Adaptive tetrahedral subdivision for finite element analysis
Umlauf, Georg
Adaptive tetrahedral subdivision for finite element analysis Daniel Burkhart Geometric Algorithms subdivision for finite element analysis. Until now, solid subdivision has only been applied to smooth is designed for efficient computations of finite element analysis. As our subdivision scheme supports sharp
Dohrmann, C.R.; Heinstein, M.W.; Jung, J.; Key, S.W.
1999-01-01
This report documents a collection of papers on a family of uniform strain tetrahedral finite elements and their connection to different element types. Also included in the report are two papers which address the general problem of connecting dissimilar meshes in two and three dimensions. Much of the work presented here was motivated by the development of the tetrahedral element described in the report "A Suitable Low-Order, Eight-Node Tetrahedral Finite Element For Solids," by S. W. Key {ital et al.}, SAND98-0756, March 1998. Two basic issues addressed by the papers are: (1) the performance of alternative tetrahedral elements with uniform strain and enhanced uniform strain formulations, and (2) the proper connection of tetrahedral and other element types when two meshes are "tied" together to represent a single continuous domain.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gong, J.; Volakis, J. L.; Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.
1992-01-01
A hybrid finite element boundary integral formulation is developed using tetrahedral and/or triangular elements for discretizing the cavity and/or aperture of microstrip antenna arrays. The tetrahedral elements with edge based linear expansion functions are chosen for modeling the volume region and triangular elements are used for discretizing the aperture. The edge based expansion functions are divergenceless thus removing the requirement to introduce a penalty term and the tetrahedral elements permit greater geometrical adaptability than the rectangular bricks. The underlying theory and resulting expressions are discussed in detail together with some numerical scattering examples for comparison and demonstration.
A suitable low-order, eight-node tetrahedral finite element for solids
Key, S.W.; Heinstein, M.S.; Stone, C.M.; Mello, F.J.; Blanford, M.L.; Budge, K.G.
1998-03-01
To use the all-tetrahedral mesh generation existing today, the authors have explored the creation of a computationally efficient eight-node tetrahedral finite element (a four-node tetrahedral finite element enriched with four mid-face nodal points). The derivation of the element`s gradient operator, studies in obtaining a suitable mass lumping, and the element`s performance in applications are presented. In particular they examine the eight-node tetrahedral finite element`s behavior in longitudinal plane wave propagation, in transverse cylindrical wave propagation, and in simulating Taylor bar impacts. The element samples only constant strain states and, therefore, has 12 hour-glass modes. In this regard it bears similarities to the eight-node, mean-quadrature hexahedral finite element. Comparisons with the results obtained from the mean-quadrature eight-node hexahedral finite element and the four-node tetrahedral finite element are included. Given automatic all-tetrahedral meshing, the eight-node, constant-strain tetrahedral finite element is a suitable replacement for the eight-node hexahedral finite element in those cases where mesh generation requires an inordinate amount of user intervention and direction to obtain acceptable mesh properties.
Marcos A. R. Franco; Angelo Passaro; J. M. Machado
1998-01-01
A MATHEMATICA notebook to compute the elements of the matrices which arise in the solution of the Helmholtz equation by the finite element method (nodal approximation) for tetrahedral elements of any approximation order is presented. The results of the notebook enable a fast computational implementation of finite element codes for high order simplex 3D elements reducing the overheads due to
A new characterization of simple elements in a tetrahedral mesh
Frey, Pascal
on homology groups and on relative homology. This allows us to define homotopic deformations of a tetrahedral including object classification, counting and labeling, border tracking, contour filling, thinning imaging. A 3D digital image, in general, is a discrete subdivision of the 3D Euclidean space
A non-conforming piecewise quadratic finite element on triangles
M. Fortin; M. Soulie
1983-01-01
The employment of a piecewise quadratic element on the triangle for approximating second-order problems is investigated. It is shown that the triangular elements are quadratic elements which are enhanced by a shape function on each triangle and, subsequently, that nonconforming piecewise elements can be simply implemented. The shape function produces an interior node, which increases the computational complexity slightly. Consideration
E. Cojocaru
2009-10-20
The finite element method has become a preeminent simulation technique in electromagnetics. For problems involving anisotropic media and metamaterials, proper algorithms should be developed. It has been proved that discretizing in quadratic triangular elements may lead to an improved accuracy. Here we present a collection of elemental matrices evaluated analytically for quadratic triangular elements. They could be useful for the finite element method in advanced electromagnetics.
Tetrahedral Element Shape Optimization via the Jacobian Determinant and Condition Number
FREITAG,LORI A.; KNUPP,PATRICK
1999-09-27
We present a new shape measure for tetrahedral elements that is optimal in the sense that it gives the distance of a tetrahedron from the set of inverted elements. This measure is constructed from the condition number of the linear transformation between a unit equilateral tetrahedron and any tetrahedron with positive volume. We use this shape measure to formulate two optimization objective functions that are differentiated by their goal: the first seeks to improve the average quality of the tetrahedral mesh; the second aims to improve the worst-quality element in the mesh. Because the element condition number is not defined for tetrahedral with negative volume, these objective functions can be used only when the initial mesh is valid. Therefore, we formulate a third objective function using the determinant of the element Jacobian that is suitable for mesh untangling. We review the optimization techniques used with each objective function and present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of the mesh improvement and untangling methods. We show that a combined optimization approach that uses both condition number objective functions obtains the best-quality meshes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zehner, Björn; Börner, Jana H.; Görz, Ines; Spitzer, Klaus
2015-06-01
Subsurface processing numerical simulations require accurate discretization of the modeling domain such that the geological units are represented correctly. Unstructured tetrahedral grids are particularly flexible in adapting to the shape of geo-bodies and are used in many finite element codes. In order to generate a tetrahedral mesh on a 3D geological model, the tetrahedrons have to belong completely to one geological unit and have to describe geological boundaries by connected facets of tetrahedrons. This is especially complicated at the contact points between several units and for irregular sharp-shaped bodies, especially in case of faulted zones. This study develops, tests and validates three workflows to generate a good tetrahedral mesh from a geological basis model. The tessellation of the model needs (i) to be of good quality to guarantee a stable calculation, (ii) to include certain nodes to apply boundary conditions for the numerical solution, and (iii) support local mesh refinement. As a test case we use the simulation of a transient electromagnetic measurement above a salt diapir. We can show that the suggested workflows lead to a tessellation of the structure on which the simulation can be run robustly. All workflows show advantages and disadvantages with respect to the workload, the control the user has over the resulting mesh and the skills in software handling that are required.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usui, Yoshiya
2015-08-01
A 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) inversion code using unstructured tetrahedral elements has been developed in order to correct the topographic effect by directly incorporating it into computational grids. The electromagnetic field and response functions get distorted at the observation sites of MT surveys because of the undulating surface topography, and without correcting this distortion, the subsurface structure can be misinterpreted. Of the two methods proposed to correct the topographic effect, the method incorporating topography explicitly in the inversion is applicable to a wider range of surveys. For forward problems, it has been shown that the finite element method using unstructured tetrahedral elements is useful for the incorporation of topography. Therefore, this paper shows the applicability of unstructured tetrahedral elements in MT inversion using the newly developed code. The inversion code is capable of using the impedance tensor, the vertical magnetic transfer function (VMTF), and the phase tensor as observational data, and it estimates the subsurface resistivity values and the distortion tensor of each observation site. The forward part of the code was verified using two test models, one incorporating topographic effect and one without, and the verifications showed that the results were almost the same as those of previous works. The developed inversion code was then applied to synthetic data from a MT survey, and was verified as being able to recover the resistivity structure as well as other inversion codes. Finally, to confirm its applicability to the data affected by topography, inversion was performed using the synthetic data of the model that included two overlapping mountains. In each of the cases using the impedance tensor, the VMTF and the phase tensor, by including the topography in the mesh, the subsurface resistivity was determined more proficiently than in the case using the flat-surface mesh. Although the locations of the anomalies were not accurately estimated by the inversion using distorted impedance tensors due to the slightly undervalued gain, these locations were correctly estimated by using undistorted impedance tensors or adding VMTFs in the data. Therefore, it can be concluded that the inversion using the unstructured tetrahedral element effectively prevents the misinterpretation of subsurface resistivity and recovers subsurface resistivity proficiently by representing the topography in the computational mesh.
Geometrically nonlinear analysis of hyperelastic solids by high-order tetrahedral finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pascon, João P.; Coda, Humberto B.
2010-06-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a computer code for accurate prediction of the mechanical behavior of hyperelastic solids under large deformation and finite strains. It is used, in the present work, the Lagrangian positional version of the Finite Element Method, in which the degrees of freedom are current positions instead of displacements. The main mechanical variables are the Green-Lagrange strain and the second Piola-Kirchhoff stress tensors. Isoparametric tetrahedral solid finite element of any approximation degree is employed with full integration in order to obtain accuracy. In order to be general, it is developed a numerical strategy to determine the shape functions coefficients of any order, following tetrahedral basis. The solid equilibrium is achieved at the current position by means of the Minimal Potential Energy Principle regarding positions and is solved by the Newton-Raphson iterative scheme. It is important to mention that the adopted constitutive laws are nonlinear, isotropic and homogeneous hyperelastic, normally used in mechanical analysis of elastomers, with the near compressibility assumption. It is applied the Flory decomposition, i.e., the multiplicative split of the deformation gradient into a volumetric and an isochoric part. A parallel processing strategy is used to increase the simulation speed and memory capacity, justifying the use of high order elements for solid analysis. Results confirm that the developed computer code is capable of predicting the static behavior of complex problems, such as Cook's membrane and partially loaded block. The shape functions generator code exhibits simplicity and, thus, it may be easily implemented in other finite elements. The increase in the order of approximation and the mesh refinement improve accuracy and, therefore, the proposed methodology together with parallel computing indicate a safe way for further developments in plasticity and damage mechanics for large strain and deformations.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Shows how the roots of a quadratic change as the b term in the equation changes. The equation was chosen to illustrate the fact that only real roots are seen as points where the curve crosses the x-axis. This can lead to a useful discussion of what is meant by a physically meaningful solution.
Ho, Philip Wai-Sun
1977-01-01
COMPOSITE LINEAR STRAIN ELEMENTS 19 Ouadrilateral Element Stiffness Condensation Mass Condensation Three-Dimensional Brick Element 19 22 23 26 IV COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL RESULTS 31 Two-Dimensional Elements Eigenvalues Comparison Structural.... I. This provides a linear relation between the natural area coordinates and the x, y, z coordinates and hence the element has straight sides in the x, y, z coordinate system. 19 CHAPTER III COMPOSITE LINEAR STRAIN ELEMENTS In the previous...
Discrete Elements Method: A New Kind of Initial Conditions - Tetrahedral Packing of Balls
Mark A. Tsayger
2014-12-15
The Paper discusses the use of the regular packing of identical balls with the coordination number 4 as a model of a medium consisting of fluid and solid particles in the conditions of fluidization. It is proposed to use the examined packing of balls as an initial condition for the calculations by the Discrete Elements Method (DEM) in technological processes in the fluidized bed in industry, as well as in the modeling of processes that occur in hydraulic and pneumatic transport of granular materials. Filtration properties of such packing required for its use as an initial condition in calculations by DEM are estimated.
Hideki Omori; Yoshiaki Maeda; Naoya Miyazaki; Akira Yoshioka
2011-07-13
In a noncommutative algebra there is no canonical way to express elements in univalent way, which is often called "ordering problem". In this note we give product formula of the Weyl algebra in generic ordered expression. In particular, the generic product formula of *-exponential functions of quadratic forms will be given.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ptaszny, Jacek
2015-09-01
In this work, a fast multipole boundary element method for 3D elasticity problem was developed by the application of the fast multipole algorithm and isoparametric 8-node boundary elements with quadratic shape functions. The problem is described by the boundary integral equation involving the Kelvin solutions. In order to keep the numerical integration error on appropriate level, an adaptive method with subdivision of boundary elements into subelements, described in the literature, was applied. An extension of the neighbour list of boundary element clusters, corresponding to near-field computations, was proposed in order to reduce the truncation error of expansions in problems with high stress concentration. Efficiency of the method is illustrated by numerical examples including a solid with single spherical cavity, solids with two interacting spherical cavities, and numerical homogenization of solids with cubic arrangement of spherical cavities. All results agree with analytical models available in the literature. The examples show that the method can be applied to the analysis of porous structures.
Parallel Anisotropic Tetrahedral Adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2008-01-01
An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2014-09-18
Working in teams of four, students build tetrahedral kites following specific instructions and using specific materials. They use the basic processes of manufacturing systems – cutting, shaping, forming, conditioning, assembling, joining, finishing, and quality control – to manufacture complete tetrahedral kites within a given time frame. Project evaluation takes into account team efficiency and the quality of the finished product.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Tufts University
2013-01-01
Working in teams of four, learners build tetrahedral kites following specific instructions and using specific materials. They use the basic processes of manufacturing systems--cutting, shaping, forming, conditioning, assembling, joining, finishing, and quality control--to manufacture complete tetrahedral kites within a given time frame. Investigating questions encourage learners to reflect about the engineering and manufacturing process. Activity contains recommended resources about the history of kites and their construction.
Tetrahedral Mesh Generation for Deformable Bodies Neil Molino
Stanford University
the mesh is barely deformed, can be quite different from those for simulating soft biological tissueTetrahedral Mesh Generation for Deformable Bodies Neil Molino Stanford University Robert Bridson bodies, we propose a new tetrahedral mesh generation algorithm that produces both high quality elements
ROTATION-VIBRATION TETRAHEDRAL
SadovskiÃ, DmitriÃ
ANALYSIS OF ROTATION-VIBRATION RELATIVE EQUILIBRIA ON THE EXAMPLE OF A TETRAHEDRAL FOUR ATOM (RE) of a nonrigid molecule which vibrates about a well de#12;ned equilibrium con#12;guration and rotates as a whole. Our analysis uni#12;es the theory of rotational and vibrational RE. We rely
Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
Eby, David A
2013-01-01
A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibb...
A Quadratic Linked Plate Element With an Exact Thin Plate Limit
Govindjee, Sanjay
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering University of California at Berkeley Berkeley, California thin plate limit. Thus the proposed element is useful for both thin and thick plates. Bubble modes Professor, e-mail: sanjay@ce.berkeley.edu 1 #12;2 REISSNER-MINDLIN PLATE THEORY 2 to fully cite here
Binary tetrahedral flavor symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eby, David A.
A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibbo angle, and a dark matter candidate that remains outside the limits of current tests. Additionally, we include mention of a number of unanswered questions and remaining areas of interest for future study. Taken together, we believe these results speak to the promising potential of finite groups and flavor symmetries to act as an approximation of nature.
Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
David A. Eby
2013-04-15
A study of the T' Model and its variants utilizing Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry. We begin with a description of the historical context and motivations for this theory, together with some conceptual background for added clarity, and an account of our theory's inception in previous works. Our model endeavors to bridge two categories of particles, leptons and quarks, a unification made possible by the inclusion of additional Higgs particles, shared between the two fermion sectors and creating a single coherent system. This is achieved through the use of the Binary Tetrahedral symmetry group and an investigation of the Tribimaximal symmetry evidenced by neutrinos. Our work details perturbations and extensions of this T' Model as we apply our framework to neutrino mixing, quark mixing, unification, and dark matter. Where possible, we evaluate model predictions against experimental results and find excellent matching with the atmospheric and reactor neutrino mixing angles, an accurate prediction of the Cabibbo angle, and a dark matter candidate that remains outside the limits of current tests. Additionally, we include mention of a number of unanswered questions and remaining areas of interest for future study. Taken together, we believe these results speak to the promising potential of finite groups and flavor symmetries to act as an approximation of nature.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matsuki, Koji; Nakatani, Katsuya; Arai, Takashi; Ohmura, Kazuo; Takeuchi, Ryuji; Arai, Yasushi; Takeuchi, Shinji
2008-10-01
SummaryBy modifying a previous method with constant elements, we developed a quadratic element method for more accurately estimating groundwater flow by the inversion of tilt data. In this method: (1) a region of groundwater flow is divided into quadratic elements in which the change in groundwater volume per unit volume of rock (? v) and the Skempton coefficient ( B) vary in a quadratic manner with the coordinates, (2) the values of ? v are set to zero at the boundaries of the region of groundwater flow and (3) the sum of the squared second derivatives of ? v is adopted as a constraining condition that is weighted and added to the sum of the squared errors in tilt. First, analyses were performed for a flow model to determine the accuracy of this method for estimating groundwater flow and also to clarify the effect of the assumed size of a region of groundwater flow. These analyses showed that the quadratic element method proposed in this study gives a much better estimation of ? v than the constant element method and that a large region of groundwater flow should be assumed, rather than a small region, since the values of ? v at points outside of the actual region of groundwater flow are estimated to be nearly zero when a large region is assumed while these values are greatly overestimated when an excessively small region is assumed. Finally, the quadratic element method was applied to the site of the Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory in the Tono area, Japan. Inverse analyses were performed for tilt data measured by four tiltmeters with a resolution of 10 -9 radians during the excavation of two shafts under the assumption that the rock mass is an isotropic and homogeneous half- space. The results showed that the method proposed in this study reproduced the tilt data very accurately. Thus, the distribution of ? v was estimated without sacrificing the reproducibility of the tilt data. The contour maps of B(1 + ?)? v ( ?: Poisson's ratio) showed that the heterogeneous flow of groundwater occurred at the site and that groundwater volume decreased mainly in the area surrounded by two faults. The latter result is consistent with the finding obtained by previous investigations that these faults have low permeability in the direction perpendicular to the strike and may act as a flow barrier.
Relativistic E x T Jahn-Teller effect in tetrahedral systems.
Poluyanov, Leonid V; Domcke, Wolfgang
2008-12-14
It is shown that (2)E states in tetrahedral systems exhibit a linear ExT Jahn-Teller effect which is of purely relativistic origin (that is, it arises from the spin-orbit-coupling operator). The electrostatic interactions give rise to a Jahn-Teller effect which is quadratic in the T displacements. The 4 x 4 Hamiltonian matrix in a diabatic spin-electron basis is derived by an expansion of the electrostatic electronic Hamiltonian and the Breit-Pauli spin-orbit operator in powers of the Jahn-Teller active normal mode and taking account of symmetry selection rules for the matrix elements. The adiabatic potential-energy functions of the (2)E x T system are doubly degenerate (Kramers degeneracy). For small displacements from the tetrahedral reference geometry, the adiabatic potential-energy surfaces represent a double cone in four-dimensional space, which is a novel topography of Jahn-Teller potential-energy surfaces. The topological phases of the adiabatic electronic wave functions are discussed. PMID:19071902
Parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement with MOAB.
Thompson, David C.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre
2008-12-01
In this report, we present the novel functionality of parallel tetrahedral mesh refinement which we have implemented in MOAB. This report details work done to implement parallel, edge-based, tetrahedral refinement into MOAB. The theoretical basis for this work is contained in [PT04, PT05, TP06] while information on design, performance, and operation specific to MOAB are contained herein. As MOAB is intended mainly for use in pre-processing and simulation (as opposed to the post-processing bent of previous papers), the primary use case is different: rather than refining elements with non-linear basis functions, the goal is to increase the number of degrees of freedom in some region in order to more accurately represent the solution to some system of equations that cannot be solved analytically. Also, MOAB has a unique mesh representation which impacts the algorithm. This introduction contains a brief review of streaming edge-based tetrahedral refinement. The remainder of the report is broken into three sections: design and implementation, performance, and conclusions. Appendix A contains instructions for end users (simulation authors) on how to employ the refiner.
