Linear-quadratic fractional Gaussian control
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
2013-01-01
In this paper a control problem for a linear stochastic system driven by a noise process that is an arbitrary zero mean, square integrable stochastic process with continuous sample paths and a cost functional that is quadratic in the system state...
Linear Quadratic Gaussian-Based Closed-Loop Control of Type 1 Diabetes
Patek, Stephen D.; Breton, Marc D.; Chen, Yuanda; Solomon, Chad; Kovatchev, Boris
2007-01-01
Background We investigated the applicability of linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methodology to the subcutaneous blood glucose regulation problem. We designed an LQG-based feedback control algorithm using linearization of a previously published metabolic model of type 1 diabetes. A key feature of the controller is a Kalman filter used to estimate metabolic states of the patient based on continuous glucose monitoring. Insulin infusion is computed from linear quadratic regulator feedback gains applied to these estimates, generally seeking to minimize squared deviations from a target glucose concentration and basal insulin rate. We evaluated in silico subject-specific LQG control and compared it to preexisting proportional-integral-derivative control. PMID:19756210
Neural network-based nonlinear model predictive control vs. linear quadratic gaussian control
Cho, C.; Vance, R.; Mardi, N.; Qian, Z.; Prisbrey, K.
1997-01-01
One problem with the application of neural networks to the multivariable control of mineral and extractive processes is determining whether and how to use them. The objective of this investigation was to compare neural network control to more conventional strategies and to determine if there are any advantages in using neural network control in terms of set-point tracking, rise time, settling time, disturbance rejection and other criteria. The procedure involved developing neural network controllers using both historical plant data and simulation models. Various control patterns were tried, including both inverse and direct neural network plant models. These were compared to state space controllers that are, by nature, linear. For grinding and leaching circuits, a nonlinear neural network-based model predictive control strategy was superior to a state space-based linear quadratic gaussian controller. The investigation pointed out the importance of incorporating state space into neural networks by making them recurrent, i.e., feeding certain output state variables into input nodes in the neural network. It was concluded that neural network controllers can have better disturbance rejection, set-point tracking, rise time, settling time and lower set-point overshoot, and it was also concluded that neural network controllers can be more reliable and easy to implement in complex, multivariable plants.
Experimental study on modified linear quadratic Gaussian control for adaptive optics.
Fu, Qiang; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Peter, Diethard; Shen, Feng; Rao, Changhui; Li, Xinyang
2014-03-10
To achieve high-resolution imaging the standard control algorithm used for classical adaptive optics (AO) is the simple but efficient proportional-integral (PI) controller. The goal is to minimize the rms error of the residual wave front. However, using the PI controller, it is not possible to do this. One possible way to minimize the rms error is to use linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control. In practice, however, this control algorithm still encounters an unexpected problem that leads to the divergence of control in AO. This paper proposes a modified LQG (MLQG) to solve this issue. The controller is analyzed explicitly. Laboratory tests shows strong stability and high precision compared to the classical control. PMID:24663418
Approximation theory for LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control of flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Adamian, A.
1988-01-01
An approximation theory is presented for the LQG (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian) optimal control problem for flexible structures whose distributed models have bounded input and output operators. The main purpose of the theory is to guide the design of finite dimensional compensators that approximate closely the optimal compensator. The optimal LQG problem separates into an optimal linear-quadratic regulator problem and an optimal state estimation problem. The solution of the former problem lies in the solution to an infinite dimensional Riccati operator equation. The approximation scheme approximates the infinite dimensional LQG problem with a sequence of finite dimensional LQG problems defined for a sequence of finite dimensional, usually finite element or modal, approximations of the distributed model of the structure. Two Riccati matrix equations determine the solution to each approximating problem. The finite dimensional equations for numerical approximation are developed, including formulas for converting matrix control and estimator gains to their functional representation to allow comparison of gains based on different orders of approximation. Convergence of the approximating control and estimator gains and of the corresponding finite dimensional compensators is studied. Also, convergence and stability of the closed-loop systems produced with the finite dimensional compensators are discussed. The convergence theory is based on the convergence of the solutions of the finite dimensional Riccati equations to the solutions of the infinite dimensional Riccati equations. A numerical example with a flexible beam, a rotating rigid body, and a lumped mass is given.
Linear quadratic Gaussian and feedforward controllers for the DSS-13 antenna
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, W. K.; Racho, C. S.; Mellstrom, J. A.
1994-01-01
The controller development and the tracking performance evaluation for the DSS-13 antenna are presented. A trajectory preprocessor, linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller, feedforward controller, and their combination were designed, built, analyzed, and tested. The antenna exhibits nonlinear behavior when the input to the antenna and/or the derivative of this input exceeds the imposed limits; for slewing and acquisition commands, these limits are typically violated. A trajectory preprocessor was designed to ensure that the antenna behaves linearly, just to prevent nonlinear limit cycling. The estimator model for the LQG controller was identified from the data obtained from the field test. Based on an LQG balanced representation, a reduced-order LQG controller was obtained. The feedforward controller and the combination of the LQG and feedforward controller were also investigated. The performance of the controllers was evaluated with the tracking errors (due to following a trajectory) and the disturbance errors (due to the disturbances acting on the antenna). The LQG controller has good disturbance rejection properties and satisfactory tracking errors. The feedforward controller has small tracking errors but poor disturbance rejection properties. The combined LQG and feedforward controller exhibits small tracking errors as well as good disturbance rejection properties. However, the cost for this performance is the complexity of the controller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, W.
2004-01-01
Wind gusts are the main disturbances that depreciate tracking precision of microwave antennas and radiotelescopes. The linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controllers - as compared with the proportional-and-integral (PI) controllers significantly improve the tracking precision in wind disturbances. However, their properties have not been satisfactorily understood; consequently, their tuning is a trial-and-error process. A control engineer has two tools to tune an LQG controller: the choice of coordinate system of the controller model and the selection of weights of the LQG performance index. This article analyzes properties of an open- and closed-loop antenna. It shows that the proper choice of coordinates of the open-loop model simplifies the shaping of the closed-loop performance. The closed-loop properties are influenced by the LQG weights. The article shows the impact of the weights on the antenna closed-loop bandwidth, disturbance rejection properties, and antenna acceleration. The bandwidth and the disturbance rejection characterize the antenna performance, while the acceleration represents the performance limit set by the antenna hardware (motors). The article presents the controller tuning procedure, based on the coordinate selection and the weight properties. The procedure rationally shapes the closed-loop performance, as an alternative to the trial-and-error approach.
ORACLS: A system for linear-quadratic-Gaussian control law design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, E. S.
1978-01-01
A modern control theory design package (ORACLS) for constructing controllers and optimal filters for systems modeled by linear time-invariant differential or difference equations is described. Numerical linear-algebra procedures are used to implement the linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) methodology of modern control theory. Algorithms are included for computing eigensystems of real matrices, the relative stability of a matrix, factored forms for nonnegative definite matrices, the solutions and least squares approximations to the solutions of certain linear matrix algebraic equations, the controllability properties of a linear time-invariant system, and the steady state covariance matrix of an open-loop stable system forced by white noise. Subroutines are provided for solving both the continuous and discrete optimal linear regulator problems with noise free measurements and the sampled-data optimal linear regulator problem. For measurement noise, duality theory and the optimal regulator algorithms are used to solve the continuous and discrete Kalman-Bucy filter problems. Subroutines are also included which give control laws causing the output of a system to track the output of a prescribed model.
Habibullah, H. Pota, H. R. Petersen, I. R.
2014-03-15
This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM’s piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.
Habibullah, H; Pota, H R; Petersen, I R
2014-03-01
This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM's piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method. PMID:24689591
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibullah, H.; Pota, H. R.; Petersen, I. R.
2014-03-01
This paper demonstrates a high-speed spiral imaging technique for an atomic force microscope (AFM). As an alternative to traditional raster scanning, an approach of gradient pulsing using a spiral line is implemented and spirals are generated by applying single-frequency cosine and sine waves of slowly varying amplitudes to the X and Y-axes of the AFM's piezoelectric tube scanner (PTS). Due to these single-frequency sinusoidal input signals, the scanning process can be faster than that of conventional raster scanning. A linear quadratic Gaussian controller is designed to track the reference sinusoid and a vibration compensator is combined to damp the resonant mode of the PTS. An internal model of the reference sinusoidal signal is included in the plant model and an integrator for the system error is introduced in the proposed control scheme. As a result, the phase error between the input and output sinusoids from the X and Y-PTSs is reduced. The spirals produced have particularly narrow-band frequency measures which change slowly over time, thereby making it possible for the scanner to achieve improved tracking and continuous high-speed scanning rather than being restricted to the back and forth motion of raster scanning. As part of the post-processing of the experimental data, a fifth-order Butterworth filter is used to filter noises in the signals emanating from the position sensors and a Gaussian image filter is used to filter the images. A comparison of images scanned using the proposed controller (spiral) and the AFM PI controller (raster) shows improvement in the scanning rate using the proposed method.
Generalized Linear Quadratic Control
Gattami, Ather Said
We consider the problem of stochastic finite- and infinite-horizon linear quadratic control under power constraints. The calculations of the optimal control law can be done off-line as in the classical linear quadratic ...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Folta, David C.; Carpenter, J. Russell
1999-01-01
A decentralized control is investigated for applicability to the autonomous formation flying control algorithm developed by GSFC for the New Millenium Program Earth Observer-1 (EO-1) mission. This decentralized framework has the following characteristics: The approach is non-hierarchical, and coordination by a central supervisor is not required; Detected failures degrade the system performance gracefully; Each node in the decentralized network processes only its own measurement data, in parallel with the other nodes; Although the total computational burden over the entire network is greater than it would be for a single, centralized controller, fewer computations are required locally at each node; Requirements for data transmission between nodes are limited to only the dimension of the control vector, at the cost of maintaining a local additional data vector. The data vector compresses all past measurement history from all the nodes into a single vector of the dimension of the state; and The approach is optimal with respect to standard cost functions. The current approach is valid for linear time-invariant systems only. Similar to the GSFC formation flying algorithm, the extension to linear LQG time-varying systems requires that each node propagate its filter covariance forward (navigation) and controller Riccati matrix backward (guidance) at each time step. Extension of the GSFC algorithm to non-linear systems can also be accomplished via linearization about a reference trajectory in the standard fashion, or linearization about the current state estimate as with the extended Kalman filter. To investigate the feasibility of the decentralized integration with the GSFC algorithm, an existing centralized LQG design for a single spacecraft orbit control problem is adapted to the decentralized framework while using the GSFC algorithm's state transition matrices and framework. The existing GSFC design uses both reference trajectories of each spacecraft in formation and by appropriate choice of coordinates and simplified measurement modeling is formulated as a linear time-invariant system. Results for improvements to the GSFC algorithm and a multiple satellite formation will be addressed. The goal of this investigation is to progressively relax the assumptions that result in linear time-invariance, ultimately to the point of linearization of the non-linear dynamics about the current state estimate as in the extended Kalman filter. An assessment will then be made about the feasibility of the decentralized approach to the realistic formation flying application of the EO-1/Landsat 7 formation flying experiment.
ORACLS - A linear-quadratic-Gaussian computer-aided design package
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Armstrong, E. S.
1982-01-01
ORACLS, an acronym denoting Optimal Regular Algorithms for the Control of Linear Systems, is a collection of FORTRAN coded subroutines dedicated to the formulation and solution of the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) design problem modeled in both continuous and discrete form. The ORACLS system is under continuous development at the NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, and is widely used by universities and industry within the U.S.A. The current (operational) ORACLS version as well as new software under development is described.
A user oriented microcomputer facility for designing linear quadratic Gaussian feedback compensators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houpt, P. K.; Wahid, J.; Johnson, T. L.; Ward, S. A.
1979-01-01
The paper describes a laboratory design facility for digital microprocessor implementation of Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian feedback compensators. Outputs from user interactive programs for solving infinite time horizon LQ regulator and Kalman filter problems are conditioned for implementation on a laboratory microcomputer system. The software consists of two parts: (1) an off-line high-level program for solving the LQ Ricatti equations and generating associated feedback and filter gains, and (2) a cross compiler/macro assembler which generates object code for the target microprocessor system. Application to the control of a two dimensional inverted pendulum and expanding the design/prototyping system to other target machine architectures are discussed.
Xijia Miao
2007-10-12
The paper first discusses theoretically the off-resonance selective excitation method that is dependent on the atomic internal states and used to generate approximately a standard coherent state of harmonic oscillator. The coherent average method then is proposed to construct the state-selective trigger pulse. A state-selective trigger pulse can keep Gaussian shape unchanged but change in an internal-state-dependent form the center-of-mass position and/or momentum of an atomic Gaussian wave-packet motional state. A Gaussian wave-packet state is one of the simplest wave-packet states that can be easily manipulated and controlled in time and space. The paper also investigates how to manipulate in time and space an atomic Gaussian wave-packet motional state by a generalized quadratic potential field. A general quadratic Hamiltonian can affect not only the center-of-mass position and momentum but also the complex linewidth of a Gaussian wave-packet motional state while keep Gaussian shape of the motional state unchanged. It is shown that generally quadratic terms of a quadratic Hamiltonian can control directly the complex linewidth, while linear terms of a quadratic Hamiltonian can affect only the center-of-mass position and momentum of a Gaussian wave-packet motional state.
A user oriented microcomputer facility for designing linear quadratic Gaussian feedback compensators
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Houpt, P. K.; Wahid, J.; Johnson, T. L.; Ward, S. A.
1978-01-01
A laboratory design facility for digital microprocessor implementation of linear-quadratic-Gaussian feedback compensators is described. Outputs from user interactive programs for solving infinite time horizon LQ regulator and Kalman filter problems were conditioned for implementation on the laboratory microcomputer system. The software consisted of two parts: an offline high-level program for solving the LQ Ricatti equations and generating associated feedback and filter gains and a cross compiler/macro assembler which generates object code for the target microprocessor system. A PDP 11/70 with a UNIX operating system was used for all high level program and data management, and the target microprocessor system is an Intel MDS (8080-based processor). Application to the control of a two dimensional inverted pendulum is presented and issues in expanding the design/prototyping system to other target machine architectures are discussed.
Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Singh, Gurkirpal
2005-01-01
A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.
LINEAR-QUADRATIC CONTROL OF BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS
Lim, Andrew
LINEAR-QUADRATIC CONTROL OF BACKWARD STOCHASTIC DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS ANDREW E. B. LIM AND XUN YU differential equations (BSDEs) with a quadratic cost criteria, or backward linear-quadratic (BLQ) control, an uncontrolled BSDE, and an uncontrolled forward stochastic differential equation (SDE), while the second
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franco S, Juan Manuel; Cywiak, Moisés; Cywiak, David; Mourad, Idir
2015-11-01
An especially dedicated homodyne profiler is used for recording the intensity distribution of focused non-truncated Gaussian beams. The spatial distributions are obtained at planes in the vicinity of the back-focal plane of a focusing lens placed at different distances from a He-Ne laser beam with a Gaussian intensity profile. Comparisons of the experimental data with those obtained from the analytical equations for an ideal focusing lens allow us to propose formulae to fine-tune the quadratic term in the Fresnel Gaussian shape invariant at each interface of the propagated field. We give analytical expressions to calculate adequately the propagation of the field through an optical system.
Controlling the disorder properties of quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals
Arie, Ady
Controlling the disorder properties of quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals Idith Varon,* Gil demonstrate a modulation scheme for disordered nonlinear crystals that combines periodic modulation and disordered sections. The crystal is divided into a set of identical periodically poled building blocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, George T.
1987-01-01
An automatic control scheme for spacecraft proximity operations is presented. The controller is capable of holding the vehicle at a prescribed location relative to a target, or maneuvering it to a different relative position using straight line-of-sight translations. The autopilot uses a feedforward loop to initiate and terminate maneuvers, and for operations at nonequilibrium set-points. A multivariate feedback loop facilitates precise position and velocity control in the presence of sensor noise. The feedback loop is formulated using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) with Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) design procedure. Linear models of spacecraft dynamics, adapted from Clohessey-Wiltshire Equations, are augmented and loop shaping techniques are applied to design a target feedback loop. The loop transfer recovery procedure is used to recover the frequency domain properties of the target feedback loop. The resulting compensator is integrated into an autopilot which is tested in a high fidelity Space Shuttle Simulator. The autopilot performance is evaluated for a variety of proximity operations tasks envisioned for future Shuttle flights.
Quadratic Programming and Impedance Control for Transfemoral Prosthesis
Ames, Aaron
Quadratic Programming and Impedance Control for Transfemoral Prosthesis Huihua Zhao, Shishir of improving both tracking performance and the stability of controllers implemented on transfemoral prosthesis prosthesis is attached to a robotic testbed, AMBER. The authors claim that the walking of AMBER is human like
Tuning a fuzzy controller using quadratic response surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schott, Brian; Whalen, Thomas
1992-01-01
Response surface methodology, an alternative method to traditional tuning of a fuzzy controller, is described. An example based on a simulated inverted pendulum 'plant' shows that with (only) 15 trial runs, the controller can be calibrated using a quadratic form to approximate the response surface.
Hu, Tingshu
Nonlinear Control Design for Linear Differential Inclusions via Convex Hull Quadratic Lyapunov-quadratic Lyapunov function, the convex hull quadratic function, will be used for the construction of nonlinear state effectively by combining the path- following algorithm and the direct iterative algorithm. The design results
Functional Dual Adaptive Control with Recursive Gaussian Process Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prüher, Jakub; Král, Ladislav
2015-11-01
The paper deals with dual adaptive control problem, where the functional uncertainties in the system description are modelled by a non-parametric Gaussian process regression model. Current approaches to adaptive control based on Gaussian process models are severely limited in their practical applicability, because the model is re-adjusted using all the currently available data, which keeps growing with every time step. We propose the use of recursive Gaussian process regression algorithm for significant reduction in computational requirements, thus bringing the Gaussian process-based adaptive controllers closer to their practical applicability. In this work, we design a bi-criterial dual controller based on recursive Gaussian process model for discrete-time stochastic dynamic systems given in an affine-in-control form. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the proposed controller achieves comparable performance with the full Gaussian process-based controller in terms of control quality while keeping the computational demands bounded.
A decentralized linear quadratic control design method for flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.
1990-01-01
A decentralized suboptimal linear quadratic control design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized control design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the design of reduced-order controllers for flexible structures. The procedure starts with a definition of the continuum structure to be controlled. An evaluation model of finite dimension is obtained by the finite element method. Then, the finite element model is decomposed into several substructures by using a natural decomposition called substructuring decomposition. Each substructure, at this point, still has too large a dimension and must be reduced to a size that is Riccati-solvable. Model reduction of each substructure can be performed by using any existing model reduction method, e.g., modal truncation, balanced reduction, Krylov model reduction, or mixed-mode method. Then, based on the reduced substructure model, a subcontroller is designed by an LQ optimal control method for each substructure independently. After all subcontrollers are designed, a controller synthesis method called substructural controller synthesis is employed to synthesize all subcontrollers into a global controller. The assembling scheme used is the same as that employed for the structure matrices. Finally, a controller reduction scheme, called the equivalent impulse response energy controller (EIREC) reduction algorithm, is used to reduce the global controller to a reasonable size for implementation. The EIREC reduced controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has the property of matching low-frequency moments and low-frequency power moments. An advantage of the substructural controller synthesis method is that it relieves the computational burden associated with dimensionality. Besides that, the SCS design scheme is also a highly adaptable controller synthesis method for structures with varying configuration, or varying mass and stiffness properties.
Linear-Quadratic Optimal Controller 10.3 Optimal Linear Control Systems
Gajic, Zoran
Linear-Quadratic Optimal Controller 10.3 Optimal Linear Control Systems In Chapters 8 and 9 originated in the sixties (Kalman, 1960)--called modern optimal control theory in this book--is a time domain technique. During the sixties and sev- enties, the main contributor to modern optimal control theory
Antenna Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) Ccontrollers: Properties, Limits of Performance, and Tuning
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, Wodek K.
2004-01-01
The LQG controllers significantly improve antenna tracking precision, but their tuning is a trial-and-error process. A control engineer has two tools to tune an LQG controller: the choice of coordinate system of the controller, and the selection of weights of the LQG performance index. The paper selects the coordinates of the open-loop model that simplify the shaping of the closed-loop performance. and analyzes the impact of thc weights on the antenna closed-loop bandwidth, disturbance rejection properties, and antenna acceleration. Finally, it presents the LQG controller tuning procedure that rationally shapes the closed-loop performance.
Bobrow, James E.
A Fast Sequential Linear Quadratic Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Nonlinear Optimal Control a quadratic performance measure. We formulate the optimal control problem in discrete-time, but many-known necessary conditions for the optimal control. We also show that the algorithm is a Gauss-Newton method
Quadratic Optimization in the Problems of Active Control of Sound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loncaric, J.; Tsynkov, S. V.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We analyze the problem of suppressing the unwanted component of a time-harmonic acoustic field (noise) on a predetermined region of interest. The suppression is rendered by active means, i.e., by introducing the additional acoustic sources called controls that generate the appropriate anti-sound. Previously, we have obtained general solutions for active controls in both continuous and discrete formulations of the problem. We have also obtained optimal solutions that minimize the overall absolute acoustic source strength of active control sources. These optimal solutions happen to be particular layers of monopoles on the perimeter of the protected region. Mathematically, minimization of acoustic source strength is equivalent to minimization in the sense of L(sub 1). By contrast. in the current paper we formulate and study optimization problems that involve quadratic functions of merit. Specifically, we minimize the L(sub 2) norm of the control sources, and we consider both the unconstrained and constrained minimization. The unconstrained L(sub 2) minimization is certainly the easiest problem to address numerically. On the other hand, the constrained approach allows one to analyze sophisticated geometries. In a special case, we call compare our finite-difference optimal solutions to the continuous optimal solutions obtained previously using a semi-analytic technique. We also show that the optima obtained in the sense of L(sub 2) differ drastically from those obtained in the sense of L(sub 1).
Bayesian nonparametric adaptive control using Gaussian processes.
Chowdhary, Girish; Kingravi, Hassan A; How, Jonathan P; Vela, Patricio A
2015-03-01
Most current model reference adaptive control (MRAC) methods rely on parametric adaptive elements, in which the number of parameters of the adaptive element are fixed a priori, often through expert judgment. An example of such an adaptive element is radial basis function networks (RBFNs), with RBF centers preallocated based on the expected operating domain. If the system operates outside of the expected operating domain, this adaptive element can become noneffective in capturing and canceling the uncertainty, thus rendering the adaptive controller only semiglobal in nature. This paper investigates a Gaussian process-based Bayesian MRAC architecture (GP-MRAC), which leverages the power and flexibility of GP Bayesian nonparametric models of uncertainty. The GP-MRAC does not require the centers to be preallocated, can inherently handle measurement noise, and enables MRAC to handle a broader set of uncertainties, including those that are defined as distributions over functions. We use stochastic stability arguments to show that GP-MRAC guarantees good closed-loop performance with no prior domain knowledge of the uncertainty. Online implementable GP inference methods are compared in numerical simulations against RBFN-MRAC with preallocated centers and are shown to provide better tracking and improved long-term learning. PMID:25720009
Controllable Gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering
G. Adesso; S. Campbell; F. Illuminati; M. Paternostro
2010-07-02
We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode Gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode Gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode Gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios.
Controllable gaussian-qubit interface for extremal quantum state engineering.
Adesso, Gerardo; Campbell, Steve; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Paternostro, Mauro
2010-06-18
We study state engineering through bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and two-mode gaussian light fields. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-versus-global-purity plane. Two-mode gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. We show that a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode gaussian states is sufficient to control the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic matter-light scenarios. PMID:20867288
Central Control, Sewers and (0,1) quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald
2013-04-01
We consider small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. The pumps are usually fixed speed, so they are on or off. We formulate a (0,1) quadratic programming problem, provide an overview of known solution methods and examine the relative speed of different solution methods.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swaidan, Waleeda; Hussin, Amran
2015-10-01
Most direct methods solve finite time horizon optimal control problems with nonlinear programming solver. In this paper, we propose a numerical method for solving nonlinear optimal control problem with state and control inequality constraints. This method used quasilinearization technique and Haar wavelet operational matrix to convert the nonlinear optimal control problem into a quadratic programming problem. The linear inequality constraints for trajectories variables are converted to quadratic programming constraint by using Haar wavelet collocation method. The proposed method has been applied to solve Optimal Control of Multi-Item Inventory Model. The accuracy of the states, controls and cost can be improved by increasing the Haar wavelet resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Popescu, Mihai; Dumitrache, Alexandru
2011-05-01
This study refers to minimization of quadratic functionals in infinite time. The coefficients of the quadratic form are quadratic matrix, function of the state variable. Dynamic constraints are represented by bilinear differential systems of the form x?=A(x)x+B(x)u,x(0)=x0. One selects an adequate factorization of A( x) such that the analyzed system should be controllable. Employing the Hamilton-Jacobi equation it results the matrix algebraic equation of Riccati associated to the optimum problem. The necessary extremum conditions determine the adjoint variables ? and the control variables u as functions of state variable, as well as the adjoint system corresponding to those functions. Thus one obtains a matrix differential equation where the solution representing the positive defined symmetric matrix P( x), verifies the Riccati algebraic equation. The stability analysis for the autonomous systems solution resulting for the determined feedback control is performed using the Liapunov function method. Finally we present certain significant cases.
Control of free space propagation of Airy beams generated by quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals
Arie, Ady
Control of free space propagation of Airy beams generated by quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals to the highly asymmetric shape of nonlinear crystal in the Fourier space, these noncollinear interactions space propagation of an Airy beam. This beam is generated by a nonlinear wave mixing process
Learning control for minimizing a quadratic cost during repetitions of a task
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Longman, Richard W.; Chang, Chi-Kuang
1990-01-01
In many applications, control systems are asked to perform the same task repeatedly. Learning control laws have been developed over the last few years that allow the controller to improve its performance each repetition, and to converge to zero error in tracking a desired trajectory. This paper generates a new type of learning control law that learns to minimize a quadratic cost function for tracking. Besides being of interest in its own right, this objective alleviates the need to specify a desired trajectory that can actually be performed by the system. The approach used here is to adapt appropriate methods from numerical optimization theory in order to produce learning control algorithms that adjust the system command from repetition to repetition in order to converge to the quadratic cost optimal trajectory.
Multivariable design of improved linear quadratic regulation control for MIMO industrial processes.
Zhang, Ridong; Lu, Renquan; Jin, Qibing
2015-07-01
In this study, a multivariable linear quadratic control system using a new state space structure was developed for the chamber pressure in the industrial coke furnace. Such processes typically have complex and nonlinear dynamic behavior, which causes the performance of controllers using conventional design and tuning to be poor or to require significant effort in practice. The process model is first treated into a new state space form and the implementation of linear quadratic control is designed using this new model structure. Performance in terms of regulatory/servo, disturbance rejection and measurement noise problems were all compared with the recent model predictive control strategy. Results revealed that the control system showed more robustness and improved the closed-loop process performance under model/process mismatches. PMID:25896826
Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musgrave, Jeffrey L.
1991-01-01
A design method for a servo compensator is developed in the frequency domain using singular values. The method is applied to a reusable rocket engine. An intelligent control system for reusable rocket engines was proposed which includes a diagnostic system, a control system, and an intelligent coordinator which determines engine control strategies based on the identified failure modes. The method provides a means of generating various linear multivariable controllers capable of meeting performance and robustness specifications and accommodating failure modes identified by the diagnostic system. Command following with set point control is necessary for engine operation. A Kalman filter reconstructs the state while loop transfer recovery recovers the required degree of robustness while maintaining satisfactory rejection of sensor noise from the command error. The approach is applied to the design of a controller for a rocket engine satisfying performance constraints in the frequency domain. Simulation results demonstrate the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation.
The application of quadratic optimal cooperative control synthesis to a CH-47 helicopter
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Townsend, Barbara K.
1986-01-01
A control-system design method, Quadratic Optimal Cooperative Control Synthesis (CCS), is applied to the design of a Stability and Control Augmentation Systems (SCAS). The CCS design method is different from other design methods in that it does not require detailed a priori design criteria, but instead relies on an explicit optimal pilot-model to create desired performance. The design model, which was developed previously for fixed-wing aircraft, is simplified and modified for application to a Boeing Vertol CH-47 helicopter. Two SCAS designs are developed using the CCS design methodology. The resulting CCS designs are then compared with designs obtained using classical/frequency-domain methods and Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) theory in a piloted fixed-base simulation. Results indicate that the CCS method, with slight modifications, can be used to produce controller designs which compare favorably with the frequency-domain approach.
Approximation of linear quadratic feedback control for partial differential equations
Morris, Kirsten
Morris Carmeliza Navasca Abstract Algebraic Riccati equations (ARE) of large dimension arise when using to the algebraic Riccati equation [27][e.g.] A P + PA - PBR-1 B P = -C C. (2) The optimal control is then given]. In this paper we will assume that an approximation has been chosen so that a solution to the Riccati equation (2
Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musgrave, Jeffrey L.
1991-01-01
The paper deals with the development of a design method for a servo component in the frequency domain using singular values and its application to a reusable rocket engine. A general methodology used to design a class of linear multivariable controllers for intelligent control systems is presented. Focus is placed on performance and robustness characteristics, and an estimator design performed in the framework of the Kalman-filter formalism with emphasis on using a sensor set different from the commanded values is discussed. It is noted that loop transfer recovery modifies the nominal plant noise intensities in order to obtain the desired degree of robustness to uncertainty reflected at the plant input. Simulation results demonstrating the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation are discussed.
Ames, Aaron
to achieve flat-ground and up-slope walking on a fully-actuated above-knee prosthesis. CLF based quadratic-actuated above-knee prosthesis for different types of locomotion. This goal will be achieved via a three stepsQuadratic Program based Control of Fully-Actuated Transfemoral Prosthesis for Flat-Ground and Up
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ito, K.; Teglas, R.
1984-01-01
The numerical scheme based on the Legendre-tau approximation is proposed to approximate the feedback solution to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for hereditary differential systems. The convergence property is established using Trotter ideas. The method yields very good approximations at low orders and provides an approximation technique for computing closed-loop eigenvalues of the feedback system. A comparison with existing methods (based on averaging and spline approximations) is made.
A new linear quadratic optimal controller for the 34-meter high efficiency antenna position loop
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nickerson, J. A.
1987-01-01
The design of a new position loop controller for the 34-meter High Efficiency Deep Space antennas using linear quadratic (LQ) optimal control techniques is discussed. The LQ optimal control theory is reviewed, and model development and verification are discussed. Families of optimal gain vectors are generated by varying weight parameters. Performance specifications were used to select a final gain vector. Estimator dynamics were selected and the corresponding gain vectors were computed. Final estimator selection was based on position, commanded rate, and estimator error responses.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Frost, Susan A.; Bodson, Marc; Acosta, Diana M.
2009-01-01
The Next Generation (NextGen) transport aircraft configurations being investigated as part of the NASA Aeronautics Subsonic Fixed Wing Project have more control surfaces, or control effectors, than existing transport aircraft configurations. Conventional flight control is achieved through two symmetric elevators, two antisymmetric ailerons, and a rudder. The five effectors, reduced to three command variables, produce moments along the three main axes of the aircraft and enable the pilot to control the attitude and flight path of the aircraft. The NextGen aircraft will have additional redundant control effectors to control the three moments, creating a situation where the aircraft is over-actuated and where a simple relationship does not exist anymore between the required effector deflections and the desired moments. NextGen flight controllers will incorporate control allocation algorithms to determine the optimal effector commands and attain the desired moments, taking into account the effector limits. Approaches to solving the problem using linear programming and quadratic programming algorithms have been proposed and tested. It is of great interest to understand their relative advantages and disadvantages and how design parameters may affect their properties. In this paper, we investigate the sensitivity of the effector commands with respect to the desired moments and show on some examples that the solutions provided using the l2 norm of quadratic programming are less sensitive than those using the l1 norm of linear programming.
Space shuttle active-pogo-suppressor control design using linear quadratic regulator techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehtinen, B.; Lorenz, C. F.
1979-01-01
Two methods of active pogo suppression (stabilization) for the space shuttle vehicle were studied analytically. The basis for both approaches was the linear quadratic regulator, state space technique. The first approach minimized root-mean-square pump inlet pressure by using either fullstate feedback, partial-state feedback, or output feedback with a Kalman filter. The second approach increased the modal damping associated with the critical structural modes by using either full-state feedback or reconstructed state feedback. A number of implementable controls were found by both approaches. The designs were analyzed with respect to sensitivity, complexity, and controller energy requirements, as well as controller performance. Practical controllers resulting from the two design approaches tended to use pressure and flow as feedback variables for the minimum-rms method and structural accelerations or velocities for the modal control method. Both approaches are suitable for the design of active pogo-suppression controllers.
Singular linear-quadratic control problem for systems with linear delay
Sesekin, A. N.
2013-12-18
A singular linear-quadratic optimization problem on the trajectories of non-autonomous linear differential equations with linear delay is considered. The peculiarity of this problem is the fact that this problem has no solution in the class of integrable controls. To ensure the existence of solutions is required to expand the class of controls including controls with impulse components. Dynamical systems with linear delay are used to describe the motion of pantograph from the current collector with electric traction, biology, etc. It should be noted that for practical problems fact singularity criterion of quality is quite commonly occurring, and therefore the study of these problems is surely important. For the problem under discussion optimal programming control contained impulse components at the initial and final moments of time is constructed under certain assumptions on the functional and the right side of the control system.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Turso, James A.; Litt, Jonathan S.
2004-01-01
A method for accommodating engine deterioration via a scheduled Linear Parameter Varying Quadratic Lyapunov Function (LPVQLF)-Based controller is presented. The LPVQLF design methodology provides a means for developing unconditionally stable, robust control of Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems. The controller is scheduled on the Engine Deterioration Index, a function of estimated parameters that relate to engine health, and is computed using a multilayer feedforward neural network. Acceptable thrust response and tight control of exhaust gas temperature (EGT) is accomplished by adjusting the performance weights on these parameters for different levels of engine degradation. Nonlinear simulations demonstrate that the controller achieves specified performance objectives while being robust to engine deterioration as well as engine-to-engine variations.
Lin, Chuan-Kai; Wang, Sheng-De
2004-11-01
A new autopilot design for bank-to-turn (BTT) missiles is presented. In the design of autopilot, a ridge Gaussian neural network with local learning capability and fewer tuning parameters than Gaussian neural networks is proposed to model the controlled nonlinear systems. We prove that the proposed ridge Gaussian neural network, which can be a universal approximator, equals the expansions of rotated and scaled Gaussian functions. Although ridge Gaussian neural networks can approximate the nonlinear and complex systems accurately, the small approximation errors may affect the tracking performance significantly. Therefore, by employing the Hinfinity control theory, it is easy to attenuate the effects of the approximation errors of the ridge Gaussian neural networks to a prescribed level. Computer simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed ridge Gaussian neural networks-based autopilot with Hinfinity stabilization. PMID:15565777
CAD of control systems: Application of nonlinear programming to a linear quadratic formulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, P.
1983-01-01
The familiar suboptimal regulator design approach is recast as a constrained optimization problem and incorporated in a Computer Aided Design (CAD) package where both design objective and constraints are quadratic cost functions. This formulation permits the separate consideration of, for example, model following errors, sensitivity measures and control energy as objectives to be minimized or limits to be observed. Efficient techniques for computing the interrelated cost functions and their gradients are utilized in conjunction with a nonlinear programming algorithm. The effectiveness of the approach and the degree of insight into the problem which it affords is illustrated in a helicopter regulation design example.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Byrnes, C. I.
1980-01-01
It is noted that recent work by Kamen (1979) on the stability of half-plane digital filters shows that the problem of the existence of a feedback law also arises for other Banach algebras in applications. This situation calls for a realization theory and stabilizability criteria for systems defined over Banach for Frechet algebra A. Such a theory is developed here, with special emphasis placed on the construction of finitely generated realizations, the existence of coprime factorizations for T(s) defined over A, and the solvability of the quadratic optimal control problem and the associated algebraic Riccati equation over A.
Irrigation Control in the Presence of Salinity: Extended Linear Quadratic Approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bras, Rafael L.; Seo, Dong-Jun
1987-07-01
An intraseasonal irrigation scheduling problem is dealt with via extended linear quadratic (ELQ) control. The ELQ control is well-suited for constrained multidimensional problems and provides openloop feedback control rules over the control horizon. A conceptual model is developed to describe the dynamics of water allocation and salt movement in the root zone of a crop. Moisture stress and osmotic stress are combined to obtain the integrated inhibitory effect of salinity on transpiration. For the intraseasonal model to be effective against perennial salt accumulation in the root zone, it should be able to yield control laws which will lead to favorable root zone conditions at the end of an irrigation season, thus avoiding any significant leaching prior to the next growing season. This long-term aspect of salinity control is handled via probabilistic state constraints which impose desired salinity and moisture levels with desired confidence level. The ELQ control is employed in a case study of expected net benefit maximization over an irrigation season of corn in Fort Morgan, Colorado. The results, in general, correspond well with expected irrigation schedules under different conditions and provide valuable information on both short- and long-term aspects of irrigation control under saline conditions. The ELQ control, being an analytic iterative solution scheme with theoretically guaranteed fast convergence, has a distinct computational advantage over state-of-the-art procedures.
Laflamme, Simon
This paper proposes an adaptive neural network composed of Gaussian radial functions for mapping the behavior of civil structures controlled with magnetorheological dampers. The online adaptation takes into account the ...
Soliton transmission control by super-Gaussian filters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peral, E.; Capmany, J.; Marti, J.
1996-12-01
Bandwidth-limited filtering has been proven to overcome certain limitations in soliton transmission systems. We propose super-Gaussian filters instead of Butterworth filter response obtained with conventionally used Fabry-Perot etalons as a method to improve soliton stability and reduce dispersion degradation and theoretically demonstrate their practical implementation in the form of holographic fiber gratings.
Ayvaz, Muzaffer; Demiralp, Metin
2011-09-14
In this study, the optimal control equations for one dimensional quantum harmonic oscillator under the quadratic control operators together with linear dipole polarizability effects are constructed in the sense of Heisenberg equation of motion. A numerical technique based on the approximation to the non-commuting quantum mechanical operators from the fluctuation free expectation value dynamics perspective in the classical limit is also proposed for the solution of optimal control equations which are ODEs with accompanying boundary conditions. The dipole interaction of the system is considered to be linear, and the observable whose expectation value will be suppressed during the control process is considered to be quadratic in terms of position operator x. The objective term operator is also assumed to be quadratic.
LQG and Feedforward Controllers for the Deep Space Network Antennas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gawronski, W. K.; Racho, C. S.; Mellstrom, J. A.
1994-01-01
The controller development and the tracking performance evaluation for NASA's Deep Space Network antenna are presented. A trajectory preprocessor, LQG (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) controller, feedforward controller, and their combination are designed, built, analyzed, and tested.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2012-01-01
Quadratic friction involves a discontinuous damping term in equations of motion in order that the frictional force always opposes the direction of the motion. Perhaps for this reason this topic is usually omitted from beginning texts in differential equations and physics. However, quadratic damping is more realistic than viscous damping in many…
Chanu, Sapam Ranjita
2011-01-01
We observe resonances with width 20 times below the natural linewidth for a probe laser on an optical transition, when the same transition is driven by a control laser with a Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) profile. The basic mechanism is the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption (EITA). Aligning the Gaussian probe beam to the central hole in the LG control beam simultaneously allows a strong control intensity required for high signal-to-noise ratio and a low intensity in the probe region required to get narrow resonances. We observe these resonances on the $D_2$ line of Rb in a room-temperature vapor cell and show that the linewidth is reduced by a factor of 4 compared to the use of a Gaussian control beam, which should prove advantageous in all applications of EITA.
Dmitruk, A.V.
1994-12-31
For the control system {dot x} = f (x, t) + F (x, t)u a general optimal control problem is considered, involving terminal equality and inequality constraints, terminal functional to be minimized and a pointwise constraint u {element_of} U(t), where U(t) is a polyhedron. Given a singular extremal in this problem, necessary and sufficient conditions of a quadratic order {gamma} for a Pontryagin minimum are obtained. Here {gamma}({delta}x, {delta}u) is a quadratic function of estimation characteristics to this class of problems; it does`nt contain the control variations, but only variations of state variables. A Pontryagin minimum is an L{sub 1} - minimum with respect to the control on any uniformly bounded control set (thus, it allows to take needle-type variations of the control). The results are similar to those in the analysis and the classical calculus of variations in the sense that the necessary and sufficient conditions form an adjoining pair; the former transforms into the latter only by strengthening an inequality. These conditions include new Legendre type conditions, which take into account not only the second variations of Lagrange functions, but also their third variations and the admissible control set U (t).
