTL, qMrdd1, on chromosome 8. By applying recombinant-derived progeny testing to self-pollinated backcrossed families, we fine-mapped the qMrdd1 locus into a 1.2-Mb region flanked by markers M103-4 and M105-3. The qMrdd1 locus acted in a recessive manner to reduce the disease-severity index (DSI) by 24.2–39.3%. The genetic effect of qMrdd1 was validated using another F6 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population in which MRDD resistance was segregating and two genotypes at the qMrdd1 locus differed significantly in DSI values. Conclusions The qMrdd1 locus is a major resistance QTL, acting in a recessive manner to increase maize resistance to MRDD. We mapped qMrdd1 to a 1.2-Mb region, which will enable the introgression of qMrdd1-based resistance into elite maize hybrids and reduce MRDD-related crop losses. PMID:24079304

  10. Fine-mapping of qRfg2, a QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongfeng; Liu, Yongjie; Guo, Yanling; Yang, Qin; Ye, Jianrong; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-02-01

    Stalk rot is one of the most devastating diseases in maize worldwide. In our previous study, two QTLs, a major qRfg1 and a minor qRfg2, were identified in the resistant inbred line '1145' to confer resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. In the present study, we report on fine-mapping of the minor qRfg2 that is located on chromosome 1 and account for ~8.9% of the total phenotypic variation. A total of 22 markers were developed in the qRfg2 region to resolve recombinants. The progeny-test mapping strategy was developed to accurately determine the phenotypes of all recombinants for fine-mapping of the qRfg2 locus. This fine-mapping process was performed from BC(4)F(1) to BC(8)F(1) generations to narrow down the qRfg2 locus into ~300 kb, flanked by the markers SSRZ319 and CAPSZ459. A predicted gene in the mapped region, coding for an auxin-regulated protein, is believed to be a candidate for qRfg2. The qRfg2 locus could steadily increase the resistance percentage by ~12% across different backcross generations, suggesting its usefulness in enhancing maize resistance against Gibberella stalk rot. PMID:22048640

  11. Statistical Methods for Mapping Multiple QTL

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Zeng, Zhao-Bang

    2008-01-01

    Since Lander and Botstein proposed the interval mapping method for QTL mapping data analysis in 1989, tremendous progress has been made in the last many years to advance new and powerful statistical methods for QTL analysis. Recent research progress has been focused on statistical methods and issues for mapping multiple QTL together. In this article, we review this progress. We focus the discussion on the statistical methods for mapping multiple QTL by maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods and also on determining appropriate thresholds for the analysis. PMID:18551187

  12. A population of ‘TeQing’-into-‘Lemont’ chromosome segment substitution lines supports QTL discovery, fine-mapping, and determination of breeding values

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic maps and populations are important tools for gene/QTL mapping, and for functional genomics research. One of the most phenotypically characterized rice mapping populations is a set of 280 ‘Lemont’/‘TeQing’ recombinant inbred lines (LT-RILs) in which more than 250 agronomically important loci...

  13. QTL MAPPING FOR BIRTH WEIGHT ON BOVINE CHROMOSOME 14

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mapping in livestock allows the identification of genes that determine the genetic variation affecting traits of economic interest. Diverse QTL for growth traits are described in literature, indicating the possibility of QTL mapping for these traits through the scan of...

  14. Bayesian QTL mapping using skewed Student-t distributions

    PubMed Central

    von Rohr, Peter; Hoeschele, Ina

    2002-01-01

    In most QTL mapping studies, phenotypes are assumed to follow normal distributions. Deviations from this assumption may lead to detection of false positive QTL. To improve the robustness of Bayesian QTL mapping methods, the normal distribution for residuals is replaced with a skewed Student-t distribution. The latter distribution is able to account for both heavy tails and skewness, and both components are each controlled by a single parameter. The Bayesian QTL mapping method using a skewed Student-t distribution is evaluated with simulated data sets under five different scenarios of residual error distributions and QTL effects. PMID:11929622

  15. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping using different testers and independent population samples in maize reveals low power of QTL detection and large bias in estimates of QTL effects.

    PubMed Central

    Melchinger, A E; Utz, H F; Schön, C C

    1998-01-01

    The efficiency of marker-assisted selection (MAS) depends on the power of quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection and unbiased estimation of QTL effects. Two independent samples N = 344 and 107 of F2 plants were genotyped for 89 RFLP markers. For each sample, testcross (TC) progenies of the corresponding F3 lines with two testers were evaluated in four environments. QTL for grain yield and other agronomically important traits were mapped in both samples. QTL effects were estimated from the same data as used for detection and mapping of QTL (calibration) and, based on QTL positions from calibration, from the second, independent sample (validation). For all traits and both testers we detected a total of 107 QTL with N = 344, and 39 QTL with N = 107, of which only 20 were in common. Consistency of QTL effects across testers was in agreement with corresponding genotypic correlations between the two TC series. Most QTL displayed no significant QTL x environment nor epistatic interactions. Estimates of the proportion of the phenotypic and genetic variance explained by QTL were considerably reduced when derived from the independent validation sample as opposed to estimates from the calibration sample. We conclude that, unless QTL effects are estimated from an independent sample, they can be inflated, resulting in an overly optimistic assessment of the efficiency of MAS. PMID:9584111

  16. Genetic map construction with R/qtl Karl W. Broman

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    Genetic map construction with R/qtl Karl W. Broman University of Wisconsin-Madison Department of Biostatistics & Medical Informatics Technical Report # 214 4 November 2010 Abstract: Genetic map construction sequence is not available. Surprisingly little has been written about the construction of genetic maps

  17. A gene frequency model for QTL mapping using Bayesian inference

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Information for mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) comes from two sources: linkage disequilibrium (non-random association of allele states) and cosegregation (non-random association of allele origin). Information from LD can be captured by modeling conditional means and variances at the QTL given marker information. Similarly, information from cosegregation can be captured by modeling conditional covariances. Here, we consider a Bayesian model based on gene frequency (BGF) where both conditional means and variances are modeled as a function of the conditional gene frequencies at the QTL. The parameters in this model include these gene frequencies, additive effect of the QTL, its location, and the residual variance. Bayesian methodology was used to estimate these parameters. The priors used were: logit-normal for gene frequencies, normal for the additive effect, uniform for location, and inverse chi-square for the residual variance. Computer simulation was used to compare the power to detect and accuracy to map QTL by this method with those from least squares analysis using a regression model (LSR). Results To simplify the analysis, data from unrelated individuals in a purebred population were simulated, where only LD information contributes to map the QTL. LD was simulated in a chromosomal segment of 1 cM with one QTL by random mating in a population of size 500 for 1000 generations and in a population of size 100 for 50 generations. The comparison was studied under a range of conditions, which included SNP density of 0.1, 0.05 or 0.02 cM, sample size of 500 or 1000, and phenotypic variance explained by QTL of 2 or 5%. Both 1 and 2-SNP models were considered. Power to detect the QTL for the BGF, ranged from 0.4 to 0.99, and close or equal to the power of the regression using least squares (LSR). Precision to map QTL position of BGF, quantified by the mean absolute error, ranged from 0.11 to 0.21 cM for BGF, and was better than the precision of LSR, which ranged from 0.12 to 0.25 cM. Conclusions In conclusion given a high SNP density, the gene frequency model can be used to map QTL with considerable accuracy even within a 1 cM region. PMID:20540762

  18. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phentypic data indicated that the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Lat...

  19. Confidence Intervals in Qtl Mapping by Bootstrapping

    PubMed Central

    Visscher, P. M.; Thompson, R.; Haley, C. S.

    1996-01-01

    The determination of empirical confidence intervals for the location of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) was investigated using simulation. Empirical confidence intervals were calculated using a bootstrap resampling method for a backcross population derived from inbred lines. Sample sizes were either 200 or 500 individuals, and the QTL explained 1, 5, or 10% of the phenotypic variance. The method worked well in that the proportion of empirical confidence intervals that contained the simulated QTL was close to expectation. In general, the confidence intervals were slightly conservatively biased. Correlations between the test statistic and the width of the confidence interval were strongly negative, so that the stronger the evidence for a QTL segregating, the smaller the empirical confidence interval for its location. The size of the average confidence interval depended heavily on the population size and the effect of the QTL. Marker spacing had only a small effect on the average empirical confidence interval. The LOD drop-off method to calculate empirical support intervals gave confidence intervals that generally were too small, in particular if confidence intervals were calculated only for samples above a certain significance threshold. The bootstrap method is easy to implement and is useful in the analysis of experimental data. PMID:8725246

  20. Mapping QTL Contributing to SCMV Resistance in Tropical Maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) has been increasing in importance as a maize disease in Brazil. In this study, were mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated to resistance to SCMV in a maize population consisting of 150 F2:3 families from the cross between two tropical maize i...

  1. QTL mapping of internal heat necrosis in tetraploid potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. H. McCord; B. R. Sosinski; K. G. Haynes; M. E. Clough; G. C. Yencho

    2011-01-01

    Internal heat necrosis (IHN) is a physiological disorder of potato tubers. We developed a linkage map of tetraploid potato\\u000a using AFLP and SSR markers, and mapped QTL for mean severity and percent incidence of IHN. Phenotypic data indicated that\\u000a the distribution of IHN is skewed toward resistance. Late foliage maturity was slightly but significantly correlated with\\u000a increased IHN symptoms. The

  2. Genetic analysis of genome-wide transcriptional regulation through eQTL mapping in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) mapping is a powerful tool for identifying the genetic basis of gene expression variation. Coincident genetic locations of eQTL and phenotypic QTL provide the basis for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved. Genetic analysis of expr...

  3. Genetic Analysis of Genome-Wide Transcriptional Regulation through eQTL Mapping in Soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation in gene transcript accumulation levels can be measured to map underlying expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL). Coincident genetic locations of eQTL and phenotypic QTL provide the basis for further investigation of the molecular mechanisms involved. Genetic analysis of expression trait...

  4. QTL mapping of Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in sunflower.

    PubMed

    Micic, Z; Hahn, V; Bauer, E; Schön, C C; Knapp, S J; Tang, S; Melchinger, A E

    2004-11-01

    In many sunflower-growing regions of the world, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary is the major disease of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). In this study, we mapped and characterized quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in resistance to S. sclerotiorum midstalk rot and two morphological traits. A total of 351 F3 families developed from a cross between a resistant inbred line from the germplasm pool NDBLOS and the susceptible line CM625 were assayed for their parental F2 genotype at 117 codominant simple sequence repeat markers. Disease resistance of the F3 families was screened under artificial infection in field experiments across two sowing times in 1999. For the three resistance traits (leaf lesion, stem lesion, and speed of fungal growth) and the two morphological traits, genotypic variances were highly significant. Heritabilities were moderate to high (h2=0.55-0.89). Genotypic correlations between resistance traits were highly significant (P<0.01) but moderate. QTL were detected for all three resistance traits, but estimated effects at most QTL were small. Simultaneously, they explained between 24.4% and 33.7% of the genotypic variance for resistance against S. sclerotiorum. Five of the 15 genomic regions carrying a QTL for either of the three resistance traits also carried a QTL for one of the two morphological traits. The prospects of marker-assisted selection (MAS) for resistance to S. sclerotiorum are limited due to the complex genetic architecture of the trait. MAS can be superior to classical phenotypic selection only with low marker costs and fast selection cycles. PMID:15480534

  5. Molecular Maps, Qtl Mapping & Association Mapping In Grapevine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Costantini; F. M. Moreira; E. Zyprians; J. M. Martínez-Zapater; M. S. Grando

    Linkage mapping in grape is based on the pseudo-testcross strategy (Grattapaglia and Sederoff 1994). Starting from 1995 several\\u000a linkage maps have been developed for grape (Table 1) with the goal of locating the genetic determinants of target traits and\\u000a identifying markers to assist breeding. The first maps were mainly based on RAPD (Williams et al. 1993) and AFLP (Zabeau and

  6. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) in sheep. I. A new male framework linkage map and QTL for growth rate and body weight

    PubMed Central

    Raadsma, Herman W; Thomson, Peter C; Zenger, Kyall R; Cavanagh, Colin; Lam, Mary K; Jonas, Elisabeth; Jones, Marilyn; Attard, Gina; Palmer, David; Nicholas, Frank W

    2009-01-01

    A male sheep linkage map comprising 191 microsatellites was generated from a single family of 510 Awassi-Merino backcross progeny. Except for ovine chromosomes 1, 2, 10 and 17, all other chromosomes yielded a LOD score difference greater than 3.0 between the best and second-best map order. The map is on average 11% longer than the Sheep Linkage Map v4.7 male-specific map. This map was employed in quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses on body-weight and growth-rate traits between birth and 98 weeks of age. A custom maximum likelihood program was developed to map QTL in half-sib families for non-inbred strains (QTL-MLE) and is freely available on request. The new analysis package offers the advantage of enabling QTL × fixed effect interactions to be included in the model. Fifty-four putative QTL were identified on nine chromosomes. Significant QTL with sex-specific effects (i.e. QTL × sex interaction) in the range of 0.4 to 0.7 SD were found on ovine chromosomes 1, 3, 6, 11, 21, 23, 24 and 26. PMID:19389264

  7. QTL Mapping for Fiber and Yield Traits in Upland Cotton under Multiple Environments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hantao; Huang, Cong; Guo, Huanle; Li, Ximei; Zhao, Wenxia; Dai, Baosheng; Yan, Zhenhua; Lin, Zhongxu

    2015-01-01

    A population of 178 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed using a single seed descendant from a cross between G. hirsutum. acc DH962 and G. hirsutum. cv Jimian5, was used to construct a genetic map and to map QTL for fiber and yield traits. A total of 644 polymorphic loci were used to construct a final genetic map, containing 616 loci and spanning 2016.44 cM, with an average of 3.27 cM between adjacent markers. Statistical analysis revealed that segregation distortion in the intraspecific population was more serious than that in the interspecific population. The RIL population and the two parents were phenotyped under 8 environments (two locations, six years), revealing a total of 134 QTL, including 64 for fiber qualities and 70 for yield components, independently detected in seven environments, explaining 4.40–15.28% of phenotypic variation (PV). Among the 134 QTL, 9 common QTL were detected in more than one environment, and 22 QTL and 19 new QTL were detected in combined analysis (E9). A total of 26 QTL hotspot regions were observed on 13 chromosomes and 2 larger linkage groups, and some QTL clusters related to fiber qualities or yield components were also observed. The results obtained in the present study suggested that to map accurate QTL in crops with larger plant types, such as cotton, phenotyping under multiple environments is necessary to effectively apply the obtained results in molecular marker-assisted selection breeding and QTL cloning. PMID:26110526

  8. Conditional QTL mapping of protein content in wheat with respect to grain yield and its components.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Cui, Fa; Wang, Jinping; Jun, Li; Ding, Anming; Zhao, Chunhua; Li, Xingfeng; Feng, Deshun; Gao, Jurong; Wang, Honggang

    2012-01-01

    Grain protein content in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is generally considered a highly heritable character that is negatively correlated with grain yield and yield-related traits. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for protein content was mapped using data on protein content and protein content conditioned on the putatively interrelated traits to evaluate possible genetic interrelationships between protein content and yield, as well as yield-related traits. Phenotypic data were evaluated in a recombinant inbred line population with 302 lines derived from a cross between the Chinese cultivar Weimai 8 and Luohan 2. Inclusive composite interval mapping using IciMapping 3.0 was employed for mapping unconditional and conditional QTL with additives. A strong genetic relationship was found between protein content and grain yield, and yield-related traits. Unconditional QTL mapping analysis detected seven additive QTL for protein content, with additive effects ranging in absolute size from 0.1898% to 0.3407% protein content, jointly accounting for 43.45% of the trait variance. Conditional QTL mapping analysis indicated two QTL independent from yield, which can be used in marker-assisted selection for increasing yield without affecting grain protein content. Three additional QTL with minor effects were identified in the conditional mapping. Of the three QTLs, two were identified when protein content was conditioned on yield, which had pleiotropic effects on those two traits. Conditional QTL mapping can be used to dissect the genetic interrelationship between two traits at the individual QTL level for closely correlated traits. Further, conditional QTL mapping can reveal additional QTL with minor effects that are undetectable in unconditional mapping. PMID:23271016

  9. Mapping carcass and meat quality QTL on Sus Scrofa chromosome 2 in commercial finishing pigs

    PubMed Central

    Heuven, Henri CM; van Wijk, Rik HJ; Dibbits, Bert; van Kampen, Tony A; Knol, Egbert F; Bovenhuis, Henk

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting carcass and meat quality located on SSC2 were identified using variance component methods. A large number of traits involved in meat and carcass quality was detected in a commercial crossbred population: 1855 pigs sired by 17 boars from a synthetic line, which where homozygous (A/A) for IGF2. Using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping (LDLA), several QTL significantly affecting loin muscle mass, ham weight and ham muscles (outer ham and knuckle ham) and meat quality traits, such as Minolta-L* and -b*, ultimate pH and Japanese colour score were detected. These results agreed well with previous QTL-studies involving SSC2. Since our study is carried out on crossbreds, different QTL may be segregating in the parental lines. To address this question, we compared models with a single QTL-variance component with models allowing for separate sire and dam QTL-variance components. The same QTL were identified using a single QTL variance component model compared to a model allowing for separate variances with minor differences with respect to QTL location. However, the variance component method made it possible to detect QTL segregating in the paternal line (e.g. HAMB), the maternal lines (e.g. Ham) or in both (e.g. pHu). Combining association and linkage information among haplotypes improved slightly the significance of the QTL compared to an analysis using linkage information only. PMID:19284675

  10. A consensus linkage map of oil palm and a major QTL for stem height

    PubMed Central

    Lee, May; Xia, Jun Hong; Zou, Zhongwei; Ye, Jian; Rahmadsyah; Alfiko, Yuzer; Jin, Jingjing; Lieando, Jessica Virginia; Purnamasari, Maria Indah; Lim, Chin Huat; Suwanto, Antonius; Wong, Limsoon; Chua, Nam-Hai; Yue, Gen Hua

    2015-01-01

    Oil palm (Elaeis guinensis Jacquin) is the most important source of vegetable oil and fat. Several linkage maps had been constructed using dominant and co-dominant markers to facilitate mapping of QTL. However, dominant markers are not easily transferable among different laboratories. We constructed a consensus linkage map for oil palm using co-dominant markers (i.e. microsatellite and SNPs) and two F1 breeding populations generated by crossing Dura and Pisifera individuals. Four hundreds and forty-four microsatellites and 36 SNPs were mapped onto 16 linkage groups. The map length was 1565.6?cM, with an average marker space of 3.72?cM. A genome-wide scan of QTL identified a major QTL for stem height on the linkage group 5, which explained 51% of the phenotypic variation. Genes in the QTL were predicted using the palm genome sequence and bioinformatic tools. The linkage map supplies a base for mapping QTL for accelerating the genetic improvement, and will be also useful in the improvement of the assembly of the genome sequences. Markers linked to the QTL may be used in selecting dwarf trees. Genes within the QTL will be characterized to understand the mechanisms underlying dwarfing. PMID:25648560

  11. Mapping the dominant wound healing and soft tissue regeneration QTL in MRL × CAST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongrun Yu; Subburaman Mohan; Godfred L. Masinde; David J. Baylink

    2005-01-01

    We have used a mouse ear punch model and the QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping technique to identify genes that are responsible for soft tissue regeneration. In the early studies, we have identified several QTL and have shown that the inheritance of ear healing was additive in one cross (MRL × SJL), and recessive in another cross (DBA × 129).

  12. Mapping eQTL networks with mixed graphical Markov models.

    PubMed

    Tur, Inma; Roverato, Alberto; Castelo, Robert

    2014-12-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping constitutes a challenging problem due to, among other reasons, the high-dimensional multivariate nature of gene-expression traits. Next to the expression heterogeneity produced by confounding factors and other sources of unwanted variation, indirect effects spread throughout genes as a result of genetic, molecular, and environmental perturbations. From a multivariate perspective one would like to adjust for the effect of all of these factors to end up with a network of direct associations connecting the path from genotype to phenotype. In this article we approach this challenge with mixed graphical Markov models, higher-order conditional independences, and q-order correlation graphs. These models show that additive genetic effects propagate through the network as function of gene-gene correlations. Our estimation of the eQTL network underlying a well-studied yeast data set leads to a sparse structure with more direct genetic and regulatory associations that enable a straightforward comparison of the genetic control of gene expression across chromosomes. Interestingly, it also reveals that eQTLs explain most of the expression variability of network hub genes. PMID:25271303

  13. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaonan; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Kangning; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: “Chiifu” (ssp. pekinensis), the Brassica “A” genome-represented line used as the donor, and “49caixin” (ssp. parachinensis), a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, six for plant diameter, two for leaf width, and five for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding. PMID:26106405

  14. Construction of chromosome segment substitution lines enables QTL mapping for flowering and morphological traits in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaonan; Wang, Wenke; Wang, Zhe; Li, Kangning; Lim, Yong Pyo; Piao, Zhongyun

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs) represent a powerful method for precise quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection of complex agronomical traits in plants. In this study, we used a marker-assisted backcrossing strategy to develop a population consisting of 63 CSSLs, derived from backcrossing of the F1 generated from a cross between two Brassica rapa subspecies: "Chiifu" (ssp. pekinensis), the Brassica "A" genome-represented line used as the donor, and "49caixin" (ssp. parachinensis), a non-heading cultivar used as the recipient. The 63 CSSLs covered 87.95% of the B. rapa genome. Among them, 39 lines carried a single segment; 15 lines, two segments; and nine lines, three or more segments of the donor parent chromosomes. To verify the potential advantage of these CSSL lines, we used them to locate QTL for six morphology-related traits. A total of 58 QTL were located on eight chromosomes for all six traits: 17 for flowering time, 14 each for bolting time and plant height, six for plant diameter, two for leaf width, and five for flowering stalk diameter. Co-localized QTL were mainly distributed on eight genomic regions in A01, A02, A05, A06, A08, A09, and A10, present in the corresponding CSSLs. Moreover, new chromosomal fragments that harbored QTL were identified using the findings of previous studies. The CSSL population constructed in our study paves the way for fine mapping and cloning of candidate genes involved in late bolting, flowering, and plant architecture-related traits in B. rapa. Furthermore, it has great potential for future marker-aided gene/QTL pyramiding of other interesting traits in B. rapa breeding. PMID:26106405

  15. High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    High-Resolution Mapping of the Blood Pressure QTL on Chromosome 7 Using Dahl Rat Congenic Strains-sensitive (S) and salt-resistant (R) rats that a blood pressure quan- titative trait locus (QTL) was present-hydroxy- 11-deoxy corticosterone, is very likely to account for the blood pressure QTL on chromosome 7

  16. Inclusive Composite Interval Mapping of QTL by Environment Interactions in Biparental Populations

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Wang, Jiankang; Zhang, Luyan

    2015-01-01

    Identification of environment-specific QTL and stable QTL having consistent genetic effects across a wide range of environments is of great importance in plant breeding. Inclusive Composite Interval Mapping (ICIM) has been proposed for additive, dominant and epistatic QTL mapping in biparental populations for single environment. In this study, ICIM was extended to QTL by environment interaction (QEI) mapping for multi-environmental trials, where the QTL average effect and QEI effects could be properly estimated. Stepwise regression was firstly applied in each environment to identify the most significant marker variables which were then used to adjust the phenotypic values. One-dimensional scanning was then conducted on the adjusted phenotypic values across the environments in order to detect QTL with either average effect or QEI effects, or both average effect and QEI effects. In this way, the genetic background could be well controlled while the conventional interval mapping was applied. An empirical method to determine the threshold of logarithm of odds was developed, and the efficiency of the ICIM QEI mapping was demonstrated in simulated populations under different genetic models. One actual recombinant inbred line population was used to compare mapping results between QEI mapping and single-environment analysis. PMID:26161656

  17. A Genetical Genomics Approach to Genome Scans Increases Power for QTL Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Guoying; Schliekelman, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We describe a method for integrating gene expression information into genome scans and show that this can substantially increase the statistical power of QTL mapping. The method has three stages. First, standard clustering methods identify small (size 5–20) groups of genes with similar expression patterns. Second, each gene group is tested for a causative genetic locus shared with the clinical trait of interest. This is done using an EM algorithm approach that treats genotype at the putative causative locus as an unobserved variable and combines expression information from all of the genes in the group to infer genotype information at the locus. Finally, expression QTL (eQTL) are mapped for each gene group that shares a causative locus with the clinical trait. Such eQTL are candidates for the causative locus. Simulation results show that this method has far superior power to standard QTL mapping techniques in many circumstances. We applied this method to existing data on mouse obesity. Our method identified 27 putative body weight QTL, whereas standard QTL mapping produced only one. Furthermore, most gene groups with body weight QTL included cis genes, so candidate genes could be immediately identified. Eleven body weight QTL produced 16 candidate genes that have been previously associated with body weight or body weight-related traits, thus validating our method. In addition, 15 of the 16 other loci produced 32 candidate genes that have not been associated with body weight. Thus, this method shows great promise for finding new causative loci for complex traits. PMID:21196521

  18. QTL Mapping of Flowering and Fruiting Traits in Olive

    PubMed Central

    Sadok, Inès Ben; Celton, Jean-Marc; Essalouh, Laila; El Aabidine, Amal Zine; Garcia, Gilbert; Martinez, Sebastien; Grati-Kamoun, Naziha; Rebai, Ahmed; Costes, Evelyne; Khadari, Bouchaib

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenge fruit growers are facing is to balance between tree production and vegetative growth from year to year. To investigate the existence of genetic determinism for reproductive behaviour in olive tree, we studied an olive segregating population derived from a cross between ‘Olivière’ and ‘Arbequina’ cultivars. Our strategy was based on (i) an annual assessment of individual trees yield, and (ii) a decomposition of adult growth units at the crown periphery into quantitative variables related to both flowering and fruiting process in relation to their growth and branching. Genetic models, including the year, genotype effects and their interactions, were built with variance function and correlation structure of residuals when necessary. Among the progeny, trees were either ‘ON’ or ‘OFF’ for a given year and patterns of regular vs. irregular bearing were revealed. Genotype effect was significant on yield but not for flowering traits at growth unit (GU) scale, whereas the interaction between genotype and year was significant for both traits. A strong genetic effect was found for all fruiting traits without interaction with the year. Based on the new constructed genetic map, QTLs with small effects were detected, revealing multigenic control of the studied traits. Many were associated to alleles from ‘Arbequina’. Genetic correlations were found between Yield and Fruit set at GU scale suggesting a common genetic control, even though QTL co-localisations were in spe`cific years only. Most QTL were associated to flowering traits in specific years, even though reproductive traits at GU scale did not capture the bearing status of the trees in a given year. Results were also interpreted with respect to ontogenetic changes of growth and branching, and an alternative sampling strategy was proposed for capturing tree fruiting behaviour. Regular bearing progenies were identified and could constitute innovative material for selection programs. PMID:23690957

  19. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL mapping of cadmium accumulation in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Wang, Liangju; Gong, Yiqin; Dai, Wenhao; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Xianwen; Wen, Tiancai; Liu, Liwang

    2012-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread soil pollutant and poses a significant threat to human health via the food chain. Large phenotypic variations in Cd concentration of radish roots and shoots have been observed. However, the genetic and molecular mechanisms of Cd accumulation in radish remain to be elucidated. In this study, a genetic linkage map was constructed using an F(2) mapping population derived from a cross between a high Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Dysx and a low Cd-accumulating cultivar NAU-Yh. The linkage map consisted of 523 SRAP, RAPD, SSR, ISSR, RAMP, and RGA markers and had a total length of 1,678.2 cM with a mean distance of 3.4 cM between two markers. All mapped markers distributed on nine linkage groups (LGs) having sizes between 134.7 and 236.8 cM. Four quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root Cd accumulation were mapped on LGs 1, 4, 6, and 9, which accounted for 9.86 to 48.64 % of all phenotypic variance. Two QTLs associated with shoot Cd accumulation were detected on LG1 and 3, which accounted for 17.08 and 29.53 % of phenotypic variance, respectively. A major-effect QTL, qRCd9 (QTL for root Cd accumulation on LG9), was identified on LG 9 flanked by NAUrp011_754 and EM5me6_286 markers with a high LOD value of 23.6, which accounted for 48.64 % of the total phenotypic variance in Cd accumulation of F(2) lines. The results indicated that qRCd9 is a novel QTL responsible for controlling root Cd accumulation in radish, and the identification of specific molecular markers tightly linked to the major QTL could be further applied for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in low-Cd content radish breeding program. PMID:22491896

  20. Dynamic QTL Analysis and Candidate Gene Mapping for Waterlogging Tolerance at Maize Seedling Stage

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Khalid A.; Tang, Bin; Wang, Yaping; Chen, Juanhua; Yu, Feng; Li, Liu; Han, Xuesong; Zhang, Zuxin; Yan, Jianbin; Zheng, Yonglian; Yue, Bing; Qiu, Fazhan

    2013-01-01

    Soil waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses adversely affecting maize growth and yield. To identify dynamic expression of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL), QTL associated with plant height, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight were identified via conditional analysis in a mixed linear model and inclusive composite interval mapping method at three respective periods under waterlogging and control conditions. A total of 13, 19 and 23 QTL were detected at stages 3D|0D (the period during 0–3 d of waterlogging), 6D|3D and 9D|6D, respectively. The effects of each QTL were moderate and distributed over nine chromosomes, singly explaining 4.14–18.88% of the phenotypic variation. Six QTL (ph6-1, rl1-2, sdw4-1, sdw7-1, tdw4-1 and tdw7-1) were identified at two consistent stages of seedling development, which could reflect a continuous expression of genes; the remaining QTL were detected at only one stage. Thus, expression of most QTL was influenced by the developmental status. In order to provide additional evidence regarding the role of corresponding genes in waterlogging tolerance, mapping of Expressed Sequence Tags markers and microRNAs were conducted. Seven candidate genes were observed to co-localize with the identified QTL on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9, and may be important candidate genes for waterlogging tolerance. These results are a good starting point for understanding the genetic basis for selectively expressing of QTL in different stress periods and the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits. PMID:24244474

  1. Short-Term Selective Breeding as a Tool for QTL Mapping: Ethanol Preference Drinking in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. K. Belknap; S. P. Richards; L. A. O'Toole; M. L. Helms; T. J. Phillips

    1997-01-01

    Short-term selective breeding starting from an F2 intercross of two inbred strains is a largely unexploited but potentially useful tool for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. The selection lines can also serve as a valuable confirmation test of recornbinant inbred (RI) QTL results when the same two progenitor strains are used. Starting from an F2 from a C57BL\\/6J (B6) ×

  2. A High-Density SNP Map for Accurate Mapping of Seed Fibre QTL in Brassica napus L

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liezhao; Qu, Cunmin; Wittkop, Benjamin; Yi, Bin; Xiao, Yang; He, Yajun; Snowdon, Rod J.; Li, Jiana

    2013-01-01

    A high density genetic linkage map for the complex allotetraploid crop species Brassica napus (oilseed rape) was constructed in a late-generation recombinant inbred line (RIL) population, using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers assayed by the Brassica 60 K Infinium BeadChip Array. The linkage map contains 9164 SNP markers covering 1832.9 cM. 1232 bins account for 7648 of the markers. A subset of 2795 SNP markers, with an average distance of 0.66 cM between adjacent markers, was applied for QTL mapping of seed colour and the cell wall fiber components acid detergent lignin (ADL), cellulose and hemicellulose. After phenotypic analyses across four different environments a total of 11 QTL were detected for seed colour and fiber traits. The high-density map considerably improved QTL resolution compared to the previous low-density maps. A previously identified major QTL with very high effects on seed colour and ADL was pinpointed to a narrow genome interval on chromosome A09, while a minor QTL explaining 8.1% to 14.1% of variation for ADL was detected on chromosome C05. Five and three QTL accounting for 4.7% to 21.9% and 7.3% to 16.9% of the phenotypic variation for cellulose and hemicellulose, respectively, were also detected. To our knowledge this is the first description of QTL for seed cellulose and hemicellulose in B. napus, representing interesting new targets for improving oil content. The high density SNP genetic map enables navigation from interesting B. napus QTL to Brassica genome sequences, giving useful new information for understanding the genetics of key seed quality traits in rapeseed. PMID:24386142

  3. Consensus mapping of major resistance genes and independent QTL for quantitative resistance to sunflower downy mildew.

    PubMed

    Vincourt, Patrick; As-Sadi, Falah; Bordat, Amandine; Langlade, Nicolas B; Gouzy, Jerome; Pouilly, Nicolas; Lippi, Yannick; Serre, Frédéric; Godiard, Laurence; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, Denis; Vear, Felicity

    2012-09-01

    Major gene resistance to sunflower downy mildew (Plasmopara halstedii) races 304 and 314 was found to segregate independently from the resistance to races 334, 307 and 304 determined by the gene Pl2, already positioned on Linkage Group (LG) 8 of sunflower molecular maps. Using a consensus SSR-SNP map constructed from the INEDI RIL population and a new RIL population FU × PAZ2, the positions of Pl2 and Pl5 were confirmed and the new gene, denoted Pl21, was mapped on LG13, at 8 cM from Pl5. The two RIL populations were observed for their quantitative resistance to downy mildew in the field and both indicated the existence of a QTL on LG8 at 20-40 cM from the major resistance gene cluster. In addition, for the INEDI population, a strong QTL on LG10, reported previously, was confirmed and a third QTL was mapped on LG7. A growth chamber test methodology, significantly correlated with field results, also revealed the major QTL on LG10, explaining 65 % of variability. This QTL mapped in the same area as a gene involved in stomatal opening and root growth, which may be suggested as a possible candidate to explain the control of this character. These results indicate that it should be possible to combine major genes and other resistance mechanisms, a strategy that could help to improve durability of sunflower resistance to downy mildew. PMID:22576236

  4. Fine mapping of a quantitative trait locus for twinning rate using combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo H. E. Meuwissen; Astrid Karlsen; Sigbjørn Lien; Ingrid Olsaker; Mike E. Goddard

    2002-01-01

    A novel and robust method for the fine-scale mapping of genes affecting complex traits, which combines linkage and linkage-disequilibrium information, is proposed. Linkage information refers to recombinations within the marker-genotyped generations and linkage disequilibrium to historical recombinations before genotyping started. The identity-by-descent (IBD) probabilities at the quantitative trait locus (QTL) between first generation haplotypes were obtained from the similarity of

  5. Gramene QTL database: development, content and applications

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Junjian; Pujar, Anuradha; Youens-Clark, Ken; Yap, Immanuel; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Tecle, Isaak; Tung, Chih-Wei; Ren, Liya; Spooner, William; Wei, Xuehong; Avraham, Shuly; Ware, Doreen; Stein, Lincoln; McCouch, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Gramene is a comparative information resource for plants that integrates data across diverse data domains. In this article, we describe the development of a quantitative trait loci (QTL) database and illustrate how it can be used to facilitate both the forward and reverse genetics research. The QTL database contains the largest online collection of rice QTL data in the world. Using flanking markers as anchors, QTLs originally reported on individual genetic maps have been systematically aligned to the rice sequence where they can be searched as standard genomic features. Researchers can determine whether a QTL co-localizes with other QTLs detected in independent experiments and can combine data from multiple studies to improve the resolution of a QTL position. Candidate genes falling within a QTL interval can be identified and their relationship to particular phenotypes can be inferred based on functional annotations provided by ontology terms. Mutations identified in functional genomics populations and association mapping panels can be aligned with QTL regions to facilitate fine mapping and validation of gene–phenotype associations. By assembling and integrating diverse types of data and information across species and levels of biological complexity, the QTL database enhances the potential to understand and utilize QTL information in biological research. PMID:20157478

  6. Fine mapping implicates two immunity genes in larval resistance to the honey bee brood fungal disease, Chalkbrood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chalkbrood infection of honey bee (Apis mellifera) brood by the fungus Ascosphaera apis results in fatal encapsulation of susceptible larvae with a mycelial coat. Recent QTL analysis indicates that some level of physiological resistance exists in individual larvae. We performed a fine mapping anal...

  7. In silico QTL mapping of basal liver iron levels in inbred mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    McLachlan, Stela; Lee, Seung-Min; Steele, Teresa M.; Hawthorne, Paula L.; Zapala, Matthew A.; Eskin, Eleazar; Schork, Nicholas J.; Anderson, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Both iron deficiency and iron excess are detrimental in many organisms, and previous studies in both mice and humans suggest that genetic variation may influence iron status in mammals. However, these genetic factors are not well defined. To address this issue, we measured basal liver iron levels in 18 inbred strains of mice of both sexes on a defined iron diet and found ?4-fold variation in liver iron in males (lowest 153 ?g/g, highest 661 ?g/g) and ?3-fold variation in females (lowest 222 ?g/g, highest 658 ?g/g). We carried out a genome-wide association mapping to identify haplotypes underlying differences in liver iron and three other related traits (copper and zinc liver levels, and plasma diferric transferrin levels) in a subset of 14 inbred strains for which genotype information was available. We identified two putative quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes with a known role in iron metabolism: Eif2ak1 and Igf2r. We also identified four putative QTL that reside in previously identified iron-related QTL and 22 novel putative QTL. The most promising putative QTL include a 0.22 Mb region on Chromosome 7 and a 0.32 Mb region on Chromosome 11 that both contain only one candidate gene, Adam12 and Gria1, respectively. Identified putative QTL are good candidates for further refinement and subsequent functional studies. PMID:21062905

  8. QTL mapping reveals the genetic architecture of loci affecting pre- and post-zygotic isolating barriers in Louisiana Iris

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Hybridization among Louisiana Irises has been well established and the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation is known to affect the potential for and the directionality of introgression between taxa. Here we use co-dominant markers to identify regions where QTL are located both within and between backcross maps to compare the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation and fitness traits across treatments and years. Results QTL mapping was used to elucidate the genetic architecture of reproductive isolation between Iris fulva and Iris brevicaulis. Homologous co-dominant EST-SSR markers scored in two backcross populations between I. fulva and I. brevicaulis were used to generate genetic linkage maps. These were used as the framework for mapping QTL associated with variation in 11 phenotypic traits likely responsible for reproductive isolation and fitness. QTL were dispersed throughout the genome, with the exception of one region of a single linkage group (LG) where QTL for flowering time, sterility, and fruit production clustered. In most cases, homologous QTL were not identified in both backcross populations, however, homologous QTL for flowering time, number of growth points per rhizome, number of nodes per inflorescence, and number of flowers per node were identified on several linkage groups. Conclusions Two different traits affecting reproductive isolation, flowering time and sterility, exhibit different genetic architectures, with numerous QTL across the Iris genome controlling flowering time and fewer, less distributed QTL affecting sterility. QTL for traits affecting fitness are largely distributed across the genome with occasional overlap, especially on LG 4, where several QTL increasing fitness and decreasing sterility cluster. Given the distribution and effect direction of QTL affecting reproductive isolation and fitness, we have predicted genomic regions where introgression may be more likely to occur (those regions associated with an increase in fitness and unlinked to loci controlling reproductive isolation) and those that are less likely to exhibit introgression (those regions linked to traits decreasing fitness and reproductive isolation). PMID:22702308

  9. Fine mapping of the Bmgr5 quantitative trait locus for allogeneic bone marrow engraftment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Xinjian; Tsai, Schickwann; Thomas, Alun; Shizuru, Judith A.; Cao, Thai M.

    2013-01-01

    To identify novel mechanisms regulating allogeneic hematopoietic cell engraftment, we used forward genetics and previously described identification, in mice, of a bone marrow (BM) engraftment quantitative trait locus (QTL), termed Bmgr5. This QTL confers dominant and large allele effects for engraftment susceptibility. It was localized to chromosome 16 by quantitative genetic techniques in a segregating backcross bred from susceptible BALB.K and resistant B10.BR mice. We now report verification of the Bmgr5 QTL using reciprocal chromosome 16 consomic strains. The BM engraftment phenotype in these consomic mice shows that Bmgr5 susceptibility alleles are not only sufficient but also indispensable for conferring permissiveness for allogeneic BM engraftment. Using panels of congenic mice, we resolved the Bmgr5 QTL into two separate subloci, termed Bmgr5a (Chr16:14.6–15.8 Mb) and Bmgr5b (Chr16:15.8–17.6 Mb), each conferring permissiveness for the engraftment phenotype and both fine mapped to an interval amenable to positional cloning. Candidate Bmgr5 genes were then prioritized using whole exome DNA sequencing and microarray gene expression data. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the genetic interaction between the Bmgr5a and Bmgr5b QTL and identify causative genes and underlying gene variants. This may lead to new approaches for overcoming the problem of graft rejection in clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation. PMID:23666360

  10. Genetic analysis and QTL mapping of seed coat color in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Li, Chun; Zhao, Ruihong; Wang, Cuiying

    2013-01-01

    Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait in sesame, as it is associated with seed biochemical properties, antioxidant content and activity and even disease resistance of sesame. Here, using a high-density linkage map, we analyzed genetic segregation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sesame seed coat color in six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2). Results showed that two major genes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects and polygenes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects were responsible for controlling the seed coat color trait. Average heritability of the major genes in the BC1, BC2 and F2 populations was 89.30%, 24.00%, and 91.11% respectively, while the heritability of polygenes was low in the BC1 (5.43%), in BC2 (0.00%) and in F2 (0.89%) populations. A high-density map was constructed using 724 polymorphic markers. 653 SSR, AFLP and RSAMPL loci were anchored in 14 linkage groups (LG) spanning a total of 1,216.00 cM. The average length of each LG was 86.86 cM and the marker density was 1.86 cM per marker interval. Four QTLs for seed coat color, QTL1-1, QTL11-1, QTL11-2 and QTL13-1, whose heritability ranged from 59.33%-69.89%, were detected in F3 populations using CIM and MCIM methods. Alleles at all QTLs from the black-seeded parent tended to increase the seed coat color. Results from QTLs mapping and classical genetic analysis among the P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2 populations were comparatively consistent. This first QTL analysis and high-density genetic linkage map for sesame provided a good foundation for further research on sesame genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:23704951

  11. Genetic Analysis and QTL Mapping of Seed Coat Color in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyang; Miao, Hongmei; Wei, Libin; Li, Chun; Zhao, Ruihong; Wang, Cuiying

    2013-01-01

    Seed coat color is an important agronomic trait in sesame, as it is associated with seed biochemical properties, antioxidant content and activity and even disease resistance of sesame. Here, using a high-density linkage map, we analyzed genetic segregation and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for sesame seed coat color in six generations (P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2). Results showed that two major genes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects and polygenes with additive-dominant-epistatic effects were responsible for controlling the seed coat color trait. Average heritability of the major genes in the BC1, BC2 and F2 populations was 89.30%, 24.00%, and 91.11% respectively, while the heritability of polygenes was low in the BC1 (5.43%), in BC2 (0.00%) and in F2 (0.89%) populations. A high-density map was constructed using 724 polymorphic markers. 653 SSR, AFLP and RSAMPL loci were anchored in 14 linkage groups (LG) spanning a total of 1,216.00 cM. The average length of each LG was 86.86 cM and the marker density was 1.86 cM per marker interval. Four QTLs for seed coat color, QTL1-1, QTL11-1, QTL11-2 and QTL13-1, whose heritability ranged from 59.33%–69.89%, were detected in F3 populations using CIM and MCIM methods. Alleles at all QTLs from the black-seeded parent tended to increase the seed coat color. Results from QTLs mapping and classical genetic analysis among the P1, P2, F1, BC1, BC2 and F2 populations were comparatively consistent. This first QTL analysis and high-density genetic linkage map for sesame provided a good foundation for further research on sesame genetics and molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:23704951

  12. Identification and QTL mapping of whitefly resistance components in Solanum galapagense.

    PubMed

    Firdaus, Syarifin; van Heusden, Adriaan W; Hidayati, Nurul; Supena, Ence Darmo Jaya; Mumm, Roland; de Vos, Ric C H; Visser, Richard G F; Vosman, Ben

    2013-06-01

    Solanum galapagense is closely related to the cultivated tomato and can show a very good resistance towards whitefly. A segregating population resulting from a cross between the cultivated tomato and a whitefly resistant S. galapagense was created and used for mapping whitefly resistance and related traits, which made it possible to study the genetic basis of the resistance. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for adult survival co-localized with type IV trichome characteristics (presence, density, gland longevity and gland size). A major QTL (Wf-1) was found for adult survival and trichome characters on Chromosome 2. This QTL explained 54.1 % of the variation in adult survival and 81.5 % of the occurrence of type IV trichomes. A minor QTL (Wf-2) for adult survival and trichome characters was identified on Chromosome 9. The major QTL was confirmed in F3 populations. Comprehensive metabolomics, based on GCMS profiling, revealed that 16 metabolites segregating in the F2 mapping population were associated with Wf-1 and/or Wf-2. Analysis of the 10 most resistant and susceptible F2 genotypes by LCMS showed that several acyl sugars were present in significantly higher concentration in the whitefly resistant genotypes, suggesting a role for these components in the resistance as well. Our results show that whitefly resistance in S. galapagense seems to inherit relatively simple compared to whitefly resistance from other sources and this offers great prospects for resistance breeding as well as elucidating the underlying molecular mechanism(s) of the resistance. PMID:23440381

  13. Mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for body shape and conformation measurements on BTA1 in Japanese Black cattle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aduli Enoch Othniel MALAU-ADULI; Tomomi NIIBAYASHI; Takatoshi KOJIMA; Kazunaga OSHIMA; Yasushi MIZOGUCHI; Masanori KOMATSU

    2005-01-01

    The detection and mapping of segregating quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence withers height, hip height, hip width, body length, chest width, chest depth, shoulder width, lumbar width, thurl width, pin bone width, rump length, cannon circumference, chest girth, abdominal width and abdominal girth at weaning was conducted on chromosomal regions of bovine chromosome one. The QTL analysis was performed

  14. High Resolution QTL Maps Of 31 Traits in Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-resolution QTL maps of 1586 SNPs affecting 31 dairy traits (top 100 effects per trait)were constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with 45,878 SNPs. The 31 traits include net merit and its 8 compnent traits, 4 calving traits, an...

  15. Mapping the quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling seed morphology in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the results of analyzing the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying sunflower seed morphological traits in a segregating population derived from an oilseed by confection cross. A linkage map containing 165 target region amplification polymorphism (TRAP) and 44 simple sequence re...

  16. Mapping QTL main and interaction influences on milling quality in elite U.S. rice germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) head-rice yield (HR) is a key export and domestic quality trait whose genetic control is poorly understood. With the goal of identifying genomic regions influencing HR, quantitative-trait-locus (QTL) mapping was carried out for quality-related traits in recombinant inbred line...

  17. Use of hidden Markov models for QTL mapping Karl W Broman

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    Use of hidden Markov models for QTL mapping Karl W Broman Department of Biostatistics, Johns of algorithms developed for hidden Markov models (HMMs) to perform the tasks mentioned above and thus deal: Illustration of a hidden Markov model. G's indicate underlying genotypes; O's indicate observed marker

  18. Methodologies for segregation analysis and QTL mapping in plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuan-Ming Zhang; Junyi Gai

    2009-01-01

    Most characters of biological interest and economic importance are quantitative traits. To uncover the genetic architecture\\u000a of quantitative traits, two approaches have become popular in China. One is the establishment of an analytical model for mixed\\u000a major-gene plus polygenes inheritance and the other the discovery of quantitative trait locus (QTL). Here we review our progress\\u000a employing these two approaches. First,

  19. QTL mapping of clubroot resistance in radish ( Raphanus sativus L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akito Kamei; Masato Tsuro; Nakao Kubo; Takeshi Hayashi; Ning Wang; Tatsuhito Fujimura; Masashi Hirai

    2010-01-01

    A QTL analysis for clubroot resistance (CR) of radish was performed using an F2 population derived from a crossing of a CR Japanese radish and a clubroot-susceptible (CS) Chinese radish. F3 plants obtained by selfing of F2 plants were used for the CR tests. The potted seedlings were inoculated and the symptom was evaluated 6 weeks thereafter.\\u000a The mean disease indexes

  20. A novel genetic map of wheat: utility for mapping QTL for yield under different nitrogen treatments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important food crops worldwide. Wheat varieties that maintain yield (YD) under moderate or even intense nitrogen (N) deficiency can adapt to low input management systems. A detailed genetic map is necessary for both wheat molecular breeding and genomics research. In this study, an F6:7 recombinant inbred line population comprising 188 lines was used to construct a novel genetic map and subsequently to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for YD and response to N stress. Results A genetic map consisting of 591 loci distributed across 21 wheat chromosomes was constructed. The map spanned 3930.7 cM, with one marker per 6.7 cM on average. Genomic simple sequence repeat (g-SSR), expressed sequence tag-derived microsatellite (e-SSR), diversity arrays technology (DArT), sequence-tagged sites (STS), sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers were included in the map. The linear relationships between loci found in the present map and in previously compiled physical maps were presented, which were generally in accordance. Information on the genetic and physical positions and allele sizes (when possible) of 17 DArT, 50 e-SSR, 44 SRAP, five ISSR, and two morphological markers is reported here for the first time. Seven segregation distortion regions (SDR) were identified on chromosomes 1B, 3BL, 4AL, 6AS, 6AL, 6BL, and 7B. A total of 22 and 12 QTLs for YD and yield difference between the value (YDDV) under HN and the value under LN were identified, respectively. Of these, QYd-4B-2 and QYddv-4B, two major stable QTL, shared support interval with alleles from KN9204 increasing YD in LN and decreasing YDDV. We probe into the use of these QTLs in wheat breeding programs. Moreover, factors affecting the SDR and total map length are discussed in depth. Conclusions This novel map may facilitate the use of novel markers in wheat molecular breeding programs and genomics research. Moreover, QTLs for YD and YDDV provide useful markers for wheat molecular breeding programs designed to increase yield potential under N stress. PMID:24885313

  1. Mapping QTL for dollar spot resistance in creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera L.).

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, N; Curley, J; Warnke, S; Casler, M D; Jung, G

    2006-11-01

    Dollar spot caused by Sclerotinia homoeocarpa F. T. Bennett is the most economically important turf disease on golf courses in North America. Dollar spot resistance in a creeping bentgrass cultivar would greatly reduce the frequency, costs, and environmental impacts of fungicide application. Little work has been done to understand the genetics of resistance to dollar spot in creeping bentgrass. Therefore, QTL analysis was used to determine the location, number and effects of genomic regions associated with dollar spot resistance in the field. To meet this objective, field inoculations using a single isolate were performed over 2 years and multiple locations using progeny of a full sib mapping population '549 x 372'. Dollar spot resistance seems to be inherited quantitatively and broad sense heritability for resistance was estimated to be 0.88. We have detected one QTL with large effect on linkage group 7.1 with LOD values ranging from 3.4 to 8.6 and explaining 14-36% of the phenotypic variance. Several smaller effect QTL specific to rating dates, locations and years were also detected. The association of the tightly linked markers with the LG 7.1 QTL based on 106 progeny was further examined by single marker analysis on all 697 progeny. The high significance of the QTL on LG 7.1 at a sample size of 697 (P < 0.0001), along with its consistency across locations, years and ratings dates, indicated that it was stable over environments. Markers tightly linked to the QTL can be utilized for marker-assisted selection in future bentgrass breeding programs. PMID:16969681

  2. QTL mapping for Mediterranean corn borer resistance in European flint germplasm using recombinant inbred lines

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ostrinia nubilalis (ECB) and Sesamia nonagrioides (MCB) are two maize stem borers which cause important losses in temperate maize production, but QTL analyses for corn borer resistance were mostly restricted to ECB resistance and maize materials genetically related (mapping populations derived from B73). Therefore, the objective of this work was to identify and characterize QTLs for MCB resistance and agronomic traits in a RILs population derived from European flint inbreds. Results Three QTLs were detected for stalk tunnel length at bins 1.02, 3.05 and 8.05 which explained 7.5% of the RILs genotypic variance. The QTL at bin 3.05 was co-located to a QTL related to plant height and grain humidity and the QTL at bin 8.05 was located near a QTL related to yield. Conclusions Our results, when compared with results from other authors, suggest the presence of genes involved in cell wall biosynthesis or fortification with effects on resistance to different corn borer species and digestibility for dairy cattle. Particularly, we proposed five candidate genes related to cell wall characteristics which could explain the QTL for stalk tunnelling in the region 3.05. However, the small proportion of genotypic variance explained by the QTLs suggest that there are also many other genes of small effect regulating MCB resistance and we conclude that MAS seems not promising for this trait. Two QTLs detected for stalk tunnelling overlap with QTLs for agronomic traits, indicating the presence of pleitropism or linkage between genes affecting resistance and agronomic traits. PMID:20230603

  3. Phenotypic plasticity, QTL mapping and genomic characterization of bud set in black poplar

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genetic control of important adaptive traits, such as bud set, is still poorly understood in most forest trees species. Poplar is an ideal model tree to study bud set because of its indeterminate shoot growth. Thus, a full-sib family derived from an intraspecific cross of P. nigra with 162 clonally replicated progeny was used to assess the phenotypic plasticity and genetic variation of bud set in two sites of contrasting environmental conditions. Results Six crucial phenological stages of bud set were scored. Night length appeared to be the most important signal triggering the onset of growth cessation. Nevertheless, the effect of other environmental factors, such as temperature, increased during the process. Moreover, a considerable role of genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was found in all phenological stages with the lowest temperature appearing to influence the sensitivity of the most plastic genotypes. Descriptors of growth cessation and bud onset explained the largest part of phenotypic variation of the entire process. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits were detected. For the four selected traits (the onset of growth cessation (date2.5), the transition from shoot to bud (date1.5), the duration of bud formation (subproc1) and bud maturation (subproc2)) eight and sixteen QTL were mapped on the maternal and paternal map, respectively. The identified QTL, each one characterized by small or modest effect, highlighted the complex nature of traits involved in bud set process. Comparison between map location of QTL and P. trichocarpa genome sequence allowed the identification of 13 gene models, 67 bud set-related expressional and six functional candidate genes (CGs). These CGs are functionally related to relevant biological processes, environmental sensing, signaling, and cell growth and development. Some strong QTL had no obvious CGs, and hold great promise to identify unknown genes that affect bud set. Conclusions This study provides a better understanding of the physiological and genetic dissection of bud set in poplar. The putative QTL identified will be tested for associations in P. nigra natural populations. The identified QTL and CGs will also serve as useful targets for poplar breeding. PMID:22471289

  4. High-Density Genetic Linkage Map Construction and QTL Mapping of Grain Shape and Size in the Wheat Population Yanda1817 × Beinong6

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qiu-Hong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Zhou, Sheng-Hui; Fu, Lin; Chen, Jiao-Jiao; Xiao, Yao; Zhang, Dong; Ouyang, Shu-Hong; Zhao, Xiao-Jie; Cui, Yu; Zhang, De-Yun; Liang, Yong; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xie, Jing-Zhong; Qin, Jin-Xia; Wang, Guo-Xin; Li, De-Lin; Huang, Yin-Lian; Yu, Mei-Hua; Lu, Ping; Wang, Li-Li; Wang, Ling; Wang, Hao; Dang, Chen; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yan; Peng, Hui-Ru; Yuan, Cheng-Guo; You, Ming-Shan; Sun, Qi-Xin; Wang, Ji-Rui; Wang, Li-Xin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Han, Jun; Liu, Zhi-Yong

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic linkage maps are necessary for precisely mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling grain shape and size in wheat. By applying the Infinium iSelect 9K SNP assay, we have constructed a high-density genetic linkage map with 269 F 8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed between a Chinese cornerstone wheat breeding parental line Yanda1817 and a high-yielding line Beinong6. The map contains 2431 SNPs and 128 SSR & EST-SSR markers in a total coverage of 3213.2 cM with an average interval of 1.26 cM per marker. Eighty-eight QTLs for thousand-grain weight (TGW), grain length (GL), grain width (GW) and grain thickness (GT) were detected in nine ecological environments (Beijing, Shijiazhuang and Kaifeng) during five years between 2010–2014 by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) (LOD?2.5). Among which, 17 QTLs for TGW were mapped on chromosomes 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4D, 5A, 5B and 6B with phenotypic variations ranging from 2.62% to 12.08%. Four stable QTLs for TGW could be detected in five and seven environments, respectively. Thirty-two QTLs for GL were mapped on chromosomes 1B, 1D, 2A, 2B, 2D, 3B, 3D, 4A, 4B, 4D, 5A, 5B, 6B, 7A and 7B, with phenotypic variations ranging from 2.62% to 44.39%. QGl.cau-2A.2 can be detected in all the environments with the largest phenotypic variations, indicating that it is a major and stable QTL. For GW, 12 QTLs were identified with phenotypic variations range from 3.69% to 12.30%. We found 27 QTLs for GT with phenotypic variations ranged from 2.55% to 36.42%. In particular, QTL QGt.cau-5A.1 with phenotypic variations of 6.82–23.59% was detected in all the nine environments. Moreover, pleiotropic effects were detected for several QTL loci responsible for grain shape and size that could serve as target regions for fine mapping and marker assisted selection in wheat breeding programs. PMID:25675376

  5. QTL and candidate gene mapping for polyphenolic composition in apple fruit

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The polyphenolic products of the phenylpropanoid pathway, including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols, possess antioxidant properties that may provide health benefits. To investigate the genetic architecture of control of their biosynthesis in apple fruit, various polyphenolic compounds were quantified in progeny from a 'Royal Gala' × 'Braeburn' apple population segregating for antioxidant content, using ultra high performance liquid chromatography of extracts derived from fruit cortex and skin. Results Construction of genetic maps for 'Royal Gala' and 'Braeburn' enabled detection of 79 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for content of 17 fruit polyphenolic compounds. Seven QTL clusters were stable across two years of harvest and included QTLs for content of flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. Alignment of the parental genetic maps with the apple whole genome sequence in silico enabled screening for co-segregation with the QTLs of a range of candidate genes coding for enzymes in the polyphenolic biosynthetic pathway. This co-location was confirmed by genetic mapping of markers derived from the gene sequences. Leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) co-located with a QTL cluster for the fruit flavanols catechin, epicatechin, procyanidin dimer and five unknown procyanidin oligomers identified near the top of linkage group (LG) 16, while hydroxy cinnamate/quinate transferase (HCT/HQT) co-located with a QTL for chlorogenic acid concentration mapping near the bottom of LG 17. Conclusion We conclude that LAR1 and HCT/HQT are likely to influence the concentration of these compounds in apple fruit and provide useful allele-specific markers for marker assisted selection of trees bearing fruit with healthy attributes. PMID:22269060

  6. Dissecting apple tree architecture into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects: QTL mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vincent Segura; Charles-Eric Durel; Evelyne Costes

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to dissect tree architectural plasticity into genetic, ontogenetic and environmental effects over\\u000a the first 4 years of growth of an apple F1 progeny by means of quantitative traits loci (QTL) mapping. Both growth and branching\\u000a processes were phenotyped on the consecutive annual shoots of different axes within a tree. For each studied trait, predicted\\u000a values (best linear

  7. QTL mapping for genetic determinants of lipoprotein cholesterol levels in combined crosses of inbred mouse strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Wittenburg; M A Lyons; R Li; U Kurtz; X Wang; J Mossner; M C Carey; B Paigen

    2006-01-01

    To identify additional loci that influence lipoprotein cholesterol levels, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in offspring of PERA\\/EiJxI\\/LnJ and PERA\\/EiJxDBA\\/2J intercrosses and in a combined data set from both crosses after 8 weeks of consumption of a high fat-diet. Most QTLs identified were concordant with homologous chromosomal regions that were associated with lipoprotein levels in human studies. We

  8. Graph-regularized dual Lasso for robust eQTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Xiang; Guo, Zhishan; Shi, Yu; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Motivation: As a promising tool for dissecting the genetic basis of complex traits, expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping has attracted increasing research interest. An important issue in eQTL mapping is how to effectively integrate networks representing interactions among genetic markers and genes. Recently, several Lasso-based methods have been proposed to leverage such network information. Despite their success, existing methods have three common limitations: (i) a preprocessing step is usually needed to cluster the networks; (ii) the incompleteness of the networks and the noise in them are not considered; (iii) other available information, such as location of genetic markers and pathway information are not integrated. Results: To address the limitations of the existing methods, we propose Graph-regularized Dual Lasso (GDL), a robust approach for eQTL mapping. GDL integrates the correlation structures among genetic markers and traits simultaneously. It also takes into account the incompleteness of the networks and is robust to the noise. GDL utilizes graph-based regularizers to model the prior networks and does not require an explicit clustering step. Moreover, it enables further refinement of the partial and noisy networks. We further generalize GDL to incorporate the location of genetic makers and gene-pathway information. We perform extensive experimental evaluations using both simulated and real datasets. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed methods can effectively integrate various available priori knowledge and significantly outperform the state-of-the-art eQTL mapping methods. Availability: Software for both C++ version and Matlab version is available at http://www.cs.unc.edu/?weicheng/. Contact: weiwang@cs.ucla.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:24931977

  9. Multiparental mapping of plant height and flowering time QTL in partially isogenic sorghum families.

    PubMed

    Higgins, R H; Thurber, C S; Assaranurak, I; Brown, P J

    2014-09-01

    Sorghum varieties suitable for grain production at temperate latitudes show dwarfism and photoperiod insensitivity, both of which are controlled by a small number of loci with large effects. We studied the genetic control of plant height and flowering time in five sorghum families (A-E), each derived from a cross between a tropical line and a partially isogenic line carrying introgressions derived from a common, temperate-adapted donor. A total of 724 F2:3 lines were phenotyped in temperate and tropical environments for plant height and flowering time and scored at 9139 SNPs using genotyping-by-sequencing. Biparental mapping was compared with multiparental mapping in different subsets of families (AB, ABC, ABCD, and ABCDE) using both a GWAS approach, which fit each QTL as a single effect across all families, and using a joint linkage approach, which fit QTL effects as nested within families. GWAS using all families (ABCDE) performed best at the cloned Dw3 locus, whereas joint linkage using all families performed best at the cloned Ma1 locus. Both multiparental approaches yielded apparently synthetic associations due to genetic heterogeneity and were highly dependent on the subset of families used. Comparison of all mapping approaches suggests that a GA2-oxidase underlies Dw1, and that a mir172a gene underlies a Dw1-linked flowering time QTL. PMID:25237111

  10. QTL analysis for disease resistance using F2 and F5 genetic maps in peanut (Arachis hapogaea L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One mapping population derived from Tifrunner × GT-C20 has shown great potential in developing a high density genetic map and identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) for important disease resistance, Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and leaf spot (LS). Both F2 and F5 generation-based genetic maps ...

  11. QTL mapping of stripe, leaf and stem rust resistance genes in a Kariega × Avocet S doubled haploid wheat population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Prins; Z. A. Pretorius; C. M. Bender; A. Lehmensiek

    2011-01-01

    Adult plant resistance to stripe (yellow) rust in the wheat cultivar Kariega has previously been ascribed to a major quantitative\\u000a trait locus (QTL) on each of chromosomes 2B and 7D, along with a number of minor QTL. We have extended both the size of the\\u000a cv. Kariega × cv. Avocet S mapping population, and the marker coverage within it, by assembling a

  12. Mapping QTL for drought stress-induced premature senescence and maturity in cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.].

    PubMed

    Muchero, Wellington; Ehlers, Jeffrey D; Close, Timothy J; Roberts, Philip A

    2009-03-01

    Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in arid regions of Africa, Asia, and South America. Efforts to develop cultivars with improved productivity under drought conditions are constrained by lack of molecular markers associated with drought tolerance. Here, we report the mapping of 12 quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with seedling drought tolerance and maturity in a cowpea recombinant inbred (RIL) population. One hundred and twenty-seven F(8) RILs developed from a cross between IT93K503-1 and CB46 were screened with 62 EcoR1 and Mse1 primer combinations to generate 306 amplified fragment length polymorphisms for use in genetic linkage mapping. The same population was phenotyped for maintenance of stem greenness (stg) and recovery dry weight (rdw) after drought stress in six greenhouse experiments. In field experiments conducted over 3 years, visual ratings and dry weights were used to phenotype drought stress-induced premature senescence in the RIL population. Kruskall-Wallis and multiple-QTL model mapping analysis were used to identify QTL associated with drought response phenotypes. Observed QTL were highly reproducible between stg and rdw under greenhouse conditions. Field studies confirmed all ten drought-response QTL observed under greenhouse conditions. Regions harboring drought-related QTL were observed on linkage groups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 9, and 10 accounting for between 4.7 and 24.2% of the phenotypic variance (R(2)). Further, two QTL for maturity (R(2) = 14.4-28.9% and R(2) = 11.7-25.2%) mapped on linkage groups 7 and 8 separately from drought-related QTL. These results provide a platform for identification of genetic determinants of seedling drought tolerance in cowpea. PMID:19130034

  13. QTL mapping of yield and fiber traits based on a four-way cross population in Gossypium hirsutum L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongde Qin; Wangzhen Guo; Yuan-Ming Zhang; Tianzhen Zhang

    2008-01-01

    Four-way cross (4WC) involving four different inbred lines frequently appears in the cotton breeding programs. However, linkage\\u000a analysis and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers in cotton has largely been applied to populations\\u000a derived from a cross between two inbred lines, and few results of QTL dissection were conducted in a 4WC population. In this\\u000a study, an attempt

  14. A complete genetic linkage map and QTL analyses for bast fibre quality traits, yield and yield components in jute (Corchorus olitorius L.).