Lattice Cleaving: A Multimaterial Tetrahedral Meshing Algorithm with Guarantees
Bronson, Jonathan; Levine, Joshua A.; Whitaker, Ross
2014-01-01
We introduce a new algorithm for generating tetrahedral meshes that conform to physical boundaries in volumetric domains consisting of multiple materials. The proposed method allows for an arbitrary number of materials, produces high-quality tetrahedral meshes with upper and lower bounds on dihedral angles, and guarantees geometric fidelity. Moreover, the method is combinatoric so its implementation enables rapid mesh construction. These meshes are structured in a way that also allows grading, to reduce element counts in regions of homogeneity. Additionally, we provide proofs showing that both element quality and geometric fidelity are bounded using this approach. PMID:24356365
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2013-06-21
The quadratic formula is easy to solve, yet sufficiently sophisticated that it provides insight into oscillations of masses connected by springs, as well as insight into chemical bonds between atoms. The purpose of this video is to illustrate what it means to find the "zeros" or "roots" of the quadratic equation, both using a graphical description, as well as by analytically completing the square to obtain the famous quadratic formula.
N. A. Carella
2015-04-02
The subset of quadratic primes {p = an^2 + bn + c : n => 1} generated by an irreducible polynomial f(x) = ax^2 + bx + c over the integers is widely believed to be an unbounded subset of prime numbers. This note provides the details of a possible proof for some of these quadratic polynomials. In particular, it is shown that the cardinality of the simplest subset of quadratic primes {p = n^2 + 1 : n => 1} is infinite.
Feature-Sensitive Tetrahedral Mesh Generation with Guaranteed Quality
Wang, Jun; Yu, Zeyun
2012-01-01
Tetrahedral meshes are being extensively used in finite element methods (FEM). This paper proposes an algorithm to generate feature-sensitive and high-quality tetrahedral meshes from an arbitrary surface mesh model. A top-down octree subdivision is conducted on the surface mesh and a set of tetrahedra are constructed using adaptive body-centered cubic (BCC) lattices. Special treatments are given to the tetrahedra near the surface such that the quality of the resulting tetrahedral mesh is provably guaranteed: the smallest dihedral angle is always greater than 5.71°. The meshes generated by our method are not only adaptive from the interior to the boundary, but also feature-sensitive on the surface with denser elements in high-curvature regions where geometric feature most likely reside. A variety of experimental results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of this algorithm. PMID:22328787
Single molecule spectroscopy of tetrahedral oligophenylenevinylene molecules
Single molecule spectroscopy of tetrahedral oligophenylenevinylene molecules Melissa A. Summers form 17 July 2002 Abstract We probe the fluorescence from single molecules of a new class of tetrahedral oligo(phenylenevinylene) (OPV) molecules. Our results show that the tetrahedral molecules contain
A tetrahedral entropy for water
Kumar, Pradeep; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Stanley, H. Eugene
2009-01-01
We introduce the space-dependent correlation function C Q(r) and time-dependent autocorrelation function C Q(t) of the local tetrahedral order parameter Q ? Q(r,t). By using computer simulations of 512 waterlike particles interacting through the transferable interaction potential with five points (TIP5 potential), we investigate C Q(r) in a broad region of the phase diagram. We find that at low temperatures C Q(t) exhibits a two-step time-dependent decay similar to the self-intermediate scattering function and that the corresponding correlation time ?Q displays a dynamic cross-over from non-Arrhenius behavior for T > T W to Arrhenius behavior for T < T W, where T W denotes the Widom temperature where the correlation length has a maximum as T is decreased along a constant-pressure path. We define a tetrahedral entropy S Q associated with the local tetrahedral order of water molecules and find that it produces a major contribution to the specific heat maximum at the Widom line. Finally, we show that ?Q can be extracted from S Q by using an analog of the Adam–Gibbs relation. PMID:20018692
Multiresolutional Parallel Isosurface Extraction based on Tetrahedral
Burstedde, Carsten
will especially focus on the recursive bisection [8] of originally hexahedral grids. Compared to an octree approach the tetrahedral strategy has several advantages: Adaptive octree strategies require some by tetrahedral bisection consists of typically three times more grid levels than a standard octree with the same
Building Tetrahedral Kites. Grades 6-8.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles
Working in teams of four, students build a tetrahedral kite following a specific set of directions and using specific provided materials. Students use basic processes of manufacturing systems-- cutting, shaping, forming, conditioning, assembling, joining, finishing, and quality control--to manufacture a complete tetrahedral kite within a given…
A generic and scalable pipeline for GPU tetrahedral grid rendering.
Georgii, Joachim; Westermann, Rüdiger
2006-01-01
Recent advances in algorithms and graphics hardware have opened the possibility to render tetrahedral grids at interactive rates on commodity PCs. This paper extends on this work in that it presents a direct volume rendering method for such grids which supports both current and upcoming graphics hardware architectures, large and deformable grids, as well as different rendering options. At the core of our method is the idea to perform the sampling of tetrahedral elements along the view rays entirely in local barycentric coordinates. Then, sampling requires minimum GPU memory and texture access operations, and it maps efficiently onto a feed-forward pipeline of multiple stages performing computation and geometry construction. We propose to spawn rendered elements from one single vertex. This makes the method amenable to upcoming Direct3D 10 graphics hardware which allows to create geometry on the GPU. By only modifying the algorithm slightly it can be used to render per-pixel iso-surfaces and to perform tetrahedral cell projection. As our method neither requires any pre-processing nor an intermediate grid representation it can efficiently deal with dynamic and large 3D meshes. PMID:17080871
Au40: A Large Tetrahedral Magic Cluster
Jiang, Deen; Walter, Michael
2011-01-01
40 is a magic number for tetrahedral symmetry predicted in both nuclear physics and the electronic jellium model. We show that Au{sub 40} could be such a magic cluster from density functional theory-based basin hopping for global minimization. The putative global minimum found for Au{sub 40} has a twisted pyramid structure, reminiscent of the famous tetrahedral Au{sub 20}, and a sizable HOMO-LUMO gap of 0.69 eV, indicating its molecular nature. Analysis of the electronic states reveals that the gap is related to shell closings of the metallic electrons in a tetrahedrally distorted effective potential.
Sequentially deployable maneuverable tetrahedral beam
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Crawford, R. F. (inventors)
1985-01-01
A tetrahedral beam that can be compactly stowed, sequentially deployed, and widely manipulated to provide a structurally sound yet highly maneuverable truss structure is comprised of a number of repeating units of tandem tetralhedral sharing common sides. Fixed length battens are jointed into equilateral triangles called batten frames. Apexes of adjacent triangles are interconnected by longerons having a mid-point folding hinge. Joints, comprised of gussets pivotabley connected by links, permit two independent degrees of rotational freedom between joined adjacent batten frames, and provide a stable structure from packaged configuration to complete deployment. The longerons and joints can be actuated in any sequence, independently of one another. The beam is suited to remote actuation. Longerons may be provided with powered mid-point hinges enabling beam erection and packaging under remote control. Providing one or more longerons with powered telescoping segments permits the shape of the beam central axis to be remotely manipulated so that the beam may function as a remote manipulator arm.
Stegmaier, Saskia; Waibel, Markus; Henze, Alexander; Jantke, Laura-Alice; Karttunen, Antti J; Fässler, Thomas F
2012-09-01
The number of Zintl phases containing polyhedral clusters of tetrel elements that are accessible for chemical reactions of the main-group element clusters is rather limited. The synthesis and structural characterization of two novel ternary intermetallic phases A(14)ZnGe(16) (A = K, Rb) are presented, and their chemical reactivity is investigated. The compounds can be rationalized as Zintl phases with 14 alkali metal cations A(+) (A = K, Rb), two tetrahedral [Ge(4)](4-) Zintl anions, and one anionic heterometallic [(Ge(4))Zn(Ge(4))](6-) cluster per formula unit. The Zn-Ge cluster comprises two (Ge(4)) tetrahedra which are linked by a Zn atom, with one (Ge(4)) tetrahedron coordinating with a triangular face (?(3)) and the other one with an edge (?(2)). [(?(3)-Ge(4))Zn(?(2)-Ge(4))](6-) is a new isomer of the [(Ge(4))Zn(Ge(4))](6-) anion in Cs(6)ZnGe(8). The phases dissolve in liquid ammonia and thus represent rare examples of soluble Zintl compounds with deltahedral units of group 14 element atoms. Compounds with tetrahedral [E(4)](4-) species have previously been isolated from solution for E = Si, Sn, and Pb, and the current investigation provides the "missing link" for E = Ge. Reaction of an ammonia solution of K(14)ZnGe(16) with MesCu (Mes = 2,4,6-(CH(3))(3)C(6)H(2)) in the presence of [18]-crown-6 (1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaoxacyclooctadecane) yielded crystals of the salt [K([18]-crown-6)](2)K(2)[(MesCu)(2)Ge(4)](NH(3))(7.5) with the polyanion [(MesCu)(2)Ge(4)](4-). This MesCu-stabilized tetrahedral [Ge(4)](4-) cluster also completes the series of [(MesCu)(2)Si(4-x)Ge(x)](4-) clusters, which have previously been isolated from solution for x = 0 and 0.7, as the end member with x = 4. The electronic structures of [(Ge(4))Zn(Ge(4))](6-) and [(MesCu)(2)Ge(4)](4-) were investigated in terms of a molecular orbital description and analyses of the electron localization functions. The results are compared with band structure calculations for the A(14)ZnGe(16) phases (A = K, Rb). PMID:22867109
Circuit analog of quadratic optomechanics
Eun-jong Kim; J. R. Johansson; Franco Nori
2014-12-22
We propose a superconducting electrical circuit that simulates a quadratic optomechanical system. A capacitor placed between two transmission-line (TL) resonators acts like a semi-transparent membrane, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) that terminates a TL resonator behaves like a movable mirror. Combining these circuit elements, it is possible to simulate a quadratic optomechanical coupling whose coupling strength is determined by the coupling capacitance and the tunable bias flux through the SQUIDs. Estimates using realistic parameters suggest that an improvement in the coupling strength could be realized, to five orders of magnitude from what has been observed in membrane-in-the-middle cavity optomechanical systems. This leads to the possibility of achieving the strong-coupling regime of quadratic optomechanics.
Circuit analog of quadratic optomechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Eun-jong; Johansson, J. R.; Nori, Franco
2015-03-01
We propose a superconducting electrical circuit that simulates a quadratic optomechanical system. A capacitor placed between two transmission-line (TL) resonators acts like a semitransparent membrane, and a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) that terminates a TL resonator behaves like a movable mirror. Combining these circuit elements, it is possible to simulate a quadratic optomechanical coupling whose coupling strength is determined by the coupling capacitance and the tunable bias flux through the SQUIDs. Estimates using realistic parameters suggest that an improvement in the coupling strength could be realized, to five orders of magnitude from what has been observed in membrane-in-the-middle cavity optomechanical systems. This leads to the possibility of achieving the strong-coupling regime of quadratic optomechanics.
Generalized Linear Quadratic Control
Gattami, Ather Said
We consider the problem of stochastic finite- and infinite-horizon linear quadratic control under power constraints. The calculations of the optimal control law can be done off-line as in the classical linear quadratic ...
Singular quadratic Lie superalgebras
Minh Thanh Duong; Rosane Ushirobira
2012-06-24
In this paper, we give a generalization of results in \\cite{PU07} and \\cite{DPU10} by applying the tools of graded Lie algebras to quadratic Lie superalgebras. In this way, we obtain a numerical invariant of quadratic Lie superalgebras and a classification of singular quadratic Lie superalgebras, i.e. those with a nonzero invariant. Finally, we study a class of quadratic Lie superalgebras obtained by the method of generalized double extensions.
Lattice Cleaving: Conforming Tetrahedral Meshes of Multimaterial Domains with Bounded Quality
Bronson, Jonathan R.; Levine, Joshua A.; Whitaker, Ross T.
2013-01-01
Summary We introduce a new algorithm for generating tetrahedral meshes that conform to physical boundaries in volumetric domains consisting of multiple materials. The proposed method allows for an arbitrary number of materials, produces high-quality tetrahedral meshes with upper and lower bounds on dihedral angles, and guarantees geometric fidelity. Moreover, the method is combinatoric so its implementation enables rapid mesh construction. These meshes are structured in a way that also allows grading, in order to reduce element counts in regions of homogeneity. PMID:25309969
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
Completing the square is applied to the general quadratic to derive the quadratic formula. Before an area application example is given there is a quick review of the four methods that have been presented for solving quadratic equations. Complex numbers are introduced before the discriminant is presented.
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Robert Lengacher
2012-07-05
This is an introductory lesson to graphing quadratic equations. This lesson uses graphing technology to illustrate the differences between quadratic equations and linear equations. In addition, it allows students to identify important parts of the quadratic equation and how each piece changes the look of the graph.
Electron phonon interaction in tetrahedral semiconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cardona, Manuel
2005-01-01
Considerable progress has been made in recent years in the field of ab initio calculations of electronic band structures of semiconductors and insulators. The one-electron states (and the concomitant two-particle excitations) have been obtained without adjustable parameters, with a high degree of reliability. Also, more recently, the electron-hole excitation frequencies responsible for optical spectra have been calculated. These calculations, however, are performed with the constituent atoms fixed in their crystallographic positions and thus neglect the effects of the lattice vibrations (i.e. electron-phonon interaction) which can be rather large, even larger than the error bars assumed for ab initio calculations. Effects of electron-phonon interactions on the band structure can be experimentally investigated in detail by measuring the temperature dependence of energy gaps or critical points (van Hove singularities) of the optical excitation spectra. These studies have been complemented in recent years by observing the dependence of such spectra on isotopic mass whenever different stable isotopes of a given atom are available at affordable prices. In crystals composed of different atoms, the effect of the vibration of each separate atom can thus be investigated by isotopic substitution. Because of the zero-point vibrations, such effects are present even at zero temperature ( T=0). In this paper, we discuss state-of-the-art calculations of the dielectric function spectra and compare them with experimental results, with emphasis on the differences introduced by the electron-phonon interaction. The temperature dependence of various optical parameters will be described by means of one or two (in a few cases three) Einstein oscillators, except at the lowest temperatures where the T4 law (contrary to the Varshni T2 result) will be shown to apply. Increasing an isotopic mass increases the energy gaps, except in the case of monovalent Cu (e.g. CuCl) and possibly Ag (e.g. AgGaS 2). It will be shown that the gaps of tetrahedral materials containing an element of the first row of the periodic table (C,N,O) are strongly affected by the electron-phonon interaction. It will be conjectured that this effect is related to the superconductivity recently observed in heavily boron-doped carbon.
Methods for prismatic/tetrahedral grid generation and adaptation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kallinderis, Y.
1995-01-01
The present work involves generation of hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is a method for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) type of aircraft geometry is considered. The generated hybrid grid required only 170 K tetrahedra instead of an estimated two million had a tetrahedral mesh been used in the prisms region as well. A solution adaptive scheme for viscous computations on hybrid grids is also presented. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples 3-D, isotropic division of tetrahedra and 2-D, directional division of prisms.
Tetrahedrally coordinated carbonates in Earth's lower mantle.
Boulard, Eglantine; Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia; Liu, Zhenxian; Mao, Wendy L
2015-01-01
Carbonates are the main species that bring carbon deep into our planet through subduction. They are an important rock-forming mineral group, fundamentally distinct from silicates in the Earth's crust in that carbon binds to three oxygen atoms, while silicon is bonded to four oxygens. Here we present experimental evidence that under the sufficiently high pressures and high temperatures existing in the lower mantle, ferromagnesian carbonates transform to a phase with tetrahedrally coordinated carbons. Above 80?GPa, in situ synchrotron infrared experiments show the unequivocal spectroscopic signature of the high-pressure phase of (Mg,Fe)CO3. Using ab-initio calculations, we assign the new infrared signature to C-O bands associated with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon with asymmetric C-O bonds. Tetrahedrally coordinated carbonates are expected to exhibit substantially different reactivity than low-pressure threefold coordinated carbonates, as well as different chemical properties in the liquid state. Hence, this may have significant implications for carbon reservoirs and fluxes, and the global geodynamic carbon cycle. PMID:25692448
Extreme Mobility: Next Generation Tetrahedral Rovers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, P. E.; Curtis, S. A.; Rilee, M. L.; Cheung, C. Y.; Wesenberg, R.; Brown, G.; Cooperrider, C.
2007-01-01
This paper describes the development and testing of a patented rover concept called Tetrahedral Explorer Technologies (TET), designed to provide extreme mobility and plug-and-play utility through reconfigurable addressable architecture. Here, we present the results of preliminary lab and field tests of Prototype III. Reconfigurable architecture is essential in exploration because reaching features of the great potential interest will require crossing a wide range of terrains largely inaccessible to permanently appendaged vehicles. One surface might be relatively flat and navigable, while another could be rough, variably sloping, broken, or dominated by unconsolidated debris. To be totally functional, structures must form pseudo-appendages varying in size, rate, and manner of deployment (gait) and moving at a speed approaching that of a human in rugged terrain. TET architecture is based on the tetrahedron, the basic space-filling shape, as building block. Tetrahedra are interconnected, their apices acting as nodes from which struts reversibly deploy. The tetrahedral framework acts as a simple skeletal muscular structure. Two simple robotic walker prototypes have already been developed from a single reconfigurable tetrahedron capable of tumbling. This paper presents the results of our attempts to simulate motions, improve the hardware, and develop gaits for a more evolved 12Tetrahedral Walker (Prototype 3) which high degrees of freedom locomotion commandable through a user friendly interface. Our rover is an early level mission concept, realized as an electromechanical system at present, which would allow autonomous in situ exploration of lunar sites when we return to the Moon. Such a rover could carry into inaccessible terrain an in situ analysis payload designed to provide not only details of composition of traversed terrain, but the identification of sites with resources useful for permanent bases, including water and high Ti glass.
Small Power Technology for Tetrahedral Rovers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, P. E.; Floyd, S. R.; Butler, C. D.; Flom, Y.
2006-01-01
The Small Power Technology (SPOT) being studied at GSFC has the potential to be an efficient and compact radioisotope based electrical power system. Such a system would provide power for innovative tetrahedral robotic arms and walkers to support the lunar exploration initiative within the next decade. Presently, NASA has designated two flight qualified Radioisotope Power Supplies (RPS): the Multi-Mission RTG (MMRTG) which uses thermocouple technology and the more efficient but more massive Stirling RTG (SRTG) which uses a mechanical heat (Stirling) engine technology. With SPOT, thermal output from a radioisotope source is converted to electrical power using a combination of shape memory material and piezoelectric crystals. The SPOT combined energy conversion technologies are potentially more efficient than thermocouples and do not require moving parts, thus keeping efficiency high with an excellent mass to power ratio. Applications of particular interest are highly modular, addressable, reconfigurable arrays of tetrahedral structural components designed to be arms or rovers with high mobility in rough terrain. Such prototypes are currently being built at GSFC. Missions requiring long-lived operation in unilluminated environments preclude the use of solar cells as the main power source and must rely on the use of RPS technology. The design concept calls for a small motor and battery assembly for each strut, and thus a distributed power system. We estimate, based on performance of our current tetrahedral prototypes and power scaling for small motors, that such devices require tens of watts of power output per kilogram of power supply. For these reasons, SPOT is a good candidate for the ART (addressable Reconfigurable Technology) baseline power system.
Dark Matter from Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eby, David; Frampton, Paul
2012-03-01
Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry, originally developed as a quark family symmetry and later adapted to leptons, has proved both resilient and versatile over the past decade. In 2008 a minimal T' model was developed to accommodate quark and lepton masses and mixings using a family symmetry of (T'xZ2). We examine an expansion of this earlier model using an additional Z2 group that facilitates predictions of WIMP dark matter, the Cabibbo angle, and deviations from Tribimaximal Mixing, while giving hints at the nature of leptogenesis.
Quadratic Forms, Geodesics and
Wirosoetisno, Djoko
Forms Hyperbolic surfaces Closed Geodesics Spectral Theory Propaganda Outline Quadratic Forms Hyperbolic surfaces Closed Geodesics Spectral Theory Propaganda #12;Indefinite Quadratic Forms, Closed Geodesics Propaganda Pell's Equation Algorithm for solving x2 - 2y2 = ±1 (Pythagoreans) Start with x1 = 1, y1 = 1 We
Quadratic eigenvalue problems.