A feedback control strategy for the airfoil system under non-Gaussian colored noise excitation.
Huang, Yong; Tao, Gang
2014-09-01
The stability of a binary airfoil with feedback control under stochastic disturbances, a non-Gaussian colored noise, is studied in this paper. First, based on some approximated theories and methods the non-Gaussian colored noise is simplified to an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process. Furthermore, via the stochastic averaging method and the logarithmic polar transformation, one dimensional diffusion process can be obtained. At last by applying the boundary conditions, the largest Lyapunov exponent which can determine the almost-sure stability of the system and the effective region of control parameters is calculated. PMID:25273197
Kim, Dae Seok; Kim, Mun Ho; Lavrentovich, Oleg D; Yoon, Dong Ki
2015-01-01
Soft materials with layered structure such as membranes, block copolymers, and smectics exhibit intriguing morphologies with nontrivial curvatures. We report on restructuring the Gaussian and mean curvatures of smectic A films with free surface in the process of sintering, i.e. reshaping at elevated temperatures. The pattern of alternating patches of negative, zero, and positive mean curvature of the air-smectic interface has a profound effect on the rate of sublimation. As a result of sublimation, condensation, and restructuring, initially equilibrium smectic films with negative and zero Gaussian curvature are transformed into structures with pronounced positive Gaussian curvature of layers packing, seldom seen in samples obtained by cooling from the isotropic melt. The observed relationship between the curvatures, bulk elastic behaviour, and interfacial geometries in sintering of smectic liquid crystals paves the way for new approaches to control soft morphologies at micron and submicron scales.
Dae Seok Kim; Yun Jeong Cha; Mun Ho Kim; Oleg D. Lavrentovich; Dong Ki Yoon
2015-11-24
Soft materials with layered structure such as membranes, block copolymers, and smectics exhibit intriguing morphologies with nontrivial curvatures. We report on restructuring the Gaussian and mean curvatures of smectic A films with free surface in the process of sintering, i.e. reshaping at elevated temperatures. The pattern of alternating patches of negative, zero, and positive mean curvature of the air-smectic interface has a profound effect on the rate of sublimation. As a result of sublimation, condensation, and restructuring, initially equilibrium smectic films with negative and zero Gaussian curvature are transformed into structures with pronounced positive Gaussian curvature of layers packing, seldom seen in samples obtained by cooling from the isotropic melt. The observed relationship between the curvatures, bulk elastic behaviour, and interfacial geometries in sintering of smectic liquid crystals paves the way for new approaches to control soft morphologies at micron and submicron scales.
Adaptive Optimal Control for Redundantly Actuated Arms
Mitrovic, Djordje; Klanke, Stefan; Vijayakumar, Sethu
2008-01-01
Optimal feedback control has been proposed as an attractive movement generation strategy in goal reaching tasks for anthropomorphic manipulator systems. Recent developments, such as the iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian ...
da Fonseca Neto, João Viana; Abreu, Ivanildo Silva; da Silva, Fábio Nogueira
2010-04-01
Toward the synthesis of state-space controllers, a neural-genetic model based on the linear quadratic regulator design for the eigenstructure assignment of multivariable dynamic systems is presented. The neural-genetic model represents a fusion of a genetic algorithm and a recurrent neural network (RNN) to perform the selection of the weighting matrices and the algebraic Riccati equation solution, respectively. A fourth-order electric circuit model is used to evaluate the convergence of the computational intelligence paradigms and the control design method performance. The genetic search convergence evaluation is performed in terms of the fitness function statistics and the RNN convergence, which is evaluated by landscapes of the energy and norm, as a function of the parameter deviations. The control problem solution is evaluated in the time and frequency domains by the impulse response, singular values, and modal analysis. PMID:19661008
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El Jarbi, M.; Rückelt, J.; Slawig, T.; Oschlies, A.
2012-08-01
This paper presents the application of the Linear Quadratic Optimal Control (LQOC) method for a parameter optimization problem in a marine ecosystem model. The ecosystem model simulates the distribution of nitrogen, phytoplankton, zooplankton and detritus in a water column with temperature and turbulent diffusivity profiles taken from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model. We present the linearization method which is based on the available observations. The linearization is necessary to apply the LQOC method on the nonlinear system of state equations. We show the form of the linearized time-variant problems and the resulting two algebraic Riccati Equations. By using the LQOC method, we are able to introduce temporally varying periodic model parameters and to significantly improve - compared to the use of constant parameters - the fit of the model output to given observational data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sibielak, Marek; Raczka, Waldemar; Konieczny, Jaros?aw; Kowal, Janusz
2015-12-01
The problem of optimal control of systems disturbed by sinusoidal signals for infinite control time is considered. To evaluate the control laws, a modified mean-square performance index with an infinite control time was proposed. It is based on the proposed method for the decomposition of control signals on the interval from zero to infinity into the sum of sinusoidal components with selected frequencies and an additional auxiliary signal. The performance index was formulated in such a way that each sinusoidal component corresponds to a separate weight matrix. It was shown that there are infinitely many solutions for these optimization problems. Optimal control was selected in such a way that it should be independent of the state vector, and should depend only on the disturbance signal vector. The controller was synthesized for vibration reduction system. The paper presents results of numerical and laboratory studies of the designed vehicle active suspension system.
A Primal-Dual Semide nite Programming Approach to Linear Quadratic Control
Zhang, Shuzhong
), the problem (LQ) can be solved elegantly via the (algebraic) Riccati equation: Q+ ATP + PA; PBR;1 BTP = 0: (3 that the control is stabilizing. The Riccati equation has been a primary, if not predominant, tool in studying LQ to the primal SDP. Keywords: LQ control, semide nite programming, complementary duality, generalized Riccati
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hamer, H. A.; Johnson, K. G.
1986-01-01
An analysis was performed to determine the effects of model error on the control of a large flexible space antenna. Control was achieved by employing two three-axis control-moment gyros (CMG's) located on the antenna column. State variables were estimated by including an observer in the control loop that used attitude and attitude-rate sensors on the column. Errors were assumed to exist in the individual model parameters: modal frequency, modal damping, mode slope (control-influence coefficients), and moment of inertia. Their effects on control-system performance were analyzed either for (1) nulling initial disturbances in the rigid-body modes, or (2) nulling initial disturbances in the first three flexible modes. The study includes the effects on stability, time to null, and control requirements (defined as maximum torque and total momentum), as well as on the accuracy of obtaining initial estimates of the disturbances. The effects on the transients of the undisturbed modes are also included. The results, which are compared for decoupled and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control procedures, are shown in tabular form, parametric plots, and as sample time histories of modal-amplitude and control responses. Results of the analysis showed that the effects of model errors on the control-system performance were generally comparable for both control procedures. The effect of mode-slope error was the most serious of all model errors.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palacios, Leonel; Ceriotti, Matteo; Radice, Gianmarco
2015-11-01
A Riccati-based tracking controller with collision avoidance capabilities is presented for proximity operations of spacecraft formation flying near elliptic reference orbits. The proposed dynamical model incorporates nonlinear accelerations from an artificial potential field, in order to perform evasive maneuvers during proximity operations. In order to validate the design of the controller, test cases based on the physical and orbital features of the Prototype Research Instruments and Space Mission Technology Advancement (PRISMA) will be implemented, extending it to scenarios with multiple spacecraft performing reconfigurations and on-orbit position switching. The results show that the tracking controller is effective, even when nonlinear repelling accelerations are present in the dynamics to avoid collisions, and that the potential-based collision avoidance scheme is convenient for reducing collision threat.
Vibration control of large linear quadratic symmetric systems. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jeon, G. J.
1983-01-01
Some unique properties on a class of the second order lambda matrices were found and applied to determine a damping matrix of the decoupled subsystem in such a way that the damped system would have preassigned eigenvalues without disturbing the stiffness matrix. The resulting system was realized as a time invariant velocity only feedback control system with desired poles. Another approach using optimal control theory was also applied to the decoupled system in such a way that the mode spillover problem could be eliminated. The procedures were tested successfully by numerical examples.
Optimal Control of Rigid Body Angular Velocity with Quadratic Cost1
Tsiotras, Panagiotis
be computed by considering only solutions to the associated algebraic Riccati equation (ARE) and algebraic structure. Key Words: Rigid Bodies, Hamilton Jacobi equation, Riccati equation, optimal control. 1 the evolution of the angular velocity as described by Euler's equations. We obtain conditions which guarantee
Application of optimal control theory to the design of the NASA/JPL 70-meter antenna servos
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Alvarez, L. S.; Nickerson, J.
1989-01-01
The application of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) techniques to the design of the 70-m axis servos is described. Linear quadratic optimal control and Kalman filter theory are reviewed, and model development and verification are discussed. Families of optimal controller and Kalman filter gain vectors were generated by varying weight parameters. Performance specifications were used to select final gain vectors.
Igor G. Vladimirov; Ian R. Petersen
2012-05-15
The paper is concerned with open quantum systems whose Heisenberg dynamics are described by quantum stochastic differential equations driven by external boson fields. The system-field coupling operators are assumed to be quadratic polynomials of the system observables, with the latter satisfying canonical commutation relations. In combination with a cubic system Hamiltonian, this leads to a class of quasilinear quantum stochastic systems which retain algebraic closedness in the evolution of mixed moments of the observables. Although such a system is nonlinear and its quantum state is no longer Gaussian, the dynamics of the moments of any order are amenable to exact analysis, including the computation of their steady-state values. In particular, a generalized criterion is developed for quadratic stability of the quasilinear systems. The results of the paper are applicable to the generation of non-Gaussian quantum states with manageable moments and an optimal design of linear quantum controllers for quasilinear quantum plants.
Gaussian Processes for Data-Efficient Learning in Robotics and Control.
Deisenroth, Marc Peter; Fox, Dieter; Rasmussen, Carl Edward
2015-02-01
Autonomous learning has been a promising direction in control and robotics for more than a decade since data-driven learning allows to reduce the amount of engineering knowledge, which is otherwise required. However, autonomous reinforcement learning (RL) approaches typically require many interactions with the system to learn controllers, which is a practical limitation in real systems, such as robots, where many interactions can be impractical and time consuming. To address this problem, current learning approaches typically require task-specific knowledge in form of expert demonstrations, realistic simulators, pre-shaped policies, or specific knowledge about the underlying dynamics. In this paper, we follow a different approach and speed up learning by extracting more information from data. In particular, we learn a probabilistic, non-parametric Gaussian process transition model of the system. By explicitly incorporating model uncertainty into long-term planning and controller learning our approach reduces the effects of model errors, a key problem in model-based learning. Compared to state-of-the art RL our model-based policy search method achieves an unprecedented speed of learning. We demonstrate its applicability to autonomous learning in real robot and control tasks. PMID:26353251
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Withers, Christopher S.; Nadarajah, Saralees
2012-01-01
We show that there are exactly four quadratic polynomials, Q(x) = x [superscript 2] + ax + b, such that (x[superscript 2] + ax + b) (x[superscript 2] - ax + b) = (x[superscript 4] + ax[superscript 2] + b). For n = 1, 2, ..., these quadratic polynomials can be written as the product of N = 2[superscript n] quadratic polynomials in x[superscript…
Generalized quadratic weights for asymptotic regulator properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, G.
1979-01-01
The paper describes a generalized quadratic weight selection procedure based on asymptotic modal properties of linear-quadratic regulators as control weights tend to zero. Explicit formulas are developed for weighting matrices which produce an asymptotic eigenstructure consisting of p no greater than n - m finite modes, with the rest tending to infinity in selectable Butterworth patterns or determined by other secondary design considerations.
Modelling, Identification and Control Michel Gevers1
Gevers, Michel
-locus techniques and other graph- ical design methods. From model-free to model-based control design control and optimal filtering problems in a Linear Quadratic Gaussian framework [26,27] gave birth to a tremen- dous development of model-based control design methods. Successful applica- tions abounded
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Patel, R. V.; Toda, M.; Sridhar, B.
1977-01-01
The paper deals with the problem of expressing the robustness (stability) property of a linear quadratic state feedback (LQSF) design quantitatively in terms of bounds on the perturbations (modeling errors or parameter variations) in the system matrices so that the closed-loop system remains stable. Nonlinear time-varying and linear time-invariant perturbations are considered. The only computation required in obtaining a measure of the robustness of an LQSF design is to determine the eigenvalues of two symmetric matrices determined when solving the algebraic Riccati equation corresponding to the LQSF design problem. Results are applied to a complex dynamic system consisting of the flare control of a STOL aircraft. The design of the flare control is formulated as an LQSF tracking problem.
Quadratic eigenvalue problems.
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot
2007-04-01
In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.
Design of a candidate flutter suppression control law for DAST ARW-2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.
1984-01-01
A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQC (Linear Quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.
A new eddy current model for magnetic bearing control system design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Feeley, Joseph J.; Ahlstrom, Daniel J.
1992-01-01
This paper describes a new VLSI-based controller for the implementation of a Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) theory-based control system. Use of the controller is demonstrated by design of a controller for a magnetic bearing and its performance is evaluated by computer simulation.
Generalized quadratic weights for asymptotic regulator properties
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stein, G.
1979-01-01
This paper describes a generalized quadratic weight selection procedure based on asymptotic modal properties of linear-quadratic regulators as control weights tend to zero. Explicit formulas are developed for weighting matrices which produce an asymptotic eigen-structure consisting of p less than or equal to n-m finite modes, with the rest tending to infinity in selectable Butterworth patterns or determined by other secondary design considerations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bensoussan, A.; Delfour, M. C.; Mitter, S. K.
1976-01-01
Available published results are surveyed for a special class of infinite-dimensional control systems whose evolution is characterized by a semigroup of operators of class C subscript zero. Emphasis is placed on an approach that clarifies the system-theoretic relationship among controllability, stabilizability, stability, and the existence of a solution to an associated operator equation of the Riccati type. Formulation of the optimal control problem is reviewed along with the asymptotic behavior of solutions to a general system of equations and several theorems concerning L2 stability. Examples are briefly discussed which involve second-order parabolic systems, first-order hyperbolic systems, and distributed boundary control.
Asymptotically safe inflation from quadratic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonanno, Alfio; Platania, Alessia
2015-11-01
Asymptotically Safe theories of gravity have recently received much attention. In this work we discuss a class of inflationary models derived from quantum-gravity modification of quadratic gravity according to the induced scaling around the non-Gaussian fixed point at very high energies. It is argued that the presence of a three dimensional ultraviolet critical surface generates operators of non-integer power of the type R 2 - ? / 2 in the effective Lagrangian, where ? > 0 is a critical exponent. The requirement of a successful inflationary model in agreement with the recent Planck 2015 data puts important constraints on the strength of this new type of couplings.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.
1983-01-01
A control law is developed to suppress symmetric flutter for a mathematical model of an aeroelastic research vehicle. An implementable control law is attained by including modified LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) design techniques, controller order reduction, and gain scheduling. An alternate (complementary) design approach is illustrated for one flight condition wherein nongradient-based constrained optimization techniques are applied to maximize controller robustness.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Yu-Xuan; Fang, Zhao-Xiang; Gong, Lei; Huang, Kun; Chen, Yue; Lu, Rong-De
2015-12-01
Hermite-Gaussian (HG) mode, as one of the fundamental transverse electromagnetic modes, has significant advantages in various applications including quantum entanglement, guidance of ultracold atoms and particle acceleration, some of which require complex manipulation (such as dynamic creation and arbitrary three-dimensional spatial transformation with challenges) over HG modes. We report the dynamic creation of a transversely rotated HG mode along its propagating axis with the help of a fast amplitude digital micromirror device (DMD) and a binary encoding technique. Furthermore, this mechanism can also realize the dynamic deformation from a traditional HG beam to a vortex HG beam, which provides a deep insight into the detailed formation of optical vortex singularity in a light beam and would benefit across singular optics and optical manipulation.
CPHD filters with unknown quadratic clutter generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahler, Ronald
2015-05-01
Previous research has produced CPHD filters that can detect and track multiple targets in unknown, dynamically changing clutter. The .first such filters employed Poisson clutter generators and, as a result, were combinatorially complex. Recent research has shown that replacing the Poisson clutter generators with Bernoulli clutter generators results in computationally tractable CPHD filters. However, Bernoulli clutter generators are insufficiently complex to model real-world clutter with high accuracy, because they are statistically first-degree. This paper addresses the derivation and implementation of CPHD filters when first-degree Bernoulli clutter generators are replaced by second-degree quadratic clutter generators. Because these filters are combinatorially second-order, they are more easily approximated. They can also be implemented in exact closed form using beta-Gaussian mixture (BGM) or Dirichlet-Gaussian mixture (DGM) techniques.
An efficiently solvable quadratic program for stabilizing dynamic locomotion
Kuindersma, Scott
We describe a whole-body dynamic walking controller implemented as a convex quadratic program. The controller solves an optimal control problem using an approximate value function derived from a simple walking model while ...
Optical Quadratic Measure Eigenmodes
Michael Mazilu; Joerg Baumgartl; Sebastian Kosmeier; Kishan Dholakia
2010-07-13
We report a mathematically rigorous technique which facilitates the optimization of various optical properties of electromagnetic fields. The technique exploits the linearity of electromagnetic fields along with the quadratic nature of their interaction with matter. In this manner we may decompose the respective fields into optical quadratic measure eigenmodes (QME). Key applications include the optimization of the size of a focused spot, the transmission through photonic devices, and the structured illumination of photonic and plasmonic structures. We verify the validity of the QME approach through a particular experimental realization where the size of a focused optical field is minimized using a superposition of Bessel beams.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fay, Temple H.
2010-01-01
Through numerical investigations, we study examples of the forced quadratic spring equation [image omitted]. By performing trial-and-error numerical experiments, we demonstrate the existence of stability boundaries in the phase plane indicating initial conditions yielding bounded solutions, investigate the resonance boundary in the [omega]…
Alvarez-Gaume, Luis; Kounnas, Costas; Lust, Dieter; Riotto, Antonio
2015-01-01
We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-...
Luis Alvarez-Gaume; Alex Kehagias; Costas Kounnas; Dieter Lust; Antonio Riotto
2015-07-07
We discuss quadratic gravity where terms quadratic in the curvature tensor are included in the action. After reviewing the corresponding field equations, we analyze in detail the physical propagating modes in some specific backgrounds. First we confirm that the pure $R^2$ theory is indeed ghost free. Then we point out that for flat backgrounds the pure $R^2$ theory propagates only a scalar massless mode and no spin-two tensor mode. However, the latter emerges either by expanding the theory around curved backgrounds like de Sitter or anti-de Sitter, or by changing the long-distance dynamics by introducing the standard Einstein term. In both cases, the theory is modified in the infrared and a propagating graviton is recovered. Hence we recognize a subtle interplay between the UV and IR properties of higher order gravity. We also calculate the corresponding Newton's law for general quadratic curvature theories. Finally, we discuss how quadratic actions may be obtained from a fundamental theory like string- or M-theory. We demonstrate that string theory on non-compact $CY_3$ manifolds, like a line bundle over $\\mathbb{CP}^2$, may indeed lead to gravity dynamics determined by a higher curvature action.
Shape Control of Plates with Piezo Actuators and Collocated Position/Rate Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1994-01-01
This paper treats the control problem of shaping the surface deformation of a circular plate using embedded piezo-electric actuators and collocated rate sensors. An explicit Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimizer stability augmentation compensator is derived as well as the optimal feed-forward control. Corresponding performance evaluation formulas are also derived.
Shape Control of Plates with Piezo Actuators and Collocated Position/Rate Sensors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishnan, A. V.
1994-01-01
This paper treats the control problem of shaping the surface deformation of a circular plate using embedded piezo-electric actuator and collocated rate sensors. An explicit Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) optimizer stability augmentation compensator is derived as well as the optimal feed-forward control. Corresponding performance evaluation formulas are also derived.
Active flutter control for flexible vehicles, volume 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mahesh, J. K.; Garrard, W. L.; Stones, C. R.; Hausman, P. D.
1979-01-01
An active flutter control methodology based on linear quadratic gaussian theory and its application to the control of a super critical wing is presented. Results of control surface and sensor position optimization are discussed. Both frequency response matching and residualization used to obtain practical flutter controllers are examined. The development of algorithms and computer programs for flutter modeling and active control design procedures is reported.
Computer-aided design of flight control systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stengel, Robert F.; Sircar, Subrata
1991-01-01
A computer program is presented for facilitating the development and assessment of flight control systems, and application to a control design is discussed. The program is a computer-aided control-system design program based on direct digital synthesis of a proportional-integral-filter controller with scheduled linear-quadratic-Gaussian gains and command generator tracking of pilot inputs. The FlightCAD system concentrates on aircraft dynamics, flight-control systems, stability and performance, and has practical engineering applications.
Guises and disguises of quadratic divergences
Cherchiglia, A.L.; Vieira, A.R.; Hiller, Brigitte; Baêta Scarpelli, A.P.; Sampaio, Marcos
2014-12-15
In this contribution, we present a new perspective on the control of quadratic divergences in quantum field theory, in general, and in the Higgs naturalness problem, in particular. Our discussion is essentially based on an approach where UV divergences are parameterized, after being reduced to basic divergent integrals (BDI) in one internal momentum, as functions of a cutoff and a renormalization group scale ?. We illustrate our proposal with well-known examples, such as the gluon vacuum self energy of QCD and the Higgs decay in two photons within this approach. We also discuss frameworks in effective low-energy QCD models, where quadratic divergences are indeed fundamental.
Quadratic form: a robust metric for quantitative comparison of flow cytometric histograms.
Bernas, Tytus; Asem, Elikplimi K; Robinson, J Paul; Rajwa, Bartek
2008-08-01
Comparison of fluorescence distributions is a fundamental part of the analysis of flow cytometric data. This approach is applied to detect differences between control and test sample and thus analyze a biological response. Comparison of standard test samples over time provides an estimate of instrument stability for quality control. However, application of statistical methods of distribution comparison in flow cytometry is difficult owing to instrument noise and the complex shape of intensity distributions. We applied quadratic form (QF) as a mathematical metric for comparison of flow cytometry histograms. QF operates on histograms as vectors and calculates the total distance in an interbin manner using a matrix of distances between single histogram bins. Euclidean interbin distance and histograms normalized to unity were used. Critical values corresponding to 95% significance level were calculated using Monte-Carlo simulation and single-maximum Gaussian distributions populated with several numbers of events. The QF statistic was then validated for non-Gaussian single-maximum distributions and multiple-maxima distributions. We determined that the critical values for Gaussian distributions depended on standard deviations and number of events in the compared histograms. A simple empirical function was constructed to characterize this dependence. Furthermore, it was verified that critical values (corresponding to 95% significance) for non-Gaussian histograms were similar to values for the Gaussian histograms characterized by the same standard deviation. We applied the QF statistic to estimate the differences between histograms of DNA content (ploidy) in cells of old and young leaf tissue of Brassica campestris. Furthermore, we quantified differences in fluorescence intensity in immunostaining of human lymphocytes. Quadratic form (QF) provides a true (mathematical) metric for estimation of distance between flow cytometry histograms of arbitrary shape. QF can be applied as a statistical test for estimation of significance of the distance measure. The respective critical values depend only on the number of events and standard deviations of compared histograms and are not affected by distribution shape. Therefore, applications of QF do not require assumptions concerning distribution shape and can be easily implemented in practice. This notion was confirmed using empirical distributions of DNA content in plant tissue and distributions of immunofluorescence in human cells. PMID:18561196
Statistical process control for AR(1) or non-Gaussian processes using wavelets coefficients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cohen, A.; Tiplica, T.; Kobi, A.
2015-11-01
Autocorrelation and non-normality of process characteristic variables are two main difficulties that industrial engineers must face when they should implement control charting techniques. This paper presents new issues regarding the probability distribution of wavelets coefficients. Firstly, we highlight that wavelets coefficients have capacities to strongly decrease autocorrelation degree of original data and are normally-like distributed, especially in the case of Haar wavelet. We used AR(1) model with positive autoregressive parameters to simulate autocorrelated data. Illustrative examples are presented to show wavelets coefficients properties. Secondly, the distributional parameters of wavelets coefficients are derived, it shows that wavelets coefficients reflect an interesting statistical properties for SPC purposes.
Gaussian-3 theory using coupled cluster energies.
Curtiss, L. A.; Raghavachari, K.; Redfern, P. C.; Banboul, A. G.; Pople, J. A.; Lucent Tech.; Northwestern Univ.
1999-11-26
Variations of Gaussian-3 (G3) theory are presented in which the quadratic configuration interaction (QCISD(T)) energy calculation is replaced by a coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) energy calculation. This modification is made to four G3 methods that have been previously introduced. The replacement of the QCISD(T) energy by the CCSD(T) energy results in little change in the accuracy of the methods as assessed on the G2/97 test set, although the maximum deviations decrease slightly. These new G3 methods based on the coupled cluster technique are a useful alternative to the G3 methods based on quadratic configuration interaction.
Hollerbach, John M.
, by the same token, di- rect-drive systems are more adversely affected by the motor's torque ripple. MoreoverIEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 1, JANUARY 2003 139 Experimental, and John M. Hollerbach Abstract--A new torque control strategy for brushless motors is presented, which
Multivariable control of a twin lift helicopter system using the LQG/LTR design methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rodriguez, A. A.; Athans, M.
1986-01-01
Guidelines for developing a multivariable centralized automatic flight control system (AFCS) for a twin lift helicopter system (TLHS) are presented. Singular value ideas are used to formulate performance and stability robustness specifications. A linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) design is obtained and evaluated.
A Quadratic Basis Function, Quadratic Geometry, High Order Panel Method.
Peraire, Jaime
A Quadratic Basis Function, Quadratic Geometry, High Order Panel Method. David J. Willis Jaime, USA. Most panel method implementations use both low order basis function representations of the solution and flat panel representations of the body surface. Although several imple- mentations of higher
Communications circuit including a linear quadratic estimator
Ferguson, Dennis D.
2015-07-07
A circuit includes a linear quadratic estimator (LQE) configured to receive a plurality of measurements a signal. The LQE is configured to weight the measurements based on their respective uncertainties to produce weighted averages. The circuit further includes a controller coupled to the LQE and configured to selectively adjust at least one data link parameter associated with a communication channel in response to receiving the weighted averages.
Anatomy of an experimental two-link flexible manipulator under end-point control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oakley, Celia M.; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.
1990-01-01
The design and experimental implementation of an end-point controller for two-link flexible manipulators are presented. The end-point controller is based on linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) theory and is shown to exhibit significant improvements in trajectory tracking over a conventional controller design. To understand the behavior of the manipulator structure under end-point control, a strobe sequence illustrating the link deflections during a typical slew maneuver is included.
Guidance and Control Conference, Danvers, Mass., August 11-13, 1980, Collection of Technical Papers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
1980-08-01
Papers are presented on the control of self-adjoint distributed-parameter systems, suppressed mode damping for model error sensitivity suppression flexible aircraft controllers, adaptive and learning control of large space structures, and active flutter suppression using linear quadratic Gaussian theory. Other papers include the reliability/safety analysis of a fly-by-wire system, the optimal platform skewing for Space Shuttle inertial measurement unit redundancy management, fast geodetic coordinate transformations, and a new approach to active control of rotorcraft vibration.
Quadratic Generalized Scale Invariance
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.; Addor, J. B.
Nearly twenty years ago, two of us argued that in order to account for the scaling strat- ification of the atmosphere, that an anisotropic "unified scaling model" of the atmo- sphere was required with elliptical dimension 23/9=2.555... "in between" the standard 3-D (small scale) and 2-D large scale model. This model was based on the formal- ism of generalized scale invariance (GSI). Physically, GSI is justified by arguing that various conserved fluxes (energy, buoyancy force variance etc.) should define the ap- propriate notion of scale. In a recent large scale satellite cloud image analysis, we directly confirmed this model by studying the isotropic (angle averaged) horizontal cloud statistics. Mathematically, GSI is based on a a group of scale changing opera- tors and their generators but to date, both analyses (primarily of cloud images) and nu- merical (multifractal) simulations, have been limited to the special case of linear GSI. This has shown that cloud texture can plausibly be associated with local linearizations. However realistic morphologies involve spatially avarying textures; the full non linear GSI is clearly necessary. In this talk, we first show that the observed angle averaged (multi)scaling statistics only give a realtively weak constraint on the nonlinear gner- ator: that the latter can be expressed by self-similar (isotropic) part, and a deviatoric part described (in two dimensions) by an arbitrary scalar potential which contains all the information about the cloud morphology. We then show (using a theorem due to Poincaré) how to reduce nonlinear GSI to linear GSI plus a nonlinear coordinate trans- formation numerically, using this to take multifractal GSI modelling to the next level of approximation: quadratic GSI. We show many examples of the coresponding simu- lations which include transitions from various morphologies (including cyclones) and we discuss the results in relation to satellite cloud images.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Picco, C. E.; Shavers, M. R.; Victor, J. M.; Duron, J. L.; Bowers, W. h.; Gillis, D. B.; VanBaalen, M.
2009-01-01
LIDAR systems that maintain a constant beam spot size on a retroreflector in order to increase the accuracy of bearing and ranging data must use a software controlled variable position lens. These systems periodically update the estimated range and set the position of the focusing lens accordingly. In order to precisely calculate the r NOHD for such a system, the software method for setting the variable position lens and gaussian laser propagation can be used to calculate the irradiance at any point given the range estimation. NASA s Space Shuttle LIDAR, called the Trajectory Control Sensor (TCS), uses this configuration. Analytical tools were developed using Excel and VBA to determine the radiant energy to the International Space Station (ISS) crewmembers eyes while viewing the shuttle on approach and departure. Various viewing scenarios are considered including the use of through-the-lens imaging optics and the window transmissivity at the TCS wavelength. The methodology incorporates the TCS system control logic, gaussian laser propagation, potential failure mode end states, and guidance from American National Standard for the Safe Use of Lasers (ANSI Z136.1-2007). This approach can be adapted for laser safety analyses of similar LIDAR systems.
Shrinking the quadratic estimator of weak lensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderes, Ethan; Paul, Debashis
2012-05-01
We study a regression characterization for the quadratic estimator of weak lensing, developed by Hu and Okamoto [W. Hu, Astrophys. J. 557, L79 (2001).ASJOAB0004-637X10.1086/323253][W. Hu and T. Okamoto, Astrophys. J. 574, 566 (2002).ASJOAB0004-637X10.1086/341110][T. Okamoto and W. Hu, Phys. Rev. DPRVDAQ0556-2821 67, 083002 (2003).10.1103/PhysRevD.67.083002], for cosmic microwave background observations. This characterization motivates a modification of the quadratic estimator by an adaptive Wiener filter which uses the robust Bayesian techniques described in [J. Berger, Ann. Stat.ASTSC70090-5364 8, 716 (1980).10.1214/aos/1176345068][J. Berger, Statistical Decision Theory and Bayesian Analysis (Springer, New York, 1980).][W. Strawderman, Ann. Stat.ASTSC70090-5364 42, 385 (1971).10.1214/aoms/1177693528]. This technique requires the user to propose a fiducial model for the spectral density of the unknown lensing potential but the resulting estimator is developed to be robust to mis-specification of this model. The role of the fiducial spectral density is to give the estimator superior statistical performance in a “neighborhood of the fiducial model” while controlling the statistical errors when the fiducial spectral density is drastically wrong. Our estimate also highlights some advantages provided by a Bayesian analysis of the quadratic estimator.
Gaussian cloning of coherent states with known phases
Alexanian, Moorad
2006-04-15
The fidelity for cloning coherent states is improved over that provided by optimal Gaussian and non-Gaussian cloners for the subset of coherent states that are prepared with known phases. Gaussian quantum cloning duplicates all coherent states with an optimal fidelity of 2/3. Non-Gaussian cloners give optimal single-clone fidelity for a symmetric 1-to-2 cloner of 0.6826. Coherent states that have known phases can be cloned with a fidelity of 4/5. The latter is realized by a combination of two beam splitters and a four-wave mixer operated in the nonlinear regime, all of which are realized by interaction Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the photon operators. Therefore, the known Gaussian devices for cloning coherent states are extended when cloning coherent states with known phases by considering a nonbalanced beam splitter at the input side of the amplifier.
Quadratic stabilization and tracking - Applications to the benchmark problem
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmitendorf, W. E.; Dolphus, R. M.; Benson, R. W.
1992-01-01
Recent results regarding quadratic stabilization and disturbance attenuation are applied to the benchmark problem. The authors investigate the minimum achievable levels of disturbance attenuation for different disturbance inputs and controlled outputs. They then design a feedforward tracking controller which tracks step inputs while maintaining the disturbance attenuation properties of the regulator.
Quadratic fractional age assumption revisited.
Hossain, Syed A
2011-04-01
This paper introduces a quadratic fractional age assumption which makes the force of mortality and survival function continuous at all ages. The necessary and sufficient condition for the assumption to be valid is derived. Important life table parameters are estimated and applications are shown using several life table data. PMID:20165913
Entanglement Frustration for Gaussian States on Symmetric Graphs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wolf, M. M.; Verstraete, F.; Cirac, J. I.
2004-02-01
We investigate the entanglement properties of multimode Gaussian states, which have some symmetry with respect to the ordering of the modes. We show how the symmetry constrains the entanglement between two modes of the system. In particular, we determine the maximal entanglement of formation that can be achieved in symmetric graphs like chains, 2D and 3D lattices, mean field models and the platonic solids. The maximal entanglement is always attained for the ground state of a particular quadratic Hamiltonian. The latter thus yields the maximal entanglement among all quadratic Hamiltonians having the considered symmetry.
Linear state feedback, quadratic weights, and closed loop eigenstructures. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, P. M.
1979-01-01
Results are given on the relationships between closed loop eigenstructures, state feedback gain matrices of the linear state feedback problem, and quadratic weights of the linear quadratic regulator. Equations are derived for the angles of general multivariable root loci and linear quadratic optimal root loci, including angles of departure and approach. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used for the first time to compute angles of approach. Equations are also derived to find the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalues and the directional derivatives of closed loop eigenvectors (with respect to a scalar multiplying the feedback gain matrix or the quadratic control weight). An equivalence class of quadratic weights that produce the same asymptotic eigenstructure is defined, sufficient conditions to be in it are given, a canonical element is defined, and an algorithm to find it is given. The behavior of the optimal root locus in the nonasymptotic region is shown to be different for quadratic weights with the same asymptotic properties.
Sparse gaussian graphical models for speech recognition.
Bell, Peter; King, Simon
2007-01-01
We address the problem of learning the structure of Gaussian graphical models for use in automatic speech recognition, a means of controlling the form of the inverse covariance matrices of such systems. With particular focus on data sparsity issues...
Geometrical Solutions of Quadratic Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Grewal, A. S.; Godloza, L.
1999-01-01
Demonstrates that the equation of a circle (x-h)2 + (y-k)2 = r2 with center (h; k) and radius r reduces to a quadratic equation x2-2xh + (h2 + k2 -r2) = O at the intersection with the x-axis. Illustrates how to determine the center of a circle as well as a point on a circle. (Author/ASK)
Comparison of Gaussian and super Gaussian laser beams for addressing atomic qubits
Gillen-Christandl, Katharina; Piotrowicz, M J; Saffman, M
2015-01-01
We study the fidelity of single qubit quantum gates performed with two-frequency laser fields that have a Gaussian or super Gaussian spatial mode. Numerical simulations are used to account for imperfections arising from atomic motion in an optical trap, spatially varying Stark shifts of the trapping and control beams, and transverse and axial misalignment of the control beams. Numerical results that account for the three dimensional distribution of control light show that a super Gaussian mode with intensity $I\\sim e^{-2(r/w_0)^n}$ provides reduced sensitivity to atomic motion and beam misalignment. Choosing a super Gaussian with $n=6$ the decay time of finite temperature Rabi oscillations can be increased by a factor of 60 compared to an $n=2$ Gaussian beam, while reducing crosstalk to neighboring qubit sites.
Optimal control of entanglement via quantum feedback
Stefano Mancini; Howard M. Wiseman
2006-10-01
It has recently been shown that finding the optimal measurement on the environment for stationary Linear Quadratic Gaussian control problems is a semi-definite program. We apply this technique to the control of the EPR-correlations between two bosonic modes interacting via a parametric Hamiltonian at steady state. The optimal measurement turns out to be nonlocal homodyne measurement -- the outputs of the two modes must be combined before measurement. We also find the optimal local measurement and control technique. This gives the same degree of entanglement but a higher degree of purity than the local technique previously considered [S. Mancini, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 73}, 010304(R) (2006)].
Gaussian entanglement of formation
Wolf, M.M.; Giedke, G.; Krueger, O.; Werner, R. F.; Cirac, J.I.
2004-05-01
We introduce a Gaussian version of the entanglement of formation adapted to bipartite Gaussian states by considering decompositions into pure Gaussian states only. We show that this quantity is an entanglement monotone under Gaussian operations and provide a simplified computation for states of arbitrary many modes. For the case of one mode per site the remaining variational problem can be solved analytically. If the considered state is in addition symmetric with respect to interchanging the two modes, we prove additivity of the considered entanglement measure. Moreover, in this case and considering only a single copy, our entanglement measure coincides with the true entanglement of formation.
OPTICAL SOLITONS: Excitation of two-dimensional soliton matrices by fundamental Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borovkova, O. V.; Chuprakov, D. A.; Sukhorukov, Anatolii P.
2005-01-01
The excitation of two-dimensional periodic structures of fields of the first and second radiation harmonics due to the modulation instability of fundamental Gaussian beams is studied in a medium with a quadratic nonlinearity. The distances are found at which soliton matrix structures with a specified period are formed and destroyed. Optical gratings formed due to nonlinear aberration of broad Gaussian beams are considered.
Quadratic isocurvature cross-correlation, Ward identity, and dark matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chung, Daniel J. H.; Yoo, Hojin; Zhou, Peng
2013-06-01
Sources of isocurvature perturbations and large non-Gaussianities include field degrees of freedom whose vacuum expectation values are smaller than the expansion rate of inflation. The inhomogeneities in the energy density of such fields are quadratic in the fields to leading order in the inhomogeneity expansion. Although it is often assumed that such isocurvature perturbations and inflaton-driven curvature perturbations are uncorrelated, this is not obvious from a direct computational point of view due to the form of the minimal gravitational interactions. We thus compute the irreducible gravitational contributions to the quadratic isocurvature-curvature cross-correlation. We find a small but nondecaying cross-correlation, which in principle serves as a measurable prediction of this large class of isocurvature perturbations. We apply our cross-correlation result to two dark matter isocurvature perturbation scenarios: QCD axions and wimpzillas. On the technical side, we utilize a gravitational Ward identity in a novel manner to demonstrate the gauge invariance of the computation. Furthermore, the detailed computation is interpreted in terms of a soft-? theorem and a gravitational Ward identity. Finally, we also identify explicitly all the counterterms that are necessary for renormalizing the isocurvature perturbation composite operator in inflationary cosmological backgrounds.
Johnson, Jacqueline L; Kreidler, Sarah M; Catellier, Diane J; Murray, David M; Muller, Keith E; Glueck, Deborah H
2015-11-30
We used theoretical and simulation-based approaches to study Type I error rates for one-stage and two-stage analytic methods for cluster-randomized designs. The one-stage approach uses the observed data as outcomes and accounts for within-cluster correlation using a general linear mixed model. The two-stage model uses the cluster specific means as the outcomes in a general linear univariate model. We demonstrate analytically that both one-stage and two-stage models achieve exact Type I error rates when cluster sizes are equal. With unbalanced data, an exact size ? test does not exist, and Type I error inflation may occur. Via simulation, we compare the Type I error rates for four one-stage and six two-stage hypothesis testing approaches for unbalanced data. With unbalanced data, the two-stage model, weighted by the inverse of the estimated theoretical variance of the cluster means, and with variance constrained to be positive, provided the best Type I error control for studies having at least six clusters per arm. The one-stage model with Kenward-Roger degrees of freedom and unconstrained variance performed well for studies having at least 14 clusters per arm. The popular analytic method of using a one-stage model with denominator degrees of freedom appropriate for balanced data performed poorly for small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation. Because small sample sizes and low intracluster correlation are common features of cluster-randomized trials, the Kenward-Roger method is the preferred one-stage approach. Copyright © 2015?John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26089186
Aeroelastic control of oblique-wing aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, J. J.; Gilyard, G. B.; Alag, G. S.