    PubMed

    Topdar, N; Kundu, A; Sinha, M K; Sarkar, D; Das, M; Banerjee, S; Kar, C S; Satya, P; Balyan, H S; Mahapatra, B S; Gupta, P K

    2013-01-01

    We report the first complete microsatellite genetic map of jute (Corchorus olitorius L.; 2n = 2x = 14) using an F6 recombinant inbred population. Of the 403 microsatellite markers screened, 82 were mapped on the seven linkage groups (LGs) that covered a total genetic distance of 799.9 cM, with an average marker interval of 10.7 cM. LG5 had the longest and LG7 the shortest genetic lengths, whereas LG1 had the maximum and LG7 the minimum number of markers. Segregation distortion of microsatellite loci was high (61%), with the majority of them (76%) skewed towards the female parent. Genomewide non-parametric single-marker analysis in combination with multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL)-models (MQM) mapping detected 26 definitive QTLs for bast fibre quality, yield and yield-related traits. These were unevenly distributed on six LGs, as colocalized clusters, at genomic sectors marked by 15 microsatellite loci. LG1 was the QTL-richest map sector, with the densest colocalized clusters of QTLs governing fibre yield, yield-related traits and tensile strength. Expectedly, favorable QTLs were derived from the desirable parents, except for nearly all of those of fibre fineness, which might be due to the creation of new gene combinations. Our results will be a good starting point for further genome analyses in jute. PMID:23821949

  15. Mapping Fusarium wilt race 1 resistance genes in cotton by inheritance, QTL and sequencing composition.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Mauricio; Wang, Congli; Hutmacher, Robert B; Wright, Steven D; Davis, R Michael; Saski, Christopher A; Roberts, Philip A

    2011-07-01

    Knowledge of the inheritance of disease resistance and genomic regions housing resistance (R) genes is essential to prevent expanding pathogen threats such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] in cotton (Gossypium spp.). We conducted a comprehensive study combining conventional inheritance, genetic and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping, QTL marker-sequence composition, and genome sequencing to examine the distribution, structure and organization of disease R genes to race 1 of FOV in the cotton genome. Molecular markers were applied to F(2) and recombinant inbred line (RIL) interspecific mapping populations from the crosses Pima-S7 (G. barbadense L.) × 'Acala NemX' (G. hirsutum L.) and Upland TM-1 (G. hirsutum) × Pima 3-79 (G. barbadense), respectively. Three greenhouse tests and one field test were used to obtain sequential estimates of severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS). A single resistance gene model was observed for the F(2) population based on inheritance of phenotypes. However, additional inheritance analyses and QTL mapping indicated gene interactions and inheritance from nine cotton chromosomes, with major QTLs detected on five chromosomes [Fov1-C06, Fov1-C08, (Fov1-C11 ( 1 ) and Fov1-C11 ( 2)) , Fov1-C16 and Fov1-C19 loci], explaining 8-31% of the DSI or VRS variation. The Fov1-C16 QTL locus identified in the F(2) and in the RIL populations had a significant role in conferring FOV race 1 resistance in different cotton backgrounds. Identified molecular markers may have important potential for breeding effective FOV race 1 resistance into elite cultivars by marker-assisted selection. Reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from marker-DNA and new DNA sequences of BAC clones tagged with the resistance-associated QTLs revealed defenses genes induced upon pathogen infection and gene regions rich in disease-response elements, respectively. These offer candidate gene targets for Fusarium wilt resistance response in cotton and other host plants. PMID:21533837

  16. QTL mapping of resistance to sorghum downy mildew in maize 

    E-print Network

    Sabry, Ahmed Mohamed-Bashir

    2004-09-30

    were mapped using both restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) in 220 F2 individual maize progeny derived from a cross between two extremes; highly susceptible inbred parent SC-TEP5-19-1-3-1-4-1-1 (white...

  17. Teamwork: improved eQTL mapping using combinations of machine learning methods.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, Marit; Clément-Ziza, Mathieu; Michaelson, Jacob J; Beyer, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping is a widely used technique to uncover regulatory relationships between genes. A range of methodologies have been developed to map links between expression traits and genotypes. The DREAM (Dialogue on Reverse Engineering Assessments and Methods) initiative is a community project to objectively assess the relative performance of different computational approaches for solving specific systems biology problems. The goal of one of the DREAM5 challenges was to reverse-engineer genetic interaction networks from synthetic genetic variation and gene expression data, which simulates the problem of eQTL mapping. In this framework, we proposed an approach whose originality resides in the use of a combination of existing machine learning algorithms (committee). Although it was not the best performer, this method was by far the most precise on average. After the competition, we continued in this direction by evaluating other committees using the DREAM5 data and developed a method that relies on Random Forests and LASSO. It achieved a much higher average precision than the DREAM best performer at the cost of slightly lower average sensitivity. PMID:22911718

  18. Fine-Mapping, Gene Expression and Splicing Analysis of the Disease Associated LRRK2 Locus

    PubMed Central

    Emmett, Warren; Ramasamy, Adaikalavan; Lackner, Karl J.; Zeller, Tanja; Walker, Robert; Smith, Colin; Lewis, Patrick A.; Mamais, Adamantios; de Silva, Rohan; Vandrovcova, Jana; Hernandez, Dena; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Manu; Garnier, Sophie; Lesage, Suzanne; Simon-Sanchez, Javier; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Brice, Alexis; Singleton, Andrew; Cai, Huaibin; Schadt, Eric; Wood, Nicholas W.; Bandopadhyay, Rina; Weale, Michael E.; Hardy, John; Plagnol, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    Association studies have identified several signals at the LRRK2 locus for Parkinson's disease (PD), Crohn's disease (CD) and leprosy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating these effects. To further characterize this locus, we fine-mapped the risk association in 5,802 PD and 5,556 controls using a dense genotyping array (ImmunoChip). Using samples from 134 post-mortem control adult human brains (UK Human Brain Expression Consortium), where up to ten brain regions were available per individual, we studied the regional variation, splicing and regulation of LRRK2. We found convincing evidence for a common variant PD association located outside of the LRRK2 protein coding region (rs117762348, A>G, P?=?2.56×10?8, case/control MAF 0.083/0.074, odds ratio 0.86 for the minor allele with 95% confidence interval [0.80–0.91]). We show that mRNA expression levels are highest in cortical regions and lowest in cerebellum. We find an exon quantitative trait locus (QTL) in brain samples that localizes to exons 32–33 and investigate the molecular basis of this eQTL using RNA-Seq data in n?=?8 brain samples. The genotype underlying this eQTL is in strong linkage disequilibrium with the CD associated non-synonymous SNP rs3761863 (M2397T). We found two additional QTLs in liver and monocyte samples but none of these explained the common variant PD association at rs117762348. Our results characterize the LRRK2 locus, and highlight the importance and difficulties of fine-mapping and integration of multiple datasets to delineate pathogenic variants and thus develop an understanding of disease mechanisms. PMID:23967090

  19. Combined QTL and Selective Sweep Mappings with Coding SNP Annotation and cis-eQTL Analysis Revealed PARK2 and JAG2 as New Candidate Genes for Adiposity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Pierre-François; Boitard, Simon; Blum, Yuna; Parks, Brian; Montagner, Alexandra; Mouisel, Etienne; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Désert, Colette; Boutin, Morgane; Leroux, Sophie; Lecerf, Frédéric; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Klopp, Christophe; Servin, Bertrand; Pitel, Frédérique; Duclos, Michel Jean; Guillou, Hervé; Lusis, Aldons J.; Demeure, Olivier; Lagarrigue, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Very few causal genes have been identified by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping because of the large size of QTL, and most of them were identified thanks to functional links already known with the targeted phenotype. Here, we propose to combine selection signature detection, coding SNP annotation, and cis-expression QTL analyses to identify potential causal genes underlying QTL identified in divergent line designs. As a model, we chose experimental chicken lines divergently selected for only one trait, the abdominal fat weight, in which several QTL were previously mapped. Using new haplotype-based statistics exploiting the very high SNP density generated through whole-genome resequencing, we found 129 significant selective sweeps. Most of the QTL colocalized with at least one sweep, which markedly narrowed candidate region size. Some of those sweeps contained only one gene, therefore making them strong positional causal candidates with no presupposed function. We then focused on two of these QTL/sweeps. The absence of nonsynonymous SNPs in their coding regions strongly suggests the existence of causal mutations acting in cis on their expression, confirmed by cis-eQTL identification using either allele-specific expression or genetic mapping analyses. Additional expression analyses of those two genes in the chicken and mice contrasted for adiposity reinforces their link with this phenotype. This study shows for the first time the interest of combining selective sweeps mapping, coding SNP annotation and cis-eQTL analyses for identifying causative genes for a complex trait, in the context of divergent lines selected for this specific trait. Moreover, it highlights two genes, JAG2 and PARK2, as new potential negative and positive key regulators of adiposity in chicken and mice. PMID:25653314

  20. Fine-mapping diabetes-related traits, including insulin resistance, in heterogeneous stock rats

    PubMed Central

    Holl, Katie L.; Oreper, Daniel; Xie, Yuying; Tsaih, Shirng-Wern; Valdar, William

    2012-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a disease of relative insulin deficiency resulting from both insulin resistance and beta cell failure. We have previously used heterogeneous stock (HS) rats to fine-map a locus for glucose tolerance. We show here that glucose intolerance in the founder strains of the HS colony is mediated by different mechanisms: insulin resistance in WKY and an insulin secretion defect in ACI, and we demonstrate a high degree of variability for measures of insulin resistance and insulin secretion in HS rats. As such, our goal was to use HS rats to fine-map several diabetes-related traits within a region on rat chromosome 1. We measured blood glucose and plasma insulin levels after a glucose tolerance test in 782 male HS rats. Using 97 SSLP markers, we genotyped a 68 Mb region on rat chromosome 1 previously implicated in glucose and insulin regulation. We used linkage disequilibrium mapping by mixed model regression with inferred descent to identify a region from 198.85 to 205.9 that contains one or more quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fasting insulin and a measure of insulin resistance, the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index. This region also encompasses loci identified for fasting glucose and Insulin_AUC (area under the curve). A separate <3 Mb QTL was identified for body weight. Using a novel penalized regression method we then estimated effects of alternative haplotype pairings under each locus. These studies highlight the utility of HS rats for fine-mapping genetic loci involved in the underlying causes of T2D. PMID:22947656

  1. A QTL model to map the common genetic basis for correlative phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Lyu, Yafei; Xu, Fang; Bo, Wenhao; Zhai, Yi; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Xiaoming; Zheng, Bingsong; Wu, Rongling

    2015-01-01

    As an important mechanism for adaptation to heterogeneous environment, plastic responses of correlated traits to environmental alteration may also be genetically correlated, but less is known about the underlying genetic basis. We describe a statistical model for mapping specific quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that control the interrelationship of phenotypic plasticity between different traits. The model is constructed by a bivariate mixture setting, implemented with the EM algorithm to estimate the genetic effects of QTLs on correlative plastic response. We provide a series of procedure that test (1) how a QTL controls the phenotypic plasticity of a single trait; and (2) how the QTL determines the correlation of environment-induced changes of different traits. The model is readily extended to test how epistatic interactions among QTLs play a part in the correlations of different plastic traits. The model was validated through computer simulation and used to analyse multi-environment data of genetic mapping in winter wheat, showing its utilization in practice. PMID:24335788

  2. Genetic variation, linkage mapping of QTL and correlation studies for yield, root, and agronomic traits for aerobic adaptation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Water scarcity and drought have seriously threatened traditional rice cultivation practices in several parts of the world, including India. Aerobic rice that uses significantly less water than traditional flooded systems has emerged as a promising water-saving technology. The identification of QTL conferring improved aerobic adaptation may facilitate the development of high-yielding aerobic rice varieties. In this study, experiments were conducted for mapping QTL for yield, root-related traits, and agronomic traits under aerobic conditions using HKR47 × MAS26 and MASARB25 × Pusa Basmati 1460 F2:3 mapping populations. Results A total of 35 QTL associated with 14 traits were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, and 11 in MASARB25 x Pusa Basmati 1460 and 14 QTL associated with 9 traits were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 in HKR47 × MAS26. Two QTL (qGY8.1 with an R2 value of 34.0% and qGY2.1 with an R2 value of 22.8%) and one QTL (qGY2.2 with an R2 value of 43.2%) were identified for grain yield under aerobic conditions in the mapping populations MASARB25 × Pusa Basmati 1460 and HKR47 × MAS26, respectively. A number of breeding lines with higher yield per plant, root length, dry biomass, length-breadth ratio, and with Pusa Basmati 1460-specific alleles in a homozygous or heterozygous condition at the BAD2 locus were identified that will serve as novel material for the selection of stable aerobic Basmati rice breeding lines. Conclusions Our results identified positive correlation between some of the root traits and yield under aerobic conditions, indicating the role of root traits for improving yield under aerobic situations possibly through improved water and nutrient uptake. Co-localization of QTL for yield, root traits, and yield-related agronomic traits indicates that the identified QTL may be immediately exploited in marker-assisted-breeding to develop novel high-yielding aerobic rice varieties. PMID:24168061

  3. QTL mapping for sexually dimorphic fitness-related traits in wild bighorn sheep

    PubMed Central

    Poissant, J; Davis, C S; Malenfant, R M; Hogg, J T; Coltman, D W

    2012-01-01

    Dissecting the genetic architecture of fitness-related traits in wild populations is key to understanding evolution and the mechanisms maintaining adaptive genetic variation. We took advantage of a recently developed genetic linkage map and phenotypic information from wild pedigreed individuals from Ram Mountain, Alberta, Canada, to study the genetic architecture of ecologically important traits (horn volume, length, base circumference and body mass) in bighorn sheep. In addition to estimating sex-specific and cross-sex quantitative genetic parameters, we tested for the presence of quantitative trait loci (QTLs), colocalization of QTLs between bighorn sheep and domestic sheep, and sex × QTL interactions. All traits showed significant additive genetic variance and genetic correlations tended to be positive. Linkage analysis based on 241 microsatellite loci typed in 310 pedigreed animals resulted in no significant and five suggestive QTLs (four for horn dimension on chromosomes 1, 18 and 23, and one for body mass on chromosome 26) using genome-wide significance thresholds (Logarithm of odds (LOD) >3.31 and >1.88, respectively). We also confirmed the presence of a horn dimension QTL in bighorn sheep at the only position known to contain a similar QTL in domestic sheep (on chromosome 10 near the horns locus; nominal P<0.01) and highlighted a number of regions potentially containing weight-related QTLs in both species. As expected for sexually dimorphic traits involved in male–male combat, loci with sex-specific effects were detected. This study lays the foundation for future work on adaptive genetic variation and the evolutionary dynamics of sexually dimorphic traits in bighorn sheep. PMID:21847139

  4. In the eye of the beholder: The effect of rater variability and different rating scales on QTL mapping

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The agronomic importance of developing durably resistant cultivars has led to substantial research in the field of quantitative disease resistance (QDR) and, in particular, mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease resistance. The assessment of QDR is typically conducted by visual estimatio...

  5. LINKAGE MAPPING OF PORCINE DGAT1 TO A REGION OF PORCINE CHROMOSOME 4 THAT CONTAINS QTL FOR GROWTH AND FATNESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT1) is a microsomal enzyme that catalyzes the formation of triglycerides, and maps to human chromosome 8q24.3. Several QTL for growth and fatness have been identified in swine on porcine chromosome 4 (SSC4). Bi-directional chromosome painting and comparative mappin...

  6. In-silico QTL mapping of postpubertal mammary ductal development in the mouse uncovers potential human breast cancer risk loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic background plays a dominant role in mammary gland development and breast cancer (BrCa). Despite this, the role of genetics is only partially understood. This study used strain-dependent variation in an inbred mouse mapping panel, to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying structura...

  7. Multiple Interval Mapping for Gene Expression QTL and Zhao-Bang Zeng,

    E-print Network

    Zeng, Zhao-Bang

    of the large number of eQTL. We organized the computational procedures in an R package (http was more powerful: applied onto the same yeast data, our method claimed eQTL for far more expression traits from these features on the power to detect eQTL in the yeast data. We also applied bioinformatics

  8. Haplotype fine mapping by evolutionary trees.

    PubMed

    Lam, J C; Roeder, K; Devlin, B

    2000-02-01

    To refine the location of a disease gene within the bounds provided by linkage analysis, many scientists use the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between the disease allele and alleles at nearby markers. We describe a method that seeks to refine location by analysis of "disease" and "normal" haplotypes, thereby using multivariate information about linkage disequilibrium. Under the assumption that the disease mutation occurs in a specific gap between adjacent markers, the method first combines parsimony and likelihood to build an evolutionary tree of disease haplotypes, with each node (haplotype) separated, by a single mutational or recombinational step, from its parent. If required, latent nodes (unobserved haplotypes) are incorporated to complete the tree. Once the tree is built, its likelihood is computed from probabilities of mutation and recombination. When each gap between adjacent markers is evaluated in this fashion and these results are combined with prior information, they yield a posterior probability distribution to guide the search for the disease mutation. We show, by evolutionary simulations, that an implementation of these methods, called "FineMap," yields substantial refinement and excellent coverage for the true location of the disease mutation. Moreover, by analysis of hereditary hemochromatosis haplotypes, we show that FineMap can be robust to genetic heterogeneity. PMID:10677324

  9. Genetic mapping and QTL analysis of growth-related traits in Pinctada fucata using restriction-site associated DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yaoguo; He, Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata), is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM), with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05). These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25369421

  10. Genetic Mapping and QTL Analysis of Growth-Related Traits in Pinctada fucata Using Restriction-Site Associated DNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yaoguo; He, Maoxian

    2014-01-01

    The pearl oyster, Pinctada fucata (P. fucata), is one of the marine bivalves that is predominantly cultured for pearl production. To obtain more genetic information for breeding purposes, we constructed a high-density linkage map of P. fucata and identified quantitative trait loci (QTL) for growth-related traits. One F1 family, which included the two parents, 48 largest progeny and 50 smallest progeny, was sampled to construct a linkage map using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-Seq). With low coverage data, 1956.53 million clean reads and 86,342 candidate RAD loci were generated. A total of 1373 segregating SNPs were used to construct a sex-average linkage map. This spanned 1091.81 centimorgans (cM), with 14 linkage groups and an average marker interval of 1.41 cM. The genetic linkage map coverage, Coa, was 97.24%. Thirty-nine QTL-peak loci, for seven growth-related traits, were identified using the single-marker analysis, nonparametric mapping Kruskal-Wallis (KW) test. Parameters included three for shell height, six for shell length, five for shell width, four for hinge length, 11 for total weight, eight for soft tissue weight and two for shell weight. The QTL peak loci for shell height, shell length and shell weight were all located in linkage group 6. The genotype frequencies of most QTL peak loci showed significant differences between the large subpopulation and the small subpopulation (P<0.05). These results highlight the effectiveness of RAD-Seq as a tool for generation of QTL-targeted and genome-wide marker data in the non-model animal, P. fucata, and its possible utility in marker-assisted selection (MAS). PMID:25369421

  11. Development of Genetic Markers Linked to Straighthead Resistance through Fine Mapping in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Wengui; Jia, Melissa; Jackson, Aaron; Li, Xiaobai; Jia, Limeng; Huang, Bihu; Xu, Peizhou; Correa-Victoria, Fernando; Li, Shigui

    2012-01-01

    Straighthead, a physiological disorder characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, causes significant yield losses in rice, and occurs in many countries. The current control method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly, and wastes water. Development of resistant cultivar is regarded as the most efficient way for its control. We mapped a QTL for straighthead resistance using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) F9 populations that were phenotyped over two years using monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) to induce the symptoms. One population of 170 RILs was genotyped with 136 SSRs and the other population of 91 RILs was genotyped with 159 SSRs. A major QTL qSH-8 was identified in an overlapping region in both populations, and explained 46% of total variation in one and 67% in another population for straighthead resistance. qSH-8 was fine mapped from 1.0 Mbp to 340 kb using 7 SSR markers and further mapped to 290 kb in a population between RM22573 and InDel 27 using 4 InDel markers. SSR AP3858-1 and InDel 11 were within the fine mapped region, and co-segregated with straighthead resistance in both RIL populations, as well as in a collection of diverse global accessions. These results demonstrate that AP3858-1 and InDel 11 can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) for straighthead resistant cultivars, which is especially important because there is no effective way to directly evaluate straighthead resistance. PMID:23285082

  12. Mapping of QTL for resistance to the Mediterranean corn borer attack using the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population of maize.

    PubMed

    Ordas, Bernardo; Malvar, Rosa A; Santiago, Rogelio; Sandoya, German; Romay, Maria C; Butron, Ana

    2009-11-01

    The Mediterranean corn borer or pink stem borer (MCB, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre) causes important yield losses as a consequence of stalk tunneling and direct kernel damage. B73 and Mo17 are the source of the most commercial valuable maize inbred lines in temperate zones, while the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM) population is an invaluable source for QTL identification. However, no or few experiments have been carried out to detect QTL for corn borer resistance in the B73 x Mo17 population. The objective of this work was to locate QTL for resistance to stem tunneling and kernel damage by MCB in the IBM population. We detected a QTL for kernel damage at bin 8.05, although the effect was small and two QTL for stalk tunneling at bins 1.06 and 9.04 in which the additive effects were 4 cm, approximately. The two QTL detected for MCB resistance were close to other QTL consistently found for European corn borer (ECB, Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner) resistance, indicating mechanisms of resistance common to both pests or gene clusters controlling resistance to different plagues. The precise mapping achieved with the IBM population will facilitate the QTL pyramiding and the positional cloning of the detected QTL. PMID:19756472

  13. The identification and mapping of candidate genes and QTL involved in the fatty acid desaturation pathway in Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Smooker, A M; Wells, R; Morgan, C; Beaudoin, F; Cho, K; Fraser, F; Bancroft, I

    2011-04-01

    We constructed a linkage map for the population QDH, which was derived from a cross between an oilseed rape cultivar and a resynthesised Brassica napus. The linkage map included ten markers linked to loci orthologous to those encoding fatty acid biosynthesis genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. The QDH population contains a high level of allelic variation, particularly in the C genome. We conducted quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses, using field data obtained over 3 years, for the fatty acid composition of seed oil. The population segregates for the two major loci controlling erucic acid content, on linkage groups A8 and C3, which quantitatively affect the content of other fatty acids and is a problem generally encountered when crossing "wild" germplasm with cultivated "double low" oilseed rape cultivars. We assessed three methods for QTL analysis, interval mapping, multiple QTL mapping and single marker regression analysis of the subset of lines with low erucic acid. We found the third of these methods to be most appropriate for our main purpose, which was the study of the genetic control of the desaturation of 18-carbon fatty acids. This method enabled us to decouple the effect of the segregation of the erucic acid-controlling loci and identify 34 QTL for fatty acid content of seed oil, 14 in the A genome and 20 in the C genome. The QTL indicate the presence of 13 loci with novel alleles inherited from the progenitors of the resynthesised B. napus that might be useful for modulating the content or extent of desaturation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, only one of which coincides with the anticipated position of a candidate gene, an orthologue of FAD2. PMID:21184048

  14. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1–8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species. PMID:25762582

  15. Genome-wide SNP identification for the construction of a high-resolution genetic map of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus): applications to QTL mapping of Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance and comparative genomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Changwei; Niu, Yongchao; Rastas, Pasi; Liu, Yang; Xie, Zhiyuan; Li, Hengde; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Yong; Tai, Shuaishuai; Tian, Yongsheng; Sakamoto, Takashi; Chen, Songlin

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution genetic maps are essential for fine mapping of complex traits, genome assembly, and comparative genomic analysis. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the primary molecular markers used for genetic map construction. In this study, we identified 13,362 SNPs evenly distributed across the Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) genome. Of these SNPs, 12,712 high-confidence SNPs were subjected to high-throughput genotyping and assigned to 24 consensus linkage groups (LGs). The total length of the genetic linkage map was 3,497.29 cM with an average distance of 0.47 cM between loci, thereby representing the densest genetic map currently reported for Japanese flounder. Nine positive quantitative trait loci (QTLs) forming two main clusters for Vibrio anguillarum disease resistance were detected. All QTLs could explain 5.1-8.38% of the total phenotypic variation. Synteny analysis of the QTL regions on the genome assembly revealed 12 immune-related genes, among them 4 genes strongly associated with V. anguillarum disease resistance. In addition, 246 genome assembly scaffolds with an average size of 21.79 Mb were anchored onto the LGs; these scaffolds, comprising 522.99 Mb, represented 95.78% of assembled genomic sequences. The mapped assembly scaffolds in Japanese flounder were used for genome synteny analyses against zebrafish (Danio rerio) and medaka (Oryzias latipes). Flounder and medaka were found to possess almost one-to-one synteny, whereas flounder and zebrafish exhibited a multi-syntenic correspondence. The newly developed high-resolution genetic map, which will facilitate QTL mapping, scaffold assembly, and genome synteny analysis of Japanese flounder, marks a milestone in the ongoing genome project for this species. PMID:25762582

  16. Inheritance and QTL mapping of Fusarium wilt race 4 resistance in cotton.

    PubMed

    Ulloa, Mauricio; Hutmacher, Robert B; Roberts, Philip A; Wright, Steven D; Nichols, Robert L; Michael Davis, R

    2013-05-01

    Diseases such as Fusarium wilt [Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum (FOV) Atk. Sny & Hans] represent expanding threats to cotton production. Integrating disease resistance into high-yielding, high-fiber quality cotton (Gossypium spp.) cultivars is one of the most important objectives in cotton breeding programs worldwide. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of gene action in cotton governing FOV race 4 resistance by combining conventional inheritance and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping with molecular markers. A set of diverse cotton populations was generated from crosses encompassing multiple genetic backgrounds. FOV race 4 resistance was investigated using seven parents and their derived populations: three intraspecific (G. hirsutum × G. hirsutum L. and G. barbadense × G. barbadense L.) F1 and F2; five interspecific (G. hirsutum × G. barbadense) F1 and F2; and one RIL. Parents and populations were evaluated for disease severity index (DSI) of leaves, and vascular stem and root staining (VRS) in four greenhouse and two field experiments. Initially, a single resistance gene (Fov4) model was observed in F2 populations based on inheritance of phenotypes. This single Fov4 gene had a major dominant gene action and conferred resistance to FOV race 4 in Pima-S6. The Fov4 gene appears to be located near a genome region on chromosome 14 marked with a QTL Fov4-C14 1 , which made the biggest contribution to the FOV race 4 resistance of the generated F2 progeny. Additional genetic and QTL analyses also identified a set of 11 SSR markers that indicated the involvement of more than one gene and gene interactions across six linkage groups/chromosomes (3, 6, 8, 14, 17, and 25) in the inheritance of FOV race 4 resistance. QTLs detected with minor effects in these populations explained 5-19 % of the DSI or VRS variation. Identified SSR markers for the resistance QTLs with major and minor effects will facilitate for the first time marker-assisted selection for the introgression of FOV race 4 resistance into elite cultivars during the breeding process. PMID:23471458

  17. Deploying QTL-seq for rapid delineation of a potential candidate gene underlying major trait-associated QTL in chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D.; Bajaj, Deepak; Kujur, Alice; Badoni, Saurabh; Laxmi; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C. L. Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Parida, Swarup K.

    2015-01-01

    A rapid high-resolution genome-wide strategy for molecular mapping of major QTL(s)/gene(s) regulating important agronomic traits is vital for in-depth dissection of complex quantitative traits and genetic enhancement in chickpea. The present study for the first time employed a NGS-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy to identify one major genomic region harbouring a robust 100-seed weight QTL using an intra-specific 221 chickpea mapping population (desi cv. ICC 7184 × desi cv. ICC 15061). The QTL-seq-derived major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) was further validated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based traditional QTL mapping (47.6% R2 at higher LOD >19). This reflects the reliability and efficacy of QTL-seq as a strategy for rapid genome-wide scanning and fine mapping of major trait regulatory QTLs in chickpea. The use of QTL-seq and classical QTL mapping in combination narrowed down the 1.37 Mb (comprising 177 genes) major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) region into a 35 kb genomic interval on desi chickpea chromosome 1 containing six genes. One coding SNP (G/A)-carrying constitutive photomorphogenic9 (COP9) signalosome complex subunit 8 (CSN8) gene of these exhibited seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential up-/down-regulation in low and high seed weight mapping parents and homozygous individuals during seed development. The coding SNP mined in this potential seed weight-governing candidate CSN8 gene was found to be present exclusively in all cultivated species/genotypes, but not in any wild species/genotypes of primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. This indicates the effect of strong artificial and/or natural selection pressure on target SW locus during chickpea domestication. The proposed QTL-seq-driven integrated genome-wide strategy has potential to delineate major candidate gene(s) harbouring a robust trait regulatory QTL rapidly with optimal use of resources. This will further assist us to extrapolate the molecular mechanism underlying complex quantitative traits at a genome-wide scale leading to fast-paced marker-assisted genetic improvement in diverse crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:25922536

  18. Deploying QTL-seq for rapid delineation of a potential candidate gene underlying major trait-associated QTL in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Das, Shouvik; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Bajaj, Deepak; Kujur, Alice; Badoni, Saurabh; Laxmi; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L Laxmipathi; Sharma, Shivali; Singh, Sube; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-06-01

    A rapid high-resolution genome-wide strategy for molecular mapping of major QTL(s)/gene(s) regulating important agronomic traits is vital for in-depth dissection of complex quantitative traits and genetic enhancement in chickpea. The present study for the first time employed a NGS-based whole-genome QTL-seq strategy to identify one major genomic region harbouring a robust 100-seed weight QTL using an intra-specific 221 chickpea mapping population (desi cv. ICC 7184 × desi cv. ICC 15061). The QTL-seq-derived major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) was further validated by single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker-based traditional QTL mapping (47.6% R(2) at higher LOD >19). This reflects the reliability and efficacy of QTL-seq as a strategy for rapid genome-wide scanning and fine mapping of major trait regulatory QTLs in chickpea. The use of QTL-seq and classical QTL mapping in combination narrowed down the 1.37 Mb (comprising 177 genes) major SW QTL (CaqSW1.1) region into a 35 kb genomic interval on desi chickpea chromosome 1 containing six genes. One coding SNP (G/A)-carrying constitutive photomorphogenic9 (COP9) signalosome complex subunit 8 (CSN8) gene of these exhibited seed-specific expression, including pronounced differential up-/down-regulation in low and high seed weight mapping parents and homozygous individuals during seed development. The coding SNP mined in this potential seed weight-governing candidate CSN8 gene was found to be present exclusively in all cultivated species/genotypes, but not in any wild species/genotypes of primary, secondary and tertiary gene pools. This indicates the effect of strong artificial and/or natural selection pressure on target SW locus during chickpea domestication. The proposed QTL-seq-driven integrated genome-wide strategy has potential to delineate major candidate gene(s) harbouring a robust trait regulatory QTL rapidly with optimal use of resources. This will further assist us to extrapolate the molecular mechanism underlying complex quantitative traits at a genome-wide scale leading to fast-paced marker-assisted genetic improvement in diverse crop plants, including chickpea. PMID:25922536

  19. Rapid genotyping with DNA micro-arrays for high-density linkage mapping and QTL mapping in common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Yabe, Shiori; Hara, Takashi; Ueno, Mariko; Enoki, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Tatsuro; Nishimura, Satoru; Yasui, Yasuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Iwata, Hiroyoshi

    2014-01-01

    For genetic studies and genomics-assisted breeding, particularly of minor crops, a genotyping system that does not require a priori genomic information is preferable. Here, we demonstrated the potential of a novel array-based genotyping system for the rapid construction of high-density linkage map and quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. By using the system, we successfully constructed an accurate, high-density linkage map for common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench); the map was composed of 756 loci and included 8,884 markers. The number of linkage groups converged to eight, which is the basic number of chromosomes in common buckwheat. The sizes of the linkage groups of the P1 and P2 maps were 773.8 and 800.4 cM, respectively. The average interval between adjacent loci was 2.13 cM. The linkage map constructed here will be useful for the analysis of other common buckwheat populations. We also performed QTL mapping for main stem length and detected four QTL. It took 37 days to process 178 samples from DNA extraction to genotyping, indicating the system enables genotyping of genome-wide markers for a few hundred buckwheat plants before the plants mature. The novel system will be useful for genomics-assisted breeding in minor crops without a priori genomic information. PMID:25914583

  20. QTL mapping for genetic determinants of lipoprotein cholesterol levels in combined crosses of inbred mouse strains1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Henning Wittenburg; Malcolm A. Lyons; Renhua Li; Ulrike Kurtz; Xiaosong Wang; Joachim Mossner; Gary A. Churchill; Martin C. Carey; Beverly Paigen

    To identify additional loci that influence lipo- protein cholesterol levels, we performed quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in offspring of PERA\\/EiJ3I\\/LnJ and PERA\\/EiJ3DBA\\/2J intercrosses and in a combined data set from both crosses after 8 weeks of consumption of a high fat-diet. Most QTLs identified were concordant with homol- ogous chromosomal regions that were associated with lipo- protein levels in

  1. High-resolution genetic mapping of the ACE-linked QTL influencing circulating ACE activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Florent Soubrier; Sabrina Martin; Amalia Alonso; Sophie Visvikis; Laurence Tiret; Fumihiko Matsuda; G Mark Lathrop; Martin Farrall

    2002-01-01

    Fine-mapping of trait loci through combined linkage and association analysis is an important component of strategies designed to identify causative gene variants, particularly in situations where the trait may be influenced by one or more of many polymorphisms within the same gene. Angiotensin-1 converting enzyme (ACE) provides one of the best models for developing and testing such methodologies, as a

  2. Radiation hybrid QTL mapping of Tdes2 involved in the first meiotic division of wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since the dawn of wheat cytogenetics, chromosome 3B has been known to harbor a gene(s) that, when removed, caused chromosome desynapsis and gametic sterility. The lack of natural genetic diversity for this gene(s) has prevented any attempts to fine map and further characterize it. Here, gamma radiat...

  3. Construction and application for QTL analysis of a Restriction Site Associated DNA (RAD) linkage map in barley

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Linkage maps are an integral resource for dissection of complex genetic traits in plant and animal species. Canonical map construction follows a well-established workflow: an initial discovery phase where genetic markers are mined from a small pool of individuals, followed by genotyping of selected mapping populations using sets of marker panels. A newly developed sequence-based marker technology, Restriction site Associated DNA (RAD), enables synchronous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker discovery and genotyping using massively parallel sequencing. The objective of this research was to assess the utility of RAD markers for linkage map construction, employing barley as a model system. Using the published high density EST-based SNP map in the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population as a reference, we created a RAD map using a limited set of prior markers to establish linakge group identity, integrated the RAD and prior data, and used both maps for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Results Using the RAD protocol in tandem with the Illumina sequence by synthesis platform, a total of 530 SNP markers were identified from initial scans of the OWB parental inbred lines - the "dominant" and "recessive" marker stocks - and scored in a 93 member doubled haploid (DH) mapping population. RAD sequence data from the structured population was converted into allele genotypes from which a genetic map was constructed. The assembled RAD-only map consists of 445 markers with an average interval length of 5 cM, while an integrated map includes 463 RAD loci and 2383 prior markers. Sequenced RAD markers are distributed across all seven chromosomes, with polymorphic loci emanating from both coding and noncoding regions in the Hordeum genome. Total map lengths are comparable and the order of common markers is identical in both maps. The same large-effect QTL for reproductive fitness traits were detected with both maps and the majority of these QTL were coincident with a dwarfing gene (ZEO) and the VRS1 gene, which determines the two-row and six-row germplasm groups of barley. Conclusions We demonstrate how sequenced RAD markers can be leveraged to produce high quality linkage maps for detection of single gene loci and QTLs. By combining SNP discovery and genotyping into parallel sequencing events, RAD markers should be a useful molecular breeding tool for a range of crop species. Expected improvements in cost and throughput of second and third-generation sequencing technologies will enable more powerful applications of the sequenced RAD marker system, including improvements in de novo genome assembly, development of ultra-high density genetic maps and association mapping. PMID:21205322

  4. QTL mapping of agronomic waterlogging tolerance using recombinant inbred lines derived from tropical maize (Zea mays L) germplasm.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  5. QTL Mapping of Agronomic Waterlogging Tolerance Using Recombinant Inbred Lines Derived from Tropical Maize (Zea mays L) Germplasm

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Pervez Haider; Rashid, Zerka; Vinayan, Madhumal Thayil; Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Phagna, Ramesh Kumar; Babu, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Waterlogging is an important abiotic stress constraint that causes significant yield losses in maize grown throughout south and south-east Asia due to erratic rainfall patterns. The most economic option to offset the damage caused by waterlogging is to genetically incorporate tolerance in cultivars that are grown widely in the target agro-ecologies. We assessed the genetic variation in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from crossing a waterlogging tolerant line (CAWL-46-3-1) to an elite but sensitive line (CML311-2-1-3) and observed significant range of variation for grain yield (GY) under waterlogging stress along with a number of other secondary traits such as brace roots (BR), chlorophyll content (SPAD), % stem and root lodging (S&RL) among the RILs. Significant positive correlation of GY with BR and SPAD and negative correlation with S&RL indicated the potential use of these secondary traits in selection indices under waterlogged conditions. RILs were genotyped with 331 polymorphic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using KASP (Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR) Platform. QTL mapping revealed five QTL on chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10, which together explained approximately 30% of phenotypic variance for GY based on evaluation of RIL families under waterlogged conditions, with effects ranging from 520 to 640 kg/ha for individual genomic regions. 13 QTL were identified for various secondary traits associated with waterlogging tolerance, each individually explaining from 3 to 14% of phenotypic variance. Of the 22 candidate genes with known functional domains identified within the physical intervals delimited by the flanking markers of the QTL influencing GY and other secondary traits, six have previously been demonstrated to be associated with anaerobic responses in either maize or other model species. A pair of flanking SNP markers has been identified for each of the QTL and high throughput marker assays were developed to facilitate rapid introgression of waterlogging tolerance in tropical maize breeding programs. PMID:25884393

  6. ISOLATION AND RADIATION HYBRID MAPPING OF 213 PORCINE MICROSATELLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable effort is now being put into mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in swine. When a QTL region has been identified the next step is to fine map the region and narrow the chromosomal location harboring the QTL. One of the limiting factors to this approach has been lack of informative genetic m...

  7. Identification and mapping of stable QTL with main and epistasis effect on rice grain yield under upland drought stress

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Drought is one of the most important abiotic stresses that cause drastic reduction in rice grain yield (GY) in rainfed environments. The identification and introgression of QTL leading to high GY under drought have been advocated to be the preferred breeding strategy to improve drought tolerance of popular rice varieties. Genetic control of GY under reproductive-stage drought stress (RS) was studied in two BC1F4 mapping populations derived from crosses of Kali Aus, a drought-tolerant aus cultivar, with high-yielding popular varieties MTU1010 and IR64. The aim was to identify QTL for GY under RS that show a large and consistent effect for the trait. Bulk segregant analysis (BSA) was used to identify significant markers putatively linked with high GY under drought. Results QTL analysis revealed major-effect GY QTL: qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.3 (DTY; Drought grain yield) under drought consistently over two seasons in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010 and Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. qDTY 1.2 and qDTY 2.2 explained an additive effect of 288 kg ha?1 and 567 kg ha?1 in Kali Aus/2*MTU1010, whereas qDTY 1.3 and qDTY 2.3 explained an additive effect of 198 kg ha?1 and 147 kg ha?1 in Kali Aus/2*IR64 populations, respectively. Epistatic interaction was observed for DTF (days to flowering) between regions on chromosome 2 flanked by markers RM154–RM324 and RM263–RM573 and major epistatic QTL for GY showing interaction between genomic locations on chromosome 1 at marker interval RM488–RM315 and chromosome 2 at RM324–RM263 in 2012 DS and 2013 DS RS in Kali Aus/2*IR64 mapping populations. Conclusion The QTL, qDTY 1.2 , qDTY 1.3 , qDTY 2.2 , and qDTY 2.3, identified in this study can be used to improve GY of mega varieties MTU1010 and IR64 under different degrees of severity of drought stress through marker-aided backcrossing and provide farmers with improved varieties that effectively combine high yield potential with good yield under drought. The observed epistatic interaction for GY and DTF will contribute to our understanding of the genetic basis of agronomically important traits and enhance predictive ability at an individualized level in agriculture. PMID:24885990

  8. Genetic architecture of sensory exploitation: QTL mapping of female and male receiver traits in an acoustic moth

    E-print Network

    Chittka, Lars

    : acoustic communication; predatory­prey interactions; receiver bias; sensory ecology; sexual selection a cartographic study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing these receiver traits. We found several QTL

  9. QTL mapping technology using variance components in general pedigrees applied to the poultry industry 

    E-print Network

    Suzanne J, Rowe

    2008-01-01

    The subject area for this thesis is detection of chromosomal regions or QTL causing complex variation at the phenotypic level. In particular, the differentiation of sources of additive and non additive variation. Unlike ...

  10. Use of Genome Sequence Information for Meat Quality Trait QTL Mining for Causal Genes and Mutations on Pig Chromosome 17

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhi-Liang; Ramos, Antonio M.; Humphray, Sean J.; Rogers, Jane; Reecy, James M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2011-01-01

    The newly available pig genome sequence has provided new information to fine map quantitative trait loci (QTL) in order to eventually identify causal variants. With targeted genomic sequencing efforts, we were able to obtain high quality BAC sequences that cover a region on pig chromosome 17 where a number of meat quality QTL have been previously discovered. Sequences from 70 BAC clones were assembled to form an 8-Mbp contig. Subsequently, we successfully mapped five previously identified QTL, three for meat color and two for lactate related traits, to the contig. With an additional 25 genetic markers that were identified by sequence comparison, we were able to carry out further linkage disequilibrium analysis to narrow down the genomic locations of these QTL, which allowed identification of the chromosomal regions that likely contain the causative variants. This research has provided one practical approach to combine genetic and molecular information for QTL mining. PMID:22303339

  11. QTL analyses and comparative genetic mapping of frost tolerance, winter survival and drought tolerance in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.).

    PubMed

    Alm, Vibeke; Busso, Carlos S; Ergon, Ashild; Rudi, Heidi; Larsen, Arild; Humphreys, Michael W; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2011-08-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for frost and drought tolerance, and winter survival in the field, were mapped in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) and compared with corresponding traits in Triticeae and rice to study co-location with putatively orthologous QTLs and known abiotic stress tolerance genes. The genomes of grass species are highly macrosyntenic; however, the Festuca/Lolium and Triticeae homoeologous chromosomes 4 and 5 show major structural differences that is especially interesting in comparative genomics of frost tolerance. The locations of two frost tolerance/winter survival QTLs on Festuca chromosome 5F correspond most likely to the Fr-A1 and Fr-A2 loci on wheat homoeologous group 5A chromosomes. A QTL for long-term drought tolerance on chromosome 3F (syntenic with rice 1) support evidence from introgression of Festuca genome segments onto homoeologous Lolium chromosomes (3L) that this genome region is an excellent source of tolerance towards drought stress. The coincident location of several stress tolerance QTL in Festuca with QTL and genes in Triticeae species, notably dehydrins, CBF transcription factors and vernalisation response genes indicate the action of structural or regulatory genes conserved across evolutionarily distant species. PMID:21505831

  12. Accounting for non-genetic factors by low-rank representation and sparse regression for eQTL mapping

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Can; Wang, Lin; Zhang, Shuqin; Zhao, Hongyu

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies investigate how gene expression levels are affected by DNA variants. A major challenge in inferring eQTL is that a number of factors, such as unobserved covariates, experimental artifacts and unknown environmental perturbations, may confound the observed expression levels. This may both mask real associations and lead to spurious association findings. Results: In this article, we introduce a LOw-Rank representation to account for confounding factors and make use of Sparse regression for eQTL mapping (LORS). We integrate the low-rank representation and sparse regression into a unified framework, in which single-nucleotide polymorphisms and gene probes can be jointly analyzed. Given the two model parameters, our formulation is a convex optimization problem. We have developed an efficient algorithm to solve this problem and its convergence is guaranteed. We demonstrate its ability to account for non-genetic effects using simulation, and then apply it to two independent real datasets. Our results indicate that LORS is an effective tool to account for non-genetic effects. First, our detected associations show higher consistency between studies than recently proposed methods. Second, we have identified some new hotspots that can not be identified without accounting for non-genetic effects. Availability: The software is available at: http://bioinformatics.med.yale.edu/software.aspx. Contact: hongyu.zhao@yale.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23419377

  13. Genetic Architecture of Aluminum Tolerance in Rice (Oryza sativa) Determined through Genome-Wide Association Analysis and QTL Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Famoso, Adam N.; Zhao, Keyan; Clark, Randy T.; Tung, Chih-Wei; Wright, Mark H.; Bustamante, Carlos; Kochian, Leon V.; McCouch, Susan R.

    2011-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a primary limitation to crop productivity on acid soils, and rice has been demonstrated to be significantly more Al tolerant than other cereal crops. However, the mechanisms of rice Al tolerance are largely unknown, and no genes underlying natural variation have been reported. We screened 383 diverse rice accessions, conducted a genome-wide association (GWA) study, and conducted QTL mapping in two bi-parental populations using three estimates of Al tolerance based on root growth. Subpopulation structure explained 57% of the phenotypic variation, and the mean Al tolerance in Japonica was twice that of Indica. Forty-eight regions associated with Al tolerance were identified by GWA analysis, most of which were subpopulation-specific. Four of these regions co-localized with a priori candidate genes, and two highly significant regions co-localized with previously identified QTLs. Three regions corresponding to induced Al-sensitive rice mutants (ART1, STAR2, Nrat1) were identified through bi-parental QTL mapping or GWA to be involved in natural variation for Al tolerance. Haplotype analysis around the Nrat1 gene identified susceptible and tolerant haplotypes explaining 40% of the Al tolerance variation within the aus subpopulation, and sequence analysis of Nrat1 identified a trio of non-synonymous mutations predictive of Al sensitivity in our diversity panel. GWA analysis discovered more phenotype–genotype associations and provided higher resolution, but QTL mapping identified critical rare and/or subpopulation-specific alleles not detected by GWA analysis. Mapping using Indica/Japonica populations identified QTLs associated with transgressive variation where alleles from a susceptible aus or indica parent enhanced Al tolerance in a tolerant Japonica background. This work supports the hypothesis that selectively introgressing alleles across subpopulations is an efficient approach for trait enhancement in plant breeding programs and demonstrates the fundamental importance of subpopulation in interpreting and manipulating the genetics of complex traits in rice. PMID:21829395

  14. Mapping and Introgression of QTL Involved in Fruit Shape Transgressive Segregation into ‘Piel de Sapo’ Melon (Cucucumis melo L.)

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Aurora; Zarouri, Belkacem; Fergany, Mohamed; Eduardo, Iban; Álvarez, José M.; Picó, Belén; Monforte, Antonio J.

    2014-01-01

    A mapping F2 population from the cross ‘Piel de Sapo’ × PI124112 was selectively genotyped to study the genetic control of morphological fruit traits by QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) analysis. Ten QTL were identified, five for FL (Fruit Length), two for FD (Fruit Diameter) and three for FS (Fruit Shape). At least one robust QTL per character was found, flqs8.1 (LOD?=?16.85, R2?=?34%), fdqs12.1 (LOD?=?3.47, R2?=?11%) and fsqs8.1 (LOD?=?14.85, R2?=?41%). flqs2.1 and fsqs2.1 cosegregate with gene a (andromonoecious), responsible for flower sex determination and with pleiotropic effects on FS. They display a positive additive effect (a) value, so the PI124112 allele causes an increase in FL and FS, producing more elongated fruits. Conversely, the negative a value for flqs8.1 and fsqs8.1 indicates a decrease in FL and FS, what results in rounder fruits, even if PI124112 produces very elongated melons. This is explained by a significant epistatic interaction between fsqs2.1 and fsqs8.1, where the effects of the alleles at locus a are attenuated by the additive PI124112 allele at fsqs8.1. Roundest fruits are produced by homozygous for PI124112 at fsqs8.1 that do not carry any dominant A allele at locus a (PiPiaa). A significant interaction between fsqs8.1 and fsqs12.1 was also detected, with the alleles at fsqs12.1 producing more elongated fruits. fsqs8.1 seems to be allelic to QTL discovered in other populations where the exotic alleles produce elongated fruits. This model has been validated in assays with backcross lines along 3 years and ultimately obtaining a fsqs8.1-NIL (Near Isogenic Line) in ‘Piel de Sapo’ background which yields round melons. PMID:25126852

  15. QTL mapping in multiple populations and development stages reveals dynamic quantitative trait loci for fruit size in cucumbers of different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit size is an important quality trait in cucumber of different market classes. The genetic and molecular basis of fruit size variations in cucumber is not well understood. In this study, we conducted QTL mapping of fruit size in cucumber using three mapping populations developed from cross betwee...

  16. QTL mapping of vernalization response in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) reveals co-location with an orthologue of wheat VRN1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise Bach Jensen; Jeppe Reitan Andersen; Ursula Frei; Yongzhong Xing; Chris Taylor; Preben Bach Holm; Thomas Lübberstedt

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the vernalization response in perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.). The mapping population consisted of 184 F 2 genotypes produced from a cross between one genotype of a synthetic perennial ryegrass variety “Veyo” and one genotype from the perennial ryegrass ecotype “Falster”. Veyo and Falster were chosen

  17. A comparative linkage map of oilseed rape and its use for QTL analysis of seed oil and erucic acid content.

    PubMed

    Qiu, D; Morgan, C; Shi, J; Long, Y; Liu, J; Li, R; Zhuang, X; Wang, Y; Tan, X; Dietrich, E; Weihmann, T; Everett, C; Vanstraelen, S; Beckett, P; Fraser, F; Trick, M; Barnes, S; Wilmer, J; Schmidt, R; Li, J; Li, D; Meng, J; Bancroft, I

    2006-12-01

    We have developed a new DH mapping population for oilseed rape, named TNDH, using genetically and phenotypically diverse parental lines. We used the population in the construction of a high stringency genetic linkage map, consisting of 277 loci, for use in quantitative genetic analysis. A proportion of the markers had been used previously in the construction of linkage maps for Brassica species, thus permitting the alignment of maps. The map includes 68 newly developed Sequence Tagged Site (STS) markers targeted to the homologues of defined genes of A. thaliana. The use of these markers permits the alignment of our linkage map with the A. thaliana genome sequence. An additional 74 loci (31 newly developed STS markers and 43 loci defined by SSR and RFLP markers that had previously been used in published linkage maps) were added to the map. These markers increased the resolution of alignment of the newly constructed linkage map with existing Brassica linkage maps and the A. thaliana genome sequence. We conducted field trials with the TNDH population at two sites, and over 2 years, and identified reproducible QTL for seed oil content and erucic acid content. The results provide new insights into the genetic control of seed oil and erucic acid content in oilseed rape, and demonstrate the utility of the linkage map and population. PMID:17033785

  18. Comparative and physical mapping of 112 previously reported and 105 new porcine microsatellites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Considerable effort is now being put into mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in swine. When a QTL region has been identified the next step is to fine map the region and narrow the chromosomal location harboring the QTL. A lot of information can be obtained from the genomes of well studied species such ...

  19. The peach volatilome modularity is reflected at the genetic and environmental response levels in a QTL mapping population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The improvement of fruit aroma is currently one of the most sought-after objectives in peach breeding programs. To better characterize and assess the genetic potential for increasing aroma quality by breeding, a quantity trait locus (QTL) analysis approach was carried out in an F1 population segregating largely for fruit traits. Results Linkage maps were constructed using the IPSC peach 9 K Infinium ® II array, rendering dense genetic maps, except in the case of certain chromosomes, probably due to identity-by-descent of those chromosomes in the parental genotypes. The variability in compounds associated with aroma was analyzed by a metabolomic approach based on GC-MS to profile 81 volatiles across the population from two locations. Quality-related traits were also studied to assess possible pleiotropic effects. Correlation-based analysis of the volatile dataset revealed that the peach volatilome is organized into modules formed by compounds from the same biosynthetic origin or which share similar chemical structures. QTL mapping showed clustering of volatile QTL included in the same volatile modules, indicating that some are subjected to joint genetic control. The monoterpene module is controlled by a unique locus at the top of LG4, a locus previously shown to affect the levels of two terpenoid compounds. At the bottom of LG4, a locus controlling several volatiles but also melting/non-melting and maturity-related traits was found, suggesting putative pleiotropic effects. In addition, two novel loci controlling lactones and esters in linkage groups 5 and 6 were discovered. Conclusions The results presented here give light on the mode of inheritance of the peach volatilome confirming previously loci controlling the aroma of peach but also identifying novel ones. PMID:24885290

  20. Expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) Mapping in Puerto Rican Children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Brehm, John M.; Lin, Jerome; Wang, Ting; Forno, Erick; Acosta-Pérez, Edna; Boutaoui, Nadia; Canino, Glorisa; Celedón, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) have been identified using tissue or cell samples from diverse human populations, thus enhancing our understanding of regulation of gene expression. However, few studies have attempted to identify eQTL in racially admixed populations such as Hispanics. Methods We performed a systematic eQTL study to identify regulatory variants of gene expression in whole blood from 121 Puerto Rican children with (n = 63) and without (n = 58) asthma. Genome-wide genotyping was conducted using the Illumina Omni2.5M Bead Chip, and gene expression was assessed using the Illumina HT-12 microarray. After completing quality control, we performed a pair-wise genome analysis of ~15 K transcripts and ~1.3 M SNPs for both local and distal effects. This analysis was conducted under a regression framework adjusting for age, gender and principal components derived from both genotypic and mRNA data. We used a false discovery rate (FDR) approach to identify significant eQTL signals, which were next compared to top eQTL signals from existing eQTL databases. We then performed a pathway analysis for our top genes. Results We identified 36,720 local pairs in 3,391 unique genes and 1,851 distal pairs in 446 unique genes at FDR <0.05, corresponding to unadjusted P values lower than 1.5x10-4 and 4.5x10-9, respectively. A significant proportion of genes identified in our study overlapped with those identified in previous studies. We also found an enrichment of disease-related genes in our eQTL list. Conclusions We present results from the first eQTL study in Puerto Rican children, who are members of a unique Hispanic cohort disproportionately affected with asthma, prematurity, obesity and other common diseases. Our study confirmed eQTL signals identified in other ethnic groups, while also detecting additional eQTLs unique to our study population. The identified eQTLs will help prioritize findings from future genome-wide association studies in Puerto Ricans. PMID:25816334

  1. Molecular Mapping and Validation of a Major QTL Conferring Resistance to a Defoliating Isolate of Verticillium Wilt in Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ze; Guo, Xian; Guo, Yuping; Zhang, Suqing; Zhao, Junsheng; Zhang, Guihua; Song, Xianliang; Sun, Xuezhen

    2014-01-01

    Verticillium wilt (VW) caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton. Development and use of a VW resistant variety is the most practical and effective way to manage this disease. Identification of highly resistant genes/QTL and the underlining genetic architecture is a prerequisite for developing a VW resistant variety. A major QTL qVW-c6-1 conferring resistance to the defoliating isolate V991 was identified on chromosome 6 in LHB22×JM11 F2?3 population inoculated and grown in a greenhouse. This QTL was further validated in the LHB22×NNG F2?3 population that was evaluated in an artificial disease nursery of V991 for two years and in its subsequent F4 population grown in a field severely infested by V991. The allele conferring resistance within the QTL qVW-c6-1 region originated from parent LHB22 and could explain 23.1–27.1% of phenotypic variation. Another resistance QTL qVW-c21-1 originated from the susceptible parent JM11 was mapped on chromosome 21, explaining 14.44% of phenotypic variation. The resistance QTL reported herein provides a useful tool for breeding a cotton variety with enhanced resistance to VW. PMID:24781706

  2. Mapping QTL affecting resistance to Marek's disease in an F6 advanced intercross population of commercial layer chickens

    PubMed Central

    Heifetz, Eliyahu M; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Arthur, James A; Cheng, Hans; Wang, Jing; Soller, Morris; Dekkers, Jack CM

    2009-01-01

    Background Marek's disease (MD) is a T-cell lymphoma of chickens caused by the Marek's disease virus (MDV), an oncogenic avian herpesvirus. MD is a major cause of economic loss to the poultry industry and the most serious and persistent infectious disease concern. A full-sib intercross population, consisting of five independent families was generated by crossing and repeated intercrossing of two partially inbred commercial White Leghorn layer lines known to differ in genetic resistance to MD. At the F6 generation, a total of 1615 chicks were produced (98 to 248 per family) and phenotyped for MD resistance measured as survival time in days after challenge with a very virulent plus (vv+) strain of MDV. Results QTL affecting MD resistance were identified by selective DNA pooling using a panel of 15 SNPs and 217 microsatellite markers. Since MHC blood type (BT) is known to affect MD resistance, a total of 18 independent pool pairs were constructed according to family × BT combination, with some combinations represented twice for technical reasons. Twenty-one QTL regions (QTLR) affecting post-challenge survival time were identified, distributed among 11 chromosomes (GGA1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 15, 18, 26 and Z), with about two-thirds of the MD resistance alleles derived from the more MD resistant parental line. Eight of the QTLR associated with MD resistance, were previously identified in a backcross (BC) mapping study with the same parental lines. Of these, 7 originated from the more resistant line, and one from the less resistant line. Conclusion There was considerable evidence suggesting that MD resistance alleles tend to be recessive. The width of the QTLR for these QTL appeared to be reduced about two-fold in the F6 as compared to that found in the previous BC study. These results provide a firm basis for high-resolution linkage disequilibrium mapping and positional cloning of the resistance genes. PMID:19144166

  3. QTL mapping and introgression of yield-related traits from Oryza glumaepatula to cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa) using microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Brondani, C.; Rangel, N.; Brondani, V.; Ferreira, E.

    2002-05-01

    Rice ( Oryza sativa) cultivar development currently faces the task of overcoming yield plateaus, which is difficult due to the narrow genetic base of breeding programs. Oryza glumaepatula is a diploid wild relative of cultivated rice, native to Central and South America, and is therefore a potential source of alleles of agronomic importance to rice breeding programs. We studied 11 agronomic traits in BC(2)F(2) families of the interspecific cross Oryza sativa x O. glumaepatula. Transgressive lines which are almost isogenic to the elite recurrent O. sativa parent were identified for most of these traits. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis was performed by single-point and interval mapping using a molecular map based on 157 microsatellite and STS markers. Marker regions accounting for 14.5 to 72.9% of a phenotypic variation trait were identified in 9 of the 12 rice chromosomes. Positive QTL effects from O. glumaepatula were observed in chromosomal regions associated with tillering and panicle-number traits. PMID:12582630

  4. An Empirical Method for Establishing Positional Confidence Intervals Tailored for Composite Interval Mapping of QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved genetic resolution and availability of sequenced genomes have made positional cloning of moderate-effect QTL (quantitative trait loci) realistic in several systems, emphasizing the need for precise and accurate derivation of positional confidence intervals (CIs). Support interval (SI) meth...

  5. Mapping QTL of Root Morphological Traits at Different Growth Stages in Rice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Roots are a vital organ for absorbing soil moisture and nutrients and influencing drought resistance. The identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) with molecular markers may allow the estimation of parameters of genetic architecture and improve root traits by molecular marker-assisted selecti...

  6. QTL Mapping for Fusarium Ear Rot and Fumonisin Contamination Resistance in Two Maize Populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leilani A. Robertson-Hoyt; Michael P. Jines; Peter J. Balint-Kurti; Craig E. Kleinschmidt; Don G. White; Gary A. Payne; Chris M. Maragos; Terence L. Molnár; James B. Holland

    2006-01-01

    Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg (synonym F. monili- forme Sheldon) (teleomorph: Gibberella moniliformis) and F. prolif- eratum (Matsushima) Nirenberg (teleomorph: G. intermedia) are fungal pathogens of maize (Zea mays L.) that cause ear rot and con- taminate grain with fumonisins, mycotoxins that can harm animals and humans. The objective of this study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance

  7. QTL mapping and epistatic interaction analysis in asparagus bean for several characterized and novel horticulturally important traits

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asparagus bean (Vigna. unguiculata. ssp sesquipedalis) is a subspecies and special vegetable type of cowpea (Vigna. unguiculata L. Walp.) important in Asia. Genetic basis of horticulturally important traits of asparagus bean is still poorly understood, hindering the utilization of targeted, DNA marker-assisted breeding in this crop. Here we report the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and epistatic interactions for four horticultural traits, namely, days to first flowering (FLD), nodes to first flower (NFF), leaf senescence (LS) and pod number per plant (PN) using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of asparagus bean. Results A similar genetic mode of one major QTL plus a few minor QTLs was found to dominate each of the four traits, with the number of QTLs for individual traits ranging from three to four. These QTLs were distributed on 7 of the 11 chromosomes. Major QTLs for FLD, NFF and LS were co-localized on LG 11, indicative of tight linkage. Genome wide epistasis analysis detected two and one interactive locus pairs that significantly affect FLD and LS, respectively, and the epistatic QTLs for FLD appeared to work in different ways. Synteny based comparison of QTL locations revealed conservation of chromosome regions controlling these traits in related legume crops. Conclusion Major, minor, and epistatic QTLs were found to contribute to the inheritance of the FLD, NFF, LS, and PN. Positions of many of these QTLs are conserved among closely related legume species, indicating common mechanisms they share. To our best knowledge, this is the first QTL mapping report using an asparagus bean × asparagus bean intervarietal population and provides marker-trait associations for marker-assisted approaches to selection. PMID:23375055

  8. Linkage Relationships Among Multiple QTL for Horticultural Traits and Late Blight (P. infestans) Resistance on Chromosome 5 Introgressed from Wild Tomato Solanum habrochaites

    PubMed Central

    Haggard, J. Erron; Johnson, Emily B.; St. Clair, Dina A.

    2013-01-01

    When the allele of a wild species at a quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring a desirable trait is introduced into cultivated species, undesirable effects on other traits may occur. These negative phenotypic effects may result from the presence of wild alleles at other closely linked loci that are transferred along with the desired QTL allele (i.e., linkage drag) and/or from pleiotropic effects of the desired allele. Previously, a QTL for resistance to Phytophthora infestans on chromosome 5 of Solanum habrochaites was mapped and introgressed into cultivated tomato (S. lycopersicum). Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were generated and used for fine-mapping of this resistance QTL, which revealed coincident or linked QTL with undesirable effects on yield, maturity, fruit size, and plant architecture traits. Subsequent higher-resolution mapping with chromosome 5 sub-NILs revealed the presence of multiple P. infestans resistance QTL within this 12.3 cM region. In our present study, these sub-NILs were also evaluated for 17 horticultural traits, including yield, maturity, fruit size and shape, fruit quality, and plant architecture traits in replicated field experiments over the course of two years. Each previously detected single horticultural trait QTL fractionated into two or more QTL. A total of 41 QTL were detected across all traits, with ?30% exhibiting significant QTL × environment interactions. Colocation of QTL for multiple traits suggests either pleiotropy or tightly linked genes control these traits. The complex genetic architecture of horticultural and P. infestans resistance trait QTL within this S. habrochaites region of chromosome 5 presents challenges and opportunities for breeding efforts in cultivated tomato. PMID:24122052

  9. Congenic mapping of a blood pressure QTL region on rat chromosome 10 using the Dahl salt-sensitive rat with introgressed

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Congenic mapping of a blood pressure QTL region on rat chromosome 10 using the Dahl salt-sensitive rat with introgressed alleles from the Milan normotensive strain Yasser Saad Æ Edward J. Toland Æ pressure (BP) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) are reported on rat chromosome 10 (RNO10). Of these, QTLs

  10. High Resolution QTL Map Of Body Conformation Traits From Genome-Wide Association Analysis In Contemporary U.S. Holstein Cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL map of 1,005 SNP markers affecting 18 body conformation traits (top 100 effects per trait) was constructed based on a genome-wide association analysis of 1,654 contemporary U.S. Holstein cows genotyped with the BovineSNP50 (45,878 SNPs). The top 100 effects for each trait explained 38-56% of t...

  11. Short-term selective breeding for High and Low prepulse inhibition of the acoustic startle response; pharmacological characterization and QTL mapping in the selected lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Hitzemann; Barry Malmanger; John Belknap; Priscila Darakjian; Shannon McWeeney

    2008-01-01

    Selective breeding offers several important advantages over using inbred strain panels in detecting genetically correlated traits to the selection phenotype. The purpose of the current study was to selectively breed for prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response (ASR), to pharmacologically and behaviorally characterize the selected lines and to use the lines for quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. Starting

  12. MAPPING WHEN PHENOTYPE MEASUREMENTS ARE NOT WELL BEHAVED: COMPARISON OF RECUSIVE PARITIONING WITH COMPOSITE INTERVAL QTL MAPPING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Standard methods for QTL analysis use a summary measure such as the mean of the trait measurement from each line. The phentoype measurements are assumed to be normally distributed. In practice, a good fit to a normal distribution is rare, and transformations are often attempted to correct the dist...