Walsh, Timothy Francis; Day, David Minot
2007-04-01
In this report we will describe some nonlinear eigenvalue problems that arise in the areas of solid mechanics, acoustics, and coupled structural acoustics. We will focus mostly on quadratic eigenvalue problems, which are a special case of nonlinear eigenvalue problems. Algorithms for solving the quadratic eigenvalue problem will be presented, along with some example calculations.
Packing of Tetrahedral and other Dice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaikin, Paul; Wang, Stacy; Jaoshvili, Alexander
2007-03-01
The densest packing of tetrahedra remains an unsolved problem. Recently J. H. Conway, and S. Torquato^1, presented the densest packing yet found for tetrahedral, a structure which is a modification of packing tetrahedra in an approximation to an icosahedron and then packing the icoshedra. The best packing was under 0.72, considerably less than the (exact) densest sphere packing of 0.7405 We have measured the random packing of tetrahedral dice in different sized spherical and cylindrical containers, and extrapolated the results to obtain the packing fraction in the limit of no boundaries. We have also measured their density toward the center of a spherical container away from the walls. Both measurements are similar to previous studies of ellipsoids. We find that the dice pack to better than 0.75. But the dice have very slightly rounded vertices and edges. While the total volume change due to the rounding is less than 0.03 (and in the direction to make a larger difference between crystal and random packing), it is difficult to approximate the effect of the rounding. We discuss the relative packings and the nature of the inter-di contacts. 1. J. H. Conway, and S. Torquato, PNAS, 103, 10612-10617, (2006)
A bicontinuous tetrahedral structure in a liquid-crystalline lipid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Longley, William; McIntosh, Thomas J.
1983-06-01
The structure of most lipid-water phases can be visualized as an ordered distribution of two liquid media, water and hydrocarbons, separated by a continuous surface covered by the polar groups of the lipid molecules1. In the cubic phases in particular, rod-like elements are linked into three-dimensional networks1,2. Two of these phases (space groups Ia3d and Pn3m) contain two such three-dimensional networks mutually inter-woven and unconnected. Under the constraints of energy minimization3, the interface between the components in certain of these `porous fluids' may well resemble one of the periodic minimal surface structures of the type described mathematically by Schwarz4,5. A structure of this sort has been proposed for the viscous isotropic (cubic) form of glycerol monooleate (GMO) by Larsson et al.6 who suggested that the X-ray diagrams of Lindblom et al.7 indicated a body-centred crystal structure in which lipid bilayers might be arranged as in Schwarz's octahedral surface4. We have now found that at high water contents, a primitive cubic lattice better fits the X-ray evidence with the material in the crystal arranged in a tetrahedral way. The lipid appears to form a single bilayer, continuous in three dimensions, separating two continuous interlinked networks of water. Each of the water networks has the symmetry of the diamond crystal structure and the bilayer lies in the space between them following a surface resembling Schwarz's tetrahedral surface4.
Interactive Point-Based Rendering of Higher-Order Tetrahedral Data
Yuan Zhou; Michael Garland
2006-01-01
AbstractóComputational simulations frequently generate solutions defined over very large tetrahedral volume meshes containing many millions of elements. Furthermore, such solutions may often be expressed using non-linear basis functions. Certain solution techniques, such as discontinuous Galerkin methods, may even produce non-conforming meshes. Such data is difficult to visualize interactively, as it is far too large to fit in memory and many
ADAPTIVE TETRAHEDRAL GRID REFINEMENT AND COARSENING IN MESSAGE-PASSING ENVIRONMENTS
Hallberg, J.; Stagg, A.
2000-10-01
A grid refinement and coarsening scheme has been developed for tetrahedral and triangular grid-based calculations in message-passing environments. The element adaption scheme is based on an edge bisection of elements marked for refinement by an appropriate error indicator. Hash-table/linked-list data structures are used to store nodal and element formation. The grid along inter-processor boundaries is refined and coarsened consistently with the update of these data structures via MPI calls. The parallel adaption scheme has been applied to the solution of a transient, three-dimensional, nonlinear, groundwater flow problem. Timings indicate efficiency of the grid refinement process relative to the flow solver calculations.
Updates to Multi-Dimensional Flux Reconstruction for Hypersonic Simulations on Tetrahedral Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2010-01-01
The quality of simulated hypersonic stagnation region heating with tetrahedral meshes is investigated by using an updated three-dimensional, upwind reconstruction algorithm for the inviscid flux vector. An earlier implementation of this algorithm provided improved symmetry characteristics on tetrahedral grids compared to conventional reconstruction methods. The original formulation however displayed quantitative differences in heating and shear that were as large as 25% compared to a benchmark, structured-grid solution. The primary cause of this discrepancy is found to be an inherent inconsistency in the formulation of the flux limiter. The inconsistency is removed by employing a Green-Gauss formulation of primitive gradients at nodes to replace the previous Gram-Schmidt algorithm. Current results are now in good agreement with benchmark solutions for two challenge problems: (1) hypersonic flow over a three-dimensional cylindrical section with special attention to the uniformity of the solution in the spanwise direction and (2) hypersonic flow over a three-dimensional sphere. The tetrahedral cells used in the simulation are derived from a structured grid where cell faces are bisected across the diagonal resulting in a consistent pattern of diagonals running in a biased direction across the otherwise symmetric domain. This grid is known to accentuate problems in both shock capturing and stagnation region heating encountered with conventional, quasi-one-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithms. Therefore the test problems provide a sensitive indicator for algorithmic effects on heating. Additional simulations on a sharp, double cone and the shuttle orbiter are then presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the new algorithm on more geometrically complex flows with tetrahedral grids. These results provide the first indication that pure tetrahedral elements utilizing the updated, three-dimensional, upwind reconstruction algorithm may be used for the simulation of heating and shear in hypersonic flows in upwind, finite volume formulations.
The Rise and Fall of Anomalies in Tetrahedral Liquids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hujo, Waldemar; Shadrack Jabes, B.; Rana, Varun K.; Chakravarty, Charusita; Molinero, Valeria
2011-10-01
The thermodynamic liquid-state anomalies and associated structural changes of the Stillinger-Weber family of liquids are mapped out as a function of the degree of tetrahedrality of the interaction potential, focusing in particular on tetrahedrality values suitable for modeling C, H2O, Si, Ge and Sn. We show that the density anomaly, associated with a rise in molar volume on isobaric cooling, emerges at intermediate tetrahedralities (e.g. Ge, Si and H2O) but is absent in the low (e.g. Sn) and high (e.g. C) tetrahedrality liquids. The rise in entropy on isothermal compression associated with the density anomaly is related to the structural changes in the liquid using the pair correlation entropy. An anomalous increase in the heat capacity on isobaric cooling exists at high tetrahedralities but is absent at low tetrahedralities (e.g. Sn). Structurally, this heat capacity anomaly originates in a sharp rise in the fraction of four-coordinated particles and local tetrahedral order in the liquid as its structure approaches that of the tetrahedral crystal.
Topological Volume Skeletonization Using Adaptive Tetrahedralization Shigeo Takahashi
Takahashi, Shigeo
Topological Volume Skeletonization Using Adaptive Tetrahedralization Shigeo Takahashi Graduate@is.ocha.ac.jp Abstract Topological volume skeletons represent level-set graphs of 3D scalar fields, and have recently to the global skeleton of the volume. The tetrahedralization also allows us to avoid un- necessary tracking
Ellis, John; Fairbairn, Malcolm; Sueiro, Maria, E-mail: john.ellis@cern.ch, E-mail: malcolm.fairbairn@kcl.ac.uk, E-mail: maria.sueiro@kcl.ac.uk [Theoretical Particle Physics and Cosmology Group, Department of Physics, King's College London, Strand, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)
2014-02-01
Inflationary models based on a single scalar field ? with a quadratic potential V = ½m{sup 2}?{sup 2} are disfavoured by the recent Planck constraints on the scalar index, n{sub s}, and the tensor-to-scalar ratio for cosmological density perturbations, r{sub T}. In this paper we study how such a quadratic inflationary model can be rescued by postulating additional fields with quadratic potentials, such as might occur in sneutrino models, which might serve as either curvatons or supplementary inflatons. Introducing a second scalar field reduces but does not remove the pressure on quadratic inflation, but we find a sample of three-field models that are highly compatible with the Planck data on n{sub s} and r{sub T}. We exhibit a specific three-sneutrino example that is also compatible with the data on neutrino mass difference and mixing angles.
Quadrats en progressi Xavier Xarles
Xarles, Xavier
Quadrats en progressiÂ´o aritm`etica Â p. #12;Problema Quants quadrats (enters) hi ha en progressiÃ³ aritmÃ¨tica? Quadrats en progressiÂ´o aritm`etica Â p. #12;Problema Quants quadrats (enters) hi ha en progressiÃ³ aritmÃ¨tica? Exemple: 1, 25, 49. Quadrats en progressiÂ´o aritm`etica Â p. #12;Problema Quants
Preliminary design of a large tetrahedral truss/hexagonal heatshield panel aerobrake
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorsey, John T.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.
1989-01-01
An aerobrake structural concept is introduced which consists of two primary components: (1) a lightweight erectable tetrahedral support truss; and (2) sandwich hexagonal heatshield panels which, when attached to the truss, form a continuous impermeable aerobraking surface. Generic finite element models and a general analysis procedure to design tetrahedral truss/hexagonal heatshield panel aerobrakes is developed, and values of the aerobrake design parameters which minimize mass and packaging volume for a 120-foot-diameter aerobrake are determined. Sensitivity of the aerobrake design to variations in design parameters is also assessed. The results show that a 120-foot-diameter aerobrake is viable using the concept presented (i.e., the aerobrake mass is less than or equal to 15 percent of the payload spacecraft mass). Minimizing the aerobrake mass (by increasing the number of rings in the support truss) however, leads to aerobrakes with the highest part count.
Adaptive hybrid prismatic-tetrahedral grids for viscous flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kallinderis, Yannis; Khawaja, Aly; Mcmorris, Harlan
1995-01-01
The paper presents generation of adaptive hybrid prismatic/tetrahedral grids for complex 3-D geometries including multi-body domains. The prisms cover the region close to each body's surface, while tetrahedra are created elsewhere. Two developments are presented for hybrid grid generation around complex 3-D geometries. The first is a new octree/advancing front type of method for generation of the tetrahedra of the hybrid mesh. The main feature of the present advancing front tetrahedra generator that is different from previous such methods is that it does not require the creation of a background mesh by the user for the determination of the grid-spacing and stretching parameters. These are determined via an automatically generated octree. The second development is an Automatic Receding Method (ARM) for treating the narrow gaps in between different bodies in a multiply-connected domain. This method is applied to a two-element wing case. A hybrid grid adaptation scheme that employs both h-refinement and redistribution strategies is developed to provide optimum meshes for viscous flow computations. Grid refinement is a dual adaptation scheme that couples division of tetrahedra, as well as 2-D directional division of prisms.
Analytical and Photogrammetric Characterization of a Planar Tetrahedral Truss
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, K. Chauncey; Adams, Richard R.; Rhodes, Marvin D.
1990-01-01
Future space science missions are likely to require near-optical quality reflectors which are supported by a stiff truss structure. This support truss should conform closely with its intended shape to minimize its contribution to the overall surface error of the reflector. The current investigation was conducted to evaluate the planar surface accuracy of a regular tetrahedral truss structure by comparing the results of predicted and measured node locations. The truss is a 2-ring hexagonal structure composed of 102 equal-length truss members. Each truss member is nominally 2 meters in length between node centers and is comprised of a graphite/epoxy tube with aluminum nodes and joints. The axial stiffness and the length variation of the truss components were determined experimentally and incorporated into a static finite element analysis of the truss. From this analysis, the root mean square (RMS) surface error of the truss was predicted to be 0.11 mm (0004 in). Photogrammetry tests were performed on the assembled truss to measure the normal displacements of the upper surface nodes and to determine if the truss would maintain its intended shape when subjected to repeated assembly. Considering the variation in the truss component lengths, the measures rms error of 0.14 mm (0.006 in) in the assembled truss is relatively small. The test results also indicate that a repeatable truss surface is achievable. Several potential sources of error were identified and discussed.
MMS Spacecraft Transition to Tetrahedral Flying Formation - Duration: 49 seconds.
In the latter half of July 2015, the four satellites of the Magnetosphere Multi-scale (MMS) mission move into their tetrahedral formation flying configuration as part of the checkout for the scienc...
Light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality.
Green, Lisa; Li, Yannian; White, Timothy; Urbas, Augustine; Bunning, Timothy; Li, Quan
2009-10-01
Two light-driven molecular switches with tetrahedral and axial chirality were synthesized, which can induce a helical superstructure in an achiral liquid crystal host and dynamically phototune it to achieve reversible reflection color. PMID:19763294
Experimental and computational analysis of random tetrahedral packings with applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaoshvili, Alexander
Random packings are prevalent in chemical engineering applications and they can serve as prototype models of particulate materials. In this research, comprehensive studies on tetrahedral packings were carried out experimentally. Experiment was conducted on regular tetrahedral dice. MRI imaging was used to image the tetrahedral packs, an algorithm was developed which allowed us to retrieve each of the particle center positions as well as the 3D orientation from the digital data. To our best knowledge this is the first time that such an in-depth analysis was performed on non spherical objects. This numerical approach makes it possible to study detailed packing structure, packing density, the onset of ordering, and wall effects. Important applications for tetrahedral packings include multiphase flow in catalytic beds, heat transfer, bulk storage and transportation, and manufacturing of fibrous composites.
The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
March, Robert H.
1993-01-01
Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)
Enriching low-order finite elements by interpolation covers
Kim, Jae Hyung, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2013-01-01
This dissertation presents an enriched finite element procedure based on the use of interpolation cover functions for low-order finite elements, namely, the 3-node triangular and 4- node tetrahedral elements. The standard ...
Gesture Recognition Using Quadratic Curves
Qiulei Dong; Yihong Wu; Zhanyi Hu
2006-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for human gesture recog- nition based on quadratic curves. Firstly, face and hands in the images are extracted by skin color and their central points are kept tracked by a modifled Greedy Exchange algorithm. Then in each trajectory, the cen- tral points are fltted into a quadratic curve and 6 invariants from this quadratic
Quadratic Effects in Conversion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Andrew; Tracy, Eugene; Kaufman, Allan
2007-11-01
Phase space ray-tracing techniques can be used to solve wave problems exhibiting mode conversion [1,2]. The (x,k)-dependence of the dispersion matrix, D, is linearized near the conversion, and the matrix is then converted back to an operator. The resulting coupled equations can be solved for the local fields. Matching these local solutions onto uncoupled WKB far-field solutions gives scattering coefficients which can be used to treat the mode conversion as a ray-splitting process. In this work, we study the effects of quadratic terms in D near a mode conversion. We show that for one spatial dimension, D can be put into normal form, where the diagonals contain quadratic corrections, and the off-diagonals are the constant coupling. The quadratic terms introduce phase corrections to the far-field coupled WKB solutions, while the local solutions have both amplitude and phase corrections. These corrections allow for better matching at the conversion, which we illustrate by comparing the asymptotic solution with a numerical solution for the 1-D conversion. 1] A. Jaun, E. Tracy and A. Kaufman, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49, 43-67 (2007). 2] E. Tracy, A. Kaufman and A. Jaun, to appear, Phys. Plasmas (2007).
THE GENERATION OF TETRAHEDRAL MESH MODELS FOR NEUROANATOMICAL MRI
Lederman, Carl; Joshi, Anand; Dinov, Ivo; Vese, Luminita; Toga, Arthur; Van Horn, John Darrell
2010-01-01
In this article, we describe a detailed method for automatically generating tetrahedral meshes from 3D images having multiple region labels. An adaptively sized tetrahedral mesh modeling approach is described that is capable of producing meshes conforming precisely to the voxelized regions in the image. Efficient tetrahedral construction is performed minimizing an energy function containing three terms: a smoothing term to remove the voxelization, a fidelity term to maintain continuity with the image data, and a novel elasticity term to prevent the tetrahedra from becoming flattened or inverted as the mesh deforms while allowing the voxelization to be removed entirely. The meshing algorithm is applied to structural MR image data that has been automatically segmented into 56 neuroanatomical sub-divisions as well as on two other examples. The resulting tetrahedral representation has several desirable properties such as tetrahedra with dihedral angles away from 0 and 180 degrees, smoothness, and a high resolution. Tetrahedral modeling via the approach described here has applications in modeling brain structure in normal as well as diseased brain in human and non-human data and facilitates examination of 3D object deformations resulting from neurological illness (e.g. Alzheimer’s Disease), development, and/or aging. PMID:21073968
Lesson 17: Quadratic Inequalities
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2011-01-01
The lesson begins with using graphs to solve quadratic inequalities. AN equation modeling the height of a rocket is graphed along with a second equation that represents the minimum height at which the rocket can legally and safely be exploded. The intersections of the graphs provide the solution interval. A second method is then presented where the inequality is put into standard form and then solved for its x-intercepts. Interval notation and union of sets is reviewed before a purely algebraic procedure for solving the inequalities is presented. The lesson concludes with an application problem.
A comparison of tetrahedral mesh improvement techniques
Freitag, L.A.; Ollivier-Gooch, C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.
1996-12-01
Automatic mesh generation and adaptive refinement methods for complex three-dimensional domains have proven to be very successful tools for the efficient solution of complex applications problems. These methods can, however, produce poorly shaped elements that cause the numerical solution to be less accurate and more difficult to compute. Fortunately, the shape of the elements can be improved through several mechanisms, including face-swapping techniques that change local connectivity and optimization-based mesh smoothing methods that adjust grid point location. The authors consider several criteria for each of these two methods and compare the quality of several meshes obtained by using different combinations of swapping and smoothing. Computational experiments show that swapping is critical to the improvement of general mesh quality and that optimization-based smoothing is highly effective in eliminating very small and very large angles. The highest quality meshes are obtained by using a combination of swapping and smoothing techniques.
Kuprat, A.; George, D.
1998-12-01
When modeling deformation of geometrically complex regions, unstructured tetrahedral meshes provide the flexibility necessary to track interfaces as they change geometrically and topologically. In the class of time-dependent simulations considered in this paper, multimaterial interfaces are represented by sets of triangular facets, and motion of the interfaces is controlled by physical considerations. The motion of interior points in the conforming tetrahedral mesh (i.e., points not on interfaces) is arbitrary and may be chosen to produce good element shapes. In the context of specified boundary motion driven by physical considerations, they have found that a rather large glossary of mesh changes is required to allow the simulation to survive all the transitions of interface geometry and topology that occur during time evolution. This paper will describe mesh changes required to maintain good element quality as the geometry evolves, as well as mesh changes required to capture changes i n topology that occur when material regions collapse or pinch off. This paper will present a detailed description of mesh changes necessary for capturing the aforementioned geometrical and topological changes, as implemented in the code GRAIN3D, and will provide examples from a metallic grain growth simulation in which the normal velocity of the grain boundary is proportional to mean curvature.
Use of quadratic components for buckling calculations
Dohrmann, C.R.; Segalman, D.J.
1996-12-31
A buckling calculation procedure based on the method of quadratic components is presented. Recently developed for simulating the motion of rotating flexible structures, the method of quadratic components is shown to be applicable to buckling problems with either conservative or nonconservative loads. For conservative loads, stability follows from the positive definiteness of the system`s stiffness matrix. For nonconservative loads, stability is determined by solving a nonsymmetric eigenvalue problem, which depends on both the stiffness and mass distribution of the system. Buckling calculations presented for a cantilevered beam are shown to compare favorably with classical results. Although the example problem is fairly simple and well-understood, the procedure can be used in conjunction with a general-purpose finite element code for buckling calculations of more complex systems.