1986-01-01
The U.S. Navy and NASA are currently involved in the design and development of an unsymmetric-skew-wing aircraft capable of 65 deg wing sweep and flight at Mach 1.6. A generic skew-wing aircraft model was developed for 45 deg wing skew at a flight condition of Mach 0.70 and 3048 m altitude. At this flight condition the aircraft has a wing flutter mode. An active implementable control law was developed using the linear quadratic Gaussian design technique. A method of modal residualization was used to reduce the order of the controller used for flutter suppression.
Competing nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays
structure [8] we show that nonlinear phase cancellation is possible in both re- gimes of normal by quadratic nonlinear interactions. The presence of several SH modes is crucial for observation of com- petingCompeting nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays Frank Setzpfandt,1, * Dragomir N
Simplicity of quadratic Lie conformal algebras
Yanyong Hong; Zhixiang Wu
2015-07-07
In this paper, simplicity of quadratic Lie conformal algebras are investigated. From the point view of the corresponding Gel'fand-Dorfman bialgebras, some sufficient conditions and necessary conditions to ensure simplicity of quadratic Lie conformal algebras are presented. By these observations, we present several classes of new infinite simple Lie conformal algebras. These results will be useful for classification purposes.
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF QUADRATIC IN COMPUTER VISION
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF QUADRATIC PROBLEMS IN COMPUTER VISION BY YORAM LEEDAN A dissertation and Computer Engineering Written under the direction of Professor Peter Meer and approved by New Brunswick, New STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF QUADRATIC PROBLEMS IN COMPUTER VISION by YORAM LEEDAN Dissertation Director: Professor
An Unexpected Influence on a Quadratic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Jon D.
2013-01-01
Using technology to explore the coefficients of a quadratic equation can lead to an unexpected result. This article describes an investigation that involves sliders and dynamically linked representations. It guides students to notice the effect that the parameter "a" has on the graphical representation of a quadratic function in the form…
On the amelioration of quadratic divergences
Delbourgo, Robert
2002-01-01
Once massless quadratically divergent tadpole diagrams are discarded, because they contain no intrinsic scale, it is possible to convert other divergences into logarithmic form, using partial fraction identities; this includes the case of quadratic divergences, as has been applied to the linear sigma model. However the procedure must be carried out with due care, paying great attention to correct numerator factors.
On the amelioration of quadratic divergences
R. Delbourgo; M. D. Scadron
2002-02-17
Once massless quadratically divergent tadpole diagrams are discarded, because they contain no intrinsic scale, it is possible to convert other divergences into logarithmic form, using partial fraction identities; this includes the case of quadratic divergences, as has been applied to the linear sigma model. However the procedure must be carried out with due care, paying great attention to correct numerator factors.
On the non-Gaussianity from Recombination
Nicola Bartolo; Antonio Riotto
2009-02-10
The non-linear effects operating at the recombination epoch generate a non-Gaussian signal in the CMB anisotropies. Such a contribution is relevant because it represents a major part of the second-order radiation transfer function which must be determined in order to have a complete control of both the primordial and non-primordial part of non-Gaussianity in the CMB anisotropies. We provide an estimate of the level of non-Gaussianity in the CMB arising from the recombination epoch which shows up mainly in the equilateral configuration. We find that it causes a contamination to the possible measurement of the equilateral primordial bispectrum shifting the minimum detectable value of the non-Gaussian parameter f^equil_NL by Delta f^equil_NL= O(10) for an experiment like Planck.
Complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos
Hubert Lacoin; Rémi Rhodes; Vincent Vargas
2015-02-15
In this article, we study complex Gaussian multiplicative chaos. More precisely, we study the renormalization theory and the limit of the exponential of a complex log-correlated Gaussian field in all dimensions (including Gaussian Free Fields in dimension 2). Our main working assumption is that the real part and the imaginary part are independent. We also discuss applications in 2D string theory; in particular we give a rigorous mathematical definition of the so-called Tachyon fields, the conformally invariant operators in critical Liouville Quantum Gravity with a c=1 central charge, and derive the original KPZ formula for these fields.
Spinor condensates with a laser-induced quadratic Zeeman effect
Santos, L.; Fattori, M.; Stuhler, J.; Pfau, T.
2007-05-15
We show that an effective quadratic Zeeman effect for trapped atoms can be generated by proper laser configurations and, in particular, by the dipole trap itself. The induced quadratic Zeeman effect leads to a rich ground-state phase diagram, e.g., for a degenerate {sup 52}Cr gas, can be used to induce topological defects by controllably quenching across transitions between phases of different symmetries, allows for the observability of the Einstein-de Haas effect for relatively large magnetic fields, and may be employed to create S=1/2 systems with spinor dynamics. Similar ideas could be explored in other atomic species opening an exciting new control tool in spinor systems.
Hammouda, Boualem
2014-01-01
It is common practice to assume that Bragg scattering peaks have Gaussian shape. The Gaussian shape function is used to perform most instrumental smearing corrections. Using Monte Carlo ray tracing simulation, the resolution of a realistic small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) instrument is generated reliably. Including a single-crystal sample with large d-spacing, Bragg peaks are produced. Bragg peaks contain contributions from the resolution function and from spread in the sample structure. Results show that Bragg peaks are Gaussian in the resolution-limited condition (with negligible sample spread) while this is not the case when spread in the sample structure is non-negligible. When sample spread contributes, the exponentially modified Gaussian function is a better account of the Bragg peak shape. This function is characterized by a non-zero third moment (skewness) which makes Bragg peaks asymmetric for broad neutron wavelength spreads.
George: Gaussian Process regression
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Foreman-Mackey, Dan
2015-11-01
George is a fast and flexible library, implemented in C++ with Python bindings, for Gaussian Process regression useful for accounting for correlated noise in astronomical datasets, including those for transiting exoplanet discovery and characterization and stellar population modeling.
Gaussian operations and privacy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Navascués, Miguel; Acín, Antonio
2005-07-01
We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascués Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states.
Gaussian operations and privacy
Navascues, Miguel; Acin, Antonio
2005-07-15
We consider the possibilities offered by Gaussian states and operations for two honest parties, Alice and Bob, to obtain privacy against a third eavesdropping party, Eve. We first extend the security analysis of the protocol proposed in [Navascues et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 010502 (2005)]. Then, we prove that a generalized version of this protocol does not allow one to distill a secret key out of bound entangled Gaussian states.
Design of Linear Quadratic Regulators and Kalman Filters
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehtinen, B.; Geyser, L.
1986-01-01
AESOP solves problems associated with design of controls and state estimators for linear time-invariant systems. Systems considered are modeled in state-variable form by set of linear differential and algebraic equations with constant coefficients. Two key problems solved by AESOP are linear quadratic regulator (LQR) design problem and steady-state Kalman filter design problem. AESOP is interactive. User solves design problems and analyzes solutions in single interactive session. Both numerical and graphical information available to user during the session.
Reduced-Order Model Based Feedback Control For Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani Model
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.
2013-01-28
In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modi ed Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in ow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then a modelbased feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators (LQR). Finally, a linear quadratic gaussian (LQG) controller, which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.
Reduced-order model based feedback control of the modified Hasegawa-Wakatani model
Goumiri, I. R.; Rowley, C. W.; Ma, Z.; Gates, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; Parker, J. B.
2013-04-15
In this work, the development of model-based feedback control that stabilizes an unstable equilibrium is obtained for the Modified Hasegawa-Wakatani (MHW) equations, a classic model in plasma turbulence. First, a balanced truncation (a model reduction technique that has proven successful in flow control design problems) is applied to obtain a low dimensional model of the linearized MHW equation. Then, a model-based feedback controller is designed for the reduced order model using linear quadratic regulators. Finally, a linear quadratic Gaussian controller which is more resistant to disturbances is deduced. The controller is applied on the non-reduced, nonlinear MHW equations to stabilize the equilibrium and suppress the transition to drift-wave induced turbulence.
Explicit Solution to a Certain Non-ELQG Risk-sensitive Stochastic Control Problem
Hata, Hiroaki; Sekine, Jun
2010-12-15
A risk-sensitive stochastic control problem with finite/infinite horizon is studied with a 1-dimensional controlled process defined by a linear SDE with a linear control-term in the drift. In the criterion function, a non-linear/quadratic term is introduced by using the solution to a Riccati differential equation, and hence, the problem is not ELQG (Exponential Linear Quadratic Gaussian) in general. For the problem, optimal value and control are calculated in explicit forms and the set of admissible risk-sensitive parameters is given in a concrete form. As applications, two types of large deviations control problems, i.e., maximizing an upside large deviations probability and minimizing a downside large deviations probability, are mentioned.
Gray, Morgan; Petit, Cyril; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry
2014-08-25
We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs). PMID:25321291
Gray, Morgan; Rodionov, Sergey; Bocquet, Marc; Bertino, Laurent; Ferrari, Marc; Fusco, Thierry
2014-01-01
We propose a new algorithm for an adaptive optics system control law, based on the Linear Quadratic Gaussian approach and a Kalman Filter adaptation with localizations. It allows to handle non-stationary behaviors, to obtain performance close to the optimality defined with the residual phase variance minimization criterion, and to reduce the computational burden with an intrinsically parallel implementation on the Extremely Large Telescopes (ELTs).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, Douglas B.; Miller, Gerald D.; Klepl, Martin J.
1991-01-01
Three designs for controlling loads while rolling for the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) are discussed. The goal is to provide good roll control while simultaneously limiting the torsion and bending loads experienced by the wing. The first design uses Linear Quadratic Gaussian/Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) modern control methods to control roll rate and torsional loads at four different wing locations. The second design uses a nonlinear surface command function to produce surface position commands as a function of current roll rate and commanded roll rate. The final design is a flutter suppression control system. This system stabilizes both symmetric and axisymmetric flutter modes of the AFW.
Active flutter suppression using eigenspace and linear quadratic design techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garrard, W. L.; Liebst, B. S.
1983-01-01
Eigenspace (ES) and Linear Quadratic (LQ) techniques are used to design an active flutter suppression system for the DAST ARW-2 flight test vehicle. The performance of the ES and LQ controllers are very similar in meeting control surface activity specifications. The ES controller provides reduced wing root bending moment and shear but torsional stress is slightly higher than with the LQ controller. The ES controller also results in improved flutter boundaries compared with the LQ controller. The LQ controller exhibits significantly better phase margins at the flutter condition than does the ES controller but the LQ design requires large feedback gains on actuator states while the ES does not. This results in reduced overall actuator gain for the LQ design.
Schur Stability Regions for Complex Quadratic Polynomials
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Sui Sun; Huang, Shao Yuan
2010-01-01
Given a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions are found in terms of the coefficients such that all its roots have absolute values less than 1. (Contains 3 figures.)
PRIMES AND QUADRATIC RECIPROCITY ANGELICA WONG
May, J. Peter
PRIMES AND QUADRATIC RECIPROCITY ANGELICA WONG Abstract. We discuss number theory with the ultimate xi yp-i . It suffices to show that each term of the expansion Date: August 11, 2008. 1 #12;2 ANGELICA
Operational Discord Measure for Gaussian States with Gaussian Measurements
Saleh Rahimi-Keshari; Timothy C. Ralph; Carlton M. Caves
2015-11-20
We introduce an operational discord-type measure for quantifying nonclassical correlations in bipartite Gaussian states based on using Gaussian measurements. We refer to this measure as operational Gaussian discord (OGD). It is defined as the difference between the entropies of two conditional probability distributions associated to one subsystem, which are obtained by performing optimal local and joint Gaussian measurements. We demonstrate the operational significance of this measure in terms of a Gaussian quantum protocol for extracting maximal information about an encoded classical signal. As examples, we calculate OGD for several Gaussian states in the standard form.
Byrnes, Christian T.; Nurmi, Sami; Tasinato, Gianmassimo; Wands, David E-mail: s.nurmi@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-03-01
We propose a method to probe higher-order correlators of the primordial density field through the inhomogeneity of local non-Gaussian parameters, such as f{sub NL}, measured within smaller patches of the sky. Correlators between n-point functions measured in one patch of the sky and k-point functions measured in another patch depend upon the (n+k)-point functions over the entire sky. The inhomogeneity of non-Gaussian parameters may be a feasible way to detect or constrain higher- order correlators in local models of non-Gaussianity, as well as to distinguish between single and multiple-source scenarios for generating the primordial density perturbation, and more generally to probe the details of inflationary physics.
A Solvable Mean Field Model of a Gaussian Spin Glass
Adriano Barra; Giuseppe Genovese; Francesco Guerra; Daniele Tantari
2012-05-17
We introduce a mean field spin glass model with gaussian distribuited spins and pairwise interactions, whose couplings are drawn randomly from a normal gaussian distribution too. We completely control the main thermodynamical properties of the model (free energy, phase diagram, fluctuations theory) in the whole phase space. In particular we prove that in thermodynamic limit the free energy equals its replica symmetric expression.
THE DISTRIBUTION OF QUADRATIC RESIDUES AND NON-RESIDUES
Srinivasan, Aravind
106 THE DISTRIBUTION OF QUADRATIC RESIDUES AND NON-RESIDUES D. A. BURGESS 1. If p is a prime other than 2, half of the numbers 1, 2, ..., p-l are quadratic residues (modp) and the other half are quadratic non-residues. Various questions have been proposed concerning the distribution of the quadratic
Active control law synthesis for flexible aircraft
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, V.
1988-01-01
An application of an active control law synthesis procedure is presented, to meet multiple design requirements for a flexible aircraft modeled by a large order state space system. In this synthesis procedure, a linear quadratic Gaussian type cost function is minimized by updating the free parameters of the control law, while satisfying a set of constraints on the design loads, responses and stability margins. Analytical expressions for gradients of the cost function and the constraints, with respect to the control law design variables are used to facilitate rapid numerical convergence. These gradients can also be used for sensitivity study. A stable classical control law as well as an estimator-based full or reduced order control law can be modified, in order to meet individual root-mean-square response limitations as well as minimum singular value restrictions. Both analog and digital control laws can be optimized. Low order, robust control laws were synthesized for flutter suppression of a flexible aircraft.
Mathematicians of Gaussian Elimination
Gallier, Jean
computers, which began with Gauss, who apparently was inspired by work of Joseph- Louis Lagrange. LastMathematicians of Gaussian Elimination Joseph F. Grcar G aussian elimination is universally known was the interpretation in matrix algebra by several authors, including John Joseph F. Grcar's email address is jfgrcar
Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lindner, Robert R.; Vera-Ciro, Carlos; Murray, Claire E.; Stanimirovi?, Snežana; Babler, Brian; Heiles, Carl; Hennebelle, Patrick; Goss, W. M.; Dickey, John
2015-04-01
We present a new algorithm, named Autonomous Gaussian Decomposition (AGD), for automatically decomposing spectra into Gaussian components. AGD uses derivative spectroscopy and machine learning to provide optimized guesses for the number of Gaussian components in the data, and also their locations, widths, and amplitudes. We test AGD and find that it produces results comparable to human-derived solutions on 21 cm absorption spectra from the 21 cm SPectral line Observations of Neutral Gas with the EVLA (21-SPONGE) survey. We use AGD with Monte Carlo methods to derive the H i line completeness as a function of peak optical depth and velocity width for the 21-SPONGE data, and also show that the results of AGD are stable against varying observational noise intensity. The autonomy and computational efficiency of the method over traditional manual Gaussian fits allow for truly unbiased comparisons between observations and simulations, and for the ability to scale up and interpret the very large data volumes from the upcoming Square Kilometer Array and pathfinder telescopes.
Dr. Z.'s Number Theory Lecture 20 Handout: Quadratic residues and the law of Quadratic Reciprocity
Zeilberger, Doron
Dr. Z.'s Number Theory Lecture 20 Handout: Quadratic residues and the law of Quadratic Reciprocity By Doron Zeilberger Important Definition: a is a quadratic residue mod n is there is an integer x, 0 x such that x2 a (mod n) . Otherwise it is a quadratic non-residue. Note: every congruence class between 0
A Gaussian density matrix under decoherence and friction
Polonyi, Janos
2015-01-01
The time evolution of a Gaussian density matrix of a one dimensional particle, generated by a quadratic, ${\\cal O}(\\partial_t^2)$ effective Lagrangian, describing a harmonic potential, a friction force and decoherence, is studied within the Closed Time Path formalism. The density matrix converges to an asymptotic form, given by a completely decohered thermal state with an ${\\cal O}(\\hbar)$ temperature in the translation invariant case. The time evolution of the state of a harmonic oscillator is followed numerically. The asymptotic density matrix, the fixed point of the master equation, is found analytically and its dependence on the oscillator frequency, the friction constant and the decoherence strength is explored.
A Gaussian density matrix under decoherence and friction
Janos Polonyi
2015-10-12
The time evolution of a Gaussian density matrix of a one dimensional particle, generated by a quadratic, ${\\cal O}(\\partial_t^2)$ effective Lagrangian, describing a harmonic potential, a friction force and decoherence, is studied within the Closed Time Path formalism. The density matrix converges to an asymptotic form, given by a completely decohered thermal state with an ${\\cal O}(\\hbar)$ temperature in the translation invariant case. The time evolution of the state of a harmonic oscillator is followed numerically. The asymptotic density matrix, the fixed point of the master equation, is found analytically and its dependence on the oscillator frequency, the friction constant and the decoherence strength is explored.
Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind-tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1992-01-01
Design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a string mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory and involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and the use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.
Flutter suppression digital control law design and testing for the AFW wind tunnel model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1994-01-01
The design of a control law for simultaneously suppressing the symmetric and antisymmetric flutter modes of a sting mounted fixed-in-roll aeroelastic wind-tunnel model is described. The flutter suppression control law was designed using linear quadratic Gaussian theory, and it also involved control law order reduction, a gain root-locus study, and use of previous experimental results. A 23 percent increase in the open-loop flutter dynamic pressure was demonstrated during the wind-tunnel test. Rapid roll maneuvers at 11 percent above the symmetric flutter boundary were also performed when the model was in a free-to-roll configuration.
Bioluminescence tomography with Gaussian prior
Wang, Ge
Bioluminescence tomography with Gaussian prior Hao Gao,1 Hongkai Zhao,2 Wenxiang Cong,3 and Ge Wang: Parameterizing the bioluminescent source globally in Gaussians provides several advantages over voxel representation in bioluminescence tomography. It is mathematically unique to recover Gaussians [Med. Phys. 31
Fast Approximate Quadratic Programming for Graph Matching
Vogelstein, Joshua T.; Conroy, John M.; Lyzinski, Vince; Podrazik, Louis J.; Kratzer, Steven G.; Harley, Eric T.; Fishkind, Donniell E.; Vogelstein, R. Jacob; Priebe, Carey E.
2015-01-01
Quadratic assignment problems arise in a wide variety of domains, spanning operations research, graph theory, computer vision, and neuroscience, to name a few. The graph matching problem is a special case of the quadratic assignment problem, and graph matching is increasingly important as graph-valued data is becoming more prominent. With the aim of efficiently and accurately matching the large graphs common in big data, we present our graph matching algorithm, the Fast Approximate Quadratic assignment algorithm. We empirically demonstrate that our algorithm is faster and achieves a lower objective value on over 80% of the QAPLIB benchmark library, compared with the previous state-of-the-art. Applying our algorithm to our motivating example, matching C. elegans connectomes (brain-graphs), we find that it efficiently achieves performance. PMID:25886624
Quadratic ??-corrections to heterotic double field theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Kanghoon
2015-10-01
We investigate ??-corrections of heterotic double field theory up to quadratic order in the language of supersymmetric O (D, D + dim ? G) gauged double field theory. After introducing double-vielbein formalism with a parametrization which reproduces heterotic supergravity, we show that supersymmetry for heterotic double field theory up to leading order ??-correction is obtained from supersymmetric gauged double field theory. We discuss the necessary modifications of the symmetries defined in supersymmetric gauged double field theory. Further, we construct supersymmetric completion at quadratic order in ??.
On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators
Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd
2015-05-15
A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.
Indirect quantum tomography of quadratic Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgarth, Daniel; Maruyama, Koji; Nori, Franco
2011-01-01
A number of many-body problems can be formulated using Hamiltonians that are quadratic in the creation and annihilation operators. Here, we show how such quadratic Hamiltonians can be efficiently estimated indirectly, employing very few resources. We found that almost all the properties of the Hamiltonian are determined by its surface and that these properties can be measured even if the system can only be initialized to a mixed state. Therefore, our method can be applied to various physical models, with important examples including coupled nano-mechanical oscillators, hopping fermions in optical lattices and transverse Ising chains.
Quintessence with quadratic coupling to dark matter
Boehmer, Christian G.; Chan, Nyein; Caldera-Cabral, Gabriela; Lazkoz, Ruth; Maartens, Roy
2010-04-15
We introduce a new form of coupling between dark energy and dark matter that is quadratic in their energy densities. Then we investigate the background dynamics when dark energy is in the form of exponential quintessence. The three types of quadratic coupling all admit late-time accelerating critical points, but these are not scaling solutions. We also show that two types of coupling allow for a suitable matter era at early times and acceleration at late times, while the third type of coupling does not admit a suitable matter era.
Gaussian discriminating strength
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.
2015-10-01
We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.
Gaussian interferometric power
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adesso, Gerardo
2014-08-01
The interferometric power of a bipartite quantum state quantifies the precision, measured by quantum Fisher information, that such a state enables for the estimation of a parameter embedded in a unitary dynamics applied to one subsystem only, in the worst-case scenario where a full knowledge of the generator of the dynamics is not available a priori. For finite-dimensional systems, this quantity was proven to be a faithful measure of quantum correlations beyond entanglement. Here we extend the notion of interferometric power to the technologically relevant setting of optical interferometry with continuous-variable probes. By restricting to Gaussian local dynamics, we obtain a closed formula for the interferometric power of all two-mode Gaussian states. We identify separable and entangled Gaussian states which maximize the interferometric power at fixed mean photon number of the probes and discuss the associated metrological scaling. At fixed entanglement of the probes, highly thermalized states can guarantee considerably larger precision than pure two-mode squeezed states.
Learning from Examples with Quadratic Mutual Information
Slatton, Clint
Learning from Examples with Quadratic Mutual Information Dongxin Xu, Jose C .Principe Computational criteria (entropy or mutual information) directly from a training set. l'he method is based on a Parzen the algorithm for entropy estimation to the impor- tiint case of mutual information. The mutual information
Discrete calculus of variations for quadratic lagrangians
Ryckelynck, Philippe
2011-01-01
We develop in this paper a new framework for discrete calculus of variations when the actions have densities involving an arbitrary discretization operator. We deduce the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations for piecewise continuous critical points of sampled actions. Then we characterize the discretization operators such that, for all quadratic lagrangian, the discrete Euler-Lagrange equations converge to the classical ones.
Integration of the Quadratic Function and Generalization
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitsuma, Kunio
2011-01-01
We will first recall useful formulas in integration that simplify the calculation of certain definite integrals with the quadratic function. A main formula relies only on the coefficients of the function. We will then explore a geometric proof of one of these formulas. Finally, we will extend the formulas to more general cases. (Contains 3…
Integrated structure/control law design by multilevel optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Michael G.; Schmidt, David K.
1989-01-01
A new approach to integrated structure/control law design based on multilevel optimization is presented. This new approach is applicable to aircraft and spacecraft and allows for the independent design of the structure and control law. Integration of the designs is achieved through use of an upper level coordination problem formulation within the multilevel optimization framework. The method requires the use of structure and control law design sensitivity information. A general multilevel structure/control law design problem formulation is given, and the use of Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control law design and design sensitivity methods within the formulation is illustrated. Results of three simple integrated structure/control law design examples are presented. These results show the capability of structure and control law design tradeoffs to improve controlled system performance within the multilevel approach.
Sequential design of linear quadratic state regulators via the optimal root-locus techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, L. S.; Dib, H. M.; Yates, R. E.
1988-01-01
The use of well-known root-locus techniques for sequentially finding the weighting matrices and the linear quadratic state regulators of multivariable control systems in the frequency domain is considered. This sequential design method permits the retention of some stable open-loop poles and the associated eigenvectors in the closed-loop system; it also allows some optimal closed-loop poles to be placed in a specific region of the complex plane. In addition, it provides a design procedure for determining the weighting matrices and linear quadratic state regulators for the optimal control of multivariable systems in the frequency domain.
Quadratic Time, Linear Space Algorithms for Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization and Gaussian
Lelarge, Marc
-model signatures [ABB10,Boy10], attribute-based encryption [BGG+ 14], and many other con- structions. Being able-and-sign signatures [GPV08], (hierarchical) identity- based encryption schemes [GPV08,CHKP10,ABB10], standard is directly applicable to bases that appear in ideal-lattice cryptography because those bases exhibit
On Curved Simplicial Elements and Best Quadratic Spline Approximation for
Hamann, Bernd
On Curved Simplicial Elements and Best Quadratic Spline Approximation for Hierarchical Data a method for hierarchical data approximation using curved quadratic simplicial elements for domain- cial elements make possible a better representation of curved geometry, domain boundaries
Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allaire, Patricia R.; Bradley, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Focuses on geometric solutions of quadratic problems. Presents a collection of geometric techniques from ancient Babylonia, classical Greece, medieval Arabia, and early modern Europe to enhance the quadratic equation portion of an algebra course. (KHR)
Anonymous IBE from Quadratic Residuosity with Improved Performance
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Anonymous IBE from Quadratic Residuosity with Improved Performance Michael Clear , Hitesh Tewari Based Encryption, Anonymous IBE, Cocks Scheme, Quadratic Residuosity Abstract. Identity Based Encryption. Cocks constructed the first such scheme, and subsequent improvements have been made to achieve anonymity
Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Raghavachari, K.; Materials Science Division; Indiana Univ.
2007-01-01
The Gaussian-4 theory (G4 theory) for the calculation of energies of compounds containing first- (Li-F), second- (Na-Cl), and third-row main group (K, Ca, and Ga-Kr) atoms is presented. This theoretical procedure is the fourth in the Gaussian-n series of quantum chemical methods based on a sequence of single point energy calculations. The G4 theory modifies the Gaussian-3 (G3) theory in five ways. First, an extrapolation procedure is used to obtain the Hartree-Fock limit for inclusion in the total energy calculation. Second, the d-polarization sets are increased to 3d on the first-row atoms and to 4d on the second-row atoms, with reoptimization of the exponents for the latter. Third, the QCISD(T) method is replaced by the CCSD(T) method for the highest level of correlation treatment. Fourth, optimized geometries and zero-point energies are obtained with the B3LYP density functional. Fifth, two new higher level corrections are added to account for deficiencies in the energy calculations. The new method is assessed on the 454 experimental energies in the G3/05 test set [L. A. Curtiss, P. C. Redfern, and K. Raghavachari, J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124107 (2005)], and the average absolute deviation from experiment shows significant improvement from 1.13 kcal/mol (G3 theory) to 0.83 kcal/mol (G4 theory). The largest improvement is found for 79 nonhydrogen systems (2.10 kcal/mol for G3 versus 1.13 kcal/mol for G4). The contributions of the new features to this improvement are analyzed and the performance on different types of energies is discussed.
The dines theorem and some other properties of quadratic mappings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karamzin, D. Yu.
2015-10-01
Real homogeneous quadratic mappings from Rn to R2 are examined. It is known that the image of such a mapping is always convex. A proof of the convexity of the image based on the quadratic extremum principle is given. The following fact is noted: If the quadratic mapping Q is surjective and n > 2 + dimker Q, then there exists a regular zero of Q. A certain criterion of the linear dependence of quadratic forms is also stated.
Hitting Times for Gaussian Processes
Decreusefond, Laurent; Nualart, David
2008-01-01
of Probability 2008, Vol. 36, No. 1, 319–330 DOI: 10.1214/009117907000000132 © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2008 HITTING TIMES FOR GAUSSIAN PROCESSES BY LAURENT DECREUSEFOND AND DAVID NUALART1 GET/Telecom Paris and University of Kansas We establish a... general formula for the Laplace transform of the hitting times of a Gaussian process. Some consequences are derived, and particular cases like the fractional Brownian motion are discussed. 1. Introduction. Consider a zero mean continuous Gaussian process...
Note on an Additive Characterization of Quadratic Residues Modulo p
Monico, Chris
Note on an Additive Characterization of Quadratic Residues Modulo p Chris Monico, Michele Elia, . . . , p - 1} of positive residues modulo an odd prime p is the partition into quadratic residues and quadratic non-residues if and only if the elements of A and B satisfy certain additive properties, thus
On differences of quadratic residues Guillermo Morales-Luna
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
On differences of quadratic residues Guillermo Morales-Luna Computer Science Cinvestav-IPN, Mexico of remainders, any element can be realized as the difference of two quadratic residues, and also that as difference of quadratic residues is non- decreasing with respect to the divisibility ordering in the odd
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF QUADRATS FOR MEASURING VASCULAR PLANT DIVERSITY
Quadrats are widely used for measuring characteristics of vascular plant communities. It is well recognized that quadrat size affects measurements of frequency and cover. The ability of quadrats of varying sizes to adequately measure diversity has not been established. An exha...
Quadratic Sieve Factoring Method -part 1 Cryptology 2
Babinkostova, Liljana
algorithms that share a common strategy Trial division the sieve of Eratosthenes Quadratic Sieve Factoring of factorization algorithms that share a common strategy Trial division the sieve of Eratosthenes Fermat of Eratosthenes Fermat's algorithm Pomerance's Quadratic Sieve Quadratic Sieve Factoring Method - part 1 #12
Rotating quantum Gaussian packets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dodonov, V. V.
2015-10-01
We study two-dimensional quantum Gaussian packets with a fixed value of mean angular momentum. This value is the sum of two independent parts: the ‘external’ momentum related to the motion of the packet center and the ‘internal’ momentum due to quantum fluctuations. The packets minimizing the mean energy of an isotropic oscillator with the fixed mean angular momentum are found. They exist for ‘co-rotating’ external and internal motions, and they have nonzero correlation coefficients between coordinates and momenta, together with some (moderate) amount of quadrature squeezing. Variances of angular momentum and energy are calculated, too. Differences in the behavior of ‘co-rotating’ and ‘anti-rotating’ packets are shown. The time evolution of rotating Gaussian packets is analyzed, including the cases of a charge in a homogeneous magnetic field and a free particle. In the latter case, the effect of initial shrinking of packets with big enough coordinate-momentum correlation coefficients (followed by the well known expansion) is discovered. This happens due to a competition of ‘focusing’ and ‘de-focusing’ in the orthogonal directions.
Non-Gaussian quantum states generation and robust quantum non-Gaussianity via squeezing field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Xu-Bing; Gao, Fang; Wang, Yao-Xiong; Kuang, Sen; Shuang, Feng
2015-03-01
Recent studies show that quantum non-Gaussian states or using non-Gaussian operations can improve entanglement distillation, quantum swapping, teleportation, and cloning. In this work, employing a strategy of non-Gaussian operations (namely subtracting and adding a single photon), we propose a scheme to generate non-Gaussian quantum states named single-photon-added and -subtracted coherent (SPASC) superposition states by implementing Bell measurements, and then investigate the corresponding nonclassical features. By squeezed the input field, we demonstrate that robustness of non-Gaussianity can be improved. Controllable phase space distribution offers the possibility to approximately generate a displaced coherent superposition states (DCSS). The fidelity can reach up to F ? 0.98 and F ? 0.90 for size of amplitude z = 1.53 and 2.36, respectively. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61203061 and 61074052), the Outstanding Young Talent Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2012SQRL040), and the Natural Science Foundation of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. KJ2012Z035).
Exploring {{W}}_{? } in the quadratic basis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procházka, Tomáš
2015-09-01
We study the operator product expansions in the chiral algebra {W}_{? } , first using the associativity conditions in the basis of primary generating fields and then using a different basis coming from the free field representation in which the OPE takes a simpler quadratic form. The results in the quadratic basis can be compactly written using certain bilocal combinations of the generating fields and we conjecture a closed-form expression for the complete OPE in this basis. Next we show that the commutation relations as well as correlation functions can be easily computed using properties of these bilocal fields. In the last part we verify the consistency with results derived previously by studying minimal models of {W}_{? } and comparing them to known reductions of {W}_{? } to {W}_N . The results we obtain illustrate nicely the role of triality symmetry in the representation theory of {W}_{? }.
New exact solutions of quadratic curvature gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gürses, Metin; ?i?man, Tahsin Ça?r?; Tekin, Bayram
2012-07-01
It is a known fact that the Kerr-Schild type solutions in general relativity satisfy both exact and linearized Einstein field equations. We show that this property remains valid also for a special class of the Kerr-Schild metrics in arbitrary dimensions in generic quadratic curvature theory. In addition to the anti-de Sitter (AdS) wave (or Siklos) metric which represents plane waves in an AdS background, we present here a new exact solution, in this class, to the quadratic gravity in D dimensions which represents a spherical wave in an AdS background. The solution is a special case of the Kundt metrics belonging to spacetimes with constant curvature invariants.
Quadratic invariants of the elasticity tensor
Yakov Itin
2015-09-08
We study the quadratic invariants of the elasticity tensor in the framework of its unique irreducible decomposition. The key point is that this decomposition generates the direct sum reduction of the elasticity tensor space. The corresponding subspaces are completely independent and even orthogonal relative to the Euclidean (Frobenius) scalar product. We construct a basis set of seven quadratic invariants that emerge in a natural and systematic way. Moreover, the completeness of this basis and the independence of the basis tensors follow immediately from the direct sum representation of the elasticity tensor space. We define the Cauchy factor of an anisotropic material as a dimensionless measure of a closeness to a pure Cauchy material and a similar isotropic factor is as a measure for a closeness of an anisotropic material to its isotropic prototype. For cubic crystals, these factors are explicitly displayed and cubic crystal average of an arbitrary elastic material is derived.
Combined control-structure optimization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Salama, M.; Milman, M.; Bruno, R.; Scheid, R.; Gibson, S.
1989-01-01
An approach for combined control-structure optimization keyed to enhancing early design trade-offs is outlined and illustrated by numerical examples. The approach employs a homotopic strategy and appears to be effective for generating families of designs that can be used in these early trade studies. Analytical results were obtained for classes of structure/control objectives with linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) costs. For these, researchers demonstrated that global optima can be computed for small values of the homotopy parameter. Conditions for local optima along the homotopy path were also given. Details of two numerical examples employing the LQR control cost were given showing variations of the optimal design variables along the homotopy path. The results of the second example suggest that introducing a second homotopy parameter relating the two parts of the control index in the LQG/LQR formulation might serve to enlarge the family of Pareto optima, but its effect on modifying the optimal structural shapes may be analogous to the original parameter lambda.
Generation of Knot Net for Calculation of Quadratic Triangular B-spline Surface of Human Head
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mihalík, Ján
2011-09-01
This paper deals with calculation of the quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head for the purpose of its modeling in the standard videocodec MPEG-4 SNHC. In connection with this we propose an algorithm of generation of the knot net and present the results of its application for triangulation of the 3D polygonal model Candide. Then for the model and generated knot net as well as an established distribution of control points we show the results of the calculated quadratic triangular B-spline surface of the human head including its textured version for the texture of the selected avatar.
Li, Yong; Wang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jing; Shi, Shengyu
2014-01-01
The translational axis is one of the most important subsystems in modern machine tools, as its degradation may result in the loss of the product qualification and lower the control precision. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) has been considered as one of the advanced maintenance schemes to achieve effective, reliable and cost-effective operation of machine systems, however, current vibration-based maintenance schemes cannot be employed directly in the translational axis system, due to its complex structure and the inefficiency of commonly used condition monitoring features. In this paper, a wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for translational axis condition monitoring by using the torque signature of the drive servomotor. Firstly, the quadratic nonlinearity of the servomotor torque signature is discussed, and then, a biphase randomization wavelet bicoherence is introduced for its quadratic nonlinear detection. On this basis, a quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for condition monitoring of the translational axis. The properties of the proposed quadratic nonlinearity feature are investigated by simulations. Subsequently, this feature is applied to the real-world servomotor torque data collected from the X-axis on a high precision vertical machining centre. All the results show that the performance of the proposed feature is much better than that of original condition monitoring features. PMID:24473281
Li, Yong; Wang, Xiufeng; Lin, Jing; Shi, Shengyu
2014-01-01
The translational axis is one of the most important subsystems in modern machine tools, as its degradation may result in the loss of the product qualification and lower the control precision. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) has been considered as one of the advanced maintenance schemes to achieve effective, reliable and cost-effective operation of machine systems, however, current vibration-based maintenance schemes cannot be employed directly in the translational axis system, due to its complex structure and the inefficiency of commonly used condition monitoring features. In this paper, a wavelet bicoherence-based quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for translational axis condition monitoring by using the torque signature of the drive servomotor. Firstly, the quadratic nonlinearity of the servomotor torque signature is discussed, and then, a biphase randomization wavelet bicoherence is introduced for its quadratic nonlinear detection. On this basis, a quadratic nonlinearity feature is proposed for condition monitoring of the translational axis. The properties of the proposed quadratic nonlinearity feature are investigated by simulations. Subsequently, this feature is applied to the real-world servomotor torque data collected from the X-axis on a high precision vertical machining centre. All the results show that the performance of the proposed feature is much better than that of original condition monitoring features. PMID:24473281
Quantification of Gaussian quantum steering
Ioannis Kogias; Antony R. Lee; Sammy Ragy; Gerardo Adesso
2015-02-12
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering incarnates a useful nonclassical correlation which sits between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. While a number of qualitative steering criteria exist, very little has been achieved for what concerns quantifying steerability. We introduce a computable measure of steering for arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, the measure reduces to a form of coherent information, which is proven never to exceed entanglement, and to reduce to it on pure states. We provide an operational connection between our measure and the key rate in one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution. We further prove that Peres' conjecture holds in its stronger form within the fully Gaussian regime: namely, steering bound entangled Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements is impossible.
Quantification of Gaussian quantum steering.
Kogias, Ioannis; Lee, Antony R; Ragy, Sammy; Adesso, Gerardo
2015-02-13
Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering incarnates a useful nonclassical correlation which sits between entanglement and Bell nonlocality. While a number of qualitative steering criteria exist, very little has been achieved for what concerns quantifying steerability. We introduce a computable measure of steering for arbitrary bipartite Gaussian states of continuous variable systems. For two-mode Gaussian states, the measure reduces to a form of coherent information, which is proven never to exceed entanglement, and to reduce to it on pure states. We provide an operational connection between our measure and the key rate in one-sided device-independent quantum key distribution. We further prove that Peres' conjecture holds in its stronger form within the fully Gaussian regime: namely, steering bound entangled Gaussian states by Gaussian measurements is impossible. PMID:25723193
Iterative LQG Controller Design Through Closed-Loop Identification
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsiao, Min-Hung; Huang, Jen-Kuang; Cox, David E.
1996-01-01
This paper presents an iterative Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller design approach for a linear stochastic system with an uncertain open-loop model and unknown noise statistics. This approach consists of closed-loop identification and controller redesign cycles. In each cycle, the closed-loop identification method is used to identify an open-loop model and a steady-state Kalman filter gain from closed-loop input/output test data obtained by using a feedback LQG controller designed from the previous cycle. Then the identified open-loop model is used to redesign the state feedback. The state feedback and the identified Kalman filter gain are used to form an updated LQC controller for the next cycle. This iterative process continues until the updated controller converges. The proposed controller design is demonstrated by numerical simulations and experiments on a highly unstable large-gap magnetic suspension system.
Normal form decomposition for Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperators
De Palma, Giacomo; Mari, Andrea; Giovannetti, Vittorio; Holevo, Alexander S.
2015-05-15
In this paper, we explore the set of linear maps sending the set of quantum Gaussian states into itself. These maps are in general not positive, a feature which can be exploited as a test to check whether a given quantum state belongs to the convex hull of Gaussian states (if one of the considered maps sends it into a non-positive operator, the above state is certified not to belong to the set). Generalizing a result known to be valid under the assumption of complete positivity, we provide a characterization of these Gaussian-to-Gaussian (not necessarily positive) superoperators in terms of their action on the characteristic function of the inputs. For the special case of one-mode mappings, we also show that any Gaussian-to-Gaussian superoperator can be expressed as a concatenation of a phase-space dilatation, followed by the action of a completely positive Gaussian channel, possibly composed with a transposition. While a similar decomposition is shown to fail in the multi-mode scenario, we prove that it still holds at least under the further hypothesis of homogeneous action on the covariance matrix.
Efficient entanglement criteria beyond Gaussian limits using Gaussian measurements.
Nha, Hyunchul; Lee, Su-Yong; Ji, Se-Wan; Kim, M S
2012-01-20
We present a formalism to derive entanglement criteria beyond the Gaussian regime that can be readily tested by only homodyne detection. The measured observable is the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. Its arbitrary functional form enables us to detect non-Gaussian entanglement even when an entanglement test based on second-order moments fails. We illustrate the power of our experimentally friendly criteria for a broad class of non-Gaussian states under realistic conditions. We also show rigorously that quantum teleportation for continuous variables employs a specific functional form of EPR correlation. PMID:22400723
Feedback control of unsupported standing in paraplegia--part I: optimal control approach.