  13. Fine mapping of the major Soybean dwarf virus resistance gene Rsdv1 of the soybean cultivar 'Wilis'.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yoko; Takeuchi, Toru; Ohnishi, Shizen; Sasaki, Jun; Tazawa, Akiko

    2013-12-01

    Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), a Luteoviridae family member, causes dwarfing, yellowing and sterility of soybean (Glycine max), leading to one of the most serious problems in soybean production in northern Japan. Previous studies revealed that the Indonesian soybean cultivar 'Wilis' is resistant to SbDV and that the resistance can be introduced into Japanese cultivars. A major QTL for SbDV resistance has been reported between SSR markers Sat_217 and Satt211 on chromosome 5. In this study, we named this QTL Rsdv1 (resistance to SbDV) and developed near-isogenic lines incorporating Rsdv1 (Rsdv1-NILs) using Sat_217 and Satt211 markers. The Rsdv1-NILs were resistant to SbDV in greenhouse inoculation and field tests, indicating that Rsdv1 alone is sufficient for the resistance phenotype. We fine-mapped Rsdv1 within the 44-kb region between Sat_11 and Sct_13. None of the six genes predicted in this region was closely related to known virus resistance genes in plants. Thus, Rsdv1 may confer resistance by a previously unknown mechanism. We suggest that Rsdv1 may be a useful source for the Japanese soybean breeding program to introduce SbDV resistance. PMID:24399914

  14. QTL affecting stress response to crowding in a rainbow trout broodstock population

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Genomic analyses have the potential to impact selective breeding programs by identifying markers that serve as proxies for traits which are expensive or difficult to measure. Also, identifying genes affecting traits of interest enhances our understanding of their underlying biochemical pathways. To this end we conducted genome scans of seven rainbow trout families from a single broodstock population to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) having an effect on stress response to crowding as measured by plasma cortisol concentration. Our goal was to estimate the number of major genes having large effects on this trait in our broodstock population through the identification of QTL. Results A genome scan including 380 microsatellite markers representing 29 chromosomes resulted in the de novo construction of genetic maps which were in good agreement with the NCCCWA genetic map. Unique sets of QTL were detected for two traits which were defined after observing a low correlation between repeated measurements of plasma cortisol concentration in response to stress. A highly significant QTL was detected in three independent analyses on Omy16, many additional suggestive and significant QTL were also identified. With linkage-based methods of QTL analysis such as half-sib regression interval mapping and a variance component method, we determined that the significant and suggestive QTL explain about 40-43% and 13-27% of the phenotypic trait variation, respectively. Conclusions The cortisol response to crowding stress is a complex trait controlled in a sub-sample of our broodstock population by multiple QTL on at least 8 chromosomes. These QTL are largely different from others previously identified for a similar trait, documenting that population specific genetic variants independently affect cortisol response in ways that may result in different impacts on growth. Also, mapping QTL for multiple traits associated with stress response detected trait specific QTL which indicate the significance of the first plasma cortisol measurement in defining the trait. Fine mapping these QTL can lead towards the identification of genes affecting stress response and may influence approaches to selection for this economically important stress response trait. PMID:23134666

  15. Development of genetic markers linked to straighthead resistance through fine mapping in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Straighthead, characterized by sterile florets and distorted spikelets, results in significant yield losses in rice and occurs in many countries. The current prevention method of draining paddies early in the season stresses plants, is costly and wastes water. We mapped QTL for straighthead resistan...

  16. Leaf Rubisco turnover in a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mapping population: genetic variation, identification of associated QTL, and correlation with plant morphology and yield.

    PubMed

    Khaembah, Edith N; Irving, Louis J; Thom, Errol R; Faville, Marty J; Easton, H Sydney; Matthew, Cory

    2013-03-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that: (i) genetic variation in Rubisco turnover may exist in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.); (ii) such variation might affect nitrogen use efficiency and plant yield; and (iii) genetic control of Rubisco turnover might be amenable to identification by quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping. A set of 135 full-sib F1 perennial ryegrass plants derived from a pair cross between genotypes from the cultivars 'Grasslands Impact' and 'Grasslands Samson' was studied to test these hypotheses. Leaf Rubisco concentration at different leaf ages was measured and modelled as a log-normal curve described by three mathematical parameters: D (peak Rubisco concentration), G (time of D), and F (curve standard deviation). Herbage dry matter (DM) yield and morphological traits (tiller weight (TW), tiller number (TN), leaf lamina length (LL), and an index of competitive ability (PI)) were also measured. The progeny exhibited continuous variation for all traits. Simple correlation and principal component analyses indicated that plant productivity was associated with peak Rubisco concentration and not Rubisco turnover. Lower DM was associated with higher leaf Rubisco concentration indicating that Rubisco turnover effects on plant productivity may relate to energy cost of Rubisco synthesis rather than photosynthetic capacity. QTL detection by a multiple QTL model identified seven significant QTL for Rubisco turnover and nine QTL for DM and morphological traits. An indication of the genetic interdependence of DM and the measures of Rubisco turnover was the support interval overlap involving QTL for D and QTL for TN on linkage group 5 in a cluster involving QTL for DM and PI. In this region, alleles associated with increased TN, DM, and PI were associated with decreased D, indicating that this region may regulate Rubisco concentration and plant productivity via increased tillering. A second cluster involving QTL for LL, TN, PI and DM was found on linkage group 2. The two clusters represent marker-trait associations that might be useful for marker-assisted plant breeding applications. In silico comparative analysis indicated conservation of the genetic loci controlling Rubisco concentration in perennial ryegrass and rice. PMID:23505311

  17. Whole genome QTL mapping for growth, meat quality and breast meat yield traits in turkey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) is an important agricultural species and is the second largest contributor to the world's poultry meat production. Demand of turkey meat is increasing very rapidly. Genetic markers linked to genes affecting quantitative traits can increase the selection response of animal breeding programs. The use of these molecular markers for the identification of quantitative trait loci, and subsequently fine-mapping of quantitative trait loci regions, allows for pinpointing of genes that underlie such economically important traits. Results The quantitative trait loci analyses of the growth curve, body weight, breast yield and the meat quality traits showed putative quantitative trait loci on 21 of the 27 turkey chromosomes covered by the linkage map. Forty-five quantitative trait loci were detected across all traits and these were found in 29 different regions on 21 chromosomes. Out of the 45 quantitative trait loci, twelve showed significant (p < 0.01) evidence of linkage while the remaining 33 showed suggestive evidence (p < 0.05) of linkage with different growth, growth curve, meat quality and breast yield traits. Conclusion A large number of quantitative trait loci were detected across the turkey genome, which affected growth, breast yield and meat quality traits. Pleiotropic effects or close linkages between quantitative trait loci were suggested for several of the chromosomal regions. The comparative analysis regarding the location of quantitative trait loci on different turkey, and on the syntenic chicken chromosomes, along with their phenotypic associations, revealed signs of functional conservation between these species. PMID:21745371

  18. Dissection of a complex disease susceptibility region using a Bayesian stochastic search approach to fine mapping

    E-print Network

    Wallace, Chris; Cutler, Antony J.; Pontikos, Nikolas; Pekalski, Marcin L.; Burren, Oliver S.; Cooper, Jason D.; García, Arcadio Rubio; Ferreira, Ricardo C.; Guo, Hui; Walker, Neil M.; Smyth, Deborah J.; Rich, Stephen S.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Sawcer, Stephen J.; Ban, Maria; Richardson, Sylvia; Todd, John A .; Wicker, Linda S.

    2015-01-01

    search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1...

  19. QTL mapping of fungicide sensitivity reveals novel genes and pleiotropy with melanization in the pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici.

    PubMed

    Lendenmann, Mark H; Croll, Daniel; McDonald, Bruce A

    2015-07-01

    A major problem associated with the intensification of agriculture is the emergence of fungicide resistance. Azoles are ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors that have been widely used in agriculture and medicine since the 1970s, leading to emergence of increasingly resistant fungal populations. The known genetic mechanisms underlying lower azole sensitivity include mutations affecting the CYP51 gene that encodes the target protein, but in many cases azole resistance is a more complex trait with an unknown genetic basis. We used quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to identify genes affecting azole sensitivity in two crosses of Zymoseptoria tritici, the most damaging wheat pathogen in Europe. Restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq) was used to genotype 263 (cross 1) and 261 (cross 2) progeny at ?8500 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and construct two dense linkage maps. Azole sensitivity was assessed using high-throughput digital image analysis of colonies growing on Petri dishes with or without the fungicide propiconazole. We identified three QTLs for azole sensitivity, including two that contained novel fungicide sensitivity genes. One of these two QTLs contained only 16 candidate genes, among which four most likely candidates were identified. The third QTL contained ERG6, encoding another protein involved in ergosterol biosynthesis. Known genes in QTLs affecting colony growth included CYP51 and PKS1, a gene affecting melanization in Z. tritici. PKS1 showed compelling evidence for pleiotropy, with a rare segregating allele that increased melanization while decreasing growth rate and propiconazole sensitivity. This study resolved the genetic architecture of an important agricultural trait and led to identification of novel genes that are likely to affect azole sensitivity in Z. tritici. It also provided insight into fitness costs associated with lowered azole sensitivity and suggests a novel fungicide mixture strategy. PMID:25979163

  20. Matrix eQTL: Ultra fast eQTL analysis via large matrix operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey A. Shabalin

    2011-01-01

    Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) mapping aims to determine genomic regions that regulate gene transcription. Expression QTL is used to study the regulatory structure of normal tissues and to search for genetic factors in complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cystic fibrosis. A modern eQTL dataset contains millions of SNPs and thousands of transcripts measured for hundreds of samples.

  1. QTL Mapping in Eggplant Reveals Clusters of Yield-Related Loci and Orthology with the Tomato Genome

    PubMed Central

    Portis, Ezio; Barchi, Lorenzo; Toppino, Laura; Lanteri, Sergio; Acciarri, Nazzareno; Felicioni, Nazzareno; Fusari, Fabio; Barbierato, Valeria; Cericola, Fabio; Valè, Giampiero; Rotino, Giuseppe Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In spite of its widespread cultivation and nutritional and economic importance, the eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) genome has not been extensively explored. A lack of knowledge of the patterns of inheritance of key agronomic traits has hindered the exploitation of marker technologies to accelerate its genetic improvement. An already established F2 intraspecific population of eggplant bred from the cross ‘305E40’ x ‘67/3’ was phenotyped for 20 agronomically relevant traits at two sites. Up to seven quantitative trait loci (QTL) per trait were identified and the percentage of the phenotypic variance (PV) explained per QTL ranged from 4 to 93%. Not all the QTL were detectable at both sites, but for each trait at least one major QTL (PV explained ?10%) was identified. Although no detectable QTL x environment interaction was found, some QTL identified were location-specific. Many of the fruit-related QTL clustered within specific chromosomal regions, reflecting either linkage and/or pleiotropy. Evidence for putative tomato orthologous QTL/genes was obtained for several of the eggplant QTL. Information regarding the inheritance of key agronomic traits was obtained. Some of the QTL, along with their respective linked markers, may be useful in the context of marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24586828

  2. Mapping QTL for fat area ratios and serum leptin concentrations in a Duroc purebred population.

    PubMed

    Uemoto, Yoshinobu; Soma, Yusuke; Sato, Shuji; Shibata, Tomoya; Kadowaki, Hiroshi; Katoh, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Eiji; Suzuki, Keiichi

    2012-03-01

    The reduction of extra subcutaneous, intermuscular and abdominal fat is important to increase the carcass lean percentage of pigs. Image analyses of fat area ratios were effective for estimation of separated fat in pig carcasses. Serum concentrations of leptin are useful as physiological predictors of fat accumulation in pigs. The objectives of the present study were to perform a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for fat area ratios and serum leptin concentrations in a Duroc purebred population. Pigs (n?=?226 to 538) were measured for fat area ratios of carcass cross-sections at the fifth to sixth thoracic vertebrae, half body length and last thoracic vertebra using an image analysis system, and serum leptin concentration. In total, animals were genotyped for 129 markers and used for QTL analysis. For fat area ratios, four significant and 12 suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 1, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 and 13. Significant QTLs were detected on the same region of chromosome 6, which was located near a leptin receptor gene. For serum leptin concentrations, two significant and two suggestive QTLs were detected on chromosomes 6, 9, and 16, and the QTLs on chromosome 6 were also in the same region for fat area ratios. PMID:22435620

  3. Fine mapping a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in swine on chromosome 8.

    PubMed

    Campbell, E M G; Nonneman, D; Rohrer, G A

    2003-07-01

    Ovulation rate is an integral component of litter size in swine, but is difficult to directly select for in commercial swine production. Because a QTL has been detected for ovulation rate at the terminal end of chromosome 8p, genetic markers for this QTL would enable direct selection for ovulation rate in both males and females. Eleven genes from human chromosome 4p16-p15, as well as one physiological candidate gene, were genetically mapped in the pig. Large insert swine genomic libraries were screened, clones were isolated and then screened for microsatellite repeats, and informative microsatellite markers were developed for seven genes (GNRHR, IDUA, MAN2B2, MSX1, PDE6B, PPP2R2C, and RGS12). Three genes (LRPAP1, GPRK2L, and FLJ20425) were mapped using genotyping assays developed from single nucleotide polymorphisms. Two genes were assigned since they were present in clones that contained mapped markers (HGFAC and HMX1). The resulting linkage map of pig chromosome 8 contains markers associated with 14 genes in the first 27 cM. One inversion spanning at least 3 Mb in the human genome was detected; all other differences could be explained by resolution of mapping techniques used. Fourteen of the most informative microsatellite markers in the first 27 cM of the map were genotyped across the entire MARC swine resource population, increasing the number of markers typed from 2 to 14 and more than doubling the number ofgenotyped animals with ovulation rate data (295 to 600). Results from the revised data set for the QTL analysis, assuming breed specific QTL alleles, indicated that the most likely position of the QTL resided at 4.85 cM on the new linkage map (F1,592 = 20.5150, genome-wide probability less than 0.015). The updated estimate of the effect of an allele substitution was -1.65 ova for the Meishan allele. The F-ratio peak was closest to markers for MAN2B2 (4.80 cM) and was flanked on the other side by markers for PPP2R2C. Two positional candidate genes included in this study are MAN2B2 and RGS12. These results validate the presence of a QTL affecting ovulation rate on chromosome 8 and facilitate selection of positional candidate genes to be evaluated. PMID:12854806

  4. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench)

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield. PMID:25984727

  5. Combining Next Generation Sequencing with Bulked Segregant Analysis to Fine Map a Stem Moisture Locus in Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench).

    PubMed

    Han, Yucui; Lv, Peng; Hou, Shenglin; Li, Suying; Ji, Guisu; Ma, Xue; Du, Ruiheng; Liu, Guoqing

    2015-01-01

    Sorghum is one of the most promising bioenergy crops. Stem juice yield, together with stem sugar concentration, determines sugar yield in sweet sorghum. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) is a gene mapping technique for identifying genomic regions containing genetic loci affecting a trait of interest that when combined with deep sequencing could effectively accelerate the gene mapping process. In this study, a dry stem sorghum landrace was characterized and the stem water controlling locus, qSW6, was fine mapped using QTL analysis and the combined BSA and deep sequencing technologies. Results showed that: (i) In sorghum variety Jiliang 2, stem water content was around 80% before flowering stage. It dropped to 75% during grain filling with little difference between different internodes. In landrace G21, stem water content keeps dropping after the flag leaf stage. The drop from 71% at flowering time progressed to 60% at grain filling time. Large differences exist between different internodes with the lowest (51%) at the 7th and 8th internodes at dough stage. (ii) A quantitative trait locus (QTL) controlling stem water content mapped on chromosome 6 between SSR markers Ch6-2 and gpsb069 explained about 34.7-56.9% of the phenotypic variation for the 5th to 10th internodes, respectively. (iii) BSA and deep sequencing analysis narrowed the associated region to 339 kb containing 38 putative genes. The results could help reveal molecular mechanisms underlying juice yield of sorghum and thus to improve total sugar yield. PMID:25984727

  6. Genetic Architecture of Sexual Selection: QTL Mapping of Male Song and Female Receiver Traits in an Acoustic Moth

    PubMed Central

    Limousin, Denis; Streiff, Réjane; Courtois, Brigitte; Dupuy, Virginie; Alem, Sylvain; Greenfield, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    Models of indirect (genetic) benefits sexual selection predict linkage disequilibria between genes that influence male traits and female preferences, owing to non-random mate choice or physical linkage. Such linkage disequilibria can accelerate the evolution of traits and preferences to exaggerated levels. Both theory and recent empirical findings on species recognition suggest that such linkage disequilibria may result from physical linkage or pleiotropy, but very little work has addressed this possibility within the context of sexual selection. We studied the genetic architecture of sexually selected traits by analyzing signals and preferences in an acoustic moth, Achroia grisella, in which males attract females with a train of ultrasound pulses and females prefer loud songs and a fast pulse rhythm. Both male signal characters and female preferences are repeatable and heritable traits. Moreover, female choice is based largely on male song, while males do not appear to provide direct benefits at mating. Thus, some genetic correlation between song and preference traits is expected. We employed a standard crossing design between inbred lines and used AFLP markers to build a linkage map for this species and locate quantitative trait loci (QTL) that influence male song and female preference. Our analyses mostly revealed QTLs of moderate strength that influence various male signal and female receiver traits, but one QTL was found that exerts a major influence on the pulse-pair rate of male song, a critical trait in female attraction. However, we found no evidence of specific co-localization of QTLs influencing male signal and female receiver traits on the same linkage groups. This finding suggests that the sexual selection process would proceed at a modest rate in A. grisella and that evolution toward exaggerated character states may be tempered. We suggest that this equilibrium state may be more the norm than the exception among animal species. PMID:22957082

  7. Mapping a Large Number of QTL for Durable Resistance to Stripe Rust in Winter Wheat Druchamp Using SSR and SNP Markers.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lu; Chen, Xianming; Wang, Meinan; See, Deven R; Chao, Shiaoman; Bulli, Peter; Jing, Jinxue

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat Druchamp has both high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance and all-stage resistance to stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). The HTAP resistance in Druchamp is durable as the variety has been resistant in adult-plant stage since it was introduced from France to the United States in late 1940s. To map the quantitative trait loci (QTL) for stripe rust resistance, an F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from cross Druchamp × Michigan Amber was phenotyped for stripe rust response in multiple years in fields under natural infection and with selected Pst races under controlled greenhouse conditions, and genotyped with simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. Composite interval mapping (CIM) identified eight HTAP resistance QTL and three all-stage resistance QTL. Among the eight HTAP resistance QTL, QYrdr.wgp-1BL.2 (explaining 2.36-31.04% variation), QYrdr.wgp-2BL (2.81-15.65%), QYrdr.wgp-5AL (2.27-17.22%) and QYrdr.wgp-5BL.2 (2.42-15.13%) were significant in all tests; and QYrdr.wgp-1BL.1 (1.94-10.19%), QYrdr.wgp-1DS (2.04-27.24%), QYrdr.wgp-3AL (1.78-13.85%) and QYrdr.wgp-6BL.2 (1.69-33.71%) were significant in some of the tests. The three all-stage resistance QTL, QYrdr.wgp-5BL.1 (5.47-36.04%), QYrdr.wgp-5DL (9.27-11.94%) and QYrdr.wgp-6BL.1 (13.07-20.36%), were detected based on reactions in the seedlings tested with certain Pst races. Among the eleven QTL detected in Druchamp, at least three (QYrdr.wgp-5DL for race-specific all-stage resistance and QYrdr.wgp-3AL and QYrdr.wgp-6BL.2 for race non-specific HTAP resistance) are new. All these QTL, especially those for durable HTAP resistance, and their closely linked molecular markers could be useful for developing wheat cultivars with durable resistance to stripe rust. PMID:25970329

  8. Verification of QTL for Grain Starch Content and Its Genetic Correlation with Oil Content Using Two Connected RIL Populations in High-Oil Maize

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Guohu; Dong, Yongbin; Li, Yuling; Wang, Qilei; Shi, Qingling; Zhou, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Grain oil content is negatively correlated with starch content in maize in general. In this study, 282 and 263 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) developed from two crosses between one high-oil maize inbred and two normal dent maize inbreds were evaluated for grain starch content and its correlation with oil content under four environments. Single-trait QTL for starch content in single-population and joint-population analysis, and multiple-trait QTL for both starch and oil content were detected, and compared with the result obtained in the two related F2?3 populations. Totally, 20 single-population QTL for grain starch content were detected. No QTL was simultaneously detected across all ten cases. QTL at bins 5.03 and 9.03 were all detected in both populations and in 4 and 5 cases, respectively. Only 2 of the 16 joint-population QTL had significant effects in both populations. Three single-population QTL and 8 joint-population QTL at bins 1.03, 1.04–1.05, 3.05, 8.04–8.05, 9.03, and 9.05 could be considered as fine-mapped. Common QTL across F2?3 and RIL generations were observed at bins 5.04, 8.04 and 8.05 in population 1 (Pop.1), and at bin 5.03 in population 2 (Pop.2). QTL at bins 3.02–3.03, 3.05, 8.04–8.05 and 9.03 should be focused in high-starch maize breeding. In multiple-trait QTL analysis, 17 starch-oil QTL were detected, 10 in Pop.1 and 7 in Pop.2. And 22 single-trait QTL failed to show significance in multiple-trait analysis, 13 QTL for starch content and 9 QTL for oil content. However, QTL at bins 1.03, 6.03–6.04 and 8.03–8.04 might increase grain starch content and/or grain oil content without reduction in another trait. Further research should be conducted to validate the effect of these QTL in the simultaneous improvement of grain starch and oil content in maize. PMID:23320103

  9. QTL architecture of reproductive fitness characters in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Reproductive output is critical to both agronomists seeking to increase seed yield and to evolutionary biologists interested in understanding natural selection. We examine the genetic architecture of diverse reproductive fitness traits in recombinant inbred lines (RILs) developed from a crop (seed oil)?×?wild-like (rapid cycling) genotype of Brassica rapa in field and greenhouse environments. Results Several fitness traits showed strong correlations and QTL-colocalization across environments (days to bolting, fruit length and seed color). Total fruit number was uncorrelated across environments and most QTL affecting this trait were correspondingly environment-specific. Most fitness components were positively correlated, consistent with life-history theory that genotypic variation in resource acquisition masks tradeoffs. Finally, we detected evidence of transgenerational pleiotropy, that is, maternal days to bolting was negatively correlated with days to offspring germination. A QTL for this transgenerational correlation was mapped to a genomic region harboring one copy of FLOWERING LOCUS C, a genetic locus known to affect both days to flowering as well as germination phenotypes. Conclusions This study characterizes the genetic structure of important fitness/yield traits within and between generations in B. rapa. Several identified QTL are suitable candidates for fine-mapping for the improvement of yield in crop Brassicas. Specifically, brFLC1, warrants further investigation as a potential regulator of phenology between generations. PMID:24641198

  10. Large-Scale East-Asian eQTL Mapping Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for LD Mapping and the Genomic Landscape of Transcriptional Effects of Sequence Variants

    PubMed Central

    Narahara, Maiko; Higasa, Koichiro; Nakamura, Seiji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Ishii, Miho; Matsubara, Kenichi; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Profiles of sequence variants that influence gene transcription are very important for understanding mechanisms that affect phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility. Using genotypes at 1.4 million SNPs and a comprehensive transcriptional profile of 15,454 coding genes and 6,113 lincRNA genes obtained from peripheral blood cells of 298 Japanese individuals, we mapped expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs). We identified 3,804 cis-eQTLs (within 500 kb from target genes) and 165 trans-eQTLs (>500 kb away or on different chromosomes). Cis-eQTLs were often located in transcribed or adjacent regions of genes; among these regions, 5? untranslated regions and 5? flanking regions had the largest effects. Epigenetic evidence for regulatory potential accumulated in public databases explained the magnitude of the effects of our eQTLs. Cis-eQTLs were often located near the respective target genes, if not within genes. Large effect sizes were observed with eQTLs near target genes, and effect sizes were obviously attenuated as the eQTL distance from the gene increased. Using a very stringent significance threshold, we identified 165 large-effect trans-eQTLs. We used our eQTL map to assess 8,069 disease-associated SNPs identified in 1,436 genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We identified genes that might be truly causative, but GWAS might have failed to identify for 148 out of the GWAS-identified SNPs; for example, TUFM (P?=?3.3E-48) was identified for inflammatory bowel disease (early onset); ZFP90 (P?=?4.4E-34) for ulcerative colitis; and IDUA (P?=?2.2E-11) for Parkinson's disease. We identified four genes (P<2.0E-14) that might be related to three diseases and two hematological traits; each expression is regulated by trans-eQTLs on a different chromosome than the gene. PMID:24956270

  11. A combinatorial approach of comprehensive QTL-based comparative genome mapping and transcript profiling identified a seed weight-regulating candidate gene in chickpea.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Deepak; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Khan, Yusuf; Das, Shouvik; Badoni, Saurabh; Shree, Tanima; Kumar, Vinod; Tripathi, Shailesh; Gowda, C L L; Singh, Sube; Sharma, Shivali; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Chattopdhyay, Debasis; Parida, Swarup K

    2015-01-01

    High experimental validation/genotyping success rate (94-96%) and intra-specific polymorphic potential (82-96%) of 1536 SNP and 472 SSR markers showing in silico polymorphism between desi ICC 4958 and kabuli ICC 12968 chickpea was obtained in a 190 mapping population (ICC 4958 × ICC 12968) and 92 diverse desi and kabuli genotypes. A high-density 2001 marker-based intra-specific genetic linkage map comprising of eight LGs constructed is comparatively much saturated (mean map-density: 0.94 cM) in contrast to existing intra-specific genetic maps in chickpea. Fifteen robust QTLs (PVE: 8.8-25.8% with LOD: 7.0-13.8) associated with pod and seed number/plant (PN and SN) and 100 seed weight (SW) were identified and mapped on 10 major genomic regions of eight LGs. One of 126.8 kb major genomic region harbouring a strong SW-associated robust QTL (Caq'SW1.1: 169.1-171.3 cM) has been delineated by integrating high-resolution QTL mapping with comprehensive marker-based comparative genome mapping and differential expression profiling. This identified one potential regulatory SNP (G/A) in the cis-acting element of candidate ERF (ethylene responsive factor) TF (transcription factor) gene governing seed weight in chickpea. The functionally relevant molecular tags identified have potential to be utilized for marker-assisted genetic improvement of chickpea. PMID:25786576

  12. Fine resolution mapping of wetlands at the regional scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Manuel; Bardy, Marion; Berthier, Lionel; Laroche, Bertrand; Lehmann, Sebastien; Lemercier, Blandine; Murciano, Violaine; Walter, Christian; Moulin, Joël

    2015-04-01

    The prediction of wetlands is a major challenge to design and implement a coherent national policy to preserve these fragile but vital ecosystems, involved in the production of many ecosystem services. Strongly related to the topography, the occurrence of wetlands is mainly conditioned by the geomorphology, precipitation and elevation from the natural drainage network. However fine scale data related to geomorphology and precipitation is often scarce and new methodology enabling to combine available data with additional covariates are needed for fine resolution mapping of wetlands, over large areas compatible with policy making. Wetland maps might also in turn be useful for assessing other soil properties such as soil organic carbon stocks. This study tests, at the scale of the French Indre department, predictive statistical models based on boosted regression trees (BRT). These models offered several advantages such as the handling of missing data, correlated predictors and the robustness to the presence of outliers within the dataset. Moreover, it enables the modeling of interactions between predictors with a varying degree of complexity. The department of Indre covers an area of 6791 km² and is located between Paris Basin and northern fringe of the Massif Central. Soils are particularly diverse, illustrating a wide range of pedological processes (brunification, leaching, podzolisation), both on calcareous materials, aeolian deposits, detrital, plutonic and metamorphic basement. Wetlands distribution in Indre is as much characterized by parent material by topography, and the diversity of specific configurations makes it interesting from a modeling point of view. Several datasets were available for fitting and validating the models, i.e. 1361 soil profile observations and a previous map of wetlands distribution based on a 1:50.000 soil map. Punctual observations where classified into two classes: occurrence or absence of wetland, as defined by the French regulation on wetlands. The BRT model was fitted on these point observations to predict the wetland occurrence and validated through cross-validation and against the existing former map. Covariates used to fit the BRT model included variables related to topography, hydrology, climate, parent material, gamma radiometry data, land use data and Landsat data. The model yielded, as assessed by cross-validation, kappa coefficient of 0.3, errors of omission of 0.65 and error of commission of 0.35, that is reasonable in performance compared to previous studies, but still leaving room for improvement. Fitted models were used to produce a 50m resolution map of the department with associated uncertainty.

  13. A RAPD, AFLP and SSR linkage map, and QTL analysis in European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Scalfi; M. Troggio; P. Piovani; S. Leonardi; G. Magnaschi; G. G. Vendramin; P. Menozzi

    2004-01-01

    The genetic linkage map of European beech ( Fagus sylvatica L.) that we report here is the first to our knowledge. Based on a total of 312 markers (28 RAPDs, 274 AFLPs, 10 SSRs) scored in 143 individuals from a F 1 full-sib family. Two maps (one for each parent) were constructed according to a “two-way pseudo-testcross” mapping strategy. In

  14. Resistance loci affecting distinct stages of fungal pathogenesis: use of introgression lines for QTL mapping and characterization in the maize - Setosphaeria turcica pathosystem

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Studies on host-pathogen interactions in a range of pathosystems have revealed an array of mechanisms by which plants reduce the efficiency of pathogenesis. While R-gene mediated resistance confers highly effective defense responses against pathogen invasion, quantitative resistance is associated with intermediate levels of resistance that reduces disease progress. To test the hypothesis that specific loci affect distinct stages of fungal pathogenesis, a set of maize introgression lines was used for mapping and characterization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) conditioning resistance to Setosphaeria turcica, the causal agent of northern leaf blight (NLB). To better understand the nature of quantitative resistance, the identified QTL were further tested for three secondary hypotheses: (1) that disease QTL differ by host developmental stage; (2) that their performance changes across environments; and (3) that they condition broad-spectrum resistance. Results Among a set of 82 introgression lines, seven lines were confirmed as more resistant or susceptible than B73. Two NLB QTL were validated in BC4F2 segregating populations and advanced introgression lines. These loci, designated qNLB1.02 and qNLB1.06, were investigated in detail by comparing the introgression lines with B73 for a series of macroscopic and microscopic disease components targeting different stages of NLB development. Repeated greenhouse and field trials revealed that qNLB1.06Tx303 (the Tx303 allele at bin 1.06) reduces the efficiency of fungal penetration, while qNLB1.02B73 (the B73 allele at bin 1.02) enhances the accumulation of callose and phenolics surrounding infection sites, reduces hyphal growth into the vascular bundle and impairs the subsequent necrotrophic colonization in the leaves. The QTL were equally effective in both juvenile and adult plants; qNLB1.06Tx303 showed greater effectiveness in the field than in the greenhouse. In addition to NLB resistance, qNLB1.02B73 was associated with resistance to Stewart's wilt and common rust, while qNLB1.06Tx303 conferred resistance to Stewart's wilt. The non-specific resistance may be attributed to pleiotropy or linkage. Conclusions Our research has led to successful identification of two reliably-expressed QTL that can potentially be utilized to protect maize from S. turcica in different environments. This approach to identifying and dissecting quantitative resistance in plants will facilitate the application of quantitative resistance in crop protection. PMID:20529319

  15. Joint QTL linkage mapping for multiple-cross mating design sharing one common parent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nested association mapping (NAM) is a novel genetic mating design that combines the advantages of linkage analysis and association mapping. This design provides opportunities to study the inheritance of complex traits, but also requires more advanced statistical methods. In this paper, we present th...

  16. Fine Mapping and Identification of BMI Loci in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lim, Unhee; Hindorff, Lucia A; Haessler, Jeff; Buyske, Steven; Carlson, Christopher S; Rosse, Stephanie; B?žková, Petra; Fornage, Myriam; Gross, Myron; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S; Schreiner, Pamela J; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Gu, C Charles; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Henderson, Brian; Cheng, Iona; Wilkens, Lynne; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E; Li, Rongling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Dilks, Holli H; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Fowke, Jay; Pooler, Loreall; Graff, Misa; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Cochrane, Barbara; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Matise, Tara C; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C; Haiman, Christopher A; North, Kari E; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10(-5). Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r(2) > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10(-8)) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10(-7)), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci. PMID:24094743

  17. Fine Mapping and Identification of BMI Loci in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jian; Schumacher, Fredrick; Lim, Unhee; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Haessler, Jeff; Buyske, Steven; Carlson, Christopher S.; Rosse, Stephanie; B?žková, Petra; Fornage, Myriam; Gross, Myron; Pankratz, Nathan; Pankow, James S.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Cooper, Richard; Ehret, Georg; Gu, C. Charles; Houston, Denise; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Jackson, Rebecca; Kuller, Lew; Henderson, Brian; Cheng, Iona; Wilkens, Lynne; Leppert, Mark; Lewis, Cora E.; Li, Rongling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung H.; Goodloe, Robert; Farber-Eger, Eric; Boston, Jonathan; Dilks, Holli H.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Fowke, Jay; Pooler, Loreall; Graff, Misa; Fernandez-Rhodes, Lindsay; Cochrane, Barbara; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kooperberg, Charles; Matise, Tara C.; Le Marchand, Loic; Crawford, Dana C.; Haiman, Christopher A.; North, Kari E.; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) primarily performed in European-ancestry (EA) populations have identified numerous loci associated with body mass index (BMI). However, it is still unclear whether these GWAS loci can be generalized to other ethnic groups, such as African Americans (AAs). Furthermore, the putative functional variant or variants in these loci mostly remain under investigation. The overall lower linkage disequilibrium in AA compared to EA populations provides the opportunity to narrow in or fine-map these BMI-related loci. Therefore, we used the Metabochip to densely genotype and evaluate 21 BMI GWAS loci identified in EA studies in 29,151 AAs from the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) study. Eight of the 21 loci (SEC16B, TMEM18, ETV5, GNPDA2, TFAP2B, BDNF, FTO, and MC4R) were found to be associated with BMI in AAs at 5.8 × 10?5. Within seven out of these eight loci, we found that, on average, a substantially smaller number of variants was correlated (r2 > 0.5) with the most significant SNP in AA than in EA populations (16 versus 55). Conditional analyses revealed GNPDA2 harboring a potential additional independent signal. Moreover, Metabochip-wide discovery analyses revealed two BMI-related loci, BRE (rs116612809, p = 3.6 × 10?8) and DHX34 (rs4802349, p = 1.2 × 10?7), which were significant when adjustment was made for the total number of SNPs tested across the chip. These results demonstrate that fine mapping in AAs is a powerful approach for both narrowing in on the underlying causal variants in known loci and discovering BMI-related loci. PMID:24094743

  18. Genetic linkage map construction and QTL identification of juvenile growth traits in Torreya grandis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl, a conifer species widely distributed in Southeastern China, is of high economic value by producing edible, nutrient seeds. However, knowledge about the genome structure and organization of this species is poorly understood, thereby limiting the effective use of its gene resources. Here, we report on a first genetic linkage map for Torreya grandis using 96 progeny randomly chosen from a half-sib family of a commercially cultivated variety of this species, Torreya grandis Fort. ex Lindl cv. Merrillii. The map contains 262 molecular markers, i.e., 75 random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), 119 inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and 62 amplified fragments length polymorphisms (AFLP), and spans a total of 7,139.9 cM, separated by 10 linkage groups. The linkage map was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with juvenile growth traits by functional mapping. We identified four basal diameter-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 5 and 9; four height-related QTLs on linkage groups 1, 2, 5 and 8. It was observed that the genetic effects of QTLs on growth traits vary with age, suggesting the dynamic behavior of growth QTLs. Part of the QTLs was found to display a pleiotropic effect on basal diameter growth and height growth. PMID:25079139

  19. QTL mapping of forage yield and forage yield component traits in Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y L; Wang, L H; Li, J Q; Zhan, Q W; Zhang, Q; Li, J F; Fan, F F

    2015-01-01

    The sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense) is an important forage crop. However, little is known about the genetic mechanisms related to forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits in this forage crop. In this study, a linkage map was constructed with 124 assigned SSR markers using an F2 mapping population derived from the crossing of sorghum Tx623A and sudangrass Sa. Nine quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were detected for forage yield and the 4 forage yield component traits using inclusive composite interval mapping. Five fresh weight QTLs were identified and contributed >50% of the total phenotypic variance. Of these QTLs, all showed additive and dominant effects, but most exhibited mainly dominant effects. These results will provide useful information for improvements in sorghum-sudangrass hybrid breeding. PMID:25966155

  20. Mapping QTL for milling yield and grain characteristics in a tropical japonica long grain cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Percent whole milled grains or milling yield is an economically important trait of commercial rice (Oryza sativa L.) because it largely determines the price per bushel that farmers receive for their crop. To investigate the inheritance of milling yield, a long grain japonica mapping population segr...

  1. Mapping QTL for popping expansion volume in popcorn with simple sequence repeat markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-J. Lu; R. Bernardo; H. Ohm

    2003-01-01

    Popping expansion volume is the most important quality trait in popcorn (Zea mays L.), but its genetics is not well understood. The objectives of this study were to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) responsible for popping expansion volume in a popcorn 2 dent corn cross, and to compare the predicted efficiencies of phenotypic selection, marker-based selection, and marker-assisted selection for

  2. An integrated resource for barley linkage map and malting quality QTL alignment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare) is an economically important model plant for genetics research that is currently served by a comprehensive set of tools for genetic analysis. High density genetic linkage maps constructed from the inheritance of robust gene-based Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...

  3. Genetic Mapping of Sulfur Assimilation Genes Reveals a QTL for Onion Bulb Pungency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onion exhibits wide genetic and environmental variation in bioactive organosulfur compounds that impart pungency and health benefits. A PCR-based molecular marker map that included candidate genes for sulfur assimilation was used to identify genomic regions affecting pungency in the cross 'W202A' x ...

  4. A statistical model for QTL mapping in polysomic autotetraploids underlying double reduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Technical Abstract: As a group of economically important species, linkage mapping of polysomic autotetraploids, including potato, sugarcane and rose, is difficult to conduct due to their unique meiotic property of double reduction that allows sister chromatids to enter into the same gamete. We desc...

  5. QTL mapping of genotype–environment interaction for fitness in Drosophila melanogaster

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JAMES D. FRY; SERGEY V. NUZHDIN; ELENA G. PASYUKOVA; TRUDY F. C. MACKAY

    1998-01-01

    Summary A fundamental assumption of models for the maintenance of genetic variation by environmental heterogeneity is that selection favours alternative alleles in dierent environments. It is not clear, however, whether such antagonistic pleiotropy is common. We mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) causing variation for reproductive performance in each of three environmental treatments among a set of 98 recombinant inbred (RI)

  6. QTL mapping of stay-green in two sorghum recombinant inbred populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. G. Haussmann; V. Mahalakshmi; B. V. S. Reddy; N. Seetharama; C. T. Hash; H. H. Geiger

    2002-01-01

    The stay-green trait is a reported component of tolerance to terminal drought stress in sorghum. To map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for stay-green, two sorghum recombinant inbred populations (RIPs) of 226 F3:5 lines each were developed from crosses (1) IS9830 2 E36-1 and (2) N13 2 E36-1. The common parental line, E36-1 of Ethiopian origin, was the stay-green trait source.

  7. Identification of candidate genes for drought stress tolerance in rice by the integration of a genetic (QTL) map with the rice genome physical map*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu-sheng; Zhu, Jun; Mansueto, Locedie; Bruskiewich, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Genetic improvement for drought stress tolerance in rice involves the quantitative nature of the trait, which reflects the additive effects of several genetic loci throughout the genome. Yield components and related traits under stressed and well-water conditions were assayed in mapping populations derived from crosses of Azucena×IR64 and Azucena×Bala. To find the candidate rice genes underlying Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) in these populations, we conducted in silico analysis of a candidate region flanked by the genetic markers RM212 and RM319 on chromosome 1, proximal to the semi-dwarf (sd1) locus. A total of 175 annotated genes were identified from this region. These included 48 genes annotated by functional homology to known genes, 23 pseudogenes, 24 ab initio predicted genes supported by an alignment match to an EST (Expressed sequence tag) of unknown function, and 80 hypothetical genes predicted solely by ab initio means. Among these, 16 candidate genes could potentially be involved in drought stress response. PMID:15822152

  8. QTL mapping - Current status and challenges: Comment on "Mapping complex traits as a dynamic system" by L. Sun and R. Wu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Nianjun

    2015-06-01

    One of the important objectives of genetic study is to understand the underlying mechanism of complex traits. However, complex traits are complex in terms of their mechanisms. First, multiple genetic variants are involved in different ways. In addition to the main effects (such as additive and dominant effects), these genetic variants may interact with each other [1-4], they may have pleiotropic effects [5,6], there may be genomic imprinting (a phenomenon where some genes are expressed or repressed depending on their parental origin) [7-9] and epigenetic effects [10-14]. In addition, environment often fits in via gene by environment interaction [15,16]. A more complicated genetic interaction between QTLs is from different genomes, i.e. the genome-genome interaction which may involve genomes from the same organisms or even different organisms [17-19]. Biology is multifactorial and dynamic. Complex traits are closely related to developmental changes in an organism's ontogeny, giving time an important role in the formation of complex traits. From the point of view of ecology, the formation of complex traits is extremely complex involving not only the genes of an individual but also the genotypes of its neighbors that co-occur with it [17,18,20-23]. Such complexity makes QTL mapping very challenging.

  9. Fine mapping and characterization of linked quantitative trait loci involved in the transition of the maize apical meristem from vegetative to generative structures.

    PubMed Central

    Vl?du?u, C; McLaughlin, J; Phillips, R L

    1999-01-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping has detected two linked QTL in the 8L chromosome arm segment introgressed from Gaspé Flint (a Northern Flint open-pollinated population) into the background of N28 (a Corn Belt Dent inbred line). Homozygous recombinant lines, with a variable length of the introgressed segment, confirmed the presence of the two previously identified, linked QTL. In the N28 background, Gaspé Flint QTL alleles at both loci induce a reduction in node number, height, and days to anthesis (pollen shed). Given the determinate growth pattern of maize, the phenotypic effects indicate that the two QTL are involved in the transition of the apical meristem from vegetative to generative structures. Relative to the effects of the two QTL in the background of N28, we distinguish two general developmental factors affecting the timing of pollen shed. The primary factor is the timing of the transition of the apical meristem. The second, derivative factor is the global extent of internode elongation. Having separated the two linked QTL, we have laid the foundation for the positional cloning of the QTL with a larger effect. PMID:10511573

  10. A first generation BAC-based physical map of the channel catfish genome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie M-A Quiniou; Geoffrey C Waldbieser; Mary V Duke

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, is the leading species in North American aquaculture. Genetic improvement of catfish is performed through selective breeding, and genomic tools will help improve selection efficiency. A physical map is needed to integrate the genetic map with the karyotype and to support fine mapping of phenotypic trait alleles such as Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) and the

  11. Discovery and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for QTL mapping of early life-history traits in Atlantic salmon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background For decades, linkage mapping has been one of the most powerful and widely used approaches for elucidating the genetic architecture of phenotypic traits of medical, agricultural and evolutionary importance. However, successful mapping of Mendelian and quantitative phenotypic traits depends critically on the availability of fast and preferably high-throughput genotyping platforms. Several array-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping platforms have been developed for genetic model organisms during recent years but most of these methods become prohibitively expensive for screening large numbers of individuals. Therefore, inexpensive, simple and flexible genotyping solutions that enable rapid screening of intermediate numbers of loci (~75-300) in hundreds to thousands of individuals are still needed for QTL mapping applications in a broad range of organisms. Results Here we describe the discovery of and application of insertion-deletion (INDEL) polymorphisms for cost-efficient medium throughput genotyping that enables analysis of >75 loci in a single automated sequencer electrophoresis column with standard laboratory equipment. Genotyping of INDELs requires low start-up costs, includes few standard sample handling steps and is applicable to a broad range of species for which expressed sequence tag (EST) collections are available. As a proof of principle, we generated a partial INDEL linkage map in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rapidly identified a number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting early life-history traits that are expected to have important fitness consequences in the natural environment. Conclusions The INDEL genotyping enabled fast coarse-mapping of chromosomal regions containing QTL, thus providing an efficient means for characterization of genetic architecture in multiple crosses and large pedigrees. This enables not only the discovery of larger number of QTLs with relatively smaller phenotypic effect but also provides a cost-effective means for evaluation of the frequency of segregating QTLs in outbred populations which is important for further understanding how genetic variation underlying phenotypic traits is maintained in the wild. PMID:20210987

  12. QTL mapping of resistance to Sclerotinia midstalk rot in RIL of sunflower population NDBLOSsel x CM625.

    PubMed

    Micic, Z; Hahn, V; Bauer, E; Schön, C C; Melchinger, A E

    2005-05-01

    Midstalk rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is an important disease of sunflower in its main areas of cultivation. The objectives of this study were to (1) verify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for midstalk-rot resistance found in F3 families of the NDBLOSsel x CM625 population in recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the same cross; (2) re-estimate their position and genetic effects; (3) draw inferences about the predictive quality of QTL for midstalk-rot resistance identified in the F3 families as compared to those in the RIL. Phenotypic data for three resistance (leaf lesion, stem lesion, and speed of fungal growth) and two morphological traits (leaf length and leaf length with petiole) were obtained from 317 RIL following artificial infection in field experiments across two environments. For genotyping the 248 RIL, we selected 41 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers based on their association with QTL for Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance in an earlier study. The resistance traits showed intermediate to high heritabilities (0.51 < h2 <0.79) and were significantly correlated with each other (0.45 < rg < 0.78). Genotypic correlations between F3 families and the RIL were highly significant and ranged between 0.50 for leaf length and 0.64 for stem lesion. For stem lesion, two genomic regions on linkage group (LG) 8 and LG16 explaining 26.5% of the genotypic variance for Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance were consistent across generations. For this trait, the genotypic correlation between the observed performance and its prediction based on QTL positions and effects in F3 families was surprisingly high (rg(MiF3, YiRIL). The genetic effects and predictive quality of these two QTL are promising for application in marker-assisted selection to Sclerotinia midstalk-rot resistance. PMID:15841360

  13. QTL for resistance in Lolium perenne to a mixed population of Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola: use of RAD (restriction site associated DNA) markers to rapidly populate a new linkage map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mapping population was created to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis subsp. graminicola in Lolium perenne. Susceptible and resistant plants were crossed to produce a pseudo-testcross population. Markers were produced by the Restriction-sit...

  14. A major QTL for acute ethanol sensitivity in the alcohol tolerant and non-tolerant selected rat lines.

    PubMed

    Radcliffe, R A; Erwin, V G; Bludeau, P; Deng, X; Fay, T; Floyd, K L; Deitrich, R A

    2009-08-01

    The Alcohol Tolerant and Alcohol Non-Tolerant rats (AT, ANT) were selectively bred for ethanol-induced ataxia as measured on the inclined plane. Here we report on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) study in an F(2) intercross population derived from inbred AT and ANT (IAT, IANT) and a follow-up study of congenics that were bred to examine one of the mapped QTLs. Over 1200 F(2) offspring were tested for inclined plane sensitivity, acute tolerance on the inclined plane, duration of the loss of righting reflex (LORR) and blood ethanol at regain of the righting reflex (BECRR). F(2) rats that were in the upper and lower 20% for inclined plane sensitivity were genotyped with 78 SSLP markers. Significant QTLs for inclined plane sensitivity were mapped on chromosomes 8 and 20; suggestive QTLs were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2 and 3. Highly significant QTLs for LORR duration (LOD = 12.4) and BECRR (LOD = 5.7) were mapped to the same locus on chromosome 1. Breeding and testing of reciprocal congenic lines confirmed the chromosome 1 LORR/BECRR QTL. A series of recombinant congenic sub-lines were bred to fine-map this QTL. Current results have narrowed the QTL to an interval of between 5 and 20 Mb. We expect to be able to narrow the interval to less than 5 Mb with additional genotyping and continued breeding of recombinant sub-congenic lines. PMID:19500156

  15. A high density recombination map of the pig reveals a correlation between sex-specific recombination and GC content

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The availability of a high-density SNP chip and a reference genome sequence of the pig have enabled the construction of a high-density linkage map. A high density linkage map is an essential tool for the further fine-mapping of QTL for a variety of traits in the pig and for a better und...

  16. Concordance analysis for QTL detection in dairy cattle: a case study of leg morphology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The present availability of sequence data gives new opportunities to narrow down from QTL (quantitative trait locus) regions to causative mutations. Our objective was to decrease the number of candidate causative mutations in a QTL region. For this, a concordance analysis was applied for a leg conformation trait in dairy cattle. Several QTL were detected for which the QTL status (homozygous or heterozygous for the QTL) was inferred for each individual. Subsequently, the inferred QTL status was used in a concordance analysis to reduce the number of candidate mutations. Methods Twenty QTL for rear leg set side view were mapped using Bayes C. Marker effects estimated during QTL mapping were used to infer the QTL status for each individual. Subsequently, polymorphisms present in the QTL regions were extracted from the whole-genome sequences of 71 Holstein bulls. Only polymorphisms for which the status was concordant with the QTL status were kept as candidate causative mutations. Results QTL status could be inferred for 15 of the 20 QTL. The number of concordant polymorphisms differed between QTL and depended on the number of QTL statuses that could be inferred and the linkage disequilibrium in the QTL region. For some QTL, the concordance analysis was efficient and narrowed down to a limited number of candidate mutations located in one or two genes, while for other QTL a large number of genes contained concordant polymorphisms. Conclusions For regions for which the concordance analysis could be performed, we were able to reduce the number of candidate mutations. For part of the QTL, the concordant analyses narrowed QTL regions down to a limited number of genes, of which some are known for their role in limb or skeletal development in humans and mice. Mutations in these genes are good candidates for QTN (quantitative trait nucleotides) influencing rear leg set side view. PMID:24884971

  17. Genetic Map Construction and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Detection of Six Economic Traits Using an F2 Population of the Hybrid from Saccharina longissima and Saccharina japonica

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Tao; Feng, Rongfang; Liu, Cui; Chi, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Saccharina (Laminaria) is one of the most important economic seaweeds. Previously, four genetic linkage maps of Saccharina have been constructed and five QTLs have been identified. However, they were not enough for its breeding. In this work, Saccharina longissima (?) and Saccharina japonica (?), which showed obvious differences in morphology and genetics, were applied in hybridization to yield the F2 mapping population with 102 individuals. Using these 102 F2 hybrids, the genetic linkage map of Saccharina was constructed by MapMaker software based on 37 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs), 22 sequence-related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) and 139 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers. Meanwhile, QTL analysis was performed for six economic traits. The linkage map constructed in this research consisted of 422 marker loci (137 AFLPs, 57 SRAPs and 228 SSRs), which formed 45 linkage groups (LGs) with an average marker space of 7.92 cM; they spanned a total length of 2233.1 cM, covering the whole estimated genome size. A total of 29 QTLs were identified for six economic traits, which explained 1.06 to 64.00% of phenotypic variation, including three QTLs for frond length (FL) and raw weight (RW), five QTLs for frond width (FW), two QTLs for frond fascia width (FFW) and frond thickness (FT), and fourteen QTLs for base shape (BS). The results of this research will improve the breeding efficiency and be beneficial for marker-assisted selection (MAS) schemes in Saccharina breeding. PMID:26010152

  18. Construction of a first genetic map of distylous Turnera and a fine-scale map of the S -locus region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. J. Labonne; A. Vaisman; J. S. Shore

    2008-01-01

    As a prelude to discovery of genes involved in floral dimorphism and incompatibility, a genetic map of disty- lous Turnera was constructed along with a fine-scale map of the S-locus region. The genetic map consists of 79 PCR- based molecular markers (48 AFLP, 18 RAPD, 9 ISSR, 4 RAMP), 5 isozyme loci, one additional gene, and the S-locus, spanning a

  19. Rapid and Inexpensive Whole-Genome Genotyping-by-Sequencing for Crossover Localization and Fine-Scale Genetic Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, Beth A.; Patel, Vipul; Weigel, Detlef; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-01-01

    The reshuffling of existing genetic variation during meiosis is important both during evolution and in breeding. The reassortment of genetic variants relies on the formation of crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes. The pattern of genome-wide CO distributions can be rapidly and precisely established by the short-read sequencing of individuals from F2 populations, which in turn are useful for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Although sequencing costs have decreased precipitously in recent years, the costs of library preparation for hundreds of individuals have remained high. To enable rapid and inexpensive CO detection and QTL mapping using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of large mapping populations, we have developed a new method for library preparation along with Trained Individual GenomE Reconstruction, a probabilistic method for genotype and CO predictions for recombinant individuals. In an example case with hundreds of F2 individuals from two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we resolved most CO breakpoints to within 2 kb and reduced a major flowering time QTL to a 9-kb interval. In addition, an extended region of unusually low recombination revealed a 1.8-Mb inversion polymorphism on the long arm of chromosome 4. We observed no significant differences in the frequency and distribution of COs between F2 individuals with and without a functional copy of the DNA helicase gene RECQ4A. In summary, we present a new, cost-efficient method for large-scale, high-precision genotyping-by-sequencing. PMID:25585881

  20. Rapid and inexpensive whole-genome genotyping-by-sequencing for crossover localization and fine-scale genetic mapping.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Beth A; Patel, Vipul; Weigel, Detlef; Schneeberger, Korbinian

    2015-03-01

    The reshuffling of existing genetic variation during meiosis is important both during evolution and in breeding. The reassortment of genetic variants relies on the formation of crossovers (COs) between homologous chromosomes. The pattern of genome-wide CO distributions can be rapidly and precisely established by the short-read sequencing of individuals from F2 populations, which in turn are useful for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Although sequencing costs have decreased precipitously in recent years, the costs of library preparation for hundreds of individuals have remained high. To enable rapid and inexpensive CO detection and QTL mapping using low-coverage whole-genome sequencing of large mapping populations, we have developed a new method for library preparation along with Trained Individual GenomE Reconstruction, a probabilistic method for genotype and CO predictions for recombinant individuals. In an example case with hundreds of F2 individuals from two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions, we resolved most CO breakpoints to within 2 kb and reduced a major flowering time QTL to a 9-kb interval. In addition, an extended region of unusually low recombination revealed a 1.8-Mb inversion polymorphism on the long arm of chromosome 4. We observed no significant differences in the frequency and distribution of COs between F2 individuals with and without a functional copy of the DNA helicase gene RECQ4A. In summary, we present a new, cost-efficient method for large-scale, high-precision genotyping-by-sequencing. PMID:25585881

  1. Fine mapping of locus Sb for F 1 pollen sterility in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wentao Li; Ruizhen Zeng; Zemin Zhang; Xiaohua Ding; Guiquan Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Hybrid sterility is the main barrier in utilizing the heterosis of subspecies in rice. A knowledge of the underlying molecular\\u000a mechanism of the hybrid sterility will be useful for overcoming the barrier. In this research, the F1 pollen sterility locus, S-b, was mapped between SSR markers PSM8 and PSM202. To fine map the locus, one F2 mapping population of 3910

  2. Fine Mapping Causal Variants with an Approximate Bayesian Method Using Marginal Test Statistics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenan; Larrabee, Beth R; Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Kennedy, Richard B; Haralambieva, Iana H; Poland, Gregory A; Schaid, Daniel J

    2015-07-01

    Two recently developed fine-mapping methods, CAVIAR and PAINTOR, demonstrate better performance over other fine-mapping methods. They also have the advantage of using only the marginal test statistics and the correlation among SNPs. Both methods leverage the fact that the marginal test statistics asymptotically follow a multivariate normal distribution and are likelihood based. However, their relationship with Bayesian fine mapping, such as BIMBAM, is not clear. In this study, we first show that CAVIAR and BIMBAM are actually approximately equivalent to each other. This leads to a fine-mapping method using marginal test statistics in the Bayesian framework, which we call CAVIAR Bayes factor (CAVIARBF). Another advantage of the Bayesian framework is that it can answer both association and fine-mapping questions. We also used simulations to compare CAVIARBF with other methods under different numbers of causal variants. The results showed that both CAVIARBF and BIMBAM have better performance than PAINTOR and other methods. Compared to BIMBAM, CAVIARBF has the advantage of using only marginal test statistics and takes about one-quarter to one-fifth of the running time. We applied different methods on two independent cohorts of the same phenotype. Results showed that CAVIARBF, BIMBAM, and PAINTOR selected the same top 3 SNPs; however, CAVIARBF and BIMBAM had better consistency in selecting the top 10 ranked SNPs between the two cohorts. Software is available at https://bitbucket.org/Wenan/caviarbf. PMID:25948564

  3. Deciphering gamma-decalactone biosynthesis in strawberry fruit using a combination of genetic mapping, RNA-Seq and eQTL analyses

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the basis for volatile organic compound (VOC) biosynthesis and regulation is of great importance for the genetic improvement of fruit flavor. Lactones constitute an essential group of fatty acid-derived VOCs conferring peach-like aroma to a number of fruits including peach, plum, pineapple and strawberry. Early studies on lactone biosynthesis suggest that several enzymatic pathways could be responsible for the diversity of lactones, but detailed information on them remained elusive. In this study, we have integrated genetic mapping and genome-wide transcriptome analysis to investigate the molecular basis of natural variation in ?-decalactone content in strawberry fruit. Results As a result, the fatty acid desaturase FaFAD1 was identified as the gene underlying the locus at LGIII-2 that controls ?-decalactone production in ripening fruit. The FaFAD1 gene is specifically expressed in ripe fruits and its expression fully correlates with the presence of ?-decalactone in all 95 individuals of the mapping population. In addition, we show that the level of expression of FaFAH1, with similarity to cytochrome p450 hydroxylases, significantly correlates with the content of ?-decalactone in the mapping population. The analysis of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) suggests that the product of this gene also has a regulatory role in the biosynthetic pathway of lactones. Conclusions Altogether, this study provides mechanistic information of how the production of ?-decalactone is naturally controlled in strawberry, and proposes enzymatic activities necessary for the formation of this VOC in plants. PMID:24742100

  4. FINE MAPPING OF GENES REGULATING HEAT LOSS IN MICE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three mapping populations have been produced from lines of mice that have undergone 16 generations of divergent selection for high and low heat loss using direct calorimetry. Two populations consisted of F2 intercrosses originating from either outbred (MH x ML, n=560) or inbred (IH x IL, n=640) high...

  5. Fine mapping, physical mapping and development of diagnostic markers for the Rrs2 scald resistance gene in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anja Hanemann; Günther F. Schweizer; Roberto Cossu; Thomas Wicker; Marion S. Röder

    2009-01-01

    The Rrs2 gene confers resistance to the fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium\\u000a secalis which causes leaf scald, a major barley disease. The Rrs2 gene was fine mapped to an interval of 0.08 cM between markers 693M6_6 and P1D23R on the distal end of barley chromosome\\u000a 7HS using an Atlas (resistant) × Steffi (susceptible) mapping population of 9,179 F2-plants. The establishment of a physical map of

  6. Fine-Scale Mapping of Disease Loci via Shattered Coalescent Modeling of Genealogies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Morris; J. C. Whittaker; D. J. Balding

    2002-01-01

    We present a Bayesian, Markov-chain Monte Carlo method for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium gene mapping using high-density marker maps. The method explicitly models the genealogy underlying a sample of case chro- mosomes in the vicinity of a putative disease locus, in contrast with the assumption of a star-shaped tree made by many existing multipoint methods. Within this modeling framework, we can allow

  7. Fine mapping of complex traits in non-model species: using next generation sequencing and advanced intercross lines in Japanese quail

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background As for other non-model species, genetic analyses in quail will benefit greatly from a higher marker density, now attainable thanks to the evolution of sequencing and genotyping technologies. Our objective was to obtain the first genome wide panel of Japanese quail SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) and to use it for the fine mapping of a QTL for a fear-related behaviour, namely tonic immobility, previously localized on Coturnix japonica chromosome 1. To this aim, two reduced representations of the genome were analysed through high-throughput 454 sequencing: AFLP (Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism) fragments as representatives of genomic DNA, and EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) as representatives of the transcriptome. Results The sequencing runs produced 399,189 and 1,106,762 sequence reads from cDNA and genomic fragments, respectively. They covered over 434 Mb of sequence in total and allowed us to detect 17,433 putative SNP. Among them, 384 were used to genotype two Advanced Intercross Lines (AIL) obtained from three quail lines differing for duration of tonic immobility. Despite the absence of genotyping for founder individuals in the analysis, the previously identified candidate region on chromosome 1 was refined and led to the identification of a candidate gene. Conclusions These data confirm the efficiency of transcript and AFLP-sequencing for SNP discovery in a non-model species, and its application to the fine mapping of a complex trait. Our results reveal a significant association of duration of tonic immobility with a genomic region comprising the DMD (dystrophin) gene. Further characterization of this candidate gene is needed to decipher its putative role in tonic immobility in Coturnix. PMID:23066875

  8. Linkage and association analysis of GAW15 simulated data: fine-mapping of chromosome 6 region

    E-print Network

    2007-12-18

    in on this region and performed fine-mapping using stepwise regression approaches using the case/control and family-based data. In this region, we also applied several new methods, implemented in the computer programs LAMP and Graphminer, respectively, that have...

  9. Fine Mapping Reveals Multiple Loci and a Possible Epistatic Interaction within the Mammary Carcinoma Susceptibility

    E-print Network

    Gould, Michael N.

    Carcinoma Susceptibility Quantitative Trait Locus, Mcs5 David J. Samuelson, Beth A. Aperavich, Jill D. Haag intervals of the Mcs5 quantitative trait locus region are presented to fine map three independently acting Mcs5 subloci. WKy- homozygous females from congenic lines defining Mcs5a, Mcs5b, and Mcs5c averaged

  10. Constraints for a fine-grained mapping of feature models and executable domain models

    E-print Network

    Westfechtel, Bernhard

    Constraints for a fine-grained mapping of feature models and executable domain models Thomas.lastname@uni-bayreuth.de Abstract. In the past, several approaches have been made to combine feature models and domain models on the level of class diagrams. But the model-driven development approach also covers models that describe

  11. Fine mapping a quantitative trait locus affecting ovulation rate in swine on chromosome 81

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. M. G. Campbell; D. Nonneman; G. A. Rohrer

    2010-01-01

    Ovulation rate is an integral compo- nent of litter size in swine, but is difficult to directly select for in commercial swine production. Because a QTL has been detected for ovulation rate at the termi- nal end of chromosome 8p, genetic markers for this QTL would enable direct selection for ovulation rate in both males and females. Eleven genes from

  12. Saturation of an Intra-Gene Pool Linkage Map: Towards a Unified Consensus Linkage Map for Fine Mapping and Synteny Analysis in Common Bean

    PubMed Central

    Galeano, Carlos H.; Fernandez, Andrea C.; Franco-Herrera, Natalia; Cichy, Karen A.; McClean, Phillip E.; Vanderleyden, Jos; Blair, Matthew W.