Liquid simulation on lattice-based tetrahedral meshes
Nuttapong Chentanez; Bryan E. Feldman; François Labelle; James F. O'brien; Jonathan Richard Shewchuk
2007-01-01
We describe a method for animating incompressible liquids with detailed free surfaces. For each time step, semi- Lagrangian contouring computes a new fluid boundary (represented as a fine surface triangulation) from the previous time step's fluid boundary and velocity field. Then a mesh generation algorithm called isosurface stuffing discretizes the region enclosed by the new fluid boundary, creating a tetrahedral
Analysis of Quark Mixing Using Binary Tetrahedral Flavor Symmetry
David A. Eby; Paul H. Frampton; Shinya Matsuzaki
2009-07-20
Using the binary tetrahedral group $T^{'}$, the three angles and phase of the quark CKM mixing matrix are pursued by symmetry-breaking which involves $T^{'}$-doublet VEVs and the Chen-Mahanthappa CP-violation mechanism. The NMRT$^{'}$M, Next-to-Minimal-Renormalizable -T$^{'}$-Model is described, and its one parameter comparison to experimental data is explored.
ADAPTIVE PHYSICS BASED TETRAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION USING LEVEL SETS
Robert Bridson; Joseph Teran; Neil Molino; Ronald Fedkiw
2004-01-01
We present a tetrahedral mesh generation algorithm designed for the Lagrangian simulation of deformable bodies. The algorithm's input is a level set (i.e., a signed distance function on a Cartesian grid or octree). First a bounding box of the object is covered with a uniform lattice of subdivision-invariant tetrahedra. The level set is then used to guide a red green
Sequence planning for robotic assembly of tetrahedral truss structures
Luiz S. Homem-de-Mello
1995-01-01
An artificial intelligence approach to planning the robotic assembly of large tetrahedral truss structures is presented. Based on the computational formalism known as production system, the approach exploits the simplicity and uniformity of the shapes of the parts and the regularity of their interconnection to drastically reduce the required geometric reasoning computation. The global database consists of a hexagonal grid
"Crystal-clear" liquidliquid transition in a tetrahedral fluid
Sciortino, Francesco
directional. 1. Introduction Molecules or particles with a dominant tetrahedral bonding geometry systems. In nature, water and silicon are examples of substances in which empty liquid states originate of LL phase transition in a pure substance was rst proposed for water,2 and later-on extended
Assembly of tetrahedral gold nanoclusters from binary colloidal mixtures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schade, Nicholas B.; ``Peter''sun, Dazhi; Holmes-Cerfon, Miranda C.; Chen, Elizabeth R.; Gehrels, Emily W.; Fan, Jonathan A.; Gang, Oleg; Manoharan, Vinothan N.
2013-03-01
We experimentally investigate the structures that form when colloidal gold nanospheres cluster around smaller spheres. We use nanoparticles coated with complementary DNA sequences to assemble the clusters, and we observe them under electron microscopy. Previous experiments using polystyrene microspheres indicate that a 90% yield of tetrahedral clusters is possible near a critical diameter ratio; random sphere parking serves as a useful model for understanding this phenomenon. Here we examine how this approach can be scaled down by an order of magnitude in size, using gold building blocks. We study how this method can be used to assemble tetrahedral plasmonic resonators in order to create a bulk, isotropic, optical metamaterial. We experimentally investigate the structures that form when colloidal gold nanospheres cluster around smaller spheres. We use nanoparticles coated with complementary DNA sequences to assemble the clusters, and we observe them under electron microscopy. Previous experiments using polystyrene microspheres indicate that a 90% yield of tetrahedral clusters is possible near a critical diameter ratio; random sphere parking serves as a useful model for understanding this phenomenon. Here we examine how this approach can be scaled down by an order of magnitude in size, using gold building blocks. We study how this method can be used to assemble tetrahedral plasmonic resonators in order to create a bulk, isotropic, optical metamaterial. We acknowledge support from the DOE Office of Science Graduate Fellowship program.
Growing Soft Robots with a Tetrahedral Face-Encoding Grammar
Rieffel, John
Growing Soft Robots with a Tetrahedral Face-Encoding Grammar John Rieffel and Schuler Smith Union College Abstract In this work we describe how the morphology of mo- bile soft robots can be evolved using an entire lineage of soft robot mor- phologies. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110
HIGH QUALITY ANISOTROPIC TETRAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION VIA ELLIPSOIDAL BUBBLE PACKING
Shimada, Kenji
the behavior of soap bubbles in nature. If we pack soap bubbles in a volumetric domain, the bubblesHIGH QUALITY ANISOTROPIC TETRAHEDRAL MESH GENERATION VIA ELLIPSOIDAL BUBBLE PACKING Soji Yamakawa1 through a physically based particle simulation, which we call 'bubble packing.' Ellipsoidal bubbles
Mixed-integer quadratic programming
Rafael Lazimy
1982-01-01
This paper considers mixed-integer quadratic programs in which the objective function is quadratic in the integer and in the continuous variables, and the constraints are linear in the variables of both types. The generalized Benders' decomposition is a suitable approach for solving such programs. However, the program does not become more tractable if this method is used, since Benders' cuts
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mikulas, M. M., Jr.; Bush, H. G.; Card, M. F.
1977-01-01
Physical characteristics of large skeletal frameworks for space applications are investigated by analyzing one concept: the tetrahedral truss, which is idealized as a sandwich plate with isotropic faces. Appropriate analytical relations are presented in terms of the truss column element properties which for calculations were taken as slender graphite/epoxy tubes. Column loads, resulting from gravity gradient control and orbital transfer, are found to be small for the class structure investigated. Fundamental frequencies of large truss structures are shown to be an order of magnitude lower than large earth based structures. Permissible loads are shown to result in small lateral deflections of the truss due to low-strain at Euler buckling of the slender graphite/epoxy truss column elements. Lateral thermal deflections are found to be a fraction of the truss depth using graphite/epoxy columns.
Gumhold, Stefan
Tetrahedral Mesh Compression with the Cut-Border Machine Stefan Gumhold£, Stefan Guthe, Wolfgang in the area of volume visualization on irregular grids, which is mainly based on tetrahedral meshes. Even moderately fine tetrahedral meshes consume several mega-bytes of storage. For archivation and trans- mission
Computing quadratic entropy in evolutionary trees
Klavzar, Sandi
Computing quadratic entropy in evolutionary trees Drago Bokal # Faculty of Natural Sicences trees, the maximum of quadratic entropy is a measure of pairwise evolutionary distinctness. Keywords: evolutionary tree, phylogenetic tree, quadratic entropy, originality, distinctÂ ness, Wiener
Interactive point-based rendering of higher-order tetrahedral data.
Zhou, Yuan; Garland, Michael
2006-01-01
Computational simulations frequently generate solutions defined over very large tetrahedral volume meshes containing many millions of elements. Furthermore, such solutions may often be expressed using non-linear basis functions. Certain solution techniques, such as discontinuous Galerkin methods, may even produce non-conforming meshes. Such data is difficult to visualize interactively, as it is far too large to fit in memory and many common data reduction techniques, such as mesh simplification, cannot be applied to non-conforming meshes. We introduce a point-based visualization system for interactive rendering of large, potentially non-conforming, tetrahedral meshes. We propose methods for adaptively sampling points from non-linear solution data and for decimating points at run time to fit GPU memory limits. Because these are streaming processes, memory consumption is independent of the input size. We also present an order-independent point rendering method that can efficiently render volumes on the order of 20 million tetrahedra at interactive rates. PMID:17080856
Coarse-grained theory of a realistic tetrahedral liquid model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Procaccia, I.; Regev, I.
2012-02-01
Tetrahedral liquids such as water and silica-melt show unusual thermodynamic behavior such as a density maximum and an increase in specific heat when cooled to low temperatures. Previous work had shown that Monte Carlo and mean-field solutions of a lattice model can exhibit these anomalous properties with or without a phase transition, depending on the values of the different terms in the Hamiltonian. Here we use a somewhat different approach, where we start from a very popular empirical model of tetrahedral liquids —the Stillinger-Weber model— and construct a coarse-grained theory which directly quantifies the local structure of the liquid as a function of volume and temperature. We compare the theory to molecular-dynamics simulations and show that the theory can rationalize the simulation results and the anomalous behavior.
Mesh quality control for multiply-refined tetrahedral grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Biswas, Rupak; Strawn, Roger
1994-01-01
A new algorithm for controlling the quality of multiply-refined tetrahedral meshes is presented in this paper. The basic dynamic mesh adaption procedure allows localized grid refinement and coarsening to efficiently capture aerodynamic flow features in computational fluid dynamics problems; however, repeated application of the procedure may significantly deteriorate the quality of the mesh. Results presented show the effectiveness of this mesh quality algorithm and its potential in the area of helicopter aerodynamics and acoustics.
Infrared absorption features for tetrahedral ammonia ice crystals
R. A. West; G. S. Orton; B. T. Draine; E. A. Hubbell
1989-01-01
An effort has been made to ascertain how particle shape and composition affect the strength and shape of resonant absorption features at 9.4 and 26 microns. A shifting of the peak of the resonance relative to that for spherical particles is noted in the computational results obtained for the extinction cross-sections of 0.5- and 1-micron, volume-equivalent radius tetrahedral NH3 ice
Search for Fingerprints of Tetrahedral Symmetry in $^{156}Gd$
Q. T. Doan; D. Curien; O. Stezowski; J. Dudek; K. Mazurek; A. Gozdz; J. Piot; G. Duchene; B. Gall; H. Molique; M. Richet; P. Medina; D. Guinet; N. Redon; C. Schmitt; P. Jones; R. Julin; P. Peura; S. Ketelhut; M. Nyman; U. Jakobsson; A. Maj; K. Zuber; P. Bednarczyk; N. Schunck; J. Dobaczewski; A. Astier; I. Deloncle; D. Verney; G. De Angelis; J. Gerl
2008-12-01
Theoretical predictions suggest the presence of tetrahedral symmetry as an explanation for the vanishing intra-band E2-transitions at the bottom of the odd-spin negative parity band in $^{156}Gd$. The present study reports on experiment performed to address this phenomenon. It allowed to determine the intra-band E2 transitions and branching ratios B(E2)/B(E1) of two of the negative-parity bands in $^{156}Gd$.
Tetrahedrally coordinated carbonates in Earth’s lower mantle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boulard, Eglantine; Pan, Ding; Galli, Giulia; Liu, Zhenxian; Mao, Wendy L.
2015-02-01
Carbonates are the main species that bring carbon deep into our planet through subduction. They are an important rock-forming mineral group, fundamentally distinct from silicates in the Earth’s crust in that carbon binds to three oxygen atoms, while silicon is bonded to four oxygens. Here we present experimental evidence that under the sufficiently high pressures and high temperatures existing in the lower mantle, ferromagnesian carbonates transform to a phase with tetrahedrally coordinated carbons. Above 80?GPa, in situ synchrotron infrared experiments show the unequivocal spectroscopic signature of the high-pressure phase of (Mg,Fe)CO3. Using ab-initio calculations, we assign the new infrared signature to C–O bands associated with tetrahedrally coordinated carbon with asymmetric C–O bonds. Tetrahedrally coordinated carbonates are expected to exhibit substantially different reactivity than low-pressure threefold coordinated carbonates, as well as different chemical properties in the liquid state. Hence, this may have significant implications for carbon reservoirs and fluxes, and the global geodynamic carbon cycle.
Ohbuchi, Ryutarou
181 As stated above, our algorithm morphs 3D source meshes by interpolating them with a 4D tetrahedral mesh.1 To simplify the task of creating the interpolator 4D tetrahedral mesh, our algo- rithm starts from a set of simplified source meshes to create a coarse tetrahedral mesh. The tetrahedral mesh
An assessment of the adaptive unstructured tetrahedral grid, Euler Flow Solver Code FELISA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Djomehri, M. Jahed; Erickson, Larry L.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional solution-adaptive Euler flow solver for unstructured tetrahedral meshes is assessed, and the accuracy and efficiency of the method for predicting sonic boom pressure signatures about simple generic models are demonstrated. Comparison of computational and wind tunnel data and enhancement of numerical solutions by means of grid adaptivity are discussed. The mesh generation is based on the advancing front technique. The FELISA code consists of two solvers, the Taylor-Galerkin and the Runge-Kutta-Galerkin schemes, both of which are spacially discretized by the usual Galerkin weighted residual finite-element methods but with different explicit time-marching schemes to steady state. The solution-adaptive grid procedure is based on either remeshing or mesh refinement techniques. An alternative geometry adaptive procedure is also incorporated.
Linear state feedback, quadratic weights, and closed loop eigenstructures. M.S. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, P. M.
1979-01-01
Results are given on the relationships between closed loop eigenstructures, state feedback gain matrices of the linear state feedback problem, and quadratic weights of the linear quadratic regulator. Equations are derived for the angles of general multivariable root loci and linear quadratic optimal root loci, including angles of departure and approach. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used for the first time to compute angles of approach. Equations are also derived to find the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalues and the directional derivatives of closed loop eigenvectors (with respect to a scalar multiplying the feedback gain matrix or the quadratic control weight). An equivalence class of quadratic weights that produce the same asymptotic eigenstructure is defined, sufficient conditions to be in it are given, a canonical element is defined, and an algorithm to find it is given. The behavior of the optimal root locus in the nonasymptotic region is shown to be different for quadratic weights with the same asymptotic properties.
Infrared absorption features for tetrahedral ammonia ice crystals
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
West, Robert A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Draine, Bruce T.; Hubbell, Earl A.
1989-01-01
An effort has been made to ascertain how particle shape and composition affect the strength and shape of resonant absorption features at 9.4 and 26 microns. A shifting of the peak of the resonance relative to that for spherical particles is noted in the computational results obtained for the extinction cross-sections of 0.5- and 1-micron, volume-equivalent radius tetrahedral NH3 ice crystals that either possessed or lacked foreign cores. It it judged unlikely that small, (less than 5-micron) NH3 particles could be the principal component of the haze in the 300-500 mbar region of Jupiter.
Platelet adhesion on phosphorus-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Aiping; Zhu, Jiaqi; Liu, Meng; Dai, Zhifei; Han, Xiao; Han, Jiecai
2008-11-01
The haemocompatibility of phosphorus-incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films, synthesized by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source, was assessed by in vitro platelet adhesion tests. Results based on scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements reveal that phosphorus incorporation improves the wettability and blood compatibility of ta-C film. Our studies may provide a novel approach for the design and synthesis of doped ta-C films to repel platelet adhesion and reduce thrombosis risk.
Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boutchko, R.; Sitek, A.; Gullberg, G. T.
2013-05-01
This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio projection datasets. The results demonstrate that the reconstructed images represented as tetrahedral meshes based on point clouds offer image quality comparable to that achievable using a standard voxel grid while allowing substantial reduction in the number of unknown intensities to be reconstructed and reducing the noise.
Practical implementation of tetrahedral mesh reconstruction in emission tomography.
Boutchko, R; Sitek, A; Gullberg, G T
2013-05-01
This paper presents a practical implementation of image reconstruction on tetrahedral meshes optimized for emission computed tomography with parallel beam geometry. Tetrahedral mesh built on a point cloud is a convenient image representation method, intrinsically three-dimensional and with a multi-level resolution property. Image intensities are defined at the mesh nodes and linearly interpolated inside each tetrahedron. For the given mesh geometry, the intensities can be computed directly from tomographic projections using iterative reconstruction algorithms with a system matrix calculated using an exact analytical formula. The mesh geometry is optimized for a specific patient using a two stage process. First, a noisy image is reconstructed on a finely-spaced uniform cloud. Then, the geometry of the representation is adaptively transformed through boundary-preserving node motion and elimination. Nodes are removed in constant intensity regions, merged along the boundaries, and moved in the direction of the mean local intensity gradient in order to provide higher node density in the boundary regions. Attenuation correction and detector geometric response are included in the system matrix. Once the mesh geometry is optimized, it is used to generate the final system matrix for ML-EM reconstruction of node intensities and for visualization of the reconstructed images. In dynamic PET or SPECT imaging, the system matrix generation procedure is performed using a quasi-static sinogram, generated by summing projection data from multiple time frames. This system matrix is then used to reconstruct the individual time frame projections. Performance of the new method is evaluated by reconstructing simulated projections of the NCAT phantom and the method is then applied to dynamic SPECT phantom and patient studies and to a dynamic microPET rat study. Tetrahedral mesh-based images are compared to the standard voxel-based reconstruction for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio projection datasets. The results demonstrate that the reconstructed images represented as tetrahedral meshes based on point clouds offer image quality comparable to that achievable using a standard voxel grid while allowing substantial reduction in the number of unknown intensities to be reconstructed and reducing the noise. PMID:23588373
Tetrahedral chalcopyrite quantum dots for solar-cell applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ojajärvi, Juho; Räsänen, Esa; Sadewasser, Sascha; Lehmann, Sebastian; Wagner, Philipp; Ch. Lux-Steiner, Martha
2011-09-01
Chalcopyrite structures are candidates for efficient intermediate-band solar cells in thin-film technology. Here, we examine a material combination of CuInSe2 dots embedded in CuGaS2 matrix and show that epitaxial growth leads to distinctive tetrahedral nanostructures. Our model calculations provide us with the optimal nanodot size to reach the maximum efficiency—in principle up to 61%. The optimal quantum dot satisfies the known physical constraints, and it is in excellent qualitative agreement with our grown samples.
Novel biomedical tetrahedral mesh methods: algorithms and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Xiao; Jin, Yanfeng; Chen, Weitao; Huang, Pengfei; Gu, Lixu
2007-12-01
Tetrahedral mesh generation algorithm, as a prerequisite of many soft tissue simulation methods, becomes very important in the virtual surgery programs because of the real-time requirement. Aiming to speed up the computation in the simulation, we propose a revised Delaunay algorithm which makes a good balance of quality of tetrahedra, boundary preservation and time complexity, with many improved methods. Another mesh algorithm named Space-Disassembling is also presented in this paper, and a comparison of Space-Disassembling, traditional Delaunay algorithm and the revised Delaunay algorithm is processed based on clinical soft-tissue simulation projects, including craniofacial plastic surgery and breast reconstruction plastic surgery.
Search for Fingerprints of Tetrahedral Symmetry in ^{156}Gd
Doan, Q. T. [Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Curien, D. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Stezowski, O. [Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Dudek, J. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Mazurek, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Krakow, Poland; Gozdz, A. [Maria Curie-Sklodowskiej, Lublin, Poland; Piot, J. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Duchene, G. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Gall, B. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Molique, H. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Richet, M. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Medina, P. [CNRS, Strasbourg, France; Guinet, D. [Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Redon, N. [Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Schmitt, Ch. [Universite Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France; Jones, P. [University of Jyvaskyla; Peura, P. [University of Jyvaskyla; Ketelhut, S. [University of Jyvaskyla; Nyman, M. [University of Jyvaskyla; Jakobsson, U. [University of Jyvaskyla; Greenlees, P. T. [University of Jyvaskyla; Julin, R. [University of Jyvaskyla; Juutinen, S. [University of Jyvaskyla; Rahkila, P. [University of Jyvaskyla; Maj, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Krakow, Poland; Zuber, K. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Krakow, Poland; Bednarczyk, P. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP), Krakow, Poland; Schunck, Nicolas F [ORNL; Dobaczewski, J. [Warsaw University; Astier, A. [CNRS, Orsay, France; Deloncle, I. [CNRS, Orsay, France; Verney, D. [CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay, France; De Angelis, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Italy; Gerl, J. [Gesellschaft fur Schwerionenforschung (GSI), Germany
2009-01-01
Theoretical predictions suggest the presence of tetrahedral symmetry as an explanation for the vanishing intra-band E2 transitions at the bottom of the odd-spin negative-parity band in ^{156}Gd. The present study reports on experiment performed to address this phenomenon. It allowed to remove certain ambiguities related to the intra-band E2 transitions in the negative-parity bands to determine the new inter-band transitions and reduced probability ratios B(E2)/B(E1) and, for the first time, to determine the experimental uncertainties related to the latter observable.