Hunt, K J; Munih, M; de N Donaldson, N
1997-12-01
This is the first of a pair of papers which describe an investigation into the feasibility of providing artificial balance to paraplegics using electrical stimulation of the paralyzed muscles. By bracing the body above the shanks, only stimulation of the plantarflexors is necessary. This arrangement prevents any influence from the intact neuromuscular system above the spinal cord lesion. In this paper, we extend the design of the controllers to a nested-loop LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) stimulation controller which has ankle moment feedback (inner loops) and inverted pendulum angle feedback (outer loop). Each control loop is tuned by two parameters, the control weighting and an observer rise-time, which together determine the behavior. The nested structure was chosen because it is robust, despite changes in the muscle properties (fatigue) and interference from spasticity. PMID:9422458
Ruban, V P
2015-01-01
The nonlinear dynamics of an obliquely oriented wave packet at sea surface is studied both analytically and numerically for various initial parameters of the packet, in connection with the problem of oceanic rogue waves. In the framework of Gaussian variational ansatz applied to the corresponding (1+2D) hyperbolic nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, a simplified Lagrangian system of differential equations is derived, which determines the evolution of coefficients of the real and imaginary quadratic forms appearing in the Gaussian. This model provides a semi-quantitative description for the process of nonlinear spatio-temporal focusing, which is one of the most probable mechanisms of rogue wave formation in random wave fields. The system is integrated in quadratures, which fact allows us to understand qualitative differences between the linear and nonlinear regimes of the focusing of wave packet. Comparison of the Gaussian model predictions with results of direct numerical simulation of fully nonlinear long-cres...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cheng, Joseph K.; Ianculescu, George D.; Kenney, Charles S.; Laub, Alan J.; Ly, Jason H. Q.; Papadopoulos, Philip M.
1992-01-01
The feasibility of using conventional proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control and an alternative optimal control to perform the pointing and tracking functions of the Space Station solar dynamic power module is investigated. A very large state model of 6 rigid body modes and 272 flexible modes is used in conjunction with classical linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) optimal control to produce a full-order controller that satisfies the requirements. The results are compared with a classically designed PID controller that was implemented for a much smaller (6 rigid body, 40 flexible modes) model. The conventional control design approach is shown to be very much influenced by the order reduction of the plant model, i.e., the number of retained elastic modes from the full-order model, suggesting that for a complex, large space structure, such as the Space Station Freedom solar dynamic module, application of conventional control system design methods may not be adequate. The use of LQG control is recommended, and method for solving the large matrix. Riccati equation that arises from the optimal formulation is provided.
Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.
2015-09-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.
De Sitter stability in quadratic gravity
A. V. Toporensky; P. V. Tretyakov
2006-12-29
Quadratic curvature corrections to Einstein-Hilbert action lead in general to higher-order equations of motion, which can induced instability of some unperturbed solutions of General Relativity. We study conditions for stability of de Sitter cosmological solution. We argue that simple form of this condition known for FRW background in 3+1 dimensions changes seriously if at least one of these two assumptions is violated. In the present paper the stability conditions for de Sitter solution have been found for multidimensional FRW background and for Bianchi I metrics in 3+1 dimensions.
Gaussian-Based Hue Descriptors.
Mirzaei, Hamidreza; Funt, Brian
2015-12-01
A robust and accurate hue descriptor that is useful in modeling human color perception and for computer vision applications is explored. The hue descriptor is based on the peak wavelength of a Gaussian-like function (called a wraparound Gaussian) and is shown to correlate as well as CIECAM02 hue to the hue designators of papers from the Munsell and Natural Color System color atlases and to the hue names found in Moroney's Color Thesaurus. The new hue descriptor is also shown to be significantly more stable under a variety of illuminants than CIECAM02. The use of wraparound Gaussians as a hue model is similar in spirit to the use of subtractive Gaussians proposed by Mizokami et al., but overcomes many of their limitations. PMID:26539849
Smoothed analysis of Gaussian elimination
Sankar, Arvind, 1976-
2004-01-01
We present a smoothed analysis of Gaussian elimination, both with partial pivoting and without pivoting. Let A be any matrix and let A be a slight random perturbation of A. We prove that it is unlikely that A has large ...
Methods for merging Gaussian mixture Christian Hennig
Guillas, Serge
Methods for merging Gaussian mixture components Christian Hennig Department of Statistical Science The problem of merging Gaussian mixture components is discussed in situ- ations where a Gaussian mixture". The prob- lem of merging Gaussian mixtures is not statistically identifiable, therefore merging algorithms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yajima, Kohji; Kobayashi, Tsutomu
2015-11-01
We address the question of how one can modify the inflationary tensor spectrum without changing at all the successful predictions on the curvature perturbation. We show that this is indeed possible, and determine the two quadratic curvature corrections that are free from instabilities and affect only the tensor sector at the level of linear cosmological perturbations. Both of the two corrections can reduce the tensor amplitude, though one of them generates large non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation. It turns out that the other one corresponds to so-called Lorentz-violating Weyl gravity. In this latter case one can obtain as small as 65% of the standard tensor amplitude. Utilizing this effect we demonstrate that even power-law inflation can be within the 2 ? contour of the Planck results.
A quadratic programming framework for constrained and robust jet engine health monitoring
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Borguet, S.; Léonard, O.
2009-09-01
Kalman filters are largely used in the jet engine community for condition monitoring purpose. This algorithm gives a good estimate of the engine condition provided that the residuals between the model prediction and the measurements are zero-mean, Gaussian random variables. In the case of sensor faults, this assumption does not hold anymore and consequently, the diagnosis is spoiled. This contribution presents a recursive estimation algorithm based on a Quadratic Programming (QP) formulation which provides robustness against sensor faults and allows constraints on the health parameters to be specified. The improvements in estimation accuracy brought by this new algorithm are illustrated on a series of typical test-cases that may be encountered on current turbofan engines.
Kohji Yajima; Tsutomu Kobayashi
2015-11-05
We address the question of how one can modify the inflationary tensor spectrum without changing at all the successful predictions on the curvature perturbation. We show that this is indeed possible, and determine the two quadratic curvature corrections that are free from instabilities and affect only the tensor sector at the level of linear cosmological perturbations. Both of the two corrections can reduce the tensor amplitude, though one of them generates large non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation. It turns out that the other one corresponds to so-called Lorentz-violating Weyl gravity. In this latter case one can obtain as small as 65% of the standard tensor amplitude. Utilizing this effect we demonstrate that even power-law inflation can be within the 2$\\sigma$ contour of the Planck results.
Yajima, Kohji
2015-01-01
We address the question of how one can modify the inflationary tensor spectrum without changing at all the successful predictions on the curvature perturbation. We show that this is indeed possible, and determine the two quadratic curvature corrections that are free from instabilities and affect only the tensor sector at the level of linear cosmological perturbations. Both of the two corrections can reduce the tensor amplitude, though one of them generates large non-Gaussianity of the curvature perturbation. It turns out that the other one corresponds to so-called Lorentz-violating Weyl gravity. In this latter case one can obtain as small as 65% of the standard tensor amplitude. Utilizing this effect we demonstrate that even power-law inflation can be within the 2$\\sigma$ contour of the Planck results.
The halo bispectrum in N-body simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sefusatti, E.; Crocce, M.; Desjacques, V.
2012-10-01
We present measurements of the bispectrum of dark matter haloes in numerical simulations with non-Gaussian initial conditions of local type. We show, in the first place, that the overall effect of primordial non-Gaussianity on the halo bispectrum is larger than on the halo power spectrum when all measurable configurations are taken into account. We then compare our measurements with a tree-level perturbative prediction, finding good agreement at large scales when the constant Gaussian bias parameter, both linear and quadratic, and their constant non-Gaussian corrections are fitted for. The best-fitting values of the Gaussian bias factors and their non-Gaussian, scale-independent corrections are in qualitative agreement with the peak-background split expectations. In particular, we show that the effect of non-Gaussian initial conditions on squeezed configurations is fairly large (up to 30 per cent for fNL = 100 at redshift z = 0.5) and results from contributions of similar amplitude induced by the initial matter bispectrum, scale-dependent bias corrections as well as from non-linear matter bispectrum corrections. We show, in addition, that effects at second order in fNL are irrelevant for the range of values allowed by cosmic microwave background and galaxy power spectrum measurements, at least on the scales probed by our simulations (k > 0.01 h Mpc-1). Finally, we present a Fisher matrix analysis to assess the possibility of constraining primordial non-Gaussianity with future measurements of the galaxy bispectrum. We find that a survey with a volume of about 10 h-3 Gpc3 at mean redshift z ? 1 could provide an error on fNL of the order of a few. This shows the relevance of a joint analysis of galaxy power spectrum and bispectrum in future redshift surveys.
On the Approximation of Correlated NonGaussian Noise Pdfs using Gaussian Mixture Models
Blum, Rick
On the Approximation of Correlated NonGaussian Noise Pdfs using Gaussian Mixture Models R. S. Blum & Y. Zhang \\Lambda B. M. Sadler y R. J. Kozick z Abstract Gaussian mixture probability density of Gaussian mixture pdfs to model correlated nonGaussian noise processes. In this paper, we initiate
Source-channel Coding for Gaussian Sources Over a Gaussian Multiple Access Channel
Sharma, Vinod
Source-channel Coding for Gaussian Sources Over a Gaussian Multiple Access Channel R Rajesh source-channel coding of correlated Gaussian sources over a Gaussian Multiple Access Channel (MAC in [16] to obtain sufficient conditions for reliable transmission over a Gaussian MAC. This system does
Issues in the digital implementation of control compensators. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moroney, P.
1979-01-01
Techniques developed for the finite-precision implementation of digital filters were used, adapted, and extended for digital feedback compensators, with particular emphasis on steady state, linear-quadratic-Gaussian compensators. Topics covered include: (1) the linear-quadratic-Gaussian problem; (2) compensator structures; (3) architectural issues: serialism, parallelism, and pipelining; (4) finite wordlength effects: quantization noise, quantizing the coefficients, and limit cycles; and (5) the optimization of structures.
Compact stars with quadratic equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngubelanga, Sifiso A.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Ray, Subharthi
2015-05-01
We provide new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for matter configurations with anisotropy and charge. The spacetime is static and spherically symmetric. A quadratic equation of state is utilised for the matter distribution. By specifying a particular form for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity we obtain new exact solutions in isotropic coordinates. In our general class of models, an earlier model with a linear equation of state is regained. For particular choices of parameters we regain the masses of the stars PSR J1614-2230, 4U 1608-52, PSR J1903+0327, EXO 1745-248 and SAX J1808.4-3658. A comprehensive physical analysis for the star PSR J1903+0327 reveals that our model is reasonable.
Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms
Eldersveld, S.K.
1992-09-01
The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.
Some Paradoxical Results for the Quadratically Weighted Kappa
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Warrens, Matthijs J.
2012-01-01
The quadratically weighted kappa is the most commonly used weighted kappa statistic for summarizing interrater agreement on an ordinal scale. The paper presents several properties of the quadratically weighted kappa that are paradoxical. For agreement tables with an odd number of categories "n" it is shown that if one of the raters uses the same…
Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, William J.
2009-01-01
In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)
Analysis of Students' Error in Learning of Quadratic Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zakaria, Effandi; Ibrahim; Maat, Siti Mistima
2010-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine the students' error in learning quadratic equation. The samples were 30 form three students from a secondary school in Jambi, Indonesia. Diagnostic test was used as the instrument of this study that included three components: factorization, completing the square and quadratic formula. Diagnostic interview…
GLOBAL OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR QUADRATIC OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS WITH BINARY CONSTRAINTS
Beck, Amir
GLOBAL OPTIMALITY CONDITIONS FOR QUADRATIC OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS WITH BINARY CONSTRAINTS AMIR BECK main result identifies a class of quadratic problems for which a given feasible point is global optimal. We also establish a necessary global optimality condition. These conditions are expressed in a simple
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF QUADRATS FOR MEASURING VASCULAR DIVERSITY: JOURNAL ARTICLE
NRMRL-ADA- 98217 Jorgensen*, E.E., and Tunnell, S.J. The Effectiveness of Quadrats for Measuring Vascular Diversity. The Texas Journal of Science 53 (4):365-368 (2001). EPA/600/J-02/027. Quadrats are widely used for measuring characterist...
THE PARALLELIZED POLLARD KANGAROO METHOD IN REAL QUADRATIC FUNCTION FIELDS
Bernstein, Daniel
THE PARALLELIZED POLLARD KANGAROO METHOD IN REAL QUADRATIC FUNCTION FIELDS ANDREAS STEIN AND EDLYN TESKE Abstract. We show how to use the parallelized kangaroo method for computing invariants in real quadratic function #12;elds. Speci#12;cally, we show how to apply the kangaroo method to the infrastructure
Universally Anonymous IBE based on the Quadratic Residuosity Giuseppe Ateniese
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Universally Anonymous IBE based on the Quadratic Residuosity Assumption Giuseppe Ateniese Johns introduce the first universally anonymous, thus key-private, IBE whose security is based on the standard quadratic residuosity assumption. Our scheme is a variant of Cocks IBE (which is not anonymous
Information geometry of Gaussian channels
Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2010-06-15
We define a local Riemannian metric tensor in the manifold of Gaussian channels and the distance that it induces. We adopt an information-geometric approach and define a metric derived from the Bures-Fisher metric for quantum states. The resulting metric inherits several desirable properties from the Bures-Fisher metric and is operationally motivated by distinguishability considerations: It serves as an upper bound to the attainable quantum Fisher information for the channel parameters using Gaussian states, under generic constraints on the physically available resources. Our approach naturally includes the use of entangled Gaussian probe states. We prove that the metric enjoys some desirable properties like stability and covariance. As a by-product, we also obtain some general results in Gaussian channel estimation that are the continuous-variable analogs of previously known results in finite dimensions. We prove that optimal probe states are always pure and bounded in the number of ancillary modes, even in the presence of constraints on the reduced state input in the channel. This has experimental and computational implications. It limits the complexity of optimal experimental setups for channel estimation and reduces the computational requirements for the evaluation of the metric: Indeed, we construct a converging algorithm for its computation. We provide explicit formulas for computing the multiparametric quantum Fisher information for dissipative channels probed with arbitrary Gaussian states and provide the optimal observables for the estimation of the channel parameters (e.g., bath couplings, squeezing, and temperature).
Multivariable control of a forward swept wing aircraft. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Quinn, W. W.
1986-01-01
The impact of independent canard and flaperon control of the longitudinal axis of a generic forward swept wing aircraft is examined. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG)/Loop Transfer Recovery (LTR) method is used to design three compensators: two single-input-single-output (SISO) systems, one with angle of attack as output and canard as control, the other with pitch attitude as output and canard as control, and a two-input-two-output system with both canard and flaperon controlling both the pitch attitude and angle of attack. The performances of the three systems are compared showing the addition of flaperon control allows the aircraft to perform in the precision control modes with very little loss of command following accuracy.
Tucci, R.R.
1992-10-20
In this paper, the authors consider issues of importance in dealing with 1-mode and 2-mode photonic states that possess a Gaussian density matrix. By a Gaussian density matrix or a Gaussian rho, the authors mean an exponential of a quadratic polynomial of the creation and annihilation operators of the modes. The authors discuss the set of all possible linear transformations of N modes into an equal number of modes. The authors propose a device, which is called a covmuter, that can perform any linear transformation in this group. Given a fixed covariance matrix V[sub 0] of a Gaussian-rho state, the authors find all covariance matrices V for which there exists a multi-mode linear transformation that takes V[sub 0] to V. The authors study the conservation laws obeyed by such transformations. Finally, the authors show that a covmuter can be used both to generate and to measure 1-mode and 2-mode Gaussian-rho states.
Quadratic algebras for three-dimensional superintegrable systems
Daskaloyannis, C. Tanoudis, Y.
2010-02-15
The three-dimensional superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals of motion have five functionally independent integrals, one among them is the Hamiltonian. Kalnins, Kress, and Miller have proved that in the case of nondegenerate potentials with quadratic integrals of motion there is a sixth quadratic integral, which is linearly independent of the other integrals. The existence of this sixth integral implies that the integrals of motion form a ternary parafermionic-like quadratic Poisson algebra with five generators. In this contribution we investigate the structure of this algebra. We show that in all the nondegenerate cases there is at least one subalgebra of three integrals having a Poisson quadratic algebra structure, which is similar to the two-dimensional case.
Gaussian Entanglement Distribution via Satellite
Nedasadat Hosseinidehaj; Robert Malaney
2015-02-05
In this work we analyse three quantum communication schemes for the generation of Gaussian entanglement between two ground stations. Communication occurs via a satellite over two independent atmospheric fading channels dominated by turbulence-induced beam wander. In our first scheme the engineering complexity remains largely on the ground transceivers, with the satellite acting simply as a reflector. Although the channel state information of the two atmospheric channels remains unknown in this scheme, the Gaussian entanglement generation between the ground stations can still be determined. On the ground, distillation and Gaussification procedures can be applied, leading to a refined Gaussian entanglement generation rate between the ground stations. We compare the rates produced by this first scheme with two competing schemes in which quantum complexity is added to the satellite, thereby illustrating the trade-off between space-based engineering complexity and the rate of ground-station entanglement generation.
ChemXSeer Digital Library Gaussian Search
Lahiri, Shibamouli; Nangia, Shikha; Mitra, Prasenjit; Giles, C Lee; Mueller, Karl T
2011-01-01
We report on the Gaussian file search system designed as part of the ChemXSeer digital library. Gaussian files are produced by the Gaussian software [4], a software package used for calculating molecular electronic structure and properties. The output files are semi-structured, allowing relatively easy access to the Gaussian attributes and metadata. Our system is currently capable of searching Gaussian documents using a boolean combination of atoms (chemical elements) and attributes. We have also implemented a faceted browsing feature on three important Gaussian attribute types - Basis Set, Job Type and Method Used. The faceted browsing feature enables a user to view and process a smaller, filtered subset of documents.
Variational Gaussian Process Dynamical Systems
Damianou, Andreas C; Lawrence, Neil D
2011-01-01
High dimensional time series are endemic in applications of machine learning such as robotics (sensor data), computational biology (gene expression data), vision (video sequences) and graphics (motion capture data). Practical nonlinear probabilistic approaches to this data are required. In this paper we introduce the variational Gaussian process dynamical system. Our work builds on recent variational approximations for Gaussian process latent variable models to allow for nonlinear dimensionality reduction simultaneously with learning a dynamical prior in the latent space. The approach also allows for the appropriate dimensionality of the latent space to be automatically determined. We demonstrate the model on a human motion capture data set and a series of high resolution video sequences.
Gaussian 3X (G3X) theory using coupled cluster and Brueckner doubles energies.
Curtiss, L. A.; Redfern, P. C.; Raghavachari, K.; Pople, J. A.; Agere Systems; Northwestern Univ.
2002-06-27
Variations of Gaussian-3X (G3X) theory are presented having the quadratic configuration interaction (QCISD(T)) energy calculation replaced by either a coupled cluster (CCSD(T)) or Brueckner (BD(T)) energy. This modification is reported for several G3X methods including G3X, G3X(MP3), G3X(MP2), G3SX, and G3SX(MP3). In most cases the replacement of the QCISD(T) energy by one of these alternative energies results in a slight improvement in the accuracy of these methods as assessed on the G3/99 test set of molecules. These new G3X methods are useful alternatives to the G3X methods based on quadratic configuration interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, Dennis I.; Biggs, Rory; Remsing, Claudiu C.
2015-11-01
In this paper we consider quadratic Hamilton-Poisson systems on the semi-Euclidean Lie-Poisson space {s}{e}(1, 1)*-. The homogeneous positive semidefinite systems are classified; there are exactly six equivalence classes. In each case, the stability nature of the equilibrium states is determined. Explicit expressions for the integral curves are found. A characterization of the equivalence classes, in terms of the equilibria, is identified. Finally, the relation of this work to optimal control is briefly discussed.
How many eigenvalues of a Gaussian random matrix are positive?
Majumdar, Satya N.; Nadal, Celine; Scardicchio, Antonello; Vivo, Pierpaolo
2011-04-15
We study the probability distribution of the index N{sub +}, i.e., the number of positive eigenvalues of an NxN Gaussian random matrix. We show analytically that, for large N and large N{sub +} with the fraction 0{<=}c=N{sub +}/N{<=}1 of positive eigenvalues fixed, the index distribution P(N{sub +}=cN,N){approx}exp[-{beta}N{sup 2}{Phi}(c)] where {beta} is the Dyson index characterizing the Gaussian ensemble. The associated large deviation rate function {Phi}(c) is computed explicitly for all 0{<=}c{<=}1. It is independent of {beta} and displays a quadratic form modulated by a logarithmic singularity around c=1/2. As a consequence, the distribution of the index has a Gaussian form near the peak, but with a variance {Delta}(N) of index fluctuations growing as {Delta}(N){approx}lnN/{beta}{pi}{sup 2} for large N. For {beta}=2, this result is independently confirmed against an exact finite-N formula, yielding {Delta}(N)=lnN/2{pi}{sup 2}+C+O(N{sup -1}) for large N, where the constant C for even N has the nontrivial value C=({gamma}+1+3ln2)/2{pi}{sup 2}{approx_equal}0.185 248... and {gamma}=0.5772... is the Euler constant. We also determine for large N the probability that the interval [{zeta}{sub 1},{zeta}{sub 2}] is free of eigenvalues. Some of these results have been announced in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 220603 (2009)].
RANKING OF GENE REGULATORS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND GAUSSIAN PROCESSES
Honkela, Antti
of computational systems biology. High throughput gene expression experiments al- low the expression level of manyRANKING OF GENE REGULATORS THROUGH DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS AND GAUSSIAN PROCESSES Antti Honkela1, University of Manchester, UK ABSTRACT Gene regulation is controlled by transcription factor pro- teins which
Extremal Optimization for Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Problems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boettcher, S.
We present an implementation of ?-EO for quadratic unconstrained binary optimization (QUBO) problems. To this end, we transform modify QUBO from its conventional Boolean presentation into a spin glass with a random external field on each site. These fields tend to be rather large compared to the typical coupling, presenting EO with a challenging two-scale problem, exploring smaller differences in couplings effectively while sufficiently aligning with those strong external fields. However, we also find a simple solution to that problem that indicates that those external fields apparently tilt the energy landscape to a such a degree such that global minima become more easy to find than those of spin glasses without (or very small) fields. We explore the impact of the weight distribution of the QUBO formulation in the operations research literature and analyze their meaning in a spin-glass language. This is significant because QUBO problems are considered among the main contenders for NP-hard problems that could be solved efficiently on a quantum computer such as D-Wave.
Are ghost surfaces quadratic-flux-minimizing?
S. R. Hudson; R. L. Dewar
2010-01-02
Two candidates for "almost-invariant" toroidal surfaces passing through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMin) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use families of periodic pseudo-orbits (i.e. paths for which the action is not exactly extremal). QFMin pseudo-orbits, which are coordinate-dependent, are field lines obtained from a modified magnetic field, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest descent of magnetic action, $\\oint \\vec{A}\\cdot\\mathbf{dl}$. A generalized Hamiltonian definition of ghost surfaces is given and specialized to the usual Lagrangian definition. A modified Hamilton's Principle is introduced that allows the use of Lagrangian integration for calculation of the QFMin pseudo-orbits. Numerical calculations show QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces give very similar results for a chaotic magnetic field perturbed from an integrable case, and this is explained using a perturbative construction of an auxiliary poloidal angle for which QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces are the same up to second order. While presented in the context of 3-dimensional magnetic field line systems, the concepts are applicable to defining almost-invariant tori in other $1{1/2}$ degree-of-freedom nonintegrable Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Na, Sungsoo; Song, Ji-Seok; Choo, Jeong-Hwan; Qin, Zhanming
2011-10-01
The dynamic aeroelastic response and its active control of composite beam structures in compressible flow and exposed to gust and explosive type loads are examined. Modeling of the structures is based on a refined composite thin-walled beam theory and incorporate a number of nonclassical effects, such as transverse shear, material anisotropy, warping inhibition, and rotatory inertia. The unsteady compressible aerodynamic loads for arbitrary small motion in the time domain are derived based on the concept of indicial functions. The sliding mode control (SMC) and linear-quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control methodology with sliding mode observer are used for the purpose of control. The beam structures are restricted to circumferentially asymmetric lay-up construction and the influence of ply angle, flight speed, and external excitations on the response and its active control are specifically investigated. A number of conclusions are outlined at the end.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Semchishen, A. V.; Semchishen, V. A.
2014-01-01
We studied in vitro the response of the topography of the cornea to its full-area laser ablation (the laser beam spot diameter is commensurable with the size of the interface) outside of the central zone with an excimer laser having a Gaussian fluence distribution across the beam. Subject to investigation were the topographically controlled surface changes of the anterior cornea in 60 porcine eyes with a 5 ± 1.25-diopter artificially induced astigmatism, the changes being caused by laser ablation of the stromal collagen in two 3.5-mm-dia. circular areas along the weaker astigmatism axis. Experimental relationships are presented between the actual astigmatism correction and the expected correction for the intact optical zones 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm in diameter. The data for each zone were approximated by the least-squares method with the function d = a + bx. The coefficient b is given with the root-mean-square error. The statistical processing of the data yielded the following results: d = (0.14 ± 0.037)x for the 1-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.10 ± 0.036)x for the 2-mm-dia. optical zone, (1.04 ± 0.020)x for the 3-mm-dia. optical zone, and (0.55 ± 0.04)x for the 4-mm-dia. optical zone. Full astigmatism correction was achieved with ablation effected outside of the 3-mm-dia. optical zone. The surface changes of the cornea are shown to be due not only to the removal of the corneal tissue, but also to the biomechanical topographic response of the cornea to its strain caused by the formation of a dense pseudomembrane in the ablation area.
Degenerate nonlinear programming with a quadratic growth condition.
Anitescu, M.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2000-01-01
We show that the quadratic growth condition and the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification (MFCQ) imply that local minima of nonlinear programs are isolated stationary points. As a result, when started sufficiently close to such points, an L1 exact penalty sequential quadratic programming algorithm will induce at least R-linear convergence of the iterates to such a local minimum. We construct an example of a degenerate nonlinear program with a unique local minimum satisfying the quadratic growth and the MFCQ but for which no positive semidefinite augmented Lagrangian exists. We present numerical results obtained using several nonlinear programming packages on this example and discuss its implications for some algorithms.
GAUSSIAN BEAM LASER RESONATOR PROGRAM
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, P. L.
1994-01-01
In designing a laser cavity, the laser engineer is frequently concerned with more than the stability of the resonator. Other considerations include the size of the beam at various optical surfaces within the resonator or the performance of intracavity line-narrowing or other optical elements. Laser resonators obey the laws of Gaussian beam propagation, not geometric optics. The Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators using Gaussian ray trace techniques. It can be used to determine the propagation of radiation through laser resonators. The algorithm used in the Gaussian Beam Resonator program has three major components. First, the ray transfer matrix for the laser resonator must be calculated. Next calculations of the initial beam parameters, specifically, the beam stability, the beam waist size and location for the resonator input element, and the wavefront curvature and beam radius at the input surface to the first resonator element are performed. Finally the propagation of the beam through the optical elements is computed. The optical elements can be modeled as parallel plates, lenses, mirrors, dummy surfaces, or Gradient Index (GRIN) lenses. A Gradient Index lens is a good approximation of a laser rod operating under a thermal load. The optical system may contain up to 50 elements. In addition to the internal beam elements the optical system may contain elements external to the resonator. The Gaussian Beam Resonator program was written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01). It was developed for the IBM PS/2 80-071 microcomputer and has been implemented on an IBM PC compatible under MS DOS 3.21. The program was developed in 1988 and requires approximately 95K bytes to operate.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.
1986-01-01
An abstract approximation theory and computational methods are developed for the determination of optimal linear-quadratic feedback control, observers and compensators for infinite dimensional discrete-time systems. Particular attention is paid to systems whose open-loop dynamics are described by semigroups of operators on Hilbert spaces. The approach taken is based on the finite dimensional approximation of the infinite dimensional operator Riccati equations which characterize the optimal feedback control and observer gains. Theoretical convergence results are presented and discussed. Numerical results for an example involving a heat equation with boundary control are presented and used to demonstrate the feasibility of the method.
Ultrasonic transducer with a two-dimensional Gaussian field profile
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, R. O.; Zerwekh, P. S.
1983-01-01
A transducer is described which generates a two-dimensional Gaussian field by controlling both the position of multiple circular electrodes and the voltage applied to each electrode. The transducer is constructed by depositing concentric rings electrodes onto one flat surface of a circular piezoelectric crystal disk and attaching the rings to an impedance matching network which acts as a voltage divider. Geometrical inter-ring separations and electrical inter-ring impedances are designed to minimize the error between the generated acoustic field, modeled as a piecewise linear function, and the desired Gaussian distribution. Total mean squared error between the averaged far-field data and a Gaussian shape is less than two percent.
Generalized symmetry transformation with Gaussian phase weight function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hee-Yul; Kim, Tae-Hun; Jeon, Joon-Hyung; Choi, Il; Park, Kil-Houm
2012-03-01
The generalized symmetry transformation (GST) is a symmetry operator detecting objects by using edge gradient directions. Conventional GST uses the cosine function to define the phase weight function (PWF), which represents the symmetry of two gradient directions. The cosine function of PWF leads to a good performance in detecting symmetrical objects. However, the weights of gradient pairs, which are considered to be asymmetrical, are relatively high, so side effects appear near the symmetry pick regions. (Note that side effects disturb the multiple object detection.) In this paper, we use the Gaussian function in calculating the symmetric weights of gradient pairs. The Gaussian function can suppress the weights of less symmetric gradient pairs. In addition, the symmetry for elliptically shaped objects can be more emphasized by controlling the width of the Gaussian function. The proposed GST is evaluated through experiments on synthetic images, which include various bright and dark plane figures, and on real images, which requires the detection of elliptical shapes.
Spatial Gaussian process regression with mobile sensor networks.
Gu, Dongbing; Hu, Huosheng
2012-08-01
This paper presents a method of using Gaussian process regression to model spatial functions for mobile wireless sensor networks. A distributed Gaussian process regression (DGPR) approach is developed by using a sparse Gaussian process regression method and a compactly supported covariance function. The resultant formulation of the DGPR approach only requires neighbor-to-neighbor communication, which enables each sensor node within a network to produce the regression result independently. The collective motion control is implemented by using a locational optimization algorithm, which utilizes the information entropy from the DGPR result. The collective mobility of sensor networks plus the online learning capability of the DGPR approach also enables the mobile sensor network to adapt to spatiotemporal functions. Simulation results are provided to show the performance of the proposed approach in modeling stationary spatial functions and spatiotemporal functions. PMID:24807524
Nonlinear clustering in models with primordial non-Gaussianity: The halo model approach
Smith, Robert E.; Desjacques, Vincent; Marian, Laura
2011-02-15
We develop the halo model of large-scale structure as an accurate tool for probing primordial non-Gaussianity. In this study we focus on understanding the matter clustering at several redshifts in the context of primordial non-Gaussianity that is a quadratic correction to the local Gaussian potential, characterized by the parameter f{sub NL}. In our formulation of the halo model we pay special attention to the effect of halo exclusion and show that this can potentially solve the long-standing problem of excess power on large scales in this model. The halo model depends on the mass function, clustering of halo centers, and the density profiles. We test these ingredients using a large ensemble of high-resolution Gaussian and non-Gaussian numerical simulations, covering f{sub NL}={l_brace}0,+100,-100{r_brace}. In particular, we provide a first exploration of how halo density profiles change in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. We find that for f{sub NL} positive (negative) high-mass haloes have an increased (decreased) core density, so being more (less) concentrated than in the Gaussian case. We also examine the halo bias and show that, if the halo model is correct, then there is a small asymmetry in the scale dependence of the bias on very large scales, which arises because the Gaussian bias must be renormalized. We show that the matter power spectrum is modified by {approx}2.5% and {approx}3.5% on scales k{approx}1.0 h Mpc{sup -1} at z=0 and z=1, respectively. Our halo model calculation reproduces the absolute amplitude to within < or approx. 10% and the ratio of non-Gaussian to Gaussian spectra to within < or approx. 1%. We also measure the matter correlation function and find similarly good levels of agreement between the halo model and the data. We anticipate that this modeling will be useful for constraining f{sub NL} from measurements of the shear correlation function in future weak lensing surveys such as Euclid.
The period function of reversible quadratic centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mardeši?, P.; Marín, D.; Villadelprat, J.
In this paper we investigate the bifurcation diagram of the period function associated to a family of reversible quadratic centers, namely the dehomogenized Loud's systems. The local bifurcation diagram of the period function at the center is fully understood using the results of Chicone and Jacobs [C. Chicone, M. Jacobs, Bifurcation of critical periods for plane vector fields, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 312 (1989) 433-486]. Most of the present paper deals with the local bifurcation diagram at the polycycle that bounds the period annulus of the center. The techniques that we use here are different from the ones in [C. Chicone, M. Jacobs, Bifurcation of critical periods for plane vector fields, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 312 (1989) 433-486] because, while the period function extends analytically at the center, it has no smooth extension to the polycycle. At best one can hope that it has some asymptotic expansion. Another major difficulty is that the asymptotic development has to be uniform with respect to the parameters, in order to prove that a parameter is not a bifurcation value. We study also the bifurcations in the interior of the period annulus and we show that there exist three germs of curves in the parameter space that correspond to this type of bifurcation. Moreover we determine some regions in the parameter space for which the corresponding period function has at least one or two critical periods. Finally we propose a complete conjectural bifurcation diagram of the period function of the dehomogenized Loud's systems. Our results can also be viewed as a contribution to the proof of Chicone's conjecture [C. Chicone, review in MathSciNet, ref. 94h:58072].
On a 'Mysterious' Case of a Quadratic Hamiltonian
Sergei Sakovich
2006-07-28
We show that one of the five cases of a quadratic Hamiltonian, which were recently selected by Sokolov and Wolf who used the Kovalevskaya-Lyapunov test, fails to pass the Painleve test for integrability.
Post-Newtonian, quasicircular binary inspirals in quadratic modified gravity
Stein, Leo Chaim
We consider a general class of quantum gravity-inspired, modified gravity theories, where the Einstein-Hilbert action is extended through the addition of all terms quadratic in the curvature tensor coupled to scalar fields ...
TWOPRIMARY ALGEBRAIC KTHEORY OF SOME QUADRATIC AND CYCLOTOMIC NUMBER RINGS
.5 that these are all simple when q #= 29 is an odd prime power with #(q) # 66, or a Sophie Germain prime, such that 2 and phrases. Algebraic KÂgroups, quadratic number fields, cyclotomic number fields, Sophie Germain primes
DIAGONAL QUADRATIC APPROXIMATION FOR PARALLEL COMPUTING WITH ANALYTICAL TARGET CASCADING
Michalek, Jeremy J.
for convergence of the ATC inner loop . 10 4. Quadratic penalty method flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 5. Ordinary Lagrangian method flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 6. Augmented Lagrangian method flow chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 7. Augmented Lagrangian with alternating
GENERATORS AND RELATIONS FOR K2OF , F IMAGINARY QUADRATIC
of integers* * in a number field has been adapted for the computer and gives explicit gene* *rators manipulations_to complete the analysis for the six first imaginary quadratic cases (i.e. the ones of smallest
A method of Weil sum in multivariate quadratic cryptosystem
Harayama, Tomohiro
2007-09-17
A new cryptanalytic application is proposed for a number theoretic tool Weil sum to the birthday attack against multivariate quadratic trapdoor function. This new customization of the birthday attack is developed by evaluating the explicit Weil sum...
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleming, P.
1985-01-01
A design technique is proposed for linear regulators in which a feedback controller of fixed structure is chosen to minimize an integral quadratic objective function subject to the satisfaction of integral quadratic constraint functions. Application of a non-linear programming algorithm to this mathematically tractable formulation results in an efficient and useful computer-aided design tool. Particular attention is paid to computational efficiency and various recommendations are made. Two design examples illustrate the flexibility of the approach and highlight the special insight afforded to the designer.
Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Love, J. J.; Constable, C. G.
2003-03-01
With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimodal) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to formulate the inverse problem, and how to estimate the mean and variance of the magnetic vector field, even when the data consist of mixed combinations of directions and intensities. We examine palaeomagnetic secular-variation data from Hawaii and Réunion, and although these two sites are on almost opposite latitudes, we find significant differences in the mean vector and differences in the local vectorial variances, with the Hawaiian data being particularly anisotropic. These observations are inconsistent with a description of the mean field as being a simple geocentric axial dipole and with secular variation being statistically symmetrical with respect to reflection through the equatorial plane. Finally, our analysis of palaeomagnetic acquisition data from the 1960 Kilauea flow in Hawaii and the Holocene Xitle flow in Mexico, is consistent with the widely held suspicion that directional data are more accurate than intensity data.
Gaussian statistics for palaeomagnetic vectors
Love, J.J.; Constable, C.G.
2003-01-01
With the aim of treating the statistics of palaeomagnetic directions and intensities jointly and consistently, we represent the mean and the variance of palaeomagnetic vectors, at a particular site and of a particular polarity, by a probability density function in a Cartesian three-space of orthogonal magnetic-field components consisting of a single (unimoda) non-zero mean, spherically-symmetrical (isotropic) Gaussian function. For palaeomagnetic data of mixed polarities, we consider a bimodal distribution consisting of a pair of such symmetrical Gaussian functions, with equal, but opposite, means and equal variances. For both the Gaussian and bi-Gaussian distributions, and in the spherical three-space of intensity, inclination, and declination, we obtain analytical expressions for the marginal density functions, the cumulative distributions, and the expected values and variances for each spherical coordinate (including the angle with respect to the axis of symmetry of the distributions). The mathematical expressions for the intensity and off-axis angle are closed-form and especially manageable, with the intensity distribution being Rayleigh-Rician. In the limit of small relative vectorial dispersion, the Gaussian (bi-Gaussian) directional distribution approaches a Fisher (Bingham) distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a normal distribution. In the opposite limit of large relative vectorial dispersion, the directional distributions approach a spherically-uniform distribution and the intensity distribution approaches a Maxwell distribution. We quantify biases in estimating the properties of the vector field resulting from the use of simple arithmetic averages, such as estimates of the intensity or the inclination of the mean vector, or the variances of these quantities. With the statistical framework developed here and using the maximum-likelihood method, which gives unbiased estimates in the limit of large data numbers, we demonstrate how to formulate the inverse problem, and how to estimate the mean and variance of the magnetic vector field, even when the data consist of mixed combinations of directions and intensities. We examine palaeomagnetic secular-variation data from Hawaii and Re??union, and although these two sites are on almost opposite latitudes, we find significant differences in the mean vector and differences in the local vectorial variances, with the Hawaiian data being particularly anisotropic. These observations are inconsistent with a description of the mean field as being a simple geocentric axial dipole and with secular variation being statistically symmetrical with respect to reflection through the equatorial plane. Finally, our analysis of palaeomagnetic acquisition data from the 1960 Kilauea flow in Hawaii and the Holocene Xitle flow in Mexico, is consistent with the widely held suspicion that directional data are more accurate than intensity data.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duarte-Mermoud, Manuel A.; Aguila-Camacho, Norelys; Gallegos, Javier A.; Castro-Linares, Rafael
2015-05-01
This paper presents two new lemmas related to the Caputo fractional derivatives, when ? ?(0, 1 ] , for the case of general quadratic forms and for the case where the trace of the product of a rectangular matrix and its transpose appear. Those two lemmas allow using general quadratic Lyapunov functions and the trace of a matrix inside a Lyapunov function respectively, in order to apply the fractional-order extension of Lyapunov direct method, to analyze the stability of fractional order systems (FOS). Besides, the paper presents a theorem for proving uniform stability in the sense of Lyapunov for fractional order systems. The theorem can be seen as a complement of other methods already available in the literature. The two lemmas and the theorem are applied to the stability analysis of two Fractional Order Model Reference Adaptive Control (FOMRAC) schemes, in order to prove the usefulness of the results.
AdS waves as exact solutions to quadratic gravity
Guellue, Ibrahim; Sisman, Tahsin Cagri; Tekin, Bayram; Guerses, Metin
2011-04-15
We give an exact solution of the quadratic gravity in D dimensions. The solution is a plane-fronted wave metric with a cosmological constant. This metric solves not only the full quadratic gravity field equations but also the linearized ones which include the linearized equations of the recently found critical gravity. A subset of the solutions change the asymptotic structure of the anti-de Sitter space due to their logarithmic behavior.