    2011-01-01

    Map-based cloning and fine mapping to find genes of interest and marker assisted selection (MAS) requires good genetic maps with reproducible markers. In this study, we saturated the linkage map of the intra-gene pool population of common bean DOR364×BAT477 (DB) by evaluating 2,706 molecular markers including SSR, SNP, and gene-based markers. On average the polymorphism rate was 7.7% due to the narrow genetic base between the parents. The DB linkage map consisted of 291 markers with a total map length of 1,788 cM. A consensus map was built using the core mapping populations derived from inter-gene pool crosses: DOR364×G19833 (DG) and BAT93×JALO EEP558 (BJ). The consensus map consisted of a total of 1,010 markers mapped, with a total map length of 2,041 cM across 11 linkage groups. On average, each linkage group on the consensus map contained 91 markers of which 83% were single copy markers. Finally, a synteny analysis was carried out using our highly saturated consensus maps compared with the soybean pseudo-chromosome assembly. A total of 772 marker sequences were compared with the soybean genome. A total of 44 syntenic blocks were identified. The linkage group Pv6 presented the most diverse pattern of synteny with seven syntenic blocks, and Pv9 showed the most consistent relations with soybean with just two syntenic blocks. Additionally, a co-linear analysis using common bean transcript map information against soybean coding sequences (CDS) revealed the relationship with 787 soybean genes. The common bean consensus map has allowed us to map a larger number of markers, to obtain a more complete coverage of the common bean genome. Our results, combined with synteny relationships provide tools to increase marker density in selected genomic regions to identify closely linked polymorphic markers for indirect selection, fine mapping or for positional cloning. PMID:22174773

  13. A comparative linkage map of oilseed rape and its use for QTL analysis of seed oil and erucic acid content

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Qiu; C. Morgan; J. Shi; Y. Long; J. Liu; R. Li; X. Zhuang; Y. Wang; X. Tan; E. Dietrich; T. Weihmann; C. Everett; S. Vanstraelen; P. Beckett; F. Fraser; M. Trick; S. Barnes; J. Wilmer; R. Schmidt; J. Li; D. Li; J. Meng; I. Bancroft

    2006-01-01

    We have developed a new DH mapping population for oilseed rape, named TNDH, using genetically and phenotypically diverse parental lines. We used the population in the construction of a high stringency genetic linkage map, consisting of 277 loci, for use in quantitative genetic analysis. A proportion of the markers had been used previously in the construction of linkage maps for

  14. Fine mapping of canine parvovirus B cell epitopes.

    PubMed

    López de Turiso, J A; Cortés, E; Ranz, A; García, J; Sanz, A; Vela, C; Casal, J I

    1991-10-01

    In this report we describe the topological mapping of neutralizing domains of canine parvovirus (CPV). We obtained 11 CPV-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), six of which are neutralizing. The reactivities were as determined by ELISA and Western blot (immunoblot) analysis. VP2, the most abundant protein of the CPV capsid, seemed to contain all the neutralization sites. Also, an almost full-length genomic clone of CPV was constructed in the bacterial plasmid pUC18 to enable expression of CPV proteins. All the neutralizing MAbs recognized recombinant VP2 when it was expressed as a free protein in Escherichia coli but not when expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione-S-transferase. When two large fragments containing about 85% and 67% of the C terminus of VP2 were expressed, no neutralization sites were detected. When fusion proteins containing the N terminus were expressed, two linear determinants were mapped, one between residues 1 to 10 of VP2, and the other between amino acids 11 and 23. The peptide 11 GQPAVRNERATGS 23, recognized by MAb 3C9, was synthesized chemically and checked for immunogenicity, not being able to induce neutralizing activity. Although the antibody response in rabbits to all the fusion proteins was uniformly high, the anti-CPV response was very variable. Protein from pCPVEx11, which contains a T cell epitope (peptide PKIFINLAKKKKAG) present in the VP1-specific region as well as the B cell epitopes, seemed to be the most effective in inducing virus neutralization. PMID:1919526

  15. Detection of QTL in rainbow trout affecting survival when challenged with Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Vallejo, Roger L; Palti, Yniv; Liu, Sixin; Evenhuis, Jason P; Gao, Guangtu; Rexroad, Caird E; Wiens, Gregory D

    2014-06-01

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant economic loss in salmonid aquaculture. We previously detected genetic variation in survival following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causative agent of BCWD in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A family-based selection program to improve resistance was initiated in 2005 at the USDA National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture. Select crosses were made in 2007 and 2009 to evaluate family-based disease survival using Fp injection challenges. From each putative F?/BC? family generated in 2009, 200-260 fish were challenged in 4-7 replicates per family. Whole genome QTL scans of three F?/BC? families were conducted with about 270 informative microsatellite loci per family spaced at an average interval size of 6 cM throughout the rainbow trout genome. Markers on chromosomes containing QTL were further evaluated in three additional F?/BC? families. The additional F?/BC? families were sire or dam half-sibs (HS) of the initially genome scanned families. Overall, we identified nine major QTL on seven chromosomes that were significant or highly significant with moderate to large effects of at least 13 % of the total phenotypic variance. The largest effect QTL for BCWD resistance explaining up to 40 % of the phenotypic variance was detected on chromosome OMY8 in family 2009070 and in the combined dam HS family 2009069-070. The nine major QTL identified in this study are candidates for fine mapping to identify new markers that are tightly linked to disease resistance loci for using in marker assisted selection strategies. PMID:24241385

  16. Increasing the density of markers around a major QTL controlling resistance to angular leaf spot in common bean.

    PubMed

    Oblessuc, Paula Rodrigues; Cardoso Perseguini, Juliana Morini Kupper; Baroni, Renata Moro; Chiorato, Alisson Fernando; Carbonell, Sérgio Augusto Morais; Mondego, Jorge Mauricio Costa; Vidal, Ramon Oliveira; Camargo, Luis Eduardo Aranha; Benchimol-Reis, Luciana Lasry

    2013-10-01

    Angular leaf spot (ALS) causes major yield losses in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), an important protein source in the human diet. This study describes the saturation around a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) region, ALS10.1, controlling resistance to ALS located on linkage group Pv10 and explores the genomic context of this region using available data from the P. vulgaris genome sequence. DArT-derived markers (STS-DArT) selected by bulk segregant analysis and SCAR and SSR markers were used to increase the resolution of the QTL, reducing the confidence interval of ALS10.1 from 13.4 to 3.0 cM. The position of the SSR ATA220 coincided with the maximum LOD score of the QTL. Moreover, a new QTL (ALS10.2(UC)) was identified at the end of the same linkage group. Sequence analysis using the P. vulgaris genome located ten SSRs and seven STS-DArT on chromosome 10 (Pv10). Coincident linkage and genome positions of five markers enabled the definition of a core region for ALS10.1 spanning 5.3 Mb. These markers are linked to putative genes related to disease resistance such as glycosyl transferase, ankyrin repeat-containing, phospholipase, and squamosa-promoter binding protein. Synteny analysis between ALS10.1 markers and the genome of soybean suggested a dynamic evolution of this locus in the common bean. The present study resulted in the identification of new candidate genes and markers closely linked to a major ALS disease resistance QTL, which can be used in marker-assisted selection, fine mapping and positional QTL cloning. PMID:23832048

  17. Fine specificity of autoantibodies to calreticulin: epitope mapping and characterization.

    PubMed

    Eggleton, P; Ward, F J; Johnson, S; Khamashta, M A; Hughes, G R; Hajela, V A; Michalak, M; Corbett, E F; Staines, N A; Reid, K B

    2000-05-01

    Extracellular calreticulin (CRT) as well as anti-CRT antibodies have been reported in patients with various autoimmune disorders and CRT has been implicated in 'epitope spreading' to other autoantigens such as the Ro/SS-A complex. In addition, antibodies against parasite forms of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, CRT, have been found in patients suffering from onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. In this study, we screened sera for anti-CRT antibodies from patients with active and inactive systemic lupus ertythematosus (SLE) and primary or secondary Sjögren's syndrome. Approximately 40% of all SLE patients were positive for anti-CRT antibodies. The antigenic regions of CRT were determined using full length CRT and fragments of CRT prepared in yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively. Synthetic 15mer peptides corresponding to the major autoantigenic region of CRT (amino acids 1-289), each one overlapping by 12 amino acids, were used to map the B cell epitopes on the CRT protein recognized by autoimmune sera. Major antigenic epitopes were found to be associated with the N-terminal half of the protein in 69% of the SLE sera from active disease patients, while the C-domain was not antigenic. Major epitopes were found to be reactive with antibodies in sera from SLE patients with both active and inactive disease, spanning different regions of the N and P-domains. Sera from both healthy and disease controls and primary Sjögren's syndrome patients were non-reactive to these sequences. Limited proteolysis of CRT with two major leucocyte serine proteases, elastase and cathepsin G, demonstrated that an N-terminal region of CRT is resistant to digestion. Interestingly, some of the epitopes with the highest reactivity belong to the fragments of the protein which bind to C1q and inhibit complement activation. Whether C1q association with CRT is a pathological or protective interaction between these two proteins is currently under investigation. PMID:10792392

  18. Fine specificity of autoantibodies to calreticulin: epitope mapping and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Eggleton, P; Ward, F J; Johnson, S; Khamashta, M A; Hughes, G R V; Hajela, V A; Michalak, M; Corbett, E F; Staines, N A; Reid, K B M

    2000-01-01

    Extracellular calreticulin (CRT) as well as anti-CRT antibodies have been reported in patients with various autoimmune disorders and CRT has been implicated in ‘epitope spreading’ to other autoantigens such as the Ro/SS-A complex. In addition, antibodies against parasite forms of the endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, CRT, have been found in patients suffering from onchocerciasis and schistosomiasis. In this study, we screened sera for anti-CRT antibodies from patients with active and inactive systemic lupus ertythematosus (SLE) and primary or secondary Sjögren's syndrome. Approximately 40% of all SLE patients were positive for anti-CRT antibodies. The antigenic regions of CRT were determined using full length CRT and fragments of CRT prepared in yeast and Escherichia coli, respectively. Synthetic 15mer peptides corresponding to the major autoantigenic region of CRT (amino acids 1–289), each one overlapping by 12 amino acids, were used to map the B cell epitopes on the CRT protein recognized by autoimmune sera. Major antigenic epitopes were found to be associated with the N-terminal half of the protein in 69% of the SLE sera from active disease patients, while the C-domain was not antigenic. Major epitopes were found to be reactive with antibodies in sera from SLE patients with both active and inactive disease, spanning different regions of the N and P-domains. Sera from both healthy and disease controls and primary Sjögren's syndrome patients were non-reactive to these sequences. Limited proteolysis of CRT with two major leucocyte serine proteases, elastase and cathepsin G, demonstrated that an N-terminal region of CRT is resistant to digestion. Interestingly, some of the epitopes with the highest reactivity belong to the fragments of the protein which bind to C1q and inhibit complement activation. Whether C1q association with CRT is a pathological or protective interaction between these two proteins is currently under investigation. PMID:10792392

  19. Inheritance and QTL Mapping of Leaf Nutrient Concentration in a Cotton Inter-Specific Derived RIL Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shiming; Lacape, Jean-Marc; Constable, Greg A.; Llewellyn, Danny J.

    2015-01-01

    Developing and deploying cotton cultivars with high nutrient uptake, use efficiency and tolerance to nutrient related soil stresses is desirable to assist sustainable soil management. Genetic variation, heritability, selection response and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were investigated for five macronutrients (P, K, Ca, Mg, S) and five micronutrients (Fe, Mn, B, Zn, and Cu) in a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population from an inter-specific cross between Gossypium hirsutum cv. Guazuncho 2, and G. barbadense accession VH8-4602. Na and K/Na ratio were also studied as the imbalance between Na and other nutrients is detrimental to cotton growth and development. The concentrations of nutrients were measured for different plant parts of the two parents and for leaf samples of the whole population collected at early to peak flowering in field experiments over two years in a sodic Vertosol soil. Parental contrast was large for most nutrient concentrations in leaves when compared with other plant parts. Segregation for leaf nutrient concentration was observed within the population with transgression for P, K, K/Na ratio and all micronutrients. Genotypic difference was the major factor behind within-population variation for most nutrients, while narrow sense heritability was moderate (0.27 for Mn and Cu, and 0.43 for B). At least one significant QTL was identified for each nutrient except K and more than half of those QTLs were clustered on chromosomes 14, 18 and 22. Selection response was predicted to be low for P and all micronutrients except B, high for K, Na and B, and very high for K/Na ratio. Correlations were more common between macronutrients, Na and K/Na ratio where the nature and strength of the relations varied (r=-0.69 to 0.76). We conclude that there is sufficient genetic diversity between these two tetraploid cotton species that could be exploited to improve cotton nutrient status by introgressing species-unique favourable alleles. PMID:26020945

  20. Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) Mapping of Transpiration Efficiency Related to Pre-flower Drought Tolerance in Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

    E-print Network

    Heraganahally Kapanigowda, Mohankumar

    2012-07-16

    and greenhouse evaluation of agronomic of traits at College Station and Halfway, TX, 91 QTL that control variation in six major agronomic traits such as plant height, flowering, biomass, leaf area, leaf greenness and stomatal density were identified. Co...

  1. Identification and mapping QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘Stephens’

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Santra; X. M. Chen; M. Santra; K. G. Campbell; K. K. Kidwell

    2008-01-01

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance from the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar ‘Stephens’ has protected wheat crops from stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici for 30 years. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance in Stephens\\u000a through genetic linkage analysis and identify DNA markers linked to the QTL for use

  2. Fine-Scale Mapping of Natural Variation in Fly Fecundity Identifies Neuronal Domain of Expression and Function of an Aquaporin

    PubMed Central

    Bergland, Alan O.; Chae, Hyo-seok; Kim, Young-Joon; Tatar, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the molecular genetic basis of standing variation in fitness related traits, we identify a novel factor that regulates the molecular and physiological basis of natural variation in female Drosophila melanogaster fecundity. Genetic variation in female fecundity in flies derived from a wild orchard population is heritable and largely independent of other measured life history traits. We map a portion of this variation to a single QTL and then use deficiency mapping to further refine this QTL to 5 candidate genes. Ubiquitous expression of RNAi against only one of these genes, an aquaporin encoded by Drip, reduces fecundity. Within our mapping population Drip mRNA level in the head, but not other tissues, is positively correlated with fecundity. We localize Drip expression to a small population of corazonin producing neurons located in the dorsolateral posterior compartments of the protocerebrum. Expression of Drip–RNAi using both the pan-neuronal ELAV-Gal4 and the Crz-Gal4 drivers reduces fecundity. Low-fecundity RILs have decreased Crz expression and increased expression of pale, the enzyme encoding the rate-limiting step in the production of dopamine, a modulator of insect life histories. Taken together these data suggest that natural variation in Drip expression in the corazonin producing neurons contributes to standing variation in fitness by altering the concentration of two neurohormones. PMID:22509142

  3. Fine-scale mapping of natural variation in fly fecundity identifies neuronal domain of expression and function of an aquaporin.

    PubMed

    Bergland, Alan O; Chae, Hyo-seok; Kim, Young-Joon; Tatar, Marc

    2012-01-01

    To gain insight into the molecular genetic basis of standing variation in fitness related traits, we identify a novel factor that regulates the molecular and physiological basis of natural variation in female Drosophila melanogaster fecundity. Genetic variation in female fecundity in flies derived from a wild orchard population is heritable and largely independent of other measured life history traits. We map a portion of this variation to a single QTL and then use deficiency mapping to further refine this QTL to 5 candidate genes. Ubiquitous expression of RNAi against only one of these genes, an aquaporin encoded by Drip, reduces fecundity. Within our mapping population Drip mRNA level in the head, but not other tissues, is positively correlated with fecundity. We localize Drip expression to a small population of corazonin producing neurons located in the dorsolateral posterior compartments of the protocerebrum. Expression of Drip-RNAi using both the pan-neuronal ELAV-Gal4 and the Crz-Gal4 drivers reduces fecundity. Low-fecundity RILs have decreased Crz expression and increased expression of pale, the enzyme encoding the rate-limiting step in the production of dopamine, a modulator of insect life histories. Taken together these data suggest that natural variation in Drip expression in the corazonin producing neurons contributes to standing variation in fitness by altering the concentration of two neurohormones. PMID:22509142

  4. A Study of Cattle Disposition: Exploring QTL Associated with Temperament

    E-print Network

    Boldt, Clayton Ryan

    2008-05-16

    used with 133 other markers to construct linkage maps for each of the 29 autosomes in this population. There were QTL for various component traits of behavior (aggressiveness, nervousness, flightiness, gregariousness, and overall disposition) measured...

  5. Construction of a comparative RFLP map of Echinochloa crus-galli toward QTL analysis of flooding tolerance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Fukao; A. H. Paterson; M. A. Hussey; Y. Yamasue; R. A. Kennedy; M. E. Rumpho

    2004-01-01

    To analyze quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting flooding tolerance and other physiological and morphological traits in Echinochloa crus-galli, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map was constructed using 55 plants of the F 2 population ( E. crus-galli var. praticola × E. crus-galli var. formosensis). One hundred forty-one loci formed 41 linkage groups. The total map size was 1,468 cM and

  6. Fine mapping of open-bud duplicate genes in homoelogous chromosomes of tetraploid cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neng Qian; Xing-Wei Zhang; Wang-Zhen Guo; Tian-Zhen Zhang

    2009-01-01

    The open-bud mutant plant has a flower bud that is open at its tip due to the shortening of the corollas, resulting in exposure\\u000a of the stigma and upper anthers. This mutant plant is potentially useful as a parent for producing hybrid cotton seeds. We\\u000a have identified the open-bud trait to be inherited as recessive duplicate genes and finely mapped

  7. Comparative genetic analysis of a wheat seed dormancy QTL with rice and Brachypodium identifies candidate genes for ABA perception and calcium signaling.

    PubMed

    Somyong, Suthasinee; Munkvold, Jesse D; Tanaka, James; Benscher, David; Sorrells, Mark E

    2011-09-01

    Wheat preharvest sprouting (PHS) occurs when seed germinates on the plant before harvest resulting in reduced grain quality. In wheat, PHS susceptibility is correlated with low levels of seed dormancy. A previous mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) revealed a major PHS/seed dormancy QTL, QPhs.cnl-2B.1, located on wheat chromosome 2B. A comparative genetic study with the related grass species rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Brachypodium distachyon at the homologous region to the QPhs.cnl-2B.1 interval was used to identify the candidate genes for marker development and subsequent fine mapping. Expressed sequence tags and a comparative mapping were used to design 278 primer pairs, of which 22 produced polymorphic amplicons that mapped to the group 2 chromosomes. Fourteen mapped to chromosome 2B, and ten were located in the QTL interval. A comparative analysis revealed good macrocollinearity between the PHS interval and 3 million base pair (mb) region on rice chromosomes 7 and 3, and a 2.7-mb region on Brachypodium Bd1. The comparative intervals in rice were found to contain three previously identified rice seed dormancy QTL. Further analyses of the interval in rice identified genes that are known to play a role in seed dormancy, including a homologue for the putative Arabidopsis ABA receptor ABAR/GUN5. Additional candidate genes involved in calcium signaling were identified and were placed in a functional protein association network that includes additional proteins critical for ABA signaling and germination. This study provides promising candidate genes for seed dormancy in both wheat and rice as well as excellent molecular markers for further comparative and fine mapping. PMID:21468744

  8. Construction of a comparative RFLP map of Echinochloa crus-galli toward QTL analysis of flooding tolerance.

    PubMed

    Fukao, T; Paterson, A H; Hussey, M A; Yamasue, Y; Kennedy, R A; Rumpho, M E

    2004-04-01

    To analyze quantitative trait loci (QTLs) affecting flooding tolerance and other physiological and morphological traits in Echinochloa crus-galli, a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) map was constructed using 55 plants of the F(2) population ( E. crus-galli var. praticola x E. crus-galli var. formosensis). One hundred forty-one loci formed 41 linkage groups. The total map size was 1,468 cM and the average size of linkage groups was 35.8 cM. The average distance between markers was 14.7 cM and the range was 0-37.2 cM. Early comparisons to the genetic maps of other taxa suggest appreciable synteny with buffelgrass ( Pennisetum spp.) and sorghum ( Sorghum spp.). One hundred ninty-one F(2) plants were used to analyze QTLs of flooding tolerance, plant morphology, heading date, number of leaves, and plant height. For flooding tolerance, two QTLs were detected and one was mapped on linkage group 24. Other traits, including plant morphology, heading date, number of leaves, and plant height were highly correlated. Three genomic regions accounted for most of the mapped QTLs, each explaining 2-4 of the significant marker-trait associations. The high observed correlation between the traits appears to result from QTLs with a large contribution to the phenotypic variance at the same or nearby locations. PMID:15067384

  9. Differential gene expression in nearly isogenic lines with QTL for partial resistance to Puccinia hordei in barley

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinwei Chen; Rients E Niks; Peter E Hedley; Jenny Morris; Arnis Druka; Thierry C Marcel; Anton Vels; Robbie Waugh

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The barley-Puccinia hordei (barley leaf rust) pathosystem is a model for investigating partial disease resistance in crop plants and genetic mapping of phenotypic resistance has identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for partial resistance. Reciprocal QTL-specific near-isogenic lines (QTL-NILs) have been developed that combine two QTL, Rphq2 and Rphq3, the largest effects detected in a recombinant-inbred-line (RIL) population derived

  10. Leaf morphology in Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp]: QTL analysis, physical mapping and identifying a candidate gene using synteny with model legume species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp] exhibits a considerable variation in leaf shape. Although cowpea is mostly utilized as a dry grain and animal fodder crop, cowpea leaves are also used as a high-protein pot herb in many countries of Africa. Results Leaf morphology was studied in the cowpea RIL population, Sanzi (sub-globose leaf shape) x Vita 7 (hastate leaf shape). A QTL for leaf shape, Hls (hastate leaf shape), was identified on the Sanzi x Vita 7 genetic map spanning from 56.54?cM to 67.54?cM distance on linkage group 15. SNP marker 1_0910 was the most significant over the two experiments, accounting for 74.7% phenotypic variance (LOD 33.82) in a greenhouse experiment and 71.5% phenotypic variance (LOD 30.89) in a field experiment. The corresponding Hls locus was positioned on the cowpea consensus genetic map on linkage group 4, spanning from 25.57 to 35.96?cM. A marker-trait association of the Hls region identified SNP marker 1_0349 alleles co-segregating with either the hastate or sub-globose leaf phenotype. High co-linearity was observed for the syntenic Hls region in Medicago truncatula and Glycine max. One syntenic locus for Hls was identified on Medicago chromosome 7 while syntenic regions for Hls were identified on two soybean chromosomes, 3 and 19. In all three syntenic loci, an ortholog for the EZA1/SWINGER (AT4G02020.1) gene was observed and is the candidate gene for the Hls locus. The Hls locus was identified on the cowpea physical map via SNP markers 1_0910, 1_1013 and 1_0992 which were identified in three BAC contigs; contig926, contig821 and contig25. Conclusions This study has demonstrated how integrated genomic resources can be utilized for a candidate gene approach. Identification of genes which control leaf morphology may be utilized to improve the quality of cowpea leaves for vegetable and or forage markets as well as contribute to more fundamental research understanding the control of leaf shape in legumes. PMID:22691139

  11. Quantitative trait loci identification, fine mapping and gene expression profiling for ovicidal response to whitebacked planthopper (Sogatella furcifera Horvath) in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera Horváth, is a serious rice pest in Asia. Ovicidal resistance is a natural rice defense mechanism against WBPH and is characterized by the formation of watery lesions (WLs) and increased egg mortality (EM) at the WBPH oviposition sites. Results This study aimed to understand the genetic and molecular basis of rice ovicidal resistance to WBPH by combining genetic and genomic analyses. First, the ovicidal trait in doubled haploid rice lines derived from a WBPH-resistant cultivar (CJ06) and a WBPH-susceptible cultivar (TN1) were phenotyped based on the necrotic symptoms of the leaf sheaths and EM. Using a constructed molecular linkage map, 19 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with WLs and EM were identified on eight chromosomes. Of them, qWL6 was determined to be a major QTL for WL. Based on chromosome segment substitution lines and a residual heterozygous population, a high-resolution linkage analysis further defined the qWL6 locus to a 122-kb region on chromosome 6, which was annotated to encode 20 candidate genes. We then conducted an Affymetrix microarray analysis to determine the transcript abundance in the CJ06 and TN1 plants. Upon WBPH infestation, 432 genes in CJ06 and 257 genes in TN1 were significantly up-regulated, while 802 genes in CJ06 and 398 genes in TN1 were significantly down-regulated. This suggests that remarkable global changes in gene expression contribute to the ovicidal resistance of rice. Notably, four genes in the 122-kb region of the qWL6 locus were differentially regulated between CJ06 and TN1 in response to the WBPH infestation, suggesting they may be candidate resistance genes. Conclusions The information obtained from the fine mapping of qWL6 and the microarray analyses will facilitate the isolation of this important resistance gene and its use in breeding WBPH-resistant rice. PMID:24886295

  12. Identification of QTL for drought tolerance and characterization of extreme phenotypes in the Buster x Roza mapping population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Terminal and intermittent drought limits dry bean production worldwide.The Buster/Roza mapping population (140 F7:9 RILs) has been screened for drought tolerance across multiple years/locations. In 2011 and 2012 the RILs were tested for terminal drought response at two locations: Othello, WA and Sco...

  13. Validation of rice blast resistance genes in barley using a QTL mapping population and near-isolines.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are prior reports of Pyricularia grisea – the causal agent of blast of rice – causing disease in barley. In order to determine the specificity of this resistance in barley, we extended our previous mapping efforts to include blast isolates from barley and rice grown in Thailand and we assesse...

  14. Mapping Fiber and Yield QTLs with Main, Epistatic, and QTL × Environment Interaction Effects in Recombinant Inbred Lines of Upland Cotton

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xinlian Shen; Tianzhen Zhang; Wangzhen Guo; Xiefei Zhu; Xiaoyang Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Most agronomic traits of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) are quan- titatively inherited and affected by environment. The importance of epistasis as the genetic basis for complex traits has been reported in many crops. In this study, a linkage map was constructed by means of a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from 72353TM-1. Main effects, epistatic effects, and environmental interaction

  15. Mapping Blast and Sheath Blight QTL in an Advanced Backcross Bengal/O. nivara (Wild2) Population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An advanced backcross mapping population was developed from a cross between ‘Bengal’, a popular southern U.S. tropical japonica rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar, and an accession of the rice ancestral species, O. nivara Sharma & Shastry (IRGC104705). Previous studies identified this O. nivara accessi...

  16. Identification of major and minor QTL for ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shikano, Takahito; Leinonen, Tuomas; Cano, José Manuel; Li, Meng-Hua; Merilä, Juha

    2014-04-01

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping studies of Pacific three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) have uncovered several genomic regions controlling variability in different morphological traits, but QTL studies of Atlantic sticklebacks are lacking. We mapped QTL for 40 morphological traits, including body size, body shape, and body armor, in a F2 full-sib cross between northern European marine and freshwater three-spined sticklebacks. A total of 52 significant QTL were identified at the 5% genome-wide level. One major QTL explaining 74.4% of the total variance in lateral plate number was detected on LG4, whereas several major QTL for centroid size (a proxy for body size), and the lengths of two dorsal spines, pelvic spine, and pelvic girdle were mapped on LG21 with the explained variance ranging from 27.9% to 57.6%. Major QTL for landmark coordinates defining body shape variation also were identified on LG21, with each explaining ?15% of variance in body shape. Multiple QTL for different traits mapped on LG21 overlapped each other, implying pleiotropy and/or tight linkage. Thus, apart from providing confirmatory data to support conclusions born out of earlier QTL studies of Pacific sticklebacks, this study also describes several novel QTL of both major and smaller effect for ecologically important traits. The finding that many major QTL mapped on LG21 suggests that this linkage group might be a hotspot for genetic determinants of ecologically important morphological traits in three-spined sticklebacks. PMID:24531726

  17. Informative markers identification and multivariate analysis of selected DxP for the purpose of QTL mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazirah S., Z.; Maizura, I.; Rajinder, S.; Mohd Isa Z., A.; Ismanizan, I.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to generate a linkage map of oil palm dura x pisifera (DXP) population. A subset of sample from a DXP mapping family was screened using 325 SSR primers, of which 221 were informative. To date, 150 SSRs have been genotyped across the entire DxP population via capillary sequencer, where 73 SSRs had 1:1 segregation ratio, 64 had 1:1:1:1, 3 had 3:1 and ten had 1:2:1 segregation ratios. Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests by SPSS revealed that most of the bunch quality components had normal distribution which fulfilled one of the pre-requisites to carry out phenotype-genotype correlation association.

  18. Multiple Interval Mapping for Whole Cocoon Weight and Related Economically Important Traits QTL in Silkworm ( Bombyx mori)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin LI; Cheng LU; Ai-chun ZHAO; Zhong-huai XIANG

    2006-01-01

    A backcrossed population (BC1) derived from a cross between C100 and Dazao was obtained. The quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of the economically important traits for whole cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, ratio of cocoon shell and weight of pupae, etc., were analyzed for the first time using the multiple interval mapping software WinQTLCart2.0. In total 40 QTLs were detected and

  19. Dissection of a Complex Disease Susceptibility Region Using a Bayesian Stochastic Search Approach to Fine Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Chris; Cutler, Antony J; Pontikos, Nikolas; Pekalski, Marcin L; Burren, Oliver S; Cooper, Jason D; García, Arcadio Rubio; Ferreira, Ricardo C; Guo, Hui; Walker, Neil M; Smyth, Deborah J; Rich, Stephen S; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Sawcer, Stephen J; Ban, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Identification of candidate causal variants in regions associated with risk of common diseases is complicated by linkage disequilibrium (LD) and multiple association signals. Nonetheless, accurate maps of these variants are needed, both to fully exploit detailed cell specific chromatin annotation data to highlight disease causal mechanisms and cells, and for design of the functional studies that will ultimately be required to confirm causal mechanisms. We adapted a Bayesian evolutionary stochastic search algorithm to the fine mapping problem, and demonstrated its improved performance over conventional stepwise and regularised regression through simulation studies. We then applied it to fine map the established multiple sclerosis (MS) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) associations in the IL-2RA (CD25) gene region. For T1D, both stepwise and stochastic search approaches identified four T1D association signals, with the major effect tagged by the single nucleotide polymorphism, rs12722496. In contrast, for MS, the stochastic search found two distinct competing models: a single candidate causal variant, tagged by rs2104286 and reported previously using stepwise analysis; and a more complex model with two association signals, one of which was tagged by the major T1D associated rs12722496 and the other by rs56382813. There is low to moderate LD between rs2104286 and both rs12722496 and rs56382813 (r2 ? 0:3) and our two SNP model could not be recovered through a forward stepwise search after conditioning on rs2104286. Both signals in the two variant model for MS affect CD25 expression on distinct subpopulations of CD4+ T cells, which are key cells in the autoimmune process. The results support a shared causal variant for T1D and MS. Our study illustrates the benefit of using a purposely designed model search strategy for fine mapping and the advantage of combining disease and protein expression data. PMID:26106896

  20. Characterization and mapping of very fine particles in an engine machining and assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Peters, Thomas M; Slavin, Thomas J

    2007-05-01

    Very fine particle number and mass concentrations were mapped in an engine machining and assembly facility in the winter and summer. A condensation particle counter (CPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in the 0.01 microm to 1 microm range, and an optical particle counter (OPC) was used to measure particle number concentrations in 15 channels between 0.3 microm and 20 microm. The OPC measurements were used to estimate the respirable mass concentration. Very fine particle number concentrations were estimated by subtracting the OPC particle number concentrations from 0.3 microm to 1 microm from the CPC number concentrations. At specific locations during the summer visit, an electrical low pressure impactor was used to measure particle size distribution from 0.07 microm to 10 microm in 12 channels. The geometric mean ratio of respirable mass concentration estimated from the OPC to the gravimetrically measured mass concentration was 0.66 with a geometric standard deviation of 1.5. Very fine particle number concentrations in winter were substantially greater where direct-fire natural gas heaters were operated (7.5 x 10(5) particles/cm(3)) than where steam was used for heat (3 x 10(5) particles/cm(3)). During summer when heaters were off, the very fine particle number concentrations were below 10(5) particles/cm(3), regardless of location. Elevated very fine particle number concentrations were associated with machining operations with poor enclosures. Whereas respirable mass concentrations did not vary noticeably with season, they were greater in areas with poorly fitting enclosures (0.12 mg/m(3)) than in areas where state-of-the-art enclosures were used (0.03 mg/m(3)). These differences were attributed to metalworking fluid mist that escaped from poorly fitting enclosures. Particles generated from direct-fire natural gas heater operation were very small, with a number size distribution modal diameter of less than 0.023 microm. Aerosols generated by machining operations had number size distributions modes in the 0.023 microm to 0.1 microm range. However, multiple modes in the mass size distributions estimated from OPC measurements occurred in the 2-20 microm range. Although elevated, very fine particle concentrations and respirable mass concentrations were both associated with poorly enclosed machining operations; the operation of the direct-fire natural gas heaters resulted in the greatest very fine particle concentrations without elevating the respirable mass concentration. These results suggest that respirable mass concentration may not be an adequate indicator for very fine particle exposure. PMID:17454502

  1. Whole Genome Mapping in a Wheat Doubled Haploid Population Using SSRs and TRAPS and the Identification of QTL for Agronomic Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis allows the identification of genomic regions associated with quantitative traits, which provides an estimation of the number and chromosomal location of genes involved and leads to the identification of molecular markers suitable for marker-assisted selection (...

  2. MROrchestrator: A Fine-Grained Resource Orchestration Framework for MapReduce Clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Bikash [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Prabhakar, Ramya [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Kandemir, Mahmut [Pennsylvania State University; Das, Chita [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Lim, Seung-Hwan [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers and clouds running large distributed data processing frameworks like MapReduce is crucial for enhancing the performance of hosted applications and boosting resource utilization. However, existing resource scheduling schemes in Hadoop MapReduce allocate resources at the granularity of fixed-size, static portions of nodes, called slots. In this work, we show that MapReduce jobs have widely varying demands for multiple resources, making the static and fixed-size slot-level resource allocation a poor choice both from the performance and resource utilization standpoints. Furthermore, lack of co-ordination in the management of mul- tiple resources across nodes prevents dynamic slot reconfigura- tion, and leads to resource contention. Motivated by this, we propose MROrchestrator, a MapReduce resource Orchestrator framework, which can dynamically identify resource bottlenecks, and resolve them through fine-grained, co-ordinated, and on- demand resource allocations. We have implemented MROrches- trator on two 24-node native and virtualized Hadoop clusters. Experimental results with a suite of representative MapReduce benchmarks demonstrate up to 38% reduction in job completion times, and up to 25% increase in resource utilization. We further show how popular resource managers like NGM and Mesos when augmented with MROrchestrator can hike up their performance.

  3. Fine mapping in the MHC region accounts for 18% additional genetic risk for celiac disease.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Pulit, Sara L; Trynka, Gosia; Hunt, Karen A; Romanos, Jihane; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; van Heel, David A; Wijmenga, Cisca; de Bakker, Paul I W

    2015-06-01

    Although dietary gluten is the trigger for celiac disease, risk is strongly influenced by genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. We fine mapped the MHC association signal to identify additional risk factors independent of the HLA-DQA1 and HLA-DQB1 alleles and observed five new associations that account for 18% of the genetic risk. Taking these new loci together with the 57 known non-MHC loci, genetic variation can now explain up to 48% of celiac disease heritability. PMID:25894500

  4. Multiple Interval Mapping for Quantitative Trait Loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chen-Hung Kao; Zhao-Bang Zeng; Robert D. Teasdale

    A new statistical method for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL), called multiple interval mapping (MIM), is presented. It uses multiple marker intervals simultaneously to fit multiple putative QTL directly in the model for mapping QTL. The MIM model is based on Cockerham's model for interpreting genetic parameters and the method of maximum likelihood for estimating genetic parameters. With the MIM

  5. Empirical threshold values for quantitative trait mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. Churchill; R. W. Doerge

    1994-01-01

    The detection of genes that control quantitative characters is a problem of great interest to the genetic mapping community. Methods for locating these quantitative trait loci (QTL) relative to maps of genetic markers are now widely used. This paper addresses an issue common to all QTL mapping methods, that of determining an appropriate threshold value for declaring significant QTL effects.

  6. Molecular mapping across three populations reveals a QTL hotspot region on chromosome 3 for secondary traits associated with drought tolerance in tropical maize.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Gustavo Dias; Nair, Sudha; Borém, Aluízio; Cairns, Jill; Trachsel, Samuel; Ribaut, Jean-Marcel; Bänziger, Marianne; Prasanna, Boddupalli M; Crossa, Jose; Babu, Raman

    2014-01-01

    Identifying quantitative trait loci (QTL) of sizeable effects that are expressed in diverse genetic backgrounds across contrasting water regimes particularly for secondary traits can significantly complement the conventional drought tolerance breeding efforts. We evaluated three tropical maize biparental populations under water-stressed and well-watered regimes for drought-related morpho-physiological traits, such as anthesis-silking interval (ASI), ears per plant (EPP), stay-green (SG) and plant-to-ear height ratio (PEH). In general, drought stress reduced the genetic variance of grain yield (GY), while that of morpho-physiological traits remained stable or even increased under drought conditions. We detected consistent genomic regions across different genetic backgrounds that could be target regions for marker-assisted introgression for drought tolerance in maize. A total of 203 QTL for ASI, EPP, SG and PEH were identified under both the water regimes. Meta-QTL analysis across the three populations identified six constitutive genomic regions with a minimum of two overlapping traits. Clusters of QTL were observed on chromosomes 1.06, 3.06, 4.09, 5.05, 7.03 and 10.04/06. Interestingly, a ~8-Mb region delimited in 3.06 harboured QTL for most of the morpho-physiological traits considered in the current study. This region contained two important candidate genes viz., zmm16 (MADS-domain transcription factor) and psbs1 (photosystem II unit) that are responsible for reproductive organ development and photosynthate accumulation, respectively. The genomic regions identified in this study partially explained the association of secondary traits with GY. Flanking single nucleotide polymorphism markers reported herein may be useful in marker-assisted introgression of drought tolerance in tropical maize. PMID:25076840

  7. Construction of a comprehensive PCR-based marker linkage map and QTL mapping for fiber quality traits in upland cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zheng-Sheng Zhang; Mei-Chun Hu; Jian Zhang; Da-Jun Liu; Jing Zheng; Ke Zhang; Wei Wang; Qun Wan

    2009-01-01

    To facilitate marker assisted selection, there is an urgent need to construct a saturated genetic map of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Four types of markers including SSR, SRAP, morphological marker, and intron targeted intron–exon splice junction (IT-ISJ)\\u000a marker were used to construct a linkage map with 270 F2:7 recombinant inbred lines derived from an upland cotton cross (T586 × Yumian 1).

  8. Synergistic use of RADARSAT-2 Ultra Fine and Fine Quad-Pol data to map oilsands infrastructure land: Object-based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Xianfeng; Zhang, Ying; Guindon, Bert

    2015-06-01

    The landscape of Alberta's oilsands regions is undergoing extensive change due to the creation of infrastructure associated with the exploration for and extraction of this resource. Since most oil sands mining activities take place in remote forests or wetlands, one of the challenges is to collect up-to date and reliable information about the current state of land. Compared to optical sensors, SAR sensors have the advantage of being able to routinely collect imagery for timely monitoring by regulatory agencies. This paper explores the capability of high resolution RADARSAT-2 Ultra Fine and Fine Quad-Pol imagery for mapping oilsands infrastructure land using an object-based classification approach. Texture measurements extracted from Ultra Fine data are used to support an Ultra Fine based classification. Moreover, a radar vegetation index (RVI) calculated from PolSAR data is introduced for improved classification performance. The RVI is helpful in reducing confusion between infrastructure land and low vegetation covered surfaces. When Ultra Fine and PolSAR data are used in combination, the kappa value of well pads and processing facilities detection reached 0.87. In this study, we also found that core hole sites can be identified from early spring Ultra Fine data. With single-date image, kappa value of core hole sites ranged from 0.61 to 0.69.

  9. An eQTL mapping approach reveals that rare variants in the SEMA5A regulatory network impact autism risk

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ye; Quinn, Jeffrey Francis; Weiss, Lauren Anne

    2013-01-01

    To date, genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and copy number variant (CNV) association studies of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have led to promising signals but not to easily interpretable or translatable results. Our own genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed significant association to an intergenic SNP near Semaphorin 5A (SEMA5A) and provided evidence for reduced expression of the same gene. In a novel GWAS follow-up approach, we map an expression regulatory pathway for a GWAS candidate gene, SEMA5A, in silico by using population expression and genotype data sets. We find that the SEMA5A regulatory network significantly overlaps rare autism-specific CNVs. The SEMA5A regulatory network includes previous autism candidate genes and regions, including MACROD2, A2BP1, MCPH1, MAST4, CDH8, CADM1, FOXP1, AUTS2, MBD5, 7q21, 20p, USH2A, KIRREL3, DBF4B and RELN, among others. Our results provide: (i) a novel data-derived network implicated in autism, (ii) evidence that the same pathway seeded by an initial SNP association shows association with rare genetic variation in ASDs, (iii) a potential mechanism of action and interpretation for the previous autism candidate genes and genetic variants that fall in this network, and (iv) a novel approach that can be applied to other candidate genes for complex genetic disorders. We take a step towards better understanding of the significance of SEMA5A pathways in autism that can guide interpretation of many other genetic results in ASDs. PMID:23575222

  10. Fine-resolution mapping of micro-meteorological features in regions with heterogeneous landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esau, Igor; Varentsov, Mikhail

    2014-05-01

    Human socioeconomic activity and wild life conservation tasks frequently require meteorological information at fine (about 100 m) spatial resolution. For instance, this information is needed for assessment of wind load, wind gustiness, air quality and urban comfort in high latitudes where the atmospheric convection is limited. Neither sparse observational network nor operational meteorological models are able to directly provide this information to end-users. Methods of geo-statistical weighted interpolation (kriging) have been already successfully applied to reconstruct fine-resolution maps in geophysics. In this study, we applied a kriging with external drive to micro-meteorological reconstructions. As kriging is a statistical interpolation method, its application requires information from a more or less uniformly distributed network of observational stations. This condition is rarely satisfied. We propose use of a turbulence-resolving large-eddy simulation model (LES) to: (i) obtain variograms for each station; (ii) correct extrapolation of the data outside the domain covered with observations. The proposed fine-resolution method with external drive from the LES is demonstrated for the surface air temperature distribution (resolution 50 m) in the central valley of Bergen.

  11. Coalescent-based association mapping and fine mapping of complex trait loci.

    PubMed

    Zöllner, Sebastian; Pritchard, Jonathan K

    2005-02-01

    We outline a general coalescent framework for using genotype data in linkage disequilibrium-based mapping studies. Our approach unifies two main goals of gene mapping that have generally been treated separately in the past: detecting association (i.e., significance testing) and estimating the location of the causative variation. To tackle the problem, we separate the inference into two stages. First, we use Markov chain Monte Carlo to sample from the posterior distribution of coalescent genealogies of all the sampled chromosomes without regard to phenotype. Then, averaging across genealogies, we estimate the likelihood of the phenotype data under various models for mutation and penetrance at an unobserved disease locus. The essential signal that these models look for is that in the presence of disease susceptibility variants in a region, there is nonrandom clustering of the chromosomes on the tree according to phenotype. The extent of nonrandom clustering is captured by the likelihood and can be used to construct significance tests or Bayesian posterior distributions for location. A novelty of our framework is that it can naturally accommodate quantitative data. We describe applications of the method to simulated data and to data from a Mendelian locus (CFTR, responsible for cystic fibrosis) and from a proposed complex trait locus (calpain-10, implicated in type 2 diabetes). PMID:15489534

  12. Development and implementation of a highly-multiplexed SNP array for genetic mapping in maritime pine and comparative mapping with loblolly pine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Emilie Chancerel; Camille Lepoittevin; Grégoire Le Provost; Yao-Cheng Lin; Juan Pablo Jaramillo-Correa; Andrew J Eckert; Jill L Wegrzyn; Diana Zelenika; Anne Boland; Jean-Marc Frigerio; Philippe Chaumeil; Pauline Garnier-Géré; Christophe Boury; Delphine Grivet; Santiago C González-Martínez; Pierre Rouzé; Yves Van de Peer; David B Neale; Maria T Cervera; Antoine Kremer; Christophe Plomion

    2011-01-01

    Background  Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most abundant source of genetic variation among individuals of a species. New\\u000a genotyping technologies allow examining hundreds to thousands of SNPs in a single reaction for a wide range of applications\\u000a such as genetic diversity analysis, linkage mapping, fine QTL mapping, association studies, marker-assisted or genome-wide\\u000a selection. In this paper, we evaluated the potential

  13. A QTL for broad-spectrum resistance to cyst nematode species (Globodera spp.) maps to a resistance gene cluster in potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. N. A. M. Rouppe van der Voort; W. Lindeman; R. Folkertsma; R. C. B. Hutten; H. Overmars; E. van der Vossen; E. Jacobsen; J. Bakker

    1998-01-01

    Broad-spectrum resistance in potato to the potato cyst nematode (PCN) species Globodera rostochiensis and G. pallida is commonly regarded as a polygenically inherited trait. Yet, by use of QTL analysis and a selected set of PCN populations,\\u000a resistance to both PCN species could be ascribed to the action of locus Grp1. Grp1 confers major resistance to G. rostochiensis line Ro5-22

  14. Floral genetic architecture: an examination of QTL architecture underlying floral (co)variation across environments.

    PubMed

    Brock, Marcus T; Dechaine, Jennifer M; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L; Maloof, Julin N; Stinchcombe, John R; Weinig, Cynthia

    2010-12-01

    Genetic correlations are expected to be high among functionally related traits and lower between groups of traits with distinct functions (e.g., reproductive vs. resource-acquisition traits). Here, we explore the quantitative-genetic and QTL architecture of floral organ sizes, vegetative traits, and life history in a set of Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines within and across field and greenhouse environments. Floral organ lengths were strongly positively correlated within both environments, and analysis of standardized G-matrices indicates that the structure of genetic correlations is ?80% conserved across environments. Consistent with these correlations, we detected a total of 19 and 21 additive-effect floral QTL in the field and the greenhouse, respectively, and individual QTL typically affected multiple organ types. Interestingly, QTL×QTL epistasis also appeared to contribute to observed genetic correlations; i.e., interactions between two QTL had similar effects on filament length and two estimates of petal size. Although floral and nonfloral traits are hypothesized to be genetically decoupled, correlations between floral organ size and both vegetative and life-history traits were highly significant in the greenhouse; G-matrices of floral and vegetative traits as well as floral and life-history traits differed across environments. Correspondingly, many QTL (45% of those mapped in the greenhouse) showed environmental interactions, including approximately even numbers of floral and nonfloral QTL. Most instances of QTL×QTL epistasis for floral traits were environment dependent. PMID:20837996

  15. Floral Genetic Architecture: An Examination of QTL Architecture Underlying Floral (Co)Variation Across Environments

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Marcus T.; Dechaine, Jennifer M.; Iniguez-Luy, Federico L.; Maloof, Julin N.; Stinchcombe, John R.; Weinig, Cynthia

    2010-01-01

    Genetic correlations are expected to be high among functionally related traits and lower between groups of traits with distinct functions (e.g., reproductive vs. resource-acquisition traits). Here, we explore the quantitative-genetic and QTL architecture of floral organ sizes, vegetative traits, and life history in a set of Brassica rapa recombinant inbred lines within and across field and greenhouse environments. Floral organ lengths were strongly positively correlated within both environments, and analysis of standardized G-matrices indicates that the structure of genetic correlations is ?80% conserved across environments. Consistent with these correlations, we detected a total of 19 and 21 additive-effect floral QTL in the field and the greenhouse, respectively, and individual QTL typically affected multiple organ types. Interestingly, QTL × QTL epistasis also appeared to contribute to observed genetic correlations; i.e., interactions between two QTL had similar effects on filament length and two estimates of petal size. Although floral and nonfloral traits are hypothesized to be genetically decoupled, correlations between floral organ size and both vegetative and life-history traits were highly significant in the greenhouse; G-matrices of floral and vegetative traits as well as floral and life-history traits differed across environments. Correspondingly, many QTL (45% of those mapped in the greenhouse) showed environmental interactions, including approximately even numbers of floral and nonfloral QTL. Most instances of QTL × QTL epistasis for floral traits were environment dependent. PMID:20837996

  16. Construction of intraspecific linkage maps, detection of a chromosome inversion, and mapping of QTL for constitutive root aerenchyma formation in the teosinte Zea nicaraguensis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Mano; Fumie Omori; Kazuyoshi Takeda

    The teosinte Zea nicaraguensis, a wild relative of maize, possesses a flooding tolerance-related trait: the formation of constitutive root aerenchyma under\\u000a drained (non-flooded) soil conditions. A previous study suggested that the degree of constitutive aerenchyma formation varies\\u000a within Z. nicaraguensis. The objectives of this study were to construct linkage maps, to determine the marker order in a region of chromosome

  17. Meta-analysis of grain yield QTL identified during agricultural drought in grasses showed consensus

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the last few years, efforts have been made to identify large effect QTL for grain yield under drought in rice. However, identification of most precise and consistent QTL across the environments and genetics backgrounds is essential for their successful use in Marker-assisted Selection. In this study, an attempt was made to locate consistent QTL regions associated with yield increase under drought by applying a genome-wide QTL meta-analysis approach. Results The integration of 15 maps resulted in a consensus map with 531 markers and a total map length of 1821 cM. Fifty-three yield QTL reported in 15 studies were projected on a consensus map and meta-analysis was performed. Fourteen meta-QTL were obtained on seven chromosomes. MQTL1.2, MQTL1.3, MQTL1.4, and MQTL12.1 were around 700 kb and corresponded to a reasonably small genetic distance of 1.8 to 5 cM and they are suitable for use in marker-assisted selection (MAS). The meta-QTL for grain yield under drought coincided with at least one of the meta-QTL identified for root and leaf morphology traits under drought in earlier reports. Validation of major-effect QTL on a panel of random drought-tolerant lines revealed the presence of at least one major QTL in each line. DTY12.1 was present in 85% of the lines, followed by DTY4.1 in 79% and DTY1.1 in 64% of the lines. Comparative genomics of meta-QTL with other cereals revealed that the homologous regions of MQTL1.4 and MQTL3.2 had QTL for grain yield under drought in maize, wheat, and barley respectively. The genes in the meta-QTL regions were analyzed by a comparative genomics approach and candidate genes were deduced for grain yield under drought. Three groups of genes such as stress-inducible genes, growth and development-related genes, and sugar transport-related genes were found in clusters in most of the meta-QTL. Conclusions Meta-QTL with small genetic and physical intervals could be useful in Marker-assisted selection individually and in combinations. Validation and comparative genomics of the major-effect QTL confirmed their consistency within and across the species. The shortlisted candidate genes can be cloned to unravel the molecular mechanism regulating grain yield under drought. PMID:21679437

  18. Epistasis in allelic expression at upper temperature tolerance QTL in rainbow trout

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy G. Danzmann; Timothy R. Jackson; Moira M. Ferguson

    1999-01-01

    We have mapped the location of QTL affecting upper temperature tolerance in three backcross families of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) derived from matings between an F1 male (high (H)×low (L) temperature tolerance selected lines) and two H and one L line females using variation at 61 microsatellite loci. Physiological epistasis was observed among paternally inherited QTL alleles and this depended

  19. QTLS associated with resistance to soybean cyst nematode: Meta-analysis of QTL locations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean cyst nematode (SCN) (Heterodera glycines Ichinohe) is the most important pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr) in the world. A total of 17 quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping papers and 62 marker-QTL associations have been reported for resistance to soybean cyst nematode in soybean. C...

  20. Vibrational fine structure of C5 via anion slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichman, Marissa L.; Kim, Jongjin B.; Neumark, Daniel M.

    2013-10-01

    High-resolution anion photoelectron spectra of cryogenically cooled C_5^ - clusters are reported using slow photoelectron velocity-map imaging spectroscopy. We resolve vibronic transitions to the ?2 stretching mode and multiply excited ?5, ?6, and ?7 bending modes of neutral C5 with significantly higher accuracy than previous experiments. Weak transitions to Franck-Condon (FC) forbidden singly excited bending modes are made possible by Herzberg-Teller coupling between electronic states of the neutral cluster. In addition, we resolve vibrational fine structure corresponding to different angular momentum states of multiply excited bending modes. The observation of this multiplet structure, some of which is FC forbidden, is attributed to Renner-Teller coupling between vibrational levels in the C_5^ - ground electronic state.

  1. He I vector magnetic field maps of a sunspot and its superpenumbral fine-structure

    E-print Network

    Schad, T A; Lin, H; Tritschler, A

    2015-01-01

    Advanced inversions of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the He I triplet at 1083 nm are used to generate unique maps of the chromospheric magnetic field vector across a sunspot and its superpenumbral canopy. The observations were acquired by the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on 29 January 2012. Multiple atmospheric models are employed in the inversions, as superpenumbral Stokes profiles are dominated by atomic-level polarization while sunspot profiles are Zeeman-dominated but also exhibit signatures perhaps induced by symmetry breaking effects of the radiation field incident on the chromospheric material. We derive the equilibrium magnetic structure of a sunspot in the chromosphere, and further show that the superpenumbral magnetic field does not appear finely structured, unlike the observed intensity structure. This suggests fibrils are not concentrations of magnetic flux but rather distinguished by individualized thermalization. We also dire...

  2. QTL mapping for economic traits based on a dense genetic map of cotton with PCR-based markers using the interspecific cross of Gossypium hirsutum  ×  Gossypium barbadense

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dao-Hua He; Zhong-Xu Lin; Xian-Long Zhang; Yi-Chun Nie; Xiao-Ping Guo; Yan-Xin Zhang; Wu Li

    2007-01-01

    A high-density molecular marker linkage map of cotton based entirely on polymerase chain reaction-based markers is useful\\u000a for a marker-assisted breeding program. Four kinds of markers—simple sequence repeats (SSRs), sequence-related amplified polymorphism\\u000a (SRAP), random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism (REMAP)—were used\\u000a to assay an F2 population from a cross between “Handan208” (Gossypium hirsutum) and “Pima90” (Gossypium barbadense).

  3. Fine mapping major histocompatibility complex associations in psoriasis and its clinical subtypes.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Han, Buhm; Tsoi, Lam C; Stuart, Philip E; Ellinghaus, Eva; Tejasvi, Trilokraj; Chandran, Vinod; Pellett, Fawnda; Pollock, Remy; Bowcock, Anne M; Krueger, Gerald G; Weichenthal, Michael; Voorhees, John J; Rahman, Proton; Gregersen, Peter K; Franke, Andre; Nair, Rajan P; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Gladman, Dafna D; Elder, James T; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-08-01

    Psoriasis vulgaris (PsV) risk is strongly associated with variation within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region, but its genetic architecture has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we conducted a large-scale fine-mapping study of PsV risk in the MHC region in 9,247 PsV-affected individuals and 13,589 controls of European descent by imputing class I and II human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes from SNP genotype data. In addition, we imputed sequence variants for MICA, an MHC HLA-like gene that has been associated with PsV, to evaluate association at that locus as well. We observed that HLA-C(?)06:02 demonstrated the lowest p value for overall PsV risk (p = 1.7 × 10(-364)). Stepwise analysis revealed multiple HLA-C(?)06:02-independent risk variants in both class I and class II HLA genes for PsV susceptibility (HLA-C(?)12:03, HLA-B amino acid positions 67 and 9, HLA-A amino acid position 95, and HLA-DQ?1 amino acid position 53; p < 5.0 × 10(-8)), but no apparent risk conferred by MICA. We further evaluated risk of two major clinical subtypes of PsV, psoriatic arthritis (PsA; n = 3,038) and cutaneous psoriasis (PsC; n = 3,098). We found that risk heterogeneity between PsA and PsC might be driven by HLA-B amino acid position 45 (Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10(-11)), indicating that different genetic factors underlie the overall risk of PsV and the risk of specific PsV subphenotypes. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution HLA and MICA imputation for fine mapping causal variants in the MHC. PMID:25087609

  4. Developing Methods for Mapping Soil Moisture in Nash Draw, NM Using RADARSAT 1 SAR Fine Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossain, A. A.; Easson, G.; Powers, D. W.; Holt, R. M.

    2006-12-01

    Nash Draw, in southeastern NM, is a karst valley that developed in response to subsurface dissolution of evaporites, including halite and sulfate rocks. The hydrologic system within Nash Draw is poorly understood. This study focuses on identifying the distribution and amount of recharge in Nash Draw to assist in understanding the existing processes modifying Nash Draw by solution. We hypothesize that 1) soil moisture contents will be higher in the areas where potential recharge occurs and 2) these areas can be identified using remote sensing. To test the second part of this hypothesis, this study has been designed to determine the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture in the study site using microwave data. An area of 225 sq. km in Nash Draw has been selected as the study site. Imagery was acquired from the Alaska SAR Facility (ASF) for 8 scenes of RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery with different incidence angles (40° and 48°) and imaging modes (ascending and descending). We use RADARDSAT 1 SAR Fine Beam imagery acquired on August 1, 2006 and August 2, 2006 and near real-time ground truth data to develop suitable model to map the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the study site. During the image acquisitions on August 1 and 2, 80 soil samples were collected to determine the near real- time volumetric soil moisture in the study site. Soil samples were collected using a stratified sampling method, and locations of the samples were recorded using GPS. Soil water is compared, using linear regression, to radar backscatter to develop an empirical model of the relationship. The radar backscatter used in this model was acquired at different incidence angles. This study also provides an opportunity to investigate the impact of variable incidence angles on the potential of space-borne active microwave data for soil moisture mapping in semi-arid region like Nash Draw.

  5. Integrating Functional Data to Prioritize Causal Variants in Statistical Fine-Mapping Studies

    PubMed Central

    Kichaev, Gleb; Yang, Wen-Yun; Lindstrom, Sara; Hormozdiari, Farhad; Eskin, Eleazar; Price, Alkes L.; Kraft, Peter; Pasaniuc, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Standard statistical approaches for prioritization of variants for functional testing in fine-mapping studies either use marginal association statistics or estimate posterior probabilities for variants to be causal under simplifying assumptions. Here, we present a probabilistic framework that integrates association strength with functional genomic annotation data to improve accuracy in selecting plausible causal variants for functional validation. A key feature of our approach is that it empirically estimates the contribution of each functional annotation to the trait of interest directly from summary association statistics while allowing for multiple causal variants at any risk locus. We devise efficient algorithms that estimate the parameters of our model across all risk loci to further increase performance. Using simulations starting from the 1000 Genomes data, we find that our framework consistently outperforms the current state-of-the-art fine-mapping methods, reducing the number of variants that need to be selected to capture 90% of the causal variants from an average of 13.3 to 10.4 SNPs per locus (as compared to the next-best performing strategy). Furthermore, we introduce a cost-to-benefit optimization framework for determining the number of variants to be followed up in functional assays and assess its performance using real and simulation data. We validate our findings using a large scale meta-analysis of four blood lipids traits and find that the relative probability for causality is increased for variants in exons and transcription start sites and decreased in repressed genomic regions at the risk loci of these traits. Using these highly predictive, trait-specific functional annotations, we estimate causality probabilities across all traits and variants, reducing the size of the 90% confidence set from an average of 17.5 to 13.5 variants per locus in this data. PMID:25357204

  6. Transferability and Fine Mapping of genome-wide associated loci for lipids in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A recent, large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of European ancestry individuals has identified multiple genetic variants influencing serum lipids. Studies of the transferability of these associations to African Americans remain few, an important limitation given interethnic differences in serum lipids and the disproportionate burden of lipid-associated metabolic diseases among African Americans. Methods We attempted to evaluate the transferability of 95 lipid-associated loci recently identified in European ancestry individuals to 887 non-diabetic, unrelated African Americans from a population-based sample in the Washington, DC area. Additionally, we took advantage of the generally reduced linkage disequilibrium among African ancestry populations in comparison to European ancestry populations to fine-map replicated GWAS signals. Results We successfully replicated reported associations for 10 loci (CILP2/SF4, STARD3, LPL, CYP7A1, DOCK7/ANGPTL3, APOE, SORT1, IRS1, CETP, and UBASH3B). Through trans-ethnic fine-mapping, we were able to reduce associated regions around 75% of the loci that replicated. Conclusions Between this study and previous work in African Americans, 40 of the 95 loci reported in a large GWAS of European ancestry individuals also influence lipid levels in African Americans. While there is now evidence that the lipid-influencing role of a number of genetic variants is observed in both European and African ancestry populations, the still considerable lack of concordance highlights the importance of continued ancestry-specific studies to elucidate the genetic underpinnings of these traits. PMID:22994408

  7. Re-Sequencing Data for Refining Candidate Genes and Polymorphisms in QTL Regions Affecting Adiposity in Chicken

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Pierre-François; Boutin, Morgane; Désert, Colette; Djari, Anis; Esquerré, Diane; Klopp, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose an approach aiming at fine-mapping adiposity QTL in chicken, integrating whole genome re-sequencing data. First, two QTL regions for adiposity were identified by performing a classical linkage analysis on 1362 offspring in 11 sire families obtained by crossing two meat-type chicken lines divergently selected for abdominal fat weight. Those regions, located on chromosome 7 and 19, contained a total of 77 and 84 genes, respectively. Then, SNPs and indels in these regions were identified by re-sequencing sires. Considering issues related to polymorphism annotations for regulatory regions, we focused on the 120 and 104 polymorphisms having an impact on protein sequence, and located in coding regions of 35 and 42 genes situated in the two QTL regions. Subsequently, a filter was applied on SNPs considering their potential impact on the protein function based on conservation criteria. For the two regions, we identified 42 and 34 functional polymorphisms carried by 18 and 24 genes, and likely to deeply impact protein, including 3 coding indels and 4 nonsense SNPs. Finally, using gene functional annotation, a short list of 17 and 4 polymorphisms in 6 and 4 functional genes has been defined. Even if we cannot exclude that the causal polymorphisms may be located in regulatory regions, this strategy gives a complete overview of the candidate polymorphisms in coding regions and prioritize them on conservation- and functional-based arguments. PMID:25333370

  8. Fractionation, Stability, and Isolate-Specificity of QTL for Resistance to Phytophthora infestans in Cultivated Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Emily B.; Haggard, J. Erron; St.Clair, Dina A.

    2012-01-01

    Cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is susceptible to late blight, a major disease caused by Phytophthora infestans, but quantitative resistance exists in the wild tomato species S. habrochaites. Previously, we mapped several quantitative trait loci (QTL) from S. habrochaites and then introgressed each individually into S. lycopersicum. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed, each containing a single introgressed QTL on chromosome 5 or 11. NILs were used to create two recombinant sub-NIL populations, one for each target chromosome region, for higher-resolution mapping. The sub-NIL populations were evaluated for foliar and stem resistance to P. infestans in replicated field experiments over two years, and in replicated growth chamber experiments for resistance to three California isolates. Each of the original single QTL on chromosomes 5 and 11 fractionated into between two and six QTL for both foliar and stem resistance, indicating a complex genetic architecture. The majority of QTL from the field experiments were detected in multiple locations or years, and two of the seven QTL detected in growth chambers were co-located with QTL detected in field experiments, indicating stability of some QTL across environments. QTL that confer foliar and stem resistance frequently co-localized, suggesting that pleiotropy and/or tightly linked genes control the trait phenotypes. Other QTL exhibited isolate-specificity and QTL × environment interactions. Map-based comparisons between QTL mapped in this study and Solanaceae resistance genes/QTL detected in other published studies revealed multiple cases of co-location, suggesting conservation of gene function. PMID:23050225

  9. QTL mapping for resistance to root-knot nematodes in the M-120 RNR Upland cotton line (Gossypium hirsutum L.) of the Auburn 623 RNR source.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xinlian; Van Becelaere, Guillermo; Kumar, Pawan; Davis, Richard F; May, O Lloyd; Chee, Peng

    2006-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) can cause severe yield loss in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance and genomic location of genes conferring root-knot nematode resistance in M-120 RNR, a highly resistant G. hirsutum line with the Auburn 623 RNR source of resistance. Utilizing two interspecific F(2) populations developed from the same M-120 RNR by Gossypium barbadense (cv. Pima S-6) cross, genome-wide scanning with RFLP markers revealed a marker on Chromosome 7 and two on Chromosome 11 showing significant association with the resistant phenotype. The association was confirmed using SSR markers with the detection of a minor and a major dominant QTL on Chromosome 7 and 11, respectively. Combined across the two populations, the major QTL on Chromosome 11 Mi-C11 had a LOD score of 19.21 (9.69 and 9.61 for Pop1 and Pop2, respectively) and accounted for 63.7% (52.6 and 65.56% for Pop1 and Pop2, respectively) of the total phenotypic variation. The minor QTL locus on Chromosome 7 Mi ( 1 ) -C07 had a LOD score of 3.48 and accounted for 7.7% of the total phenotypic variation in the combined dataset but was detected in only one population. The allele from the M-120 RNR parent contributed to increased resistance in the Mi-C11 locus, but surprisingly, the Pima S-6 allele contributed to increased resistance in the Mi-C07 locus. The M-120 RNR allele in the Mi-C11 locus, derived from the Auburn 623 RNR, is likely to have originated from the Clevewilt 6 cultivar. Results from this study indicated that the SSR marker CIR316 may replace the laborious greenhouse screening in breeding programs to identify genotypes resistant to M. incognita. PMID:16960714

  10. Analysis of genome-wide structure, diversity and fine mapping of Mendelian traits in traditional and village chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wragg, D; Mwacharo, J M; Alcalde, J A; Hocking, P M; Hanotte, O

    2012-01-01

    Extensive phenotypic variation is a common feature among village chickens found throughout much of the developing world, and in traditional chicken breeds that have been artificially selected for traits such as plumage variety. We present here an assessment of traditional and village chicken populations, for fine mapping of Mendelian traits using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping while providing information on their genetic structure and diversity. Bayesian clustering analysis reveals two main genetic backgrounds in traditional breeds, Kenyan, Ethiopian and Chilean village chickens. Analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) reveals useful LD (r2?0.3) in both traditional and village chickens at pairwise marker distances of ?10?Kb; while haplotype block analysis indicates a median block size of 11–12?Kb. Association mapping yielded refined mapping intervals for duplex comb (Gga 2:38.55–38.89?Mb) and rose comb (Gga 7:18.41–22.09?Mb) phenotypes in traditional breeds. Combined mapping information from traditional breeds and Chilean village chicken allows the oocyan phenotype to be fine mapped to two small regions (Gga 1:67.25–67.28?Mb, Gga 1:67.28–67.32?Mb) totalling ?75?Kb. Mapping the unmapped earlobe pigmentation phenotype supports previous findings that the trait is sex-linked and polygenic. A critical assessment of the number of SNPs required to map simple traits indicate that between 90 and 110K SNPs are required for full genome-wide analysis of haplotype block structure/ancestry, and for association mapping in both traditional and village chickens. Our results demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of phenotypic diversity and genetic structure of traditional chicken breeds for fine-scale mapping of Mendelian traits in the species, with village chicken populations providing further opportunities to enhance mapping resolutions. PMID:22395157

  11. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits. By using an up-to-date annotation and localization of the respective probe-sets, the integration of eQTL mapping data and information of trait correlated expression finally served to point to candidate genes for meat quality traits. Results Genome-wide transcriptional profiles of M. longissimus dorsi RNAs samples of 74 F2 animals of a pig resource population revealed 11,457 probe-sets representing genes expressed in the muscle. Linkage analysis of expression levels of these probe-sets provided 9,180 eQTL at the suggestive significance threshold of LOD > 2. We mapped 653 eQTL on the same chromosome as the corresponding gene and these were designated as 'putative cis-eQTL'. In order to link eQTL to the traits of interest, probe-sets were addressed with relative transcript abundances that showed correlation with meat quality traits at p ? 0.05. Out of the 653 'putative cis-eQTL', 262 transcripts were correlated with at least one meat quality trait. Furthermore, association of expression levels with composite traits with high loadings for meat quality traits generated by principle component analysis were taken into account leading to a list of 85 genes exhibiting cis-eQTL and trait dependent expression. Conclusion Holistic expression profiling was integrated with QTL analysis for meat quality traits. Correlations between transcript abundance and meat quality traits, combined with genetic positional information of eQTL allowed us to prioritise candidate genes for further study. PMID:20950486

  12. Fine Mapping of 14q24.1 Breast Cancer Susceptibility Locus

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Phoebe; Fu, Yi-Ping; Figueroa, Jonine D.; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Kraft, Peter; Wang, Zhaoming; Jacobs, Kevin B.; Yeager, Meredith; Horner, Marie-Josèphe; Hankinson, Susan E.; Hutchinson, Amy; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Ziegler, Regina G.; Berg, Christine D.; Buys, Saundra S.; McCarty, Catherine A.; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J.; Diver, Ryan; Prentice, Ross; Jackson, Rebecca; Kooperberg, Charles; Chlebowski, Rowan; Lissowska, Jolanta; Peplonska, Beata; Brinton, Louise A.; Tucker, Margaret; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Hoover, Robert N.; Thomas, Gilles; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    In the National Cancer Institute Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) genome-wide association study of breast cancer, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker, rs999737, in the 14q24.1 interval, was associated with breast cancer risk. In order to fine map this region, we imputed a 3.93MB region flanking rs999737 for Stages 1 and 2 of the CGEMS study (5,692 cases, 5,576 controls) using the combined reference panels of the HapMap 3 and the 1000 Genomes Project. Single-marker association testing and variable-sized sliding-window haplotype analysis were performed, and for both analyses the initial tagging SNP rs999737 retained the strongest association with breast cancer risk. Investigation of contiguous regions did not reveal evidence for an additional independent signal. Therefore, we conclude that rs999737 is an optimal tag SNP for common variants in the 14q24.1 region and thus narrow the candidate variants that should be investigated in follow-up laboratory evaluation. PMID:21959381

  13. Admixture Fine-Mapping in African Americans Implicates XAF1 as a Possible Sarcoidosis Risk Gene

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Albert M.; Iannuzzi, Michael C.; Montgomery, Courtney G.; Trudeau, Sheri; Datta, Indrani; Adrianto, Indra; Chitale, Dhananjay A.; McKeigue, Paul; Rybicki, Benjamin A.