Spiegel, Martin; Redel, Thomas; Zhang, Y Jonathan; Struffert, Tobias; Hornegger, Joachim; Grossman, Robert G; Doerfler, Arnd; Karmonik, Christof
2011-01-01
Haemodynamic factors, in particular wall shear stresses (WSSs) may have significant impact on growth and rupture of cerebral aneurysms. Without a means to measure WSS reliably in vivo, computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations are frequently employed to visualise and quantify blood flow from patient-specific computational models. With increasing interest in integrating these CFD simulations into pretreatment planning, a better understanding of the validity of the calculations in respect to computation parameters such as volume element type, mesh size and mesh composition is needed. In this study, CFD results for the two most common aneurysm types (saccular and terminal) are compared for polyhedral- vs. tetrahedral-based meshes and discussed regarding future clinical applications. For this purpose, a set of models were constructed for each aneurysm with spatially varying surface and volume mesh configurations (mesh size range: 5119-258, 481 volume elements). WSS distribution on the model wall and point-based velocity measurements were compared for each configuration model. Our results indicate a benefit of polyhedral meshes in respect to convergence speed and more homogeneous WSS patterns. Computational variations of WSS values and blood velocities are between 0.84 and 6.3% from the most simple mesh (tetrahedral elements only) and the most advanced mesh design investigated (polyhedral mesh with boundary layer). PMID:21161794
Student Award Competition Finite Element EEG and MEG Simulations for Realistic Head Models
Zhukov, Leonid
quadratic elements. When quadratic elements are used, the electric potential on the cerebral cortex is much-component model for conductivity, differentiating between air, skin, skull, cerebral spinal fluid, gray
Encapsulation of Halocarbons in a Tetrahedral Anion Cage.
Yang, Dong; Zhao, Jie; Zhao, Yanxia; Lei, Yibo; Cao, Liping; Yang, Xiao-Juan; Davi, Martin; Amadeu, Nader de Sousa; Janiak, Christoph; Zhang, Zhibin; Wang, Yao-Yu; Wu, Biao
2015-07-20
Caged supramolecular systems are promising hosts for guest inclusion, separation, and stabilization. Well-studied examples are mainly metal-coordination-based or covalent architectures. An anion-coordination-based cage that is capable of encapsulating halocarbon guests is reported for the first time. This A4L4-type (A=anion) tetrahedral cage, [(PO4)4L4](12-), assembled from a C3-symmetric tris(bisurea) ligand (L) and phosphate ion (PO4(3-)), readily accommodates a series of quasi-tetrahedral halocarbons, such as the Freon components CFCl3, CF2Cl2, CHFCl2, and C(CH3)F3, and chlorocarbons CH2Cl2, CHCl3, CCl4, C(CH3)Cl3, C(CH3)2Cl2, and C(CH3)3Cl. The guest encapsulation in the solid state is confirmed by crystal structures, while the host-guest interactions in solution were demonstrated by NMR techniques. PMID:26053734
Solving Quadratic Equations by Factoring
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-08-06
This video explains how to solve quadratic equations with the factoring method. In 4 minutes 23 seconds, the two narrators explain in detail the steps required. Additionally, how these equations relate to objects and events in the real world such as roller coasters is covered.
Quadratic eigenproblems are no problem
Gerard Sleijpen; Henk Van Der Vorst; Martin van Gijzen
1996-01-01
High-dimensional eigenproblems often arise in the solution of scientific problems involving stability or wave modeling. In this article we present results for a quadratic eigenproblem that we encountered in solving an acoustics problem, specifically in modeling the propagation of waves in a room in which one wall was constructed of sound-absorbing material. Efficient algorithms are known for the standard linear
Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ak?n, Hasan; Mukhamedov, Farrukh
2015-09-01
In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce ?-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is ?-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all ?-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.
Shape Transformation and Surface Melting of Cubic and Tetrahedral Platinum Nanocrystals
Wang, Zhong L.
LETTERS Shape Transformation and Surface Melting of Cubic and Tetrahedral Platinum Nanocrystals is much lower than the melting point of bulk metallic platinum (1769 °C). The reduction in the melting Platinum nanocrystals with a high percentage of cubic-, tetrahedral-, or octahedral-like shapes have been
Developing and Benchmarking MH4D, a Tetrahedral Mesh A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of
Developing and Benchmarking MH4D, a Tetrahedral Mesh MHD Code Eric Meier A thesis submitted _________________________________ #12;#12;University of Washington Abstract Developing and Benchmarking MH4D, a Tetrahedral Mesh MHD models for Emerging Concept plasma confinement experiments. The Center adopted MH4D, a finite volume
Why Is the Tetrahedral Bond Angle 109 Degrees? The Tetrahedron-in-a-Cube
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lim, Kieran F.
2012-01-01
The common question of why the tetrahedral angle is 109.471 degrees can be answered using a tetrahedron-in-a-cube, along with some Year 10 level mathematics. The tetrahedron-in-a-cube can also be used to demonstrate the non-polarity of tetrahedral molecules, the relationship between different types of lattice structures, and to demonstrate that…
3D Harmonic Mapping and Tetrahedral Meshing of Brain Imaging Data
Thompson, Paul
3D Harmonic Mapping and Tetrahedral Meshing of Brain Imaging Data Yalin Wang1 , Xianfeng Gu2 , Paul preserving its surface topology. In this paper, we apply these two techniques to brain mapping problems. We use a tetrahedral finite el- ement mesh (FEM) to reconstruct the brain volume from a sequence
Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films A. A. Balandin,1,a
Thermal conductivity of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon films A. A. Balandin,1,a M. Shamsa,1 tetrahedral amorphous carbon ta-C films on silicon, down to subnanometer thickness. For films with an initial of con- ventional Si complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor technology, stimulate the search for new
Aggressive Tetrahedral Mesh Improvement Bryan Matthew Klingner and Jonathan Richard Shewchuk
O'Brien, James F.
Aggressive Tetrahedral Mesh Improvement Bryan Matthew Klingner and Jonathan Richard Shewchuk University of California at Berkeley Summary. We present a tetrahedral mesh improvement schedule that usually cre- ates meshes whose worst tetrahedra have a level of quality substantially better than those
Hamann, Bernd
Real-time View-dependent Extraction of Isosurfaces from Adaptively Refined Octrees and Tetrahedral implement and compare two spatial subdivision data structures: an octree and a recursively defined, and visual quality. Keywords: view-dependent, isosurface, multiresolution, tetrahedral mesh, octree
Intraframework migration of tetrahedral atoms in a zeolite.
Shin, Jiho; Ahn, Nak Ho; Camblor, Miguel A; Cho, Sung June; Hong, Suk Bong
2014-08-18
The transformation from a disordered into an ordered version of the zeolite natrolite occurs on prolonged heating of this material in the crystallizing medium, but not if the mother liquor is replaced by water or an alkaline solution. This process occurs for both aluminosilicate and gallosilicate analogues of natrolite. In cross experiments, the disordered Al-containing (or Ga-containing) analogue is heated while in contact with the mother liquor of the opposite analogue, that is, the Ga-containing (or Al-containing) liquor. Therefore, strong evidence for the mechanism of the ordering process was obtained, which was thus proposed to proceed by intraframework migration of tetrahedral atoms without diffusion along the pores. Migration is first triggered, then fuelled by surface rearrangement through reactions with the mother liquor, and stops when an almost fully ordered state is attained. Classical dissolution-recrystallization and Ostwald ripening processes do not appear to be relevant for this phase transformation. PMID:24931398
Optimization of Time-Dependent Particle Tracing Using Tetrahedral Decomposition
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kenwright, David; Lane, David
1995-01-01
An efficient algorithm is presented for computing particle paths, streak lines and time lines in time-dependent flows with moving curvilinear grids. The integration, velocity interpolation and step-size control are all performed in physical space which avoids the need to transform the velocity field into computational space. This leads to higher accuracy because there are no Jacobian matrix approximations or expensive matrix inversions. Integration accuracy is maintained using an adaptive step-size control scheme which is regulated by the path line curvature. The problem of cell-searching, point location and interpolation in physical space is simplified by decomposing hexahedral cells into tetrahedral cells. This enables the point location to be done analytically and substantially faster than with a Newton-Raphson iterative method. Results presented show this algorithm is up to six times faster than particle tracers which operate on hexahedral cells yet produces almost identical particle trajectories.
Nuclear Tetrahedral Symmetry: Possibly Present Throughout the Periodic Table
J. Dudek; A. Gozdz; N. Schunck; M. Miskiewicz
2002-05-21
More than half a century after the fundamental, spherical shell structure in nuclei has been established, theoretical predictions indicate that the shell-gaps comparable or even stronger than those at spherical shapes may exist. Group-theoretical analysis supported by realistic mean-field calculations indicate that the corresponding nuclei are characterized by the $T_d^D$ ('double-tetrahedral') group of symmetry, exact or approximate. The corresponding strong shell-gap structure is markedly enhanced by the existence of the 4-dimensional irreducible representations of the group in question and consequently it can be seen as a geometrical effect that does not depend on a particular realization of the mean-field. Possibilities of discovering the corresponding symmetry in experiment are discussed.
Experiments on the Random Packing of Tetrahedral Dice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaoshvili, Alexander; Esakia, Andria; Porrati, Massimo; Chaikin, Paul M.
2010-05-01
Tetrahedra may be the ultimate frustrating, disordered glass forming units. Our experiments on tetrahedral dice indicate the densest (volume fraction ?=0.76±.02, compared with ?sphere=0.64), most disordered, experimental, random packing of any set of congruent convex objects to date. Analysis of MRI scans yield translational and orientational correlation functions which decay as soon as particles do not touch, much more rapidly than the ˜6 diameters for sphere correlations to decay. Although there are only 6.3±.5 touching neighbors on average, face-face and edge-face contacts provide enough additional constraints, 12±1.6 total, to roughly bring the structure to the isostatic limit for frictionless particles. Randomly jammed tetrahedra form a dense rigid highly uncorrelated material.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzia, Annamaria; Putti, Mario
2005-09-01
Two-dimensional Godunov mixed methods have been shown to be effective for the numerical solution of density-dependent flow and transport problems in groundwater even when concentration gradients are high and the process is dominated by density effects. This class of discretization approaches solves the flow equation by means of the mixed finite element method, thus guaranteeing mass conserving velocity fields, and discretizes the transport equation by mixed finite element and finite volumes techniques combined together via appropriate time splitting. In this paper, we extend this approach to three dimensions employing tetrahedral meshes and introduce a spatially variable time stepping procedure that improves computational efficiency while preserving accuracy by adapting the time step size according to the local Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL) constraint. Careful attention is devoted to the choice of a truly three-dimensional limiter for the advection equation in the time-splitting technique, so that to preserve second order accuracy in space (in the sense that linear functions are exactly interpolated). The three-dimensional Elder problem and the saltpool problem, recently introduced as a new benchmark for testing three-dimensional density models, provide assessments with respect to accuracy and reliability of this numerical approach.
Shan, Xiao; Connor, J N L
2012-11-26
A previous paper by Shan and Connor (Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 8392) reported the surprising result that four simple parametrized S matrices can reproduce the forward-angle glory scattering of the H + D(2)(v(i)=0,j(i)=0) ? HD(v(f)=3,j(f)=0) + D reaction, whose differential cross section (DCS) had been computed in a state-of-the-art scattering calculation for a state-of-the-art potential energy surface. Here, v and j are vibrational and rotational quantum numbers, respectively, and the translational energy is 1.81 eV. This paper asks the question: Can we replace the analytic functions (of class C(?)) used by Shan-Connor with simpler mathematical functions and still reproduce the forward-angle glory scattering? We first construct S matrix elements (of class C(0)) using a quadratic phase and a piecewise-continuous pre-exponential factor consisting of three pieces. Two of the pieces are constants, with one taking the value N (a real normalization constant) at small values of the total angular momentum number, J; the other piece has the value 0 at large J. These two pieces are joined at intermediate values of J by either a straight line, giving rise to the linear parametrization (denoted param L), or a quadratic curve, which defines the quadratic parametrization (param Q). We find that both param L and param Q can reproduce the glory scattering for center-of-mass reactive scattering angles, ?(R) ? 30°. Second, we use a piecewise-discontinuous pre-exponential factor and a quadratic phase, giving rise to a step-function parametrization (param SF) and a top-hat parametrization (param TH). We find that both param SF and param TH can reproduce the forward-angle scattering, even though these class C(-1) parametrizations are usually considered too simplistic to be useful for calculations of DCSs. We find that an ultrasimplistic param THz, which is param TH with a phase of zero, can also reproduce the glory scattering at forward angles. The S matrix elements for param THz are real and consist of five nonzero equal values, given by S(J) = 0.02266, for the window, J = 21(1)25. Param THz is sufficiently simple that we can derive closed forms for the partial wave scattering amplitude, f(?(R)), and the near-side (N) and far-side (F) subamplitudes. We show that window representations of f(?(R)) provide important insights into the range of J values that contribute to the reaction dynamics. Other theoretical techniques used are NF theory for the analysis of DCSs and full and NF local angular momentum theory, in both cases including up to three resummations of f(?(R)) before making the NF decomposition. Finally, we investigate the accuracy of various semiclassical glory theories for the DCS of param L. By varying one phase parameter for param L, we show that the uniform semiclassical approximation is accurate from ?(R) = 0° to close to ?(R) = 180°. Our approach is an example of a "weak" form of Heisenberg's S matrix program, which does not use a potential energy surface(s); rather it focuses on the properties of the S matrix. Our method is easy to apply to DCSs from experimental measurements or from computer simulations. PMID:22876759
Polyamorphism in tetrahedral substances: Similarities between silicon and ice.
Garcez, K M S; Antonelli, A
2015-07-21
Tetrahedral substances, such as silicon, water, germanium, and silica, share various unusual phase behaviors. Among them, the so-called polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of more than one amorphous form, has been intensively investigated in the last three decades. In this work, we study the metastable relations between amorphous states of silicon in a wide range of pressures, using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that the two amorphous forms of silicon at high pressures, the high density amorphous (HDA) and the very high density amorphous (VHDA), can be decompressed from high pressure (?20 GPa) down to the tensile regime, where both convert into the same low density amorphous. Such behavior is also observed in ice. While at high pressure (?20 GPa), HDA is less stable than VHDA, at the pressure of 10 GPa both forms exhibit similar stability. On the other hand, at much lower pressure (?5 GPa), HDA and VHDA are no longer the most stable forms, and, upon isobaric annealing, an even less dense form of amorphous silicon emerges, the expanded high density amorphous, again in close similarity to what occurs in ice. PMID:26203030
Polyamorphism in tetrahedral substances: Similarities between silicon and ice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garcez, K. M. S.; Antonelli, A.
2015-07-01
Tetrahedral substances, such as silicon, water, germanium, and silica, share various unusual phase behaviors. Among them, the so-called polyamorphism, i.e., the existence of more than one amorphous form, has been intensively investigated in the last three decades. In this work, we study the metastable relations between amorphous states of silicon in a wide range of pressures, using Monte Carlo simulations. Our results indicate that the two amorphous forms of silicon at high pressures, the high density amorphous (HDA) and the very high density amorphous (VHDA), can be decompressed from high pressure (˜20 GPa) down to the tensile regime, where both convert into the same low density amorphous. Such behavior is also observed in ice. While at high pressure (˜20 GPa), HDA is less stable than VHDA, at the pressure of 10 GPa both forms exhibit similar stability. On the other hand, at much lower pressure (˜5 GPa), HDA and VHDA are no longer the most stable forms, and, upon isobaric annealing, an even less dense form of amorphous silicon emerges, the expanded high density amorphous, again in close similarity to what occurs in ice.
A point-centered arbitrary lagrangian eulerian hydrodynamic approach for tetrahedral meshes
Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.
2015-06-01
We present a three dimensional (3D) arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedral meshes. The new approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the nodes of the mesh and solves the conservation equations on a control volume surrounding the point. This type of an approach is termed a point-centered hydrodynamic (PCH) method. The conservation equations are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. All fluxes in the new approach are calculated at the center of each tetrahedron. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is solved atmore »the center of the tetrahedron. The advective fluxes are calculated by solving a 1D Riemann problem on each face of the nodal control volume. A 2-stage Runge–Kutta method is used to evolve the solution forward in time, where the advective fluxes are part of the temporal integration. The mesh velocity is smoothed by solving a Laplacian equation. The details of the new ALE hydrodynamic scheme are discussed. Results from a range of numerical test problems are presented.« less
FINITE ELEMENT MESHING FOR CARDIAC ANALYSIS Yongjie Zhang
Zhang, Yongjie "Jessica"
FINITE ELEMENT MESHING FOR CARDIAC ANALYSIS Yongjie Zhang Chandrajit Bajaj Institute final tetrahedral mesh is being utilized in the analysis of cardiac fluid dynamics via finite element- cular surgery. Finite element analysis is an important method used for the simulation. Therefore
Structure of the hydrogen bonds and silica defects in the tetrahedral double chain of xonotlite
Sergey V. Churakov; Peter Mandaliev
2008-01-01
We use a combined experimental\\/theoretical approach to investigate the structure and stability of the silicate tetrahedral double chain in xonotlite. The M2a2bc polytype of xonotlite was found to be dominant in the synthetic samples. This polytype was used to predict the relative stability of silica defects in the tetrahedral double chain of xonotlite. The defects in Q3 sites were found
Four limit cycles from perturbing quadratic integrable systems by quadratic polynomials
Yu, Pei
2010-01-01
In this paper, we give a positive answer to the open question: Can there exist 4 limit cycles in quadratic near-integrable polynomial systems? It is shown that when a quadratic integrable system has two centers and is perturbed by quadratic polynomials, it can generate at least 4 limit cycles with (3,1) distribution. The method of Melnikov function is used.
Tetrahedrality and structural order for hydrophobic interactions in a coarse-grained water model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chaimovich, Aviel; Shell, M. Scott
2014-02-01
The hydrophobic interaction manifests two separate regimes in terms of size: Small nonpolar bodies exhibit a weak oscillatory force (versus distance) while large nonpolar surfaces exhibit a strong monotonic one. This crossover in hydrophobic behavior is typically explained in terms of water's tetrahedral structure: Its tetrahedrality is enhanced near small solutes and diminished near large planar ones. Here, we demonstrate that water's tetrahedral correlations signal this switch even in a highly simplified, isotropic, "core-softened" water model. For this task, we introduce measures of tetrahedrality based on the angular distribution of water's nearest neighbors. On a quantitative basis, the coarse-grained model of course is only approximate: (1) While greater than simple Lennard-Jones liquids, its bulk tetrahedrality remains lower than that of fully atomic models; and (2) the decay length of the large-scale hydrophobic interaction is less than has been found in experiments. Even so, the qualitative behavior of the model is surprisingly rich and exhibits numerous waterlike hydrophobic behaviors, despite its simplicity. We offer several arguments for the manner in which it should be able to (at least partially) reproduce tetrahedral correlations underlying these effects.
Magnetoelectronic properties of Gd-implanted tetrahedral amorphous carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zeng, Li; Zutz, H.; Hellman, F.; Helgren, E.; Ager, J. W., III; Ronning, C.
2011-10-01
The structural, electronic, magnetic, and magnetoelectronic properties of tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) thin films doped with gadolinium via ion implantation (ta-C1-x:Gdx, x = 0.02 ˜ 0.20) have been studied, both as prepared and after annealing, with Xe-implanted samples as control samples. Gd implantation causes significant increases in electrical conductivity, showing that Gd adds carriers as in other rare earth-semiconductor systems. Gd also provides a large local moment from its half-filled f shell. Carrier-mediated Gd-Gd interactions are strong but very frustrated, causing a spin-glass state < 10 K for higher x. An enormous negative magnetoresistance (about -103 at 3 K in a 70-kOe field for x = 0.088) is observed at low T (<30 K), an indication of carrier-moment interactions that cause magnetic disorder-induced localization and consequent magnetic field-induced delocalization as Gd moments align with the magnetic field. Gd implantation causes substantial changes in Raman intensity, associated with conversion of C-C bonds into Raman inactive bonds, which induce further graphitization after annealing. The changing nature of the C-C bonding with increasing x or with annealing causes the electrical transport properties to depend on Gd concentration x with a nonmonotonic dependence. Systematic but nonmonotonic trends are seen on comparing the magnetic and magnetotransport properties of Gd-doped a-C, a-Si, and a-Ge matrices, suggesting that electron concentration and band gap play separate important roles.