Quadratic function approaching method for magnetotelluric soundingdata inversion
Liangjun, Yan; Wenbao, Hu; Zhang, Keni
2004-04-05
The quadratic function approaching method (QFAM) is introduced for magnetotelluric sounding (MT) data inversion. The method takes the advantage of that quadratic function has single extreme value, which avoids leading to an inversion solution for local minimum and ensures the solution for global minimization of an objective function. The method does not need calculation of sensitivity matrix and not require a strict initial earth model. Examples for synthetic data and field measurement data indicate that the proposed inversion method is effective.
Dissipation-induced pure Gaussian state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koga, Kei; Yamamoto, Naoki
2012-02-01
This paper provides some necessary and sufficient conditions for a general Markovian Gaussian master equation to have a unique pure steady state. The conditions are described by simple matrix equations; thus the so-called environment engineering problem for pure-Gaussian-state preparation can be straightforwardly dealt with in the linear algebraic framework. In fact, based on one of those conditions, for an arbitrary given pure Gaussian state, we obtain a complete parametrization of the Gaussian master equation having that state as a unique steady state; this leads to a systematic procedure for engineering a desired dissipative system. We demonstrate some examples including Gaussian cluster states.
LQG feedback control of a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems
Shibei Xue; Matthew R. James; Valery Ugrinovskii; Ian R. Petersen
2016-01-04
In this paper we present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback control strategy for a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems. The feedback control law is designed based on the estimated states of a whitening quantum filter for an augmented Markovian model of the non-Markovian open quantum systems. In this augmented Markovian model, an ancillary system plays the role of internal modes of the environment converting white noise into Lorentzian noise and a principal system obeys non-Markovian dynamics due to the direct interaction with the ancillary system. The simulation results show the LQG controller with the whitening filter obtains a better control performance than that with a Markovian filter in the problem of minimizing the photon numbers of the principal system when the ancillary system is disturbed by thermal noise.
LQG feedback control of a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems
Shibei Xue; Matthew R. James; Valery Ugrinovskii; Ian R. Petersen
2015-09-30
In this paper we present a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback control strategy for a class of linear non-Markovian quantum systems. The feedback control law is designed based on the estimated states of a whitening quantum filter for an augmented Markovian model of the non-Markovian open quantum systems. In this augmented Markovian model, an ancillary system plays the role of internal modes of the environment converting white noise into Lorentzian noise and a principal system obeys non-Markovian dynamics due to the direct interaction with the ancillary system. The simulation results show the LQG controller with the whitening filter obtains a better control performance than that with a Markovian filter in the problem of minimizing the photon numbers of the principal system when the ancillary system is disturbed by thermal noise.
Quantifying coherence of Gaussian states
Jianwei Xu
2015-10-10
Coherence arises from the superposition principle and plays a key role in quantum mechanics. Recently, Baumgratz et al. [T. Baumgratz, M. Cramer, and M. B. Plenio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401 (2014)] established a rigorous framework for quantifying the coherence of finite dimensional quantum states. In this work we provide a framework for quantifying the coherence of Gaussian states and explicitly give a coherence measure based on the relative entropy.
Nurmi, Sami; Byrnes, Christian T.; Tasinato, Gianmassimo E-mail: ctb22@sussex.ac.uk
2013-06-01
Primordial perturbations with wavelengths greater than the observable universe shift the effective background fields in our observable patch from their global averages over the inflating space. This leads to a landscape picture where the properties of our observable patch depend on its location and may significantly differ from the expectation values predicted by the underlying fundamental inflationary model. We show that if multiple fields are present during inflation, this may happen even if our horizon exit would be preceded by only a few e-foldings of inflation. Non-Gaussian statistics are especially affected: for example models of local non-Gaussianity predicting |f{sub NL}{sup 0}| >> 10 over the entire inflating volume can have a probability up to a few tens of percent to generate a non-detectable bispectrum in our observable patch |f{sub NL}{sup obs.}|?<10. In this work we establish systematic connections between the observable local properties of primordial perturbations and the global properties of the inflating space which reflect the underlying high energy physics. We study in detail the implications of both a detection and non-detection of primordial non-Gaussianity by Planck, and discover novel ways of characterising the naturalness of different observational configurations.
Ita, B. I.
2014-11-12
By using the Nikiforov-Uvarov (NU) method, the Schrödinger equation has been solved for the interaction of inversely quadratic Hellmann (IQHP) and inversely quadratic potential (IQP) for any angular momentum quantum number, l. The energy eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenfunctions have been obtained in terms of Laguerre polynomials. Special cases of the sum of these potentials have been considered and their energy eigenvalues also obtained.
ADAPTIVE BEAMPATTERN CONTROL USING QUADRATIC CONSTRAINTS FOR CIRCULAR ARRAY STAP
George Mason University
Space-Time Adaptive Processing (STAP) used in airborne radar systems combines signals from N antenna array ele- ments and M pulses to adaptively suppress clutter and jam- ming in both the space (angle due to sensor perturbations, pointing error, and low sam- ple support. In radar systems, this behavior
Numerical Methods for Linear Quadratic and H Control Peter Benner
Xu, Hongguo
. Keywords eigenvalue problem, deflating subspace, algebraic Riccati equation, Hamiltonian matrix, skew be the stabilizing solution of the associated algebraic Riccati equation 0 = H + Y F + FT Y - Y GY. (7) Multiplying Riccati equations or to the computation of deflating subspaces of structured matrix pen- cils. New
A new approach to active control of rotorcraft vibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gupta, N. K.; Du Val, R. W.; Fuller, J.
1980-01-01
A state-variable feedback approach is utilized for active control of rotorcraft vibration. Fuselage accelerations are passed through undamped second-order filters with resonant frequencies at N/rev. The resulting outputs contain predominantly the N/rev vibration components, phase shifted by 180 deg, and are used to drive the blade pitch to cancel this component of fuselage vibration. The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) method is used to design a feedback control system utilizing these filtered accelerations. The design is based on a nine-degree-of-freedom linear model of the Rotor System Research Aircraft (RSRA) in hover and is evaluated on a nonlinear blade-element simulation of the RSRA for this flight condition. The system is shown to essentially eliminate vibrations at N/rev in all axes. The required blade-pitch amplitude is within the capability of conventional actuators at the N/rev frequency.
Optofluidic generation of Laguerre-Gaussian beams
Jeffries, Gavin D. M.; Milne, Graham; Zhao, Yiqiong; Lopez-Mariscal, Carlos; Chiu, Daniel T.
2010-01-01
Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams have been extensively studied due to their unique structure, characterized by a phase singularity at the center of the beam. Common methods for generating such beams include the use of diffractive optical elements and spatial light modulators, which although offering excellent versatility, suffers from several drawbacks, including in many cases a low power damage threshold as well as complexity and expense. This paper presents a simple, low cost method for the generation of high-fidelity LG beams using rapid prototyping techniques. Our approach is based on a fluidic-hologram concept, whereby the properties of the LG beam can be finely controlled by varying the refractive-index of the fluid that flows through the hologram. This simple approach, while optimized here for LG beam generation, is also expected to find applications in the production of tunable fluidic optical trains. PMID:19907539
Gaussian Decomposition of Laser Altimeter Waveforms
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hofton, Michelle A.; Minster, J. Bernard; Blair, J. Bryan
1999-01-01
We develop a method to decompose a laser altimeter return waveform into its Gaussian components assuming that the position of each Gaussian within the waveform can be used to calculate the mean elevation of a specific reflecting surface within the laser footprint. We estimate the number of Gaussian components from the number of inflection points of a smoothed copy of the laser waveform, and obtain initial estimates of the Gaussian half-widths and positions from the positions of its consecutive inflection points. Initial amplitude estimates are obtained using a non-negative least-squares method. To reduce the likelihood of fitting the background noise within the waveform and to minimize the number of Gaussians needed in the approximation, we rank the "importance" of each Gaussian in the decomposition using its initial half-width and amplitude estimates. The initial parameter estimates of all Gaussians ranked "important" are optimized using the Levenburg-Marquardt method. If the sum of the Gaussians does not approximate the return waveform to a prescribed accuracy, then additional Gaussians are included in the optimization procedure. The Gaussian decomposition method is demonstrated on data collected by the airborne Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) in October 1997 over the Sequoia National Forest, California.
Integrated structural control design of large space structures
Allen, J.J.; Lauffer, J.P.
1995-01-01
Active control of structures has been under intensive development for the last ten years. Reference 2 reviews much of the identification and control technology for structural control developed during this time. The technology was initially focused on space structure and weapon applications; however, recently the technology is also being directed toward applications in manufacturing and transportation. Much of this technology focused on multiple-input/multiple-output (MIMO) identification and control methodology because many of the applications require a coordinated control involving multiple disturbances and control objectives where multiple actuators and sensors are necessary for high performance. There have been many optimal robust control methods developed for the design of MIMO robust control laws; however, there appears to be a significant gap between the theoretical development and experimental evaluation of control and identification methods to address structural control applications. Many methods have been developed for MIMO identification and control of structures, such as the Eigensystem Realization Algorithm (ERA), Q-Markov Covariance Equivalent Realization (Q-Markov COVER) for identification; and, Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG), Frequency Weighted LQG and H-/ii-synthesis methods for control. Upon implementation, many of the identification and control methods have shown limitations such as the excitation of unmodelled dynamics and sensitivity to system parameter variations. As a result, research on methods which address these problems have been conducted.
Diagnosing non-Gaussianity of forecast and analysis errors in a convective scale model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Legrand, R.; Michel, Y.; Montmerle, T.
2015-07-01
In numerical weather prediction, the problem of estimating initial conditions is usually based on a Bayesian framework. Two common derivations respectively lead to the Kalman filter and to variational approaches. They rely on either assumptions of linearity or assumptions of Gaussianity of the probability density functions of both observation and background errors. In practice, linearity and Gaussianity of errors are tied to one another, in the sense that a nonlinear model will yield non-Gaussian probability density functions, and that standard methods may perform poorly in the context of non-Gaussian probability density functions. This study aims to describe some aspects of non-Gaussianity of forecast and analysis errors in a convective scale model using a Monte-Carlo approach based on an ensemble of data assimilations. For this purpose, an ensemble of 90 members of cycled perturbed assimilations has been run over a highly precipitating case of interest. Non-Gaussianity is measured using the K2-statistics from the D'Agostino test, which is related to the sum of the squares of univariate skewness and kurtosis. Results confirm that specific humidity is the least Gaussian variable according to that measure, and also that non-Gaussianity is generally more pronounced in the boundary layer and in cloudy areas. The mass control variables used in our data assimilation, namely vorticity and divergence, also show distinct non-Gaussian behavior. It is shown that while non-Gaussianity increases with forecast lead time, it is efficiently reduced by the data assimilation step especially in areas well covered by observations. Our findings may have implication for the choice of the control variables.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Troncossi, M.; Di Sante, R.; Rivola, A.
2014-05-01
High-cycle fatigue life tests conducted using controlled random vibrations are commonly used to evaluate failure in components and structures. In most cases, a Gaussian distribution of both the input vibration and the stress response is assumed, while real-life loads may be non-Gaussian causing the response to be non-Gaussian as well. Generating non-Gaussian drive signals with high kurtosis and a given power spectral density, however, does not always guarantee that the stress response will actually be non-Gaussian, because this depends on the adherence of the tested system to the Central Limit Theorem. On the other side, suitable measurement methods need to be developed in order to estimate the stress amplitude response at critical failure locations, and therefore to evaluate and select input loads. In this paper, a simple test rig with a notched cantilevered specimen was developed to measure the response and examine the kurtosis values in the case of stationary Gaussian, stationary non-Gaussian, and non-stationary non-Gaussian excitation signals. The Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) technique was used for the first time in this type of test, to estimate the specimen stress amplitude response in terms of differential displacement at the notch section ends. A method based on the use of accelerometers to correct for the occasional signal drops occurring during the experiment is described and the results are discussed with respect to the ability of the test procedure to evaluate the output signal.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Zheng; Mi, Chris Chunting; Xiong, Rui; Xu, Jun; You, Chenwen
2014-02-01
This paper introduces an online and intelligent energy management controller to improve the fuel economy of a power-split plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Based on analytic analysis between fuel-rate and battery current at different driveline power and vehicle speed, quadratic equations are applied to simulate the relationship between battery current and vehicle fuel-rate. The power threshold at which engine is turned on is optimized by genetic algorithm (GA) based on vehicle fuel-rate, battery state of charge (SOC) and driveline power demand. The optimal battery current when the engine is on is calculated using quadratic programming (QP) method. The proposed algorithm can control the battery current effectively, which makes the engine work more efficiently and thus reduce the fuel-consumption. Moreover, the controller is still applicable when the battery is unhealthy. Numerical simulations validated the feasibility of the proposed controller.
Theory of transformation for the diagonalization of quadratic Hamiltonians
Ming-wen Xiao
2009-08-06
A theory of transformation is presented for the diagonalization of a Hamiltonian that is quadratic in creation and annihilation operators or in coordinates and momenta. It is the systemization and theorization of Dirac and Bogoliubov-Valatin transformations, and thus provides us an operational procedure to answer, in a direct manner, the questions as to whether a quadratic Hamiltonian is diagonalizable, whether the diagonalization is unique, and how the transformation can be constructed if the diagonalization exists. The underlying idea is to consider the dynamic matrix. Each quadratic Hamiltonian has a dynamic matrix of its own. The eigenvalue problem of the dynamic matrix determines the diagonalizability of the quadratic Hamiltonian completely. In brief, the theory ascribes the diagonalization of a quadratic Hamiltonian to the eigenvalue problem of its dynamic matrix, which is familiar to all of us. That makes it much easy to use. Applications to various physical systems are discussed, with especial emphasis on the quantum fields, such as Klein-Gordon field, phonon field, etc..
Gaussian mass optimization for kernel PCA parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yong; Wang, Zulin
2011-10-01
This paper proposes a novel kernel parameter optimization method based on Gaussian mass, which aims to overcome the current brute force parameter optimization method in a heuristic way. Generally speaking, the choice of kernel parameter should be tightly related to the target objects while the variance between the samples, the most commonly used kernel parameter, doesn't possess much features of the target, which gives birth to Gaussian mass. Gaussian mass defined in this paper has the property of the invariance of rotation and translation and is capable of depicting the edge, topology and shape information. Simulation results show that Gaussian mass leads a promising heuristic optimization boost up for kernel method. In MNIST handwriting database, the recognition rate improves by 1.6% compared with common kernel method without Gaussian mass optimization. Several promising other directions which Gaussian mass might help are also proposed at the end of the paper.
Minkowski Functional Description of Microwave Background Gaussianity
Serge Winitzki; Arthur Kosowsky
1997-10-15
A Gaussian distribution of cosmic microwave background temperature fluctuations is a generic prediction of inflation. Upcoming high-resolution maps of the microwave background will allow detailed tests of Gaussianity down to small angular scales, providing a crucial test of inflation. We propose Minkowski functionals as a calculational tool for testing Gaussianity and characterizing deviations from it. We review the mathematical formalism of Minkowski functionals of random fields; for Gaussian fields the functionals can be calculated exactly. We then apply the results to pixelized maps, giving explicit expressions for calculating the functionals from maps as well as the Gaussian predictions, including corrections for map boundaries, pixel noise, and pixel size and shape. Variances of the functionals for Gaussian distributions are derived in terms of the map correlation function. Applications to microwave background maps are discussed.
Dynamics and control of low-altitude formations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palmerini, Giovanni B.; Sabatini, Marco
2007-06-01
Formation flying missions require high performance orbital control strategies, which are based on accurate study and modelling of the spacecraft relative dynamics. To this aim, different techniques have been proposed, based either upon drastically simplified dynamics (Hill's equations) or upon non-linear dynamics (approaches leading to the Lyapunov method). Recent work suggested that the inclusion of main perturbing effects, even if in a simplified linearized form, could improve the expected performances. This paper, focusing on the low altitude orbits, recalls the models adopted for the most significant effects, i.e. the air drag and the J2 perturbations, and shows how these models could be introduced in a classical linear quadratic regulator approach. A realistic evaluation of the control performances will depend on the accuracy of the knowledge of the spacecraft kinematic state. The determination of the state adds the deficiencies of the navigation system to the errors generated by the approximation of the dynamics involved. A navigation filter is therefore included in the process. Uncertainties of a GPS(GNSS) receiver, assumed as the most fitting navigator currently available for autonomous on-board applications, are injected into the model in a statistical way, leading to a linear quadratic Gaussian approach, in order to better represent the overall system performances. The final aim of the paper is to provide a global frame to evaluate and select formation flying control strategies at low orbit altitudes.
Reliable fusion of control and sensing in intelligent machines. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mcinroy, John E.
1991-01-01
Although robotics research has produced a wealth of sophisticated control and sensing algorithms, very little research has been aimed at reliably combining these control and sensing strategies so that a specific task can be executed. To improve the reliability of robotic systems, analytic techniques are developed for calculating the probability that a particular combination of control and sensing algorithms will satisfy the required specifications. The probability can then be used to assess the reliability of the design. An entropy formulation is first used to quickly eliminate designs not capable of meeting the specifications. Next, a framework for analyzing reliability based on the first order second moment methods of structural engineering is proposed. To ensure performance over an interval of time, lower bounds on the reliability of meeting a set of quadratic specifications with a Gaussian discrete time invariant control system are derived. A case study analyzing visual positioning in robotic system is considered. The reliability of meeting timing and positioning specifications in the presence of camera pixel truncation, forward and inverse kinematic errors, and Gaussian joint measurement noise is determined. This information is used to select a visual sensing strategy, a kinematic algorithm, and a discrete compensator capable of accomplishing the desired task. Simulation results using PUMA 560 kinematic and dynamic characteristics are presented.
Gaussian effective potential: Quantum mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stevenson, P. M.
1984-10-01
We advertise the virtues of the Gaussian effective potential (GEP) as a guide to the behavior of quantum field theories. Much superior to the usual one-loop effective potential, the GEP is a natural extension of intuitive notions familiar from quantum mechanics. A variety of quantum-mechanical examples are studied here, with an eye to field-theoretic analogies. Quantum restoration of symmetry, dynamical mass generation, and "quantum-mechanical resuscitation" are among the phenomena discussed. We suggest how the GEP could become the basis of a systematic approximation procedure. A companion paper will deal with scalar field theory.
Strongly scale-dependent non-Gaussianity
Riotto, Antonio; Sloth, Martin S.
2011-02-15
We discuss models of primordial density perturbations where the non-Gaussianity is strongly scale dependent. In particular, the non-Gaussianity may have a sharp cutoff and be very suppressed on large cosmological scales, but sizable on small scales. This may have an impact on probes of non-Gaussianity in the large-scale structure and in the cosmic microwave background radiation anisotropies.
Monogamy inequality for distributed Gaussian entanglement
Tohya Hiroshima; Gerardo Adesso; Fabrizio Illuminati
2006-11-08
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems.
Monogamy inequality for distributed gaussian entanglement.
Hiroshima, Tohya; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2007-02-01
We show that for all n-mode Gaussian states of continuous variable systems, the entanglement shared among n parties exhibits the fundamental monogamy property. The monogamy inequality is proven by introducing the Gaussian tangle, an entanglement monotone under Gaussian local operations and classical communication, which is defined in terms of the squared negativity in complete analogy with the case of n-qubit systems. Our results elucidate the structure of quantum correlations in many-body harmonic lattice systems. PMID:17358836
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montgomery, Raymond C.; Ghosh, Dave; Scott, Michael A.; Warnaar, Dirk
1991-01-01
A procedure for optimizing the performance of large flexible spacecraft that require active vibration suppression to achieve required performance is presented. The procedure is to conduct on-orbit testing and system identification followed by a control system design. It is applied via simulation to a spacecraft configuration currently being considered for flight test by NASA - the Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES). The system simulator is based on a NASTRAN finite element structural model. A finite number of modes is used to represent the structural dynamics. The system simulator also includes models of the electronics, actuators, sensors, the digital controller, and the internal and external disturbances. Nonlinearities caused by quantization are included in the study to examine tolerance of the procedure to modelling errors. Disturbance and sensor noise is modelled as a Gaussian process. For system identification, the system is excited using sinusoidal inputs at the resonant frequencies of the structure using each actuator. Mode shapes, frequencies, and damping ratios are identified from the unforced response sensor data after each excitation. Then, the excitation data is used to identify the actuator influence coefficients. The results of the individual parameter identification analyses are assembled into an aggregate system model. The control design is accomplished based only on the identified model using multi-input/output linear quadratic Gaussian theory. Its performance is evaluated based on time-to-damp as compared with the uncontrolled structure.
Control Law Synthesis for Vertical Fin Buffeting Alleviation Using Strain Actuation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nitzsche, F.; Zimcik, D. G.; Ryall, T. G.; Moses, R. W.; Henderson, D. A.
1999-01-01
In the present investigation, the results obtained during the ground test of a closed-loop control system conducted on a full-scale fighter to attenuate vertical fin buffeting response using strain actuation are presented. Two groups of actuators consisting of piezoelectric elements distributed over the structure were designed to achieve authority over the first and second modes of the vertical fin. The control laws were synthesized using the Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method for a time-invariant control system. Three different pairs of sensors including strain gauges and accelerometers at different locations were used to close the feedback loop. The results demonstrated that measurable reductions in the root-mean-square (RMS) values of the fin dynamic response identified by the strain transducer at the critical point for fatigue at the root were achieved under the most severe buffet condition. For less severe buffet conditions, reductions of up to 58% were achieved.
First on-sky SCAO validation of full LQG control with vibration mitigation on the CANARY pathfinder.
Sivo, Gaetano; Kulcsár, Caroline; Conan, Jean-Marc; Raynaud, Henri-François; Gendron, Eric; Basden, Alastair; Vidal, Fabrice; Morris, Tim; Meimon, Serge; Petit, Cyril; Gratadour, Damien; Martin, Olivier; Hubert, Zoltan; Sevin, Arnaud; Perret, Denis; Chemla, Fanny; Rousset, Gérard; Dipper, Nigel; Talbot, Gordon; Younger, Eddy; Myers, Richard; Henry, David; Todd, Stephen; Atkinson, David; Dickson, Colin; Longmore, Andy
2014-09-22
Adaptive optics provides real time correction of wavefront disturbances on ground based telescopes. Optimizing control and performance is a key issue for ever more demanding instruments on ever larger telescopes affected not only by atmospheric turbulence, but also by vibrations, windshake and tracking errors. Linear Quadratic Gaussian control achieves optimal correction when provided with a temporal model of the disturbance. We present in this paper the first on-sky results of a Kalman filter based LQG control with vibration mitigation on the CANARY instrument at the Nasmyth platform of the 4.2-m William Herschel Telescope. The results demonstrate a clear improvement of performance for full LQG compared with standard integrator control, and assess the additional improvement brought by vibration filtering with a tip-tilt model identified from on-sky data, thus validating the strategy retained on the instrument SPHERE at the VLT. PMID:25321824
A Comparison of Multivariable Control Design Techniques for a Turbofan Engine Control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garg, Sanjay; Watts, Stephen R.
1995-01-01
This paper compares two previously published design procedures for two different multivariable control design techniques for application to a linear engine model of a jet engine. The two multivariable control design techniques compared were the Linear Quadratic Gaussian with Loop Transfer Recovery (LQG/LTR) and the H-Infinity synthesis. The two control design techniques were used with specific previously published design procedures to synthesize controls which would provide equivalent closed loop frequency response for the primary control loops while assuring adequate loop decoupling. The resulting controllers were then reduced in order to minimize the programming and data storage requirements for a typical implementation. The reduced order linear controllers designed by each method were combined with the linear model of an advanced turbofan engine and the system performance was evaluated for the continuous linear system. Included in the performance analysis are the resulting frequency and transient responses as well as actuator usage and rate capability for each design method. The controls were also analyzed for robustness with respect to structured uncertainties in the unmodeled system dynamics. The two controls were then compared for performance capability and hardware implementation issues.
Elegant Gaussian beams for enhanced optical manipulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alpmann, Christina; Schöler, Christoph; Denz, Cornelia
2015-06-01
Generation of micro- and nanostructured complex light beams attains increasing impact in photonics and laser applications. In this contribution, we demonstrate the implementation and experimental realization of the relatively unknown, but highly versatile class of complex-valued Elegant Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian beams. These beams create higher trapping forces compared to standard Gaussian light fields due to their propagation changing properties. We demonstrate optical trapping and alignment of complex functional particles as nanocontainers with standard and Elegant Gaussian light beams. Elegant Gaussian beams will inspire manifold applications in optical manipulation, direct laser writing, or microscopy, where the design of the point-spread function is relevant.
On Volterra quadratic stochastic operators with continual state space
Ganikhodjaev, Nasir; Hamzah, Nur Zatul Akmar
2015-05-15
Let (X,F) be a measurable space, and S(X,F) be the set of all probability measures on (X,F) where X is a state space and F is ? - algebraon X. We consider a nonlinear transformation (quadratic stochastic operator) defined by (V?)(A)?=??{sub X}?{sub X}P(x,y,A)d?(x)d?(y), where P(x, y, A) is regarded as a function of two variables x and y with fixed A ? F . A quadratic stochastic operator V is called a regular, if for any initial measure the strong limit lim{sub n??}?V{sup n?}(?) is exists. In this paper, we construct a family of quadratic stochastic operators defined on the segment X = [0,1] with Borel ? - algebra F on X , prove their regularity and show that the limit measure is a Dirac measure.
A Projection Neural Network for Constrained Quadratic Minimax Optimization.
Liu, Qingshan; Wang, Jun
2015-11-01
This paper presents a projection neural network described by a dynamic system for solving constrained quadratic minimax programming problems. Sufficient conditions based on a linear matrix inequality are provided for global convergence of the proposed neural network. Compared with some of the existing neural networks for quadratic minimax optimization, the proposed neural network in this paper is capable of solving more general constrained quadratic minimax optimization problems, and the designed neural network does not include any parameter. Moreover, the neural network has lower model complexities, the number of state variables of which is equal to that of the dimension of the optimization problems. The simulation results on numerical examples are discussed to demonstrate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed neural network. PMID:25966485
Gaussian sampling by local perturbations George Papandreou
Yuille, Alan L.
& Psychology University of California, Los Angeles yuille@stat.ucla.edu Abstract We present a technique or in the first layer of deep belief networks describing real-valued data, where the non-quadratic potentials
Refraction of a Gaussian Seaway
E. J. Heller; L. Kaplan; A. Dahlen
2008-01-04
Refraction of a Longuet-Higgins Gaussian sea by random ocean currents creates persistent local variations in average energy and wave action. These variations take the form of lumps or streaks, and they explicitly survive dispersion over wavelength and incoming wave propagation direction. Thus, the uniform sampling assumed in the venerable Longuet-Higgins theory does not apply following refraction by random currents. Proper handling of the non-uniform sampling results in greatly increased probability of freak wave formation. The present theory represents a synthesis of Longuet-Higgins Gaussian seas and the refraction model of White and Fornberg, which considered the effect of currents on a plane wave incident seaway. Using the linearized equations for deep ocean waves, we obtain quantitative predictions for the increased probability of freak wave formation when the refractive effects are taken into account. The crest height or wave height distribution depends primarily on the ``freak index", gamma, which measures the strength of refraction relative to the angular spread of the incoming sea. Dramatic effects are obtained in the tail of this distribution even for the modest values of the freak index that are expected to occur commonly in nature. Extensive comparisons are made between the analytical description and numerical simulations.
Gaussianity of LISA's confusion backgrounds
Etienne Racine; Curt Cutler
2007-08-30
Data analysis for the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) will be complicated by the huge number of sources in the LISA band. Throughout much of the band, galactic white dwarf binaries (GWDBs) are sufficiently dense in frequency space that it will be impossible to resolve most of them, and "confusion noise" from the unresolved Galactic binaries will dominate over instrumental noise in determining LISA's sensitivity to other sources in that band. Confusion noise from unresolved extreme-mass-ratio inspirals (EMRIs) could also contribute significantly to LISA's total noise curve. To date, estimates of the effect of LISA's confusion noise on matched-filter searches and their detection thresholds have generally approximated the noise as Gaussian, based on the Central Limit Theorem. However in matched-filter searches, the appropriate detection threshold for a given class of signals may be located rather far out on the tail of the signal-to-noise probability distribution, where a priori it is unclear whether the Gaussian approximation is reliable. Using the Edgeworth expansion and the theory of large deviations, we investigate the probability distribution of the usual matched-filter detection statistic, far out on the tail of the distribution. We apply these tools to four somewhat idealized versions of specific LISA searches.
On Evgrafov-Fedoryuk's theory and quadratic differentials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shapiro, Boris
2015-06-01
The purpose of this note is to recall the theory of the (homogenized) spectral problem for Schrödinger equation with a polynomial potential and its relation with quadratic differentials. We derive from results of this theory that the accumulation rays of the eigenvalues of the latter problem are in -correspondence with the short geodesics of the singular planar metrics induced by the corresponding quadratic differential. We prove that for a polynomial potential of degree the number of such accumulation rays can be any positive integer between and.
Symmetric quadratic Hamiltonians with pseudo-Hermitian matrix representation
Francisco M Fernández
2015-09-13
We prove that any symmetric Hamiltonian that is a quadratic function of the coordinates and momenta has a pseudo-Hermitian adjoint or regular matrix representation. The eigenvalues of the latter matrix are the natural frequencies of the Hamiltonian operator. When all the eigenvalues of the matrix are real, then the spectrum of the symmetric Hamiltonian is real and the operator is Hermitian. As illustrative examples we choose the quadratic Hamiltonians that model a pair of coupled resonators with balanced gain and loss, the electromagnetic self-force on an oscillating charged particle and an active LRC circuit.
ISLANDS OF GAUSSIANS: THE SELF ORGANIZING MAP AND GAUSSIAN MUSIC SIMILARITY FEATURES
Widmer, Gerhard
- based music recommendation systems is the ability to compute music similarity. In research it is not yetISLANDS OF GAUSSIANS: THE SELF ORGANIZING MAP AND GAUSSIAN MUSIC SIMILARITY FEATURES Dominik.gasser@ofai.at ABSTRACT Multivariate Gaussians are of special interest in the MIR field of automatic music recommendation
Derek McHugh; Vladim{í}r Bužek; Mário Ziman
2006-11-15
We present a class of non-Gaussian two-mode continuous variable states for which the separability criterion for Gaussian states can be employed to detect whether they are separable or not. These states reduce to the two-mode Gaussian states as a special case.
McHugh, Derek; Buzek, Vladimir; Ziman, Mario
2006-11-15
We present a class of non-Gaussian two-mode continuous-variable states for which the separability criterion for Gaussian states can be employed to detect whether they are separable or not. These states reduce to the two-mode Gaussian states as a special case.
Time-Invariant Linear Quadratic Regulators !
Stengel, Robert F.
for closed-loop stability" !! Algebraic Riccati equation" !! Equilibrium response to commands" Copyright 2015 final time" !! Rate of change approaches zero with increasing final time" 9! Algebraic Riccati Equation! Riccati Solution and Control Gain for Open-Loop Stable and Unstable 1st-Order Systems" P tf( )= 0
Driving/Braking Force Distribution of Four Wheel Vehicle by Quadratic Programming with Constraints
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ikeda, Yuichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Chida, Yuichi
This paper proposes a yaw rate tracking control method that distributes the driving/ braking force exerted on vehicles at the time of negotiating sharp turns and driving at high speeds. The proposed method employs quadratic programming to distribute the driving/braking force in order to equalize the tire load factor on all wheels and consider the limits of the driving/braking force. The yaw rate tracking performance can be improved even while driving at high speeds and negotiating sharp turns by setting limits for the driving/braking force, differential moment, etc. The effectiveness of our proposed method is proven by a numerical simulation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.
1986-01-01
An abstract approximation framework is developed for the finite and infinite time horizon discrete-time linear-quadratic regulator problem for systems whose state dynamics are described by a linear semigroup of operators on an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. The schemes included the framework yield finite dimensional approximations to the linear state feedback gains which determine the optimal control law. Convergence arguments are given. Examples involving hereditary and parabolic systems and the vibration of a flexible beam are considered. Spline-based finite element schemes for these classes of problems, together with numerical results, are presented and discussed.
Kupinski, M. K.; Clarkson, E.
2015-01-01
We present a new method for computing optimized channels for channelized quadratic observers (CQO) that is feasible for high-dimensional image data. The method for calculating channels is applicable in general and optimal for Gaussian distributed image data. Gradient-based algorithms for determining the channels are presented for five different information-based figures of merit (FOMs). Analytic solutions for the optimum channels for each of the five FOMs are derived for the case of equal mean data for both classes. The optimum channels for three of the FOMs under the equal mean condition are shown to be the same. This result is critical since some of the FOMs are much easier to compute. Implementing the CQO requires a set of channels and the first- and second-order statistics of channelized image data from both classes. The dimensionality reduction from M measurements to L channels is a critical advantage of CQO since estimating image statistics from channelized data requires smaller sample sizes and inverting a smaller covariance matrix is easier. In a simulation study we compare the performance of ideal and Hotelling observers to CQO. The optimal CQO channels are calculated using both eigenanalysis and a new gradient-based algorithm for maximizing Jeffrey's divergence (J). Optimal channel selection without eigenanalysis makes the J-CQO on large-dimensional image data feasible. PMID:26366764
Optimality of Gaussian Discord Stefano Pirandola,1,*
Braunstein, Samuel L.
], discrimination of unitaries [9], quantum channel discrimination [10], quantum metrology [11], and quantum the optimality of Gaussian discord, so that the computation of quantum discord for bipartite Gaussian states can the quantum correlations possessed by some of the most important bosonic states in quantum optics and quantum
Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution
Edinburgh, University of
Perfusion Quantification Using Gaussian Process Deconvolution I.K. Andersen,1,2* A. Szymkowiak,1 C using dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI (DSC-MRI) requires deconvolution to obtain the residual impulse response function (IRF). In this work, a method using the Gaussian process for deconvolution (GPD
Seismogram synthesis using Gaussian beam technique
Jianzhang, C.; Guangming, Z. )
1992-01-01
This paper reports that two-dimensional seismogram in inhomogeneous layered medium in which there are arbitrary curved interfaces can be synthesized by using Gaussian beam method. Self-adaptive and terminal point methods for parameter choice are used to avoid false appearance and to reduce distortion in the application of Gaussian beam technique to surface seismic and VSP data.
STATISTICAL COMPRESSIVE SENSING OF GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODELS
STATISTICAL COMPRESSIVE SENSING OF GAUSSIAN MIXTURE MODELS By Guoshen Yu and Guillermo Sapiro IMA: 612-626-7370 URL: http://www.ima.umn.edu #12;STATISTICAL COMPRESSIVE SENSING OF GAUSSIAN MIXTURE.S.A. ABSTRACT A new framework of compressive sensing (CS), namely statistical compres- sive sensing (SCS
Distributed Kalman Filter via Gaussian Belief Propagation
Siegel, Paul H.
Distributed Kalman Filter via Gaussian Belief Propagation Danny Bickson IBM Haifa Research Lab interpretations. First, we show equivalence to computing one iteration of the Kalman filter. Second, we show that the Kalman filter is a special case of the Gaussian information bottleneck algorithm, when the weight
A multiloop, digital flutter suppression control law synthesis case study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Perry, Boyd, III; Noll, Thomas E.
1989-01-01
A methodology for obtaining a digital low-order, multiloop, robust control law for aeroelastic application from a full-state Linear Quadratic Gaussian design is presented. As part of the design methodology, the multivariable system robustness at the plant input and output is evaluated using singular value properties and improved using constrained optimization procedures. To validate the methodology, a digital flutter suppression system has been designed for the full-span Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind-tunnel model as part of a collaborative effort between the NASA Langley Research Center and Rockwell International. Preliminary results for a low-order discrete, symmetric flutter suppression system design that significantly improved the AFW model stability are provided and the experiences gained during the design process are discussed.
Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.
FUNCTION DIGRAPHS OF QUADRATIC MAPS MODULO p Christie L. Gilbert
Reiter, Clifford A.
. Storey 218 Sparrow Drive, Wake Forest, NC 27587 USA 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we will consider distinct up to isomorphism. In Section 3 we investigate what appear to be tight bounds on number of cycles. In Section 4 we empirically compare these quadratic digraphs to "random" digraphs and this motivates our
Visualising the Complex Roots of Quadratic Equations with Real Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardell, Nicholas S.
2012-01-01
The roots of the general quadratic equation y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c (real a, b, c) are known to occur in the following sets: (i) real and distinct; (ii) real and coincident; and (iii) a complex conjugate pair. Case (iii), which provides the focus for this investigation, can only occur when the values of the real coefficients a, b, and c are…
Asymmetric Simple Exclusion Process with open boundaries and Quadratic Harnesses
Wlodek Bryc; Jacek Wesolowski
2015-11-03
We establish a correspondence between a family of Markov processes called quadratic harnesses and a family of finite state asymmetric exclusion processes with open boundaries. As applications, we give a quick proof of the large deviations principle for the total number of particles in the system, and show how explicit formulas for the average occupancy of a site arise for special choices of parameters.
Contingency Simulation Using Single Phase Quadratized Power Flow
methods based on the traditional power flow (TPF) model usually suffer from lack of the realistic system it provides accurate power flow solutions, this procedure, which involves a huge number of AC load flowContingency Simulation Using Single Phase Quadratized Power Flow Fang Yang, Student Member, IEEE, A
Solving the Quadratic Capacitated Facilities Location Problem by Computer.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cote, Leon C.; Smith, Wayland P.
Several computer programs were developed to solve various versions of the quadratic capacitated facilities location problem. Matrices, which represent various business costs, are defined for the factors of sites, facilities, customers, commodities, and production units. The objective of the program is to find an optimization matrix for the lowest…
On Interpolation Errors over Quadratic Nodal Triangular Finite Elements
Kirby, Mike
On Interpolation Errors over Quadratic Nodal Triangular Finite Elements Shankar P. Sastry to interpolate a solution (within an element) of a partial differential equation obtained by the finite element the bounds on the error of the interpolated solution. For linear elements, the error bounds at a point have
Analysis of Quadratic Diophantine Equations with Fibonacci Number Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2004-01-01
An analysis is made of the role of Fibonacci numbers in some quadratic Diophantine equations. A general solution is obtained for finding factors in sums of Fibonacci numbers. Interpretation of the results is facilitated by the use of a modular ring which also permits extension of the analysis.
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga)
Epstein, Irving R.
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga) and Irving R. Epstein the dependence of the front velocity on the diffusion coefficients of X and R, the interconversion rates diffusion coef- ficients of X and R, DX and DR , respectively, raise the ques- tion of how the velocity
About Zhang's premodels for Siegel disks of quadratic rational maps.
Chéritat, Arnaud
About Zhang's premodels for Siegel disks of quadratic rational maps. Arnaud Ch´eritat CNRS, Univ. Toulouse Feb. 2011 A. Ch´eritat (CNRS, UPS) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011 1 / 33 #12;Let us show) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011 2 / 33 #12;A. Ch´eritat (CNRS, UPS) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011
Robustness of quadratic hedging strategies in finance via Fourier transforms
Vanmaele, Michèle
consider two models for the stock price process. The first model is a geometric L´evy process in which the robustness of the quadratic hedging strategies we use pricing and hedging formulas based on Fourier transform technically be performed under a related pricing measure that is a risk-neutral measure. Under this measure
Root Refinement for Real Polynomials using Quadratic Interval Refinement
Waldmann, Uwe
Root Refinement for Real Polynomials using Quadratic Interval Refinement Michael Kerber MPI consider the problem of approximating all real roots of a square-free polyno- mial f with real coefficients. Given isolating intervals for the real roots and an arbitrary positive integer L, the task
Spectral pulse transformations and phase transitions in quadratic nonlinear
. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, "Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveg- uide latticesSpectral pulse transformations and phase transitions in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays Frank, Germany 2Nonlinear Physics Centre, RSPE, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200, Australia 3
A QUADRATIC TIME ALGORITHM FOR THE MINMAX LENGTH TRIANGULATION
Tan, Tiow Seng
A QUADRATIC TIME ALGORITHM FOR THE MINMAX LENGTH TRIANGULATION HERBERT EDELSBRUNNER \\Lambda AND TIOW SENG TAN y Abstract. We show that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes and is based on the theorem that there is a triangulation with minmax edge length that contains the relative
A QUADRATIC TIME ALGORITHM FOR THE MINMAX LENGTH TRIANGULATION
Tan, Tiow Seng
A QUADRATIC TIME ALGORITHM FOR THE MINMAX LENGTH TRIANGULATION HERBERT EDELSBRUNNER AND TIOW SENG TANy Abstract. We show that a triangulation of a set of n points in the plane that minimizes and is based on the theorem that there is a triangulation with minmax edge length that contains the relative
A Unified Approach to Teaching Quadratic and Cubic Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ward, A. J. B.