    2014-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a complex, multi-organ granulomatous disease with a likely genetic component. West African ancestry confers a higher risk for sarcoidosis than European ancestry. Admixture mapping provides the most direct method to locate genes that underlie such ethnic variation in disease risk. We sought to identify genetic risk variants within four previously-identified ancestry-associated regions—6p24.3–p12.1, 17p13.3–13.1, 2p13.3–q12.1, and 6q23.3–q25.2—in a sample of 2,727 African Americans. We used logistic regression fit by generalized estimating equations and the MIX score statistic to determine which variants within ancestry-associated regions were associated with risk and responsible for the admixture signal. Fine mapping was performed by imputation, based on a previous genome-wide association study; significant variants were validated by direct genotyping. Within the 6p24.3–p12.1 locus, the most significant ancestry-adjusted SNP was rs74318745 (p?=?9.4*10?11), an intronic SNP within the HLA-DRA gene that did not solely explain the admixture signal, indicating the presence of more than a single risk variant within this well-established sarcoidosis risk region. The locus on chromosome 17p13.3–13.1 revealed a novel sarcoidosis risk SNP, rs6502976 (p?=?9.5*10?6), within intron 5 of the gene X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Associated Factor 1 (XAF1) that accounted for the majority of the admixture linkage signal. Immunohistochemical expression studies demonstrated lack of expression of XAF1 and a corresponding high level of expression of its downstream target, X-linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis (XIAP) in sarcoidosis granulomas. In conclusion, ancestry and association fine mapping revealed a novel sarcoidosis susceptibility gene, XAF1, which has not been identified by previous genome-wide association studies. Based on the known biology of the XIAP/XAF1 apoptosis pathway and the differential expression patterns of XAF1 and XIAP in sarcoidosis granulomas, we suggest that this pathway may play a role in the maintenance of sarcoidosis granulomas. PMID:24663488

  14. High-density fine-mapping of a chromosome 10q26 linkage peak suggests association between

    E-print Network

    Nyholt, Dale R.

    endometriosis and variants close to CYP2C19 Jodie N. Painter, Ph.D.,a Dale R. Nyholt, Ph.D.,a Andrew Morris, Ph peak for endometriosis on chromosome 10q26, and conduct follow-up analyses and a fine-mapping association study across the region to identify new candidate genes for endometriosis. Design: Case

  15. Trans-Ancestral Studies Fine Map the SLE-Susceptibility Locus TNFSF4

    PubMed Central

    Manku, Harinder; Langefeld, Carl D.; Guerra, Sandra G.; Malik, Talat H.; Alarcon-Riquelme, Marta; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Boackle, Susan A.; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Criswell, Lindsey A.; Freedman, Barry I.; Gaffney, Patrick M.; Gregersen, Peter A.; Guthridge, Joel M.; Han, Sang-Hoon; Harley, John B.; Jacob, Chaim O.; James, Judith A.; Kamen, Diane L.; Kaufman, Kenneth M.; Kelly, Jennifer A.; Martin, Javier; Merrill, Joan T.; Moser, Kathy L.; Niewold, Timothy B.; Park, So-Yeon; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Sawalha, Amr H.; Scofield, R. Hal; Shen, Nan; Stevens, Anne M.; Sun, Celi; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Edberg, Jeff C.; Kimberly, Robert P.; Nath, Swapan K.; Tsao, Betty P.; Vyse, Tim J.

    2013-01-01

    We previously established an 80 kb haplotype upstream of TNFSF4 as a susceptibility locus in the autoimmune disease SLE. SLE-associated alleles at this locus are associated with inflammatory disorders, including atherosclerosis and ischaemic stroke. In Europeans, the TNFSF4 causal variants have remained elusive due to strong linkage disequilibrium exhibited by alleles spanning the region. Using a trans-ancestral approach to fine-map the locus, utilising 17,900 SLE and control subjects including Amerindian/Hispanics (1348 cases, 717 controls), African-Americans (AA) (1529, 2048) and better powered cohorts of Europeans and East Asians, we find strong association of risk alleles in all ethnicities; the AA association replicates in African-American Gullah (152,122). The best evidence of association comes from two adjacent markers: rs2205960-T (P?=?1.71×10?34, OR?=?1.43[1.26–1.60]) and rs1234317-T (P?=?1.16×10?28, OR?=?1.38[1.24–1.54]). Inference of fine-scale recombination rates for all populations tested finds the 80 kb risk and non-risk haplotypes in all except African-Americans. In this population the decay of recombination equates to an 11 kb risk haplotype, anchored in the 5? region proximal to TNFSF4 and tagged by rs2205960-T after 1000 Genomes phase 1 (v3) imputation. Conditional regression analyses delineate the 5? risk signal to rs2205960-T and the independent non-risk signal to rs1234314-C. Our case-only and SLE-control cohorts demonstrate robust association of rs2205960-T with autoantibody production. The rs2205960-T is predicted to form part of a decameric motif which binds NF-?Bp65 with increased affinity compared to rs2205960-G. ChIP-seq data also indicate NF-?B interaction with the DNA sequence at this position in LCL cells. Our research suggests association of rs2205960-T with SLE across multiple groups and an independent non-risk signal at rs1234314-C. rs2205960-T is associated with autoantibody production and lymphopenia. Our data confirm a global signal at TNFSF4 and a role for the expressed product at multiple stages of lymphocyte dysregulation during SLE pathogenesis. We confirm the validity of trans-ancestral mapping in a complex trait. PMID:23874208

  16. Integrating sorghum whole genome sequence information with a compendium of sorghum QTL studies reveals uneven distribution of QTL and of gene-rich regions with significant implications for crop improvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Mace; D. R. Jordan

    2011-01-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted using 48 sorghum QTL studies published from 1995 to 2010 to make information from historical\\u000a sorghum QTL experiments available in a form that could be more readily used by sorghum researchers and plant breeders. In\\u000a total, 771 QTL relating to 161 unique traits from 44 studies were projected onto a sorghum consensus map. Confidence intervals

  17. Fine Mapping Study Reveals Novel Candidate Genes for Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Dominican Families

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Zhuo, Degen; Dong, Chuanhui; Blanton, Susan H.; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) is a subclinical measure for atherosclerosis. Previously, we have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for CIMT to chromosomes 7p (MLOD=3.1) and to 14q (MLOD=2.3). We sought to identify the underlying genetic variants within those QTLs, Methods and Results Using the 100 extended Dominican Republican (DR) families (N=1312) used in the original linkage study, we fine mapped the QTLs with 2031 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Promising SNPs in the family dataset were examined in an independent population-based subcohort comprised of DR individuals (N=553) from the Northern Manhattan Study. Among the families, evidence for association (P<0.001) was found in multiple genes (ANLN, AOAH, FOXN3, CCDC88C, PRiMA1, and an intergenic SNP rs1667498), with the strongest association at PRiMA1 (P=0.00007, corrected P=0.047). Additional analyses revealed that the association at these loci, except PRiMA1, was highly significant (P= 0.00004~0.00092) in families with evidence for linkage but not in the rest of families (P=0.13~0.80) and the population-based cohort, suggesting the genetic effects at these SNPs are limited to a subgroup of families. In contrast, the association at PRiMA1 was significant in both families with and without evidence for linkage (P=0.002 and 0.019, respectively), and the population-based subcohort (P=0.047), supporting a robust association. Conclusions We identified several candidate genes for CIMT in DR families. Some of the genes manifest genetic effects within a specific subgroup and others were generalized to all groups. Future studies are needed to further evaluate the contribution of these genes to atherosclerosis. PMID:22423143

  18. Association mapping in cacao

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping is becoming important in perennial crops because it is a better alternative to the classical QTL's mapping approaches. The development of large breeding populations (F2, backcrosses and recombinant inbred populations) is a requirement of QTL's discovery; however, this process req...

  19. Fine mapping analysis confirms and strengthens linkage of four chromosomal regions in familial hypospadias.

    PubMed

    Söderhäll, Cilla; Körberg, Izabella Baranowska; Thai, Hanh T T; Cao, Jia; Chen, Yougen; Zhang, Xufeng; Shulu, Zu; van der Zanden, Loes F M; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Frisén, Louise; Roeleveld, Nel; Markljung, Ellen; Kockum, Ingrid; Nordenskjöld, Agneta

    2015-04-01

    Hypospadias is a common male genital malformation and is regarded as a complex disease affected by multiple genetic as well as environmental factors. In a previous genome-wide scan for familial hypospadias, we reported suggestive linkage in nine chromosomal regions. We have extended this analysis by including new families and additional markers using non-parametric linkage. The fine mapping analysis displayed an increased LOD score on chromosome 8q24.1 and 10p15 in altogether 82 families. On chromosome 10p15, with the highest LOD score, we further studied AKR1C2, AKR1C3 and AKR1C4 involved in steroid metabolism, as well as KLF6 expressed in preputial tissue from hypospadias patients. Mutation analysis of the AKR1C3 gene showed a new mutation, c.643G>A (p.(Ala215Thr)), in a boy with penile hypospadias. This mutation is predicted to have an impact on protein function and structure and was not found in controls. Altogether, we homed in on four chromosomal regions likely to harbor genes for hypospadias. Future studies will aim for studying regulatory sequence variants in these regions. PMID:24986825

  20. A Genome-Wide, Fine-Scale Map of Natural Pigmentation Variation in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nolte, Viola; Tobler, Raymond; Stöbe, Petra; Futschik, Andreas; Schlötterer, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Various approaches can be applied to uncover the genetic basis of natural phenotypic variation, each with their specific strengths and limitations. Here, we use a replicated genome-wide association approach (Pool-GWAS) to fine-scale map genomic regions contributing to natural variation in female abdominal pigmentation in Drosophila melanogaster, a trait that is highly variable in natural populations and highly heritable in the laboratory. We examined abdominal pigmentation phenotypes in approximately 8000 female European D. melanogaster, isolating 1000 individuals with extreme phenotypes. We then used whole-genome Illumina sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) segregating in our sample, and tested these for associations with pigmentation by contrasting allele frequencies between replicate pools of light and dark individuals. We identify two small regions near the pigmentation genes tan and bric-à-brac 1, both corresponding to known cis-regulatory regions, which contain SNPs showing significant associations with pigmentation variation. While the Pool-GWAS approach suffers some limitations, its cost advantage facilitates replication and it can be applied to any non-model system with an available reference genome. PMID:23754958

  1. Replication and fine mapping of asthma-associated loci in individuals of African ancestry

    PubMed Central

    Kantor, David B.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Young, Taylor R.; Meng, Yan; Gajdos, Zofia K.; Lyon, Helen; Price, Alkes L.; Pollack, Samuela; London, Stephanie J.; Loehr, Laura R.; Smith, Lewis J.; Kumar, Rajesh; Jacobs, David R.; Petrini, Marcy F.; O’Connor, George T.; White, Wendy B.; Papanicolaou, George; Burkart, Kristin M.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Barr, R. Graham

    2013-01-01

    Asthma originates from genetic and environmental factors with about half the risk of disease attributable to heritable causes. Genome-wide association studies, mostly in populations of European ancestry, have identified numerous asthma-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Studies in populations with diverse ancestries allow both for identification of robust associations that replicate across ethnic groups and for improved resolution of associated loci due to different patterns of linkage disequilibrium between ethnic groups. Here we report on an analysis of 745 African-American subjects with asthma and 3,238 African-American control subjects from the Candidate Gene Association Resource (CARe) Consortium, including analysis of SNPs imputed using 1,000 Genomes reference panels and adjustment for local ancestry. We show strong evidence that variation near RAD50/IL13, implicated in studies of European ancestry individuals, replicates in individuals largely of African ancestry. Fine mapping in African ancestry populations also refined the variants of interest for this association. We also provide strong or nominal evidence of replication at loci near ORMDL3/GSDMB, IL1RLML18R1, and 10pl4, all previously associated with asthma in European or Japanese populations, but not at the PYHIN1 locus previously reported in studies of African-American samples. These results improve the understanding of asthma genetics and further demonstrate the utility of genetic studies in populations other than those of largely European ancestry. PMID:23666277

  2. Fine resolution mapping of population age-structures for health and development applications

    PubMed Central

    Alegana, V. A.; Atkinson, P. M.; Pezzulo, C.; Sorichetta, A.; Weiss, D.; Bird, T.; Erbach-Schoenberg, E.; Tatem, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    The age-group composition of populations varies considerably across the world, and obtaining accurate, spatially detailed estimates of numbers of children under 5 years is important in designing vaccination strategies, educational planning or maternal healthcare delivery. Traditionally, such estimates are derived from population censuses, but these can often be unreliable, outdated and of coarse resolution for resource-poor settings. Focusing on Nigeria, we use nationally representative household surveys and their cluster locations to predict the proportion of the under-five population in 1 × 1 km using a Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model. Results showed that land cover, travel time to major settlements, night-time lights and vegetation index were good predictors and that accounting for fine-scale variation, rather than assuming a uniform proportion of under 5 year olds can result in significant differences in health metrics. The largest gaps in estimated bednet and vaccination coverage were in Kano, Katsina and Jigawa. Geolocated household surveys are a valuable resource for providing detailed, contemporary and regularly updated population age-structure data in the absence of recent census data. By combining these with covariate layers, age-structure maps of unprecedented detail can be produced to guide the targeting of interventions in resource-poor settings. PMID:25788540

  3. Quantitative trait loci mapping in dairy cattle: review and meta-analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehar S Khatkar; Peter C Thomson; Imke Tammen; Herman W Raadsma

    2004-01-01

    From an extensive review of public domain information on dairy cattle quantitative trait loci (QTL), we have prepared a draft online QTL map for dairy production traits. Most publications (45 out of 55 reviewed) reported QTL for the major milk production traits (milk, fat and protein yield, and fat and protein concentration (%)) and somatic cell score. Relatively few QTL

  4. A high-density SNP Map of sunflower derived from RAD-sequencing facilitating fine-mapping of the rust resistance gene R12.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Zahirul I; Gong, Li; Hulke, Brent S; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; Song, Qijian; Schultz, Quentin; Qi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution genetic map of sunflower was constructed by integrating SNP data from three F2 mapping populations (HA 89/RHA 464, B-line/RHA 464, and CR 29/RHA 468). The consensus map spanned a total length of 1443.84 cM, and consisted of 5,019 SNP markers derived from RAD tag sequencing and 118 publicly available SSR markers distributed in 17 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of sunflower. The maximum interval between markers in the consensus map is 12.37 cM and the average distance is 0.28 cM between adjacent markers. Despite a few short-distance inversions in marker order, the consensus map showed high levels of collinearity among individual maps with an average Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.972 across the genome. The order of the SSR markers on the consensus map was also in agreement with the order of the individual map and with previously published sunflower maps. Three individual and one consensus maps revealed the uneven distribution of markers across the genome. Additionally, we performed fine mapping and marker validation of the rust resistance gene R12, providing closely linked SNP markers for marker-assisted selection of this gene in sunflower breeding programs. This high resolution consensus map will serve as a valuable tool to the sunflower community for studying marker-trait association of important agronomic traits, marker assisted breeding, map-based gene cloning, and comparative mapping. PMID:25014030

  5. A High-Density SNP Map of Sunflower Derived from RAD-Sequencing Facilitating Fine-Mapping of the Rust Resistance Gene R12

    PubMed Central

    Talukder, Zahirul I.; Gong, Li; Hulke, Brent S.; Pegadaraju, Venkatramana; Song, Qijian; Schultz, Quentin; Qi, Lili

    2014-01-01

    A high-resolution genetic map of sunflower was constructed by integrating SNP data from three F2 mapping populations (HA 89/RHA 464, B-line/RHA 464, and CR 29/RHA 468). The consensus map spanned a total length of 1443.84 cM, and consisted of 5,019 SNP markers derived from RAD tag sequencing and 118 publicly available SSR markers distributed in 17 linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of sunflower. The maximum interval between markers in the consensus map is 12.37 cM and the average distance is 0.28 cM between adjacent markers. Despite a few short-distance inversions in marker order, the consensus map showed high levels of collinearity among individual maps with an average Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.972 across the genome. The order of the SSR markers on the consensus map was also in agreement with the order of the individual map and with previously published sunflower maps. Three individual and one consensus maps revealed the uneven distribution of markers across the genome. Additionally, we performed fine mapping and marker validation of the rust resistance gene R12, providing closely linked SNP markers for marker-assisted selection of this gene in sunflower breeding programs. This high resolution consensus map will serve as a valuable tool to the sunflower community for studying marker-trait association of important agronomic traits, marker assisted breeding, map-based gene cloning, and comparative mapping. PMID:25014030

  6. Epistatic association mapping for alkaline and salinity tolerance traits in the soybean germination stage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wen-Jie; Niu, Yuan; Bu, Su-Hong; Li, Meng; Feng, Jian-Ying; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Sheng-Xian; Odinga, Medrine Mmayi; Wei, Shi-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Soil salinity and alkalinity are important abiotic components that frequently have critical effects on crop growth, productivity and quality. Developing soybean cultivars with high salt tolerance is recognized as an efficient way to maintain sustainable soybean production in a salt stress environment. However, the genetic mechanism of the tolerance must first be elucidated. In this study, 257 soybean cultivars with 135 SSR markers were used to perform epistatic association mapping for salt tolerance. Tolerance was evaluated by assessing the main root length (RL), the fresh and dry weights of roots (FWR and DWR), the biomass of seedlings (BS) and the length of hypocotyls (LH) of healthy seedlings after treatments with control, 100 mM NaCl or 10 mM Na2CO3 solutions for approximately one week under greenhouse conditions. A total of 83 QTL-by-environment (QE) interactions for salt tolerance index were detected: 24 for LR, 12 for FWR, 11 for DWR, 15 for LH and 21 for BS, as well as one epistatic QTL for FWR. Furthermore, 86 QE interactions for alkaline tolerance index were found: 17 for LR, 16 for FWR, 17 for DWR, 18 for LH and 18 for BS. A total of 77 QE interactions for the original trait indicator were detected: 17 for LR, 14 for FWR, 4 for DWR, 21 for LH and 21 for BS, as well as 3 epistatic QTL for BS. Small-effect QTL were frequently observed. Several soybean genes with homology to Arabidopsis thaliana and soybean salt tolerance genes were found in close proximity to the above QTL. Using the novel alleles of the QTL detected above, some elite parental combinations were designed, although these QTL need to be further confirmed. The above results provide a valuable foundation for fine mapping, cloning and molecular breeding by design for soybean alkaline and salt tolerance. PMID:24416275

  7. CONSENSUS QUANTITATIVE TRAIT MAPS IN MAIZE: A DATABASE STRATEGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We report a strategy for consensus QTL maps that leverages the highly curated data in MaizeGDB, in particular, the numerous QTL studies and maps that are integrated with other genome data on a common coordinate system. In addition, we exploit a systematic QTL nomenclature and a hierarchical categori...

  8. Fine-mapping IGF1 and prostate cancer risk in African Americans: the multiethnic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Giorgi, Elena E; Stram, Daniel O; Taverna, Darin; Turner, Stephen D; Schumacher, Fredrick; Haiman, Christopher A; Lum-Jones, Annette; Tirikainen, Maarit; Caberto, Christian; Duggan, David; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Cheng, Iona

    2014-09-01

    Genetic variation at insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) has been linked to prostate cancer risk. However, the specific predisposing variants have not been identified. In this study, we fine-mapped the IGF1 locus for prostate cancer risk in African Americans. We conducted targeted Roche GS-Junior 454 resequencing of a 156-kb region of IGF1 in 80 African American aggressive prostate cancer cases. Three hundred and thirty-four IGF1 SNPs were examined for their association with prostate cancer risk in 1,000 African American prostate cancer cases and 991 controls. The top associated SNP in African Americans, rs148371593, was examined in an additional 3,465 prostate cancer cases and 3,425 controls of non-African American ancestry-European Americans, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Native Hawaiians. The overall association of 334 IGF1 SNPs and prostate cancer risk was assessed using logistic kernel-machine methods. The association between each SNP and prostate cancer risk was evaluated through unconditional logistic regression. A false discovery rate threshold of q < 0.1 was used to determine statistical significance of associations. We identified 8 novel IGF1 SNPs. The cumulative effect of the 334 IGF1 SNPs was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.13) in African Americans. Twenty SNPs were nominally associated with prostate cancer at P < 0.05. The top associated SNP among African Americans, rs148371593 [minor allele frequency (MAF) = 0.03; P = 0.0014; q > 0.1], did not reach our criterion of statistical significance. This polymorphism was rare in non-African Americans (MAF < 0.003) and was not associated with prostate cancer risk (P = 0.98). Our findings do not support the role of IGF1 variants and prostate cancer risk among African Americans. PMID:24904019

  9. Fine-Mapping an Association of FSHR with Preterm Birth in a Finnish Population

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Sung; Plunkett, Jevon; Teramo, Kari; Muglia, Louis J.; Fay, Justin C.

    2013-01-01

    Preterm birth is a complex disorder defined by gestations of less than 37 weeks. While preterm birth is estimated to have a significant genetic component, relative few genes have been associated with preterm birth. Polymorphism in one such gene, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), has been associated with preterm birth in Finnish and African American mothers but not other populations. To refine the genetic association of FSHR with preterm birth we conducted a fine-mapping study at the FSHR locus in a Finnish cohort. We sequenced a total of 44 kb, including protein-coding and conserved non-coding regions, in 127 preterm and 135 term mothers. Overall, we identified 288 single nucleotide variants and 65 insertion/deletions of 1–2 bp across all subjects. While no common SNPs in protein-coding regions were associated with preterm birth, including one previously associated with timing of fertilization, multiple SNPs spanning the first and second intron showed the strongest associations. Analysis of the associated SNPs revealed that they form both a protective (OR?=?0.50, 95% CI?=?0.25–0.93) as well as a risk (OR?=?1.89, 95% CI?=?1.08–3.39) haplotype with independent effects. In these haplotypes, two SNPs, rs12052281 and rs72822025, were predicted to disrupt ZEB1 and ELF3 transcription factor binding sites, respectively. Our results show that multiple haplotypes at FSHR are associated with preterm birth and we discuss the frequency and structure of these haplotypes outside of the Finnish population as a potential explanation for the absence of FSHR associations in some populations. PMID:24205076

  10. Fine Mapping on Chromosome 10q22-q23 Implicates Neuregulin 3 in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei-Lung; Avramopoulos, Dimitrios; Lasseter, Virginia K.; McGrath, John A.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Liang, Kung-Yee; Nestadt, Gerald; Feng, Ningping; Steel, Gary; Cutting, Andrew S.; Wolyniec, Paula; Pulver, Ann E.; Valle, David

    2009-01-01

    Linkage studies have implicated 10q22-q23 as a schizophrenia (SZ) susceptibility locus in Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) and Han Chinese from Taiwan populations. To further explore our previous linkage signal in the AJ population (NPL score: 4.27, empirical p = 2 × 10?5), we performed a peakwide association fine mapping study by using 1414 SNPs across ?12.5 Mb in 10q22-q23. We genotyped 1515 AJ individuals, including 285 parent-child trios, 173 unrelated cases, and 487 unrelated controls. We analyzed the binary diagnostic phenotype of SZ and 9 heritable quantitative traits derived from a principal components factor analysis of 73 items from our consensus diagnostic ratings and direct assessment interviews. Although no marker withstood multiple test correction for association with the binary SZ phenotype, we found strong evidence of association by using the “delusion” factor as the quantitative trait at three SNPs (rs10883866, rs10748842, and rs6584400) located in a 13 kb interval in intron 1 of Neuregulin 3 (NRG3). Our best p value from family-based association analysis was 7.26 × 10?7. We replicated this association in the collection of 173 unrelated AJ cases (p = 1.55 × 10?2), with a combined p value of 2.30 × 10?7. After performing 10,000 permutations of each of the phenotypes, we estimated the empirical study-wide significance across all 9 factors (90,000 permutations) to be p = 2.7 × 10?3. NRG3 is primarily expressed in the central nervous system and is one of three paralogs of NRG1, a gene strongly implicated in SZ. These biological properties together with our linkage and association results strongly support NRG3 as a gene involved in SZ. PMID:19118813

  11. Fine mapping of the chromosome 3p susceptibility locus in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Hampe, J; Lynch, N; Daniels, S; Bridger, S; Macpherson, A; Stokkers, P; Forbes, A; Lennard-Jones, J; Mathew, C; Curran, M; Schreiber, S

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Genetic predisposition for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been demonstrated by epidemiological and genetic linkage studies. Genetic linkage of IBD to chromosome 3 has been observed previously. A high density analysis of chromosome 3p was performed to confirm prior linkages and elucidate potential genetic associations.?METHODS—Forty three microsatellite markers on chromosome 3 were genotyped in 353 affected sibling pairs of North European Caucasian extraction (average marker density 2 cM in the linkage interval). Marker order was defined by genetic and radiation hybrid techniques.?RESULTS—The maximum single point logarithm of odds (LOD) score was observed for Crohn's disease at D3S3591. Peak multipoint LOD scores of 1.65 and 1.40 for the IBD phenotype were observed near D3S1304 (distal 3p) and near D3S1283 in the linkage region previously reported. Crohn's disease contributed predominantly to the linkage. The transmission disequilibrium test showed significant evidence of association (p=0.009) between allele 4 of D3S1076 and the IBD phenotype (51 transmitted v 28 non-transmitted). Two known polymorphisms in the CCR2 and CCR5 genes were analysed, neither of which showed significant association with IBD. Additional haplotype associations were observed in the vicinity of D3S1076.?CONCLUSIONS—This study provides confirmatory linkage evidence for an IBD susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p and suggests that CCR2 and CCR5 are unlikely to be major susceptibility loci for IBD. The association findings in this region warrant further investigation.???Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; fine mapping; chromosome 3 PMID:11156639

  12. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2.

    PubMed

    Orr, Nick; Dudbridge, Frank; Dryden, Nicola; Maguire, Sarah; Novo, Daniela; Perrakis, Eleni; Johnson, Nichola; Ghoussaini, Maya; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Warren, Helen; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Chistof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Sanchez, Marie; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Hamann, Ute; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Floris, Guiseppe; Beuselinck, Benoit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Slettedahl, Seth; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Van Asperen, Christi J; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Kriege, Mieke; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidema; Iwata, Hiroji; Ishiguro, Junko; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, Peter; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Lee, Soo Chin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Signorello, Lisa B; Luccarini, Craig; Bayes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hunter, David J; Lindstrom, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Easton, Douglas F; Dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian

    2015-05-15

    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88-0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10(-25)). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ?14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08-1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10(-09)) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06-1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10(-11)). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10(-05)). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-?, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis. PMID:25652398

  13. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nick; Dudbridge, Frank; Dryden, Nicola; Maguire, Sarah; Novo, Daniela; Perrakis, Eleni; Johnson, Nichola; Ghoussaini, Maya; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Warren, Helen; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Chistof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Sanchez, Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Hamann, Ute; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Floris, Guiseppe; Beuselinck, Benoit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Slettedahl, Seth; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robertus A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Kriege, Mieke; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidema; Iwata, Hiroji; Ishiguro, Junko; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, Peter; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Lee, Soo Chin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Signorello, Lisa B.; Luccarini, Craig; Bayes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hunter, David J.; Lindstrom, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas F.; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88–0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10?25). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ?14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08–1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10?09) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06–1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10?11). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06–1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10?05). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-?, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis. PMID:25652398

  14. Precision mapping of quantitative trait loci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhao-Bang Zeng

    1994-01-01

    Adequate separation of effects of possible multiple linked quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on mapping QTLs is the key to increasing the precision of QTL mapping. A new method of QTL mapping is proposed and analyzed in this paper by combining interval mapping with multiple regression. The basis of the proposed method is an interval test in which the test statistic

  15. Molecular tagging of erucic acid trait in oilseed mustard ( Brassica juncea ) by QTL mapping and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FAE1 gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Gupta; A. Mukhopadhyay; N. Arumugam; Y. S. Sodhi; D. Pental; A. K. Pradhan

    2004-01-01

    Molecular mapping and tagging of the erucic acid trait (C22:1) in Brassica juncea was done by a candidate gene approach. Two QTLs underlying the variation of seed erucic acid content were assigned to two linkage groups of a B. juncea map using a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population derived from high × low erucic acid F 1 hybrid. Two consensus

  16. Long-Range Regulatory Polymorphisms Affecting a GABA Receptor Constitute a Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) for Social Behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Bendesky, Andres; Pitts, Jason; Rockman, Matthew V.; Chen, William C.; Tan, Man-Wah; Kruglyak, Leonid; Bargmann, Cornelia I.

    2012-01-01

    Aggregation is a social behavior that varies between and within species, providing a model to study the genetic basis of behavioral diversity. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, aggregation is regulated by environmental context and by two neuromodulatory pathways, one dependent on the neuropeptide receptor NPR-1 and one dependent on the TGF-? family protein DAF-7. To gain further insight into the genetic regulation of aggregation, we characterize natural variation underlying behavioral differences between two wild-type C. elegans strains, N2 and CB4856. Using quantitative genetic techniques, including a survey of chromosome substitution strains and QTL analysis of recombinant inbred lines, we identify three new QTLs affecting aggregation in addition to the two known N2 mutations in npr-1 and glb-5. Fine-mapping with near-isogenic lines localized one QTL, accounting for 5%–8% of the behavioral variance between N2 and CB4856, 3? to the transcript of the GABA neurotransmitter receptor gene exp-1. Quantitative complementation tests demonstrated that this QTL affects exp-1, identifying exp-1 and GABA signaling as new regulators of aggregation. exp-1 interacts genetically with the daf-7 TGF-? pathway, which integrates food availability and population density, and exp-1 mutations affect the level of daf-7 expression. Our results add to growing evidence that genetic variation affecting neurotransmitter receptor genes is a source of natural behavioral variation. PMID:23284308

  17. Crop management impacts the efficiency of quantitative trait loci (QTL) detection and use: case study of fruit load×QTL interactions.

    PubMed

    Kromdijk, J; Bertin, N; Heuvelink, E; Molenaar, J; de Visser, P H B; Marcelis, L F M; Struik, P C

    2014-01-01

    Mapping studies using populations with introgressed marker-defined genomic regions are continuously increasing knowledge about quantitative trait loci (QTL) that correlate with variation in important crop traits. This knowledge is useful for plant breeding, although combining desired traits in one genotype might be complicated by the mode of inheritance and co-localization of QTL with antagonistic effects, and by physiological trade-offs, and feed-back or feed-forward mechanisms. Therefore, integrating advances at the genetic level with insight into influences of environment and crop management on crop performance remains difficult. Whereas mapping studies can pinpoint correlations between QTL and phenotypic traits for specific conditions, ignoring or overlooking the importance of environment or crop management can jeopardize the relevance of such assessments. Here, we focus on fruit load (a measure determining competition among fruits on one plant) and its strong modulation of QTL effects on fruit size and composition. Following an integral approach, we show which fruit traits are affected by fruit load, to which underlying processes these traits can be linked, and which processes at lower and higher integration levels are affected by fruit load (and subsequently influence fruit traits). This opinion paper (i) argues that a mechanistic framework to interpret interactions between fruit load and QTL effects is needed, (ii) pleads for consideration of the context of agronomic management when detecting QTL, (iii) makes a case for incorporating interacting factors in the experimental set-up of QTL mapping studies, and (iv) provides recommendations to improve efficiency in QTL detection and use, with particular focus on model-based marker-assisted breeding. PMID:24227339

  18. Second-generation genetic linkage map of catfish and its integration with the BAC-based physical map.

    PubMed

    Ninwichian, Parichart; Peatman, Eric; Liu, Hong; Kucuktas, Huseyin; Somridhivej, Benjaporn; Liu, Shikai; Li, Ping; Jiang, Yanliang; Sha, Zhenxia; Kaltenboeck, Ludmilla; Abernathy, Jason W; Wang, Wenqi; Chen, Fei; Lee, Yoona; Wong, Lilian; Wang, Shaolin; Lu, Jianguo; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2012-10-01

    Construction of high-density genetic linkage maps is crucially important for quantitative trait loci (QTL) studies, and they are more useful when integrated with physical maps. Such integrated maps are valuable genome resources for fine mapping of QTL, comparative genomics, and accurate and efficient whole-genome assembly. Previously, we established both linkage maps and a physical map for channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, the dominant aquaculture species in the United States. Here we added 2030 BAC end sequence (BES)-derived microsatellites from 1481 physical map contigs, as well as markers from singleton BES, ESTs, anonymous microsatellites, and SNPs, to construct a second-generation linkage map. Average marker density across the 29 linkage groups reached 1.4 cM/marker. The increased marker density highlighted variations in recombination rates within and among catfish chromosomes. This work effectively anchored 44.8% of the catfish BAC physical map contigs, covering ~52.8% of the genome. The genome size was estimated to be 2546 cM on the linkage map, and the calculated physical distance per centimorgan was 393 Kb. This integrated map should enable comparative studies with teleost model species as well as provide a framework for ordering and assembling whole-genome scaffolds. PMID:23050234

  19. Fine Mapping Links the FTa1 Flowering Time Regulator to the Dominant Spring1 Locus in Medicago

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Chin Chin; Balcerowicz, Martin; Zhang, Lulu; Jaudal, Mauren; Brocard, Lysiane; Ratet, Pascal; Putterill, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    To extend our understanding of flowering time control in eudicots, we screened for mutants in the model legume Medicago truncatula (Medicago). We identified an early flowering mutant, spring1, in a T-DNA mutant screen, but spring1 was not tagged and was deemed a somaclonal mutant. We backcrossed the mutant to wild type R108. The F1 plants and the majority of F2 plants were early flowering like spring1, strongly indicating that spring1 conferred monogenic, dominant early flowering. We hypothesized that the spring1 phenotype resulted from over expression of an activator of flowering. Previously, a major QTL for flowering time in different Medicago accessions was located to an interval on chromosome 7 with six candidate flowering- time activators, including a CONSTANS gene, MtCO, and three FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) genes. Hence we embarked upon linkage mapping using 29 markers from the MtCO/FT region on chromosome 7 on two populations developed by crossing spring1 with Jester. Spring1 mapped to an interval of ?0.5 Mb on chromosome 7 that excluded MtCO, but contained 78 genes, including the three FT genes. Of these FT genes, only FTa1 was up-regulated in spring1 plants. We then investigated global gene expression in spring1 and R108 by microarray analysis. Overall, they had highly similar gene expression and apart from FTa1, no genes in the mapping interval were differentially expressed. Two MADS transcription factor genes, FRUITFULLb (FULb) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVER EXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1a (SOC1a), that were up-regulated in spring1, were also up-regulated in transgenic Medicago over-expressing FTa1. This suggested that their differential expression in spring1 resulted from the increased abundance of FTa1. A 6255 bp genomic FTa1 fragment, including the complete 5? region, was sequenced, but no changes were observed indicating that the spring1 mutation is not a DNA sequence difference in the FTa1 promoter or introns. PMID:23308229

  20. REVIEW Lab Animal Volume 30 No, 7 J 2001 Review of Statistical Methods for QTl

    E-print Network

    Broman, Karl W.

    REVIEW Lab Animal Volume 30 No, 7 J 2001 Review of Statistical Methods for QTl Mapping of the statistical methods for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTLs, the genes responsible for variation in quan for the identification of drug targets. The author reviews the basic statis tical methods for mapping QTLs in experi

  1. TAGGING AND MAPPING OF GENES AND QTL AND MOLECULAR MARKER-ASSISTED SELECTION FOR TRAITS OF ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE IN BEAN AND COWPEA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bean/Cowpea Collaborative Research Support Program (B/C CRSP) scientists have successfully integrated consensus maps of the 11 linkage groups in both bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and cowpea (Vigna unguiculata). The bean map is approximately 1200 cM with some 500 markers and an additional 500 marker...

  2. An update of the Courtot × Chinese Spring intervarietal molecular marker linkage map for the QTL detection of agronomic traits in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Sourdille; T. Cadalen; H. Guyomarc'h; J. Snape; M. Perretant; G. Charmet; C. Boeuf; S. Bernard; M. Bernard

    2003-01-01

    We made an update of the intervarietal molecular marker linkage map of the wheat genome developed using a doubled-haploid (DH) population derived from the cross between the cultivars 'Courtot' and 'Chinese Spring'. This map was constructed using 187 DH lines and 659 markers. The genome was well covered (more than 95%) except for chromosomes from homoeologous group 4 and chromosomes

  3. MROrchestrator: A Fine-Grained Resource Orchestration Framework for MapReduce Clusters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bikash Sharma; Ramya Prabhakar; Mahmut Kandemir; Chita Das

    2012-01-01

    Efficient resource management in data centers and clouds running large distributed data processing frameworks like MapReduce is crucial for enhancing the performance of hosted applications and boosting resource utilization. However, existing resource scheduling schemes in Hadoop MapReduce allocate resources at the granularity of fixed-size, static portions of nodes, called slots. In this work, we show that MapReduce jobs have widely

  4. A gene-derived SNP-based high resolution linkage map of carrot including the location of QTL conditioning root and leaf anthocyanin pigmentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Purple carrots accumulate large quantities of anthocyanins in their roots and leaves. These flavonoid pigments possess antioxidant activity and are implicated in providing health benefits. The lack of informative and saturated linkage maps associated with well characterized populations s...

  5. A linearised pixel-swapping method for mapping rural linear land cover features from fine spatial resolution remotely sensed imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, M. W.; Atkinson, P. M.; Holland, D. A.

    2007-10-01

    Accurate maps of rural linear land cover features, such as paths and hedgerows, would be useful to ecologists, conservation managers and land planning agencies. Such information might be used in a variety of applications (e.g., ecological, conservation and land management applications). Based on the phenomenon of spatial dependence, sub-pixel mapping techniques can be used to increase the spatial resolution of land cover maps produced from satellite sensor imagery and map such features with increased accuracy. Aerial photography with a spatial resolution of 0.25 m was acquired of the Christchurch area of Dorset, UK. The imagery was hard classified using a simple Mahalanobis distance classifier and the classification degraded to simulate land cover proportion images with spatial resolutions of 2.5 and 5 m. A simple pixel-swapping algorithm was then applied to each of the proportion images. Sub-pixels within pixels were swapped iteratively until the spatial correlation between neighbouring sub-pixels for the entire image was maximised. Visual inspection of the super-resolved output showed that prediction of the position and dimensions of hedgerows was comparable with the original imagery. The maps displayed an accuracy of 87%. To enhance the prediction of linear features within the super-resolved output, an anisotropic modelling component was added. The direction of the largest sums of proportions was calculated within a moving window at the pixel level. The orthogonal sum of proportions was used in estimating the anisotropy ratio. The direction and anisotropy ratio were then used to modify the pixel-swapping algorithm so as to increase the likelihood of creating linear features in the output map. The new linear pixel-swapping method led to an increase in the accuracy of mapping fine linear features of approximately 5% compared with the conventional pixel-swapping method.

  6. Identification and verification of QTL associated with growth traits in two genetic backgrounds of Barramundi (Lates calcarifer).

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Lo, L C; Feng, F; Zhu, Z Y; Yue, G H

    2008-02-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth traits have previously been mapped in linkage groups (LG) 2, 3 and 23 of Barramundi (Lates carcalifer), but these QTL have not been verified in different genetic backgrounds and environments. Here, we report the identification and verification of QTL for growth traits on LG2, 3, 10 and 23 in F(1) families constructed using brooders from the Singapore Marine Aquaculture Center (MAC) and from wild stocks collected in Thailand (THAI). The previously detected QTL for body weight and length linked to marker Lca371 on LG2 were confirmed in both the MAC and THAI families, whereas other QTL previously mapped to LG3 and 23 were only detected in one of the two families. QTL for body weight and length were identified in the MAC family, but not in the THAI family, in a region where the insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) and tyrosine hydroxylase 1 (TH1) genes are located on LG10. Significant epistatic interactions were identified between markers Lca287 on LG2 and IGF2 on LG10 for growth trait QTL in the MAC family, but not in the THAI family. Effects of the IGF2, TH1 and parvalbumin 1 candidate genes were family-specific. Our results indicate that some but not all QTL are family-specific in Barramundi. PMID:18076743

  7. Mapping and QTL analysis of horticultural traits in a narrow cross in cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L.) using random-amplified polymorphic DNA markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix C. Serquen; J Bacher; JE Staub

    1997-01-01

    An 80-point genetic map [77 random-amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPD), F (female sex expression), de (determinate), and ll (little leaf)] was constructed from a narrow cross in cucumber using the determinate, gynoecious, standard-sized leaf line G421 and the indeterminate, monoecious, little leaf line H-19. The map defined nine linkage groups and spanned ca. 600 cM with an average distance between markers

  8. Resistance gene analogues identified through the NBS-profiling method map close to major genes and QTL for disease resistance in apple.

    PubMed

    Calenge, F; Van der Linden, C G; Van de Weg, E; Schouten, H J; Van Arkel, G; Denancé, C; Durel, C-E

    2005-02-01

    We used a new method called nucleotide-binding site (NBS) profiling to identify and map resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in apple. This method simultaneously allows the amplification and the mapping of genetic markers anchored in the conserved NBS-encoding domain of plant disease resistance genes. Ninety-four individuals belonging to an F1 progeny derived from a cross between the apple cultivars 'Discovery' and 'TN10-8' were studied. Two degenerate primers designed from the highly conserved P-loop motif within the NBS domain were used together with adapter primers. Forty-three markers generated with NBS profiling could be mapped in this progeny. After sequencing, 23 markers were identified as RGAs, based on their homologies with known resistance genes or NBS/leucine-rich-repeat-like genes. Markers were mapped on 10 of the 17 linkage groups of the apple genetic map used. Most of these markers were organized in clusters. Twenty-five markers mapped close to major genes or quantitative trait loci for resistance to scab and mildew previously identified in different apple progenies. Several markers could become efficient tools for marker-assisted selection once converted into breeder-friendly markers. This study demonstrates the efficiency of the NBS-profiling method for generating RGA markers for resistance loci in apple. PMID:15647920

  9. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation

    PubMed Central

    van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; H?gg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Willems, Sara M.; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P.; Willenborg, Christina; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R.; Groves, Christopher J.; Bennett, Amanda J.; Lehtim?ki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S.; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M.; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Karssen, Lennart C.; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; de Craen, Anton J. M.; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S.; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D.; Samani, Nilesh J.; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T.; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I.; Morris, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ?0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated. PMID:26132169

  10. Discovery and Fine-Mapping of Glycaemic and Obesity-Related Trait Loci Using High-Density Imputation.

    PubMed

    Horikoshi, Momoko; M?gi, Reedik; van de Bunt, Martijn; Surakka, Ida; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Mahajan, Anubha; Marullo, Letizia; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; H?gg, Sara; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Ladenvall, Claes; Ried, Janina S; Winkler, Thomas W; Willems, Sara M; Pervjakova, Natalia; Esko, Tõnu; Beekman, Marian; Nelson, Christopher P; Willenborg, Christina; Wiltshire, Steven; Ferreira, Teresa; Fernandez, Juan; Gaulton, Kyle J; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Hamsten, Anders; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Willemsen, Gonneke; Milaneschi, Yuri; Robertson, Neil R; Groves, Christopher J; Bennett, Amanda J; Lehtim?ki, Terho; Viikari, Jorma S; Rung, Johan; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Perola, Markus; Heid, Iris M; Herder, Christian; Grallert, Harald; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Roden, Michael; Hypponen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Karssen, Lennart C; Mihailov, Evelin; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J; de Craen, Anton J M; Deelen, Joris; Havulinna, Aki S; Blades, Matthew; Hengstenberg, Christian; Erdmann, Jeanette; Schunkert, Heribert; Kaprio, Jaakko; Tobin, Martin D; Samani, Nilesh J; Lind, Lars; Salomaa, Veikko; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Slagboom, P Eline; Metspalu, Andres; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Peters, Annette; Gieger, Christian; Jula, Antti; Groop, Leif; Raitakari, Olli T; Power, Chris; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco; Smit, Johannes H; Boomsma, Dorret I; Pedersen, Nancy L; Ingelsson, Erik; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Stefansson, Kari; Ripatti, Samuli; Prokopenko, Inga; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2015-07-01

    Reference panels from the 1000 Genomes (1000G) Project Consortium provide near complete coverage of common and low-frequency genetic variation with minor allele frequency ?0.5% across European ancestry populations. Within the European Network for Genetic and Genomic Epidemiology (ENGAGE) Consortium, we have undertaken the first large-scale meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), supplemented by 1000G imputation, for four quantitative glycaemic and obesity-related traits, in up to 87,048 individuals of European ancestry. We identified two loci for body mass index (BMI) at genome-wide significance, and two for fasting glucose (FG), none of which has been previously reported in larger meta-analysis efforts to combine GWAS of European ancestry. Through conditional analysis, we also detected multiple distinct signals of association mapping to established loci for waist-hip ratio adjusted for BMI (RSPO3) and FG (GCK and G6PC2). The index variant for one association signal at the G6PC2 locus is a low-frequency coding allele, H177Y, which has recently been demonstrated to have a functional role in glucose regulation. Fine-mapping analyses revealed that the non-coding variants most likely to drive association signals at established and novel loci were enriched for overlap with enhancer elements, which for FG mapped to promoter and transcription factor binding sites in pancreatic islets, in particular. Our study demonstrates that 1000G imputation and genetic fine-mapping of common and low-frequency variant association signals at GWAS loci, integrated with genomic annotation in relevant tissues, can provide insight into the functional and regulatory mechanisms through which their effects on glycaemic and obesity-related traits are mediated. PMID:26132169

  11. Fine-mapping and comprehensive transcript analysis reveals nonsynonymous variants within a novel 1.17 Mb blood

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    .17 Mb blood pressure QTL region on rat chromosome 10 Yasser Saad, Michael R. Garrett, Ezhilarasi.elsevier.com/locate/ygeno Corresponding author. Fax: +1 419 383 6168. E-mail address: bina.joe@utoledo.edu (B. Joe). 0888-7543/$ - see

  12. Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of the nuclear restorer gene Rfp for pol CMS in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Liu, Pingwu; Long, Furong; Hong, Dengfeng; He, Qingbiao; Yang, Guangsheng

    2012-08-01

    The Polima (pol) system of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) in rapeseed is widely used in China for commercial hybrid seed production. Genetic studies have shown that its fertility restorer gene (Rfp) is monogenic dominant. For fine mapping of the Rfp gene, a near isogenic line comprising 3,662 individuals of BC(14)F(1) generation segregating for the Rfp gene was created. Based on the sequences of two SCAR markers, SCAP0612ST and SCAP0612EM2, developed by Zhao et al. (Genes Genom 30(3):191-196, 2008) and the synteny region of Brassica napus and other Brassica species, 13 markers strongly linked with the Rfp gene were identified. By integrating three of these markers to the published linkage map, the Rfp gene was mapped on linkage group N9 of B. napus. Using these markers, the Rfp locus was narrowed down to a 29.2-kb genomic region of Brassica rapa. Seven open reading frames (ORFs) were predicted in the target region, of these, ORF2, encoding a PPR protein, was the most likely candidate gene of Rfp. These results lay a solid foundation for map-based cloning of the Rfp gene and will be helpful for marker-assisted selection of elite CMS restorer lines. PMID:22614178

  13. Two-dimensional mapping of fine structures in the Kuroshio Current using seismic reflection data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takeshi Tsuji; Takashi Noguchi; Hiroshi Niino; Toshifumi Matsuoka; Yasuyuki Nakamura; Hidekazu Tokuyama; Shin'ichi Kuramoto; Nathan Bangs

    2005-01-01

    Multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in the Pacific Ocean off the Muroto peninsula of Shikoku Island, Japan reveal the two-dimensional distribution of fine structures in the Kuroshio Current. Eighty-one seismic sections, each extending 80 km perpendicular to the current and separated by 100 m, were acquired from 20 June to 15 August 1999 (57 days). The seismic data clearly show

  14. Localization of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for agronomic important characters by the use of a RFLP map in barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Backes; A. Graner; B. Foroughi-Wehr; G. Fischbeck; G. Wenzel; A. Jahoor

    1995-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty doubled haploid lines were studied from a cross between two 2-row winter barley varieties. The lines were evaluated for several characters in a field experiment for 3 years on two locations with two replications. From a total of 431 RFLP probes 50 were found to be polymorphic and subsequently used to construct a linkage map. Quantitative

  15. Mapping and validation of QTL which confer partial resistance to broadly virulent post-2000 North American races of stripe rust in hexaploid wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iago Lowe; Ljupcho Jankuloski; Shiaoman Chao; Xianming Chen; Deven See; Jorge Dubcovsky

    2011-01-01

    A mapping population of 186 recombinant inbred lines developed from a cross between UC1110, an adapted California spring wheat,\\u000a and PI610750, a synthetic derivative from CIMMYT’s Wide Cross Program, was evaluated for its response to current California\\u000a races of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in replicated field trials over four seasons (2007–2010) in the northern Sacramento Valley. A

  16. Molecular tagging of erucic acid trait in oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea) by QTL mapping and single nucleotide polymorphisms in FAE1 gene.

    PubMed

    Gupta, V; Mukhopadhyay, A; Arumugam, N; Sodhi, Y S; Pental, D; Pradhan, A K

    2004-02-01

    Molecular mapping and tagging of the erucic acid trait (C22:1) in Brassica juncea was done by a candidate gene approach. Two QTLs underlying the variation of seed erucic acid content were assigned to two linkage groups of a B. juncea map using a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population derived from high x low erucic acid F(1) hybrid. Two consensus primers corresponding to the full-length Fatty Acid Elongase 1 ( FAE1) gene, reported to be involved in the elongation of C18:1 to C22:1, were designed. PCR amplification and subsequent cloning and sequencing identified two FAE1 genes ( FAE1.1 and FAE1.2) in both high and low erucic acid mustard lines. Sequence alignment of corresponding FAE1 genes between high and low erucic acid mustard lines identified four substitution type single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FAE1.1 and three in FAE1.2. Using the SNuPE method of SNP genotyping, these two genes were mapped to two independent loci that co-segregated with the two QTLs governing the erucic acid trait. Association of wild ( E1E2) and mutant ( e1e2) haplotypes of two FAE1 genes with erucic acid variation in two segregating populations revealed that the e1e1e2e2 genotype identified low erucic acid individuals (<2%) and E1E1E2E2 identified individuals with highest erucic acid content (>40%). The E1e1E2e2 heterozygote was found to be intermediate in phenotype. The applicability of these SNPs in marker-assisted manipulation of the erucic acid trait was verified by genotyping a set of contrasting germplasm of B. juncea belonging to two distinct gene pools (Indian and east European) and other oil-yielding Brassica species. PMID:14564400

  17. Genomics of a Metamorphic Timing QTL: met1 Maps to a Unique Genomic Position and Regulates Morph and Species-Specific Patterns of Brain Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Page, Robert B.; Boley, Meredith A.; Kump, David K.; Voss, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Very little is known about genetic factors that regulate life history transitions during ontogeny. Closely related tiger salamanders (Ambystoma species complex) show extreme variation in metamorphic timing, with some species foregoing metamorphosis altogether, an adaptive trait called paedomorphosis. Previous studies identified a major effect quantitative trait locus (met1) for metamorphic timing and expression of paedomorphosis in hybrid crosses between the biphasic Eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum tigrinum) and the paedomorphic Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). We used existing hybrid mapping panels and a newly created hybrid cross to map the met1 genomic region and determine the effect of met1 on larval growth, metamorphic timing, and gene expression in the brain. We show that met1 maps to the position of a urodele-specific chromosome rearrangement on linkage group 2 that uniquely brought functionally associated genes into linkage. Furthermore, we found that more than 200 genes were differentially expressed during larval development as a function of met1 genotype. This list of differentially expressed genes is enriched for proteins that function in the mitochondria, providing evidence of a link between met1, thyroid hormone signaling, and mitochondrial energetics associated with metamorphosis. Finally, we found that met1 significantly affected metamorphic timing in hybrids, but not early larval growth rate. Collectively, our results show that met1 regulates species and morph-specific patterns of brain transcription and life history variation. PMID:23946331

  18. Fine mapping of quantitative trait loci underlying sensory meat quality traits in three French beef cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Allais, S; Levéziel, H; Hocquette, J F; Rousset, S; Denoyelle, C; Journaux, L; Renand, G

    2014-10-01

    Improving the traits that underlie meat quality is a major challenge in the beef industry. The objective of this paper was to detect QTL linked to sensory meat quality traits in 3 French beef cattle breeds. We genotyped 1,059, 1,219, and 947 young bulls and their sires belonging to the Charolais, Limousin, and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds, respectively, using the Illumina BovineSNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). After estimating relevant genetic parameters using VCE software, we performed a linkage disequilibrium and linkage analysis on 4 meat traits: intramuscular fat content, muscle lightness, shear force, and tenderness score. Heritability coefficients largely ranged between 0.10 and 0.24; however, they reached a maximum of 0.44 and 0.50 for intramuscular fat content and tenderness score, respectively, in the Charolais breed. The 2 meat texture traits, shear force and tenderness score, were strongly genetically correlated (-0.91 in the Charolais and Limousin breed and -0.86 in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed), indicating that they are 2 different measures of approximately the same trait. The genetic correlation between tenderness and intramuscular fat content differed across breeds. Using a significance threshold of 5 × 10(-4) for QTL detection, we found more than 200 significant positions across the 29 autosomal chromosomes for the 4 traits in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds; in contrast, there were only 78 significant positions in the Limousin breed. Few QTL were common across breeds. We detected QTL for intramuscular fat content located near the myostatin gene in the Charolais and Blonde d'Aquitaine breeds. No mutation in this gene has been reported for the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed; therefore, it suggests that an unknown mutation could be segregating in this breed. We confirmed that, in certain breeds, markers in the calpastatin and calpain 1 gene regions affect tenderness. We also found new QTL as several QTL on chromosome 3 that are significantly associated with meat tenderness in the Blonde d'Aquitaine breed. Overall, these results greatly contribute to the goal of building a panel of markers that can be used to select animals of high meat quality. PMID:25149327

  19. QTL methodology for response curves on the basis of non-linear mixed models, with an illustration to senescence in potato

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Malosetti; R. G. F. Visser; C. Celis-Gamboa; F. A. van Eeuwijk

    2006-01-01

    The improvement of quantitative traits in plant breeding will in general benefit from a better understanding of the genetic basis underlying their development. In this paper, a QTL mapping strategy is presented for modelling the development of phenotypic traits over time. Traditionally, crop growth models are used to study development. We propose an integration of crop growth models and QTL

  20. Fine Mapping of 39 ESTs on Human Chromosome 6p23–p25

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Olavesen; E. Bentley; R. V. F. Mason; R. J. Stephens; J. Ragoussis

    1997-01-01

    Loci conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia, coeliac disease, and orofacial clefting have been assigned to the 6p23–p25 region of human chromosome 6. To facilitate the identification of candidate genes we have sublocalized and ordered 39 ESTs assigned to this interval by radiation hybrid mapping. This was achieved by generating PAC contigs containing the ESTs, genetic markers, and random STSs. For full

  1. Fine Mapping the Soybean Aphid Resistance Gene Rag1 in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid [Aphis glycines Matsumura] is an important soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] pest in North America. The dominant aphid resistance gene Rag1 was previously mapped from the cultivar ‘Dowling’ to a 12 centiMorgan (cM) marker interval on soybean chromosome 7 [formerly linkage group (LG)...

  2. MAPPING INVASIVE SPECIES IN M?KAHA VALLEY, O'AHU USING FINE RESOLUTION SATELLITE IMAGERY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michele Harman

    The spread of alien plant species has long been recognized as one of the most significant environmental changes due to its ability to decrease biodiversity and alter ecosystem processes. In M?kaha Valley, O'ahu, there is a need to evaluate the impact of alien species invasion on local hydrology for sustainable water resource management. A detailed vegetation map depicting the current

  3. Fine mapping of E(kp)-1, a locus associated with silkworm (Bombyx mori) proleg development.

    PubMed

    Xiang, H; Li, M; Yang, F; Guo, Q; Zhan, S; Lin, H; Miao, X; Huang, Y

    2008-05-01

    The silkworm homeotic mutant E(kp) has a pair of rudimentary abdominal legs, called prolegs, in its A2 segment. This phenotype is caused by a single dominant mutation at the E(kp)-1 locus, which was previously mapped to chromosome 6. To explore the possible association of Hox genes with proleg development in the silkworm, a map-based cloning strategy was used to isolate the E(kp)-1 locus. Five E(kp)-1-linked simple sequence repeat markers on chromosome 6 were used to generate a low-resolution map with a total genetic distance of 39.5 cM. Four additional cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence markers were developed based on the initial map. The closest marker to E(kp)-1 was at a genetic distance of 2.7 cM. A high-resolution genetic map was constructed using nine BC1 segregating populations consisting of 2396 individuals. Recombination suppression was observed in the vicinity of E(kp)-1. Four molecular markers were tightly linked to E(kp)-1, and three were clustered with it. These markers were used to screen a BAC library. A single bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clone spanning the E(kp)-1 locus was identified, and E(kp)-1 was delimited to a region less than 220 kb long that included the Hox gene abdominal-A and a non-coding locus, iab-4. These results provide essential information for the isolation of this locus, which may shed light on the mechanism of proleg development in the silkworm and possibly in Lepidoptera. PMID:18364737

  4. Fine mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes of peste des petits ruminants virus nucleoprotein.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ruisong; Fan, Xiaoming; Xu, Wanxiang; Li, Wentao; Dong, Shijuan; Zhu, Yumin; He, Yaping; Tang, Haiping; Du, Rong; Li, Zhen

    2015-01-30

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant and highly immunogenic protein of morbillivirus, and is presently the basis of most diagnostic assays for peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV). In this study, fine epitope mapping and conservation analysis of linear B-cell epitopes on the PPRV NP has been undertaken using biosynthetic peptides. Nineteen linear B-cell epitopes were identified and their corresponding minimal motifs were located on the NP of PPRV China/Tibet/Geg/07-30. Conservation analysis indicated that ten of the 19 minimal motifs were conserved among 46 PPRV strains. Peptides containing the minimal motifs were recognized using anti-PPRV serum from a goat immunized with PPRV vaccine strain Nigeria 75/1. Identified epitopes and their motifs improve our understanding of the antigenic characteristics of PPRV NP and provide a basis for the development of epitope-based diagnostic assays. PMID:25465659

  5. Simultaneous estimation of QTL effects and positions when using genotype data with errors.

    PubMed

    Tong, Liang; Ma, Weijun; Liu, Haidong; Yuan, Chaofeng; Zhou, Ying

    2015-03-01

    Accurate genetic data are important prerequisite of performing genetic linkage test or association test. Currently, most analytical methods assume that the observed genotypes are correct. However, due to the constraint at the technical level, most of the genetic data that people used so far contain errors. In this paper, we considered the problem of QTL mapping based on biological data with genotyping errors. By analysing all possible genotypes of each individual in framework of multipleinterval mapping, we proposed an algorithm of inferring all model parameters through the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and discussed the hypothesis testing of the existence of QTL. We carried out extensive simulation studies to assess the proposed method. Simulation results showed that the new method outperforms the method that does not take the genotyping errors into account, and therefore it can decrease the impact of genotyping errors on QTL mapping. The proposed method was also applied to analyse a real barley dataset. PMID:25846874

  6. Fine Mapping and Characterization of Candidate Genes that Control Resistance to Cercospora sojina K. Hara in Two Soybean Germplasm Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Anh-Tung; Harris, Donna K.; Buck, James; Hoskins, Aaron; Serrano, Jonathan; Abdel-Haleem, Hussein; Cregan, Perry; Song, Qijian; Boerma, H. Roger; Li, Zenglu

    2015-01-01

    Frogeye leaf spot (FLS), caused by the fungus Cercospora sojina K. Hara, may cause a significant yield loss to soybean growers in regions with a warm and humid climate. Two soybean accessions, PI 594891 and PI 594774, were identified to carry a high level of resistance similar to that conditioned by the Rcs3 gene in 'Davis'. Previously, we reported that the resistance to FLS in these two plant introductions (PIs) was controlled by a novel gene (s) on chromosome 13 that is different from Rcs3. To fine-map the novel FLS resistance gene(s) in these two PIs, F2: 3 seeds from the crosses between PI 594891 and PI 594774, and the FLS susceptible genotype 'Blackhawk' were genotyped with SNP markers that were designed based on the SoySNP50k iSelect BeadChip data to identify recombinant events and locate candidate genes. Analysis of lines possessing key recombination events helped narrow down the FLS-resistance genomic region in PI 594891 from 3.3 Mb to a 72.6 kb region with five annotated genes. The resistance gene in PI 594774 was fine-mapped into a 540 kb region that encompasses the 72.6 kb region found in PI 594891. Sequencing five candidate genes in PI 594891 identified three genes that have several mutations in the promoter, intron, 5', and 3' UTR regions. qPCR analysis showed a difference in expression levels of these genes in both lines compared to Blackhawk in the presence of C. sojina. Based on phenotype, genotype and haplotype analysis results, these two soybean accessions might carry different resistance alleles of the same gene or two different gene(s). The identified SNPs were used to develop Kompetitive Allele Specific PCR (KASP) assays to detect the resistance alleles on chromosome 13 from the two PIs for marker-assisted selection. PMID:25993056

  7. Fine Physical and Genetic Mapping of Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene MlIW172 Originating from Wild Emmer (Triticum dicoccoides)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Zhao, Xiaojie; Cui, Yu; Song, Wei; Huo, Naxin; Liang, Yong; Xie, Jingzhong; Wang, Zhenzhong; Wu, Qiuhong; Chen, Yong-Xing; Lu, Ping; Zhang, De-Yun; Wang, Lili; Sun, Hua; Yang, Tsomin; Keeble-Gagnere, Gabriel; Appels, Rudi; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ling, Hong-Qing; Luo, Mingcheng; Gu, Yongqiang; Sun, Qixin; Liu, Zhiyong

    2014-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important wheat diseases in the world. In this study, a single dominant powdery mildew resistance gene MlIW172 was identified in the IW172 wild emmer accession and mapped to the distal region of chromosome arm 7AL (bin7AL-16-0.86-0.90) via molecular marker analysis. MlIW172 was closely linked with the RFLP probe Xpsr680-derived STS marker Xmag2185 and the EST markers BE405531 and BE637476. This suggested that MlIW172 might be allelic to the Pm1 locus or a new locus closely linked to Pm1. By screening genomic BAC library of durum wheat cv. Langdon and 7AL-specific BAC library of hexaploid wheat cv. Chinese Spring, and after analyzing genome scaffolds of Triticum urartu containing the marker sequences, additional markers were developed to construct a fine genetic linkage map on the MlIW172 locus region and to delineate the resistance gene within a 0.48 cM interval. Comparative genetics analyses using ESTs and RFLP probe sequences flanking the MlIW172 region against other grass species revealed a general co-linearity in this region with the orthologous genomic regions of rice chromosome 6, Brachypodium chromosome 1, and sorghum chromosome 10. However, orthologous resistance gene-like RGA sequences were only present in wheat and Brachypodium. The BAC contigs and sequence scaffolds that we have developed provide a framework for the physical mapping and map-based cloning of MlIW172. PMID:24955773

  8. Fine mapping of 39 ESTs on human chromosome 6p23-p25.

    PubMed

    Olavesen, M G; Bentley, E; Mason, R V; Stephens, R J; Ragoussis, J

    1997-12-01

    Loci conferring susceptibility to schizophrenia, coeliac disease, and orofacial clefting have been assigned to the 6p23-p25 region of human chromosome 6. To facilitate the identification of candidate genes we have sublocalized and ordered 39 ESTs assigned to this interval by radiation hybrid mapping. This was achieved by generating PAC contigs containing the ESTs, genetic markers, and random STSs. For full integration into previously published data a single YAC contig spanning 6p23-p25 was used to unambiguously order the PAC contigs and ESTs along the chromosome. The majority of the ESTs (31/39) were positioned in the 6p23-p24 interval at the proximal half of the map, and of these 8 are located within a single PAC clone. The order of known genes in this region is cen-CD83-ZNF40-EDN1-(GCNT2, CAPZB)-TFAP2-BMP6-DSP-tel. PMID:9417921

  9. Fine mapping of trypanosomiasis resistance loci in murine advanced intercross lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuad Iraqi; Steven J. Clapcott; Praveen Kumari; Chris S. Haley; Stephen J. Kemp; Alan J. Teale

    2000-01-01

    .   We have previously reported the results of genome-wide searches in two murine F2 populations for QTLs that influence survival following Trypanosoma congolense infection. Three loci, Tir1, Tir2, and Tir3, were identified and mapped to mouse Chromosomes (Chrs) 17, 5, and 1 respectively, with confidence intervals (CIs) in the\\u000a range 10–40 cM. The size of these CIs is to a

  10. Fine-resolution mapping by haplotype evaluation: the examples of PFIC1 and BRIC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laura N. Bull; Jenneke A. Juijn; Mira Liao; Michiel J. T. van Eijk; Richard J. Sinke; Nicole L. Stricker; Joseph A. DeYoung; Victoria E. H. Carlton; Siamak Baharloo; L. W. J. Klomp; Daiki Abukawa; David E. Barton; Nathan M. Bass; Billy Bourke; Brendan Drumm; Irena Jankowska; Piero Lovisetto; Shirley McQuaid; Joanna Pawlowska; Yusaku Tazawa; Erica Villa; Niels Tygstrup; Ruud Berger; Alexander S. Knisely; Roderick H. J. Houwen; N. B. Freimer

    1999-01-01

    Loci for two inherited liver diseases, benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis (BRIC) and progressive familial intrahepatic\\u000a cholestasis type 1 (PFIC1), have previously been mapped to 18q21 by a search for shared haplotypes in patients in two isolated\\u000a populations. This paper describes the use of further haplotype evaluation with a larger sample of patients for both disorders,\\u000a drawn from several different populations.