Agmon, Noam
Tetrahedral Displacement: The Molecular Mechanism behind the Debye Relaxation in Water Noam Agmon in water. "Tetrahedral displacement" correlates with two tetrahedral normal modes: the antisymmetric mechanism behind the Debye relaxation time in water is a "tetrahedral displace- ment", namely, a translation
Single-photon quadratic optomechanics
Jie-Qiao Liao; Franco Nori
2014-09-10
We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon.
Single-photon quadratic optomechanics
Liao, Jie-Qiao; Nori, Franco
2014-01-01
We present exact analytical solutions to study the coherent interaction between a single photon and the mechanical motion of a membrane in quadratic optomechanics. We consider single-photon emission and scattering when the photon is initially inside the cavity and in the fields outside the cavity, respectively. Using our solutions, we calculate the single-photon emission and scattering spectra, and find relations between the spectral features and the system's inherent parameters, such as: the optomechanical coupling strength, the mechanical frequency, and the cavity-field decay rate. In particular, we clarify the conditions for the phonon sidebands to be visible. We also study the photon-phonon entanglement for the long-time emission and scattering states. The linear entropy is employed to characterize this entanglement by treating it as a bipartite one between a single mode of phonons and a single photon. PMID:25200128
On ideal structure in quadratic DDS in R{sup 2}
Kutnjak, Milan
2008-11-13
We consider the dynamics in a special case of two-dimensional quadratic homogeneous discrete dynamical systems. It is well known (c.f. [1, 2]) that homogeneous quadratic maps are in one to one correspondence with two-dimensional commutative (nonassociative) algebras. Algebraic concepts (such as the structure of algebra and existence of special elements like idempotents and nilpotents) help us to study the dynamics of the corresponding discrete homogeneous quadratic maps. It is well-known that such systems can exhibit chaotic behavior [3], In this article we consider the influence of the existence of an algebra ideal on the dynamics of the corresponding discrete homogeneous quadratic system. We also present some examples in the plane.
An Unexpected Influence on a Quadratic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Davis, Jon D.
2013-01-01
Using technology to explore the coefficients of a quadratic equation can lead to an unexpected result. This article describes an investigation that involves sliders and dynamically linked representations. It guides students to notice the effect that the parameter "a" has on the graphical representation of a quadratic function in the form…
Computing quadratic entropy in evolutionary trees
Klavzar, Sandi
Computing quadratic entropy in evolutionary trees Drago Bokal Faculty of Natural Sicences a significant improvement over the currently used quadratic programming approaches. Keywords: evolutionary tree]. If they are given a direction by identifying a root, we can speak about evolutionary trees. Their structure models
MacLeod, Rob S.
, and limited animal research.3 Our current research models the effects defibrillating electrical fields of Electrocardiology xx (2008) xxxxxx www.jecgonline.com Corresponding author. Tel.: +1 617 355 6432; fax: +1 617
Quadratic mutual information for dimensionality reduction and classification
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gray, David M.; Principe, José C.
2010-04-01
A research area based on the application of information theory to machine learning has attracted considerable interest in the last few years. This research area has been coined information-theoretic learning within the community. In this paper we apply elements of information-theoretic learning to the problem of automatic target recognition (ATR). A number of researchers have previously shown the benefits of designing classifiers based on maximizing the mutual information between the class data and the class labels. Following prior research in information-theoretic learning, in the current results we show that quadratic mutual information, derived using a special case of the more general Renyi's entropy, can be used for classifier design. In this implementation, a simple subspace projection classifier is formulated to find the optimal projection weights such that the quadratic mutual information between the class data and the class labels is maximized. This subspace projection accomplishes a dimensionality reduction of the raw data set wherein information about the class membership is retained while irrelevant information is discarded. A subspace projection based on this criterion preserves as much class discriminability as possible within the subspace. For this paper, laser radar images are used to demonstrate the results. Classification performance against this data set is compared for a gradient descent MLP classifier and a quadratic mutual information MLP classifier.
Schur Stability Regions for Complex Quadratic Polynomials
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cheng, Sui Sun; Huang, Shao Yuan
2010-01-01
Given a quadratic polynomial with complex coefficients, necessary and sufficient conditions are found in terms of the coefficients such that all its roots have absolute values less than 1. (Contains 3 figures.)
Linear quadratic optimal control for symmetric systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, J. H.; Martin, C. F.
1983-01-01
Special symmetries are present in many control problems. This paper addresses the problem of determining linear-quadratic optimal control problems whose solutions preserve the symmetry of the initial linear control system.
Quadratic Lyapunov functions and nonuniform exponential dichotomies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barreira, Luis; Valls, Claudia
For nonautonomous linear equations x=A(t)x, we show how to characterize completely nonuniform exponential dichotomies using quadratic Lyapunov functions. The characterization can be expressed in terms of inequalities between matrices. In particular, we obtain converse theorems, by constructing explicitly quadratic Lyapunov functions for each nonuniform exponential dichotomy. We note that the nonuniform exponential dichotomies include as a very special case (uniform) exponential dichotomies. In particular, we recover in a very simple manner a complete characterization of uniform exponential dichotomies in terms of quadratic Lyapunov functions. We emphasize that our approach is new even in the uniform case. Furthermore, we show that the instability of a nonuniform exponential dichotomy persists under sufficiently small perturbations. The proof uses quadratic Lyapunov functions, and in particular avoids the use of invariant unstable manifolds which, to the best of our knowledge, are not known to exist in this general setting.
Reordering between tetrahedral and octahedral sites in ultrathin magnetite films grown on MgO(001)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bertram, F.; Deiter, C.; Schemme, T.; Jentsch, S.; Wollschläger, J.
2013-05-01
Magnetite ultrathin films were grown using different deposition rates and substrate temperatures. The structure of these films was studied using (grazing incidence) x-ray diffraction, while their surface structure was characterized by low energy electron diffraction. In addition to that, we performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magneto optic Kerr effect measurements to probe the stoichiometry of the films as well as their magnetic properties. The diffraction peaks of the inverse spinel structure, which originate exclusively from Fe ions on tetrahedral sites are strongly affected by the preparation conditions, while the octahedral sites remain almost unchanged. With both decreasing deposition rate as well as decreasing substrate temperature, the integrated intensity of the diffraction peaks originating exclusively from Fe on tetrahedral sites is decreasing. We propose that the ions usually occupying tetrahedral sites in magnetite are relocated to octahedral vacancies. Ferrimagnetic behaviour is only observed for well ordered magnetite films.
Reordering between tetrahedral and octahedral sites in ultrathin magnetite films grown on MgO(001)
Bertram, F.; Deiter, C. [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)] [Hamburger Synchrotronstrahlungslabor am Deutschen Elektronen-Synchrotron, Notkestr. 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Schemme, T.; Jentsch, S.; Wollschlaeger, J. [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastr. 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)] [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Osnabrueck, Barbarastr. 7, 49069 Osnabrueck (Germany)
2013-05-14
Magnetite ultrathin films were grown using different deposition rates and substrate temperatures. The structure of these films was studied using (grazing incidence) x-ray diffraction, while their surface structure was characterized by low energy electron diffraction. In addition to that, we performed x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and magneto optic Kerr effect measurements to probe the stoichiometry of the films as well as their magnetic properties. The diffraction peaks of the inverse spinel structure, which originate exclusively from Fe ions on tetrahedral sites are strongly affected by the preparation conditions, while the octahedral sites remain almost unchanged. With both decreasing deposition rate as well as decreasing substrate temperature, the integrated intensity of the diffraction peaks originating exclusively from Fe on tetrahedral sites is decreasing. We propose that the ions usually occupying tetrahedral sites in magnetite are relocated to octahedral vacancies. Ferrimagnetic behaviour is only observed for well ordered magnetite films.
Test spaces and characterizations of quadratic spaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dvure?enskij, Anatolij
1996-10-01
We show that a test space consisting of nonzero vectors of a quadratic space E and of the set all maximal orthogonal systems in E is algebraic iff E is Dacey or, equivalently, iff E is orthomodular. In addition, we present another orthomodularity criteria of quadratic spaces, and using the result of Solèr, we show that they can imply that E is a real, complex, or quaternionic Hilbert space.
QUADRATIC RECIPROCITY IN ODD CHARACTERISTIC KEITH CONRAD
Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro
QUADRATIC RECIPROCITY IN ODD CHARACTERISTIC KEITH CONRAD 1. Introduction Let be irreducible in F in characteritic 2. (There is a good analogue of quadratic reciprocity in characteristic 2, but we don't discuss[T]/() is a root of X(N-1)/2 - 1. This polynomial has at most (N - 1)/2 roots in a 1 #12;2 KEITH CONRAD field
Weight of quadratic forms and graph states
Alessandro Cosentino; Simone Severini
2009-11-10
We prove a connection between Schmidt-rank and weight of quadratic forms. This provides a new tool for the classification of graph states based on entanglement. Our main tool arises from a reformulation of previously known results concerning the weight of quadratic forms in terms of graph states properties. As a byproduct, we obtain a straightforward characterization of the weight of functions associated with pivot-minor of bipartite graphs.
Grow & fold: compressing the connectivity of tetrahedral meshes
Andrzej Szymczak; Jarek Rossignac
2000-01-01
Standard representations of irregular finite element meshes combine vertex data (sample coordinates and node values) and connectivity (tetrahedron-vertex incidence). Connectivity specifies how the samples should be interpolated. It may be encoded as four vertex-references for each tetrahedron, which requires 128m bits where m is the number of tetrahedra in the mesh. Our 'Grow & Fold' format reduces the connectivity storage
Transformational part-count in layered octahedral-tetrahedral truss configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lalvani, Haresh
1990-01-01
The number of component part (nodes, struts and panels) termed part count, is an important factor in the design, manufacture, and assembly of modular space structures. Part count expressions are presented for a variety of profiles derived from the layered octahedral-tetrahedral truss configuration. Referred to as the tetrahedral truss in the NASA projects, this specific geometry has been used in several missions. The general expressions presented here transforms to others as one profile changes to another. Such transformational part count relations provide a measure of flexibility and generality, and may be useful when dealing with a wider range of geometric configurations.
Formation of pyramid elements for hexahedra to tetrahedra transitions
OWEN,STEVEN J.; SAIGAL,SUNIL
2000-02-24
New algorithms are proposed for the modification of a mixed hexahedra-tetrahedra element mesh to maintain compatibility by the insertion of pyramid elements. Several methods for generation of the pyramids are presented involving local tetrahedral transformations and/or node insertion near the hex/tet interface. Local smoothing and topological operations improve the quality of the transition region. Results show superior performance of the resulting elements in a commercial finite element code over non-conforming interface conditions.
Nikitin, A V; Rey, M; Tyuterev, Vl G
2015-03-01
A simultaneous use of the full molecular symmetry and of an exact kinetic energy operator (KEO) is of key importance for accurate predictions of vibrational levels at a high energy range from a potential energy surface (PES). An efficient method that permits a fast convergence of variational calculations would allow iterative optimization of the PES parameters using experimental data. In this work, we propose such a method applied to tetrahedral AB4 molecules for which a use of high symmetry is crucial for vibrational calculations. A symmetry-adapted contracted angular basis set for six redundant angles is introduced. Simple formulas using this basis set for explicit calculation of the angular matrix elements of KEO and PES are reported. The symmetric form (six redundant angles) of vibrational KEO without the sin(q)(-2) type singularity is derived. The efficient recursive algorithm based on the tensorial formalism is used for the calculation of vibrational matrix elements. A good basis set convergence for the calculations of vibrational levels of the CH4 molecule is demonstrated. PMID:25747072
Mixed-metal chalcogenide tetrahedral clusters with an exo-polyhedral metal fragment.
Yuvaraj, K; Roy, Dipak Kumar; Anju, V P; Mondal, Bijnaneswar; Varghese, Babu; Ghosh, Sundargopal
2014-12-01
The reaction of metal carbonyl compounds with group 6 and 8 metallaboranes led us to report the synthesis and structural characterization of several novel mixed-metal chalcogenide tetrahedral clusters. Thermolysis of arachno-[(Cp*RuCO)2B2H6], 1, and [Os3(CO)12] in the presence of 2-methylthiophene yielded [Cp*Ru(CO)2(?-H){Os3(CO)9}S], 3, and [Cp*Ru(?-H){Os3(CO)11}], 4. In a similar fashion, the reaction of [(Cp*Mo)2B5H9], 2, with [Ru3(CO)12] and 2-methylthiophene yielded [Cp*Ru(CO)2(?-H){Ru3(CO)9}S], 5, and conjuncto-[(Cp*Mo)2B5H8(?-H){Ru3(CO)9}S], 6. Both compounds 3 and 5 can be described as 50-cve (cluster valence electron) mixed-metal chalcogenide clusters, in which a sulfur atom replaces one of the vertices of the tetrahedral core. Compounds 3 and 5 possess a [M3S] tetrahedral core, in which the sulfur is attached to an exo-metal fragment, unique in the [M3S] metal chalcogenide tetrahedral arrangements. All the compounds have been characterized by mass spectrometry, IR, and (1)H, (11)B and (13)C NMR spectroscopy in solution, and the solid state structures were unequivocally established by crystallographic analysis of compounds 3, 5 and 6. PMID:25317933
Phase diagram of a tetrahedral patchy particle model for different interaction ranges
Sciortino, Francesco
Phase diagram of a tetrahedral patchy particle model for different interaction ranges Flavio Romano; published online 10 May 2010 We evaluate the phase diagram of the KernFrenkel patchy model with four stable crystal is a plastic fcc phase. We find a rich phase diagram with several re-entrant coexistence
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2009-01-01
The quality of simulated hypersonic stagnation region heating on tetrahedral meshes is investigated by using a three-dimensional, upwind reconstruction algorithm for the inviscid flux vector. Two test problems are investigated: hypersonic flow over a three-dimensional cylinder with special attention to the uniformity of the solution in the spanwise direction and hypersonic flow over a three-dimensional sphere. The tetrahedral cells used in the simulation are derived from a structured grid where cell faces are bisected across the diagonal resulting in a consistent pattern of diagonals running in a biased direction across the otherwise symmetric domain. This grid is known to accentuate problems in both shock capturing and stagnation region heating encountered with conventional, quasi-one-dimensional inviscid flux reconstruction algorithms. Therefore the test problem provides a sensitive test for algorithmic effects on heating. This investigation is believed to be unique in its focus on three-dimensional, rotated upwind schemes for the simulation of hypersonic heating on tetrahedral grids. This study attempts to fill the void left by the inability of conventional (quasi-one-dimensional) approaches to accurately simulate heating in a tetrahedral grid system. Results show significant improvement in spanwise uniformity of heating with some penalty of ringing at the captured shock. Issues with accuracy near the peak shear location are identified and require further study.
Compressive behavior of age hardenable tetrahedral lattice truss structures made from aluminium
Wadley, Haydn
,7]. While both lattice truss and honeycomb core sandwich panels are structurally supe- rior to metal foam where honey- combs, egg box, and even stochastic metal foam topol- ogies have attracted a great deal with compressive strength data for other cellular metals indicate that wrought aluminium alloy tetrahedral lattice
Diffraction and IR/Raman data do not prove tetrahedral water
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leetmaa, Mikael; Wikfeldt, Kjartan Thor; Ljungberg, Mathias P.; Odelius, Michael; Swenson, Jan; Nilsson, Anders; Pettersson, Lars G. M.
2008-08-01
We use the reverse Monte Carlo modeling technique to fit two extreme structure models for water to available x-ray and neutron diffraction data in q space as well as to the electric field distribution as a representation of the OH stretch Raman spectrum of dilue HOD in D2O; the internal geometries were fitted to a quantum distribution. Forcing the fit to maximize the number of hydrogen (H) bonds results in a tetrahedral model with 74% double H-bond donors (DD) and 21% single donors (SD). Maximizing instead the number of SD species gives 81% SD and 18% DD, while still reproducing the experimental data and losing only 0.7-1.8 kJ/mole interaction energy. By decomposing the simulated Raman spectrum we can relate the models to the observed ultrafast frequency shifts in recent pump-probe measurements. Within the tetrahedral DD structure model the assumed connection between spectrum position and H-bonding indicates ultrafast dynamics in terms of breaking and reforming H bonds while in the strongly distorted model the observed frequency shifts do not necessarily imply H-bond changes. Both pictures are equally valid based on present diffraction and vibrational experimental data. There is thus no strict proof of tetrahedral water based on these data. We also note that the tetrahedral structure model must, to fit diffraction data, be less structured than most models obtained from molecular dynamics simulations.
Aging of Tetrahedral Structure in a Lennard-Jones Glass1 Gianguido C. CIANCI2
Weeks, Eric R.
Aging of Tetrahedral Structure in a Lennard-Jones Glass1 Gianguido C. CIANCI2 and Eric R. WEEKS3,4 Summary We study the aging of a glassy Lennard-Jones binary mixture with molecular dy- namics simulations. We follow the evolution of the packing as a function of the system's age tw, the time passed since
Photoluminescence of Tetrahedral Quantum-Dot Quantum Wells Vladimir A. Fonoberov,1,2
Fonoberov, Vladimir
Photoluminescence of Tetrahedral Quantum-Dot Quantum Wells Vladimir A. Fonoberov,1,2 Evghenii P within a nonadiabatic approach a quantitative interpretation of the photoluminescence spectrum in the photoluminescence spectrum is attributed to interface optical phonons. We also show that the experimental value
Gorodylova, Nataliia; Kosinová, Veronika; Šulcová, Petra; B?lina, Petr; Vl?ek, Milan
2014-11-01
All the known chromium(III) NASICON-related phosphates are considered to be solid solutions. In these compounds chromium atoms share their position in the basic framework of the crystal lattice with other structure forming elements such as zirconium. In our study, we have hypothesised a completely new way of structural organisation of the chromium(III) zirconium(IV) NASICON framework, consisting in the distribution of chromium over the charge-compensating atom sites with tetrahedral oxygen coordination. The possibility of formation of the corresponding phosphate, Cr(1/3)Zr2P3O12, was studied using a classical ceramic route and a sol-gel method. Structural affiliation of the obtained pure phase product was studied using XRD analysis. The results confirmed that the Cr(1/3)Zr2P3O12 phosphate belongs to monoclinic SW-subtype of the NASICON family. In this structure, chromium atoms occupy charge-compensating sites with a strongly distorted tetrahedral oxygen environment. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first example of tetrahedral coordination of chromium(III) in phosphates. Along with the unusual crystallographic characteristics of chromium, special attention in this paper is devoted to the thermal stability of this phosphate and to its performance as an inorganic pigment. The sample was characterised by heating microscopy and DTA study, particle size distribution analysis, and IR- and VIS-spectroscopy. The stability of the obtained powder in a glaze environment, its colouring performance and lightfastness are discussed as well. PMID:25189199
Optical power flow with sequential quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vanamerongen, R. A. M.
1985-01-01
Newton's method as an approach to solve the optimal power flow problem in electric power plants is presented. A general formulation of the optimal flow problem is given. Newton's method is applied to solve the nonlinear Kuhn-Tucker conditions by iteration. Every Newton step is calculated by solving a quadratic programming problem. Variations of the sequential quadratic programming method are presented. Byproducts of the optimization, namely the Lagrange multipliers and their interpretation as marginal costs and shadow prices, are outlined. The most important computer programs are enclosed.
On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd
2015-05-01
A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.