2003-01-01
Presents a simple method for teaching the algebraic solution of cubic equations via completion of the cube. Shows that this method is readily accepted by students already familiar with completion of the square as a method for quadratic equations. (Author/KHR)
Matching optics for Gaussian beams
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gunter, William D. (inventor)
1991-01-01
A system of matching optics for Gaussian beams is described. The matching optics system is positioned between a light beam emitter (such as a laser) and the input optics of a second optics system whereby the output from the light beam emitter is converted into an optimum input for the succeeding parts of the second optical system. The matching optics arrangement includes the combination of a light beam emitter, such as a laser with a movable afocal lens pair (telescope) and a single movable lens placed in the laser's output beam. The single movable lens serves as an input to the telescope. If desired, a second lens, which may be fixed, is positioned in the beam before the adjustable lens to serve as an input processor to the movable lens. The system provides the ability to choose waist diameter and position independently and achieve the desired values with two simple adjustments not requiring iteration.
A No-Go Theorem for Gaussian Quantum Error Correction
Julien Niset; Jaromir Fiurasek; Nicolas J. Cerf
2008-11-19
It is proven that Gaussian operations are of no use for protecting Gaussian states against Gaussian errors in quantum communication protocols. Specifically, we introduce a new quantity characterizing any single-mode Gaussian channel, called entanglement degradation, and show that it cannot decrease via Gaussian encoding and decoding operations only. The strength of this no-go theorem is illustrated with some examples of Gaussian channels.
H2, fixed architecture, control design for large scale systems. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercadal, Mathieu
1990-01-01
The H2, fixed architecture, control problem is a classic linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) problem whose solution is constrained to be a linear time invariant compensator with a decentralized processing structure. The compensator can be made of p independent subcontrollers, each of which has a fixed order and connects selected sensors to selected actuators. The H2, fixed architecture, control problem allows the design of simplified feedback systems needed to control large scale systems. Its solution becomes more complicated, however, as more constraints are introduced. This work derives the necessary conditions for optimality for the problem and studies their properties. It is found that the filter and control problems couple when the architecture constraints are introduced, and that the different subcontrollers must be coordinated in order to achieve global system performance. The problem requires the simultaneous solution of highly coupled matrix equations. The use of homotopy is investigated as a numerical tool, and its convergence properties studied. It is found that the general constrained problem may have multiple stabilizing solutions, and that these solutions may be local minima or saddle points for the quadratic cost. The nature of the solution is not invariant when the parameters of the system are changed. Bifurcations occur, and a solution may continuously transform into a nonstabilizing compensator. Using a modified homotopy procedure, fixed architecture compensators are derived for models of large flexible structures to help understand the properties of the constrained solutions and compare them to the corresponding unconstrained ones.
Practical robustness measures in multivariable control system analysis. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lehtomaki, N. A.
1981-01-01
The robustness of the stability of multivariable linear time invariant feedback control systems with respect to model uncertainty is considered using frequency domain criteria. Available robustness tests are unified under a common framework based on the nature and structure of model errors. These results are derived using a multivariable version of Nyquist's stability theorem in which the minimum singular value of the return difference transfer matrix is shown to be the multivariable generalization of the distance to the critical point on a single input, single output Nyquist diagram. Using the return difference transfer matrix, a very general robustness theorem is presented from which all of the robustness tests dealing with specific model errors may be derived. The robustness tests that explicitly utilized model error structure are able to guarantee feedback system stability in the face of model errors of larger magnitude than those robustness tests that do not. The robustness of linear quadratic Gaussian control systems are analyzed.
FIBER OPTIC POINT QUADRAT SYSTEM FOR IMPROVED ACCURACY IN VEGETATION SAMPLING
An automated, fiber optic point quadrat system for vegetation sampling is described. Because the effective point diameter of the system never exceeds 25um it minimizes the substantial errors which can arise with conventional point quadrats. Automatic contact detection eliminates ...
Applications of the Gaussian kinematic formula to CMB data analysis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fantaye, Yabebal; Marinucci, Domenico; Hansen, Frode; Maino, Davide
2015-03-01
The Gaussian kinematic formula (GKF) [R. J. Adler and J. E. Taylor, Random Fields and Geometry (Springer, New York, 2007).] is an extremely powerful tool allowing for explicit analytic predictions of expected values of Minkowski functionals under realistic experimental conditions for cosmological data collections. In this paper, we implement Minkowski functionals on multipoles and needlet components of CMB fields, thus allowing a better control of cosmic variance and extraction of information on both harmonic and real domains; we then exploit the GKF to provide their expected values on spherical maps, in the presence of arbitrary sky masks, and under non-Gaussian circumstances. All our results are validated by numerical experiments, which show a perfect agreement between theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations.
Gaussian translation operator in a multilevel scheme
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hansen, Thorkild B.; Borries, Oscar
2015-08-01
A multilevel computation scheme for time-harmonic fields in three dimensions will be formulated with a new Gaussian translation operator that decays exponentially outside a circular cone centered on the line connecting the source and observation groups. This Gaussian translation operator is directional and diagonal with its sharpness determined by a beam parameter. When the beam parameter is set to zero, the Gaussian translation operator reduces to the standard fast multipole method translation operator. The directionality of the Gaussian translation operator makes it possible to reduce the number of plane waves required to achieve a given accuracy. The sampling rate can be determined straightforwardly to achieve any desired accuracy. The use of the computation scheme will be illustrated through a near-field scanning problem where the far-field pattern of a source is determined from near-field measurements with a known probe. Here the Gaussian translation operator improves the condition number of the matrix equation that determines the far-field pattern. The Gaussian translation operator can also be used when the probe pattern is known only in one hemisphere, as is common in practice. Also, the Gaussian translation operator will be used to solve the scattering problem of the perfectly conducting sphere.
Gaussian measures of entanglement versus negativities: Ordering of two-mode Gaussian states
Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-09-15
We study the entanglement of general (pure or mixed) two-mode Gaussian states of continuous-variable systems by comparing the two available classes of computable measures of entanglement: entropy-inspired Gaussian convex-roof measures and positive partial transposition-inspired measures (negativity and logarithmic negativity). We first review the formalism of Gaussian measures of entanglement, adopting the framework introduced in M. M. Wolf et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 052320 (2004), where the Gaussian entanglement of formation was defined. We compute explicitly Gaussian measures of entanglement for two important families of nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian state: namely, the states of extremal (maximal and minimal) negativities at fixed global and local purities, introduced in G. Adesso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 087901 (2004). This analysis allows us to compare the different orderings induced on the set of entangled two-mode Gaussian states by the negativities and by the Gaussian measures of entanglement. We find that in a certain range of values of the global and local purities (characterizing the covariance matrix of the corresponding extremal states), states of minimum negativity can have more Gaussian entanglement of formation than states of maximum negativity. Consequently, Gaussian measures and negativities are definitely inequivalent measures of entanglement on nonsymmetric two-mode Gaussian states, even when restricted to a class of extremal states. On the other hand, the two families of entanglement measures are completely equivalent on symmetric states, for which the Gaussian entanglement of formation coincides with the true entanglement of formation. Finally, we show that the inequivalence between the two families of continuous-variable entanglement measures is somehow limited. Namely, we rigorously prove that, at fixed negativities, the Gaussian measures of entanglement are bounded from below. Moreover, we provide some strong evidence suggesting that they are as well bounded from above.
Transfer of non-Gaussian quantum states of mechanical oscillator to light
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Filip, Radim; Rakhubovsky, Andrey A.
2015-11-01
Non-Gaussian quantum states are key resources for quantum optics with continuous-variable oscillators. The non-Gaussian states can be deterministically prepared by a continuous evolution of the mechanical oscillator isolated in a nonlinear potential. We propose feasible and deterministic transfer of non-Gaussian quantum states of mechanical oscillators to a traveling light beam, using purely all-optical methods. The method relies on only basic feasible and high-quality elements of quantum optics: squeezed states of light, linear optics, homodyne detection, and electro-optical feedforward control of light. By this method, a wide range of novel non-Gaussian states of light can be produced in the future from the mechanical states of levitating particles in optical tweezers, including states necessary for the implementation of an important cubic phase gate.
Engineering extremal two-qubit entangled states with maximally entangled Gaussian light
Adesso, G; Illuminati, F; Paternostro, M
2010-01-01
We study state engineering induced by bilinear interactions between two remote qubits and light fields prepared in two-mode Gaussian states. The attainable two-qubit states span the entire physically allowed region in the entanglement-vs-global-purity plane. We show that two-mode Gaussian states with maximal entanglement at fixed global and marginal entropies produce maximally entangled two-qubit states in the corresponding entropic diagram. The target two-qubit entanglement is determined quantitatively only by the purities of the two-mode Gaussian resource. Thus, a small set of parameters characterizing extremally entangled two-mode Gaussian states is sufficient to control completely the engineering of extremally entangled two-qubit states, which can be realized in realistic scenarios of cavity and circuit quantum electrodynamics.
Some Connections Between Primitive Roots and Quadratic Non-Residues Modulo a Prime
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Some Connections Between Primitive Roots and Quadratic Non-Residues Modulo a Prime Sorin Iftene--In this paper we present some interesting connec- tions between primitive roots and quadratic non-residues--primitive roots, Legendre-Jacobi symbol, quadratic non-residues, square roots. I. INTRODUCTION Generating
On the distribution of quadratic residues and nonresidues modulo a prime number
Peralta, Rene
On the distribution of quadratic residues and nonresidues modulo a prime number Ren'e Peralta #12; Proposed running head : ``quadratic residues mod P ''. corresponding author: Ren'e Peralta the implications of this bound on the number of occurrences of arbitrary patterns of quadratic residues
Alignment-orientation conversion by quadratic Zeeman effect: Analysis and observation for Te2
Auzinsh, Marcis
Alignment-orientation conversion by quadratic Zeeman effect: Analysis and observation for Te2 I. P momenta into orientation due to quadratic correction to Zeeman effect. Circularity rate up to 0 of the quadratic correction to the Zeeman effect in diatomic mol- ecules. In particular, we direct now our
Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...
Quark and Lepton Masses from Gaussian Landscapes
Hall, Lawrence J.; Salem, Michael P.; Watari, Taizan
2008-04-11
The flavor structure of the standard model (SM) might arise from random selection on a landscape. We propose a class of simple models, 'Gaussian landscapes', where Yukawa couplings derive from overlap integrals of Gaussian wave functions on extra-dimensions. Statistics of vacua are generated by scanning the peak positions of these zero-modes, giving probability distributions for all flavor observables. Gaussian landscapes can account for all observed flavor patterns with few free parameters. Although they give broad probability distributions, the predictions are correlated and accounting for measured parameters sharpens the distributions of future neutrino measurements.
Cloning of Gaussian states by linear optics
Olivares, Stefano; Paris, Matteo G. A.; Andersen, Ulrik L.
2006-06-15
We analyze in details a scheme for cloning of Gaussian states based on linear optical components and homodyne detection recently demonstrated by Andersen et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 240503 (2005)]. The input-output fidelity is evaluated for a generic (pure or mixed) Gaussian state taking into account the effect of nonunit quantum efficiency and unbalanced mode mixing. In addition, since in most quantum information protocols the covariance matrix of the set of input states is not perfectly known, we evaluate the average cloning fidelity for classes of Gaussian states with the degree of squeezing and the number of thermal photons being only partially known.
Modeling and control of flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Mingori, D. L.
1988-01-01
This monograph presents integrated modeling and controller design methods for flexible structures. The controllers, or compensators, developed are optimal in the linear-quadratic-Gaussian sense. The performance objectives, sensor and actuator locations and external disturbances influence both the construction of the model and the design of the finite dimensional compensator. The modeling and controller design procedures are carried out in parallel to ensure compatibility of these two aspects of the design problem. Model reduction techniques are introduced to keep both the model order and the controller order as small as possible. A linear distributed, or infinite dimensional, model is the theoretical basis for most of the text, but finite dimensional models arising from both lumped-mass and finite element approximations also play an important role. A central purpose of the approach here is to approximate an optimal infinite dimensional controller with an implementable finite dimensional compensator. Both convergence theory and numerical approximation methods are given. Simple examples are used to illustrate the theory.
Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.
2011-01-01
When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.
Quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation in one dimension
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayashi, Nakao; Naumkin, Pavel I.
2012-10-01
We study the initial value problem for the quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equation vtt + v - vxx = ?v2, t ? R, x ? R, with initial conditions v(0, x) = v0(x), vt(0, x) = v1(x), x ? R, where v0 and v1 are real-valued functions, ? ? R. Using the method of normal forms of Shatah ["Normal forms and quadratic nonlinear Klein-Gordon equations," Commun. Pure Appl. Math. 38, 685-696 (1985)], we obtain a sharp asymptotic behavior of small solutions without the condition of a compact support on the initial data, which was assumed in the previous work of J.-M. Delort ["Existence globale et comportement asymptotique pour l'équation de Klein-Gordon quasi-linéaire á données petites en dimension 1," Ann. Sci. Ec. Normale Super. 34(4), 1-61 (2001)].
Quark and Lepton Masses from Gaussian Landscapes
Lawrence J. Hall; Michael P. Salem; Taizan Watari
2008-04-11
The flavor structure of the Standard Model might arise from random selection on a landscape. We propose a class of simple models, ``Gaussian landscapes,'' where Yukawa couplings derive from overlap integrals of Gaussian wavefunctions on extra-dimensions. Statistics of vacua are generated by scanning the peak positions of these zero-modes, giving probability distributions for all flavor observables. Gaussian landscapes can broadly account for all observed flavor patterns with very few free parameters. For example, the generation structure in the quark sector follows from the overlap integrals for both the up and down type Yukawas sharing the localized wavefunctions of the quark doublets and the Higgs boson. Although Gaussian landscapes predict broad probability distributions, the flavor observables are correlated and we show that accounting for measured flavor parameters creates sharper distributions for future neutrino measurements.
Applications of Gaussian Processes to Supernova Data
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomas, Rollin; Kim, A. G.; Fakhouri, H. K.; Truong, P.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate the use of Gaussian processes in problems relevant to Type Ia supernova cosmology experiments and the analysis of supernovae in general. Gaussian processes are a powerful statistical approach that generalizes the concept of probability distributions over random variables to functions. Nonlinear regression, smoothing, and machine classification problems are target applications of Gaussian processes. Areas where Gaussian processes may be an interesting solution in Type Ia supernova cosmology are: principled construction of spectroscopic surface templates, robust extraction of spectral feature measurements, and light curve fitting/modeling. We describe our high-performance computer framework that scales to data sets of interest to current and near-term cosmology experiments, describe computational challenges in the implementation (and their resolution), and show example results using data from the Nearby Supernova Factory and simulations from the Dark Energy Survey.
Galaxy Bias and Primordial Non-Gaussianity
Valentin Assassi; Daniel Baumann; Fabian Schmidt
2015-11-25
We present a systematic study of galaxy biasing in the presence of primordial non-Gaussianity. For a large class of non-Gaussian initial conditions, we define a general bias expansion and prove that it is closed under renormalization, thereby showing that the basis of operators in the expansion is complete. We then study the effects of primordial non-Gaussianity on the statistics of galaxies. We show that the equivalence principle enforces a relation between the scale-dependent bias in the galaxy power spectrum and that in the dipolar part of the bispectrum. This provides a powerful consistency check to confirm the primordial origin of any observed scale-dependent bias. Finally, we also discuss the imprints of anisotropic non-Gaussianity as motivated by recent studies of higher-spin fields during inflation.
Geodesic Gaussian kernels for value function approximation
Sugiyama, Masashi; Hachiya, Hirotaka; Towell, Christopher; Vijayakumar, Sethu
2008-01-01
The least-squares policy iteration approach works efficiently in value function approximation, given appropriate basis functions. Because of its smoothness, the Gaussian kernel is a popular and useful choice as a basis ...
Optimal cloning of mixed Gaussian states
Guta, Madalin; Matsumoto, Keiji
2006-09-15
We construct the optimal one to two cloning transformation for the family of displaced thermal equilibrium states of a harmonic oscillator, with a fixed and known temperature. The transformation is Gaussian and it is optimal with respect to the figure of merit based on the joint output state and norm distance. The proof of the result is based on the equivalence between the optimal cloning problem and that of optimal amplification of Gaussian states which is then reduced to an optimization problem for diagonal states of a quantum oscillator. A key concept in finding the optimum is that of stochastic ordering which plays a similar role in the purely classical problem of Gaussian cloning. The result is then extended to the case of n to m cloning of mixed Gaussian states.
String Gas Cosmology and Non-Gaussianities
Bin Chen; Yi Wang; Wei Xue; Robert Brandenberger
2008-03-05
Recently it has been shown that string gas cosmology, an alternative model of the very early universe which does not involve a period of cosmological inflation, can give rise to an almost scale invariant spectrum of metric perturbations. Here we calculate the non-Gaussianities of the spectrum of cosmological fluctuations in string gas cosmology, and find that these non-Gaussianities depend linearly on the wave number and that their amplitude depends sensitively on the string scale. If the string scale is at the TeV scale, string gas cosmology could lead to observable non-Gaussianities, if it is close to the Planck scale, then the non-Gaussianities on current cosmological scales are negligible.
Improved Gaussian Beam-Scattering Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lock, James A.
1995-01-01
The localized model of the beam-shape coefficients for Gaussian beam-scattering theory by a spherical particle provides a great simplification in the numerical implementation of the theory. We derive an alternative form for the localized coefficients that is more convenient for computer computations and that provides physical insight into the details of the scattering process. We construct a FORTRAN program for Gaussian beam scattering with the localized model and compare its computer run time on a personal computer with that of a traditional Mie scattering program and with three other published methods for computing Gaussian beam scattering. We show that the analytical form of the beam-shape coefficients makes evident the fact that the excitation rate of morphology-dependent resonances is greatly enhanced for far off-axis incidence of the Gaussian beam.
Approximate inference in Gaussian graphical models
Malioutov, Dmitry M., 1981-
2008-01-01
The focus of this thesis is approximate inference in Gaussian graphical models. A graphical model is a family of probability distributions in which the structure of interactions among the random variables is captured by a ...
Universal codes for parallel Gaussian channels
Modir Shanechi, Maryam
2006-01-01
In this thesis we study the design of universal codes for parallel Gaussian channels with 2 sub-channels present. We study the universality both in terms of the uncertainty in the relative quality of the two sub-channels ...
Nonlinear coupling in discrete optical waveguide arrays with quadratic nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Setzpfandt, Frank; Sohler, Wolfgang; Schiek, Roland; Pertsch, Thomas
2015-10-01
We demonstrate nonlinear coupling in a discrete optical system. This is achieved in waveguide arrays with quadratic nonlinearity, where the symmetries of the nonlinearly interacting waveguide modes are used to suppress the usually dominating nonlinear effects within individual waveguides. We derive a mathematical model to describe the nonlinear coupling in such waveguide arrays and show experimentally the profound effects of this nonlinear coupling mechanism on second-harmonic generation.
Quantum integrals of motion for variable quadratic Hamiltonians
Cordero-Soto, Ricardo; Suazo, Erwin; Suslov, Sergei K.
2010-09-15
We construct integrals of motion for several models of the quantum damped oscillators in a framework of a general approach to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with variable quadratic Hamiltonians. An extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant is given. The time-evolution of the expectation values of the energy-related positive operators is determined for the oscillators under consideration. A proof of uniqueness of the corresponding Cauchy initial value problem is discussed as an application.
Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.
Gravitational instantons with faster than quadratic curvature decay (II)
Gao Chen; Xiuxiong Chen
2015-08-31
This is our second paper in a series to study gravitational instantons, i.e. complete hyperk\\"aler 4-manifolds with faster than quadratic curvature decay. We prove two main theorems: 1.The asymptotic rate of gravitational instantons to the standard models can be improved automatically. 2.Any ALF-D_k gravitational instanton must be the Cherkis-Hitchin-Ivanov-Kapustin-Lindstr\\"om-Ro\\v{c}ek metric.
FRW in quadratic form of $f(T)$ gravitational theories
G. G. L. Nashed
2015-06-26
We derive asymptote solution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe governed by the quadratic form of the field equation of $f(T)$ gravity. We explain how the higher order of the torsion can provide an origin for late accelerated phase of the universe in the FRW. The solution makes the scalar torsion $T$ to be a function of the cosmic time $t$. We show that for the equation of state $p=\\omega \\rho$ with $\\omega\
Design and test of three active flutter suppression controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Adams, William M.; Srinathkumar, S.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1991-01-01
Three flutter suppression control law design techniques are presented. Each uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals together with dynamic compensation to synthesize the modal rate of the critical mode for feedback to distributed control surfaces. The second uses traditional tools (pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) to develop a good understanding of the flutter mechanism and produce a controller with minimal complexity and good robustness to plant uncertainty. The third starts with a minimum energy Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller, applies controller order reduction, and then modifies weight and noise covariance matrices to improve multi-variable robustness. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the Active Flexible Wing (AFW) wind tunnel model. Test results presented here include plant characteristics, maximum attained closed-loop dynamic pressure, and Root Mean Square control surface activity. A key result is that simultaneous symmetric and antisymmetric flutter suppression was achieved by the second control law, with a 24 percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure.
Non-Gaussian structure of B-mode polarization after delensing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Namikawa, Toshiya; Nagata, Ryo
2015-10-01
The B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background on large scales has been considered as a probe of gravitational waves from the cosmic inflation. Ongoing and future experiments will, however, suffer from contamination due to the B-modes of non-primordial origins, one of which is the lensing induced B-mode polarization. Subtraction of the lensing B-modes, usually referred to as delensing, will be required for further improvement of detection sensitivity of the gravitational waves. In such experiments, knowledge of statistical properties of the B-modes after delensing is indispensable to likelihood analysis particularly because the lensing B-modes are known to be non-Gaussian. In this paper, we study non-Gaussian structure of the delensed B-modes on large scales, comparing it with that of the lensing B-modes. In particular, we investigate the power spectrum correlation matrix and the probability distribution function (PDF) of the power spectrum amplitude. Assuming an experiment in which the quadratic delensing is an almost optimal method, we find that delensing reduces correlations of the lensing B-mode power spectra between different multipoles, and that the PDF of the power spectrum amplitude is well described as a normal distribution function with a variance larger than that in the case of a Gaussian field. These features are well captured by an analytic model based on the 4th order Edgeworth expansion. As a consequence of the non-Gaussianity, the constraint on the tensor-to-scalar ratio after delensing is degraded within approximately a few percent, which depends on the multipole range included in the analysis.
Quadratic canonical transformation theory and higher order density matrices.
Neuscamman, Eric; Yanai, Takeshi; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic
2009-03-28
Canonical transformation (CT) theory provides a rigorously size-extensive description of dynamic correlation in multireference systems, with an accuracy superior to and cost scaling lower than complete active space second order perturbation theory. Here we expand our previous theory by investigating (i) a commutator approximation that is applied at quadratic, as opposed to linear, order in the effective Hamiltonian, and (ii) incorporation of the three-body reduced density matrix in the operator and density matrix decompositions. The quadratic commutator approximation improves CT's accuracy when used with a single-determinant reference, repairing the previous formal disadvantage of the single-reference linear CT theory relative to singles and doubles coupled cluster theory. Calculations on the BH and HF binding curves confirm this improvement. In multireference systems, the three-body reduced density matrix increases the overall accuracy of the CT theory. Tests on the H(2)O and N(2) binding curves yield results highly competitive with expensive state-of-the-art multireference methods, such as the multireference Davidson-corrected configuration interaction (MRCI+Q), averaged coupled pair functional, and averaged quadratic coupled cluster theories. PMID:19334803
Quadratic momentum dependence in the nucleon-nucleon interaction
R. B. Wiringa; A. Arriaga; V. R. Pandharipande
2003-09-05
We investigate different choices for the quadratic momentum dependence required in nucleon-nucleon potentials to fit phase shifts in high partial-waves. In the Argonne v18 potential L**2 and (L.S)**2 operators are used to represent this dependence. The v18 potential is simple to use in many-body calculations since it has no quadratic momentum-dependent terms in S-waves. However, p**2 rather than L**2 dependence occurs naturally in meson-exchange models of nuclear forces. We construct an alternate version of the Argonne potential, designated Argonne v18pq, in which the L**2 and (L.S)**2 operators are replaced by p**2 and Qij operators, respectively. The quadratic momentum-dependent terms are smaller in the v18pq than in the v18 interaction. Results for the ground state binding energies of 3H, 3He, and 4He, obtained with the variational Monte Carlo method, are presented for both the models with and without three-nucleon interactions. We find that the nuclear wave functions obtained with the v18pq are slightly larger than those with v18 at interparticle distances < 1 fm. The two models provide essentially the same binding in the light nuclei, although the v18pq gains less attraction when a fixed three-nucleon potential is added.
Quadratic Volume-Preserving Maps: Invariant Circles and Bifurcations
Holger R. Dullin; James D. Meiss
2008-07-04
We study the dynamics of the five-parameter quadratic family of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of R^3. This family is the unfolded normal form for a bifurcation of a fixed point with a triple-one multiplier and also is the general form of a quadratic three-dimensional map with a quadratic inverse. Much of the nontrivial dynamics of this map occurs when its two fixed points are saddle-foci with intersecting two-dimensional stable and unstable manifolds that bound a spherical ``vortex-bubble''. We show that this occurs near a saddle-center-Neimark-Sacker (SCNS) bifurcation that also creates, at least in its normal form, an elliptic invariant circle. We develop a simple algorithm to accurately compute these elliptic invariant circles and their longitudinal and transverse rotation numbers and use it to study their bifurcations, classifying them by the resonances between the rotation numbers. In particular, rational values of the longitudinal rotation number are shown to give rise to a string of pearls that creates multiple copies of the original spherical structure for an iterate of the map.
Concerning Quadratic Interaction in the Quantum Cheshire Cat Experiment
W. M. Stuckey; Michael Silberstein; Timothy McDevitt
2015-11-04
In a July 2014 Nature Communications paper, Denkmayr et al. claim to have instantiated the so-called quantum Cheshire Cat experiment using neutron interferometry. Crucial to this claim are the weak values which must imply the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation, i.e., "the neutron and its spin are spatially separated" in their experiment. While they measured the correct weak values for the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation, the corresponding implications do not obtain because, as we show, those weak values were measured with both a quadratic and a linear magnetic field Bz interaction. We show explicitly how those weak values imply quantum Cheshire Cat if the Bz interaction is linear and then we show how the quadratic Bz interaction destroys the quantum Cheshire Cat implications of those weak values. Since both linear and quadratic Bz interactions contribute equally to the neutron intensity in this experiment, the deviant weak value implications are unavoidable. Because weak values were used successfully to compute neutron intensities for weak Bz in this experiment, it is clearly the case that one cannot make ontological inferences from weak values without taking into account the corresponding interaction strength.
Ultrasonic transducer with Gaussian radial pressure distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Claus, R. O.; Zerwekh, P. S. (inventors)
1984-01-01
An ultrasonic transducer that produces an output that is a symmetrical function comprises a piezoelectric crystal with several concentric ring electrodes on one side of the crystal. A resistor network applies different amplitudes of an ac source to each of the several electrodes. A plot of the different amplitudes from the outermost electrode to the innermost electrode is the first half of a Gaussian function. Consequently, the output of the crystal from the side opposite the electrodes has a Gaussian profile.
Gaussian-Beam Laser-Resonator Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cross, Patricia L.; Bair, Clayton H.; Barnes, Norman
1989-01-01
Gaussian Beam Laser Resonator Program models laser resonators by use of Gaussian-beam-propagation techniques. Used to determine radii of beams as functions of position in laser resonators. Algorithm used in program has three major components. First, ray-transfer matrix for laser resonator must be calculated. Next, initial parameters of beam calculated. Finally, propagation of beam through optical elements computed. Written in Microsoft FORTRAN (Version 4.01).
Electromagnetically induced transparency with Laguerre-Gaussian modes in ultracold rubidium
Akin, T G; Marino, A M; Abraham, E R I
2014-01-01
We demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency with the control laser in a Laguerre-Gaussian mode. The transmission spectrum is studied in an ultracold gas for the D2 line in both $^{85}$Rb and $^{87}$Rb, where the decoherence due to diffusion of the atomic medium is negligible. We compare these results to a similar configuration, but with the control laser in the fundamental laser mode. We model the transmission of a probe laser under both configurations, and we find good agreement with the experiment. We conclude that the use of Laguerre-Gaussian modes in electromagnetically induced transparency results in narrower resonance linewidths as compared to uniform control laser intensity. The narrowing of the linewidth is caused by the spatial distribution of the Laguerre-Gaussian intensity profile.
Primordial non-Gaussianity and Dark Energy constraints from Cluster Surveys
Sefusatti, Emiliano; Vale, Chris; Kadota, Kenji; Frieman, Joshua; /Fermilab /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.
2006-09-01
Galaxy cluster surveys will be a powerful probe of dark energy. At the same time, cluster abundances is sensitive to any non-Gaussianity of the primordial density field. It is therefore possible that non-Gaussian initial conditions might be misinterpreted as a sign of dark energy or at least degrade the expected constraints on dark energy parameters. To address this issue, we perform a likelihood analysis of an ideal cluster survey similar in size and depth to the upcoming South Pole Telescope/Dark Energy Survey (SPT-DES).We analyze a model in which the strength of the non-Gaussianity is parameterized by the constant f{sub NL}; this model has been used extensively to derive Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropy constraints on non-Gaussianity, allowing us to make contact with those works. We find that the constraining power of the cluster survey on dark energy observables is not significantly diminished by non-Gaussianity provided that cluster redshift information is included in the analysis. We also find that even an ideal cluster survey is unlikely to improve significantly current and future CMB constraints on non-Gaussianity. However, when all systematics are under control, it could constitute a valuable cross check to CMB observations.
Design, test, and evaluation of three active flutter suppression controllers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, William M., Jr.; Christhilf, David M.; Waszak, Martin R.; Mukhopadhyay, Vivek; Srinathkumar, S.
1992-01-01
Three control law design techniques for flutter suppression are presented. Each technique uses multiple control surfaces and/or sensors. The first method uses traditional tools (such as pole/zero loci and Nyquist diagrams) for producing a controller that has minimal complexity and which is sufficiently robust to handle plant uncertainty. The second procedure uses linear combinations of several accelerometer signals and dynamic compensation to synthesize the model rate of the critical mode for feedback to the distributed control surfaces. The third technique starts with a minimum-energy linear quadratic Gaussian controller, iteratively modifies intensity matrices corresponding to input and output noise, and applies controller order reduction to achieve a low-order, robust controller. The resulting designs were implemented digitally and tested subsonically on the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. Only the traditional pole/zero loci design was sufficiently robust to errors in the nominal plant to successfully suppress flutter during the test. The traditional pole/zero loci design provided simultaneous suppression of symmetric and antisymmetric flutter with a 24-percent increase in attainable dynamic pressure. Posttest analyses are shown which illustrate the problems encountered with the other laws.
Principal components of CMB non-Gaussianity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Regan, Donough; Munshi, Dipak
2015-04-01
The skew-spectrum statistic introduced by Munshi & Heavens has recently been used in studies of non-Gaussianity from diverse cosmological data sets including the detection of primary and secondary non-Gaussianity of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Extending previous work, focused on independent estimation, here we deal with the question of joint estimation of multiple skew-spectra from the same or correlated data sets. We consider the optimum skew-spectra for various models of primordial non-Gaussianity as well as secondary bispectra that originate from the cross-correlation of secondaries and lensing of CMB: coupling of lensing with the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, coupling of lensing with thermal Sunyaev-Zeldovich, as well as from unresolved point sources. For joint estimation of various types of non-Gaussianity, we use the principal component analysis (PCA) to construct the linear combinations of amplitudes of various models of non-Gaussianity, e.g. f^loc_NL,f^eq_NL,f^ortho_NL that can be estimated from CMB maps. We describe how the bias induced in the estimation of primordial non-Gaussianity due to secondary non-Gaussianity may be evaluated for arbitrary primordial models using a PCA analysis. The PCA approach allows one to infer approximate (but generally accurate) constraints using CMB data sets on any reasonably smooth model by use of a look-up table and performing a simple computation. This principle is validated by computing constraints on the Dirac-Born-Infeld bispectrum using a PCA analysis of the standard templates.
Generation of optical super-Gaussian pulses using tapered fibers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Acuna Herrera, Rodrigo; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Torres, Pedro
2015-09-01
Using a model for the shape of tapered fiber optics, we numerically study the effect of the taper shape profile on nonlinear optical pulse propagation. We show that super-Gaussian pulses can be generated and controlled and they are independent of higher-order nonlinearities, which makes them a good candidate for optical communications. We see that it is possible to compensate for the z variation of the dispersion with the nonlinear parameter and obtain the solutions of the homogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuyuk, H. S.; Yildirim, E.; Dogan, E.; Horasan, G.
2012-08-01
Two unsupervised pattern recognition algorithms, k-means, and Gaussian mixture model (GMM) analyses have been applied to classify seismic events in the vicinity of Istanbul. Earthquakes, which are occurring at different seismicity rates and extensions of the Thrace-Eskisehir Fault Zone and the North Anatolian Fault (NAF), Turkey, are being contaminated by quarries operated around Istanbul. We have used two time variant parameters, complexity, the ratio of integrated powers of the velocity seismogram, and S/P amplitude ratio as classifiers by using waveforms of 179 events (1.8 < M < 3.0). We have compared two algorithms with classical multivariate linear/quadratic discriminant analyses. The total accuracies of the models for GMM, k-means, linear discriminant function (LDF), and quadratic discriminant function (QDF) are 96.1%, 95.0%, 96.1%, 96.6%, respectively. The performances of models are discussed for earthquakes and quarry blasts separately. All methods clustered the seismic events acceptably where QDF slightly gave better improvements compared to others. We have found that unsupervised clustering algorithms, for which no a-prior target information is available, display a similar discriminatory power as supervised methods of discriminant analysis.
A methodology for designing robust multivariable nonlinear control systems. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grunberg, D. B.
1986-01-01
A new methodology is described for the design of nonlinear dynamic controllers for nonlinear multivariable systems providing guarantees of closed-loop stability, performance, and robustness. The methodology is an extension of the Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian with Loop-Transfer-Recovery (LQG/LTR) methodology for linear systems, thus hinging upon the idea of constructing an approximate inverse operator for the plant. A major feature of the methodology is a unification of both the state-space and input-output formulations. In addition, new results on stability theory, nonlinear state estimation, and optimal nonlinear regulator theory are presented, including the guaranteed global properties of the extended Kalman filter and optimal nonlinear regulators.
Use of digital control theory state space formalism for feedback at SLC
Himel, T.; Hendrickson, L.; Rouse, F.; Shoaee, H.
1991-05-01
The algorithms used in the database-driven SLC fast-feedback system are based on the state space formalism of digital control theory. These are implemented as a set of matrix equations which use a Kalman filter to estimate a vector of states from a vector of measurements, and then apply a gain matrix to determine the actuator settings from the state vector. The matrices used in the calculation are derived offline using Linear Quadratic Gaussian minimization. For a given noise spectrum, this procedure minimizes the rms of the states (e.g., the position or energy of the beam). The offline program also allows simulation of the loop's response to arbitrary inputs, and calculates its frequency response. 3 refs., 3 figs.
Temperature modes for nonlinear Gaussian beams.
Myers, Matthew R; Soneson, Joshua E
2009-07-01
In assessing the influence of nonlinear acoustic propagation on thermal bioeffects, approximate methods for quickly estimating the temperature rise as operational parameters are varied can be very useful. This paper provides a formula for the transient temperature rise associated with nonlinear propagation of Gaussian beams. The pressure amplitudes for the Gaussian modes can be obtained rapidly using a method previously published for simulating nonlinear propagation of Gaussian beams. The temperature-mode series shows that the nth temperature mode generated by nonlinear propagation, when normalized by the fundamental, is weaker than the nth heat-rate mode (also normalized by the fundamental in the heat-rate series) by a factor of log(n)/n, where n is the mode number. Predictions of temperature rise and thermal dose were found to be in close agreement with full, finite-difference calculations of the pressure fields, temperature rise, and thermal dose. Applications to non-Gaussian beams were made by fitting the main lobe of the significant modes to Gaussian functions. PMID:19603899
Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states
Menicucci, Nicolas C.; Flammia, Steven T.; Loock, Peter van
2011-04-15
We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semilocal Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term 'CV graph state' currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the 'closest' CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.
Graphical calculus for Gaussian pure states
Nicolas C. Menicucci; Steven T. Flammia; Peter van Loock
2011-02-04
We provide a unified graphical calculus for all Gaussian pure states, including graph transformation rules for all local and semi-local Gaussian unitary operations, as well as local quadrature measurements. We then use this graphical calculus to analyze continuous-variable (CV) cluster states, the essential resource for one-way quantum computing with CV systems. Current graphical approaches to CV cluster states are only valid in the unphysical limit of infinite squeezing, and the associated graph transformation rules only apply when the initial and final states are of this form. Our formalism applies to all Gaussian pure states and subsumes these rules in a natural way. In addition, the term "CV graph state" currently has several inequivalent definitions in use. Using this formalism we provide a single unifying definition that encompasses all of them. We provide many examples of how the formalism may be used in the context of CV cluster states: defining the "closest" CV cluster state to a given Gaussian pure state and quantifying the error in the approximation due to finite squeezing; analyzing the optimality of certain methods of generating CV cluster states; drawing connections between this new graphical formalism and bosonic Hamiltonians with Gaussian ground states, including those useful for CV one-way quantum computing; and deriving a graphical measure of bipartite entanglement for certain classes of CV cluster states. We mention other possible applications of this formalism and conclude with a brief note on fault tolerance in CV one-way quantum computing.
Hydraulic Conductivity Fields: Gaussian or Not?
Meerschaert, Mark M.; Dogan, Mine; Van Dam, Remke L.; Hyndman, David W.; Benson, David A.
2013-01-01
Hydraulic conductivity (K) fields are used to parameterize groundwater flow and transport models. Numerical simulations require a detailed representation of the K field, synthesized to interpolate between available data. Several recent studies introduced high resolution K data (HRK) at the Macro Dispersion Experiment (MADE) site, and used ground-penetrating radar (GPR) to delineate the main structural features of the aquifer. This paper describes a statistical analysis of these data, and the implications for K field modeling in alluvial aquifers. Two striking observations have emerged from this analysis. The first is that a simple fractional difference filter can have a profound effect on data histograms, organizing non-Gaussian ln K data into a coherent distribution. The second is that using GPR facies allows us to reproduce the significantly non-Gaussian shape seen in real HRK data profiles, using a simulated Gaussian ln K field in each facies. This illuminates a current controversy in the literature, between those who favor Gaussian ln K models, and those who observe non-Gaussian ln K fields. Both camps are correct, but at different scales. PMID:24415806
Creepers: Real quadratic orders with large class number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Patterson, Roger
2007-03-01
Shanks's sequence of quadratic fields Q(sqrt{S_{n}}) where S_{n}=(2^n+1)^2 + 2^{n+2} instances a class of quadratic fields for which the class number is large and, therefore, the continued fraction period is relatively short. Indeed, that period length increases linearly with n, that is: in arithmetic progression. The fields have regulator O(n^2). In the late nineties, these matters intrigued Irving Kaplansky, and led him to compute period length of the square root of sequences a^2x^{2n}+bx^{n}+c for integers a, b, c, and x. In brief, Kap found unsurprisingly that, generically, triples (a,b,c) are `leapers': they yield sequences with period length increasing at exponential rate. But there are triples yielding sequences with constant period length, Kap's `sleepers'. Finally, there are triples, as exemplified by the Shanks's sequence, for which the period lengths increase in arithmetic progression. Felicitously, Kaplansky called these `creepers'. It seems that the sleepers and creepers are precisely those for which one is able to detail the explicit continued fraction expansion for all n. Inter alia, this thesis noticeably extends the known classes of creepers and finds that not all are `kreepers' (of the shape identified by Kaplansky) and therefore not of the shape of examples studied by earlier authors looking for families of quadratic number fields with explicitly computable unit and of relatively large regulator. The work of this thesis includes the discovery of old and new families of hyperelliptic curves of increasing genus g and torsion divisor of order O(g^2). It follows that the apparent trichotomy leaper/sleeper/creeper coincides with the folk belief that the just-mentioned torsion is maximum possible.