  11. The mapping of fine and ultrafine particle concentrations in an engine machining and assembly facility.

    PubMed

    Peters, Thomas M; Heitbrink, William A; Evans, Douglas E; Slavin, Thomas J; Maynard, Andrew D

    2006-04-01

    Aerosol mapping was used to assess particle number and mass concentration in an engine machining and assembly facility in the winter and spring. Number and mass concentration maps were constructed from data collected with two mobile sampling carts, each equipped with a condensation particle counter (10 nm < diameter < 1 microm) and an optical particle counter (300 nm < diameter < 20 microm). Number concentrations inside the facility ranged from 15 to 150 times greater than that outside the facility and were highly dependent on season. The greatest number concentration (>1,000,000 particles cm(-3)) occurred in winter in an area where mass concentration was low (<0.10 mg m(-3)). The increased number of particles was attributed to the exhaust of direct-fire, natural-gas burners used to heat the supply air. The greatest mass concentrations were found around metalworking operations that were poorly enclosed. The larger particles that dominated particle mass in this area were accompanied by ultrafine particles, probably generated through evaporation and subsequent condensation of metalworking fluid components. Repeat mapping events demonstrated that these ultrafine particles persist in workplace air over long time periods. PMID:16361396

  12. Large-scale selection of lines with deletions in chromosome 1 B in wheat and applications for fine deletion mapping.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, H; Yamada, T; Hasegawa, K; Usami, N; Kojima, T; Endo, T R; Ogihara, Y; Sasakuma, T

    2001-08-01

    Terminal deletions of chromosome 1B in common wheat were selected on a large scale. The gametocidal gene of Aegilops cylindrica was used as the inducer of chromosome breakage. First, genes for endosperm storage proteins located on both arms of chromosome 1B were used as the selection markers. However, it was found that the chromosome breakage occurred during female gametogenesis, causing genotypic inconsistency between the embryo and endosperm. Thus, we isolated plants with terminal deletions in chromosome 1B by C-banding. Of 1327 plants examined, 128 showed aberrations in chromosome 1B: 47 in the short arm, 76 in the long arm, and 5 in both arms. The present deletions tended to have the breakpoint at more proximal regions than those produced previously by T.R. Endo and B.S. Gill. Using 33 deletion lines produced in this study and 34 lines previously produced, we mapped 39 RFLP loci and a nucleolar organizer region (NOR) on a specific region of chromosome 1B. The NOR was found to consist of two subregions with different repetitive units, which were termed NOR-Bld and NOR-Blp. Based on this fine deletion map and genotypic inconsistency between embryo and endosperm, the features of the gametocidal gene are discussed. PMID:11550882

  13. Fine-scale chromatin interaction maps reveal the cis-regulatory landscape of human lincRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, Carl Anthony; Disteche, Christine M; Noble, William S; Duan, Zhijun

    2015-01-01

    High-throughput methods based on chromosome conformation capture have greatly advanced our understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) organization of genomes but are limited in resolution by their reliance on restriction enzymes. Here we describe a method called DNase Hi-C for comprehensively mapping global chromatin contacts. DNase Hi-C uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation, leading to greatly improved efficiency and resolution over that of Hi-C. Coupling this method with DNA-capture technology provides a high-throughput approach for targeted mapping of fine-scale chromatin architecture. We applied targeted DNase Hi-C to characterize the 3D organization of 998 large intergenic noncoding RNA (lincRNA) promoters in two human cell lines. Our results revealed that expression of lincRNAs is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms involving both super-enhancers and the Polycomb repressive complex. Our results provide the first glimpse of the cell type-specific 3D organization of lincRNA genes. PMID:25437436

  14. Fine-scale chromatin interaction maps reveal the cis-regulatory landscape of human lincRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Wenxiu; Ay, Ferhat; Lee, Choli; Gulsoy, Gunhan; Deng, Xinxian; Cook, Savannah; Hesson, Jennifer; Cavanaugh, Christopher; Ware, Carol B.; Krumm, Anton; Shendure, Jay; Blau, C. Anthony; Disteche, Christine M.; Noble, William S.; Duan, ZhiJun

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput methods based on chromosome conformation capture (3C) have greatly advanced our understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) organization of genomes but are limited in resolution by their reliance on restriction enzymes (REs). Here we describe a method called DNase Hi-C for comprehensively mapping global chromatin contacts that uses DNase I for chromatin fragmentation, leading to greatly improved efficiency and resolution compared to Hi-C. Coupling this method with DNA capture technology provides a high-throughput approach for targeted mapping of fine-scale chromatin architecture. We applied targeted DNase Hi-C to characterize the 3D organization of 998 lincRNA (long intergenic noncoding RNA) promoters in two human cell lines, thereby revealing that expression of lincRNAs is tightly controlled by complex mechanisms involving both super-enhancers and the polycomb repressive complex. Our results provide the first glimpse of a cell type-specific 3D organization of lincRNA genes. PMID:25437436

  15. Fine-mapping the POLL locus in Brahman cattle yields the diagnostic marker CSAFG29.

    PubMed

    Mariasegaram, Maxy; Harrison, Blair E; Bolton, Jennifer A; Tier, Bruce; Henshall, John M; Barendse, William; Prayaga, Kishore C

    2012-12-01

    The POLL locus has been mapped to the centromeric region of bovine chromosome 1 (BTA1) in both taurine breeds and taurine-indicine crosses in an interval of approximately 1 Mb. It has not yet been mapped in pure-bred zebu cattle. Despite several efforts, neither causative mutations in candidate genes nor a singular diagnostic DNA marker has been identified. In this study, we genotyped a total of 68 Brahman cattle and 20 Hereford cattle informative for the POLL locus for 33 DNA microsatellites, 16 of which we identified de novo from the bovine genome sequence, mapping the POLL locus to the region of the genes IFNAR2 and SYNJ1. The 303-bp allele of the new microsatellite, CSAFG29, showed strong association with the POLL allele. We then genotyped 855 Brahman cattle for CSAFG29 and confirmed the association between the 303-bp allele and POLL. To determine whether the same association was found in taurine breeds, we genotyped 334 animals of the Angus, Hereford and Limousin breeds and 376 animals of the Brangus, Droughtmaster and Santa Gertrudis composite taurine-zebu breeds. The association between the 303-bp allele and POLL was confirmed in these breeds; however, an additional allele (305 bp) was also associated but not fully predictive of POLL. Across the data, CSAFG29 was in sufficient linkage disequilibrium to the POLL allele in Australian Brahman cattle that it could potentially be used as a diagnostic marker in that breed, but this may not be the case in other breeds. Further, we provide confirmatory evidence that the scur phenotype generally occurs in animals that are heterozygous for the POLL allele. PMID:22497221

  16. Fine mapping and evolution of the major sex determining region in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus).

    PubMed

    Taboada, Xoana; Hermida, Miguel; Pardo, Belén G; Vera, Manuel; Piferrer, Francesc; Viñas, Ana; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino

    2014-10-01

    Fish sex determination (SD) systems are varied, suggesting evolutionary changes including either multiple evolution origins of genetic SD from nongenetic systems (such as environmental SD) and/or turnover events replacing one genetic system by another. When genetic SD is found, cytological differentiation between the two members of the sex chromosome pair is often minor or undetectable. The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus), a valuable commercial flatfish, has a ZZ/ZW system and a major SD region on linkage group 5 (LG5), but there are also other minor genetic and environmental influences. We here report refined mapping of the turbot SD region, supported by comparative mapping with model fish species, to identify the turbot master SD gene. Six genes were located to the SD region, two of them associated with gonad development (sox2 and dnajc19). All showed a high association with sex within families (P = 0), but not at the population level, so they are probably partially sex-linked genes, but not SD gene itself. Analysis of crossovers in LG5 using two families confirmed a ZZ/ZW system in turbot and suggested a revised map position for the master gene. Genetic diversity and differentiation for 25 LG5 genetic markers showed no differences between males and females sampled from a wild population, suggesting a recent origin of the SD region in turbot. We also analyzed associations with markers of the most relevant sex-related linkage groups in brill (S. rhombus), a closely related species to turbot; the data suggest that an ancient XX/XY system in brill changed to a ZZ/ZW mechanism in turbot. PMID:25106948

  17. RAD-QTL Mapping Reveals Both Genome-Level Parallelism and Different Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of Body Shape in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Species Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Laporte, Martin; Rogers, Sean M.; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Normandeau, Eric; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Dalziel, Anne C.; Chebib, Jobran; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Parallel changes in body shape may evolve in response to similar environmental conditions, but whether such parallel phenotypic changes share a common genetic basis is still debated. The goal of this study was to assess whether parallel phenotypic changes could be explained by genetic parallelism, multiple genetic routes, or both. We first provide evidence for parallelism in fish shape by using geometric morphometrics among 300 fish representing five species pairs of Lake Whitefish. Using a genetic map comprising 3438 restriction site?associated DNA sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we then identified quantitative trait loci underlying body shape traits in a backcross family reared in the laboratory. A total of 138 body shape quantitative trait loci were identified in this cross, thus revealing a highly polygenic architecture of body shape in Lake Whitefish. Third, we tested for evidence of genetic parallelism among independent wild populations using both a single-locus method (outlier analysis) and a polygenic approach (analysis of covariation among markers). The single-locus approach provided limited evidence for genetic parallelism. However, the polygenic analysis revealed genetic parallelism for three of the five lakes, which differed from the two other lakes. These results provide evidence for both genetic parallelism and multiple genetic routes underlying parallel phenotypic evolution in fish shape among populations occupying similar ecological niches. PMID:26002924

  18. RAD-QTL Mapping Reveals Both Genome-Level Parallelism and Different Genetic Architecture Underlying the Evolution of Body Shape in Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Species Pairs.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Martin; Rogers, Sean M; Dion-Côté, Anne-Marie; Normandeau, Eric; Gagnaire, Pierre-Alexandre; Dalziel, Anne C; Chebib, Jobran; Bernatchez, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Parallel changes in body shape may evolve in response to similar environmental conditions, but whether such parallel phenotypic changes share a common genetic basis is still debated. The goal of this study was to assess whether parallel phenotypic changes could be explained by genetic parallelism, multiple genetic routes, or both. We first provide evidence for parallelism in fish shape by using geometric morphometrics among 300 fish representing five species pairs of Lake Whitefish. Using a genetic map comprising 3438 restriction site-associated DNA sequencing single-nucleotide polymorphisms, we then identified quantitative trait loci underlying body shape traits in a backcross family reared in the laboratory. A total of 138 body shape quantitative trait loci were identified in this cross, thus revealing a highly polygenic architecture of body shape in Lake Whitefish. Third, we tested for evidence of genetic parallelism among independent wild populations using both a single-locus method (outlier analysis) and a polygenic approach (analysis of covariation among markers). The single-locus approach provided limited evidence for genetic parallelism. However, the polygenic analysis revealed genetic parallelism for three of the five lakes, which differed from the two other lakes. These results provide evidence for both genetic parallelism and multiple genetic routes underlying parallel phenotypic evolution in fish shape among populations occupying similar ecological niches. PMID:26002924

  19. Comparing the adaptive landscape across trait types: larger QTL effect size in traits under biotic selection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In a spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape, mutations operating in opposite directions and mutations of large effect should be commonly fixed due to the shifting locations of phenotypic optima. Similarly, an adaptive landscape with multiple phenotypic optima and deep valleys of low fitness between peaks will favor mutations of large effect. Traits under biotic selection should experience a more spatially and temporally variable adaptive landscape with more phenotypic optima than that experienced by traits under abiotic selection. To test this hypothesis, we assemble information from QTL mapping studies conducted in plants, comparing effect directions and effect sizes of detected QTL controlling traits putatively under abiotic selection to those controlling traits putatively under biotic selection. Results We find no differences in the fraction of antagonistic QTL in traits under abiotic and biotic selection, suggesting similar consistency in selection pressure on these two types of traits. However, we find that QTL controlling traits under biotic selection have a larger effect size than those under abiotic selection, supporting our hypothesis that QTL of large effect are more commonly detected in traits under biotic selection than in traits under abiotic selection. For traits under both abiotic and biotic selection, we find a large number of QTL of large effect, with 10.7% of all QTLs detected controlling more than 20% of the variance in phenotype. Conclusion These results suggest that mutations of large effect are more common in adaptive landscapes strongly determined by biotic forces, but that these types of adaptive landscapes do not result in a higher fraction of mutations acting in opposite directions. The high number of QTL of large effect detected shows that QTL of large effect are more common than predicted by the infinitesimal model of genetic adaptation. PMID:21385379

  20. GENETICS Fine-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Body Weight and Abdominal Fat Traits: Effects of Marker Density and Sample Size1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. Liu; H. Zhang; H. Li; N. Li; Y. Zhang; Q. Zhang; S. Wang; Q. Wang; H. Wang

    Highly significant QTL for BW and ab- dominal fat traits on chicken chromosome 1 were re- ported previously in a unique F2 population. The objective of this study was to confirm and refine the QTL locations. Compared with the previous experiment, this study added 8 new families, including all the animals in the pedigree, and genotyped 9 more microsatellite markers,

  1. Identification of expression QTL (eQTL) of genes expressed in porcine M. longissimus dorsi and associated with meat quality traits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siriluck Ponsuksili; Eduard Murani; Manfred Schwerin; Karl Schellander; Klaus Wimmers

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genetic analysis of transcriptional profiles is a promising approach for identifying and dissecting the genetics of complex traits like meat performance. Accordingly, expression levels obtained by microarray analysis were taken as phenotypes in a linkage analysis to map eQTL. Moreover, expression levels were correlated with traits related to meat quality and principle components with high loadings of these traits.

  2. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of the Ga1-S gene region conferring cross-incompatibility in maize.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Liu, Xu; Zhang, Yu'e; Jiang, Chuan; Cui, Dezhou; Liu, Huaihua; Li, Detao; Wang, Liwen; Chen, Tingting; Ning, Lihua; Ma, Xia; Chen, Huabang

    2012-02-01

    Cross-incompatibility genes known as gametophyte factors (ga) are numerous in maize. Many popcorn strains carry these genes and cannot be fertilized by pollen of dent and flint maize strains although the reciprocal crosses are successful. A Chinese popcorn strain SDGa25 carries the strongest allele of Ga1 (Ga1-S) and the majority of Chinese dent and flint maize germplasm are incompatible with SDGa25. The incompatibility is due to pollen tube growth obstruction 2 h after pollination. The pollen tube is arrested in the silk segment 5.5 cm distal to the pollination area and never reaches the ovule. The Ga1-S carried by SDGa25 behaves as a single dominant gene. This gene was mapped between markers SD3 on BAC AC200747 0.827 cM apart on the telomere side and SD12 on BAC AC204382 0.709 cM apart on the centromere side. The genetic region mapped spanning the Ga1-S locus was estimated to be 1.5 cM in length and the physical distance is 2,056,343 bp on ctg156 based on the B73 RefGen_v2 sequence. Gametophyte factors influence gene flow direction and the strongest Ga1-S allele is useful for isolating one category of commercial varieties from another. The eight tightly linked markers to Ga1-S developed in this study would greatly improve marker-assisted introgression efficiency and the fine mapping would facilitate the isolation of the Ga1-S. PMID:22009288

  3. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells.

    PubMed

    Westra, Harm-Jan; Arends, Danny; Esko, Tõnu; Peters, Marjolein J; Schurmann, Claudia; Schramm, Katharina; Kettunen, Johannes; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Fairfax, Benjamin P; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Li, Yang; Fu, Jingyuan; Karjalainen, Juha; Platteel, Mathieu; Visschedijk, Marijn; Weersma, Rinse K; Kasela, Silva; Milani, Lili; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Pärt; Reinmaa, Eva; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Homuth, Georg; Petersmann, Astrid; Lorbeer, Roberto; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Wood, Andrew R; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B; Hernandez, Dena G; Knight, Julian C; Melchiotti, Rossella; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Wang, De Yun; van den Berg, Leonard H; Veldink, Jan H; Rotzschke, Olaf; Makino, Seiko; Salomaa, Veikko; Strauch, Konstantin; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B J; Metspalu, Andres; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jansen, Ritsert C; Franke, Lude

    2015-05-01

    The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE) meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn's disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus. PMID:25955312

  4. Cell Specific eQTL Analysis without Sorting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Esko, Tõnu; Peters, Marjolein J.; Schurmann, Claudia; Schramm, Katharina; Kettunen, Johannes; Yaghootkar, Hanieh; Fairfax, Benjamin P.; Andiappan, Anand Kumar; Li, Yang; Fu, Jingyuan; Karjalainen, Juha; Platteel, Mathieu; Visschedijk, Marijn; Weersma, Rinse K.; Kasela, Silva; Milani, Lili; Tserel, Liina; Peterson, Pärt; Reinmaa, Eva; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Homuth, Georg; Petersmann, Astrid; Lorbeer, Roberto; Prokisch, Holger; Meitinger, Thomas; Herder, Christian; Roden, Michael; Grallert, Harald; Ripatti, Samuli; Perola, Markus; Wood, Andrew R.; Melzer, David; Ferrucci, Luigi; Singleton, Andrew B.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Knight, Julian C.; Melchiotti, Rossella; Lee, Bernett; Poidinger, Michael; Zolezzi, Francesca; Larbi, Anis; Wang, De Yun; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Veldink, Jan H.; Rotzschke, Olaf; Makino, Seiko; Salomaa, Veikko; Strauch, Konstantin; Völker, Uwe; van Meurs, Joyce B. J.; Metspalu, Andres; Wijmenga, Cisca; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Franke, Lude

    2015-01-01

    The functional consequences of trait associated SNPs are often investigated using expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) mapping. While trait-associated variants may operate in a cell-type specific manner, eQTL datasets for such cell-types may not always be available. We performed a genome-environment interaction (GxE) meta-analysis on data from 5,683 samples to infer the cell type specificity of whole blood cis-eQTLs. We demonstrate that this method is able to predict neutrophil and lymphocyte specific cis-eQTLs and replicate these predictions in independent cell-type specific datasets. Finally, we show that SNPs associated with Crohn’s disease preferentially affect gene expression within neutrophils, including the archetypal NOD2 locus. PMID:25955312

  5. Fine Mapping a Locus Controlling Leg Morphology in the Domestic Dog

    PubMed Central

    Quignon, P.; Schoenebeck, J.J.; Chase, K.; Parker, H.G.; Mosher, D.S.; Johnson, G.S.; Lark, K.G.; Ostrander, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The domestic dog offers a remarkable opportunity to disentangle the genetics of complex phenotypes. Here, we explore a locus, previously identified in the Portuguese water dog (PWD), associated with PC2, a morphological principal component characterized as leg width versus leg length. The locus was initially mapped to a region of 26 Mb on canine chromosome 12 (CFA12) following a genome-wide scan. Subsequent and extensive genotyping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and haplotype analysis in both the PWD and selected breeds representing phenotypic extremes of PC2 reduced the region from 26 Mb to 500 kb. The proximity of the critical interval to two collagen genes suggests that the phenotype may be controlled by cis-acting mechanisms. PMID:19717540

  6. Mapping fine-scale structure near the core-mantle boundary beneath USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Nicholas; Shearer, Peter; Thomas, Christine

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies agree that weak (r.m.s of 0.1%) small-scale (~6 km) random velocity fluctuations distributed throughout the lowermost mantle explain globally-averaged PKP precursor amplitudes in the 0.7-2.5 Hz frequency band. Precursor amplitudes in individual seismograms, however, exhibit much variability, suggesting that some regions in the lower mantle are more heterogeneous than others. It is difficult to reliably map differences in scattering strength from single seismograms due to reciprocity considerations, but seismic arrays provide a means to distinguish between source- and receiver-side scattering. We use a traditional beamforming method to measure the slowness and azimuth of scattered energy incident upon the array, and a migration method to map coherent precursor energy to points of origin near the core-mantle boundary. The focus of this paper is to test the robustness of these methods with the wealth of USArray data. We conduct several tests to address the following questions: 1) how well does traditional beamforming agree with results from the migration method?, 2) how consistent are structures resolved by different subsets of receivers for a given event?, 3) how consistent are structures resolved by a given set of stations for distinct, but nearby, events?, and 4) how consistent are structures resolved when using seismograms filtered at different frequencies? The coarse spacing (~75 km) of USArray limits our ability to make reliable slowness measurements because of spatial aliasing. It may be possible, however, to make measurements of longer-period precursors scattered by larger-scale (~100 km) structures. Another possible solution to the spatial aliasing problem is to include additional data from PASSCAL experiments with densely-spaced stations that were deployed as the Transportable Array rolled across North America.

  7. Fine mapping of sequential neutralization epitopes on the subunit protein VP8 of human rotavirus.

    PubMed Central

    Kovacs-Nolan, Jennifer; Yoo, Dongwan; Mine, Yoshinori

    2003-01-01

    The epitopes of the HRV (human rotavirus), especially those involved in virus neutralization, have not been determined in their entirety, and would have significant implications for HRV vaccine development. In the present study, we report on the epitope mapping and identification of sequential neutralization epitopes, on the Wa strain HRV subunit protein VP8, using synthetic overlapping peptides. Polyclonal antibodies against recombinant Wa VP8 were produced previously in chicken, and purified from egg yolk, which showed neutralizing activity against HRV in vitro. Overlapping VP8 peptide fragments were synthesized and probed with the anti-VP8 antibodies, revealing five sequential epitopes on VP8. Further analysis suggested that three of the five epitopes detected, M1-L10, I55-D66 and L223-P234, were involved in virus neutralization, indicating that sequential epitopes may also be important for the HRV neutralization. The interactions of the antibodies with the five epitopes were characterized by an examination of the critical amino acids involved in antibody binding. Epitopes comprised primarily of hydrophobic amino acid residues, followed by polar and charged residues. The more critical amino acids appeared to be located near the centre of the epitopes, with proline, isoleucine, serine, glutamine and arginine playing an important role in the binding of antibody to the VP8 epitopes. PMID:12901721

  8. Fine mapping of 28S rRNA sites specifically cleaved in cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Houge, G; Robaye, B; Eikhom, T S; Golstein, J; Mellgren, G; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Døskeland, S O

    1995-01-01

    Bona fide apoptosis in rat and human leukemia cells, rat thymocytes, and bovine endothelial cells was accompanied by limited and specific cleavage of polysome-associated and monosome-associated 28S rRNA, with 18S rRNA being spared. Specific 28S rRNA cleavage was observed in all instances of apoptotic death accompanied by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, with cleavage of 28S rRNA and of DNA being linked temporally. This indicates that 28S rRNA fragmentation may be as general a feature of apoptosis as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and that concerted specific cleavage of intra- and extranuclear polynucleotides occurs in apoptosis. Apoptosis-associated cleavage sites were mapped to the 28S rRNA divergent domains D2, D6 (endothelial cells), and D8. The D2 cuts occurred in hairpin loop junctions considered to be buried in the intact ribosome, suggesting that this rRNA region becomes a target for RNase attack in apoptotic cells. D8 was cleaved in two exposed UU(U) sequences in bulge loops. Treatment with agents causing necrotic cell death or aging of cell lysates failed to produce any detectable limited D2 cleavage but did produce a more generalized cleavage in the D8 region. Of potential functional interest was the finding that the primary cuts in D2 exactly flanked a 0.3-kb hypervariable subdomain (D2c), allowing excision of the latter. The implication of hypervariable rRNA domains in apoptosis represents the first association of any functional process with these enigmatic parts of the ribosomes. PMID:7891700

  9. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression.

    PubMed

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russell, Roslin; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Hayes, Richard B; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Signorello, Lisa B; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma J; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A

    2013-06-15

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease. PMID:23535824

  10. Fine-mapping identifies multiple prostate cancer risk loci at 5p15, one of which associates with TERT expression

    PubMed Central

    Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Saunders, Edward J.; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Dadaev, Tokhir; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Ross-Adams, Helen; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Halim, Silvia; Russel, Roslin; Dunning, Alison M.; Luccarini, Craig; Dennis, Joe; Neal, David E.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Donovan, Jenny L.; Muir, Ken; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher A.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J.; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I.; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Canzian, Federico; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J.; Travis, Ruth C.; Campa, Daniele; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Hayes, Richard B.; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Schaid, Dan; Maier, Christiane; Vogel, Walther; Kibel, Adam S.; Cybulski, Cezary; Lubinski, Jan; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y.; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Spurdle, Amanda; Clements, Judith A.; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Morgan, Angela; Dicks, Ed; Baynes, Caroline; Conroy, Don; Bojesen, Stig E.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, François; Tessier, Daniel C.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2013-01-01

    Associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at 5p15 and multiple cancer types have been reported. We have previously shown evidence for a strong association between prostate cancer (PrCa) risk and rs2242652 at 5p15, intronic in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene that encodes TERT. To comprehensively evaluate the association between genetic variation across this region and PrCa, we performed a fine-mapping analysis by genotyping 134 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array or Sequenom MassArray iPlex, followed by imputation of 1094 SNPs in 22 301 PrCa cases and 22 320 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. Multiple stepwise logistic regression analysis identified four signals in the promoter or intronic regions of TERT that independently associated with PrCa risk. Gene expression analysis of normal prostate tissue showed evidence that SNPs within one of these regions also associated with TERT expression, providing a potential mechanism for predisposition to disease. PMID:23535824

  11. Fine mapping of genetic susceptibility loci for melanoma reveals a mixture of single variant and multiple variant regions

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Jennifer H; Taylor, John C; Bright, Chloe; Harland, Mark; Dunning, Alison M; Akslen, Lars A; Andresen, Per A; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Azizi, Esther; Bianchi Scarrà, Giovanna; Brossard, Myriam; Brown, Kevin M; D?bniak, Tadeusz; Elder, David E; Friedman, Eitan; Ghiorzo, Paola; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Gruis, Nelleke A; Hansson, Johan; Helsing, Per; Ho?evar, Marko; Höiom, Veronica; Ingvar, Christian; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lang, Julie; Lathrop, G Mark; Lubi?ski, Jan; Mackie, Rona M; Molven, Anders; Novakovi?, Srdjan; Olsson, Håkan; Puig, Susana; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; van der Stoep, Nienke; van Doorn, Remco; van Workum, Wilbert; Goldstein, Alisa M; Kanetsky, Peter A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Demenais, Florence; Hayward, Nicholas K; Newton Bishop, Julia A; Bishop, D Timothy; Iles, Mark M

    2015-01-01

    At least 17 genomic regions are established as harboring melanoma susceptibility variants, in most instances with genome-wide levels of significance and replication in independent samples. Based on genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data augmented by imputation to the 1,000 Genomes reference panel, we have fine mapped these regions in over 5,000 individuals with melanoma (mainly from the GenoMEL consortium) and over 7,000 ethnically matched controls. A penalized regression approach was used to discover those SNP markers that most parsimoniously explain the observed association in each genomic region. For the majority of the regions, the signal is best explained by a single SNP, which sometimes, as in the tyrosinase region, is a known functional variant. However in five regions the explanation is more complex. At the CDKN2A locus, for example, there is strong evidence that not only multiple SNPs but also multiple genes are involved. Our results illustrate the variability in the biology underlying genome-wide susceptibility loci and make steps toward accounting for some of the “missing heritability.” PMID:25077817

  12. He uc(i) Vector Magnetic Field Maps of a Sunspot and Its Superpenumbral Fine-Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schad, T. A.; Penn, M. J.; Lin, H.; Tritschler, A.

    2015-06-01

    Advanced inversions of high-resolution spectropolarimetric observations of the He uc(i) triplet at 1083 nm are used to generate unique maps of the chromospheric magnetic field vector across a sunspot and its superpenumbral canopy. The observations were acquired by the Facility Infrared Spectropolarimeter (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST) on 29 January 2012. Multiple atmospheric models are employed in the inversions because superpenumbral Stokes profiles are dominated by atomic-level polarization, while sunspot profiles are Zeeman-dominated, but also exhibit signatures that might be induced by symmetry-breaking effects of the radiation field incident on the chromospheric material. We derive the equilibrium magnetic structure of a sunspot in the chromosphere and furthermore show that the superpenumbral magnetic field does not appear to be finely structured, unlike the observed intensity structure. This suggests that fibrils are not concentrations of magnetic flux, but are instead distinguished by individualized thermalization. We also directly compare our inverted values with a current-free extrapolation of the chromospheric field. With improved measurements in the future, the average shear angle between the inferred magnetic field and the potential field may offer a means to quantify the non-potentiality of the chromospheric magnetic field to study the onset of explosive solar phenomena.

  13. A knockout mutation in the lignin biosynthesis gene CCR1 explains a major QTL for acid detergent lignin content in Brassica napus seeds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liezhao; Stein, Anna; Wittkop, Benjamin; Sarvari, Pouya; Li, Jiana; Yan, Xingying; Dreyer, Felix; Frauen, Martin; Friedt, Wolfgang; Snowdon, Rod J

    2012-05-01

    Seed coat phenolic compounds represent important antinutritive fibre components that cause a considerable reduction in value of seed meals from oilseed rape (Brassica napus). The nutritionally most important fibre compound is acid detergent lignin (ADL), to which a significant contribution is made by phenylpropanoid-derived lignin precursors. In this study, we used bulked-segregant analysis in a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from a cross of the Chinese oilseed rape lines GH06 (yellow seed, low ADL) and P174 (black seed, high ADL) to identify markers with tight linkage to a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for seed ADL content. Fine mapping of the QTL was performed in a backcross population comprising 872 BC(1)F(2) plants from a cross of an F(7) RIL from the above-mentioned population, which was heterozygous for this major QTL and P174. A 3:1 phenotypic segregation for seed ADL content indicated that a single, dominant, major locus causes a substantial reduction in ADL. This locus was successively narrowed to 0.75 cM using in silico markers derived from a homologous Brassica rapa sequence contig spanning the QTL. Subsequently, we located a B. rapa orthologue of the key lignin biosynthesis gene CINNAMOYL CO-A REDUCTASE 1 (CCR1) only 600 kbp (0.75 cM) upstream of the nearest linked marker. Sequencing of PCR amplicons, covering the full-length coding sequences of Bna.CCR1 homologues, revealed a locus in P174 whose sequence corresponds to the Brassica oleracea wild-type allele from chromosome C8. In GH06, however, this allele is replaced by a homologue derived from chromosome A9 that contains a loss-of-function frameshift mutation in exon 1. Genetic and physical map data infer that this loss-of-function allele has replaced a functional Bna.CCR1 locus on chromosome C8 in GH06 by homoeologous non-reciprocal translocation. PMID:22350089

  14. Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping of Meat Quality QTL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous studies based on linkage analysis have identified broad areas in the bovine genome associated with meat quality. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses have the potential to identify narrower regions and point towards candidate genes. Tenderness and marbling were chosen to be evaluated in a ...

  15. Breeding lines and host QTL interaction with bacterial strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to common bacterial blight (CBB) is controlled by more than 20 QTL (Miklas and Singh, 2007). A QTL on Pv10 linked to SAP6 SCAR markers is derived from common bean. Higher levels of resistance associated with BC420 QTL on Pv06 (Yu et al., 2000) and SU91-CG11 QTL on Pv08 (Pedraza et al., 20...

  16. Contribution of maternal effect QTL to genetic architecture of early growth in mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J B Wolf; T T Vaughn; L S Pletscher; J M Cheverud

    2002-01-01

    Existing approaches to characterizing quantitative trait loci (QTL) utilize a paradigm explicitly focused on the direct effects of genes, where phenotypic variation among individuals is mapped onto genetic variation of those individuals. For many characters, however, the genotype of the mother via its maternal effect accounts for a considerable portion of the genetically based variation in progeny phenotypes. Thus the

  17. Identification of QTL for Resistance to Sclerotinia Stem Rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in Soybean Plant Introduction 194639

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is a difficult disease to manage, although some gains have been made through breeding for quantitative resistance. The objective was to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling partial ...

  18. Guidelines for Common Bean QTL Nomenclature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis has become an important tool for the characterization and breeding of complex traits in crops plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). A standard system for naming QTL in common bean is needed for effective referencing of new and previously identif...

  19. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.) 1. QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi.

    PubMed

    Bert, P.-F.; Jouan, I.; De Labrouhe, D. Tourvieille; Serre, F.; Nicolas, P.; Vear, F.

    2002-11-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are important pathogens of sunflower ( Helianthus annuus L.). Two hundred and twenty F2-F3 families were developed from an intraspecific cross between two inbred sunflower lines XRQ and PSC8. Using this segregating population a genetic map of 19 linkage groups with 290 molecular markers covering 2,318 cM was constructed. Disease resistances were measured in field experiments during 3 years (1998, 1999 and 2000) for phomopsis and 2 years for S. sclerotiorum (1997 and 1999). QTL were detected using the interval mapping method at a LOD threshold of 3. A total of 15 QTL for each pathogen resistance were detected across several linkage groups, confirming the polygenic nature of the resistances. These QTL explained from 7 to 41% of the phenotypic variability. The QTL for phomopsis resistance, in the 3 years of tests, mapped in the same region, and this was also true for some forms of S. sclerotiorum resistance in the 2 years of tests. On linkage group 8, QTL affecting resistance to both S. sclerotiorum and D. helianthi mycelium extension on leaves colocalised, suggesting a common component in the mechanism of resistance for these two pathogens. The colocalisation of QTL and breeding for resistance to S. sclerotiorum and to D. helianthi by pyramiding QTL in sunflower are discussed. PMID:12582925

  20. A QTL Study for Regions Contributing to Arabidopsis thaliana Root Skewing on Tilted Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Laura M.; Masson, Patrick H.

    2011-01-01

    Plant root systems must grow in a manner that is dictated by endogenous genetic pathways, yet sensitive to environmental input. This allows them to provide the plant with water and nutrients while navigating a heterogeneous soil environment filled with obstacles, toxins, and pests. Gravity and touch, which constitute important cues for roots growing in soil, have been shown to modulate root architecture by altering growth patterns. This is illustrated by Arabidopsis thaliana roots growing on tilted hard agar surfaces. Under these conditions, the roots are exposed to both gravity and touch stimulation. Consequently, they tend to skew their growth away from the vertical and wave along the surface. This complex growth behavior is believed to help roots avoid obstacles in nature. Interestingly, A. thaliana accessions display distinct growth patterns under these conditions, suggesting the possibility of using this variation as a tool to identify the molecular mechanisms that modulate root behavior in response to their mechanical environment. We have used the Cvi/Ler recombinant inbred line population to identify quantitative trait loci that contribute to root skewing on tilted hard agar surfaces. A combination of fine mapping for one of these QTL and microarray analysis of expression differences between Cvi and Ler root tips identifies a region on chromosome 2 as contributing to root skewing on tilted surfaces, potentially by modulating cell wall composition. PMID:22384323

  1. Little loss of information due to unknown phase for fine-scale linkage-disequilibrium mapping with single-nucleotide-polymorphism genotype data.

    PubMed

    Morris, A P; Whittaker, J C; Balding, D J

    2004-05-01

    We present the results of a simulation study that indicate that true haplotypes at multiple, tightly linked loci often provide little extra information for linkage-disequilibrium fine mapping, compared with the information provided by corresponding genotypes, provided that an appropriate statistical analysis method is used. In contrast, a two-stage approach to analyzing genotype data, in which haplotypes are inferred and then analyzed as if they were true haplotypes, can lead to a substantial loss of information. The study uses our COLDMAP software for fine mapping, which implements a Markov chain-Monte Carlo algorithm that is based on the shattered coalescent model of genetic heterogeneity at a disease locus. We applied COLDMAP to 100 replicate data sets simulated under each of 18 disease models. Each data set consists of haplotype pairs (diplotypes) for 20 SNPs typed at equal 50-kb intervals in a 950-kb candidate region that includes a single disease locus located at random. The data sets were analyzed in three formats: (1). as true haplotypes; (2). as haplotypes inferred from genotypes using an expectation-maximization algorithm; and (3). as unphased genotypes. On average, true haplotypes gave a 6% gain in efficiency compared with the unphased genotypes, whereas inferring haplotypes from genotypes led to a 20% loss of efficiency, where efficiency is defined in terms of root mean integrated square error of the location of the disease locus. Furthermore, treating inferred haplotypes as if they were true haplotypes leads to considerable overconfidence in estimates, with nominal 50% credibility intervals achieving, on average, only 19% coverage. We conclude that (1). given appropriate statistical analyses, the costs of directly measuring haplotypes will rarely be justified by a gain in the efficiency of fine mapping and that (2). a two-stage approach of inferring haplotypes followed by a haplotype-based analysis can be very inefficient for fine mapping, compared with an analysis based directly on the genotypes. PMID:15077198

  2. QTL analysis of cleistogamy in soybean.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nisar A; Githiri, Stephen M; Benitez, Eduardo R; Abe, Jun; Kawasaki, Shinji; Hayashi, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryoji

    2008-08-01

    Early-maturing cultivars of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] native to the shores of the Sea of Okhotsk (Sakhalin and Kuril Islands) and eastern Hokkaido (northern Japan) have a strong tendency to produce cleistogamous flowers throughout their blooming period. A previous study revealed that cleistogamy is controlled by a minimum of two genes with epistatic interaction, one of which is associated with a maturity gene responsible for insensitivity to incandescent long daylength (ILD). This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of cleistogamy in more detail by QTL mapping. F2 to F4 progenies derived from a cross between a cleistogamous cv. Karafuto-1 and a chasmogamous cv. Toyosuzu were used. A molecular linkage map spanning 2,180 cM comprising 500 markers was constructed using 89 F2 plants. The markers were distributed in 25 linkage groups. An interval mapping method to analyze categorical traits identified four QTLs for cleistogamy, cl1, cl2, cl3 and cl4, in molecular linkage groups (MLGs) C2, D1a, I and L, respectively. Alleles derived from Karafuto-1 had additive effects to increase probability of cleistogamy at cl3 and cl4, whereas the alleles had additive effects to decrease the probablity at cl1 and cl2. Progeny test confirmed the effects of cl3, which had the highest LOD score (5.20). Composite interval mapping revealed four QTLs for flowering date, fd5-fd8. Judging from relative location with markers and association with ILD responses, fd7 and fd8 may correspond to maturity genes E4 and E3, respectively. cl3 and cl4 were located at similar positions as fd7 and fd8, suggesting that the two maturity genes may control cleistogamy by either pleiotropy or close linkage. PMID:18506418

  3. Evaluation of the Metabochip Genotyping Array in African Americans and Implications for Fine Mapping of GWAS-Identified Loci: The PAGE Study

    PubMed Central

    Buyske, Steven; Wu, Ying; Carty, Cara L.; Cheng, Iona; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Dumitrescu, Logan; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Mitchell, Sabrina; Ambite, Jose Luis; Boerwinkle, Eric; Buzkova, Petra; Carlson, Chris S.; Cochran, Barbara; Duggan, David; Eaton, Charles B.; Fesinmeyer, Megan D.; Franceschini, Nora; Haessler, Jeffrey; Jenny, Nancy; Kang, Hyun Min; Kooperberg, Charles; Lin, Yi; Le Marchand, Loic; Matise, Tara C.; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Rodriguez, Carlos; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Young, Alicia; Manolio, Teri A.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Peters, Ulrike; Crawford, Dana C.; North, Kari E.

    2012-01-01

    The Metabochip is a custom genotyping array designed for replication and fine mapping of metabolic, cardiovascular, and anthropometric trait loci and includes low frequency variation content identified from the 1000 Genomes Project. It has 196,725 SNPs concentrated in 257 genomic regions. We evaluated the Metabochip in 5,863 African Americans; 89% of all SNPs passed rigorous quality control with a call rate of 99.9%. Two examples illustrate the value of fine mapping with the Metabochip in African-ancestry populations. At CELSR2/PSRC1/SORT1, we found the strongest associated SNP for LDL-C to be rs12740374 (p?=?3.5×10?11), a SNP indistinguishable from multiple SNPs in European ancestry samples due to high correlation. Its distinct signal supports functional studies elsewhere suggesting a causal role in LDL-C. At CETP we found rs17231520, with risk allele frequency 0.07 in African Americans, to be associated with HDL-C (p?=?7.2×10?36). This variant is very rare in Europeans and not tagged in common GWAS arrays, but was identified as associated with HDL-C in African Americans in a single-gene study. Our results, one narrowing the risk interval and the other revealing an associated variant not found in Europeans, demonstrate the advantages of high-density genotyping of common and rare variation for fine mapping of trait loci in African American samples. PMID:22539988

  4. The distribution of QTL additive and dominance effects in porcine F2 crosses.

    PubMed

    Bennewitz, J; Meuwissen, T H E

    2010-06-01

    The present study used published quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping data from three F2 crosses in pigs for 34 meat quality and carcass traits to derive the distribution of additive QTL effects as well as dominance coefficients. Dominance coefficients were calculated as the observed QTL dominance deviation divided by the absolute value of the observed QTL additive effect. The error variance of this ratio was approximated using the delta method. Mixtures of normal distributions (mixtures of normals) were fitted to the dominance coefficient using a modified EM-algorithm that considered the heterogeneous error variances of the data points. The results suggested clearly to fit one component which means that the dominance coefficients are normally distributed with an estimated mean (standard deviation) of 0.193 (0.312). For the additive effects mixtures of normals and a truncated exponential distribution were fitted. Two components were fitted by the mixtures of normals. The mixtures of normals did not predict enough QTL with small effects compared to the exponential distribution and to literature reports. The estimated rate parameter of the exponential distribution was 5.81 resulting in a mean effect of 0.172. PMID:20536634

  5. PROGRESS TOWARD AN IMMUNOGENETIC MAP FOR RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    QTL (quantitative trait loci) mapping utilizes a series of methods for finding pieces of DNA that are closely linked to genes that confer a desired phenotype. One of our research goals is to map QTL in rainbow trout that associate with innate resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. A high densi...

  6. Mapping multiple disease resistance genes using a barley mapping population evaluated in Peru, Mexico, and the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used a well-characterized barley mapping population to determine if barley stripe rust (BSR) resistance QTL mapped in Mexico and the USA were effective against a reported new race in Peru. Essentially the same resistance QTL were detected using data from each of the three environments, indicating...

  7. vol. 159, supplement the american naturalist march 2002 Genetic Mapping in Hybrid Zones

    E-print Network

    Rieseberg, Loren

    the wild sunflower species Helianthus annuus and Helianthus petiolaris. Results indicate that mapping, Helianthus, hybrid zones, QTL, repro- ductive isolation, speciation. Great strides have been made over

  8. Resistance to gray leaf spot of maize: genetic architecture and mechanisms elucidated through nested association mapping and near-isogenic line analysis.

    PubMed

    Benson, Jacqueline M; Poland, Jesse A; Benson, Brent M; Stromberg, Erik L; Nelson, Rebecca J

    2015-03-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis and Cercospora zeina, is one of the most important diseases of maize worldwide. The pathogen has a necrotrophic lifestyle and no major genes are known for GLS. Quantitative resistance, although poorly understood, is important for GLS management. We used genetic mapping to refine understanding of the genetic architecture of GLS resistance and to develop hypotheses regarding the mechanisms underlying quantitative disease resistance (QDR) loci. Nested association mapping (NAM) was used to identify 16 quantitative trait loci (QTL) for QDR to GLS, including seven novel QTL, each of which demonstrated allelic series with significant effects above and below the magnitude of the B73 reference allele. Alleles at three QTL, qGLS1.04, qGLS2.09, and qGLS4.05, conferred disease reductions of greater than 10%. Interactions between loci were detected for three pairs of loci, including an interaction between iqGLS4.05 and qGLS7.03. Near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed to confirm and fine-map three of the 16 QTL, and to develop hypotheses regarding mechanisms of resistance. qGLS1.04 was fine-mapped from an interval of 27.0 Mb to two intervals of 6.5 Mb and 5.2 Mb, consistent with the hypothesis that multiple genes underlie highly significant QTL identified by NAM. qGLS2.09, which was also associated with maturity (days to anthesis) and with resistance to southern leaf blight, was narrowed to a 4-Mb interval. The distance between major leaf veins was strongly associated with resistance to GLS at qGLS4.05. NILs for qGLS1.04 were treated with the C. zeae-maydis toxin cercosporin to test the role of host-specific toxin in QDR. Cercosporin exposure increased expression of a putative flavin-monooxygenase (FMO) gene, a candidate detoxification-related gene underlying qGLS1.04. This integrated approach to confirming QTL and characterizing the potential underlying mechanisms advances the understanding of QDR and will facilitate the development of resistant varieties. PMID:25764179

  9. The Use of Multiple Markers in a Bayesian Method for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Uimari, P.; Thaller, G.; Hoeschele, I.

    1996-01-01

    Information on multiple linked genetic markers was used in a Bayesian method for the statistical mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL). Bayesian parameter estimation and hypothesis testing were implemented via Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms. Variables sampled were the augmented data (marker-QTL genotypes, polygenic effects), an indicator variable for linkage or nonlinkage, and the parameters. The parameter vector included allele frequencies at the markers and the QTL, map distances of the markers and the QTL, QTL substitution effect, and polygenic and residual variances. The criterion for QTL detection was the marginal posterior probability of a QTL being located on the chromosome carrying the markers. The method was evaluated empirically by analyzing simulated granddaughter designs consisting of 2000 sons, 20 related sires, and their ancestors. PMID:8844168

  10. QTL analysis of an intervarietal set of substitution lines in Brassica napus: (i) Seed oil content and fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Burns, M J; Barnes, S R; Bowman, J G; Clarke, M H E; Werner, C P; Kearsey, M J

    2003-01-01

    Backcross breeding with marker-assisted selection was used to construct an intervarietal set of part chromosome substitution lines in Brassica napus, formed from a cross between two winter varieties of oilseed rape: Tapidor and Victor. A total of 22 lines from this substitution library were examined over a 3-year period, in a total of nine field trials, for seed oil fatty acid composition and seed oil content. Trialing of the substitution lines gave evidence for the existence of 13 quantitative trait loci (QTL). All 13 QTL affected fatty acid composition of the seed, and were distributed among linkage groups 1, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 13, 14, 18, and 19. Seven of these QTL, on linkage groups 3, 6, 8, 13, 14, 18, and 19, also affected total seed oil content. The positions of these QTL are compared to those in the published literature and with respect to erucic acid QTL previously identified in a backcross population of the same cross. The substitution line approach gives increased precision and sensitivity for QTL mapping compared to other methods. PMID:12522424

  11. Transferability and fine-mapping of glucose and insulin quantitative trait loci across populations: CARe, the Candidate Gene Association Resource

    PubMed Central

    Liu, C.-T.; Ng, M. C. Y.; Rybin, D.; Adeyemo, A.; Bielinski, S. J.; Boerwinkle, E.; Borecki, I.; Cade, B.; Chen, Y. D. I.; Djousse, L.; Fornage, M.; Goodarzi, M. O.; Grant, S. F. A.; Guo, X.; Harris, T.; Kabagambe, E.; Kizer, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Lunetta, K. L.; Mukamal, K.; Nettleton, J. A.; Pankow, J. S.; Patel, S. R.; Ramos, E.; Rasmussen-Torvik, L.; Rich, S. S.; Rotimi, C. N.; Sarpong, D.; Shriner, D.; Sims, M.; Zmuda, J. M.; Redline, S.; Kao, W. H.; Siscovick, D.; Florez, J. C.; Rotter, J. I.; Dupuis, J.; Wilson, J. G.; Bowden, D. W.; Meigs, J. B.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Hyperglycaemia disproportionately affects African-Americans (AfAs). We tested the transferability of 18 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with glycaemic traits identified in European ancestry (EuA) populations in 5,984 non-diabetic AfAs. Methods We meta-analysed SNP associations with fasting glucose (FG) or insulin (FI) in AfAs from five cohorts in the Candidate Gene Association Resource. We: (1) calculated allele frequency differences, variations in linkage disequilibrium (LD), fixation indices (Fsts) and integrated haplotype scores (iHSs); (2) tested EuA SNPs in AfAs; and (3) interrogated within ±250 kb around each EuA SNP in AfAs. Results Allele frequency differences ranged from 0.6% to 54%. Fst exceeded 0.15 at 6/16 loci, indicating modest population differentiation. All iHSs were <2, suggesting no recent positive selection. For 18 SNPs, all directions of effect were the same and 95% CIs of association overlapped when comparing EuA with AfA. For 17 of 18 loci, at least one SNP was nominally associated with FG in AfAs. Four loci were significantly associated with FG (GCK, p=5.8 × 10-8; MTNR1B, p=8.5 × 10-9; and FADS1, p=2.2 × 10-4) or FI (GCKR, p=5.9 × 10-4). At GCK and MTNR1B the EuA and AfA SNPs represented the same signal, while at FADS1, and GCKR, the EuA and best AfA SNPs were weakly correlated (r2<0.2), suggesting allelic heterogeneity for association with FG at these loci. Conclusions/interpretation Few glycaemic SNPs showed strict evidence of transferability from EuA to AfAs. Four loci were significantly associated in both AfAs and those with EuA after accounting for varying LD across ancestral groups, with new signals emerging to aid fine-mapping. PMID:22893027

  12. Airborne UHF Radar for Fine Resolution Mapping of Near Surface Accumulation Layers in Greenland and West Antarctica

    E-print Network

    Lewis, Cameron Scott

    2010-11-01

    The usefulness of accurate, fine resolution accumulation layer measurements over central Greenland and West Antarctica is significant for the improvement of ice sheet models. These models are critical to both global climate models as well...

  13. QTL analysis of morphological traits in eggplant and implications for conservation of gene function during evolution of solanaceous species.

    PubMed

    Frary, A; Doganlar, S; Daunay, M C; Tanksley, S D

    2003-07-01

    An interspecific F(2) population from a cross between cultivated eggplant, Solanum melongena, and its wild relative, S. linnaeanum, was analyzed for quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting leaf, flower, fruit and plant traits. A total of 58 plants were genotyped for 207 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and phenotyped for 18 characters. One to eight loci were detected for each trait with a total of 63 QTL identified. Overall, 46% of the QTL had allelic effects that were the reverse of those predicted from the parental phenotypes. Wild alleles that were agronomically superior to the cultivated alleles were identified for 42% of the QTL identified for flowering time, flower and fruit number, fruit set, calyx size and fruit glossiness. Comparison of the map positions of eggplant loci with those for similar traits in tomato, potato and pepper revealed that 12 of the QTL have putative orthologs in at least one of these other species and that putative orthology was most often observed between eggplant and tomato. Traits showing potential orthology were: leaf length, shape and lobing; days to flowering; number of flowers per inflorescence; plant height and apex, leaf and stem hairiness. The functionally conserved loci included a major leaf lobing QTL ( llob6.1) that is putatively orthologous to the potato leaf ( c) and/or Petroselinum ( Pts) mutants of tomato, two flowering time QTL ( dtf1.1, dtf2.1) that also have putative counterparts in tomato and four QTL for trichomes that have potential orthologs in tomato and potato. These results support the mounting evidence of conservation of gene function during the evolution of eggplant and its relatives from their last common ancestor and indicate that this conservation was not limited to domestication traits. PMID:12677409

  14. Identification of QTL with effects on intramuscular fat content and fatty acid composition in a Duroc × Large White cross

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Marie-Pierre; Iannuccelli, Nathalie; Basso, Benjamin; Bidanel, Jean-Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Gandemer, Gilles; Gilbert, Hélène; Larzul, Catherine; Legault, Christian; Riquet, Juliette; Milan, Denis; Le Roy, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Background Improving pork quality can be done by increasing intramuscular fat (IMF) content. This trait is influenced by quantitative trait loci (QTL) sought out in different pig populations. Considering the high IMF content observed in the Duroc pig, it was appealing to determine whether favourable alleles at a major gene or QTL could be found. The detection was performed in an experimental F2 Duroc × Large White population first by segregation analysis, then by QTL mapping using additional molecular information. Results Segregation analysis provided evidence for a major gene, with a recessive Duroc allele increasing IMF by 1.8% in Duroc homozygous pigs. However, results depended on whether data were normalised or not. After Box-Cox transformation, likelihood ratio was indeed 12 times lower and no longer significant. The QTL detection results were partly consistent with the segregation analysis. Three QTL significant at the chromosome wide level were evidenced. Two QTL, located on chromosomes 13 and 15, showed a high IMF Duroc recessive allele with an overall effect slightly lower than that expected from segregation analysis (+0.4 g/100 g muscle). The third QTL was located on chromosome 1, with a dominant Large White allele inducing high IMF content (+0.5 g/100 g muscle). Additional QTL were detected for muscular fatty acid composition. Conclusion The study presented results from two complementary approaches, a segregation analysis and a QTL detection, to seek out genes involved in the higher IMF content observed in the Duroc population. Discrepancies between both methods might be partially explained by the existence of at least two QTL with similar characteristics located on two different chromosomes for which different boars were heterozygous. The favourable and dominant allele detected in the Large White population was unexpected. Obviously, in both populations, the favourable alleles inducing high IMF content were not fixed and improving IMF by fixing favourable alleles using markers can then be applied both in Duroc and LW populations. With QTL affecting fatty acid composition, combining an increase of IMF content enhancing monounsaturated fatty acid percentage would be of great interest. PMID:17705816

  15. Serious limitations of the QTL/Microarray approach for QTL gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that the use of gene expression microarrays in nonrecombinant parental or congenic strains can accelerate the process of isolating individual genes underlying quantitative trait loci (QTL). However, the effectiveness of this approach has not been assessed. Results Thirty-seven studies that have implemented the QTL/microarray approach in rodents were reviewed. About 30% of studies showed enrichment for QTL candidates, mostly in comparisons between congenic and background strains. Three studies led to the identification of an underlying QTL gene. To complement the literature results, a microarray experiment was performed using three mouse congenic strains isolating the effects of at least 25 biometric QTL. Results show that genes in the congenic donor regions were preferentially selected. However, within donor regions, the distribution of differentially expressed genes was homogeneous once gene density was accounted for. Genes within identical-by-descent (IBD) regions were less likely to be differentially expressed in chromosome 2, but not in chromosomes 11 and 17. Furthermore, expression of QTL regulated in cis (cis eQTL) showed higher expression in the background genotype, which was partially explained by the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP). Conclusions The literature shows limited successes from the QTL/microarray approach to identify QTL genes. Our own results from microarray profiling of three congenic strains revealed a strong tendency to select cis-eQTL over trans-eQTL. IBD regions had little effect on rate of differential expression, and we provide several reasons why IBD should not be used to discard eQTL candidates. In addition, mismatch probes produced false cis-eQTL that could not be completely removed with the current strains genotypes and low probe density microarrays. The reviewed studies did not account for lack of coverage from the platforms used and therefore removed genes that were not tested. Together, our results explain the tendency to report QTL candidates as differentially expressed and indicate that the utility of the QTL/microarray as currently implemented is limited. Alternatives are proposed that make use of microarray data from multiple experiments to overcome the outlined limitations. PMID:20624276

  16. Angiogenesis QTL on Mouse Chromosome 8 Colocalizes with Differential ?-Defensin Expression.

    PubMed

    Smith, Jason; Liu, Fang; Beyer, Barbara; Morales, Krista; Reilly, Andrew; Cole, Richard; Herron, Bruce J

    2015-07-01

    Identification of genetic factors that modify complex traits is often complicated by gene-environment interactions that contribute to the observed phenotype. In model systems, the phenotypic outcomes quantified are typically traits that maximize observed variance, which in turn, should maximize the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in subsequent mapping studies. However, when the observed trait is dependent on multiple interacting factors, it can complicate genetic analysis, reducing the likelihood that the modifying mutation will ultimately be found. Alternatively, by focusing on intermediate phenotypes of a larger condition, we can reduce a model's complexity, which will, in turn, limit the number of QTL that contribute to variance. We used a novel method to follow angiogenesis in mice that reduces environmental variance by measuring endothelial cell growth from culture of isolated skin biopsies that varies depending on the genetic source of the tissue. This method, in combination with a backcross breeding strategy, is intended to reduce genetic complexity and limit the phenotypic effects to fewer modifier loci. We determined that our approach was an efficient means to generate recombinant progeny and used this cohort to map a novel s.c. angiogenesis QTL to proximal mouse chromosome (Chr.) 8 with suggestive QTL on Chr. 2 and 7. Global mRNA expression analysis of samples from parental reference strains revealed ?-defensins as potential candidate genes for future study. PMID:25802489

  17. Angiogenesis QTL on Mouse Chromosome 8 Colocalizes with Differential ?-Defensin Expression

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jason; Liu, Fang; Beyer, Barbara; Morales, Krista; Reilly, Andrew; Cole, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Identification of genetic factors that modify complex traits is often complicated by gene-environment interactions that contribute to the observed phenotype. In model systems, the phenotypic outcomes quantified are typically traits that maximize observed variance, which in turn, should maximize the detection of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in subsequent mapping studies. However, when the observed trait is dependent on multiple interacting factors, it can complicate genetic analysis, reducing the likelihood that the modifying mutation will ultimately be found. Alternatively, by focusing on intermediate phenotypes of a larger condition, we can reduce a model’s complexity, which will, in turn, limit the number of QTL that contribute to variance. We used a novel method to follow angiogenesis in mice that reduces environmental variance by measuring endothelial cell growth from culture of isolated skin biopsies that varies depending on the genetic source of the tissue. This method, in combination with a backcross breeding strategy, is intended to reduce genetic complexity and limit the phenotypic effects to fewer modifier loci. We determined that our approach was an efficient means to generate recombinant progeny and used this cohort to map a novel s.c. angiogenesis QTL to proximal mouse chromosome (Chr.) 8 with suggestive QTL on Chr. 2 and 7. Global mRNA expression analysis of samples from parental reference strains revealed ?-defensins as potential candidate genes for future study. PMID:25802489

  18. High-Throughput Phenotyping to Detect Drought Tolerance QTL in Wild Barley Introgression Lines

    PubMed Central

    Honsdorf, Nora; March, Timothy John; Berger, Bettina; Tester, Mark; Pillen, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Drought is one of the most severe stresses, endangering crop yields worldwide. In order to select drought tolerant genotypes, access to exotic germplasm and efficient phenotyping protocols are needed. In this study the high-throughput phenotyping platform “The Plant Accelerator”, Adelaide, Australia, was used to screen a set of 47 juvenile (six week old) wild barley introgression lines (S42ILs) for drought stress responses. The kinetics of growth development was evaluated under early drought stress and well watered treatments. High correlation (r?=?0.98) between image based biomass estimates and actual biomass was demonstrated, and the suitability of the system to accurately and non-destructively estimate biomass was validated. Subsequently, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located, which contributed to the genetic control of growth under drought stress. In total, 44 QTL for eleven out of 14 investigated traits were mapped, which for example controlled growth rate and water use efficiency. The correspondence of those QTL with QTL previously identified in field trials is shown. For instance, six out of eight QTL controlling plant height were also found in previous field and glasshouse studies with the same introgression lines. This indicates that phenotyping juvenile plants may assist in predicting adult plant performance. In addition, favorable wild barley alleles for growth and biomass parameters were detected, for instance, a QTL that increased biomass by approximately 36%. In particular, introgression line S42IL-121 revealed improved growth under drought stress compared to the control Scarlett. The introgression line showed a similar behavior in previous field experiments, indicating that S42IL-121 may be an attractive donor for breeding of drought tolerant barley cultivars. PMID:24823485

  19. Identifying QTL and genetic correlations between fur quality traits in mink (Neovison vison).

    PubMed

    Thirstrup, J P; Anistoroaei, R; Guldbrandtsen, B; Christensen, K; Fredholm, M; Nielsen, V H

    2014-02-01

    Mapping of QTL affecting fur quality traits (guard hair length, guard hair thickness, density of wool, surface of the fur and quality) and skin length was performed in a three-generation mink population (F2 design). In the parental generation, Nordic Brown mink were crossed reciprocally with American Black short nap mink. In all, 1082 mink encompassing three generations were used for the analyses. The mink were genotyped for 104 microsatellites covering all 14 autosomes. The QTL analyses were performed by least-square regression implemented in gridqtl software. Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritabilities were estimated using the average information-restricted maximum-likelihood method. Evidence was found for QTL affecting fur quality traits on nine autosomes. QTL were detected for guard hair thickness on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 6 and 13; for guard hair length on chromosomes 2, 3 and 6; for wool density on chromosomes 6 and 13; for surface on chromosomes 7, 12 and 13; for quality on chromosomes 6, 7, 11 and 13; and for skin length on chromosomes 7 and 9. Proximity of locations of QTL for guard hair length, guard hair thickness and for wool density and quality suggests that some of the traits are in part under the influence of the same genes. Traits under the influence of QTL at close or identical positions also were traits that were strongly genotypically correlated. Based on the results of correlation analyses, the most important single traits influencing the quality were found to be density of wool, guard hair thickness and appearance of the surface. PMID:24303917

  20. A QTL study on late leaf spot and rust revealed one major QTL for molecular breeding for rust resistance in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

    PubMed Central

    Khedikar, Y. P.; Gowda, M. V. C.; Sarvamangala, C.; Patgar, K. V.; Upadhyaya, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    Late leaf spot (LLS) and rust are two major foliar diseases of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) that often occur together leading to 50–70% yield loss in the crop. A total of 268 recombinant inbred lines of a mapping population TAG 24 × GPBD 4 segregating for LLS and rust were used to undertake quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Phenotyping of the population was carried out under artificial disease epiphytotics. Positive correlations between different stages, high to very high heritability and independent nature of inheritance between both the diseases were observed. Parental genotypes were screened with 1,089 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, of which 67 (6.15%) were found polymorphic. Segregation data obtained for these markers facilitated development of partial linkage map (14 linkage groups) with 56 SSR loci. Composite interval mapping (CIM) undertaken on genotyping and phenotyping data yielded 11 QTLs for LLS (explaining 1.70–6.50% phenotypic variation) in three environments and 12 QTLs for rust (explaining 1.70–55.20% phenotypic variation). Interestingly a major QTL associated with rust (QTLrust01), contributing 6.90–55.20% variation, was identified by both CIM and single marker analysis (SMA). A candidate SSR marker (IPAHM 103) linked with this QTL was validated using a wide range of resistant/susceptible breeding lines as well as progeny lines of another mapping population (TG 26 × GPBD 4). Therefore, this marker should be useful for introgressing the major QTL for rust in desired lines/varieties of groundnut through marker-assisted backcrossing. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1366-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20526757

  1. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-01-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  2. High-density genetic map construction and identification of a locus controlling weeping trait in an ornamental woody plant (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Qixiang; Cheng, Tangren; Yang, Weiru; Pan, Huitang; Zhong, Junjun; Huang, Long; Liu, Enze

    2015-06-01

    High-density genetic map is a valuable tool for fine mapping locus controlling a specific trait especially for perennial woody plants. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density genetic map of mei (Prunus mume) using SLAF markers, developed by specific locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq). The linkage map contains 8,007 markers, with a mean marker distance of 0.195 cM, making it the densest genetic map for the genus Prunus. Though weeping trees are used worldwide as landscape plants, little is known about weeping controlling gene(s) (Pl). To test the utility of the high-density genetic map, we did fine-scale mapping of this important ornamental trait. In total, three statistic methods were performed progressively based on the result of inheritance analysis. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis initially revealed that a locus on linkage group 7 was strongly responsible for weeping trait. Mutmap-like strategy and extreme linkage analysis were then applied to fine map this locus within 1.14 cM. Bioinformatics analysis of the locus identified some candidate genes. The successful localization of weeping trait strongly indicates that the high-density map constructed using SLAF markers is a worthy reference for mapping important traits for woody plants. PMID:25776277

  3. A major QTL for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot in maize.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Yin, Guangming; Guo, Yanling; Zhang, Dongfeng; Chen, Shaojiang; Xu, Mingliang

    2010-08-01

    Fusarium graminearum Schwabe, the conidial form of Gibberella zeae, is the causal fungal pathogen responsible for Gibberella stalk rot of maize. Using a BC(1)F(1) backcross mapping population derived from a cross between '1145' (donor parent, completely resistant) and 'Y331' (recurrent parent, highly susceptible), two quantitative trait loci (QTLs), qRfg1 and qRfg2, conferring resistance to Gibberella stalk rot have been detected. The major QTL qRfg1 was further confirmed in the double haploid, F(2), BC(2)F(1), and BC(3)F(1) populations. Within a qRfg1 confidence interval, single/low-copy bacterial artificial chromosome sequences, anchored expressed sequence tags, and insertion/deletion polymorphisms, were exploited to develop 59 markers to saturate the qRfg1 region. A step by step narrowing-down strategy was adopted to pursue fine mapping of the qRfg1 locus. Recombinants within the qRfg1 region, screened from each backcross generation, were backcrossed to 'Y331' to produce the next backcross progenies. These progenies were individually genotyped and evaluated for resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. Significant (or no significant) difference in resistance reactions between homozygous and heterozygous genotypes in backcross progeny suggested presence (or absence) of qRfg1 in '1145' donor fragments. The phenotypes were compared to sizes of donor fragments among recombinants to delimit the qRfg1 region. Sequential fine mapping of BC(4)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations enabled us to progressively refine the qRfg1 locus to a ~500-kb interval flanked by the markers SSR334 and SSR58. Meanwhile, resistance of qRfg1 to Gibberella stalk rot was also investigated in BC(3)F(1) to BC(6)F(1) generations. Once introgressed into the 'Y331' genome, the qRfg1 locus could steadily enhance the frequency of resistant plants by 32-43%. Hence, the qRfg1 locus was capable of improving maize resistance to Gibberella stalk rot. PMID:20401458

  4. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Symula, Derek J.; Frazer, Kelly A.; Ueda, Yukihiko; Denefle, Patrice; Stevens, Mary E.; Wang, Zhi-En; Locksley, Richard; Rubin, Edward M.