Quadratic Equation over Associative D-Algebra
Aleks Kleyn
2015-05-30
In this paper, I treat quadratic equation over associative $D$-algebra. In quaternion algebra $H$, the equation $x^2=a$ has either $2$ roots, or infinitely many roots. Since $a\\in R$, $aalgebra, the equation $$(x-b)(x-a)+(x-a)(x-c)=0$$ $b\
Evaluation of Weber's Functions at Quadratic Irrationalities
Williams, Kenneth Stuart
Evaluation of Weber's Functions at Quadratic Irrationalities HABIB MUZAFFAR and KENNETH S. WILLIAMS for the moduli of Weber's functions f(z), f1(z) and f2(z) [20: p. 114]. From these formulae the values of f( -m (z). (2) We also note that (iy) R+ , e-i/24 1 + iy 2 R+ , (3) for y > 0. Weber's three functions f
Canonical Realization of BMS Symmetry. Quadratic Casimir
Gomis, Joaquim
2015-01-01
We study the canonical realization of BMS symmetry for a massive scalar field introduced in reference \\cite{LM}. We will construct an invariant scalar product for the generalized momenta. As a consequence we will introduce a quadratic Casimir with the supertranslations.
Canonical Realization of BMS Symmetry. Quadratic Casimir
Joaquim Gomis; Giorgio Longhi
2015-08-03
We study the canonical realization of BMS symmetry for a massive scalar field introduced in reference \\cite{LM}. We will construct an invariant scalar product for the generalized momenta. As a consequence we will introduce a quadratic Casimir with the supertranslations.
Competing nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays
Competing nonlinearities in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays Frank Setzpfandt,1, * Dragomir N demonstrate experimentally the existence of competing focusing and defocusing nonlinearities in a double- tively. If an optical system, however, exhibits so- called competing nonlinearities a laser beam can ex
System analysis via integral quadratic constraints
Alexandre Megretski; Anders Rantzer
1997-01-01
This paper introduces a unified approach to robustness analysis with respect to nonlinearities, time variations, and uncertain parameters. From an original idea by Yakubovich (1967), the approach has been developed under a combination of influences from the Western and Russian traditions of control theory. It is shown how a complex system can be described, using integral quadratic constraints (IQC) for
Fourier analysis of quadratic phase interferograms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz-Maciel, Jesús; Mora-González, Miguel; Casillas-Rodríguez, Francisco J.; Peña-Lecona, Francisco G.
2015-06-01
A phase demodulation method from a single interferogram with a quadratic phase term is developed. The fringe pattern being analysed may contain circular, elliptic or astigmatic fringes. The Fourier transform of such interferograms is seen to be also a sine or a cosine of a second order polynomial in both the real and imaginary parts. In this work we take a discrete Fourier transform of the fringe patterns and then we take separate inverse discrete transforms of the real and imaginary parts of the frequency spectrum. This results in two new interferograms corresponding to the sine and cosine of the quadratic term of the phase modulated by the sine and cosine of the linear term. The linear term of these interferograms may be recovered with similar procedures of fringe analysis from open fringe interferograms. Once the linear term is retrieved the quadratic phase of the interferogram being analysed can also be calculated. The present approach is also being investigated for interferograms with nearly circularly symmetry given that the phase contains some tilt. The described procedure of Fourier analysis from quadratic phase interferograms of nearly symmetric interferograms could be used instead of complex and time consuming algorithms for phase recovery from fringe patterns with closed fringes. Finally, the method is tested in simulated and real data.
Copositive realxation for genera quadratic programming
A. J. Quist; E. De klerk; C. Roos; T. Terlaky
1998-01-01
We consider general, typically nonconvex, Quadratic programming Problem. The Semidefinite relaxation proposed by Shor provides bounds on the optimal solution, but it does not always provide sufficiently strong bounds if linear constraintare also involved. To get rid of the linear side-constraints, another, stronger convex relaxation is derved. This relaxation uses copositive matrices. Special cases are dicussed for which both relaxations
An r-Dimensional Quadratic Placement Algorithm
Kenneth M. Hall
1970-01-01
In this paper the solution to the problem of placing n connected points (or nodes) in r-dimensional Euclidean space is given. The criterion for optimality is minimizing a weighted sum of squared distances between the points subject to quadratic constraints of the form X'X - 1, for each of the r unknown coordinate vectors. It is proved that the problem
PRIMES AND QUADRATIC RECIPROCITY ANGELICA WONG
May, J. Peter
goal of understanding quadratic reciprocity. We begin by discussing Fermat's Little Theorem. The Fermat Test uses Fermat's Little Theorem to test for primality. Although the test is not guaranteed). First, we prove Fermat's Little Theorem, then show that there are infinitely many primes and infinitely
Discounted linear exponential quadratic Gaussian control
L. P. Hansen; T. J. Sargent
1995-01-01
In this note, we describe a recursive formulation of discounted costs for a linear quadratic exponential Gaussian linear regulator problem which implies time-invariant linear decision rules in the infinite horizon case. Time invariance in the discounted case is attained by surrendering state-separability of the risk-adjusted costs
STATISTICAL ANALYSIS OF QUADRATIC IN COMPUTER VISION
and Computer Engineering Written under the direction of Professor Peter Meer and approved by New Brunswick, New Peter Meer Quadratic forms appear in many computer vision applications. Geometry constraints between my deepest thanks and appreciation to Dr. Peter Meer. He dedicated countless days, nights
The Quadratic Assignment Problem Rainer E. Burkard
Dragoti-Çela, Eranda
, and asymptotic behavior. Moreover, it also considers problems related to the QAP, e.g. the biquadratic assignment.-Z. Du, eds. Keywords: quadratic assignment problem, algorithms, asymptotic behavior, polynomially 8.7 Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 8.8 Ant
Linear Quadratic Regulator and Observer Design for a Flexible Joint
Linear Quadratic Regulator and Observer Design for a Flexible Joint Nicanor Quijano and Kevin M the encoder from the motor. Contents 1 Introduction 2 2 Laboratory Procedures 2 2.1 Necessary Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2.3 Linear Quadratic Regulator
Geometric Approaches to Quadratic Equations from Other Times and Places.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Allaire, Patricia R.; Bradley, Robert E.
2001-01-01
Focuses on geometric solutions of quadratic problems. Presents a collection of geometric techniques from ancient Babylonia, classical Greece, medieval Arabia, and early modern Europe to enhance the quadratic equation portion of an algebra course. (KHR)
Fostering Teacher Development to a Tetrahedral Orientation in the Teaching of Chemistry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewthwaite, Brian; Wiebe, Rick
2011-11-01
This paper reports on the initial outcomes from the end of the fourth year of a 5 year research and professional development project to improve chemistry teaching among three cohorts of chemistry teachers in Manitoba, Canada. The project responds to a new curriculum introduction advocating a tetrahedral orientation (Mahaffy, Journal of Chemical Education 83(1), 49-55, 2006) to the teaching of chemistry. The project in its entirety is based upon several theoretical models in fostering chemistry teacher development (in particular Bronfenbrenner's bio-ecological model). These models are described, as is the progress made by teachers based upon the use of a Chemistry Teacher Inventory and associated teacher responses. Overall, statistical analysis of perceptions of their own teaching and comments made by teachers suggests they are showing limited development towards a tetrahedral orientation, albeit in a manner consistent with the curriculum. Ongoing research-based activities in this project are also described.
Miao, Peng; Wang, Bidou; Chen, Xifeng; Li, Xiaoxi; Tang, Yuguo
2015-03-25
MicroRNAs are not only important regulators of a wide range of cellular processes but are also identified as promising disease biomarkers. Due to the low contents in serum, microRNAs are always difficult to detect accurately . In this study, an electrochemical biosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microRNA based on tetrahedral DNA nanostructure is developed. Four DNA single strands are engineered to form a tetrahedral nanostructure with a pendant stem-loop and modified on a gold electrode surface, which largely enhances the molecular recognition efficiency. Moreover, taking advantage of strand displacement polymerization, catalytic recycling of microRNA, and silver nanoparticle-based solid-state Ag/AgCl reaction, the proposed biosensor exhibits high sensitivity with the limit of detection down to 0.4 fM. This biosensor shows great clinical value and may have practical utility in early diagnosis and prognosis of certain diseases. PMID:25738985
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chang, Sin-Chung; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Yen, Joseph C.
2013-01-01
In the multidimensional CESE development, triangles and tetrahedra turn out to be the most natural building blocks for 2D and 3D spatial meshes. As such the CESE method is compatible with the simplest unstructured meshes and thus can be easily applied to solve problems with complex geometries. However, because the method uses space-time staggered stencils, solution decoupling may become a real nuisance in applications involving unstructured meshes. In this paper we will describe a simple and general remedy which, according to numerical experiments, has removed any possibility of solution decoupling. Moreover, in a real-world viscous flow simulation near a solid wall, one often encounters a case where a boundary with high curvature or sharp corner is surrounded by triangular/tetrahedral meshes of extremely high aspect ratio (up to 106). For such an extreme case, the spatial projection of a space-time compounded conservation element constructed using the original CESE design may become highly concave and thus its centroid (referred to as a spatial solution point) may lie far outside of the spatial projection. It could even be embedded beyond a solid wall boundary and causes serious numerical difficulties. In this paper we will also present a new procedure for constructing conservation elements and solution elements which effectively overcomes the difficulties associated with the original design. Another difficulty issue which was addressed more recently is the wellknown fact that accuracy of gradient computations involving triangular/tetrahedral grids deteriorates rapidly as the aspect ratio of grid cells increases. The root cause of this difficulty was clearly identified and several remedies to overcome it were found through a rigorous mathematical analysis. However, because of the length of the current paper and the complexity of mathematics involved, this new work will be presented in another paper.
Wareing, T.A.; Parsons, D.K.; Pautz, S.
1997-12-31
Recently, a new state-of-the-art discrete-ordinates code, ATTILA, was developed. ATTILA provides the capabilities to solve geometrically complex 3-D transport problems by using an unstructured tetrahedral mesh. In this paper we describe the application of ATTILA to a 3-D reactor pressure vessel dosimetry problem. We provide numerical results from ATTILA and the Monte Carlo code, MCNP. The results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of ATTILA for such calculations.
A first collision source method for ATTILA, an unstructured tetrahedral mesh discrete ordinates code
Wareing, T.A.; Morel, J.E.; Parsons, D.K.
1998-12-01
A semi-analytic first collision source method is developed for the transport code, ATTILA, a three-dimensional, unstructured tetrahedral mesh, discrete-ordinates code. This first collision source method is intended to mitigate ray effects due to point sources. The method is third-order accurate, which is the same order of accuracy as the linear-discontinuous spatial differencing scheme used in ATTILA. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of the first collision source method.
A study of pH-dependence of shrink and stretch of tetrahedral DNA nanostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ping; Xia, Zhiwei; Yan, Juan; Liu, Xunwei; Yao, Guangbao; Pei, Hao; Zuo, Xiaolei; Sun, Gang; He, Dannong
2015-04-01
We monitored the shrink and stretch of the tetrahedral DNA nanostructure (TDN) and the i-motif connected TDN structure at pH 8.5 and pH 4.5, and we found that not only the i-motif can change its structure when the pH changes, but also the TDN and the DNA double helix change their structures when the pH changes.
Ultrahigh-Resolution {gamma}-Ray Spectroscopy of {sup 156}Gd: A Test of Tetrahedral Symmetry
Jentschel, M.; Krempel, J. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Urban, W. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Tonev, D.; Petkov, P. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, BAS, BG-1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Dudek, J.; Curien, D. [Departement de Recherches Subatomiques, Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, DRS-IPHC, 23 rue du Loess, BP 28, F-67037 Strasbourg (France); Lauss, B. [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen-PSI (Switzerland); Angelis, G. de [Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, I-35020 Legnaro (Italy)
2010-06-04
Tetrahedral symmetry in strongly interacting systems would establish a new class of quantum effects at subatomic scale. Excited states in {sup 156}Gd that could carry the information about the tetrahedral symmetry were populated in the {sup 155}Gd(n,{gamma}){sup 156}Gd reaction and studied using the GAMS4/5 Bragg spectrometers at the Institut Laue-Langevin. We have identified the 5{sub 1}{sup -{yields}}3{sub 1}{sup -} transition of 131.983(12) keV in {sup 156}Gd and determined its intensity to be 1.9(3)x10{sup -6} per neutron capture. The lifetime {tau}=220{sub -30}{sup +180}fs of the 5{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 156}Gd has been measured using the GRID technique. The resulting B(E2)=293{sub -134}{sup +61}Weisskopf unit rate of the 131.983 keV transition provides the intrinsic quadrupole moment of the 5{sub 1}{sup -} state in {sup 156}Gd to be Q{sub 0}=7.1{sub -1.6}{sup +0.7} b. This large value, comparable to the quadrupole moment of the ground state in {sup 156}Gd, gives strong evidence against tetrahedral symmetry in the lowest odd-spin, negative-parity band of {sup 156}Gd.
A FAST ITERATIVE METHOD FOR SOLVING THE EIKONAL EQUATION ON TETRAHEDRAL DOMAINS.
Fu, Zhisong; Kirby, Robert M; Whitaker, Ross T
2013-01-01
Generating numerical solutions to the eikonal equation and its many variations has a broad range of applications in both the natural and computational sciences. Efficient solvers on cutting-edge, parallel architectures require new algorithms that may not be theoretically optimal, but that are designed to allow asynchronous solution updates and have limited memory access patterns. This paper presents a parallel algorithm for solving the eikonal equation on fully unstructured tetrahedral meshes. The method is appropriate for the type of fine-grained parallelism found on modern massively-SIMD architectures such as graphics processors and takes into account the particular constraints and capabilities of these computing platforms. This work builds on previous work for solving these equations on triangle meshes; in this paper we adapt and extend previous two-dimensional strategies to accommodate three-dimensional, unstructured, tetrahedralized domains. These new developments include a local update strategy with data compaction for tetrahedral meshes that provides solutions on both serial and parallel architectures, with a generalization to inhomogeneous, anisotropic speed functions. We also propose two new update schemes, specialized to mitigate the natural data increase observed when moving to three dimensions, and the data structures necessary for efficiently mapping data to parallel SIMD processors in a way that maintains computational density. Finally, we present descriptions of the implementations for a single CPU, as well as multicore CPUs with shared memory and SIMD architectures, with comparative results against state-of-the-art eikonal solvers. PMID:25221418
Simulation of Stagnation Region Heating in Hypersonic Flow on Tetrahedral Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gnoffo, Peter A.
2007-01-01
Hypersonic flow simulations using the node based, unstructured grid code FUN3D are presented. Applications include simple (cylinder) and complex (towed ballute) configurations. Emphasis throughout is on computation of stagnation region heating in hypersonic flow on tetrahedral grids. Hypersonic flow over a cylinder provides a simple test problem for exposing any flaws in a simulation algorithm with regard to its ability to compute accurate heating on such grids. Such flaws predominantly derive from the quality of the captured shock. The importance of pure tetrahedral formulations are discussed. Algorithm adjustments for the baseline Roe / Symmetric, Total-Variation-Diminishing (STVD) formulation to deal with simulation accuracy are presented. Formulations of surface normal gradients to compute heating and diffusion to the surface as needed for a radiative equilibrium wall boundary condition and finite catalytic wall boundary in the node-based unstructured environment are developed. A satisfactory resolution of the heating problem on tetrahedral grids is not realized here; however, a definition of a test problem, and discussion of observed algorithm behaviors to date are presented in order to promote further research on this important problem.
ON THE ROLE OF QUADRATIC OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR SCHR
Gallagher, Isabelle - Institut de MathÃ©matiques de Jussieu, UniversitÃ© Paris 7
ON THE ROLE OF QUADRATIC OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR SCHR ODINGER EQUATIONS R #19; EMI CARLES that the nonlinear term has an e#11;ect at leading order only if the initial data have quadratic oscillations-dimensional cubic nonlinear Schrodinger equation is due to quadratic oscillations, e i#21;x 2 , with #21; large
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF QUADRATS FOR MEASURING VASCULAR PLANT DIVERSITY
Quadrats are widely used for measuring characteristics of vascular plant communities. It is well recognized that quadrat size affects measurements of frequency and cover. The ability of quadrats of varying sizes to adequately measure diversity has not been established. An exha...
New approach based on tetrahedral-mesh geometry for accurate 4D Monte Carlo patient-dose calculation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Min Cheol; Yeom, Yeon Soo; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Kim, Seonghoon; Sohn, Jason W.
2015-02-01
In the present study, to achieve accurate 4D Monte Carlo dose calculation in radiation therapy, we devised a new approach that combines (1) modeling of the patient body using tetrahedral-mesh geometry based on the patient’s 4D CT data, (2) continuous movement/deformation of the tetrahedral patient model by interpolation of deformation vector fields acquired through deformable image registration, and (3) direct transportation of radiation particles during the movement and deformation of the tetrahedral patient model. The results of our feasibility study show that it is certainly possible to construct 4D patient models (= phantoms) with sufficient accuracy using the tetrahedral-mesh geometry and to directly transport radiation particles during continuous movement and deformation of the tetrahedral patient model. This new approach not only produces more accurate dose distribution in the patient but also replaces the current practice of using multiple 3D voxel phantoms and combining multiple dose distributions after Monte Carlo simulations. For routine clinical application of our new approach, the use of fast automatic segmentation algorithms is a must. In order to achieve, simultaneously, both dose accuracy and computation speed, the number of tetrahedrons for the lungs should be optimized. Although the current computation speed of our new 4D Monte Carlo simulation approach is slow (i.e. ~40 times slower than that of the conventional dose accumulation approach), this problem is resolvable by developing, in Geant4, a dedicated navigation class optimized for particle transportation in tetrahedral-mesh geometry.
Stellar objects in the quadratic regime
P. Mafa Takisa; S. D. Maharaj; Subharthi Ray
2014-12-28
We model a charged anisotropic relativistic star with a quadratic equation of state. Physical features of an exact solution of the Einstein-Maxwell system are studied by incorporating the effect of the nonlinear term from the equation of state. It is possible to regain the masses, radii and central densities for a linear equation of state in our analysis. We generate masses for stellar compact objects and perform a detailed study of PSR J1614-2230 in particular. We also show the influence of the nonlinear equation of state on physical features of the matter distribution. We demonstrate that it is possible to incorporate the effects of charge, anisotropy and a quadratic term in the equation of state in modelling a compact relativistic body.
Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm
Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.
1983-01-01
Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.
Factorization using the quadratic sieve algorithm
Davis, J.A.; Holdridge, D.B.
1983-12-01
Since the cryptosecurity of the RSA two key cryptoalgorithm is no greater than the difficulty of factoring the modulus (product of two secret primes), a code that implements the Quadratic Sieve factorization algorithm on the CRAY I computer has been developed at the Sandia National Laboratories to determine as sharply as possible the current state-of-the-art in factoring. Because all viable attacks on RSA thus far proposed are equivalent to factorization of the modulus, sharper bounds on the computational difficulty of factoring permit improved estimates for the size of RSA parameters needed for given levels of cryptosecurity. Analysis of the Quadratic Sieve indicates that it may be faster than any previously published general purpose algorithm for factoring large integers. The high speed of the CRAY I coupled with the capability of the CRAY to pipeline certain vectorized operations make this algorithm (and code) the front runner in current factoring techniques.
Characterization of a Quadratic Function in Rn
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Xu, Conway
2010-01-01
It is proved that a scalar-valued function "f"(x) defined in "n"-dimensional space must be quadratic, if the intersection of tangent planes at x[subscript 1] and x[subscript 2] always contains the midpoint of the line joining x[subscript 1] and x[subscript 2]. This is the converse of a result of Stenlund proved in this JOURNAL in 2001.