Quadratic Interaction Functional for General Systems of Conservation Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchini, Stefano; Modena, Stefano
2015-09-01
For the Glimm scheme approximation to the solution of the system of conservation laws in one space dimension with initial data u 0 with small total variation, we prove a quadratic (w.r.t. Tot. Var. ( u 0)) interaction estimate, which has been used in the literature for stability and convergence results. No assumptions on the structure of the flux f are made (apart from smoothness), and this estimate is the natural extension of the Glimm type interaction estimate for genuinely nonlinear systems. More precisely, we obtain the following results: a new analysis of the interaction estimates of simple waves;
Discrete Calculus of Variations for Quadratic Lagrangians. Convergence Issues
Ryckelynck, Philippe
2011-01-01
We study in this paper the continuous and discrete Euler-Lagrange equations arising from a quadratic lagrangian. Those equations may be thought as numerical schemes and may be solved through a matrix based framework. When the lagrangian is time-independent, we can solve both continuous and discrete Euler-Lagrange equations under convenient oscillatory and non-resonance properties. The convergence of the solutions is also investigated. In the simplest case of the harmonic oscillator, unconditional convergence does not hold, we give results and experiments in this direction.
High Resolution Spectra of Novae and the Quadratic Zeeman Effect
Robert Williams; Elena Mason
2006-02-27
High resolution spectra of novae after outburst reveal distinctive characteristics in the line profiles and intensities. The higher Balmer lines are often broader than the lower members of the series, and the relative profiles and intensities of the [O I] \\lambda\\lambda6300, 6364 doublet differ from normal values. We suggest these features may be caused by the Quadratic Zeeman Effect from magnetic fields exceeding B=10^6 gauss. Taken together the emission and absorption lines point to multiple origins for the ejecta on both the erupting white dwarf and the cool secondary star.
The holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
Srijit Bhattacharjee; Sudipta Sarkar; Aron C. Wall
2015-04-23
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is non stationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a Second Law.
The holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Wall, Aron
2015-01-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is non stationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a Second Law.
Cyclicity of a fake saddle inside the quadratic vector fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Maesschalck, P.; Rebollo-Perdomo, S.; Torregrosa, J.
2015-01-01
This paper concerns the study of small-amplitude limit cycles that appear in the phase portrait near an unfolded fake saddle singularity. This degenerate singularity is also known as an impassable grain. The canonical form of the unperturbed vector field is like a degenerate flow box. Near the singularity, the phase portrait consists of parallel fibers, all but one of which have no singular points, and at the singular fiber, there is one node. We demonstrate different techniques in order to show that the cyclicity is bigger than or equal to two when the canonical form is quadratic.
Recent Progress on Nonlinear Schrödinger Systems with Quadratic Interactions
Li, Chunhua; Hayashi, Nakao
2014-01-01
The study of nonlinear Schrödinger systems with quadratic interactions has attracted much attention in the recent years. In this paper, we summarize time decay estimates of small solutions to the systems under the mass resonance condition in 2-dimensional space. We show the existence of wave operators and modified wave operators of the systems under some mass conditions in n-dimensional space, where n ? 2. The existence of scattering operators and finite time blow-up of the solutions for the systems in higher space dimensions is also shown. PMID:25143965
Rigorous performance bounds for quadratic and nested dynamical decoupling
Xia, Yuhou; Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A.
2011-12-15
We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumptions of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.
Index Distribution of Gaussian Random Matrices
Majumdar, Satya N.; Nadal, Celine; Scardicchio, Antonello; Vivo, Pierpaolo
2009-11-27
We compute analytically, for large N, the probability distribution of the number of positive eigenvalues (the index N{sub +}) of a random NxN matrix belonging to Gaussian orthogonal (beta=1), unitary (beta=2) or symplectic (beta=4) ensembles. The distribution of the fraction of positive eigenvalues c=N{sub +}/N scales, for large N, as P(c,N){approx_equal}exp[-betaN{sup 2}PHI(c)] where the rate function PHI(c), symmetric around c=1/2 and universal (independent of beta), is calculated exactly. The distribution has non-Gaussian tails, but even near its peak at c=1/2 it is not strictly Gaussian due to an unusual logarithmic singularity in the rate function.
Non-Gaussian statistics of multiple filamentation.
Lushnikov, Pavel M; Vladimirova, Natalia
2010-06-15
We consider the statistics of light amplitude fluctuations for the propagation of a laser beam subjected to multiple filamentation in an amplified Kerr media, with both linear and nonlinear dissipation. Dissipation arrests the catastrophic collapse of filaments, causing their disintegration into almost linear waves. These waves form a nearly Gaussian random field that seeds new filaments. For small amplitudes the probability density function (PDF) of light amplitude is close to Gaussian, while for large amplitudes the PDF has a long powerlike tail that corresponds to strong non-Gaussian fluctuations, i.e., intermittency of strong optical turbulence. This tail is determined by the universal form of near singular filaments and the PDF for the maximum amplitudes of the filaments. PMID:20548354
Slewing and vibration control of the SCOLE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lin, Jiguan Gene
1988-01-01
A discussion of Slewing and Vibration Control makes the following conclusions: (1) A 2-stage approach is feasible and promising for rapid slewing and precision pointing of SCOLE; (2) Not all bang-bang type of time-minimized slew maneuvers will excite large structural vibrations in SCOLE; and (3) Modal dashpots can be a concentrated high-power vibration control, as well as the usual diffuse (broadband, low-power (low-authority) control. The following recommendations are made: (1) Limit the magnitude of applied forces on reflector to either the 25-lb limit of vernier thrusters on the real Space Shuttle or the 150-lb level equivalent to the cold-gas jets of laboratory SCOLE; (2) to complete stage 2, add an integrated design of LQF/LTR (Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian/Loop-Transfer Recovery) and Modal Dashpots; and, (3) Validate the 2-stage approach using the SCOLE laboratory facility with a comprehensive sequence of integrated designs and experiments coupling nonlinear rigid-body motions with flexible-body dynamics.
Model Reduction for Control System Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Enns, D. F.
1985-01-01
An approach and a technique for effectively obtaining reduced order mathematical models of a given large order model for the purposes of synthesis, analysis and implementation of control systems is developed. This approach involves the use of an error criterion which is the H-infinity norm of a frequency weighted error between the full and reduced order models. The weightings are chosen to take into account the purpose for which the reduced order model is intended. A previously unknown error bound in the H-infinity norm for reduced order models obtained from internally balanced realizations was obtained. This motivated further development of the balancing technique to include the frequency dependent weightings. This resulted in the frequency weighted balanced realization and a new model reduction technique. Two approaches to designing reduced order controllers were developed. The first involves reducing the order of a high order controller with an appropriate weighting. The second involves linear quadratic Gaussian synthesis based on a reduced order model obtained with an appropriate weighting.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aras, Mohd Shahrieel Mohd; Abdullah, Shahrum Shah; Kamarudin, Muhammad Nizam; Rahman, Ahmad Fadzli Nizam Abdul; Azis, Fadilah Abd; Jaafar, Hazriq Izzuan
2015-05-01
This paper describes the effectiveness of observer-based output feedback for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) with Linear Quadratic Regulation (LQR) performance. Tuning of observer parameters is crucial for tracking purpose. Prior to tuning facility, the ranges of observer and LQR parameters are obtained via system output cum error. The validation of this technique using unmanned underwater vehicles called Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) modelling helps to improve steady state performance of system response. The ROV modeling is focused for depth control using ROV 1 developed by the Underwater Technology Research Group (UTeRG). The results are showing that this technique improves steady state performances in term of overshoot and settling time of the system response.
Das, Sonjoy; Goswami, Kundan; Datta, Biswa N.
2014-12-10
Failure of structural systems under dynamic loading can be prevented via active vibration control which shifts the damped natural frequencies of the systems away from the dominant range of loading spectrum. The damped natural frequencies and the dynamic load typically show significant variations in practice. A computationally efficient methodology based on quadratic partial eigenvalue assignment technique and optimization under uncertainty has been formulated in the present work that will rigorously account for these variations and result in an economic and resilient design of structures. A novel scheme based on hierarchical clustering and importance sampling is also developed in this work for accurate and efficient estimation of probability of failure to guarantee the desired resilience level of the designed system. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the proposed methodology.
Delanaye, M.; Essers, J.A.
1997-04-01
This paper presents a new finite volume cell-centered scheme for solving the two-dimensional Euler equations. The technique for computing the advective derivatives is based on a high-order Gauss quadrature and an original quadratic reconstruction of the conservative variables for each control volume. A very sensitive detector identifying discontinuity regions switches the scheme to a TVD scheme, and ensures the monotonicity of the solution. The code uses unstructured meshes whose cells are polygons with any number of edges. A mesh adaptation based on cell division is performed in order to increase the resolution of shocks. The accuracy, insensitivity to grid distortions, and shock capturing properties of the scheme are demonstrated for different cascade flow computations.
Lattices of Graphical Gaussian Models with Symmetries
Gehrmann, Helene
2011-01-01
We study the structure of graphical Gaussian models which place symmetry restrictions on concentrations or partial correlations. The models can be represented by vertex and edge coloured graphs, in which parameters which are associated with equally coloured vertices or edges are restricted to being identical. We are particularly interested in two symmetry model classes within the model types with desirable model properties which express themselves in regularity of graph colouring. We demonstrate that each model class forms a complete lattice with respect to model inclusion and therefore qualifies for the Edwards-Havr\\'anek model selection procedure, giving a first model selection algorithm for graphical Gaussian models with symmetries.
Invariant measures on multimode quantum Gaussian states
Lupo, C.; Mancini, S.; De Pasquale, A.; Facchi, P.; Florio, G.; Pascazio, S.
2012-12-15
We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom-the symplectic eigenvalues-which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
Entropic characterization of Separability in Gaussian states
Shenoy, Sudha; Rajagopal, A K
2009-01-01
We explore separability of bipartite divisions of mixed Gaussian states based on the positivity of the Abe-Rajagopal (AR) q-conditional entropy. The AR q-conditional entropic characterization provide more stringent restrictions on separability (in the limit q tending to infinity) than that obtained from the corresponding von Neumann conditional entropy (q = 1 case)--similar to the situation in finite dimensional states. Effectiveness of this approach, in relation to the results obtained by partial transpose criterion, is explicitly analyzed in three illustrative examples of two-mode Gaussian states of physical significance.
Accelerated expansion from a modified-quadratic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmad Rami, El-Nabulsi
2011-04-01
We investigate the late-time dynamics of a four-dimensional universe based on modified scalar field gravity in which the standard Einstein-Hilbert action R is replaced by f( ?) R+ f( R) where f( ?)= ? 2 and f( R)= AR 2+ BR ?? R ??,( A, B)??. We discussed two independent cases: in the first model, the scalar field potential is quartic and for this special form it was shown that the universe is dominated by dark energy with equation of state parameter w?-0.2 and is accelerated in time with a scale factor evolving like a( t)? t 5/3 and B+3 A?0.036. When, B+3 A?? which corresponds for the purely quadratic theory, the scale factor evolves like a( t)? t 1/2 whereas when B+3 A?0 which corresponds for the purely scalar tensor theory we found when a( t)? t 1.98. In the second model, we choose an exponential potential and we conjecture that the scalar curvature and the Hubble parameter vary respectively like R=? Hdot{?}/?,?inmathbb{R} and H=?dot{?}^{?},(?,?)inmathbb{R}. It was shown that for some special values of ?, the universe is free from the initial singularity, accelerated in time, dominated by dark or phantom energy whereas the model is independent of the quadratic gravity corrections. Additional consequences are discussed.
Accelerated expansion from a modified-quadratic gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Nabulsi, Ahmad Rami
2011-04-01
We investigate the late-time dynamics of a four-dimensional universe based on modified scalar field gravity in which the standard Einstein-Hilbert action R is replaced by f( ?) R+ f( R) where f( ?)= ? 2 and f( R)= AR 2+ BR ?? R ??,( A, B)??. We discussed two independent cases: in the first model, the scalar field potential is quartic and for this special form it was shown that the universe is dominated by dark energy with equation of state parameter w?-0.2 and is accelerated in time with a scale factor evolving like a( t)? t 5/3 and B+3 A?0.036. When, B+3 A?? which corresponds for the purely quadratic theory, the scale factor evolves like a( t)? t 1/2 whereas when B+3 A?0 which corresponds for the purely scalar tensor theory we found when a( t)? t 1.98. In the second model, we choose an exponential potential and we conjecture that the scalar curvature and the Hubble parameter vary respectively like R=? Hdot{?}/?,?in{R} and H=?dot{?}^{?},(?,?)in{R}. It was shown that for some special values of ?, the universe is free from the initial singularity, accelerated in time, dominated by dark or phantom energy whereas the model is independent of the quadratic gravity corrections. Additional consequences are discussed.
Half-quadratic-based iterative minimization for robust sparse representation.
He, Ran; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Tan, Tieniu; Sun, Zhenan
2014-02-01
Robust sparse representation has shown significant potential in solving challenging problems in computer vision such as biometrics and visual surveillance. Although several robust sparse models have been proposed and promising results have been obtained, they are either for error correction or for error detection, and learning a general framework that systematically unifies these two aspects and explores their relation is still an open problem. In this paper, we develop a half-quadratic (HQ) framework to solve the robust sparse representation problem. By defining different kinds of half-quadratic functions, the proposed HQ framework is applicable to performing both error correction and error detection. More specifically, by using the additive form of HQ, we propose an ?1-regularized error correction method by iteratively recovering corrupted data from errors incurred by noises and outliers; by using the multiplicative form of HQ, we propose an ?1-regularized error detection method by learning from uncorrupted data iteratively. We also show that the ?1-regularization solved by soft-thresholding function has a dual relationship to Huber M-estimator, which theoretically guarantees the performance of robust sparse representation in terms of M-estimation. Experiments on robust face recognition under severe occlusion and corruption validate our framework and findings. PMID:24356348
Confidence set inference with a prior quadratic bound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
In the uniqueness part of a geophysical inverse problem, the observer wants to predict all likely values of P unknown numerical properties z=(z sub 1,...,z sub p) of the earth from measurement of D other numerical properties y (sup 0) = (y (sub 1) (sup 0), ..., y (sub D (sup 0)), using full or partial knowledge of the statistical distribution of the random errors in y (sup 0). The data space Y containing y(sup 0) is D-dimensional, so when the model space X is infinite-dimensional the linear uniqueness problem usually is insoluble without prior information about the correct earth model x. If that information is a quadratic bound on x, Bayesian inference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) inject spurious structure into x, implied by neither the data nor the quadratic bound. Confidence set inference (CSI) provides an alternative inversion technique free of this objection. Confidence set inference is illustrated in the problem of estimating the geomagnetic field B at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) from components of B measured on or above the earth's surface.
Wave propagation in elastic medium with heterogeneous quadratic nonlinearity
Tang Guangxin; Jacobs, Laurence J.; Qu Jianmin
2011-06-23
This paper studies the one-dimensional wave propagation in an elastic medium with spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. Two problems are solved analytically. One is for a time-harmonic wave propagating in a half-space where the displacement is prescribed on the surface of the half-space. It is found that spatial non-uniformity of the material nonlinearity causes backscattering of the second order harmonic, which when combined with the forward propagating waves generates a standing wave in steady-state wave motion. The second problem solved is the reflection from and transmission through a layer of finite thickness embedded in an otherwise linearly elastic medium of infinite extent, where it is assumed that the layer has a spatially non-uniform quadratic nonlinearity. The results show that the transmission coefficient for the second order harmonic is proportional to the spatial average of the nonlinearity across the thickness of the layer, independent of the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. On the other hand, the coefficient of reflection is proportional to a weighted average of the nonlinearity across the layer thickness. The weight function in this weighted average is related to the propagating phase, thus making the coefficient of reflection dependent on the spatial distribution of the nonlinearity. Finally, the paper concludes with some discussions on how to use the reflected and transmitted second harmonic waves to evaluate the variance and autocorrelation length of nonlinear parameter {beta} when the nonlinearity distribution in the layer is a stochastic process.
QUADRATIC SERENDIPITY FINITE ELEMENTS ON POLYGONS USING GENERALIZED BARYCENTRIC COORDINATES
RAND, ALEXANDER; GILLETTE, ANDREW; BAJAJ, CHANDRAJIT
2013-01-01
We introduce a finite element construction for use on the class of convex, planar polygons and show it obtains a quadratic error convergence estimate. On a convex n-gon, our construction produces 2n basis functions, associated in a Lagrange-like fashion to each vertex and each edge midpoint, by transforming and combining a set of n(n + 1)/2 basis functions known to obtain quadratic convergence. The technique broadens the scope of the so-called ‘serendipity’ elements, previously studied only for quadrilateral and regular hexahedral meshes, by employing the theory of generalized barycentric coordinates. Uniform a priori error estimates are established over the class of convex quadrilaterals with bounded aspect ratio as well as over the class of convex planar polygons satisfying additional shape regularity conditions to exclude large interior angles and short edges. Numerical evidence is provided on a trapezoidal quadrilateral mesh, previously not amenable to serendipity constructions, and applications to adaptive meshing are discussed. PMID:25301974
Quadratic Reciprocity and the Group Orders of Particle States
DAI,YANG; BORISOV,ALEXEY B.; LONGWORTH,JAMES W.; BOYER,KEITH; RHODES,CHARLES K.
2001-06-01
The construction of inverse states in a finite field F{sub P{sub P{alpha}}} enables the organization of the mass scale by associating particle states with residue class designations. With the assumption of perfect flatness ({Omega}total = 1.0), this approach leads to the derivation of a cosmic seesaw congruence which unifies the concepts of space and mass. The law of quadratic reciprocity profoundly constrains the subgroup structure of the multiplicative group of units F{sub P{sub {alpha}}}* defined by the field. Four specific outcomes of this organization are (1) a reduction in the computational complexity of the mass state distribution by a factor of {approximately}10{sup 30}, (2) the extension of the genetic divisor concept to the classification of subgroup orders, (3) the derivation of a simple numerical test for any prospective mass number based on the order of the integer, and (4) the identification of direct biological analogies to taxonomy and regulatory networks characteristic of cellular metabolism, tumor suppression, immunology, and evolution. It is generally concluded that the organizing principle legislated by the alliance of quadratic reciprocity with the cosmic seesaw creates a universal optimized structure that functions in the regulation of a broad range of complex phenomena.
Gas distribution, metal enrichment, and baryon fraction in Gaussian and non-Gaussian universes
Umberto Maio
2011-12-12
We study the cosmological evolution of baryons in universes with and without primordial non-Gaussianities via (large scale) N-body/hydrodynamical simulations, including gas cooling, star formation, stellar evolution, chemical enrichment from both population III and population II regimes, and feedback effects. We find that large fnl values for non-Gaussianities can alter the gas probability distribution functions, the metal pollution history, the halo baryon, gas and stellar fractions, mostly at early times. More precisely: (i) non-Gaussianities lead to an earlier evolution of primordial gas, structures, and star formation; (ii) metal enrichment starts earlier (with respect to the Gaussian scenario) in non-Gaussian models with larger fnl; (iii) gas fractions within the haloes are not significantly affected by the different values of fnl, with deviations of ~1-10%; (iv) the stellar fraction is quite sensitive to non-Gaussianities at early times, with discrepancies reaching up to a factor of ~10 at very high z, and rapidly converging at low z; (v) the trends at low redshift are independent from fnl: they are mostly led by the ongoing baryonic evolution and by the feedback mechanisms, which determine a ~25%-30% discrepancy in the baryon fraction of galaxy groups/clusters with respect to the cosmic values; (vi) non-Gaussianity impacts on the cluster X-ray emission or on the SZ effect(s) are expected to be not very large and dominated by feedback mechanisms, whereas some effects on the 21-cm emission can be expected at early times; (vii) in order to address non-Gaussianities in the cosmological structure contest, high-redshift (z~10) investigations are required: first stars, galaxies, quasars, and GRBs may be potential cosmological probes of non-Gaussianities.
A homotopy algorithm for digital optimal projection control GASD-HADOC
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Collins, Emmanuel G., Jr.; Richter, Stephen; Davis, Lawrence D.
1993-01-01
The linear-quadratic-gaussian (LQG) compensator was developed to facilitate the design of control laws for multi-input, multi-output (MIMO) systems. The compensator is computed by solving two algebraic equations for which standard closed-loop solutions exist. Unfortunately, the minimal dimension of an LQG compensator is almost always equal to the dimension of the plant and can thus often violate practical implementation constraints on controller order. This deficiency is especially highlighted when considering control-design for high-order systems such as flexible space structures. This deficiency motivated the development of techniques that enable the design of optimal controllers whose dimension is less than that of the design plant. A homotopy approach based on the optimal projection equations that characterize the necessary conditions for optimal reduced-order control. Homotopy algorithms have global convergence properties and hence do not require that the initializing reduced-order controller be close to the optimal reduced-order controller to guarantee convergence. However, the homotopy algorithm previously developed for solving the optimal projection equations has sublinear convergence properties and the convergence slows at higher authority levels and may fail. A new homotopy algorithm for synthesizing optimal reduced-order controllers for discrete-time systems is described. Unlike the previous homotopy approach, the new algorithm is a gradient-based, parameter optimization formulation and was implemented in MATLAB. The results reported may offer the foundation for a reliable approach to optimal, reduced-order controller design.
Quadratic substrate energy term and harmonics in the Halperin-Nelson model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tönsing, Detlev L.
1991-01-01
The influence of the quadratic term in the Taylor expansion for the substrate potential, which is neglected in the Halperin-Nelson model, is investigated. The quadratic term is found to yield a harmonic series for the equilibrium displacement and a quadratic potential term in the energy of deviations from this displacement. Criteria for convergence of the series and negligibility of the quadratic potential term are derived. The criteria require the misfit vernier period and length scale of deviations not to be large compared with the Van der Merwe discommensuration width.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Wensen
2004-08-01
A time-dependent closed-form formulation of the linear unitary transformation for harmonic-oscillator annihilation and creation operators is presented in the Schrödinger picture using the Lie algebraic approach. The time evolution of the quantum mechanical system described by a general time-dependent quadratic Hamiltonian is investigated by combining this formulation with the time evolution equation of the system. The analytic expressions of the evolution operator and propagator are found. The motion of a charged particle with variable mass in the time-dependent electric field is considered as an illustrative example of the formalism. The exact time evolution wave function starting from a Gaussian wave packet and the operator expectation values with respect to the complicated evolution wave function are obtained readily.
Unified control/structure design and modeling research
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mingori, D. L.; Gibson, J. S.; Blelloch, P. A.; Adamian, A.
1986-01-01
To demonstrate the applicability of the control theory for distributed systems to large flexible space structures, research was focused on a model of a space antenna which consists of a rigid hub, flexible ribs, and a mesh reflecting surface. The space antenna model used is discussed along with the finite element approximation of the distributed model. The basic control problem is to design an optimal or near-optimal compensator to suppress the linear vibrations and rigid-body displacements of the structure. The application of an infinite dimensional Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) control theory to flexible structure is discussed. Two basic approaches for robustness enhancement were investigated: loop transfer recovery and sensitivity optimization. A third approach synthesized from elements of these two basic approaches is currently under development. The control driven finite element approximation of flexible structures is discussed. Three sets of finite element basic vectors for computing functional control gains are compared. The possibility of constructing a finite element scheme to approximate the infinite dimensional Hamiltonian system directly, instead of indirectly is discussed.
Guidance and Control System for a Satellite Constellation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bryson, Jonathan Lamar; Cox, James; Mays, Paul Richard; Neidhoefer, James Christian; Ephrain, Richard
2010-01-01
A distributed guidance and control algorithm was developed for a constellation of satellites. The system repositions satellites as required, regulates satellites to desired orbits, and prevents collisions. 1. Optimal methods are used to compute nominal transfers from orbit to orbit. 2. Satellites are regulated to maintain the desired orbits once the transfers are complete. 3. A simulator is used to predict potential collisions or near-misses. 4. Each satellite computes perturbations to its controls so as to increase any unacceptable distances of nearest approach to other objects. a. The avoidance problem is recast in a distributed and locally-linear form to arrive at a tractable solution. b. Plant matrix values are approximated via simulation at each time step. c. The Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) method is used to compute perturbations to the controls that will result in increased miss distances. 5. Once all danger is passed, the satellites return to their original orbits, all the while avoiding each other as above. 6. The delta-Vs are reasonable. The controller begins maneuvers as soon as practical to minimize delta-V. 7. Despite the inclusion of trajectory simulations within the control loop, the algorithm is sufficiently fast for available satellite computer hardware. 8. The required measurement accuracies are within the capabilities of modern inertial measurement devices and modern positioning devices.
Sampling Independent Increment Processes without Gaussian Component
Liu, I-Shih
Sampling Independent Increment Processes without Gaussian Component Dorival Le~ao P. Jr for example, Ferguson and Klass (1972), Damien, Laud and Smith (1995) and Walker and Damien (2000 total infinity mass [Walker and Damien (2000)]. Recently, Lee and Kim (2004) proposed an algorithm
( ) . log ( ) Magnitude Distributions For Gaussian Fluxes
Masci, Frank
( ) ( ) . ln( ) . 0 1025 2 5 10 10 0 2 5 Magnitude Distributions For Gaussian Fluxes John W. Fowler December 1, 2011 Astronomical magnitude m is related to flux f according to where m0 is a magnitude zero point of the corresponding magnitude. Given
( ) . log ( ) Magnitude Distributions For Gaussian Fluxes
Masci, Frank
( ) ( ) . ln( ) . 0 1025 2 5 10 10 0 2 5 Magnitude Distributions For Gaussian Fluxes John W. Fowler February 28, 2012 Astronomical magnitude m is related to flux f according to (1) where m0 is a magnitude zero point of the corresponding magnitude. Note that in taking the logarithm of the flux, we are implicitly clipping the domain
MODELLING OF COMPLEX SIGNALS USING GAUSSIAN PROCESSES
Tobar, Felipe; Turner, Richard E.
2015-01-01
processes,” in Neural Networks and Machine Learning, C. M. Bishop, Ed. Springer, 1998, vol. 168 of NATO ASI Series, pp. 133–165. [17] N. Haji Ghassemi and M. Deisenroth, “Analytic long-term forecasting with periodic Gaussian processes,” in Proc. of AIS- TATS...
Discriminative Gaussian Mixture Models for Speaker Identification
Niyogi, Partha
vector machines have also been used for the speaker identification task directly, by training oneDiscriminative Gaussian Mixture Models for Speaker Identification Christopher J.C. Burges, Saran mixture models are commonly used for the text independent speaker identification task. A model, or set
The Gaussian entropy of fermionic systems
Prokopec, Tomislav; Schmidt, Michael G.; Weenink, Jan
2012-12-15
We consider the entropy and decoherence in fermionic quantum systems. By making a Gaussian Ansatz for the density operator of a collection of fermions we study statistical 2-point correlators and express the entropy of a system fermion in terms of these correlators. In a simple case when a set of N thermalised environmental fermionic oscillators interacts bi-linearly with the system fermion we can study its time dependent entropy, which also represents a quantitative measure for decoherence and classicalization. We then consider a relativistic fermionic quantum field theory and take a mass mixing term as a simple model for the Yukawa interaction. It turns out that even in this Gaussian approximation, the fermionic system decoheres quite effectively, such that in a large coupling and high temperature regime the system field approaches the temperature of the environmental fields. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We construct the Gaussian density operator for relativistic fermionic systems. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Gaussian entropy of relativistic fermionic systems is described in terms of 2-point correlators. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We explicitly show the growth of entropy for fermionic fields mixing with a thermal fermionic environment.
Coherent Perfect Absorption using Gaussian beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dey, Sanjeeb
2015-12-01
Coherent perfect absorption (CPA) is theoretically studied for the realistic case of Gaussian laser light illumination on a metal-dielectric composite medium (CM). Two identical Gaussian beams are focused on two interfaces of the CM of orthorhombic shaped slab from opposite sides at equal angle of incidence. Here I deduce the essential conditions required for CPA and show that perfect CPA could be possible with Gaussian beams for both oblique and normal incidences. On the other hand, for oblique incidence perfect plane wave type CPA is observed for broad Gaussian beams since they fulfil the paraxial approximation whereas narrower beam exhibit slightly imperfect CPA (owing to reduced absorption) in the region away from axis. The critical dependence of CPA is observed with respect to small variations in various beam and CM parameters such as beam waist, angle of incidence, wavelength of incident beams, thickness and volume fraction of CM slab, which is attributed to experimental limitations. Farther, for normal incidence identical absorption profiles have been observed for different beam widths, whereas, for oblique incident profiles have less absorption for narrower beams.
Tilted Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous media
Melamed, Timor
-orthogonal coordinate system that is a priori matched to the lineally phased aperture distribution. This system has been-phased localized aperture field distributions. The resulting beam-waveobjects serve as the building blocks for beam solutions to this equation, match Gaussian aperture distributions over a plane that is tilted with respect
Gaussian Behavior in Generalized Zeckendorf Decompositions
Stoiciu, Mihai
, generating functions, partial fraction expansion, central limit type theorems, far- differenceChapter 1 Gaussian Behavior in Generalized Zeckendorf Decompositions Steven J. Miller and Yinghui that is more combinatorial, and comment on general- izations to related decompositions and problems which have
Diffusion of Super-Gaussian Profiles
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rosenberg, C.-J.; Anderson, D.; Desaix, M.; Johannisson, P.; Lisak, M.
2007-01-01
The present analysis describes an analytically simple and systematic approximation procedure for modelling the free diffusive spreading of initially super-Gaussian profiles. The approach is based on a self-similar ansatz for the evolution of the diffusion profile, and the parameter functions involved in the modelling are determined by suitable…
Stochastic Calculus with Respect to Gaussian Processes
Alos, Elisa; Mazet, Olivier; Nualart, David
2001-12-05
In this paper we develop a stochastic calculus with respect to a Gaussian process of the form Bt=?t0K(t,s)dWs, where W is a Wiener process and K(t,s) is a square integrable kernel, using the techniques of the stochastic calculus of variations. We...
OPTIMAL GAUSSIAN FINGERPRINT DECODERS Pierre Moulin
Moulin, Pierre
OPTIMAL GAUSSIAN FINGERPRINT DECODERS Pierre Moulin Beckman Inst., Coord. Sci. Lab and ECE proposes codes that achieve the fundamental capacity limits of digital fingerprinting subject to mean-squared distortion constraints on the fingerprint embedder and the colluders. We first show that the traditional
Video Compressive Sensing Using Gaussian Mixture Models
Carin, Lawrence
1 Video Compressive Sensing Using Gaussian Mixture Models Jianbo Yang, Xin Yuan, Xuejun Liao) based algorithm is proposed for video reconstruction from temporally-compressed video measurements reconstructed from simulated compressive video measurements, and from a real compressive video camera. We also
Gaussian Random Fields March 22, 2007
Weijgaert, Rien van de
Gaussian Random Fields March 22, 2007 1 Random Fields A N dimensional random field is a set of random variables Y (x), x N , which has a collection of distribution functions F(Y (x1) y1, ..., Y (xn) yn) (1) for any number of points n. The convention is that capital letters are random variables (like
HITTING PROBABILITIES FOR GENERAL GAUSSIAN PROCESSES
Viens, Frederi G.
HITTING PROBABILITIES FOR GENERAL GAUSSIAN PROCESSES EULALIA NUALART AND FREDERI VIENS Abstract for a vector of d iid copies of B to hit a bounded set A in Rd , with conditions on which place on , to derive upper and lower bounds on the hitting probability in terms of the corresponding generalized
Sampling from Gaussian graphical models using subgraph perturbations
Liu, Ying
The problem of efficiently drawing samples from a Gaussian graphical model or Gaussian Markov random field is studied. We introduce the subgraph perturbation sampling algorithm, which makes use of any pre-existing tractable ...
Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables
Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki
2009-07-13
Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.
Hazra, Dhiraj Kumar; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy
2012-09-21
We investigate the possibility of constraining primordial non-Gaussianity using the 3D bispectrum of the Lyman (Ly)-? forest. The strength of the quadratic non-Gaussian correction to an otherwise Gaussian primordial gravitational field is assumed to be dictated by a single parameter f(NL). We present the first prediction for bounds on f(NL) using Ly-? flux spectra along multiple lines of sight. The 3D Ly-? transmitted flux field is modeled as a biased tracer of the underlying matter distribution sampled along 1D skewers corresponding to quasar sight lines. The precision to which f(NL) can be constrained depends on the survey volume, pixel noise, and aliasing noise (arising from discrete sampling of the density field). We consider various combinations of these factors to predict bounds on f(NL). We find that in an idealized situation of full sky survey and negligible Poisson noise one may constrain f(NL)?23 in the equilateral limit. Assuming a Ly-? survey covering large parts of the sky (k(min) = 8 × 10(-4) Mpc(-1)) and with a quasar density of n = 5 × 10(-3) Mpc(-2), it is possible to constrain f(NL)?100 for equilateral configurations. The possibility of measuring f(NL) at a precision comparable to large scale structure studies maybe useful for joint constraining of inflationary scenarios using different data sets. PMID:23005934
Information Geometry of Quantum Entangled Gaussian Wave-Packets
D. -H. Kim; S. A. Ali; C. Cafaro; S. Mancini
2011-04-07
Describing and understanding the essence of quantum entanglement and its connection to dynamical chaos is of great scientific interest. In this work, using information geometric (IG) techniques, we investigate the effects of micro-correlations on the evolution of maximal probability paths on statistical manifolds induced by systems whose microscopic degrees of freedom are Gaussian distributed. We use the statistical manifolds associated with correlated and non-correlated Gaussians to model the scattering induced quantum entanglement of two spinless, structureless, non-relativistic particles, the latter represented by minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave-packets. Knowing that the degree of entanglement is quantified by the purity P of the system, we express the purity for s-wave scattering in terms of the micro-correlation coefficient r - a quantity that parameterizes the correlated microscopic degrees of freedom of the system; thus establishing a connection between entanglement and micro-correlations. Moreover, the correlation coefficient r is readily expressed in terms of physical quantities involved in the scattering, the precise form of which is obtained via our IG approach. It is found that the entanglement duration can be controlled by the initial momentum p_{o}, momentum spread {\\sigma}_{o} and r. Furthermore, we obtain exact expressions for the IG analogue of standard indicators of chaos such as the sectional curvatures, Jacobi field intensities and the Lyapunov exponents. We then present an analytical estimate of the information geometric entropy (IGE); a suitable measure that quantifies the complexity of geodesic paths on curved manifolds. Finally, we present concluding remarks addressing the usefulness of an IG characterization of both entanglement and complexity in quantum physics.
Integrability of Quadratic Non-autonomous Quantum Linear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Raquel
The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator is one of the most important models in Quantum Mechanics. Analogous to the classical mass vibrating back and forth on a spring, the quantum oscillator system has attracted substantial attention over the years because of its importance in many advanced and difficult quantum problems. This dissertation deals with solving generalized models of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation which are called generalized quantum harmonic oscillators, and these are characterized by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian of linear momentum and position operators. The primary challenge in this work is that most quantum models with timedependence are not solvable explicitly, yet this challenge became the driving motivation for this work. In this dissertation, the methods used to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are the fundamental singularity (or Green's function) and the Fourier (eigenfunction expansion) methods. Certain Riccati- and Ermakov-type systems arise, and these systems are highlighted and investigated. The overall aims of this dissertation are to show that quadratic Hamiltonian systems are completely integrable systems, and to provide explicit approaches to solving the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation governed by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian operator. The methods and results established in the dissertation are not yet well recognized in the literature, yet hold for high promise for further future research. Finally, the most recent results in the dissertation correspond to the harmonic oscillator group and its symmetries. A simple derivation of the maximum kinematical invariance groups of the free particle and quantum harmonic oscillator is constructed from the view point of the Riccati- and Ermakov-type systems, which shows an alternative to the traditional Lie Algebra approach. To conclude, a missing class of solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for the simple harmonic oscillator in one dimension is constructed. Probability distributions of the particle linear position and momentum, are emphasized with Mathematica animations. The eigenfunctions qualitatively differ from the traditional standing waves of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The physical relevance of these dynamic states is still questionable, and in order to investigate their physical meaning, animations could also be created for the squeezed coherent states. This will be addressed in future work.
The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, David W.; Sepe, Raymond B.; Rey, Daniel; Saarmaa, Erik; Crawley, Edward F.
1993-02-01
The Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE) is a NASA In-Step and Control Structure Interaction (CSI) Office funded Shuttle middeck experiment. The objective is to investigate the extent to which closed-loop behavior of flexible spacecraft in zero-gravity (0-g) can be predicted. This prediction becomes particularly difficult when dynamic behavior during ground testing exhibits extensive suspension and direct gravity coupling. On-orbit system identification and control reconfiguration is investigated to improve performance which would otherwise be limited due to errors in prediction. The program is presently in its preliminary design phase with launch expected in the summer of 1994. The MACE test article consists of three attitude control torque wheels, a two axis gimballing payload, inertial sensors and a flexible support structure. With the acquisition of a second payload, this will represent a multiple payload platform with significant structural flexibility. This paper presents on-going work in the areas of modelling and control of the MACE test article in the zero and one-gravity environments. Finite element models, which include suspension and gravity effects, and measurement models, derived from experimental data, are used as the basis for Linear Quadratic Gaussian controller designs. Finite element based controllers are analytically used to study the differences in closed-loop performance as the test article transitions between the 0-g and 1-g environments. Measurement based controllers are experimentally applied to the MACE test article in the 1-g environment and achieve over an order of magnitude improvement in payload pointing accuracy when disturbed by a broadband torque disturbance. The various aspects of the flight portion of the experiment are also discussed.
Shamis, Mira
2013-11-15
We use the supersymmetric formalism to derive an integral formula for the density of states of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble, and then apply saddle-point analysis to give a new derivation of the 1/N-correction to Wigner's law. This extends the work of Disertori on the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. We also apply our method to the interpolating ensembles of Mehta–Pandey.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shamis, Mira
2013-11-01
We use the supersymmetric formalism to derive an integral formula for the density of states of the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble, and then apply saddle-point analysis to give a new derivation of the 1/N-correction to Wigner's law. This extends the work of Disertori on the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble. We also apply our method to the interpolating ensembles of Mehta-Pandey.
Evaluation of the gaussian beam model for prediction of LDV fringe fields
Miles, P.C.; Witze, P.O.
1996-12-31
A simple model is developed to estimate the fringe field geometry at the intersection of two Gaussian laser beams. Comparison of the model results to experimentally measured fringe spacing demonstrates that while the model predicts the fringe geometry well when the beam waists are far from the intersection volume, it performs poorly under nominally ideal conditions- when the beam waists are located at the intersection. Data obtained with two different laser sources indicate that the discrepancies between the theory and experiment are likely due to deviations of the laser beam from an ideal Gaussian beam. With a high quality laser, the details of the fringe field geometry are still not well duplicated by the Gaussian beam model, although the magnitude of the variation in fringe spacing and the effect of the controlling system parameters are correctly predicted.
Results of an integrated structure-control law design sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Michael G.
1988-01-01
Next generation air and space vehicle designs are driven by increased performance requirements, demanding a high level of design integration between traditionally separate design disciplines. Interdisciplinary analysis capabilities have been developed, for aeroservoelastic aircraft and large flexible spacecraft control for instance, but the requisite integrated design methods are only beginning to be developed. One integrated design method which has received attention is based on hierarchal problem decompositions, optimization, and design sensitivity analyses. This paper highlights a design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changess in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient that finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
6.231 Dynamic Programming and Stochastic Control, Fall 2002
Bertsekas, Dimitri P.
Sequential decision-making via dynamic programming. Unified approach to optimal control of stochastic dynamic systems and Markovian decision problems. Applications in linear-quadratic control, inventory control, and resource ...