    1999-07-02

    While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. While large numbers of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributing to genetically complex conditions have been discovered, few causative genes have been identified. This is mainly due to the large size of QTLs and the subtle connection between genotype and quantitative phenotype associated with these conditions. To screen for genes contributing to an asthma QTL mapped to human chromosome 5q33, the authors characterized a panel of large-insert 5q31 transgenics based on studies demonstrating that altering gene dosage frequently affects quantitative phenotypes normally influenced by that gene. This panel of human YAC transgenics, propagating a one megabase interva2048 chromosome 5q31 containing 23 genes, was screened for quantitative changes in several asthma-associated phenotypes. Multiple independent transgenic lines with altered IgE response to antigen treatment shared a 180 kb region containing 5 genes, including human interleukin 4 (IL4) and interleukin 13 (IL13), which induce IgE class switching in B cells5. Further analysis of these mice and mice transgenic for only murine Il4 and Il13 demonstrated that moderate changes in murine Il4 and Il13 expression affect asthma-associated phenotypes in vivo. This functional screen of large-insert transgenics enabled them to sift through multiple genes in the 5q3 asthma QTL without prior consideration of assumed individual gene function and identify genes that influence the QTL phenotype in vivo.

  5. Combining SNP discovery from next-generation sequencing data with bulked segregant analysis (BSA) to fine-map genes in polyploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies are providing new ways to accelerate fine-mapping and gene isolation in many species. To date, the majority of these efforts have focused on diploid organisms with readily available whole genome sequence information. In this study, as a proof of concept, we tested the use of NGS for SNP discovery in tetraploid wheat lines differing for the previously cloned grain protein content (GPC) gene GPC-B1. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) was used to define a subset of putative SNPs within the candidate gene region, which were then used to fine-map GPC-B1. Results We used Illumina paired end technology to sequence mRNA (RNAseq) from near isogenic lines differing across a ~30-cM interval including the GPC-B1 locus. After discriminating for SNPs between the two homoeologous wheat genomes and additional quality filtering, we identified inter-varietal SNPs in wheat unigenes between the parental lines. The relative frequency of these SNPs was examined by RNAseq in two bulked samples made up of homozygous recombinant lines differing for their GPC phenotype. SNPs that were enriched at least 3-fold in the corresponding pool (6.5% of all SNPs) were further evaluated. Marker assays were designed for a subset of the enriched SNPs and mapped using DNA from individuals of each bulk. Thirty nine new SNP markers, corresponding to 67% of the validated SNPs, mapped across a 12.2-cM interval including GPC-B1. This translated to 1 SNP marker per 0.31 cM defining the GPC-B1 gene to within 13-18 genes in syntenic cereal genomes and to a 0.4 cM interval in wheat. Conclusions This study exemplifies the use of RNAseq for SNP discovery in polyploid species and supports the use of BSA as an effective way to target SNPs to specific genetic intervals to fine-map genes in unsequenced genomes. PMID:22280551

  6. Breed relationships facilitate fine-mapping studies: A 7.8-kb deletion cosegregates with Collie eye anomaly across multiple dog breeds

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Heidi G.; Kukekova, Anna V.; Akey, Dayna T.; Goldstein, Orly; Kirkness, Ewen F.; Baysac, Kathleen C.; Mosher, Dana S.; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Acland, Gregory M.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2007-01-01

    The features of modern dog breeds that increase the ease of mapping common diseases, such as reduced heterogeneity and extensive linkage disequilibrium, may also increase the difficulty associated with fine mapping and identifying causative mutations. One way to address this problem is by combining data from multiple breeds segregating the same trait after initial linkage has been determined. The multibreed approach increases the number of potentially informative recombination events and reduces the size of the critical haplotype by taking advantage of shortened linkage disequilibrium distances found across breeds. In order to identify breeds that likely share a trait inherited from the same ancestral source, we have used cluster analysis to divide 132 breeds of dog into five primary breed groups. We then use the multibreed approach to fine-map Collie eye anomaly (cea), a complex disorder of ocular development that was initially mapped to a 3.9-cM region on canine chromosome 37. Combined genotypes from affected individuals from four breeds of a single breed group significantly narrowed the candidate gene region to a 103-kb interval spanning only four genes. Sequence analysis revealed that all affected dogs share a homozygous deletion of 7.8 kb in the NHEJ1 gene. This intronic deletion spans a highly conserved binding domain to which several developmentally important proteins bind. This work both establishes that the primary cea mutation arose as a single disease allele in a common ancestor of herding breeds as well as highlights the value of comparative population analysis for refining regions of linkage. PMID:17916641

  7. Aging Uncouples Heritability and Expression-QTL in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Viñuela Rodriguez; L. B. Snoek; J. A. G. Riksen; J. E. Kammenga

    2012-01-01

    The number and distribution of gene expression QTL (eQTL) represent the genetic architecture of many complex traits, including common human diseases. We previously reported that the heritable eQTL patterns are highly dynamic with age in an N2 × CB4856 recombinant inbred population of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. In particular, we showed that the number of eQTL decreased with age. Here,

  8. Initial interrogation, confirmation and fine mapping of modifying genes: STAT3, IL1B and IFNGR1 determine cystic fibrosis disease manifestation

    PubMed Central

    Labenski, Heike; Hedtfeld, Silke; Becker, Tim; Tümmler, Burkhard; Stanke, Frauke

    2011-01-01

    We have used a stepwise approach consisting of initial interrogation, confirmation and fine mapping to analyze STAT3, IL1B and IFNGR1 as modifiers of cystic fibrosis disease building upon the data and sample collection of the European Cystic Fibrosis Twin and Sibling Study. We have observed direct correlation between the length of the intronic microsatellite STAT3Sat to STAT3 expression levels among F508del-CFTR homozygous patients (P=0.0075), and an association of longer STAT3Sat-alleles with the presence of CFTR-mediated residual chloride secretion (P=0.0031), measured as the manifestation of the CF basic defect in intestinal tissue. Both, family-based analysis by TDT and case-reference comparison identified consistently the same intragenic IL1B haplotype as a risk variant (Praw=0.055 for TDT, Praw<0.3 for case-reference comparison). Using haplotype-guided hierarchical fine mapping, we have identified two single nucleotide exchanges for which concordant and discordant sibling pairs differ at a 7?kb – spanning core haplotype in IFNGR1 (Praw=0.0113). Taken together, our findings imply that immunorelevant pathways and ion secretion, dominated by CFTR in intestinal and respiratory epithelium, merge at the level of the epithelial cell to integrate the signaling of cytokines due to innate and acquired immune defense. PMID:21731057

  9. Host genetics and immune control of HIV-1 infection: Fine mapping for the extended human MHC region in an African cohort

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Heather A.; Pajewski, Nicholas M.; He, Dongning; Zhang, Kui; Brown, Elizabeth E.; Kilembe, William; Allen, Susan; Hunter, Eric; Kaslow, Richard A.; Tang, Jianming

    2014-01-01

    Multiple MHC loci encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLA) have allelic variants unequivocally associated with differential immune control of HIV-1 infection. Fine mapping based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the extended MHC (xMHC) region is expected to reveal causal or novel factors and to justify a search for functional mechanisms. We have tested the utility of a custom fine-mapping platform (the ImmunoChip) for 172 HIV-1 seroconverters (SCs) and 449 seroprevalent individuals (SPs) from Lusaka, Zambia, with a focus on more than 6,400 informative xMHC SNPs. When conditioned on HLA and non-genetic factors previously associated with HIV-1 viral load (VL) in the study cohort, penalized approaches (HyperLasso models) identified an intergenic SNP (rs3094626 between RPP21 and HLA-E) and an intronic SNP (rs3134931 in NOTCH4) as novel correlates of early set-point VL in SCs. The minor allele of rs2857114 (downstream from HLA-DOB) was an unfavorable factor in SPs. Joint models based on demographic features, HLA alleles and the newly identified SNP variants could explain 29% and 15% of VL variance in SCs and SPs, respectively. These findings and bioinformatics strongly suggest that both classic and non-classic MHC genes deserve further investigation, especially in Africans with relatively short haplotype blocks. PMID:24784026

  10. Genetic analysis of metabolites in apple fruits indicates an mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds on linkage group 16

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Sabaz Ali; Chibon, Pierre-Yves; de Vos, Ric C.H.; Schipper, Bert A.; Walraven, Evert; Beekwilder, Jules; van Dijk, Thijs; Finkers, Richard; Visser, Richard G.F.; van de Weg, Eric W.; Bovy, Arnaud; Cestaro, Alessandro; Velasco, Riccardo; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J.

    2012-01-01

    Apple (Malus×domestica Borkh) is among the main sources of phenolic compounds in the human diet. The genetic basis of the quantitative variations of these potentially beneficial phenolic compounds was investigated. A segregating F1 population was used to map metabolite quantitative trait loci (mQTLs). Untargeted metabolic profiling of peel and flesh tissues of ripe fruits was performed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC-MS), resulting in the detection of 418 metabolites in peel and 254 in flesh. In mQTL mapping using MetaNetwork, 669 significant mQTLs were detected: 488 in the peel and 181 in the flesh. Four linkage groups (LGs), LG1, LG8, LG13, and LG16, were found to contain mQTL hotspots, mainly regulating metabolites that belong to the phenylpropanoid pathway. The genetics of annotated metabolites was studied in more detail using MapQTL®. A number of quercetin conjugates had mQTLs on LG1 or LG13. The most important mQTL hotspot with the largest number of metabolites was detected on LG16: mQTLs for 33 peel-related and 17 flesh-related phenolic compounds. Structural genes involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthetic pathway were located, using the apple genome sequence. The structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1) was in the mQTL hotspot on LG16, as were seven transcription factor genes. The authors believe that this is the first time that a QTL analysis was performed on such a high number of metabolites in an outbreeding plant species. PMID:22330898

  11. QTL analysis for sugar-regulated leaf senescence supports flowering-dependent and -independent senescence pathways.

    PubMed

    Wingler, Astrid; Purdy, Sarah Jane; Edwards, Sally-Anne; Chardon, Fabien; Masclaux-Daubresse, Céline

    2010-01-01

    *The aim of this work was to determine the genetic basis of sugar-regulated senescence and to explore the relationship with other traits, including flowering and nitrogen-use efficiency. *Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for senescence were mapped in the Arabidopsis Bay-0 x Shahdara recombinant-inbred line (RIL) population after growth on glucose-containing medium, which accelerates senescence. The extent of whole-rosette senescence was determined by imaging the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (F(v)/F(m)). *A major QTL on the top of chromosome 4 colocalized with FRI, a major determinant of flowering. This QTL interacted epistatically with a QTL on chromosome 5, where the floral repressor FLC localizes. Vernalization accelerated senescence in late-flowering lines with functional FRI and FLC alleles. Comparison with previous results using the Bay-0 x Shahdara population showed that rapid rosette senescence on glucose-containing medium was correlated with early flowering and high sugar content in compost-grown plants. In addition, correlation was found between the expression of flowering and senescence-associated genes in Arabidopsis accessions. However, an additional QTL on chromosome 3 was not linked to flowering, but to nitrogen-use efficiency. *The results show that whole-rosette senescence is genetically linked to the vernalization-dependent control of flowering, but is also controlled by flowering-independent pathways. PMID:19878465

  12. Identification of QTL controlling adventitious root formation during flooding conditions in teosinte ( Zea mays ssp. huehuetenangensis ) seedlings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshiro Mano; Masanori Muraki; Masahiro Fujimori; Tadashi Takamizo; Bryan Kindiger

    2005-01-01

    Adventitious root formation (ARF) at the soil surface is one of the most important adaptations to soil flooding or waterlogging. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling ARF under flooding condition were identified in a 94 F2 individual population by crossing maize (Zea mays L., B64) × teosinte (Z. mays ssp. huehuetenangensis). A base-map was constructed using 66 SSR and 42 AFLP

  13. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). 2. Characterisation of QTL involved in developmental and agronomic traits.

    PubMed

    Bert, P-F; Jouan, I; Tourvieille de Labrouhe, D; Serre, F; Philippon, J; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2003-06-01

    Seed weight and oil content are important properties of cultivated sunflower under complex genetic and environmental control, and associated with morphological and developmental characteristics such as plant height or flowering dates. Using a genetic map with 290 markers for a cross between two inbred sunflower lines and 2 years of observations on F3 families, QTL controlling seed weight, oil content, plant height, plant lodging, flowering dates, maturity dates and delay from flowering to maturity were detected. QTL detected were compared between the F2 and F3 generations and between the 2 years of testing for the F3 families in 1997 and 1999. Some of the QTL controlling seed weight overlapped with those controlling oil content. Several other co-localisations of QTL controlling developmental or morphological characteristics were observed and the relationships between the traits were also shown by correlation analyses. The relationships between all these traits and with resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Diaporthe helianthi are discussed. PMID:12835943

  14. Multifactorial geneticsMapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in experimental populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca W. Doerge

    2002-01-01

    Simple statistical methods for the study of quantitative trait loci (QTL), such as analysis of variance, have given way to methods that involve several markers and high-resolution genetic maps. As a result, the mapping community has been provided with statistical and computational tools that have much greater power than ever before for studying and locating multiple and interacting QTL. Apart

  15. Comparative genetic analysis of quantitative traits in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) 3. Characterisation of QTL involved in resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Phoma macdonaldi.

    PubMed

    Bert, P-F; Dechamp-Guillaume, G; Serre, F; Jouan, I; de Labrouhe, D Tourvieille; Nicolas, P; Vear, F

    2004-08-01

    One hundred and fifty F(2)-F(3) families from a cross between two inbred sunflower lines FU and PAZ2 were used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance to white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) attacks of terminal buds and capitula, and black stem ( Phoma macdonaldii). A genetic linkage map of 18 linkage groups with 216 molecular markers spanning 1,937 cM was constructed. Disease resistances were measured in field experiments for S. sclerotiorum and under controlled conditions for P. macdonaldii. For resistance to S. sclerotiorum terminal bud attack, seven QTL were identified, each explaining less than 10% of phenotypic variance. For capitulum attack by this parasite, there were four QTL (each explaining up to 20% of variation) and for P. macdonaldii resistance, four QTL were identified, each having effects of up to 16%. The S. sclerotiorum capitulum resistance QTL were compared with those reported previously and it was concluded that resistance to this disease is governed by a considerable number of QTL, located on almost all the sunflower linkage groups. PMID:15141292

  16. RNA-seq based SNPs in some agronomically important oleiferous lines of Brassica rapa and their use for genome-wide linkage mapping and specific-region fine mapping

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Brassica rapa (AA) contains very diverse forms which include oleiferous types and many vegetable types. Genome sequence of B. rapa line Chiifu (ssp. pekinensis), a leafy vegetable type, was published in 2011. Using this knowledge, it is important to develop genomic resources for the oleiferous types of B. rapa. This will allow more involved molecular mapping, in-depth study of molecular mechanisms underlying important agronomic traits and introgression of traits from B. rapa to major oilseed crops - B. juncea (AABB) and B. napus (AACC). The study explores the availability of SNPs in RNA-seq generated contigs of three oleiferous lines of B. rapa - Candle (ssp. oleifera, turnip rape), YSPB-24 and Tetra (ssp. trilocularis, Yellow sarson) and their use in genome-wide linkage mapping and specific-region fine mapping using a RIL population between Chiifu and Tetra. Results RNA-seq was carried out on the RNA isolated from young inflorescences containing unopened floral buds, floral axis and small leaves, using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. Sequence assembly was carried out using the Velvet de-novo programme and the assembled contigs were organised against Chiifu gene models, available in the BRAD-CDS database. RNA-seq confirmed the presence of more than 17,000 single-copy gene models described in the BRAD database. The assembled contigs and the BRAD gene models were analyzed for the presence of SSRs and SNPs. While the number of SSRs was limited, more than 0.2 million SNPs were observed between Chiifu and the three oleiferous lines. Assays for SNPs were designed using KASPar technology and tested on a F7-RIL population derived from a Chiifu x Tetra cross. The design of the SNP assays were based on three considerations - the 50 bp flanking region of the SNPs should be strictly similar, the SNP should have a read-depth of ?7 and no exon/intron junction should be present within the 101 bp target region. Using these criteria, a total of 640 markers (580 for genome-wide mapping and 60 for specific-region mapping) marking as many genes were tested for mapping. Out of 640 markers that were tested, 594 markers could be mapped unambiguously which included 542 markers for genome-wide mapping and 42 markers for fine mapping of the tet-o locus that is involved with the trait tetralocular ovary in the line Tetra. Conclusion A large number of SNPs and PSVs are present in the transcriptome of B. rapa lines for genome-wide linkage mapping and specific-region fine mapping. Criteria used for SNP identification delivered markers, more than 93% of which could be successfully mapped to the F7–RIL population of Chiifu x Tetra cross. PMID:23837684

  17. Fine-structure mapping and functional analysis of temperature-sensitive mutants in the gene encoding the herpes simplex virus type 1 immediate early protein VP175.

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, R A; Schaffer, P A

    1980-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV)-specific proteins fall into at least three kinetic classes whose synthesis is sequentially and coordinaely regulated. Temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of one complementation group (1-2) are defective in the transition from immediate early to early and late protein synthesis. To elucidate the function of the 1-2 gene product in the HSV type 1 replicative cycle, nine ts mutants in this group were mapped by fine-structure analysis and characterized members of the group lie within the terminally repeated sequences of the S region of the genome. Fine-structure genetic and physical mapping permitted the mutations to be ordered within these sequences. Because it has been shown that the message for VP175 and the DNA template specifying this protein extend beyond the limits of the physical map of the mutations, it follows that the mutations must lie within the structural gene for VP175. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis showed that most members of the group overproduced the immediate early proteins VP175, -136, -110, and -63 and markedly underproduced early and late proteins at the nonpermissive temperature. In temperature shiftup experiments, it was fund that the synthesis of early and late proteins ceased, whereas the synthesis of immediate early proteins began again. Thus, it is postulated that VP175 is (i) involved in the transition from immediate early to early protein synthesis, (ii) requird continuously to maintain early protein synthesis, (iii) autoregulated, acting to inhibit immediate early protein synthesis. Images PMID:6255206

  18. Sorghum stay-green QTL individually reduce post-flowering drought-induced leaf senescence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen Harris; P. K. Subudhi; Andrew Borrell; David Jordan; Darrell Rosenow; Henry Nguyen; Patricia Klein; Robert Klein; John Mullet

    2010-01-01

    Sorghum is an important source of food, feed, and biofuel, especially in the semi-arid tropics because this cereal is well adapted to harsh, drought-prone environ- ments. Post-flowering drought adaptation in sorghum is associated with the stay-green phenotype. Alleles that contribute to this complex trait have been mapped to four major QTL, Stg1-Stg4, using a population derived from BT3642 and RT37000.

  19. Flowering Ecotypes of Capsella bursa-pastoris(L.) Medik. (Brassicaceae) Analysed by a Cosegregation of Phenotypic Characters (QTL) and Molecular Markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcus Linde; Susanne Diel; Barbara Neuffer

    2001-01-01

    Capsella bursa-pastoris(Brassicaceae) is an annual to biennial predominantly autogamous species distributed worldwide. Using a linkage map with RAPDs and isozymes we studied quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling phenotypic traits in this invasive species. To obtain a mapping population we crossed two plants occurring in different climatic regions in California, USA (Central Valley and Sierra Nevada) with the most diverse ecotypes

  20. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-01-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species. PMID:25435025

  1. Novel quantitative trait locus is mapped to chromosome 12p11 for left ventricular mass in Dominican families: the Family Study of Stroke Risk and Carotid Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyong; Beecham, Ashley; Di Tullio, Marco R; Slifer, Susan; Blanton, Susan H; Rundek, Tatjana; Sacco, Ralph L

    2009-01-01

    Background Left ventricular mass (LVM) is an important risk factor for stroke and vascular disease. The genetic basis of LVM is unclear although a high heritability has been suggested. We sought to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for LVM using large Dominican families. Methods Probands were selected from Dominican subjects of the population-based Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS). LVM was measured by transthoracic echocardiography. A set of 405 microsatellite markers was used to screen the whole genome among 1360 subjects from 100 Dominican families who had complete phenotype data and DNA available. A polygenic covariate screening was run to identify the significant covariates. Variance components analysis was used to estimate heritability and to detect evidence for linkage, after adjusting for significant risk factors. Ordered-subset Analysis (OSA) was conducted to identify a more homogeneous subset for stratification analysis. Results LVM had a heritability of 0.58 in the studied population (p < 0.0001). The most significant evidence for linkage was found at chromosome 12p11 (MLOD = 3.11, empirical p = 0.0003) with peak marker at D12S1042. This linkage was significantly increased in a subset of families with the high average waist circumference (MLOD = 4.45, p = 0.0045 for increase in evidence for linkage). Conclusion We mapped a novel QTL near D12S1042 for LVM in Dominicans. Enhanced linkage evidence in families with larger waist circumference suggests that gene(s) residing within the QTL interact(s) with abdominal obesity to contribute to phenotypic variation of LVM. Suggestive evidence for linkage (LOD = 1.99) has been reported at the same peak marker for left ventricular geometry in a White population from the HyperGEN study, underscoring the importance of this QTL for left ventricular phenotype. Further fine mapping and validation studies are warranted to identify the underpinning genes. PMID:19627612

  2. DATABASE Open Access solQTL: a tool for QTL analysis, visualization and

    E-print Network

    van der Knaap, Esther

    ://solgenomics.net) is a primary repository for phenotypic, genetic, genomic, expression and metabolic data for the Solanaceae Solanaceae researchers to upload raw genotype and phenotype data to SGN, perform QTL analysis and dynamically

  3. Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinney, Douglas M.; McIntosh, Willard L.

    1978-01-01

    Geologic mapping in the United States increased by about one-quarter in the past year. Examinations of mapping trends were in the following categories: (1) Mapping at scales of 1:100, 000; (2) Metric-scale base maps; (3) International mapping, and (4) Planetary mapping. (MA)

  4. Valence state mapping of cobalt and manganese using near-edge fine Z.L. Wanga,*, J. Bentleyb

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhong L.

    37831-6376, USA Abstract The properties of transition metal oxides are related to the presence; Transition metal oxides 1. Introduction Many properties of smart and functional materials are determined, but a spatial mapping of valence states of transition metal elements is a challenge to existing microscopy

  5. Progressive bias in species status is symptomatic of fine-grained mapping units subject to repeated sampling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger L. H. Dennis

    2001-01-01

    Atlas maps of butterflies invariably fail to distinguish the status of records, that is, whether they are observations of breeding populations or vagrant individuals. Yet, for conservation purposes, it is clearly important to know whether records relate to breeding populations in suitable habitats or not. The high mobility of butterfly adults carries two expectations. First, vagrants will frequently be recorded

  6. Fine mapping and narrowing of the genetic interval of the spinal muscular atrophy region by linkage studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wirth, B.; Voosen, B.; Roehrig, D.; Piechaczek, B.; Ruonk-Schoeneborn, S.; Zerres, K. (Institute of Human Genetics, Bonn (Germany)); Knapp, M. (Institute of Medical Statistics, Bonn (Germany))

    1993-01-01

    The gene for autosomal recessive proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) has recently been mapped to chromosome 5q12.2-q13, within a genetic distance of about 6 cM, and is proximally flanked by the locus D5S6 and distally by D5S112. Here, we report linkage analyses in 64 SMA families with nine polymorphic markers closely linked to the SMA gene which allowed us to narrow the SMA region to about 4cM and to define a new proximal genetic border by the locus D5S125 EF(TG/AG)[sub n]. Based on haplotype analysis and specific recombination event,the following order of the loci was determined: 5cen- D5S76-D5S6-D5S125-SMA-(5[prime]MAP-1B-3[prime]MApP[center dot]1 B)/D5S112-JK53CAI/2-(D5S39-D5S127)-5qter. The location of the SMA gene between D5Sl25 and MAP[center dot]1B is further supported by multipoint linkage analysis. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Construction of a high-density, high-resolution genetic map and its integration with BAC-based physical map in channel catfish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yun; Liu, Shikai; Qin, Zhenkui; Waldbieser, Geoff; Wang, Ruijia; Sun, Luyang; Bao, Lisui; Danzmann, Roy G.; Dunham, Rex; Liu, Zhanjiang

    2015-01-01

    Construction of genetic linkage map is essential for genetic and genomic studies. Recent advances in sequencing and genotyping technologies made it possible to generate high-density and high-resolution genetic linkage maps, especially for the organisms lacking extensive genomic resources. In the present work, we constructed a high-density and high-resolution genetic map for channel catfish with three large resource families genotyped using the catfish 250K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. A total of 54,342 SNPs were placed on the linkage map, which to our knowledge had the highest marker density among aquaculture species. The estimated genetic size was 3,505.4 cM with a resolution of 0.22 cM for sex-averaged genetic map. The sex-specific linkage maps spanned a total of 4,495.1 cM in females and 2,593.7 cM in males, presenting a ratio of 1.7 : 1 between female and male in recombination fraction. After integration with the previously established physical map, over 87% of physical map contigs were anchored to the linkage groups that covered a physical length of 867 Mb, accounting for ?90% of the catfish genome. The integrated map provides a valuable tool for validating and improving the catfish whole-genome assembly and facilitates fine-scale QTL mapping and positional cloning of genes responsible for economically important traits. PMID:25428894

  8. Genetic and QTL analysis of resistance to Xiphinema index in a grapevine cross.

    PubMed

    Xu, K; Riaz, S; Roncoroni, N C; Jin, Y; Hu, R; Zhou, R; Walker, M A

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the dagger nematode Xiphinema index has been an important objective in grape rootstock breeding programs. This nematode not only causes severe feeding damage to the root system, but it also vectors grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), the causal agent of fanleaf degeneration and one of the most severe viral diseases of grape. The established screening procedures for dagger nematode resistance are time consuming and can produce inconsistent results. A fast and reliable greenhouse-based system for screening resistance to X. index that is suitable for genetic studies and capable of evaluating breeding populations is needed. In this report, the dynamics of nematode numbers, gall formation, and root weight loss were investigated using a variety of soil mixes and pot sizes over a 52-week period. Results indicated that the number of galls formed was correlated with the size of the nematode population and with the degree of root weight loss. After inoculation with 100 nematodes, gall formation could be reliably evaluated in 4-8 weeks in most plant growth conditions and results were obtained 6 months more rapidly than past evaluation methods. This modified X. index resistance screening method was successfully applied to 185 of the 188 F(1) progeny from a cross of D8909-15 x F8909-17 (the 9621 population), which segregates for a form of X. index resistance originally derived from Vitis arizonica. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was carried out on both parental genetic maps of 255 markers using MapQTL 4.0. Results revealed that X. index resistance is controlled by a major QTL, designated Xiphinema index Resistance 1 (XiR1), near marker VMC5a10 on chromosome 19. The XiR1 QTL was supported by a LOD score of 36.9 and explained 59.9% of the resistance variance in the mapping population. PMID:18004541

  9. Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Kerstin B.; O’Reilly, Martin; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Carlebur, Saskia; Edwards, Stacey L.; French, Juliet D.; Prathalingham, Radhika; Dennis, Joe; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; de Santiago, Ines; Hopper, John L.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Southey, Melissa C.; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van ’t Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Lux, Michael P.; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Marme, Federick; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Christof; Burwinkel, Barbara; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Menegaux, Florence; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Milne, Roger L.; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias, Jose I.; Benitez, Javier; Neuhausen, Susan; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Ziogas, Argyrios; Dur, Christina C.; Brenner, Hermann; Müller, Heiko; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Engel, Christoph; Ditsch, Nina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Yatabe, Yasushi; Dörk, Thilo; Helbig, Sonja; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Thienpont, Bernard; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Smeets, Ann; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Bonanni, Bernardo; Bernard, Loris; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Wang, Xianshu; Purrington, Kristen; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Baglietto, Laura; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo-Hwang; Yip, Cheng-Har; Phuah, Sze-Yee; Kristensen, Vessela; Grenaker Alnæs, Grethe; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hartef; Eriksson, Kimael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Martens, John W.M.; van den Ouweland, Ans M.W.; van Deurzen, Carolien H.M.; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Ghoussaini, Maya; Harrington, Patricia; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Hui, Miao; Lim, Wei-Yen; Buhari, Shaik A.; Hamann, Ute; Försti, Asta; Rüdiger, Thomas; Ulmer, Hans-Ulrich; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Vachon, Celine; Slager, Susan; Fostira, Florentia; Pilarski, Robert; Shen, Chen-Yang; Hsiung, Chia-Ni; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Easton, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER? to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease. PMID:24290378

  10. Fine mapping of stable QTLs related to eating quality in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by CSSLs harboring small target chromosomal segments

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingjing; Zhang, Wenwei; Wu, Hongkai; Guo, Tao; Liu, Xiaolu; Wan, Xiangyuan; Jin, Jiansheng; Hanh, Than Thi Thu; Thoa, Nguyen Thi Nhu; Chen, Mingjiang; Liu, Shijia; Chen, Liangming; Liu, Xi; Wang, Jiankang; Zhai, Huqu; Wan, Jianmin

    2011-01-01

    Amylose content (AC) and viscosity profile are primary indices for evaluating eating and cooking qualities of rice grain. Using chromosome segment substitution lines (CSSLs), previous studies identified a QTL cluster of genes for rice eating and cooking quality in the interval R727–G1149 on chromosome 8. In this study we report two QTLs for viscosity parameters, respectively controlling setback viscosity (SBV) and consistency viscosity (CSV), located in the same interval using rapid viscosity analyzer (RVA) profile as an indicator of eating quality. Previously reported QTL for AC was dissected into two components with opposite genetic effects. Of four QTLs, qCSV-8 and qAC-8-2 had stable genetic effects across three and four environments, respectively. qSBV-8, qCSV-8 and qAC-8-1 partly overlapped, but were separated from qAC-8-2. Based on data from an Affymetrix rice GeneChip, two genes related to starch biosynthesis at the qAC-8-2 locus were chosen for further quantitative expression analysis. Both genes showed enhanced expression in sub-CSSLs carrying the target qAC-8-2 allele, but not in sub-CSSLs without the target qAC-8-2 allele, indicating their possible role in rice quality determination. Molecular markers closely linked to the two stable QTL provide the opportunity for marker-assisted selection (MAS) in breeding high quality rice. PMID:23136470

  11. Genetic analysis of QTL for eye cross and eye diameter in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using microsatellites and SNPs.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Zhang, X F; Lu, J G; Fu, H T; Jia, Z Y; Sun, X W

    2015-01-01

    A group of 107 F1 hybrid common carp was used to construct a linkage map using JoinMap 4.0. A total of 4877 microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers isolated from a genomic library (978 microsatellite and 3899 SNP markers) were assigned to construct the genetic map, which comprised 50 linkage groups. The total length of the linkage map for the common carp was 4775.90 cM with an average distance between markers of 0.98 cM. Ten quantitative trait loci (QTL) were associated with eye diameter, corresponding to 10.5-57.2% of the total phenotypic variation. Twenty QTL were related to eye cross, contributing to 10.8-36.9% of the total phenotypic variation. Two QTL for eye diameter and four QTL for eye cross each accounted for more than 20% of the total phenotypic variation and were considered to be major QTL. One growth factor related to eye diameter was observed on LG10 of the common carp genome, and three growth factors related to eye cross were observed on LG10, LG35, and LG44 of the common carp genome. The significant positive relationship of eye cross and eye diameter with other commercial traits suggests that eye diameter and eye cross can be used to assist in indirect selection for many commercial traits, particularly body weight. Thus, the growth factor for eye cross may also contribute to the growth of body weight, implying that aggregate breeding could have multiple effects. These findings provide information for future genetic studies and breeding of common carp. PMID:25966124

  12. Collinearity-based marker mining for the fine mapping of Pm6 , a powdery mildew resistance gene in wheat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Qin; Aizhong Cao; Haiyan Wang; Tingting Chen; Frank M. You; Yangyang Liu; Jianhui Ji; Dajun Liu; Peidu Chen; Xiu-e Wang

    2011-01-01

    The genome sequences of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Brachypodium distachyon and the comprehensive Triticeae EST (Expressed Sequence Tag) resources provide invaluable information for comparative genomics\\u000a analysis. The powdery mildew resistance gene, Pm6, which was introgressed into common wheat from Triticum timopheevii, was previously mapped to the wheat chromosome bin of 2BL [fraction length (FL) 0.50–1.00] with limited DNA markers.

  13. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of a dynamic rolled leaf gene, RL10(t), in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Luo, Zengke; Yang, Zhenglin; Zhong, Bingqiang; Li, Yunfeng; Xie, Rong; Zhao, Fangming; Ling, Yinghua; He, Guanghua

    2007-09-01

    A dynamically rolled leaf mutant (rl10) was identified from a spontaneous mutation in an Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica line, II-32B. The leaf chlorophyll content of rl10 is higher than that of the wild type. Genetic analysis using 3 F2 segregating populations derived from crosses between rl10 and the rice lines Mian5B, II-32B, and D62B, respectively, confirmed that the rolled leaf trait of rl10 is controlled by a single recessive gene. Of 719 SSR primer pairs that showed polymorphism between D62B and rl10, 151 were adopted to map the RL10(t) gene using an F2 segregating population of the cross rl10 x D62B, which contained 352 recessive plants. RL10(t) was primarily mapped on the long arm of chromosome 9, 5.09 cM from marker RM105 and 5.13 cM from marker RM3912. Using a novel set of 22 primer pairs between RM105 and RM3912, RL10(t) was further mapped between markers rlc3 (0.72 cM in distance) and rlc12 (0.1 cM in distance) using an F2/F3 population containing 1172 recessive individuals. Mapped position analysis and homology analysis of the 20 genes within the 194-kb region between these 2 markers both indicated that a gene encoding a Myb-like domain transcription factor with homology to Arabidopsis KANADI (annotated in PAC clone AP005904) is the most probable candidate for RL10(t). This study enables further investigation of whether KANADI-like Myb genes are involved in leaf polarity modeling in monocots, as they are in dicots. PMID:17893721

  14. R/qtl-related package demo This is a quick demo of R/qtl and related packages R/qtlhot, R/qtlnet and

    E-print Network

    Yandell, Brian S.

    R/qtl-related package demo Overview This is a quick demo of R/qtl and related packages R/qtlhot, R http://www.rqtl.org . Each package his its own vignettes. R/qtl We first show some features of R (2001) yeast dataset. library(qtl) library(qtlyeast) summary(yeast.orf) ## Backcross ## ## No

  15. Fine mapping of foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani) resistance gene Raso1 in soybean and its effect on tolerance to Soybean dwarf virus transmitted by foxglove aphid

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Shizen; Miyake, Noriyuki; Takeuchi, Toru; Kousaka, Fumiko; Hiura, Satoshi; Kanehira, Osamu; Saito, Miki; Sayama, Takashi; Higashi, Ayako; Ishimoto, Masao; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Fujita, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV) causes serious dwarfing, yellowing and sterility in soybean (Glycine max). The soybean cv. Adams is tolerant to SbDV infection in the field and exhibits antibiosis to foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani), which transmits SbDV. This antibiosis (termed “aphid resistance”) is required for tolerance to SbDV in the field in segregated progenies of Adams. A major quantitative trait locus, Raso1, is reported for foxglove aphid resistance. Our objectives were to fine map Raso1 and to reveal whether Raso1 alone is sufficient to confer both aphid resistance and SbDV tolerance. We introduced Raso1 into cv. Toyomusume by backcrossing and investigated the degree of aphid antibiosis to foxglove aphid and the degree of tolerance to SbDV in the field. All Raso1-introduced backcross lines showed aphid resistance. Interestingly, only one Raso1-introduced backcross line (TM-1386) showed tolerance to SbDV in the field. The results demonstrated Raso1 alone is sufficient to confer aphid resistance but insufficient for SbDV tolerance. Tolerance to SbDV was indicated to require additional gene(s) to Raso1. Additionally, Raso1 was mapped to a 63-kb interval on chromosome 3 of the Williams 82 sequence assembly (Glyma1). This interval includes a nucleotide-binding site–leucine-rich repeat encoding gene and two other genes in the Williams 82 soybean genome sequence. PMID:23136500

  16. Genetic analysis and fine mapping of LH1 and LH2, a set of complementary genes controlling late heading in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuang; Wang, Feng; Gao, Li Jun; Li, Jin Hua; Li, Rong Bai; Gao, Han Liang; Deng, Guo Fu; Yang, Jin Shui; Luo, Xiao Jin

    2012-01-01

    Heading date in rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a critical agronomic trait with a complex inheritance. To investigate the genetic basis and mechanism of gene interaction in heading date, we conducted genetic analysis on segregation populations derived from crosses among the indica cultivars Bo B, Yuefeng B and Baoxuan 2. A set of dominant complementary genes controlling late heading, designated LH1 and LH2, were detected by molecular marker mapping. Genetic analysis revealed that Baoxuan 2 contains both dominant genes, while Bo B and Yuefeng B each possess either LH1 or LH2. Using larger populations with segregant ratios of 3 : 1, we fine-mapped LH1 to a 63-kb region near the centromere of chromosome 7 flanked by markers RM5436 and RM8034, and LH2 to a 177-kb region on the short arm of chromosome 8 between flanking markers Indel22468-3 and RM25. Some candidate genes were identified through sequencing of Bo B and Yuefeng B in these target regions. Our work provides a solid foundation for further study on gene interaction in heading date and has application in marker-assisted breeding of photosensitive hybrid rice in China. PMID:23341744

  17. Fine-Scale Mapping of the 5q11.2 Breast Cancer Locus Reveals at Least Three Independent Risk Variants Regulating MAP3K1

    PubMed Central

    Glubb, Dylan M.; Maranian, Mel J.; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Pooley, Karen A.; Meyer, Kerstin B.; Kar, Siddhartha; Carlebur, Saskia; O’Reilly, Martin; Betts, Joshua A.; Hillman, Kristine M.; Kaufmann, Susanne; Beesley, Jonathan; Canisius, Sander; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Tsimiklis, Helen; Apicella, Carmel; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Hogervorst, Frans B.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Fasching, Peter A.; Ruebner, Matthias; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Peto, Julian; dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Johnson, Nichola; Pharoah, Paul D.P.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Yang, Rongxi; Surowy, Harald; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Menegaux, Florence; Sanchez, Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; González-Neira, Anna; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, M. Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Brüning, Thomas; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidemi; Iwata, Hiroji; Tanaka, Hideo; Dörk, Thilo; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Helbig, Sonja; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Lambrechts, Diether; Zhao, Hui; Weltens, Caroline; van Limbergen, Erik; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Barile, Monica; Capra, Fabio; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Hallberg, Emily; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; See, Mee-Hoong; Cornes, Belinda; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Ikram, M. Kamran; Kristensen, Vessela; Zheng, Wei; Halverson, Sandra L.; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Kauppila, Saila; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robert A.E.M.; Seynaeve, Caroline; Van Asperen, Christi J.; García-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Klevebring, Daniel; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Martens, John W.M.; Collée, J. Margriet; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W.R.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Cai, Qiuyin; Shah, Mitul; Ghoussaini, Maya; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Tang, Anthony; Hamann, Ute; Torres, Diana; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Shen, Chen-Yang; Wu, Pei-Ei; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Hou, Ming-Feng; Swerdlow, Anthony; Ashworth, Alan; Orr, Nick; Jones, Michael; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Luccarini, Craig; Baynes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S.; Brown, Melissa A.; Ponder, Bruce A.J.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Thompson, Deborah J.; Edwards, Stacey L.; Easton, Douglas F.; Dunning, Alison M.; French, Juliet D.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+: odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21–1.27, ptrend = 5.7 × 10?44) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER?: OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05–1.15, ptrend = 3.0 × 10?4) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [pcond = 1.61 × 10?5]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER+: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87–0.93, pcond = 1.4 × 10?4). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival. PMID:25529635

  18. High-precision genetic mapping of behavioral traits in the diversity outbred mouse population

    PubMed Central

    Logan, R W; Robledo, R F; Recla, J M; Philip, V M; Bubier, J A; Jay, J J; Harwood, C; Wilcox, T; Gatti, D M; Bult, C J; Churchill, G A; Chesler, E J

    2013-01-01

    Historically our ability to identify genetic variants underlying complex behavioral traits in mice has been limited by low mapping resolution of conventional mouse crosses. The newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) population promises to deliver improved resolution that will circumvent costly fine-mapping studies. The DO is derived from the same founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC), including three wild-derived strains. Thus the DO provides more allelic diversity and greater potential for discovery compared to crosses involving standard mouse strains. We have characterized 283 male and female DO mice using open-field, light–dark box, tail-suspension and visual-cliff avoidance tests to generate 38 behavioral measures. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits with support intervals ranging from 1 to 3 Mb in size. These intervals contain relatively few genes (ranging from 5 to 96). For a majority of QTL, using the founder allelic effects together with whole genome sequence data, we could further narrow the positional candidates. Several QTL replicate previously published loci. Novel loci were also identified for anxiety- and activity-related traits. Half of the QTLs are associated with wild-derived alleles, confirming the value to behavioral genetics of added genetic diversity in the DO. In the presence of wild-alleles we sometimes observe behaviors that are qualitatively different from the expected response. Our results demonstrate that high-precision mapping of behavioral traits can be achieved with moderate numbers of DO animals, representing a significant advance in our ability to leverage the mouse as a tool for behavioral genetics PMID:23433259

  19. High-precision genetic mapping of behavioral traits in the diversity outbred mouse population.

    PubMed

    Logan, R W; Robledo, R F; Recla, J M; Philip, V M; Bubier, J A; Jay, J J; Harwood, C; Wilcox, T; Gatti, D M; Bult, C J; Churchill, G A; Chesler, E J

    2013-06-01

    Historically our ability to identify genetic variants underlying complex behavioral traits in mice has been limited by low mapping resolution of conventional mouse crosses. The newly developed Diversity Outbred (DO) population promises to deliver improved resolution that will circumvent costly fine-mapping studies. The DO is derived from the same founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC), including three wild-derived strains. Thus the DO provides more allelic diversity and greater potential for discovery compared to crosses involving standard mouse strains. We have characterized 283 male and female DO mice using open-field, light-dark box, tail-suspension and visual-cliff avoidance tests to generate 38 behavioral measures. We identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) for these traits with support intervals ranging from 1 to 3?Mb in size. These intervals contain relatively few genes (ranging from 5 to 96). For a majority of QTL, using the founder allelic effects together with whole genome sequence data, we could further narrow the positional candidates. Several QTL replicate previously published loci. Novel loci were also identified for anxiety- and activity-related traits. Half of the QTLs are associated with wild-derived alleles, confirming the value to behavioral genetics of added genetic diversity in the DO. In the presence of wild-alleles we sometimes observe behaviors that are qualitatively different from the expected response. Our results demonstrate that high-precision mapping of behavioral traits can be achieved with moderate numbers of DO animals, representing a significant advance in our ability to leverage the mouse as a tool for behavioral genetics. PMID:23433259

  20. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    PubMed

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1. PMID:20700574

  1. Identification of a Major QTL That Alters Flowering Time at Elevated [CO2] in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Joy K.; Samanta Roy, Debosree; Chatterjee, Iera; Bone, Courtney R.; Springer, Clint J.; Kelly, John K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The transition from vegetative to reproductive stages marks a major milestone in plant development. It is clear that global change factors (e.g., increasing [CO2] and temperature) have already had and will continue to have a large impact on plant flowering times in the future. Increasing atmospheric [CO2] has recently been shown to affect flowering time, and may produce even greater responses than increasing temperature. Much is known about the genes influencing flowering time, although their relevance to changing [CO2] is not well understood. Thus, we present the first study to identify QTL (Quantitative Trait Loci) that affect flowering time at elevated [CO2] in Arabidopsis thaliana. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed our mapping population by crossing a genotype previously selected for high fitness at elevated [CO2] (SG, Selection Genotype) to a Cape Verde genotype (Cvi-0). SG exhibits delayed flowering at elevated [CO2], whereas Cvi-0 is non-responsive to elevated [CO2] for flowering time. We mapped one major QTL to the upper portion of chromosome 1 that explains 1/3 of the difference in flowering time between current and elevated [CO2] between the SG and Cvi-0 parents. This QTL also alters the stage at which flowering occurs, as determined from higher rosette leaf number at flowering in RILs (Recombinant Inbred Lines) harboring the SG allele. A follow-up study using Arabidopsis mutants for flowering time genes within the significant QTL suggests MOTHER OF FT AND TFL1 (MFT) as a potential candidate gene for altered flowering time at elevated [CO2]. Conclusion/Significance This work sheds light on the underlying genetic architecture that controls flowering time at elevated [CO2]. Prior to this work, very little to nothing was known about these mechanisms at the genomic level. Such a broader understanding will be key for better predicting shifts in plant phenology and for developing successful crops for future environments. PMID:23185291

  2. Speed-Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Using Microarrays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining the genetic architecture of complex traits is important for human health, agriculture, and understanding adaptive evolution, but is challenging because high resolution quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping requires evaluation of thousands of recombinant individuals for the trait and clo...

  3. EM Algorithm for Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci in Multivalent Tetraploids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multivalent tetraploids that include many plant species, such as potato, sugarcane and rose, are of paramount importance to agricultural production and biological research. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in multivalent tetraploids is challenged by their unique cytogenetic properties, such ...

  4. Fine Epitope Mapping of the Central Immunodominant Region of Nucleoprotein from Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dongliang; Li, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Deng, Fei; Duan, Xiaomei; Kou, Chun; Wu, Ting; Li, Yijie; Wang, Yongxing; Ma, Ji; Yang, Jianhua; Hu, Zhihong; Zhang, Fuchun; Zhang, Yujiang; Sun, Surong

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), a severe viral disease known to have occurred in over 30 countries and distinct regions, is caused by the tick-borne CCHF virus (CCHFV). Nucleocapsid protein (NP), which is encoded by the S gene, is the primary antigen detectable in infected cells. The goal of the present study was to map the minimal motifs of B-cell epitopes (BCEs) on NP. Five precise BCEs (E1, 247FDEAKK252; E2a, 254VEAL257; E2b, 258NGYLNKH264; E3, 267EVDKA271; and E4, 274DSMITN279) identified through the use of rabbit antiserum, and one BCE (E5, 258NGYL261) recognized using a mouse monoclonal antibody, were confirmed to be within the central region of NP and were partially represented among the predicted epitopes. Notably, the five BCEs identified using the rabbit sera were able to react with positive serum mixtures from five sheep which had been infected naturally with CCHFV. The multiple sequence alignment (MSA) revealed high conservation of the identified BCEs among ten CCHFV strains from different areas. Interestingly, the identified BCEs with only one residue variation can apparently be recognized by the positive sera of sheep naturally infected with CCHFV. Computer-generated three-dimensional structural models indicated that all the antigenic motifs are located on the surface of the NP stalk domain. This report represents the first identification and mapping of the minimal BCEs of CCHFV-NP along with an analysis of their primary and structural properties. Our identification of the minimal linear BCEs of CCHFV-NP may provide fundamental data for developing rapid diagnostic reagents and illuminating the pathogenic mechanism of CCHFV. PMID:25365026

  5. Quantitative trait locus mapping in laboratory mice derived from a replicated selection experiment for open-field activity.

    PubMed Central

    Turri, M G; Henderson, N D; DeFries, J C; Flint, J

    2001-01-01

    Bidirectional selection in rodents has been used to derive animal models of human behavior. An important question is whether selection for behavior operates on a limited number of QTL or whether the number and individual contribution of QTL varies between selection experiments. To address this question, we mapped QTL in two large F2 intercrosses (N = 815 and 821) from the four lines derived from a replicated selection experiment for open-field activity, an animal model for susceptibility to anxiety. Our analyses indicate that selection operated on the same relatively small number of loci in both crosses. Haplotype information and the direction of effect of each QTL allele were used to confirm that the QTL mapped in the two crosses lie in the same chromosomal regions, although we were unable to determine whether QTL in the two crosses represent the same genes. We conclude that the genetic architecture of the selected strains is similar and relatively simple. PMID:11454769

  6. Characterization and fine mapping of thermo-sensitive chlorophyll deficit mutant1 in rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Jiayu; Yao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xu, Zhengjin; Chen, Wenfu

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophyll content is one of the most important traits controlling crop biomass and economic yield in rice. Here, we isolated a spontaneous rice mutant named thermo-sensitive chlorophyll deficit 1 (tscd1) derived from a backcross recombinant inbred line population. tscd1 plants grown normally from the seedling to tiller stages showed yellow leaves with reduced chlorophyll content, but showed no significant differences after the booting stage. At temperatures below 22°C, the tscd1 mutant showed the most obvious yellowish phenotype. With increasing temperature, the yellowish leaves gradually turned green and approached a normal wild type color. Wild type and tscd1 mutant plants had obviously different chloroplast structures and photosynthetic pigment precursor contents, which resulted in underdevelopment of chloroplasts and a yellowish phenotype in tscd1. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant character was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. Through map-based cloning, we located the tscd1 gene in a 34.95 kb region on the long arm of chromosome 2, containing two BAC clones and eight predicted candidate genes. Further characterization of the tscd1 gene is underway. Because it has a chlorophyll deficit phenotype before the tiller stage and little influence on growth vigor, it may play a role in ensuring the purity of hybrids.

  7. Characterization and fine mapping of thermo-sensitive chlorophyll deficit mutant1 in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin; Wang, Jiayu; Yao, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yu; Li, Jinquan; Wang, Xiaoxue; Xu, Zhengjin; Chen, Wenfu

    2015-03-01

    Chlorophyll content is one of the most important traits controlling crop biomass and economic yield in rice. Here, we isolated a spontaneous rice mutant named thermo-sensitive chlorophyll deficit 1 (tscd1) derived from a backcross recombinant inbred line population. tscd1 plants grown normally from the seedling to tiller stages showed yellow leaves with reduced chlorophyll content, but showed no significant differences after the booting stage. At temperatures below 22°C, the tscd1 mutant showed the most obvious yellowish phenotype. With increasing temperature, the yellowish leaves gradually turned green and approached a normal wild type color. Wild type and tscd1 mutant plants had obviously different chloroplast structures and photosynthetic pigment precursor contents, which resulted in underdevelopment of chloroplasts and a yellowish phenotype in tscd1. Genetic analysis indicated that the mutant character was controlled by a recessive nuclear gene. Through map-based cloning, we located the tscd1 gene in a 34.95 kb region on the long arm of chromosome 2, containing two BAC clones and eight predicted candidate genes. Further characterization of the tscd1 gene is underway. Because it has a chlorophyll deficit phenotype before the tiller stage and little influence on growth vigor, it may play a role in ensuring the purity of hybrids. PMID:26069446

  8. Fine mapping of the clubroot resistance gene CRb and development of a useful selectable marker in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Takeyuki; Hatakeyama, Katsunori; Fukino, Nobuko; Matsumoto, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    In Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa), the clubroot resistance (CR) gene CRb is effective against Plasmodiophora brassicae isolate No. 14, which is classified as pathotype group 3. Although markers linked to CRb have been reported, an accurate position in the genome and the gene structure are unknown. To determine the genomic location and estimate the structure of CRb, we developed 28 markers (average distance, 20.4 kb) around CRb and constructed a high-density partial map. The precise position of CRb was determined by using a population of 2,032 F2 plants generated by selfing B. rapa ‘CR Shinki.’ We determined that CRb is located in the 140-kb genomic region between markers KB59N07 and B1005 and found candidate resistance genes. Among other CR genes on chromosome R3, a genotype of CRa closest marker clearly matched those of CRb and Crr3 did not confer resistance to isolate No. 14. Based on the genotypes of 11 markers developed near CRb and resistance to isolate No. 14, 82 of 108 cultivars showed a strong correlation between genotypes and phenotypes. The results of this study will be useful for isolating CRb and breeding cultivars with resistance to pathotype group 3 by introducing CRb into susceptible cultivars through marker-assisted selection. PMID:23641188

  9. Genetic mapping of three quantitative trait loci for soybean aphid resistance in PI 567324

    PubMed Central

    Jun, T-H; Rouf Mian, M A; Michel, A P

    2013-01-01

    Host-plant resistance is an effective method for controlling soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), the most damaging insect pest of soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) in North America. Recently, resistant soybean lines have been discovered and at least four aphid resistance genes (Rag1, Rag2, Rag3 and rag4) have been mapped on different soybean chromosomes. However, the evolution of new soybean aphid biotypes capable of defeating host-plant resistance conferred by most single genes demonstrates the need for finding germplasm with multigenic resistance to the aphid. This study was conducted to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for aphid resistance in PI 567324. We identified two major QTL (QTL_13_1 and QTL_13_2) for aphid resistance on soybean chromosome 13 using 184 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Wyandot' × PI 567324 cross. QTL_13_1 was located close to the previously reported Rag2 gene locus, and QTL_13_2 was close to the rag4 locus. A minor QTL (QTL_6_1) was also detected on chromosome 6, where no gene for soybean aphid resistance has been reported so far. These results indicate that PI 567324 possesses oligogenic resistance to the soybean aphid. The molecular markers closely linked to the QTL reported here will be useful for development of cultivars with oligogenic resistance that are expected to provide broader and more durable resistance against soybean aphids compared with cultivars with monogenic resistance. PMID:23486080

  10. COMPARISONS OF QUANTITATIVE TRAIT LOCUS MAPPING PROPERTIES BETWEEN TWO METHODS OF RECOMBINANT INBRED LINE DEVELOPMENT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theoretical comparisons for QTL mapping properties were conducted between bulk-based recombinant inbred (RI) populations and single seed descent (SSD) RI populations by Monte Carlo simulations based on various population sizes, heritabilities, and QTL effects. The comparisons included estimatio...

  11. Mapping quantitative trait loci with dominant and missing markers in various crosses from two inbred lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Changjian Jiang; Zhao-Bang Zeng

    1997-01-01

    Dominant phenotype of a genetic marker provides incomplete information about the marker genotype of an individual. A consequence of using this incomplete information for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) is that the inference of the genotype of a putative QTL flanked by a marker with dominant phenotype will depend on the genotype or phenotype of the next marker. This dependence

  12. A simple regression method for mapping quantitative trait loci in line crosses using flanking markers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. HALEY; S. A. KNOTI

    1992-01-01

    The use of flanking marker methods has proved to be a powerful tool for the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the segregating generations derived from crosses between inbred lines. Methods to analyse these data, based on maximum-likelihood, have been developed and provide good estimates of QTL effects in some situations. Maximum-likelihood methods are, however, relatively complex and can

  13. High-resolution mapping of quantitative trait loci for sternopleural bristle number in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Gurganus, M C; Nuzhdin, S V; Leips, J W; Mackay, T F

    1999-01-01

    We have mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) harboring naturally occurring allelic variation for Drosophila bristle number. Lines with high (H) and low (L) sternopleural bristle number were derived by artificial selection from a large base population. Isogenic H and L sublines were extracted from the selection lines, and populations of X and third chromosome H/L recombinant isogenic lines were constructed in the homozygous low line background. The polymorphic cytological locations of roo transposable elements provided a dense molecular marker map with an average intermarker distance of 4.5 cM. Two X chromosome and six chromosome 3 QTL affecting response to selection for sternopleural bristle number and three X chromosome and three chromosome 3 QTL affecting correlated response in abdominal bristle number were detected using a composite interval mapping method. The average effects of bristle number QTL were moderately large, and some had sex-specific effects. Epistasis between QTL affecting sternopleural bristle number was common, and interaction effects were large. Many of the intervals containing bristle number QTL coincided with those mapped in previous studies. However, resolution of bristle number QTL to the level of genetic loci is not trivial, because the genomic regions containing bristle number QTL often did not contain obvious candidate loci, and results of quantitative complementation tests to mutations at candidate loci affecting adult bristle number were ambiguous. PMID:10430585

  14. Fine Mapping of Murine Antibody Responses to Immunization with a Novel Soluble Form of Hepatitis C Virus Envelope Glycoprotein Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Giang, Erick; Nieusma, Travis

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope glycoprotein E1E2 complex is a candidate vaccine antigen. Previous immunization studies of E1E2 have yielded various results on its ability to induce virus-neutralizing antibodies in animal models and humans. The murine model has become a vital tool for HCV research owing to the development of humanized mice susceptible to HCV infection. In this study, we investigated the antibody responses of mice immunized with E1E2 and a novel soluble form of E1E2 (sE1E2) by a DNA prime and protein boost strategy. The results showed that sE1E2 elicited higher antibody titers and a greater breadth of reactivity than the wild-type cell-associated E1E2. However, immune sera elicited by either immunogen were only weakly neutralizing. In order to understand the contrasting results of binding and serum neutralizing activities, epitopes targeted by the polyclonal antibody responses were mapped and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were generated. The results showed that the majority of serum antibodies were directed to the E1 region 211 to 250 and the E2 regions 421 to 469, 512 to 539, 568 to 609, and 638 to 651, instead of the well-known immunodominant E2 hypervariable region 1 (HVR1). Unexpectedly, in MAb analysis, ?12% of MAbs isolated were specific to the conserved E2 antigenic site 412 to 423, and 85% of them cross-neutralized multiple HCV isolates. The epitopes recognized by these MAbs are similar but distinct from the previously reported HCV1 and AP33 broadly neutralizing epitopes. In conclusion, E1E2 can prime B cells specific to conserved neutralizing epitopes, but the levels of serum neutralizing antibodies elicited are insufficient for effective virus neutralization. The sE1E2 constructs described in this study can be a useful template for rational antigen engineering. IMPORTANCE Hepatitis C virus infects 2 to 3% of the world's population and is a leading cause of liver failures and the need for liver transplantation. The virus envelope glycoprotein complex E1E2 produced by detergent extraction of cells overexpressing the protein was evaluated in a phase I clinical trial but failed to induce neutralizing antibodies in most subjects. In this study, we designed a novel form of E1E2 which is secreted from cells and is soluble and compared it to wild-type E1E2 by DNA immunization of mice. The results showed that this new E1E2 is more immunogenic than wild-type E1E2. Detailed mapping of the antibody responses revealed that antibodies to the conserved E2 antigenic site 412 to 423 were elicited but the serum concentrations were too low to neutralize the virus effectively. This soluble E1E2 provides a new reagent for studying HCV and for rational vaccine design. PMID:24965471

  15. Fine mapping of the tomato yellow leaf curl virus resistance gene Ty-2 on chromosome 11 of tomato.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaohui; Caro, Myluska; Hutton, Samuel F; Scott, John W; Guo, Yanmei; Wang, Xiaoxuan; Rashid, Md Harunur; Szinay, Dora; de Jong, Hans; Visser, Richard G F; Bai, Yuling; Du, Yongchen

    2014-01-01

    Resistances to begomoviruses, including bipartite tomato mottle virus and monopartite tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), have been introgressed to cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) from wild tomato accessions. A major gene, Ty-2 from S. habrochaites f. glabratum accession "B6013," that confers resistance to TYLCV was previously mapped to a 19-cM region on the long arm of chromosome 11. In the present study, approximately 11,000 plants were screened and nearly 157 recombination events were identified between the flanking markers C2_At1g07960 (82.5 cM, physical distance 51.387 Mb) and T0302 (89 cM, 51.878 Mb). Molecular marker analysis of recombinants and TYLCV evaluation of progeny from these recombinants localized Ty-2 to an approximately 300,000-bp interval between markers UP8 (51.344 Mb) and M1 (51.645 Mb). No recombinants were identified between TG36 and C2_At3g52090, a region of at least 115 kb, indicating severe recombination suppression in this region. Due to the small interval, fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis failed to clarify whether recombination suppression is caused by chromosomal rearrangements. Candidate genes predicted based on tomato genome annotation were analyzed by RT-PCR and virus-induced gene silencing. Results indicate that the NBS gene family present in the Ty-2 region is likely not responsible for the Ty-2-conferred resistance and that two candidate genes might play a role in the Ty-2-conferred resistance. Several markers very tightly linked to the Ty-2 locus are presented and useful for marker-assisted selection in breeding programs to introgress Ty-2 for begomovirus resistance. PMID:25076841

  16. Multistudy Fine Mapping of Chromosome 2q Identifies XRCC5 as a Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Susceptibility Gene

    PubMed Central

    Hersh, Craig P.; Pillai, Sreekumar G.; Zhu, Guohua; Lomas, David A.; Bakke, Per; Gulsvik, Amund; DeMeo, Dawn L.; Klanderman, Barbara J.; Lazarus, Ross; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Sparrow, David; Reilly, John J.; Agusti, Alvar; Calverley, Peter M. A.; Donner, Claudio F.; Levy, Robert D.; Make, Barry J.; Paré, Peter D.; Rennard, Stephen I.; Vestbo, Jørgen; Wouters, Emiel F. M.; Scholand, Mary Beth; Coon, Hilary; Hoidal, John; Silverman, Edwin K.

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Several family-based studies have identified genetic linkage for lung function and airflow obstruction to chromosome 2q. Objectives: We hypothesized that merging results of high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping in four separate populations would lead to the identification of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) susceptibility genes on chromosome 2q. Methods: Within the chromosome 2q linkage region, 2,843 SNPs were genotyped in 806 COPD cases and 779 control subjects from Norway, and 2,484 SNPs were genotyped in 309 patients with severe COPD from the National Emphysema Treatment Trial and 330 community control subjects. Significant associations from the combined results across the two case-control studies were followed up in 1,839 individuals from 603 families from the International COPD Genetics Network (ICGN) and in 949 individuals from 127 families in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study. Measurements and Main Results: Merging the results of the two case-control analyses, 14 of the 790 overlapping SNPs had a combined P < 0.01. Two of these 14 SNPs were consistently associated with COPD in the ICGN families. The association with one SNP, located in the gene XRCC5, was replicated in the Boston Early-Onset COPD Study, with a combined P = 2.51 × 10?5 across the four studies, which remains significant when adjusted for multiple testing (P = 0.02). Genotype imputation confirmed the association with SNPs in XRCC5. Conclusions: By combining data from COPD genetic association studies conducted in four independent patient samples, we have identified XRCC5, an ATP-dependent DNA helicase, as a potential COPD susceptibility gene. PMID:20463177

  17. Fine mapping of ZNF804A and genome-wide significant evidence for its involvement in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, H J; Norton, N; Dwyer, S; Moskvina, V; Nikolov, I; Carroll, L; Georgieva, L; Williams, N M; Morris, D W; Quinn, E M; Giegling, I; Ikeda, M; Wood, J; Lencz, T; Hultman, C; Lichtenstein, P; Thiselton, D; Maher, B S; Malhotra, A K; Riley, B; Kendler, K S; Gill, M; Sullivan, P; Sklar, P; Purcell, S; Nimgaonkar, V L; Kirov, G; Holmans, P; Corvin, A; Rujescu, D; Craddock, N; Owen, M J; O'Donovan, M C

    2011-04-01

    A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) reported evidence for association between rs1344706 within ZNF804A (encoding zinc-finger protein 804A) and schizophrenia (P=1.61 × 10(-7)), and stronger evidence when the phenotype was broadened to include bipolar disorder (P=9.96 × 10(-9)). In this study we provide additional evidence for association through meta-analysis of a larger data set (schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder N=18?945, schizophrenia plus bipolar disorder N=21?274 and controls N=38?675). We also sought to better localize the association signal using a combination of de novo polymorphism discovery in exons, pooled de novo polymorphism discovery spanning the genomic sequence of the locus and high-density linkage disequilibrium (LD) mapping. The meta-analysis provided evidence for association between rs1344706 that surpasses widely accepted benchmarks of significance by several orders of magnitude for both schizophrenia (P=2.5 × 10(-11), odds ratio (OR) 1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14) and schizophrenia and bipolar disorder combined (P=4.1 × 10(-13), OR 1.11, 95% confidence interval 1.07-1.14). After de novo polymorphism discovery and detailed association analysis, rs1344706 remained the most strongly associated marker in the gene. The allelic association at the ZNF804A locus is now one of the most compelling in schizophrenia to date, and supports the accumulating data suggesting overlapping genetic risk between schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. PMID:20368704

  18. Reverse engineering the antigenic architecture of the haemagglutinin from influenza H5N1 clade 1 and 2.2 viruses with fine epitope mapping using monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rockman, Steve; Camuglia, Sarina; Vandenberg, Kirsten; Ong, Chi; Baker, Mark A; Nation, Roger L; Li, Jian; Velkov, Tony

    2013-04-01

    The induction of neutralising antibodies to the viral surface glycoprotein, haemagglutinin (HA) is considered the cornerstone of current seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines. Mapping of neutralising epitopes using monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) helps define mechanisms of antigenic drift, neutralising escape and facilitates pre-pandemic vaccine design. In the present study we reverse engineered the antigenic structure of the HAs of two highly pathogenic H5N1 vaccine strains representative of currently circulating clade 1 and 2.2 H5N1 viruses. The HA sequence of the A/Vietnam/1194/04 clade 1 virus was progressively mutated into the HA sequence of the clade 2.2 virus, A/Bar-headed Goose/Qinghai/1A/05. Fine mapping of clade-specific neutralising epitopes was performed by examining the cross-reactivity of mAbs raised against the native HA of each parent virus. The reactivity across all clade specific mAbs centred around a constellation of mutations at positions 140, 145, 171 and 172, all of which are proximal to the receptor binding site on the membrane distal globular head of the HA. Overlapping cross-reactivity of these antigenic sites suggests that these amino acid positions relate to the antigenic evolution of the H5 clade 1 and 2.2 viruses. This finding may prove useful for the design of vaccines with broader neutralising cross-reactivity against the different H5 HA sublineages currently in circulation. These findings provide important information about the amino acid changes involved in the cross-clade evolution of H5N1 viruses and their potential for human to human transmission; and facilitates a greater understanding of the pandemic potential of H5N1 isolates. PMID:23127859

  19. A genetic linkage map for the saltwater crocodile (Crocodylus porosus)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lee G Miles; Sally R Isberg; Travis C Glenn; Stacey L Lance; Pauline Dalzell; Peter C Thomson; Chris Moran

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Genome elucidation is now in high gear for many organisms, and whilst genetic maps have been developed for a broad array of species, surprisingly, no such maps exist for a crocodilian, or indeed any other non-avian member of the Class Reptilia. Genetic linkage maps are essential tools for the mapping and dissection of complex quantitative trait loci (QTL), and

  20. QTL for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in Brassica napus L. collocate with the two erucic acid genes.