An Outer Bound for the Vector Gaussian CEO Problem
Ulukus, Sennur
An Outer Bound for the Vector Gaussian CEO Problem Ersen Ekrem Sennur Ulukus Department@umd.edu Abstract--We study the vector Gaussian CEO problem, and provide an outer bound for its rate-distortion region is strictly contained in our outer bound. I. INTRODUCTION We study the vector Gaussian CEO problem
Detection of Compound Structures Using a Gaussian Mixture Model with
Aksoy, Selim
1 Detection of Compound Structures Using a Gaussian Mixture Model with Spectral and Spatial compound structures such as different types of residential, agricultural, commercial, and industrial areas approach uses Gaussian mixture models (GMM) in which the individual Gaussian components model the spectral
POSTERIOR CONSISTENCY IN NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION PROBLEMS UNDER GAUSSIAN PROCESS PRIORS
POSTERIOR CONSISTENCY IN NONPARAMETRIC REGRESSION PROBLEMS UNDER GAUSSIAN PROCESS PRIORS By Taeryon regression is to put a nonparametric prior distribution on the unknown regression function using Gaussian processes. In this paper, we study posterior consistency in nonparametric regression problems using Gaussian
DECOMPOSITION OF THE WAVE FIELD INTO OPTIMIZED GAUSSIAN PACKETS
Cerveny, Vlastislav
DECOMPOSITION OF THE WAVE FIELD INTO OPTIMIZED GAUSSIAN PACKETS K. ZÃCEK Department of Geophysics; Accepted: April 8, 2006 ABSTRACT The decomposition of the wave field into optimized Gaussian packets in the phase-space. c) Decomposition of the wave field into optimized Gaussian packets, which was already
Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian pointer states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turek, Yusuf; Kobayashi, Hirokazu; Akutsu, Tomotada; Sun, Chang-Pu; Shikano, Yutaka
2015-08-01
Through the von Neumann interaction followed by post-selection, we can extract not only the eigenvalue of an observable of the measured system but also the weak value. In this post-selected von Neumann measurement, the initial pointer state of the measuring device is assumed to be a fundamental Gaussian wave function. By considering the optical implementation of the post-selected von Neumann measurement, higher-order Gaussian modes can be used. In this paper, we consider the Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) modes as pointer states and calculate the average shift of the pointer states of the post-selected von Neumann measurement by assuming the system observable \\hat{A} with {\\hat{A}}2=\\hat{I} and {\\hat{A}}2=\\hat{A} for an arbitrary interaction strength, where \\hat{I} represents the identity operator. Our results show that the HG and LG pointer states for a given coupling direction have advantages and disadvantages over the fundamental Gaussian mode in improving the signal-to-noise ratio. We expect that our general treatment of the weak values will be helpful for understanding the connection between weak- and strong-measurement regimes and may be used to propose new experimental setups with higher-order Gaussian beams to investigate further the applications of weak measurement in optical systems such as the optical vortex.
Post-selected von Neumann measurement with Hermite-Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian pointer states
Yusuf Turek; Hirokazu Kobayashi; Tomotada Akutsu; Chang-Pu Sun; Yutaka Shikano
2015-08-19
Through the von Neumann interaction followed by post-selection, we can extract not only the eigenvalue of an observable of the measured system but also the weak value. In this post-selected von Neumann measurement, the initial pointer state of the measuring device is assumed to be a fundamental Gaussian wave function. By considering the optical implementation of the post-selected von Neumann measurement, higher-order Gaussian modes can be used. In this paper, we consider the Hermite--Gaussian (HG) and Laguerre--Gaussian (LG) modes as pointer states and calculate the average shift of the pointer states of the post-selected von Neumann measurement by assuming the system observable $\\hat{A}$ with $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{I}$ and $\\hat{A}^{2}=\\hat{A}$ for an arbitrary interaction strength, where $\\hat{I}$ represents the identity operator. Our results show that the HG and LG pointer states for a given coupling direction have advantages and disadvantages over the fundamental Gaussian mode in improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We expect that our general treatment of the weak values will be helpful for understanding the connection between weak- and strong-measurement regimes and may be used to propose new experimental setups with higher-order Gaussian beams to investigate further the applications of weak measurement in optical systems such as the optical vortex.
Nonlinear equality constraints in feasible sequential quadratic programming
Lawrence, C.; Tits, A.
1994-12-31
In this talk we show that convergence of a feasible sequential quadratic programming algorithm modified to handle smooth nonlinear equality constraints. The modification of the algorithm to incorporate equality constraints is based on a scheme proposed by Mayne and Polak and is implemented in fsqp/cfsqp, an optimization package that generates feasible iterates. Nonlinear equality constraints are treated as {open_quotes}{<=}-type constraints to be satisfied by all iterates, thus precluding any positive value, and an exact penalty term is added to the objective function which penalizes negative values. For example, the problem minimize f(x) s.t. h(x) = 0, with h(x) a scalar, is replaced by minimize f(x) - ch(x) s.t. h(x) {<=} 0. The modified problem is equivalent to the original problem when c is large enough (but finite). Such a value is determined automatically via iterative adjustments.
Deterministic macroscopic quantum superpositions of motion by quadratic optomechanical coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tan, Huatang; Bariani, Francesco; Li, Gaoxiang; Meystre, Pierre
2013-05-01
We propose a scheme to prepare macroscopic quantum superpositions of motion of nanomechanical oscillators coupled quadratically to a driven cavity field. These superpositions result from the fact that the nonlinear optomechanical coupling can lead to an effective degenerate three-wave mixing of the mechanical and cavity modes. We show analytically and confirm numerically that different kinds of quantum superpositions can be realized deterministically, depending on the initial mechanical state. The effect of mechanical damping is also quantified by the negativity of the Wigner function. Besides various optomechanical systems, the present scheme could also be applied to other physical systems in which degenerate three-wave mixing can be engineered. Visiting Researcher from Huazhong Normal University.
Impact of a global quadratic potential on galactic rotation curves.
Mannheim, Philip D; O'Brien, James G
2011-03-25
We present a conformal gravity fit to the 20 largest of a sample of 110 spiral galaxies. We identify the presence of a universal quadratic potential V(?)(r)=-?c²r²/2 with ?=9.54×10??? cm?² induced by cosmic inhomogeneities. When V(?)(r) is taken in conjunction with both a universal linear potential V(??)(r)=??c²r/2 with ??=3.06×10?³? cm?¹ generated by the homogeneous cosmic background and the contribution generated by the local luminous matter in galaxies, the theory then accounts for the rotation curve systematics observed in the entire 110 galaxies, without the need for any dark matter whatsoever. Our study suggests that using dark matter may be nothing more than an attempt to describe global effects in purely local galactic terms. With V(?)(r) being negative, galaxies can only support bound orbits up to distances of order ??/?=100kpc, with global physics imposing a limit on the size of galaxies. PMID:21517292
On global and local convergence of half-quadratic algorithms.
Allain, Marc; Idier, Jerôme; Goussard, Yves
2006-05-01
This paper provides original results on the global and local convergence properties of half-quadratic (HQ) algorithms resulting from the Geman and Yang (GY) and Geman and Reynolds (GR) primal-dual constructions. First, we show that the convergence domain of the GY algorithm can be extended with the benefit of an improved convergence rate. Second, we provide a precise comparison of the convergence rates for both algorithms. This analysis shows that the GR form does not benefit from a better convergence rate in general. Moreover, the GY iterates often take advantage of a low cost implementation. In this case, the GY form is usually faster than the GR form from the CPU time viewpoint. PMID:16671294
A Fixed-Point Iteration Method with Quadratic Convergence
Walker, Kevin P.; Sham, Sam
2012-01-01
The fixed-point iteration algorithm is turned into a quadratically convergent scheme for a system of nonlinear equations. Most of the usual methods for obtaining the roots of a system of nonlinear equations rely on expanding the equation system about the roots in a Taylor series, and neglecting the higher order terms. Rearrangement of the resulting truncated system then results in the usual Newton-Raphson and Halley type approximations. In this paper the introduction of unit root functions avoids the direct expansion of the nonlinear system about the root, and relies, instead, on approximations which enable the unit root functions to considerably widen the radius of convergence of the iteration method. Methods for obtaining higher order rates of convergence and larger radii of convergence are discussed.
Confidence set inference with a prior quadratic bound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1988-01-01
In the uniqueness part of a geophysical inverse problem, the observer wants to predict all likely values of P unknown numerical properties z = (z sub 1,...,z sub p) of the earth from measurement of D other numerical properties y(0)=(y sub 1(0),...,y sub D(0)) knowledge of the statistical distribution of the random errors in y(0). The data space Y containing y(0) is D-dimensional, so when the model space X is infinite-dimensional the linear uniqueness problem usually is insoluble without prior information about the correct earth model x. If that information is a quadratic bound on x (e.g., energy or dissipation rate), Bayesian inference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) inject spurious structure into x, implied by neither the data nor the quadratic bound. Confidence set inference (CSI) provides an alternative inversion technique free of this objection. CSI is illustrated in the problem of estimating the geomagnetic field B at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) from components of B measured on or above the earth's surface. Neither the heat flow nor the energy bound is strong enough to permit estimation of B(r) at single points on the CMB, but the heat flow bound permits estimation of uniform averages of B(r) over discs on the CMB, and both bounds permit weighted disc-averages with continous weighting kernels. Both bounds also permit estimation of low-degree Gauss coefficients at the CMB. The heat flow bound resolves them up to degree 8 if the crustal field at satellite altitudes must be treated as a systematic error, but can resolve to degree 11 under the most favorable statistical treatment of the crust. These two limits produce circles of confusion on the CMB with diameters of 25 deg and 19 deg respectively.
Blind deconvolution estimation of fluorescence measurements through quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campos-Delgado, Daniel U.; Gutierrez-Navarro, Omar; Arce-Santana, Edgar R.; Skala, Melissa C.; Walsh, Alex J.; Jo, Javier A.
2015-07-01
Time-deconvolution of the instrument response from fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data is usually necessary for accurate fluorescence lifetime estimation. In many applications, however, the instrument response is not available. In such cases, a blind deconvolution approach is required. An iterative methodology is proposed to address the blind deconvolution problem departing from a dataset of FLIM measurements. A linear combination of a base conformed by Laguerre functions models the fluorescence impulse response of the sample at each spatial point in our formulation. Our blind deconvolution estimation (BDE) algorithm is formulated as a quadratic approximation problem, where the decision variables are the samples of the instrument response and the scaling coefficients of the basis functions. In the approximation cost function, there is a bilinear dependence on the decision variables. Hence, due to the nonlinear nature of the estimation process, an alternating least-squares scheme iteratively solves the approximation problem. Our proposal searches for the samples of the instrument response with a global perspective, and the scaling coefficients of the basis functions locally at each spatial point. First, the iterative methodology relies on a least-squares solution for the instrument response, and quadratic programming for the scaling coefficients applied just to a subset of the measured fluorescence decays to initially estimate the instrument response to speed up the convergence. After convergence, the final stage computes the fluorescence impulse response at all spatial points. A comprehensive validation stage considers synthetic and experimental FLIM datasets of ex vivo atherosclerotic plaques and human breast cancer cell samples that highlight the advantages of the proposed BDE algorithm under different noise and initial conditions in the iterative scheme and parameters of the proposal.
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Yet another attack on a password authentication scheme based on quadratic residues with parameters proposed a password authentication scheme based on quadratic residues. However, in 1995, Chang, Wu and Laih residues. They claimed that their password authentication scheme can prevent the password from being
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Yet another attack on a password authentication scheme based on quadratic residues with parameters proposed a password authentication scheme based on quadratic residues. However, in 1995, Chang, Wu and Laih residues. They claimed that their password authentication scheme can prevent the password from being
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula
2013-01-01
The current study focuses on the effects of incorporating multiple visual representations on students' conceptual understanding of quadratic expressions embedded within area word problems and students' procedural fluency of transforming quadratic expressions in standard form to factored-form and vice versa. The intervention included the…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ellis, Amy B.; Grinstead, Paul
2008-01-01
This article presents secondary students' generalizations about the connections between algebraic and graphical representations of quadratic functions, focusing specifically on the roles of the parameters a, b, and c in the general form of a quadratic function, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c. Students' generalizations about these connections led…
Geometrical Solutions of Some Quadratic Equations with Non-Real Roots
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pathak, H. K.; Grewal, A. S.
2002-01-01
This note gives geometrical/graphical methods of finding solutions of the quadratic equation ax[squared] + bx + c = 0, a [not equal to] 0, with non-real roots. Three different cases which give rise to non-real roots of the quadratic equation have been discussed. In case I a geometrical construction and its proof for finding the solutions of the…
Chaotic solutions in the quadratic integrate-and-fire neuron with adaptation
models of integrate-and-fire type are commonly used to explore the dynamical properties of neuronsChaotic solutions in the quadratic integrate-and-fire neuron with adaptation Gang Zheng1 and Arnaud.Tonnelier@inrialpes.fr Abstract The quadratic integrate-and-fire (QIF) model with adaptation is commonly used as an elementary
Dislocation Parity Effects in Crystals with Quadratic Nonlinear Response Shani Sharabi,1,*
Arie, Ady
Dislocation Parity Effects in Crystals with Quadratic Nonlinear Response Shani Sharabi,1,* Noa 2014) The effect of edge topological dislocations on the phase matching spectrum of quadratic nonlinear of the dislocation's topological charge governs the transfer of energy between an input wave and its second harmonic
A Global Optimality Criterion for Nonconvex Quadratic Programming over a Ivo Nowak \\Lambda
Neumaier, Arnold
A Global Optimality Criterion for Nonconvex Quadratic Programming over a Simplex Ivo Nowak \\Lambda Abstract In this paper we propose a global optimality criterion for globally minimizing a quadratic form for checking the global optimality criterion and for computing the lower bound is reasonable. Numerical
A polynomial-time algorithm for determining quadratic Lyapunov functions for nonlinear systems
Vandenberghe, Lieven
, Stanford CA 94305 We consider nonlinear systems dx=dt = fxt where Dfxt is known to lie in the convex hull using convex programming techniques 1 . This paper de- scribes an algorithm that either nds a quadratic1 A polynomial-time algorithm for determining quadratic Lyapunov functions for nonlinear systems L
MAXIMAL UNRAMIFIED EXTENSIONS OF IMAGINARY QUADRATIC NUMBER FIELDS OF SMALL CONDUCTORS
MAXIMAL UNRAMIFIED EXTENSIONS OF IMAGINARY QUADRATIC NUMBER FIELDS OF SMALL CONDUCTORS maximal unramified extensions Kur of imaginary quadratic number fields K * *of conductors5 420 (5 number one, the real abelian number fields of prime power conductors5 67 (see [56, Appendix]). For some
Blais, Brian
, and the quadratic form of BCM Brian S. Blais· N. Intrator H. Shouval Leon N Cooper Brown University Physics these with the quadratic form of BCM (Intrator and Cooper, 1992). By subjecting all of the learning rules to the same input
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this note, a new method for computing the partial fraction decomposition of rational functions with irreducible quadratic factors in the denominators is presented. This method involves polynomial divisions and substitutions only, without having to solve for the complex roots of the irreducible quadratic polynomial or to solve a system of linear…
Are ghost-surfaces quadratic-flux minimizing? S.R. Hudsona
Hudson, Stuart
Are ghost-surfaces quadratic-flux minimizing? S.R. Hudsona and R.L. Dewarb aPrinceton Plasma through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMIN) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest
Gaussian-State Theory of Two-Photon Imaging
Baris I. Erkmen; Jeffrey H. Shapiro
2008-04-16
Biphoton states of signal and idler fields--obtained from spontaneous parametric downconversion (SPDC) in the low-brightness, low-flux regime--have been utilized in several quantum imaging configurations to exceed the resolution performance of conventional imagers that employ coherent-state or thermal light. Recent work--using the full Gaussian-state description of SPDC--has shown that the same resolution performance seen in quantum optical coherence tomography and the same imaging characteristics found in quantum ghost imaging can be realized by classical-state imagers that make use of phase-sensitive cross correlations. This paper extends the Gaussian-state analysis to two additional biphoton-state quantum imaging scenarios: far field diffraction-pattern imaging; and broadband thin-lens imaging. It is shown that the spatial resolution behavior in both cases is controlled by the nonzero phase-sensitive cross correlation between the signal and idler fields. Thus, the same resolution can be achieved in these two configurations with classical-state signal and idler fields possessing a nonzero phase-sensitive cross correlation.
Migration by the Kirchhoff, slant stack, and Gaussian beam methods
Hale, D.
1992-08-01
Gaussian beam migration offers features that are unmatched by any other single depth migration method. Unfortunately, computer algorithms for Gaussian beam migration are more complicated and difficult to understand that those for most other methods. One way to simplify Gaussian beam migration is to understand how it is related to other methods that may be more familiar. In particular, Gaussian beam migration is similar to Kirchhoff integral migration. It is also similar to the phase-shift (or slant stack) migration method. In a sense, the Gaussian beam approach to depth migration is to combine the best of these more familiar methods to obtain an efficient, robust, and flexible method for seismic imaging.
Migration by the Kirchhoff, slant stack, and Gaussian beam methods
Hale, D.
1992-01-01
Gaussian beam migration offers features that are unmatched by any other single depth migration method. Unfortunately, computer algorithms for Gaussian beam migration are more complicated and difficult to understand that those for most other methods. One way to simplify Gaussian beam migration is to understand how it is related to other methods that may be more familiar. In particular, Gaussian beam migration is similar to Kirchhoff integral migration. It is also similar to the phase-shift (or slant stack) migration method. In a sense, the Gaussian beam approach to depth migration is to combine the best of these more familiar methods to obtain an efficient, robust, and flexible method for seismic imaging.
Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation
ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock
2011-03-23
Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.
Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation
Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van
2011-12-15
Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.
Integrated control-system design via generalized LQG (GLQG) theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bernstein, Dennis S.; Hyland, David C.; Richter, Stephen; Haddad, Wassim M.
1989-01-01
Thirty years of control systems research has produced an enormous body of theoretical results in feedback synthesis. Yet such results see relatively little practical application, and there remains an unsettling gap between classical single-loop techniques (Nyquist, Bode, root locus, pole placement) and modern multivariable approaches (LQG and H infinity theory). Large scale, complex systems, such as high performance aircraft and flexible space structures, now demand efficient, reliable design of multivariable feedback controllers which optimally tradeoff performance against modeling accuracy, bandwidth, sensor noise, actuator power, and control law complexity. A methodology is described which encompasses numerous practical design constraints within a single unified formulation. The approach, which is based upon coupled systems or modified Riccati and Lyapunov equations, encompasses time-domain linear-quadratic-Gaussian theory and frequency-domain H theory, as well as classical objectives such as gain and phase margin via the Nyquist circle criterion. In addition, this approach encompasses the optimal projection approach to reduced-order controller design. The current status of the overall theory will be reviewed including both continuous-time and discrete-time (sampled-data) formulations.
Sensitivity method for integrated structure/active control law design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Michael G.
1987-01-01
The development is described of an integrated structure/active control law design methodology for aeroelastic aircraft applications. A short motivating introduction to aeroservoelasticity is given along with the need for integrated structures/controls design algorithms. Three alternative approaches to development of an integrated design method are briefly discussed with regards to complexity, coordination and tradeoff strategies, and the nature of the resulting solutions. This leads to the formulation of the proposed approach which is based on the concepts of sensitivity of optimum solutions and multi-level decompositions. The concept of sensitivity of optimum is explained in more detail and compared with traditional sensitivity concepts of classical control theory. The analytical sensitivity expressions for the solution of the linear, quadratic cost, Gaussian (LQG) control problem are summarized in terms of the linear regulator solution and the Kalman Filter solution. Numerical results for a state space aeroelastic model of the DAST ARW-II vehicle are given, showing the changes in aircraft responses to variations of a structural parameter, in this case first wing bending natural frequency.
Results of an integrated structure/control law design sensitivity analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Michael G.
1989-01-01
A design sensitivity analysis method for Linear Quadratic Cost, Gaussian (LQG) optimal control laws, which predicts change in the optimal control law due to changes in fixed problem parameters using analytical sensitivity equations is discussed. Numerical results of a design sensitivity analysis for a realistic aeroservoelastic aircraft example are presented. In this example, the sensitivity of the optimally controlled aircraft's response to various problem formulation and physical aircraft parameters is determined. These results are used to predict the aircraft's new optimally controlled response if the parameter was to have some other nominal value during the control law design process. The sensitivity results are validated by recomputing the optimal control law for discrete variations in parameters, computing the new actual aircraft response, and comparing with the predicted response. These results show an improvement in sensitivity accuracy for integrated design purposes over methods which do not include changes in the optimal control law. Use of the analytical LQG sensitivity expressions is also shown to be more efficient than finite difference methods for the computation of the equivalent sensitivity information.
Entropic cosmology through non-gaussian statistics
Rafael C. Nunes; Edésio M. Barboza Jr.; Everton M. C. Abreu; Jorge Ananias Neto
2015-09-16
Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity, and with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, we propose an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. We use the most recent data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble expansion rate function to constrain the free parameters on the $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models modified by the non-gaussian statistics. We evaluate the problem of age and we note that such modifications solve the problem at 1$\\sigma$ level confidence. Also we analyze the effects on the linear growth of matter density perturbations.
CMB lensing and primordial non-Gaussianity
Hanson, Duncan; Smith, Kendrick M.; Challinor, Anthony; Liguori, Michele
2009-10-15
We study the effects of gravitational lensing on the estimation of non-Gaussianity from the bispectrum of the CMB temperature anisotropies. We find that the effect of lensing on the bispectrum may qualitatively be described as a smoothing of the acoustic features analogous to the temperature power spectrum. In contrast to previous results, for a Planck-like experiment which is cosmic-variance limited to l{sub max}=2000, we find that lensing causes no significant degradation of our ability to constrain the non-Gaussianity amplitude f{sub NL} for both local and equilateral configurations, provided that the biases due to the cross correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated-Sachs-Wolfe contribution to the CMB temperature are adequately understood. With numerical simulations, we also verify that low-order Taylor approximations to the lensed bispectrum and integrated-Sachs-Wolfe-lensing biases are accurate.
Statistical mechanics in the extended Gaussian ensemble
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johal, Ramandeep S.; Planes, Antoni; Vives, Eduard
2003-11-01
The extended Gaussian ensemble (EGE) is introduced as a generalization of the canonical ensemble. This ensemble is a further extension of the Gaussian ensemble introduced by Hetherington [J. Low Temp. Phys. 66, 145 (1987)]. The statistical mechanical formalism is derived both from the analysis of the system attached to a finite reservoir and from the maximum statistical entropy principle. The probability of each microstate depends on two parameters ? and ? which allow one to fix, independently, the mean energy of the system and the energy fluctuations, respectively. We establish the Legendre transform structure for the generalized thermodynamic potential and propose a stability criterion. We also compare the EGE probability distribution with the q-exponential distribution. As an example, an application to a system with few independent spins is presented.
Quantum fidelity for arbitrary Gaussian states
Leonardo Banchi; Samuel L. Braunstein; Stefano Pirandola
2015-07-07
We derive a computable analytical formula for the quantum fidelity between two arbitrary multimode Gaussian states which is simply expressed in terms of their first- and second-order statistical moments. We also show how such a formula can be written in terms of symplectic invariants and used to derive closed forms for a variety of basic quantities and tools, such as the Bures metric, the quantum Fisher information and various fidelity-based bounds. Our result can be used to extend the study of continuous-variable protocols, such as quantum teleportation and cloning, beyond the current one-mode or two-mode analyses, and paves the way to solve general problems in quantum metrology and quantum hypothesis testing with arbitrary multimode Gaussian resources.
Entropic cosmology through non-gaussian statistics
Nunes, Rafael C; Abreu, Everton M C; Neto, Jorge Ananias
2015-01-01
Based on the relationship between thermodynamics and gravity, and with the aid of Verlinde's formalism, we propose an alternative interpretation of the dynamical evolution of the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker Universe, which takes into account the entropy and temperature intrinsic to the horizon of the universe due to the information holographically stored there through non-gaussian statistical theories proposed by Tsallis and Kaniadakis. We use the most recent data of type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and the Hubble expansion rate function to constrain the free parameters on the $\\Lambda$CDM and $w$CDM models modified by the non-gaussian statistics. We evaluate the problem of age and we note that such modifications solve the problem at 1$\\sigma$ level confidence. Also we analyze the effects on the linear growth of matter density perturbations.
A Fast Incremental Gaussian Mixture Model
Pinto, Rafael Coimbra; Engel, Paulo Martins
2015-01-01
This work builds upon previous efforts in online incremental learning, namely the Incremental Gaussian Mixture Network (IGMN). The IGMN is capable of learning from data streams in a single-pass by improving its model after analyzing each data point and discarding it thereafter. Nevertheless, it suffers from the scalability point-of-view, due to its asymptotic time complexity of O(NKD3) for N data points, K Gaussian components and D dimensions, rendering it inadequate for high-dimensional data. In this work, we manage to reduce this complexity to O(NKD2) by deriving formulas for working directly with precision matrices instead of covariance matrices. The final result is a much faster and scalable algorithm which can be applied to high dimensional tasks. This is confirmed by applying the modified algorithm to high-dimensional classification datasets. PMID:26444880
The non-Gaussian dynamics of glycerol
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Busselez, R.; Lefort, R.; Ghoufi, A.; Beuneu, B.; Frick, B.; Affouard, F.; Morineau, D.
2011-12-01
We have combined incoherent quasielastic neutron scattering experiments and atomistic molecular simulations to investigate the microscopic dynamics of glycerol moving away from the hydrodynamic limit. We relate changes in the momentum transfer (Q) dependence of the relaxation time to distinct changes of the single-particle dynamics. Going from small to large values of Q, a first crossover at about 0.5 Å-1 is related to the coupling of the translational diffusion dynamics to the non-Debye structural relaxation, while the second crossover at a Q-value near the main diffraction peak is associated with the Gaussian to non-Gaussian crossover of the short-time molecular dynamics, related to the decaging processes. We offer an unprecedented extension of previous studies on polymeric systems towards the case of the typical low-molecular-weight glass-forming system glycerol.
Adaptive Gaussian pattern classification. Final report
Priebe, C.E.; Marchette, D.J.
1988-08-01
A massively parallel architecture for pattern classification is described. The architecture is based on the field of density estimation. It makes use of a variant of the adaptive-kernel estimator to approximate the distributions of the classes as a sum of Gaussian distributions. These Gaussians are learned using a moved-mean, moving-covariance learning scheme. A temporal ordering scheme is implemented using decay at the input level, allowing the network to learn to recognize sequences. The learning scheme requires a single pass through the data, giving the architecture the capability of real-time learning. The first part of the paper develops the adaptive-kernel estimator. The parallel architecture is then described, and issues relevant to implementation are discussed. Finally, applications to robotic sensor fusion, intended word recognition, and vision are described.
Non-Gaussianities from Perturbing Recombination
Leonardo Senatore; Svetlin Tassev; Matias Zaldarriaga
2009-05-26
We approximately compute the bispectrum induced on the CMB temperature by fluctuations in the standard recombination epoch. Of all the second order sources that can induce non-Gaussianity during recombination, we concentrate on those proportional to the perturbation in the free electron density, which is about a factor of 5 larger than the other first order perturbations. This term induces some non-Gaussianity by delaying the time of recombination and by changing the photon diffusion scale. We find that the signal is not scale invariant, peaked on squeezed triangles with the smaller multipole around the scale of the first acoustic peak, and that its size corresponds to an effective f_NL ~ -3.5, which could be marginally detected by Planck if both temperature and polarization are measured.
Geometrical approach to gaussian beam propagation.
Laures, P
1967-04-01
The curvature of the wavefront and the spot size of a propagating Gaussian beam may be determined from simple geometrical transformations of the lateral foci. The analysis starts from the construction of the lateral foci in the case of a spherical Fabry-Perot. Then the cases of Gaussian beam propagation through media with different refractive indices, lenses, and simple optical systems are treated. Constructions show how propagation in the image space is readily determined in each case. This analysis is the generalization of the technique outlined by Deschamps and Mast. The geometrical constructions developed for simple cases are applied to the design of some special cases of interest in laser optics: cavities by a lens, laser zoom telescope, and ring cavity. PMID:20057839
Stochastic geometry and topology of non-Gaussian fields
Beuman, Thomas H.; Turner, Ari M.; Vitelli, Vincenzo
2012-01-01
Gaussian random fields pervade all areas of science. However, it is often the departures from Gaussianity that carry the crucial signature of the nonlinear mechanisms at the heart of diverse phenomena, ranging from structure formation in condensed matter and cosmology to biomedical imaging. The standard test of non-Gaussianity is to measure higher-order correlation functions. In the present work, we take a different route. We show how geometric and topological properties of Gaussian fields, such as the statistics of extrema, are modified by the presence of a non-Gaussian perturbation. The resulting discrepancies give an independent way to detect and quantify non-Gaussianities. In our treatment, we consider both local and nonlocal mechanisms that generate non-Gaussian fields, both statically and dynamically through nonlinear diffusion. PMID:23169625
Entropic fluctuations in Gaussian dynamical systems
Vojkan Jaksic; Claude-Alain Pillet; Armen Shirikyan
2015-09-10
We study non-equilibrium statistical mechanics of a Gaussian dynamical system and compute in closed form the large deviation functionals describing the fluctuations of the entropy production observable with respect to the reference state and the non-equilibrium steady state. The entropy production observable of this model is an unbounded function on the phase space, and its large deviation functionals have a surprisingly rich structure. We explore this structure in some detail.
Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration
Hale, D.
1992-01-01
The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.
Computational aspects of Gaussian beam migration
Hale, D.
1992-08-01
The computational efficiency of Gaussian beam migration depends on the solution of two problems: (1) computation of complex-valued beam times and amplitudes in Cartesian (x,z) coordinates, and (2) limiting computations to only those (x,z) coordinates within a region where beam amplitudes are significant. The first problem can be reduced to a particular instance of a class of closest-point problems in computational geometry, for which efficient solutions, such as the Delaunay triangulation, are well known. Delaunay triangulation of sampled points along a ray enables the efficient location of that point on the raypath that is closest to any point (x,z) at which beam times and amplitudes are required. Although Delaunay triangulation provides an efficient solution to this closest point problem, a simpler solution, also presented in this paper, may be sufficient and more easily extended for use in 3-D Gaussian beam migration. The second problem is easily solved by decomposing the subsurface image into a coarse grid of square cells. Within each cell, simple and efficient loops over (x,z) coordinates may be used. Because the region in which beam amplitudes are significant may be difficult to represent with simple loops over (x,z) coordinates, I use recursion to move from cell to cell, until entire region defined by the beam has been covered. Benchmark tests of a computer program implementing these solutions suggest that the cost of Gaussian hewn migration is comparable to that of migration via explicit depth extrapolation in the frequency-space domain. For the data sizes and computer programs tested here, the explicit method was faster. However, as data size was increased, the computation time for Gaussian beam migration grew more slowly than that for the explicit method.
Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels.
Torre, G; Roga, W; Illuminati, F
2015-08-14
We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated with arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states. PMID:26317700
Non-Markovianity of Gaussian Channels
Gianpaolo Torre; Wojciech Roga; Fabrizio Illuminati
2015-08-19
We introduce a necessary and sufficient criterion for the non-Markovianity of Gaussian quantum dynamical maps based on the violation of divisibility. The criterion is derived by defining a general vectorial representation of the covariance matrix which is then exploited to determine the condition for the complete positivity of partial maps associated to arbitrary time intervals. Such construction does not rely on the Choi-Jamiolkowski representation and does not require optimization over states.
Talbot effect in Gaussian optical systems
Kandidov, V P; Kondrat'ev, Andrei V
2001-11-30
It is shown that the diffraction reproduction of a periodically modulated wave field takes place when light propagates through Gaussian optical systems. Generally, such a reproduction is accompanied by image scaling. Equations are derived that relate the reproducton distance and scaling factor to the ABCD matrix elements of the optical system. The Talbot effect in a convergent (divergent) wave is considered. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)
The Gaussian Radon transform and machine learning
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Holmes, Irina; Sengupta, Ambar N.
2015-08-01
There has been growing recent interest in probabilistic interpretations of kernel-based methods as well as learning in Banach spaces. The absence of a useful Lebesgue measure on an infinite-dimensional reproducing kernel Hilbert space is a serious obstacle for such stochastic models. We propose an estimation model for the ridge regression problem within the framework of abstract Wiener spaces and show how the support vector machine solution to such problems can be interpreted in terms of the Gaussian Radon transform.
Gaussian Processes for Switching Regimes Amos Storkey
Storkey, Amos
that the prior function over f = (f 1 ; f 2 ; : : : ; fm ) can be expressed as a multivariate Gaussian P (f jH . Then we obtain the posterior distribution P (y P jy D = y \\Lambda ; H) = P (y; y D = y \\Lambda jH) P (y D = y \\Lambda jH) = Z D Z exp ` \\Gamma 1 2 (y \\Gamma Â¯) T Q \\Gamma1 (y \\Gamma Â¯) \\Gamma 1 2 (y D \\Gamma
Products of Independent Gaussian Random Matrices
J. R. Ipsen
2015-10-21
This thesis reviews recent progress on products of random matrices from the perspective of exactly solved Gaussian random matrix models. We derive exact formulae for the correlation functions for the eigen- and singular values at arbitrary matrix dimension and for an arbitrary number of factors. These exact results are used to study asymptotic limits for the macroscopic densities and the microscopic correlations as either the matrix dimension or the number of factors tends to infinity.
Improved Discrete Approximation of Laplacian of Gaussian
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shuler, Robert L., Jr.
2004-01-01
An improved method of computing a discrete approximation of the Laplacian of a Gaussian convolution of an image has been devised. The primary advantage of the method is that without substantially degrading the accuracy of the end result, it reduces the amount of information that must be processed and thus reduces the amount of circuitry needed to perform the Laplacian-of- Gaussian (LOG) operation. Some background information is necessary to place the method in context. The method is intended for application to the LOG part of a process of real-time digital filtering of digitized video data that represent brightnesses in pixels in a square array. The particular filtering process of interest is one that converts pixel brightnesses to binary form, thereby reducing the amount of information that must be performed in subsequent correlation processing (e.g., correlations between images in a stereoscopic pair for determining distances or correlations between successive frames of the same image for detecting motions). The Laplacian is often included in the filtering process because it emphasizes edges and textures, while the Gaussian is often included because it smooths out noise that might not be consistent between left and right images or between successive frames of the same image.
Resonant non-Gaussianity with equilateral properties
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Rummel, Markus; Westphal, Alexander E-mail: markus.rummel@desy.de
2013-04-01
We discuss the effect of superimposing multiple sources of resonant non-Gaussianity, which arise for instance in models of axion inflation. The resulting sum of oscillating shape contributions can be used to ''Fourier synthesize'' different non-oscillating shapes in the bispectrum. As an example we reproduce an approximately equilateral shape from the superposition of O(10) oscillatory contributions with resonant shape. This implies a possible degeneracy between the equilateral-type non-Gaussianity typical of models with non-canonical kinetic terms, such as DBI inflation, and an equilateral-type shape arising from a superposition of resonant-type contributions in theories with canonical kinetic terms. The absence of oscillations in the 2-point function together with the structure of resonant N-point functions give a constraint of f{sub NL}?
Non-gaussianity from axion monodromy inflation
Hannestad, Steen; Haugbolle, Troels; Jarnhus, Philip R.; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: haugboel@nbi.ku.dk E-mail: martin.sloth@cern.ch
2010-06-01
We study the primordial non-Gaussianity predicted from simple models of inflation with a linear potential and superimposed oscillations. This generic form of the potential is predicted by the axion monodromy inflation model, that has recently been proposed as a possible realisation of chaotic inflation in string theory, where the monodromy from wrapped branes extends the range of the closed string axions to beyond the Planck scale. The superimposed oscillations in the potential can lead to new signatures in the CMB spectrum and bispectrum. In particular the bispectrum will have a new distinct shape. We calculate the power spectrum and bispectrum of curvature perturbations in the model, as well as make analytic estimates in various limiting cases. From the numerical analysis we find that for a wide range of allowed parameters the model produces a feature in the bispectrum with f{sub NL} ? 5?50 or larger while the power spectrum is almost featureless. This model is therefore an example of a string inspired inflationary model which is testable mainly through its non-Gaussian features. Finally we provide a simple analytic fitting formula for the bispectrum which is accurate to approximately 5 % in all cases, and easily implementable in codes designed to provide non-Gaussian templates for CMB analyses.
Unitarily localizable entanglement of Gaussian states
Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio
2005-03-01
We consider generic (mxn)-mode bipartitions of continuous-variable systems, and study the associated bisymmetric multimode Gaussian states. They are defined as (m+n)-mode Gaussian states invariant under local mode permutations on the m-mode and n-mode subsystems. We prove that such states are equivalent, under local unitary transformations, to the tensor product of a two-mode state and of m+n-2 uncorrelated single-mode states. The entanglement between the m-mode and the n-mode blocks can then be completely concentrated on a single pair of modes by means of local unitary operations alone. This result allows us to prove that the PPT (positivity of the partial transpose) condition is necessary and sufficient for the separability of (m+n)-mode bisymmetric Gaussian states. We determine exactly their negativity and identify a subset of bisymmetric states whose multimode entanglement of formation can be computed analytically. We consider explicit examples of pure and mixed bisymmetric states and study their entanglement scaling with the number of modes.
Fixing convergence of Gaussian belief propagation
Johnson, Jason K; Bickson, Danny; Dolev, Danny
2009-01-01
Gaussian belief propagation (GaBP) is an iterative message-passing algorithm for inference in Gaussian graphical models. It is known that when GaBP converges it converges to the correct MAP estimate of the Gaussian random vector and simple sufficient conditions for its convergence have been established. In this paper we develop a double-loop algorithm for forcing convergence of GaBP. Our method computes the correct MAP estimate even in cases where standard GaBP would not have converged. We further extend this construction to compute least-squares solutions of over-constrained linear systems. We believe that our construction has numerous applications, since the GaBP algorithm is linked to solution of linear systems of equations, which is a fundamental problem in computer science and engineering. As a case study, we discuss the linear detection problem. We show that using our new construction, we are able to force convergence of Montanari's linear detection algorithm, in cases where it would originally fail. As a consequence, we are able to increase significantly the number of users that can transmit concurrently.
Multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels
F. Caruso; J. Eisert; V. Giovannetti; A. S. Holevo
2008-08-06
A complete analysis of multi-mode bosonic Gaussian channels is proposed. We clarify the structure of unitary dilations of general Gaussian channels involving any number of bosonic modes and present a normal form. The maximum number of auxiliary modes that is needed is identified, including all rank deficient cases, and the specific role of additive classical noise is highlighted. By using this analysis, we derive a canonical matrix form of the noisy evolution of n-mode bosonic Gaussian channels and of their weak complementary counterparts, based on a recent generalization of the normal mode decomposition for non-symmetric or locality constrained situations. It allows us to simplify the weak-degradability classification. Moreover, we investigate the structure of some singular multi-mode channels, like the additive classical noise channel that can be used to decompose a noisy channel in terms of a less noisy one in order to find new sets of maps with zero quantum capacity. Finally, the two-mode case is analyzed in detail. By exploiting the composition rules of two-mode maps and the fact that anti-degradable channels cannot be used to transfer quantum information, we identify sets of two-mode bosonic channels with zero capacity.
78 IEEE CONTROL SYSTEMS MAGAZINE APRIL 2015 1066-033X/152015ieee lecture notes
Bernstein, Dennis S.
is to implement the asymptotic control law based on the algebraic Riccati equation (ARE). For plants with linear-quadratic control, this means that the solution of the Riccati equation must be ob- tained from backward integration. An alternative approach to linear-quadratic control is to modify the sign of the Riccati equation and integrate
Interaction of Airy-Gaussian beams in Kerr media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Yulian; Peng, Xi; Chen, Bo; Zhou, Meiling; Chen, Chidao; Deng, Dongmei
2016-01-01
We study the interaction of the Airy-Gaussian (AiG) beams by using the numerical simulations with the split-step Fourier method. The results show that the single breathers and breather pairs can be formed in the condition with interaction. The breathers can be formed with the enough intensity of interactive beams. By adjusting the parameters of amplitude, interval, phase and ?0, we find that the interaction of the two beams is the strongest with in-phase and out-of-phase cases, especially in the shorter distance. Moreover, both the interaction intensity and the location, the interaction happens, can be changed by adjusting the distribution factor ?0 of the beams. It is notable that the various propagation directions of the beams can be obtained by changing the phase, at the same situation, when the interval of the two beams becomes narrower, the phase plays an important role of controlling the direction of the accelerated spot.
Bingi, Jayachandra; Murukeshan, Vadakke Matham
2015-01-01
Laser speckle pattern is a granular structure formed due to random coherent wavelet interference and generally considered as noise in optical systems including photolithography. Contrary to this, in this paper, we use the speckle pattern to generate predictable and controlled Gaussian random structures and quasi-random structures photo-lithographically. The random structures made using this proposed speckle lithography technique are quantified based on speckle statistics, radial distribution function (RDF) and fast Fourier transform (FFT). The control over the speckle size, density and speckle clustering facilitates the successful fabrication of black silicon with different surface structures. The controllability and tunability of randomness makes this technique a robust method for fabricating predictable 2D Gaussian random structures and black silicon structures. These structures can enhance the light trapping significantly in solar cells and hence enable improved energy harvesting. Further, this technique can enable efficient fabrication of disordered photonic structures and random media based devices. PMID:26679513