    PubMed

    Amar, Samija; Ecke, Wolfgang; Becker, Heiko C; Möllers, Christian

    2008-05-01

    Improving oil and protein quality for food and feed purposes is an important goal in rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) breeding programs. Rapeseed contains phytosterols, used to enrich food products, and sinapate esters, which are limiting the utilization of rapeseed proteins in the feed industry. Increasing the phytosterol content of oil and lowering sinapate ester content of meal could increase the value of the oilseed rape crop. The objective of the present study was to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for phytosterol and sinapate ester content in a winter rapeseed population of 148 doubled haploid lines, previously found to have a large variation for these two traits. This population also segregated for the two erucic acid genes. A close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and phytosterol content (Spearman's rank correlation, r(s) = -0.80**). For total phytosterol content, three QTL were detected, explaining 60% of the genetic variance. The two QTL with the strongest additive effects were mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. For sinapate ester content four QTL were detected, explaining 53% of the genetic variance. Again, a close negative correlation was found between erucic acid and sinapate ester content (r(s) = -0.66**) and the QTL with the strongest additive effects mapped on linkage groups N8 and N13 within the confidence intervals of the two erucic acid genes. The results suggests, that there is a pleiotropic effect of the two erucic acid genes on phytosterol and sinapate ester content; the effect of the alleles for low erucic acid content is to increase phytosterol and sinapate ester content. Possible reasons for this are discussed based on known biosynthetic pathways. PMID:18335203

  1. Differences in DBA/1J and DBA/2J reveal lipid QTL genes*s?

    PubMed Central

    Stylianou, Ioannis M.; Langley, Sarah R.; Walsh, Kenneth; Chen, Yuan; Revenu, Céline; Paigen, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in mouse genomics have revealed considerable variation in the form of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among common inbred strains. This has made it possible to characterize closely related strains and to identify genes that differ; such genes may be causal for quantitative phenotypes. The mouse strains DBA/1J and DBA/2J differ by just 5.6% at the SNP level. These strains exhibit differences in a number of metabolic and lipid phenotypes, such as plasma levels of triglycerides (TGs) and HDL. A cross between these strains revealed multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in 294 progeny. We identified significant TG QTLs on chromosomes (Chrs) 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 16, and 19, and significant HDL QTLs on Chrs 3, 9, and 16. Some QTLs mapped to chromosomes with limited variability between the two strains, thus facilitating the identification of candidate genes. We suggest that Tshr is the QTL gene for Chr 12 TG and HDL levels and that Ihh may account for the TG QTL on Chr 1. This cross highlights the advantage of crossing closely related strains for subsequent identification of QTL genes. PMID:18503028

  2. Accurate and Fast Multiple-Testing Correction in eQTL Studies.

    PubMed

    Sul, Jae Hoon; Raj, Towfique; de Jong, Simone; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Ophoff, Roel A; Stranger, Barbara E; Eskin, Eleazar; Han, Buhm

    2015-06-01

    In studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), it is of increasing interest to identify eGenes, the genes whose expression levels are associated with variation at a particular genetic variant. Detecting eGenes is important for follow-up analyses and prioritization because genes are the main entities in biological processes. To detect eGenes, one typically focuses on the genetic variant with the minimum p value among all variants in cis with a gene and corrects for multiple testing to obtain a gene-level p value. For performing multiple-testing correction, a permutation test is widely used. Because of growing sample sizes of eQTL studies, however, the permutation test has become a computational bottleneck in eQTL studies. In this paper, we propose an efficient approach for correcting for multiple testing and assess eGene p values by utilizing a multivariate normal distribution. Our approach properly takes into account the linkage-disequilibrium structure among variants, and its time complexity is independent of sample size. By applying our small-sample correction techniques, our method achieves high accuracy in both small and large studies. We have shown that our method consistently produces extremely accurate p values (accuracy > 98%) for three human eQTL datasets with different sample sizes and SNP densities: the Genotype-Tissue Expression pilot dataset, the multi-region brain dataset, and the HapMap 3 dataset. PMID:26027500

  3. Combining linkage and association mapping identifies RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 as an essential Arabidopsis shoot regeneration gene

    PubMed Central

    Motte, Hans; Vercauteren, Annelies; Depuydt, Stephen; Landschoot, Sofie; Geelen, Danny; Werbrouck, Stefaan; Goormachtig, Sofie; Vuylsteke, Marnik; Vereecke, Danny

    2014-01-01

    De novo shoot organogenesis (i.e., the regeneration of shoots on nonmeristematic tissue) is widely applied in plant biotechnology. However, the capacity to regenerate shoots varies highly among plant species and cultivars, and the factors underlying it are still poorly understood. Here, we evaluated the shoot regeneration capacity of 88 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions and found that the process is blocked at different stages in different accessions. We show that the variation in regeneration capacity between the Arabidopsis accessions Nok-3 and Ga-0 is determined by five quantitative trait loci (QTL): REG-1 to REG-5. Fine mapping by local association analysis identified RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN KINASE1 (RPK1), an abscisic acid-related receptor, as the most likely gene underlying REG-1, which was confirmed by quantitative failure of an RPK1 mutation to complement the high and low REG-1 QTL alleles. The importance of RPK1 in regeneration was further corroborated by mutant and expression analysis. Altogether, our results show that association mapping combined with linkage mapping is a powerful method to discover important genes implicated in a biological process as complex as shoot regeneration. PMID:24850864

  4. Fine-Mapping the HOXB Region Detects Common Variants Tagging a Rare Coding Allele: Evidence for Synthetic Association in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Edward J.; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A.; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Wiklund, Fredrik; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Xu, Jianfeng; Mikropoulos, Christos; Goh, Chee; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A.; Sawyer, Emma J.; Morgan, Angela; Easton, Douglas F.; Muir, Ken; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2014-01-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P?=?2.62×10?14). Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility. PMID:24550738

  5. Fine-mapping the HOXB region detects common variants tagging a rare coding allele: evidence for synthetic association in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Edward J; Dadaev, Tokhir; Leongamornlert, Daniel A; Jugurnauth-Little, Sarah; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Wiklund, Fredrik; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Benlloch, Sara; Neal, David E; Hamdy, Freddie C; Donovan, Jenny L; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Gronberg, Henrik; Aly, Markus; Haiman, Christopher A; Schumacher, Fredrick; Henderson, Brian E; Lindstrom, Sara; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Gapstur, Susan; Chanock, Stephen; Berndt, Sonja I; Albanes, Demetrius; Andriole, Gerald; Schleutker, Johanna; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Canzian, Federico; Campa, Daniele; Riboli, Elio; Key, Tim J; Travis, Ruth C; Ingles, Sue A; John, Esther M; Hayes, Richard B; Pharoah, Paul; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Stanford, Janet L; Ostrander, Elaine A; Signorello, Lisa B; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Schaid, Daniel; Maier, Christiane; Kibel, Adam S; Cybulski, Cezary; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Brenner, Hermann; Park, Jong Y; Kaneva, Radka; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith A; Teixeira, Manuel R; Xu, Jianfeng; Mikropoulos, Christos; Goh, Chee; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Wilkinson, Rosemary A; Sawyer, Emma J; Morgan, Angela; Easton, Douglas F; Muir, Ken; Eeles, Rosalind A; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia

    2014-02-01

    The HOXB13 gene has been implicated in prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility. We performed a high resolution fine-mapping analysis to comprehensively evaluate the association between common genetic variation across the HOXB genetic locus at 17q21 and PrCa risk. This involved genotyping 700 SNPs using a custom Illumina iSelect array (iCOGS) followed by imputation of 3195 SNPs in 20,440 PrCa cases and 21,469 controls in The PRACTICAL consortium. We identified a cluster of highly correlated common variants situated within or closely upstream of HOXB13 that were significantly associated with PrCa risk, described by rs117576373 (OR 1.30, P?=?2.62×10(-14)). Additional genotyping, conditional regression and haplotype analyses indicated that the newly identified common variants tag a rare, partially correlated coding variant in the HOXB13 gene (G84E, rs138213197), which has been identified recently as a moderate penetrance PrCa susceptibility allele. The potential for GWAS associations detected through common SNPs to be driven by rare causal variants with higher relative risks has long been proposed; however, to our knowledge this is the first experimental evidence for this phenomenon of synthetic association contributing to cancer susceptibility. PMID:24550738

  6. High-density fine-mapping of a chromosome 10q26 linkage peak suggests association between endometriosis and variants close to CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Jodie N.; Nyholt, Dale R.; Morris, Andrew; Zhao, Zhen Z.; Henders, Anjali K.; Lambert, Ann; Wallace, Leanne; Martin, Nicholas G.; Kennedy, Stephen H.; Treloar, Susan A.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Montgomery, Grant W.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To refine a previously reported linkage peak for endometriosis on chromosome 10q26, and conduct follow-up analyses and a fine-mapping association study across the region to identify new candidate genes for endometriosis. Design Case-control study. Setting Academic research. Subject(s) Cases = 3,223 women with surgically confirmed endometriosis; Controls = 1,190 women without endometriosis and 7,060 population samples. Intervention(s) Analysis of 11,984 SNPs on chromosome 10. Main outcome measure(s) Allele frequency differences between cases and controls. Results Linkage analyses on families grouped by endometriosis symptoms (primarily subfertility) provided increased evidence for linkage (logarithm of odds (LOD) score = 3.62) near a previously reported linkage peak. Three independent association signals were found at 96.59 Mb (rs11592737, P=4.9 × 10?4), 105.63 Mb (rs1253130, P=2.5 × 10?4) and 124.25 Mb (rs2250804, P=9.7 × 10?4). Analyses including only samples from linkage families supported the association at all three regions. However, only rs11592737 in the cytochrome P450 subfamily C (CYP2C19) gene was replicated in an independent sample of 2,079 cases and 7060 population controls. Conclusion(s) The role of the CYP2C19 gene in conferring risk for endometriosis warrants further investigation. PMID:21497341

  7. High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jun; Li, Lei-Ting; Li, Meng; Khan, M. Awais; Li, Xiu-Gen; Chen, Hui; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps. PMID:25129128

  8. High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun; Li, Lei-Ting; Li, Meng; Khan, M Awais; Li, Xiu-Gen; Chen, Hui; Yin, Hao; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2014-11-01

    Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps. PMID:25129128

  9. QTL analysis on rice grain appearance quality, as exemplifying the typical events of transgenic or backcrossing breeding

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Bao; Liu, Rongjia; Li, Yibo; Wang, Yan; Gao, Guanjun; Zhang, Qinglu; Liu, Xing; Jiang, Gonghao; He, Yuqing

    2014-01-01

    Rice grain shape and yield are usually controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTL). This study used a set of F9–10 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross of Huahui 3 (Bt/Xa21) and Zhongguoxiangdao, and detected 27 QTLs on ten rice chromosomes. Among them, twelve QTLs responsive for grain shape/ or yield were mostly reproducibly detected and had not yet been reported before. Interestingly, the two known genes involved in the materials, with one insect-resistant Bt gene, and the other disease-resistant Xa21 gene, were found to closely link the QTLs responsive for grain shape and weight. The Bt fragment insertion was firstly mapped on the chromosome 10 in Huahui 3 and may disrupt grain-related QTLs resulting in weaker yield performance in transgenic plants. The introgression of Xa21 gene by backcrossing from donor material into receptor Minghui 63 may also contain a donor linkage drag which included minor-effect QTL alleles positively affecting grain shape and yield. The QTL analysis on rice grain appearance quality exemplified the typical events of transgenic or backcrossing breeding. The QTL findings in this study will in the future facilitate the gene isolation and breeding application for improvement of rice grain shape and yield. PMID:25320558

  10. Sequencing of a QTL-rich region of the Theobroma cacao genome using pooled BACs and the identification of trait specific candidate genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: BAC-based physical maps provide for sequencing across an entire genome or selected sub-genome regions of biological interest. Using the minimum tiling path as a guide, it is possible to select specific BAC clones from prioritized genome sections such as a genetically defined QTL interv...

  11. Major QTL for Carrot Color are Associated with Carotenoid Biosynthetic Genes and Interact Epistatically in a Domesticated x Wild Carrot Cross

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wild carrot roots are white and do not accumulate pigments while the cultivated carrot is one of the richest sources of carotenoid pigments – mainly provitamin A alpha and beta carotenes. In this study we performed QTL analyses for pigment content on a carotenoid biosynthesis function map based on t...

  12. Identification of a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for high-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei in ‘Bancroft’ barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bancroft barley has durable high-temperature, adult-plant (HTAP) resistance to stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei. To characterize and map quantitative trait loci (QTL) for the HTAP resistance, Bancroft was crossed with the susceptible barley Harrington. The parents and F4 lin...

  13. A consensus map of QTLs controlling the root length of maize

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Hund; Regina Reimer; Rainer Messmer

    2011-01-01

    Traits related to the root length of maize (Zea mays L.), reported by 15 QTL studies of nine mapping populations, were subjected to a QTL meta-analysis. Traits were grouped according\\u000a to ontology, and we propose a system of abbreviations to unambiguously identify the different root types and branching orders.\\u000a The nine maps were merged into a consensus map, and the

  14. New candidate genes for the fine regulation of the colour of grapes.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Laura; Malacarne, Giulia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Troggio, Michela; Mattivi, Fulvio; Moser, Claudio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2015-08-01

    In the last decade, great progress has been made in clarifying the main determinants of anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin. However, the molecular details of the fine variation among cultivars, which ultimately contributes to wine typicity, are still not completely understood. To shed light on this issue, the grapes of 170 F1 progeny from the cross 'Syrah'×'Pinot Noir' were characterized at the mature stage for the content of 15 anthocyanins during four growing seasons. This huge data set was used in combination with a dense genetic map to detect genomic regions controlling the anthocyanin pathway both at key enzymatic points and at particular branches. Genes putatively involved in fine tuning the global regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified by exploring the gene predictions in the QTL (quantitative trait locus) confidence intervals and their expression profile during berry development in offspring with contrasting anthocyanin accumulation. New information on some aspects which had scarcely been investigated so far, such as anthocyanin transport into the vacuole, or completely neglected, such as acylation, is provided. These genes represent a valuable resource in grapevine molecular-based breeding programmes to improve both fruit and wine quality and to tailor wine sensory properties according to consumer demand. PMID:26071528

  15. New candidate genes for the fine regulation of the colour of grapes

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Laura; Malacarne, Giulia; Lorenzi, Silvia; Troggio, Michela; Mattivi, Fulvio; Moser, Claudio; Grando, Maria Stella

    2015-01-01

    In the last decade, great progress has been made in clarifying the main determinants of anthocyanin accumulation in grape berry skin. However, the molecular details of the fine variation among cultivars, which ultimately contributes to wine typicity, are still not completely understood. To shed light on this issue, the grapes of 170 F1 progeny from the cross ‘Syrah’×’Pinot Noir’ were characterized at the mature stage for the content of 15 anthocyanins during four growing seasons. This huge data set was used in combination with a dense genetic map to detect genomic regions controlling the anthocyanin pathway both at key enzymatic points and at particular branches. Genes putatively involved in fine tuning the global regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis were identified by exploring the gene predictions in the QTL (quantitative trait locus) confidence intervals and their expression profile during berry development in offspring with contrasting anthocyanin accumulation. New information on some aspects which had scarcely been investigated so far, such as anthocyanin transport into the vacuole, or completely neglected, such as acylation, is provided. These genes represent a valuable resource in grapevine molecular-based breeding programmes to improve both fruit and wine quality and to tailor wine sensory properties according to consumer demand. PMID:26071528

  16. Genotypic effects of the Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) on meat quality in purebred Texel lambs.

    PubMed

    Lambe, N R; Richardson, R I; Macfarlane, J M; Nevison, I; Haresign, W; Matika, O; Bünger, L

    2011-10-01

    Texel Muscling QTL (TM-QTL) increases loin muscling in lambs inheriting it from their sire only. This study investigated TM-QTL effects on meat quality in 209 Texel lambs that were CT-scanned then slaughtered at 20weeks (carcasses aged for ~1week). Loin meat quality traits included: CT-measured muscle density (predicting intramuscular fat); mechanical tenderness using Volodkevich-type jaws or MIRINZ tenderometer; intramuscular fat; sensory eating quality (sub-sample of 40 lambs). Volodkevich tenderness was also measured in the leg (Vastis lateralis). TM-QTL genotypes were determined, giving 40 non-carriers (+/+), 70 heterozygotes-53 inheriting TM-QTL from the sire (TM/+) and 17 from the dam (+/TM), 34 homozygote TM-QTL lambs (TM/TM) and 65 uncertain. Multiple regression identified no genotype effects on meat quality. For MIRINZ-measured loin tenderness only, contrasts revealed a significant additive effect of TM-QTL (1.27kgF difference between homozygotes). However, the taste panel identified no significant differences between +/+ and TM/TM lambs. Results show little evidence of TM-QTL affecting meat quality. PMID:21592676

  17. Large-Scale SNP Discovery and Genotyping for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Tea Plant Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq)

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chun-Lei; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Chun-Fang; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic maps are important tools in plant genomics and breeding. The present study reports the large-scale discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction in tea plant. We developed a total of 6,042 valid SNP markers using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and subsequently mapped them into the previous framework map. The final map contained 6,448 molecular markers, distributing on fifteen linkage groups corresponding to the number of tea plant chromosomes. The total map length was 3,965 cM, with an average inter-locus distance of 1.0 cM. This map is the first SNP-based reference map of tea plant, as well as the most saturated one developed to date. The SNP markers and map resources generated in this study provide a wealth of genetic information that can serve as a foundation for downstream genetic analyses, such as the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), map-based cloning, marker-assisted selection, and anchoring of scaffolds to facilitate the process of whole genome sequencing projects for tea plant. PMID:26035838

  18. Large-Scale SNP Discovery and Genotyping for Constructing a High-Density Genetic Map of Tea Plant Using Specific-Locus Amplified Fragment Sequencing (SLAF-seq).

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian-Qiang; Huang, Long; Ma, Chun-Lei; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Li, Chun-Fang; Wang, Rong-Kai; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic maps are important tools in plant genomics and breeding. The present study reports the large-scale discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for genetic map construction in tea plant. We developed a total of 6,042 valid SNP markers using specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-seq), and subsequently mapped them into the previous framework map. The final map contained 6,448 molecular markers, distributing on fifteen linkage groups corresponding to the number of tea plant chromosomes. The total map length was 3,965 cM, with an average inter-locus distance of 1.0 cM. This map is the first SNP-based reference map of tea plant, as well as the most saturated one developed to date. The SNP markers and map resources generated in this study provide a wealth of genetic information that can serve as a foundation for downstream genetic analyses, such as the fine mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL), map-based cloning, marker-assisted selection, and anchoring of scaffolds to facilitate the process of whole genome sequencing projects for tea plant. PMID:26035838

  19. Trans-Ethnic Fine-Mapping of Lipid Loci Identifies Population-Specific Signals and Allelic Heterogeneity That Increases the Trait Variance Explained

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying; Waite, Lindsay L.; Jackson, Anne U.; Sheu, Wayne H-H.; Buyske, Steven; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Carty, Cara L.; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C.; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B.; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Henderson, Brian E.; Hindorff, Lucia A.; Kim, Eric; Kinnunen, Leena; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lee, Wen-Jane; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir; Mitchell, Sabrina L.; Narisu, Narisu; Robinson, Jennifer G.; Schumacher, Fred; Stan?áková, Alena; Sundvall, Jouko; Sung, Yun-Ju; Swift, Amy J.; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wilkens, Lynne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Young, Alicia M.; Adair, Linda S.; Ballantyne, Christie M.; B?žková, Petra; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Francis S.; Duggan, David; Feranil, Alan B.; Ho, Low-Tone; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Juang, Jyh-Ming J.; Kesäniemi, Antero Y.; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lee, I-Te; Leppert, Mark F.; Matise, Tara C.; Moilanen, Leena; Njølstad, Inger; Peters, Ulrike; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rotter, Jerome I.; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Mohlke, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ?100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n?=?6,832), East Asian (n?=?9,449), and European (n?=?10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1×10?4 in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies. PMID:23555291

  20. Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Waite, Lindsay L; Jackson, Anne U; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Buyske, Steven; Absher, Devin; Arnett, Donna K; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Carty, Cara L; Cheng, Iona; Cochran, Barbara; Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Dumitrescu, Logan; Eaton, Charles B; Franceschini, Nora; Guo, Xiuqing; Henderson, Brian E; Hindorff, Lucia A; Kim, Eric; Kinnunen, Leena; Komulainen, Pirjo; Lee, Wen-Jane; Le Marchand, Loic; Lin, Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Lingaas-Holmen, Oddgeir; Mitchell, Sabrina L; Narisu, Narisu; Robinson, Jennifer G; Schumacher, Fred; Stan?áková, Alena; Sundvall, Jouko; Sung, Yun-Ju; Swift, Amy J; Wang, Wen-Chang; Wilkens, Lynne; Wilsgaard, Tom; Young, Alicia M; Adair, Linda S; Ballantyne, Christie M; B?žková, Petra; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Collins, Francis S; Duggan, David; Feranil, Alan B; Ho, Low-Tone; Hung, Yi-Jen; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Juang, Jyh-Ming J; Kesäniemi, Antero Y; Kuusisto, Johanna; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lee, I-Te; Leppert, Mark F; Matise, Tara C; Moilanen, Leena; Njølstad, Inger; Peters, Ulrike; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Rotter, Jerome I; Saramies, Jouko; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Wang, Tzung-Dau; Boehnke, Michael; Haiman, Christopher A; Chen, Yii-Der I; Kooperberg, Charles; Assimes, Themistocles L; Crawford, Dana C; Hsiung, Chao A; North, Kari E; Mohlke, Karen L

    2013-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4) in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies. PMID:23555291

  1. Maps

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Griffith

    This collection presents maps of blast and fire damage to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, and the radioactive fallout levels from the Trinity and BRAVO tests. The collection also includes maps of Manhattan Project Era Sites (Hanford, Washington, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Los Alamos, New Mexico).

  2. R/qtlcharts: Interactive Graphics for Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Broman, Karl W.

    2015-01-01

    Every data visualization can be improved with some level of interactivity. Interactive graphics hold particular promise for the exploration of high-dimensional data. R/qtlcharts is an R package to create interactive graphics for experiments to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) (genetic loci that influence quantitative traits). R/qtlcharts serves as a companion to the R/qtl package, providing interactive versions of R/qtl’s static graphs, as well as additional interactive graphs for the exploration of high-dimensional genotype and phenotype data. PMID:25527287

  3. Barbarea vulgaris linkage map and quantitative trait loci for saponins, glucosinolates, hairiness and resistance to the herbivore Phyllotreta nemorum.

    PubMed

    Kuzina, Vera; Nielsen, Jens Kvist; Augustin, Jörg Manfred; Torp, Anna Maria; Bak, Søren; Andersen, Sven Bode

    2011-02-01

    Combined genomics and metabolomics approaches were used to unravel molecular mechanisms behind interactions between winter cress (Barbarea vulgaris) and flea beetle (Phyllotreta nemorum). B. vulgaris comprises two morphologically, biochemically and cytologically deviating types, which differ in flea beetle resistance, saponin and glucosinolate profiles, as well as leaf pubescence. An F2 population generated from a cross between the two B. vulgaris types was used to construct a B. vulgaris genetic map based on 100 AFLP and 31 microsatellite markers. The map was divided into eight linkage groups. QTL (quantitative trait loci) analysis revealed a total of 15 QTL affecting eight traits, including nine QTL for four saponins, two QTL for two glucosinolates, two QTL for hairiness, and two QTL for flea beetle resistance. The two QTL for resistance towards flea beetles in B. vulgaris co-localized with QTL for the four saponins associated with resistance. Furthermore, global QTL analysis of B. vulgaris metabolites identified QTL for a number of flavonoid glycosides and additional saponins from both resistant and susceptible types. The transcriptome of the resistant B. vulgaris type was sequenced by pyrosequencing, and sequences containing microsatellites were identified. Microsatellite types in B. vulgaris were similar to Arabidopsis thaliana but different from Oryza sativa. Comparative analysis between B. vulgaris and A. thaliana revealed a remarkable degree of synteny between a large part of linkage groups 1 and 4 of B. vulgaris harboring the two QTL for flea beetle resistance and Arabidopsis chromosomes 3 and 1. Gene candidates that may underlie QTL for resistance and saponin biosynthesis are discussed. PMID:21130479

  4. Multiple trait analysis of genetic mapping for quantitative trait loci

    SciTech Connect

    Changjian Jiang [Jiangsu Agricultural College (China)]|[North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Zhao-Bang Zeng, [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    We present in this paper models and statistical methods for performing multiple trait analysis on mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) based on the composite interval mapping method. By taking into account the correlated structure of multiple traits, this joint analysis has several advantages, compared with separate analyses, for mapping QTL, including the expected improvement on the statistical power of the test for QTL and on the precision of parameter estimation. Also this joint analysis provides formal procedures to test a number of biologically interesting hypotheses concerning the nature of genetic correlations between different traits. Among the testing procedures considered are those for joint mapping, pleiotropy, QTL by environment interaction, and pleiotropy vs. close linkage. The test of pleiotropy (one pleiotropic QTL at a genome position) vs. close linkage (multiple nearby nonpleiotropic QTL) can have important implications for our understanding of the nature of genetic correlations between different traits in certain regions of a genome and also for practical applications in animal and plant breeding because one of the major goals in breeding is to break unfavorable linkage. Results of extensive simulation studies are presented to illustrate various properties of the analyses. 14 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. GENETIC ASSOCIATION MAPPING AND GENOME ORGANIZATION OF MAIZE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Association mapping, a high-resolution method for mapping QTL based on linkage disequilibrium, holds great promise for the dissection of complex genetic traits. Recent assembly and characterization of maize association mapping panels, development of improved statistical methods, and successful asso...

  6. Interval mapping of growth in divergent swine cross

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Albert Paszek; Patricia J. Wilkie; Gail H. Flickinger; Gary A. Rohrer; Leeson J. Alexander; Craig W. Beattie; Lawrence B. Schook

    1999-01-01

    .   A genomic scan of 18 swine autosomal chromosomes was constructed with 119 polymorphic microsatellite (ms) markers to identify\\u000a quantitative trait loci (QTL) for 11 growth traits in the University of Illinois Meishan ? Yorkshire Swine Resource Family.\\u000a A significant QTL effect was found for post-weaning average daily gain (ADG) between 5.5 and 56 kg of body weight that mapped

  7. The mQTL hotspot on linkage group 16 for phenolic compounds in apple fruits is probably the result of a leucoanthocyanidin reductase gene at that locus

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Our previous study on ripe apples from a progeny of a cross between the apple cultivars ‘Prima’ and ‘Fiesta’ showed a hotspot of mQTLs for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16, both in peel and in flesh tissues. In order to find the underlying gene(s) of this mQTL hotspot, we investigated the expression profiles of structural and putative transcription factor genes of the phenylpropanoid and flavonoid pathways during different stages of fruit development in progeny genotypes. Results Only the structural gene leucoanthocyanidin reductase (MdLAR1) showed a significant correlation between transcript abundance and content of metabolites that mapped on the mQTL hotspot. This gene is located on LG16 in the mQTL hotspot. Progeny that had inherited one or two copies of the dominant MdLAR1 alleles (Mm, MM) showed a 4.4- and 11.8-fold higher expression level of MdLAR1 respectively, compared to the progeny that had inherited the recessive alleles (mm). This higher expression was associated with a four-fold increase of procyanidin dimer II as one representative metabolite that mapped in the mQTL hotspot. Although expression level of several structural genes were correlated with expression of other structural genes and with some MYB and bHLH transcription factor genes, only expression of MdLAR1 was correlated with metabolites that mapped at the mQTL hotspot. MdLAR1 is the only candidate gene that can explain the mQTL for procyanidins and flavan-3-ols. However, mQTLs for other phenylpropanoids such as phenolic esters, dihydrochalcones and flavonols, that appear to map at the same locus, have so far not been considered to be dependent on LAR, as their biosynthesis does not involve LAR activity. An explanation for this phenomenon is discussed. Conclusions Transcript abundances and genomic positions indicate that the mQTL hotspot for phenolic compounds at the top of LG16 is controlled by the MdLAR1 gene. The dominant allele of the MdLAR1 gene, causing increased content of metabolites that are potentially health beneficial, could be used in marker assisted selection of current apple breeding programs and for cisgenesis. PMID:23121691

  8. Mapping and analysis of quantitative trait loci in Bos indicus x Bos Taurus cattle: chromosome 10 

    E-print Network

    Lutaaya, Emmanuel

    1996-01-01

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . QTL studies in livestock populations Polymorphism in livestock populations . QTL mapping. 5 7 16 20 21 28 30 32 33 34 36 37 38 41 TABLE OF CONTENTS continued Page MATERIALS AND METHODS . . 43 Experimental design DNA extraction... was intended to achieve the following specific objectives: 1) Score polymorphic dinucleotide repeat microsatellite markers in a Bos taurus x Bos indicus resource herd of reciprocal backcross and Fi half- and full-sib families, 2) Map these markers...

  9. A Bayesian nonparametric approach for mapping dynamic quantitative traits.

    PubMed

    Li, Zitong; Sillanpää, Mikko J

    2013-08-01

    In biology, many quantitative traits are dynamic in nature. They can often be described by some smooth functions or curves. A joint analysis of all the repeated measurements of the dynamic traits by functional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping methods has the benefits to (1) understand the genetic control of the whole dynamic process of the quantitative traits and (2) improve the statistical power to detect QTL. One crucial issue in functional QTL mapping is how to correctly describe the smoothness of trajectories of functional valued traits. We develop an efficient Bayesian nonparametric multiple-loci procedure for mapping dynamic traits. The method uses the Bayesian P-splines with (nonparametric) B-spline bases to specify the functional form of a QTL trajectory and a random walk prior to automatically determine its degree of smoothness. An efficient deterministic variational Bayes algorithm is used to implement both (1) the search of an optimal subset of QTL among large marker panels and (2) estimation of the genetic effects of the selected QTL changing over time. Our method can be fast even on some large-scale data sets. The advantages of our method are illustrated on both simulated and real data sets. PMID:23770698

  10. QTL Analysis in a Complex Autopolyploid: Genetic Control of Sugar Content in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Ming, Ray; Liu, Sin-Chieh; Moore, Paul H.; Irvine, James E.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2001-01-01

    QTL mapping in autopolyploids is complicated by the possibility of segregation for three or more alleles at a locus and by a lack of preferential pairing, however the subset of polymorphic alleles that show simplex segregation ratios can be used to locate QTLs. In autopolyploid Saccharum, 36 significant associations between variation in sugar content and unlinked loci detected by 31 different probes were found in two interspecific F1 populations. Most QTL alleles showed phenotypic effects consistent with the parental phenotypes, but occasional transgressive QTLs revealed opportunities to purge unfavorable alleles from cultivars or introgress valuable alleles from exotics. Several QTLs on homologous chromosomes appeared to correspond to one another–multiple doses of favorable ‘alleles’ at such chromosomal region(s) yielded diminishing returns–such negative epistasis may contribute to phenotypic buffering. Fewer sugar content QTLs were discovered from the highest-sugar genotype than from lower-sugar genotypes, perhaps suggesting that many favorable alleles have been fixed by prior selection, i.e. that the genes for which allelic variants (QTLs) persist in improved sugarcanes may be a biased subset of the population of genes controlling sugar content. Comparison of these data to mutations and QTLs previously mapped in maize hinted that seed and biomass crops may share a partly-overlapping basis for genetic variation in carbohydrate deposition. However, many QTLs do not correspond to known candidate genes, suggesting that other approaches will be necessary to isolate the genetic determinants of high sugar content of vegetative tissues. PMID:11731498

  11. Toward the Positional Cloning of qBlsr5a, a QTL Underlying Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak, Using Overlapping Sub-CSSLs in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jinliang; Guan, Huazhong; Lin, Degong; Li, Chunlan; Lan, Tao; Duan, Yuanlin; Mao, Damei; Wu, Weiren

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial leaf steak (BLS) is one of the most destructive diseases in rice. Studies have shown that BLS resistance in rice is quantitatively inherited, controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). A QTL with relatively large effect, qBlsr5a, was previously mapped in a region of ?380 kb on chromosome 5. To fine map qBlsr5a further, a set of overlapping sub-chromosome segment substitution lines (sub-CSSLs) were developed from a large secondary F2 population (containing more than 7000 plants), in which only the chromosomal region harboring qBlsr5a was segregated. By genotyping the sub-CSSLs with molecular markers covering the target region and phenotyping the sub-CSSLs with artificial inoculation, qBlsr5a was delimited to a 30.0-kb interval, in which only three genes were predicted. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the three putative genes did not show significant response to the infection of BLS pathogen in both resistant and susceptible parental lines. However, two nucleotide substitutions were found in the coding sequence of gene LOC_Os05g01710, which encodes the gamma chain of transcription initiation factor IIA (TFIIA?). The nucleotide substitutions resulted in a change of the 39th amino acid from valine (in the susceptible parent) to glutamic acid (in the resistant parent). Interestingly, the resistant parent allele of LOC_Os05g01710 is identical to xa5, a major gene resistant to bacterial leaf blight (another bacterial disease of rice). These results suggest that LOC_Os05g01710 is very possibly the candidate gene of qBlsr5a. PMID:24752581

  12. Qtl Analysis of Transgressive Segregation in an Interspecific Tomato Cross

    PubMed Central

    deVicente, M. C.; Tanksley, S. D.

    1993-01-01

    Two accessions, representing the species Lycopersicon esculentum (cultivated tomato) and Lycopersicon pennellii (a wild relative), were evaluated for 11 quantitative traits and found to be significantly different for 10 of the traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for eight of the traits in a large interspecific F(2) population. When restriction fragment length polymorphism markers were used as probes for the quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the traits, 74 significant QTL (LOD > 2) were detected. Thirty-six percent of those QTL had alleles with effects opposite to those predicted by the parental phenotypes. These QTL were directly related to the appearance of transgressive individuals in the F(2) for those traits which showed transgressive segregration. However, the same types of QTL (with allelic effects opposite to those predicted by the parents) were also observed for traits that did not display transgressive segregation in the F(2). One such trait was dry weight accumulation. When two overdominant QTL (detected in the F(2)) for this trait were backcrossed into the L. esculentum genetic background, transgressive individuals were recovered and their occurrence was associated with the two QTL demonstrating the potential for transgressive segregation for all characters and implicating overdominance as a second cause of transgressive segregation. Epistasis was not implicated in transgressive segregation in either the F(2) or backcross generations. Results from this research not only reveal the basis of wide-cross transgressive segregation, but demonstrate that molecular markers can be used to identify QTL (from wild species) responsible for transgressive phenotypes and to selectively transfer them into crop species. This strategy might be used to improve many traits of economic importance including those for which wild species appear phenotypically inferior to their cultivated counterparts. PMID:8100788

  13. Fine Travel

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    FineTravel Magazine, produced by Louis Bignami and Big-Ray Publications, is a webzine aimed "at the traveler, not the tourist." It contains first person account feature articles about interesting nooks and crannies of various travel destinations in the US and around the world. Updated weekly, it features a searchable and browsable archive of past FineTravel articles, as well as pointers to airline information, books and videos, and resorts. It is an informative and entertaining site for the Internaut interested in travel.

  14. Mapping of a Novel Semisterile Pollen QTL in Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo ZENG; Min LI; Zu-Yong YANG; Chen-Ju TAN; Hua-Lin DONG; Si-Bin YU

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the genetic basis of pollen sterility of indica–japonica hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.). From a set of chromosomal segment substitution lines that each contains a single or few of segments from the japonica variety Nipponbare in the genetic background of the indica variety Zhenshan 97B, IL37 was identified as a semisterility line.

  15. QTL MAPPING OF WINTER HARDINESS GENES IN LENTIL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lentil (Lens culinaris L.) germplasm with sufficient winter hardiness to survive most winters in cold northern areas is available; however, the use of that germplasm in breeding programs is hampered by variable winter conditions that make field evaluations needed for effective breeding and selection...

  16. QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in ryegrass

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Curley; S. C. Sim; S. Warnke; S. Leong; R. Barker; G. Jung

    2005-01-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS) is a serious fungal disease caused by Magnaporthe grisea, recently reported on perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), an important turfgrass and forage species. This fungus also causes rice blast and many other grass diseases. Rice blast is usually controlled by host resistance, but durability of resistance is a problem. Little GLS resistance has been reported in

  17. Analysis of 133 meioses places the genes for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome and fanconi anemia group C in a 2.6-cM interval and contributes to the fine map of 9q22.3

    SciTech Connect

    Farndon, P.A.; Hardy, C.; Kilpatrick, M.W. [Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgbaston (United Kingdom); and others

    1994-09-15

    Four disease genes (NBCCS, ESS1, XPAC, FACC) map to 9q22.3-q31. A fine map of this region was produced by linkage and haplotype analysis using 12 DNA markers. The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin) has an important role in congenital malformations and carcinogenesis. Phase-known recombinants in a study of 133 meioses place NBCCS between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S176. Haplotype analysis in a two-generation family suggests that NBCCS lies in a smaller interval of 2.6 cM centromeric to D9S287. These flanking markers will be useful clinically for gene tracking. Recombinants also map FACC (Fanconi anemia, group C) to the same region, between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S287. The recombination rate between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S53 in males is 8.3% and 13.2% in females, giving a sex-specific male:female ratio of 1:1.6 and a sex-averaged map distance of 10.4 cM. No double recombinants were detected, in agreement with the apparently complete level of interference predicted from the male chiasmata map. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Composite Interval Mapping Based on Lattice Design for Error Control May Increase Power of Quantitative Trait Locus Detection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhongwen; Zhao, Tuanjie; Xing, Guangnan; Gai, Junyi; Guan, Rongzhan

    2015-01-01

    Experimental error control is very important in quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Although numerous statistical methods have been developed for QTL mapping, a QTL detection model based on an appropriate experimental design that emphasizes error control has not been developed. Lattice design is very suitable for experiments with large sample sizes, which is usually required for accurate mapping of quantitative traits. However, the lack of a QTL mapping method based on lattice design dictates that the arithmetic mean or adjusted mean of each line of observations in the lattice design had to be used as a response variable, resulting in low QTL detection power. As an improvement, we developed a QTL mapping method termed composite interval mapping based on lattice design (CIMLD). In the lattice design, experimental errors are decomposed into random errors and block-within-replication errors. Four levels of block-within-replication errors were simulated to show the power of QTL detection under different error controls. The simulation results showed that the arithmetic mean method, which is equivalent to a method under random complete block design (RCBD), was very sensitive to the size of the block variance and with the increase of block variance, the power of QTL detection decreased from 51.3% to 9.4%. In contrast to the RCBD method, the power of CIMLD and the adjusted mean method did not change for different block variances. The CIMLD method showed 1.2- to 7.6-fold higher power of QTL detection than the arithmetic or adjusted mean methods. Our proposed method was applied to real soybean (Glycine max) data as an example and 10 QTLs for biomass were identified that explained 65.87% of the phenotypic variation, while only three and two QTLs were identified by arithmetic and adjusted mean methods, respectively. PMID:26076140

  19. Variation and inheritance of iron reductase activity in the roots of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and association with seed iron accumulation QTL

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency anemia is a global problem which often affects women and children of developing countries. Strategy I plants, such as common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) take up iron through a process that involves an iron reduction mechanism in their roots; this reduction is required to convert ferric iron to ferrous iron. Root absorbed iron is critical for the iron nutrition of the plant, and for the delivery of iron to the shoot and ultimately the seeds. The objectives of this study were to determine the variability and inheritance for iron reductase activity in a range of genotypes and in a low × high seed iron cross (DOR364 × G19833), to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for this trait, and to assess possible associations with seed iron levels. Results The experiments were carried out with hydroponically grown plants provided different amounts of iron varying between 0 and 20 ?M Fe(III)-EDDHA. The parents, DOR364 and G19833, plus 13 other cultivated or wild beans, were found to differ in iron reductase activity. Based on these initial experiments, two growth conditions (iron limited and iron sufficient) were selected as treatments for evaluating the DOR364 × G19833 recombinant inbred lines. A single major QTL was found for iron reductase activity under iron-limited conditions (1 ?M Fe) on linkage group b02 and another major QTL was found under iron sufficient conditions (15 ?M Fe) on linkage group b11. Associations between the b11 QTL were found with several QTL for seed iron. Conclusions Genes conditioning iron reductase activity in iron sufficient bean plants appear to be associated with genes contributing to seed iron accumulation. Markers for bean iron reductase (FRO) homologues were found with in silico mapping based on common bean synteny with soybean and Medicago truncatula on b06 and b07; however, neither locus aligned with the QTL for iron reductase activity. In summary, the QTL for iron reductase activity under iron limited conditions may be useful in environments where beans are grown in alkaline soils, while the QTL for iron reductase under sufficiency conditions may be useful for selecting for enhanced seed nutritional quality. PMID:20923552

  20. VALIDATION OF QTL FOR REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS IN ADVANCED GENERATIONS OF A MEISHAN CROSS POPULATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A QTL scan of a backcross, F3 and F4 generations of a Meishan-White composite resource population identified a genome-wide significant QTL for ovulation rate on SSC 8 along with suggestive QTL for ovulation rate on SSC 3 and 10 and for age at puberty on SSC 1 and 10. The F4 generation was crossed to...

  1. QTL MAPPING OF RESISTANCE TO GRAY LEAF SPOT IN RYEGRASS: CONSISTENCY OF QTL BETWEEN TWO MAPPING POPULATIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray leaf spot (GLS) is a serious fungal disease on the important turf and forage species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) caused by the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe grisea. Early reports suggest little resistance is present in perennial ryegrass cultivars. However, greenhouse inoculations in o...

  2. First evidence for family-specific QTL for temperature-dependent sex reversal in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    PubMed

    Lühmann, L M; Knorr, C; Hörstgen-Schwark, G; Wessels, S

    2012-01-01

    This study for the first time screens microsatellite markers for associations with the temperature-dependent sex of Oreochromis niloticus. Previous studies revealed markers on linkage groups (LG) 1, 3, and 23 to be linked to the phenotypic sex of Oreochromis spp. at normal rearing temperatures. Moreover, candidate genes for sex determination and differentiation have been mapped to these linkage groups. Here, 6 families of a temperature-treated genetically all-female (XX) F(1)-population were genotyped for 21 microsatellites on the 3 LGs. No population-wide QTL (quantitative trait loci) or marker trait associations could be detected. However, family-specific QTL were found on LG 1 flanked by UNH995 and UNH104, on LG 3 at the position of GM213, and on LG 23 next to GM283. Moreover, family-specific single marker associations for UNH995 and UNH104 on LG 1, GM213 on LG 3, as well as for UNH898 and GM283 on LG 23 were detected. Yet, marker trait associations could not explain the temperature-dependent sex of all fish in the respective families. The molecular cue for the temperature-dependent sex in Nile tilapia might partially coincide with allelic variants at major and minor genetic sex determining factors. Moreover, additional QTL contributing to variable liabilities towards temperature might persist on other LGs. PMID:22797471

  3. A major QTL and an SSR marker associated with glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers from Solanum tuberosum x S. sparsipilum located on chromosome I.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Kirsten Kørup; Kirk, Hanne Grethe; Olsson, Kerstin; Labouriau, Rodrigo; Christiansen, Jørgen

    2008-06-01

    New potato (Solanum tuberosum) varieties are required to contain low levels of the toxic glycoalkaloids and a potential approach to obtain this is through marker-assisted selection (MAS). Before applying MAS it is necessary to map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for glycoalkaloid content in potato tubers and identify markers that link tightly to this trait. In this study, tubers of a dihaploid BC(1) population, originating from a cross between 90-HAF-01 (S. tuberosum(1)) and 90-HAG-15 (S. tuberosum(2) x S. sparsipilum), were evaluated for content of alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine (total glycoalkaloid, TGA) after field trials. In addition, tubers were assayed for TGA content after exposure to light. A detailed analysis of segregation patterns indicated that a major QTL is responsible for the TGA content in tubers of this potato population. One highly significant QTL was mapped to chromosome I of the HAG and the HAF parent. Quantitative trait loci for glycoalkaloid production in foliage of different Solanum species have previously been mapped to this chromosome. In the present research, QTLs for alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine content were mapped to the same location as for TGA content. Similar results were observed for tubers exposed to light. The simple sequence repeat marker STM5136 was closely linked to the identified QTL. PMID:18373078

  4. A QTL on chromosome 6A in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is associated with longer coleoptiles, greater seedling vigour and final plant height.

    PubMed

    Spielmeyer, W; Hyles, J; Joaquim, P; Azanza, F; Bonnett, D; Ellis, M E; Moore, C; Richards, R A

    2007-06-01

    Wheat crops with greater early vigour shade the soil surface more rapidly and reduce water loss. Evaporative losses affect water-use efficiency particularly in drier regions where most of the rainfall occurs early in the growing season before canopy closure. Greater seedling leaf area and longer coleoptiles are major determinants of increased vigour and better crop establishment. A previously developed high vigour breeding line 'Vigour 18' was used to establish a large recombinant inbred family and framework map to identify a QTL on chromosome 6A that accounted for up to 8% of the variation for coleoptile length, 14% of seedling leaf width and was associated with increased plant height. The SSR marker NW3106, nearest to the 6A QTL, was also associated with greater leaf width in a breeding population that was also derived from a cross involving the high vigour donor line 'Vigour18'. The association between the NW3106 marker and coleoptile length was validated in a second breeding population which was developed using an unrelated long coleoptile donor line. The 'Vigour18' allele of the QTL on chromosome 6A promoted coleoptile length and leaf width during early plant growth but was also associated with increased plant height at maturity. Markers linked to the QTL are being used to increase the frequency of increased vigour and long coleoptile alleles in early generations of breeding populations. PMID:17429602

  5. Inheritance studies of apple scab resistance and identification of Rvi14, a new major gene that acts together with other broad-spectrum QTL.

    PubMed

    Soufflet-Freslon, V; Gianfranceschi, L; Patocchi, A; Durel, C-E

    2008-08-01

    Scab, caused by the fungal pathogen Venturia inaequalis, is the most common disease of cultivated apple (Malus xdomestica). The fungal races 6 and 7 have now overcome the major resistance gene Vf, which is widely used in apple breeding programmes. New breeding strategies to achieve durable resistance are thus necessary. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic basis of quantitative resistance of the apple cultivar 'Dülmener Rosenapfel', known to be scab resistant under different environmental conditions. An F1 progeny derived from the cross between the susceptible cultivar 'Gala' and 'Dülmener Rosenapfel' was tested in a greenhouse with a multi-isolate inoculum of V. inaequalis. Rvi14, a new major gene that conditions a chlorotic-type reaction, was mapped on linkage group (LG) 6 in a genomic region not known to be involved in disease resistance. A further three quantitative trait loci (QTL) for resistance were identified. One co-localized with Rvi14 on LG6, whereas the remaining two were detected on LG11 and LG17, in genomic regions already reported to carry broad-spectrum QTL in other genetic backgrounds. Since a selective genotyping approach was used to detect QTL, an expectation-maximization (EM) computation was used to estimate the corrected QTL contributions to phenotypic variation and was validated by entire progeny genotyping. PMID:18650955

  6. QTL-based association analyses reveal novel genes influencing pleiotropy of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Y.; Kent, J. W.; Olivier, M.; Ali, O.; Broeckel, U.; Abdou, R. M.; Dyer, T. D.; Comuzzie, A.; Curran, J. E.; Carless, M. A.; Rainwater, D. L.; Göring, H. H. H.; Blangero, J.; Kissebah, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a phenotype cluster predisposing to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. In extended families of Northern European ancestry, we previously identified two significant QTLs 3q27 and 17p12 that were linked with multiple representative traits of MetS. To determine the genetic basis of these linkage signals, QTL-specific genomic and transcriptomic analyses were performed in 1,137 individuals from 85 extended families that contributed to the original linkage. We tested in SOLAR association of MetS phenotypes with QTL-specific haplotype-tagging SNPs as well as transcriptional profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). SNPs significantly associated with phenotypes under the prior hypothesis of linkage mapped to seven genes at 3q27 and seven at 17p12. Prioritization based on biologic relevance, SNP association, and expression analyses identified two genes: insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 2 (IGF2BP2) at 3q27 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 13B (TNFRSF13B) at 17p12. Prioritized genes could influence cell-cell adhesion and adipocyte differentiation, insulin/glucose responsiveness, cytokine effectiveness and plasma lipids and lipoprotein densities. In summary, our results combine genomic, transcriptomic, and bioinformatic data to identify novel candidate loci for MetS. PMID:23418049

  7. Identification and mapping of genetic loci affecting the free-threshing habit and spike compactness in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Jantasuriyarat, C; Vales, M I; Watson, C J W; Riera-Lizarazu, O

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant inbred lines of the International Triticeae Mapping Initiative (ITMI) mapping population were used to localize genetic loci that affect traits related to the free-threshing habit (percent threshability, glume tenacity, and spike fragility) and to spike morphology (spike length, spikelet number, and spike compactness) of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The ITMI population was planted in three environments during 1999 and 2000, and phenotypic and genotypic data were used for composite interval mapping. Two quantitative trait loci (QTL) that consistently affected threshability-associated traits were localized on chromosomes 2D and 5A. Coincident QTL on the short arm of 2D explained 44% of the variation in threshability, 17% of the variation in glume tenacity, and 42% of the variation in rachis fragility. QTL on chromosomes 2D probably represent the effect of Tg, a gene for tenacious glumes. Coincident QTL on the long arm of 5A explained 21% and 10% of the variation in glume tenacity and rachis fragility, respectively. QTL on 5A are believed to represent the effect of Q. Overall, free-threshing-related characteristics were predominantly affected by Tg and to a lesser extent by Q. Other QTL that were significantly associated with threshability-related traits in at least one environment were localized on chromosomes 2A, 2B, 6A, 6D, and 7B. Four QTL on chromosomes 1B, 4A, 6A, and 7A consistently affected spike characteristics. Coincident QTL on the short arm of chromosome 1B explained 18% and 7% of the variation in spike length and spike compactness, respectively. QTL on the long arm of 4A explained 11%, 14%, and 12% of the variation in spike length, spike compactness, and spikelet number, respectively. A QTL on the short arm of 6A explained 27% of the phenotypic variance for spike compactness, while a QTL on the long arm of 7A explained 18% of the variation in spikelet number. QTL on chromosomes 1B and 6A appear to affect spike dimensions by modulating rachis internode length, while QTL on chromosomes 4A and 7A do so by affecting the formation of spikelets. Other QTL that were significantly associated with spike morphology-related traits, in at least one environment, were localized on chromosomes 2B, 3A, 3D, 4D, and 5A. PMID:13679977

  8. Non-iterative variance component estimation in QTL analysis.

    PubMed

    Rönnegård, L; Al-Sarraj, R; von Rosen, D

    2009-04-01

    In variance component quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis, a mixed model is used to detect the most likely chromosome position of a QTL. The putative QTL is included as a random effect and a method is needed to estimate the QTL variance. The standard estimation method used is an iterative method based on the restricted maximum likelihood (REML). In this paper, we present a novel non-iterative variance component estimation method. This method is based on Henderson's method 3, but relaxes the condition of unbiasedness. Two similar estimators were compared, which were developed from two different partitions of the sum of squares in Henderson's method 3. The approach was compared with REML on data from a European wild boar x domestic pig intercross. A meat quality trait was studied on chromosome 6 where a functional gene was known to be located. Both partitions resulted in estimated QTL variances close to the REML estimates. From the non-iterative estimates, we could also compute good approximations of the likelihood ratio curve on the studied chromosome. PMID:19320767

  9. PROGRESS TOWARD AN IMMUNOGENETIC MAP FOR RAINBOW TROUT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One of our research goals is to map QTL in rainbow trout that associate with innate resistance to Flavobacterium psychrophilum. A high density genetic map of over 1200 microsatellite markers has been recently constructed in our lab to enable whole genome association studies. We are now adding candid...

  10. Detection of QTL for yield-related traits using recombinant inbred lines derived from exotic and elite US Western Shipping melon germplasm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Zalapa; J. E. Staub; J. D. McCreight; S. M. Chung; H Cuevas

    2007-01-01

    The inheritance of yield-related traits in melon (Cucumis melo L.; 2n = 2x = 24) is poorly understood, and the mapping of quantitative trait loci (QTL) for such traits has not been reported. Therefore,\\u000a a set of 81 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) was developed from a cross between the monoecious, highly branched line USDA 846-1\\u000a and a standard vining, andromonoecious cultivar, ‘Top Mark’. The

  11. Detection of QTL for metabolic and agronomic traits in wheat with adjustments for variation at genetic loci that affect plant phenology.

    PubMed

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Langridge, Peter; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2015-04-01

    Mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with levels of individual metabolites (mQTL) was combined with the mapping of agronomic traits to investigate the genetic basis of variation and co-variation in metabolites, agronomic traits, and plant phenology in a field-grown bread wheat population. Metabolome analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry resulting in identification of mainly polar compounds, including secondary metabolites. A total of 558 metabolic features were obtained from the flag leaves of 179 doubled haploid lines, of which 197 features were putatively identified, mostly as alkaloids, flavonoids and phenylpropanoids. Coordinated genetic control was observed for several groups of metabolites, such as organic acids influenced by two loci on chromosome 7A. Five major phenology-related loci, which were introduced as cofactors in the analyses, differed in their impact upon metabolic and agronomic traits with QZad-aww-7A having more impact on the expression of both metabolite and agronomic QTL than Ppd-B1, Vrn-A1, Eps, and QZad-aww-7D. This QTL study validates the utility of combining agronomic and metabolomic traits as an approach to identify potential trait enhancement targets for breeding selection and reinforces previous results that demonstrate the importance of including plant phenology in the assessment of useful traits in this wheat mapping population. PMID:25711822

  12. Robust Linear Models for Cis-eQTL Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rantalainen, Mattias; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Holmes, Christopher C.

    2015-01-01

    Expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL) analysis enables characterisation of functional genetic variation influencing expression levels of individual genes. In outbread populations, including humans, eQTLs are commonly analysed using the conventional linear model, adjusting for relevant covariates, assuming an allelic dosage model and a Gaussian error term. However, gene expression data generally have noise that induces heavy-tailed errors relative to the Gaussian distribution and often include atypical observations, or outliers. Such departures from modelling assumptions can lead to an increased rate of type II errors (false negatives), and to some extent also type I errors (false positives). Careful model checking can reduce the risk of type-I errors but often not type II errors, since it is generally too time-consuming to carefully check all models with a non-significant effect in large-scale and genome-wide studies. Here we propose the application of a robust linear model for eQTL analysis to reduce adverse effects of deviations from the assumption of Gaussian residuals. We present results from a simulation study as well as results from the analysis of real eQTL data sets. Our findings suggest that in many situations robust models have the potential to provide more reliable eQTL results compared to conventional linear models, particularly in respect to reducing type II errors due to non-Gaussian noise. Post-genomic data, such as that generated in genome-wide eQTL studies, are often noisy and frequently contain atypical observations. Robust statistical models have the potential to provide more reliable results and increased statistical power under non-Gaussian conditions. The results presented here suggest that robust models should be considered routinely alongside other commonly used methodologies for eQTL analysis. PMID:25992607

  13. Transformation of QTL genotypic effects to allelic effects

    PubMed Central

    Nagamine, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    The genotypic and allelic effect models are equivalent in terms of QTL detection in a simple additive model, but the QTL allelic model has the advantage of providing direct information for marker-assisted selection. However, the allelic matrix is four times as large as the genotypic IBD matrix, causing computational problems, especially in genome scans examining multiple positions. Transformation from genotypic to allelic effects, after estimating the genotypic effects with a smaller IBD matrix, can solve this problem. Although the validity of transformation from genotypic to allelic effects has been disputed, this work proves that transformation can successfully yield unique allelic effects when genotypic and allelic IBD matrixes exist. PMID:16093016

  14. Replicated high-density genetic maps of two great tit populations reveal fine-scale genomic departures from sex-equal recombination rates.

    PubMed

    van Oers, K; Santure, A W; De Cauwer, I; van Bers, N E M; Crooijmans, R P M A; Sheldon, B C; Visser, M E; Slate, J; Groenen, M A M

    2014-03-01

    Linking variation in quantitative traits to variation in the genome is an important, but challenging task in the study of life-history evolution. Linkage maps provide a valuable tool for the unravelling of such trait-gene associations. Moreover, they give insight into recombination landscapes and between-species karyotype evolution. Here we used genotype data, generated from a 10k single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip, of over 2000 individuals to produce high-density linkage maps of the great tit (Parus major), a passerine bird that serves as a model species for ecological and evolutionary questions. We created independent maps from two distinct populations: a captive F2-cross from The Netherlands (NL) and a wild population from the United Kingdom (UK). The two maps contained 6554 SNPs in 32 linkage groups, spanning 2010 cM and 1917 cM for the NL and UK populations, respectively, and were similar in size and marker order. Subtle levels of heterochiasmy within and between chromosomes were remarkably consistent between the populations, suggesting that the local departures from sex-equal recombination rates have evolved. This key and surprising result would have been impossible to detect if only one population was mapped. A comparison with zebra finch Taeniopygia guttata, chicken Gallus gallus and the green anole lizard Anolis carolinensis genomes provided further insight into the evolution of avian karyotypes. PMID:24149651

  15. Variations and Transmission of QTL Alleles for Yield and Fiber Qualities in Upland Cotton Cultivars Developed in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianzhen; Qian, Neng; Zhu, Xiefei; Chen, Hong; Wang, Sen; Mei, Hongxian; Zhang, Yuanming

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is the world’s leading cash crop, and genetic improvement of fiber yield and quality is the primary objective of cotton breeding program. In this study, we used various approaches to identify QTLs related to fiber yield and quality. Firstly, we constructed a four-way cross (4WC) mapping population with four base core cultivars, Stoneville 2B, Foster 6, Deltapine 15 and Zhongmiansuo No.7 (CRI 7), as parents in Chinese cotton breeding history and identified 83 QTLs for 11 agronomic and fiber quality traits. Secondly, association mapping of agronomical and fiber quality traits was based on 121 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers using a general linear model (GLM). For this, 81 Gossypium hirsutum L. accessions including the four core parents and their derived cultivars were grown in seven diverse environments. Using these approaches, we successfully identified 180 QTLs significantly associated with agronomic and fiber quality traits. Among them were 66 QTLs that were identified via linkage disequilibrium (LD) and 4WC family-based linkage (FBL) mapping and by previously published family-based linkage (FBL) mapping in modern Chinese cotton cultivars. Twenty eight and 44 consistent QTLs were identified by 4WC and LD mapping, and by FBL and LD mapping methods, respectively. Furthermore, transmission and variation of QTL-alleles mapped by LD association in the three breeding periods revealed that some could be detected in almost all Chinese cotton cultivars, suggesting their stable transmission and some identified only in the four base cultivars and not in the modern cultivars, suggesting they were missed in conventional breeding. These results will be useful to conduct genomics-assisted breeding effectively using these existing and novel QTL alleles to improve yield and fiber qualities in cotton. PMID:23468939

  16. Fine mapping and characterization of Sr21, a temperature-sensitive diploid wheat resistance gene effective against the Puccinia graminis f.sp. tritici Ug99 race group

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new race of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, the causal pathogen of stem rust of wheat, designated TTKSK (also known as Ug99) and its variants are virulent to most of the stem rust resistance genes currently deployed in wheat cultivars worldwide. Therefore, identification, mapping and deployment ...

  17. Genetic Analysis and QTL Detection for Resistance to White Tip Disease in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tong; Gao, Cunyi; Du, Linlin; Feng, Hui; Wang, Lijiao; Lan, Ying; Sun, Feng; Wei, Lihui; Fan, Yongjian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    The inheritance of resistance to white tip disease (WTDR) in rice (Oryza sativa L.) was analyzed with an artificial inoculation test in a segregating population derived from the cross between Tetep, a highly resistant variety that was identified in a previous study, and a susceptible cultivar. Three resistance-associated traits, including the number of Aphelenchoides besseyi (A. besseyi) individuals in 100 grains (NA), the loss rate of panicle weight (LRPW) and the loss rate of the total grains per panicle (LRGPP) were analyzed for the detection of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) in the population after construction of a genetic map. Six QTLs distributed on chromosomes 3, 5 and 9 were mapped. qNA3 and qNA9, conferring reproduction number of A. besseyi in the panicle, accounted for 16.91% and 12.54% of the total phenotypic variance, respectively. qDRPW5a and qDRPW5b, associated with yield loss, were located at two adjacent marker intervals on chromosome 5 and explained 14.15% and 14.59% of the total phenotypic variation and possessed LOD values of 3.40 and 3.39, respectively. qDRPW9 was considered as a minor QTL and only explained 1.02% of the phenotypic variation. qLRGPP5 contributed to the loss in the number of grains and explained 10.91% of the phenotypic variation. This study provides useful information for the breeding of resistant cultivars against white tip disease in rice. PMID:25162680

  18. Fine Mapping of Calcineurin (PPP3CA) Gene Reveals Novel Alternative Splicing Patterns, Association of 5?UTR Trinucleotide Repeat With Addiction Vulnerability, and Differential Isoform Expression in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    CHIOCCO, MATTHEW J.; ZHU, XUGUANG; WALTHER, DONNA; PLETNIKOVA, OLGA; TRONCOSO, JUAN C.; UHL, GEORGE R.; LIU, QING-RONG

    2010-01-01

    Fine mapping of calcineurin (PPP3CA) gene identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and simple sequence repeat polymorphisms that are associated with addiction vulnerability. A trinucleotide repeat marker, located in the 5? untranslated region (5?UTR) of the PPP3CA mRNA, exhibited significantly different genotype and allele frequencies between abusers and controls in the NIDA African–American sample. The polymorphism showed allelic-specific expression in mRNA extracted from postmortem brain specimens. Novel alternatively spliced isoforms of PPP3CA were identified and their expressions were found altered in brain regions of postmortem Alzheimer's disease patients. These data underscore the importance of calcineurin gene in the molecular mechanism of addiction and Alzheimer's diseases. PMID:20590401

  19. Family-based mapping of quantitative trait loci in plant breeding populations with resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat as an illustration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. R. Rosyara; J. L. Gonzalez-Hernandez; K. D. Glover; K. R. Gedye; J. M. Stein

    2009-01-01

    Traditional quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping approaches are typically based on early or advanced generation analysis\\u000a of bi-parental populations. A limitation associated with this methodology is the fact that mapping populations rarely give\\u000a rise to new cultivars. Additionally, markers linked to the QTL of interest are often not immediately available for use in\\u000a breeding and they may not be useful

  20. Genetic and Molecular Basis of QTL of Diabetes in Mouse: Genes and Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Peng; Jiao, Yan; Xiong, Qing; Wang, Cong-Yi; Gerling, Ivan; Gu, Weikuan

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study has been conducted of all available reports in PubMed and OMIM (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man) to examine the genetic and molecular basis of quantitative genetic loci (QTL) of diabetes with the main focus on genes and polymorphisms. The major question is, What can the QTL tell us? Specifically, we want to know whether those genome regions differ from other regions in terms of genes relevant to diabetes. Which genes are within those QTL regions, and, among them, which genes have already been linked to diabetes? whether more polymorphisms have been associated with diabetes in the QTL regions than in the non-QTL regions. Our search revealed a total of 9038 genes from 26 type 1 diabetes QTL, which cover 667,096,006 bp of the mouse genomic sequence. On one hand, a large number of candidate genes are in each of these QTL; on the other hand, we found that some obvious candidate genes of QTL have not yet been investigated. Thus, the comprehensive search of candidate genes for known QTL may provide unexpected benefit for identifying QTL genes for diabetes. PMID:19471607

  1. QTL DATA AT MAIZEGDB: CURATION AND "THEN SOME"

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discovery of candidate genes for agronomically important traits, such as disease or pest resistance often begins with one or more quantitative trait locus (QTL) experiments. Each experiment approximates the chromosomal locations sites (QTLs) that contribute to expression of the trait. These loci may...

  2. Advanced backcross QTL analysis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Pillen; A. Zacharias; J. Léon

    2003-01-01

    This paper reports on the first advanced backcross-QTL (quantitative trait locus) project which utilizes spring barley as a model. A BC 2F 2 population was derived from the initial cross Apex ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare, hereafter abbreviated with Hv) × ISR101-23 ( H. v. ssp. spontaneum, hereafter abbreviated with Hsp). Altogether 136 BC 2F 2 individuals were genotyped with

  3. Fast eQTL Analysis for Twin Studies.</