Pak, Chongin; Kamali, Saeed; Pham, Joyce; Lee, Kathleen; Greenfield, Joshua T.; Kovnir, Kirill
2014-01-01
Fragments of the superconducting FeSe layer, FeSe2 tetrahedral chains, were stabilized in the crystal structure of a new mixed-valent compound Fe3Se4(en)2 (en = ethylenediamine) synthesized from elemental Fe and Se. The FeSe2 chains are separated from each other by means of Fe(en)2 linkers. Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry reveal strong magnetic interactions within the FeSe2 chains which result in antiferromagnetic ordering below 170 K. According to DFT calculations, anisotropic transport and magnetic properties are expected for Fe3Se4(en)2. This compound offers a unique way to manipulate the properties of the Fe-Se infinite fragments by varying the topology and charge of the Fe-amino linkers. PMID:24299423
Pak, Chongin; Kamali, Saeed; Pham, Joyce; Lee, Kathleen; Greenfield, Joshua T; Kovnir, Kirill
2013-12-26
Fragments of the superconducting FeSe layer, FeSe2 tetrahedral chains, were stabilized in the crystal structure of a new mixed-valent compound Fe3Se4(en)2 (en = ethylenediamine) synthesized from elemental Fe and Se. The FeSe2 chains are separated from each other by means of Fe(en)2 linkers. Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetometry reveal strong magnetic interactions within the FeSe2 chains which result in antiferromagnetic ordering below 170 K. According to DFT calculations, anisotropic transport and magnetic properties are expected for Fe3Se4(en)2. This compound offers a unique way to manipulate the properties of the Fe-Se infinite fragments by varying the topology and charge of the Fe-amino linkers. PMID:24299423
Non Spurious Spectral-Like Element Methods for Maxwell's Gary Cohen1
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Non Spurious Spectral-Like Element Methods for Maxwell's Equations Gary Cohen1 and Marc Durufl´e1 introduced for ODE or parabolic problems, this technique was extended to the wave equation by Cohen et al to triangular and tetrahedral elements was later realized by Cohen et al [10] for triangles up to third order
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, Michael L. (inventor)
1993-01-01
An apparatus and method is disclosed for decelerating and absorbing impact of a re-entry vehicle suitable for payloads that are relatively light as well as payloads weighing several tons or more. The apparatus includes four inflatable legs displaced equidistantly from each other around a capsule or housing which contains a payload. The legs are inflated at a designated altitude after entering earth's atmosphere to slow the descent of the re-entry vehicle. Connected between each of the four legs are drag inducing surfaces that deploy as the legs inflate. The drag inducing surfaces are triangularly shaped with one such surface being connected between each pair of legs for a total of six drag inducing surfaces. The legs have drag inducing outer surfaces which act to slow the descent of the re-entry vehicle.
Linear state feedback, quadratic weights, and closed loop eigenstructures. M.S. Thesis. Final Report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thompson, P. M.
1980-01-01
Equations are derived for the angles of general multivariable root loci and linear quadratic optimal root loci, including angles of departure and approach. The generalized eigenvalue problem is used to compute angles of approach. Equations are also derived to find the sensitivity of closed loop eigenvalue and the directional derivatives of closed loop eigenvectors. An equivalence class of quadratic weights that produce the same asymptotic eigenstructure is defined, a canonical element is defined, and an algorithm to find it is given. The behavior of the optimal root locus in the nonasymptotic region is shown to be different for quadratic weights with the same asymptotic properties. An algorithm is presented that can be used to select a feedback gain matrix for the linear state feedback problem which produces a specified asymptotic eigenstructure. Another algorithm is given to compute the asymptotic eigenstructure properties inherent in a given set of quadratic weights. Finally, it is shown that optimal root loci for nongeneric problems can be approximated by generic ones in the nonasymptotic region.
Shinn-Horng Chen; Wen-Hsien Ho; Jyh-Horng Chou; Liang-An Zheng
2011-01-01
By integrating the robust stabilizability condition, the orthogonal-functions approach (OFA), and the hybrid Taguchi-genetic algorithm (HTGA), an integrative method is presented in this paper to design the robust-stable and quadratic finite-horizon optimal active vibration controller with low trajectory sensitivity such that (i) the flexible mechanical system with elemental parametric uncertainties can be robustly stabilized, and (ii) a quadratic finite-horizon integral
A study of the stabilization of tetrahedral adducts by trypsin and delta-chymotrypsin.
Finucane, M D; Malthouse, J P
1992-01-01
delta-Chymotrypsin has been alkylated by 1-13C- and 2-13C-enriched tosylphenylalanylchloromethane. In the intact inhibitor derivative, signals due to the 1-13C- and 2-13C-enriched carbon atoms have chemical shifts which titrate from 55.10 to 59.50 p.p.m. and from 99.10 to 103.66 p.p.m. respectively with similar pKa values of 8.99 and 8.85 respectively. These signals are assigned to a tetrahedral adduct formed between the hydroxy group of serine-195 and the inhibitor. An additional signal at 58.09 p.p.m. and at 204.85 p.p.m. in the 1-13C- and 2-13C-enzyme-inhibitor derivatives respectively does not titrate when the pH is changed and it is assigned to alkylated methionine-192. On denaturation/autolysis of the 1-13C-enriched enzyme-inhibitor derivative these signals associated with the intact inhibitor derivative are no longer detected, and a new signal, which titrates from 56.28 to 54.84 p.p.m. with a pKa of 5.26, is detected. The titration shift of this signal is assigned to the deprotonation of the imidazolium cation of alkylated histidine-57 in the denatured/autolysed enzyme-inhibitor derivative. Model compounds which form stable hydrates and hemiketals in aqueous solutions have been synthesized. By comparing the 13C titration shifts of these model compounds with those of the 13C enriched trypsin- and delta-chymotrypsin-inhibitor derivatives, we deduce that, in both of the intact enzyme-inhibitor derivatives, the zwitterionic tetrahedral adduct containing the imidazolium cation of histidine-57 and the hemiketal oxyanion predominates at alkaline pH values. It is estimated that in both the trypsin and delta-chymotrypsin-inhibitor derivatives the concentration of this zwitterionic tetrahedral adduct is 10,000-fold greater than it would be in water. We conclude that the pKa of the oxyanion of the hemiketal in the presence of the imidazolium cation of histidine-57 is 7.9 and 8.9 in the trypsin and delta-chymotrypsin-inhibitor derivatives respectively and that the pKa of the imidazolium cation of histidine-57 is greater than 7.9 and greater than 8.9 when the oxyanion is present as its conjugate acid, whereas, when the oxyanion is present, the pKa of the imidazolium cation is greater than 11 in both enzyme-inhibitor derivatives. We discuss how these enzymes preferentially stabilize zwitterionic tetrahedral adducts in the intact enzyme-inhibitor derivatives and how they could stabilize similar tetrahedral intermediates during catalysis. It is suggested that substrate binding could raise the pKa of the imidazolium cation of histidine-57 before tetrahedral-intermediate formation which would explain the enhanced nucleophilicity of the hydroxy group of serine-195.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1417749
Zhu, Hai; Chi, Quan; Zhao, Yanxi; Li, Chunya; Tang, Heqing; Li, Jinlin [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Huang, Tao, E-mail: huangt6628@yahoo.com.cn [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Liu, Hanfan [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China) [Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Materials Science of the State Ethnic Affairs Commission and Ministry of Education, Hubei Province, College of Chemistry and Materials Science, South-Central University for Nationalities, Wuhan 430074 (China); Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100080 (China)
2012-11-15
Graphical abstract: By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were successfully synthesized. CO flow rate was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. Highlights: ? By using CO as a reducing agent, concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals were obtained. ? CO flow rate is critical to the formation of concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals. ? The selective adsorption of CO on (1 1 0) facets is essential to concave Pd tetrahedra. -- Abstract: CO reducing strategy to control the morphologies of palladium nanocrystals was investigated. By using CO as a reducing agent, uniform and well-defined concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals with a mean size of about 55 ± 2 nm were readily synthesized with Pd(acac){sub 2} as a precursor and PVP as a stabilizer. The structures of the as-prepared Pd nanocrystals were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorption spectroscopy and electrochemical measurements. The results demonstrated that CO was the most essential for the formation of the concave tetrahedral Pd nanostructures. The morphologies and sizes of the final products can be well controlled by adjusting the flow rate of CO. The most appropriate CO flow rate, temperature and time for the formation of the ideal concave tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals was 0.033 mL s{sup ?1}, 100 °C and 3 h, respectively.
Preliminary design of a large tetrahedral truss/hexagonal panel aerobrake structural system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dorsey, John T.; Mikulas, Martin M., Jr.
1990-01-01
This paper introduces an aerobrake structural concept consisting of two primary components: (1) a lightweight erectable tetrahedral support truss, and (2) a heatshield composed of individual sandwich hexagonal panels which, when attached to the truss, function as a continuous aerobraking surface. A general preliminary analysis procedure to design the aerobrake components is developed, and values of the aerobrake design parameters which minimize the mass and packaging volume for a 120-foot-diameter aerobrake are determined. Sensitivity of the aerobrake design to variations in design parameters is also assessed.
Dudek, J.; Dubray, N.; Pangon, V. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IN2P3-CNRS/Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Curien, D. [Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien IN2P3-CNRS, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Dobaczewski, J.; Olbratowski, P. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw University, Hoza 69, PL-00681 Warsaw (Poland); Schunck, N. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Modulo C-XI, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco 28049 Madrid (Spain)
2006-08-18
Calculations using realistic mean-field methods suggest the existence of nuclear shapes with tetrahedral T{sub d} and/or octahedral O{sub h} symmetries sometimes at only a few hundreds of keV above the ground states in some rare earth nuclei around {sup 156}Gd and {sup 160}Yb. The underlying single-particle spectra manifest exotic fourfold rather than Kramers's twofold degeneracies. The associated shell gaps are very strong, leading to a new form of shape coexistence in many rare earth nuclei. We present possible experimental evidence of the new symmetries based on the published experimental results--although an unambiguous confirmation will require dedicated experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gálisová, Lucia; Stre?ka, Jozef
2015-10-01
Magnetocaloric effect in a double-tetrahedral chain, in which nodal lattice sites occupied by the localized Ising spins regularly alternate with three equivalent lattice sites available for mobile electrons, is exactly investigated by considering the one-third electron filling and the ferromagnetic Ising exchange interaction between the mobile electrons and their nearest Ising neighbours. The entropy and the magnetic Grüneisen parameter, which closely relate to the magnetocaloric effect, are exactly calculated in order to investigate the relation between the ground-state degeneracy and the cooling efficiency of the hybrid spin-electron system during the adiabatic demagnetization.
Direct atomic imaging and dynamical fluctuations of the tetrahedral Au(20) cluster.
Wang, Z W; Palmer, R E
2012-08-21
We report real-space, atomic-resolution images of Au(20) clusters obtained with the aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The proposed tetrahedral (FCC segment) pyramid structure is confirmed. The clusters cycle between isomers under the electron beam in the time-lapse images acquired. Disordered variants on the high symmetry forms are commonly observed. We believe that the direct experimental identification of these kinds of atomic structure, and the fluctuations between them, is fundamental to our understanding of nanoparticle structures, as well as applications such as heterogeneous catalysis. PMID:22743848
R. M. Ferrer; Y. Y. Azmy
2009-05-01
We present a robust arbitrarily high order transport method of the characteristic type for unstructured tetrahedral grids. Previously encountered difficulties have been addressed through the reformulation of the method based on coordinate transformations, evaluation of the moments balance relation as a linear system of equations involving the expansion coefficients of the projected basis, and the asymptotic expansion of the integral kernels in the thin cell limit. The proper choice of basis functions for the high-order spatial expansion of the solution is discussed and its effect on problems involving scattering discussed. Numerical tests are presented to illustrate the beneficial effect of these improvements, and the improved robustness they yield.
The quadratic stochastic Euclidean bipartite matching problem
Sergio Caracciolo; Gabriele Sicuro
2015-10-08
We propose a new approach for the study of the stochastic Euclidean bipartite matching problem with quadratic cost between two sets of $N$ points, $N\\gg 1$. The points are supposed independently randomly generated on a domain $\\Omega\\subset\\mathbb R^d$ with a given generic distribution $\\rho(\\mathbf x)$ on $\\Omega$. In particular, we derive a general expression for the correlation function and for the average optimal cost of the optimal matching. A previous ansatz, for the case of uniform distribution on the flat hypertorus, is derived as particular case.
Linear quadratic stationkeeping on travelling ellipses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adams, Neil J.; Redding, David C.; Cox, Kenneth J.
1987-01-01
An automatic controller for Space Shuttle stationkeeping or formationkeeping is presented. The controller, which is a candidate for future on-orbit autopilot enhancement, uses a fuel 'optimized' limit cycle trajectory in a feedforward loop for precise control at nonequilibrium set points. Disturbance rejection is accomplished by a discrete time, linear quadratic regulator, which is employed for tracking of the feedforward model. Feedback gain selection is done to provide good limit cycling performance and low fuel consumption. Velocity correlations are carried out by use of a pseudo 6 degree-of-freedom jet selection scheme. Results indicate that 20 ft precision can be achieved using current sensors.
Holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Wall, Aron C.
2015-09-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is nonstationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a second law.
De Sitter stability in quadratic gravity
A. V. Toporensky; P. V. Tretyakov
2006-12-29
Quadratic curvature corrections to Einstein-Hilbert action lead in general to higher-order equations of motion, which can induced instability of some unperturbed solutions of General Relativity. We study conditions for stability of de Sitter cosmological solution. We argue that simple form of this condition known for FRW background in 3+1 dimensions changes seriously if at least one of these two assumptions is violated. In the present paper the stability conditions for de Sitter solution have been found for multidimensional FRW background and for Bianchi I metrics in 3+1 dimensions.
Quadratically constrained quadratic programs on acyclic graphs with application to power
Low, Steven H.
to obtain a feasible point. We demonstrate this approach on optimal power flow problems over radial networks. Index Terms Quadratic programs, conic relaxations, optimal power flow, distribution networks. I analysis [6] and optimal power flow [7][9]. A wide-range of com- binatorial problems can also be cast
EVA assembly of large space structure element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bement, L. J.; Bush, H. G.; Heard, W. L., Jr.; Stokes, J. W., Jr.
1981-01-01
The results of a test program to assess the potential of manned extravehicular activity (EVA) assembly of erectable space trusses are described. Seventeen tests were conducted in which six "space-weight" columns were assembled into a regular tetrahedral cell by a team of two "space"-suited test subjects. This cell represents the fundamental "element" of a tetrahedral truss structure. The tests were conducted under simulated zero-gravity conditions. Both manual and simulated remote manipulator system modes were evaluated. Articulation limits of the pressure suit and zero gravity could be accommodated by work stations with foot restraints. The results of this study have confirmed that astronaut EVA assembly of large, erectable space structures is well within man's capabilities.
Conversion of Osculating Orbital Elements to Mean Orbital Elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Der, Gim J.; Danchick, Roy
1996-01-01
Orbit determination and ephemeris generation or prediction over relatively long elapsed times can be accomplished with mean elements. The most simple and efficient method for orbit determination, which is also known as epoch point conversion, performs the conversion of osculating elements to mean elements by iterative procedures. Previous epoch point conversion methods are restricted to shorter elapsed times with linear convergence. The new method presented in this paper calculates an analytic initial guess of the unknown mean elements from a first order theory of secular perturbations and computes a transition matrix with accurate numerical partials. It thereby eliminates the problem of an inaccurate initial guess and an identity transition matrix employed by previous methods. With a good initial guess of the unknown mean elements and an accurate transition matrix, converging osculating elements to mean elements can be accomplished over long elapsed times with quadratic convergence.
Hong Luo; Yidong Xia; Robert Nourgaliev; Chunpei Cai
2011-06-01
A reconstruction-based discontinuous Galerkin (RDG) method is presented for the solution of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured tetrahedral grids. The RDG method, originally developed for the compressible Euler equations, is extended to discretize viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations using a so-called inter-cell reconstruction, where a smooth solution is locally reconstructed using a least-squares method from the underlying discontinuous DG solution. Similar to the recovery-based DG (rDG) methods, this reconstructed DG method eliminates the introduction of ad hoc penalty or coupling terms commonly found in traditional DG methods. Unlike rDG methods, this RDG method does not need to judiciously choose a proper form of a recovered polynomial, thus is simple, flexible, and robust, and can be used on unstructured grids. The preliminary results indicate that this RDG method is stable on unstructured tetrahedral grids, and provides a viable and attractive alternative for the discretization of the viscous and heat fluxes in the Navier-Stokes equations.
Direct observation by X-ray analysis of the tetrahedral "intermediate" of aspartic proteinases.
Veerapandian, B.; Cooper, J. B.; Sali, A.; Blundell, T. L.; Rosati, R. L.; Dominy, B. W.; Damon, D. B.; Hoover, D. J.
1992-01-01
We report the X-ray analysis at 2.0 A resolution for crystals of the aspartic proteinase endothiapepsin (EC 3.4.23.6) complexed with a potent difluorostatone-containing tripeptide renin inhibitor (CP-81,282). The scissile bond surrogate, an electrophilic ketone, is hydrated in the complex. The pro-(R) (statine-like) hydroxyl of the tetrahedral carbonyl hydrate is hydrogen-bonded to both active-site aspartates 32 and 215 in the position occupied by a water in the native enzyme. The second hydroxyl oxygen of the hydrate is hydrogen-bonded only to the outer oxygen of Asp 32. These experimental data provide a basis for a model of the tetrahedral intermediate in aspartic proteinase-mediated cleavage of the amide bond. This indicates a mechanism in which Asp 32 is the proton donor and Asp 215 carboxylate polarizes a bound water for nucleophilic attack. The mechanism involves a carboxylate (Asp 32) that is stabilized by extensive hydrogen bonding, rather than an oxyanion derivative of the peptide as in serine proteinase catalysis. PMID:1304340
Direct atomic imaging and dynamical fluctuations of the tetrahedral Au20 cluster
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Z. W.; Palmer, R. E.
2012-07-01
We report real-space, atomic-resolution images of Au20 clusters obtained with the aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The proposed tetrahedral (FCC segment) pyramid structure is confirmed. The clusters cycle between isomers under the electron beam in the time-lapse images acquired. Disordered variants on the high symmetry forms are commonly observed. We believe that the direct experimental identification of these kinds of atomic structure, and the fluctuations between them, is fundamental to our understanding of nanoparticle structures, as well as applications such as heterogeneous catalysis.We report real-space, atomic-resolution images of Au20 clusters obtained with the aberration-corrected Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy. The proposed tetrahedral (FCC segment) pyramid structure is confirmed. The clusters cycle between isomers under the electron beam in the time-lapse images acquired. Disordered variants on the high symmetry forms are commonly observed. We believe that the direct experimental identification of these kinds of atomic structure, and the fluctuations between them, is fundamental to our understanding of nanoparticle structures, as well as applications such as heterogeneous catalysis. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The full-size images corresponding to Fig. 1(a) and (d). See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr31071f
Statistical Cosmology with Quadratic Density Fields
Peter Watts; Peter Coles
2002-08-15
Primordial fluctuations in the cosmic density are usually assumed to take the form of a Gaussian random field that evolves under the action of gravitational instability. In the early stages, while they have low amplitude, the fluctuations grow linearly. During this phase the Gaussian character of the fluctuations is preserved. Later on, when the fluctuations have amplitude of order the mean density or larger, non-linear effects cause departures from Gaussianity. In Fourier space, non-linearity is responsible for coupling Fourier modes and altering the initially random distribution of phases that characterizes Gaussian initial conditions. In this paper we investigate some of the effects of quadratic non-linearity on basic statistical properties of cosmological fluctuations. We demonstrate how this form of non-linearity can affect asymptotic properties of density fields such as homogeneity, ergodicity, and behaviour under smoothing. We also show how quadratic density fluctuations give rise to a particular relationship between the phases of different Fourier modes which, in turn, leads to the generation of a non-vanishing bispectrum. We thus elucidate the relationship between higher-order power spectra and phase distributions.
Rauh, R.D.; Rose, T.L.; Scoville, A.N.
1980-04-01
The work reported was directed towards evaluation of new amorphous compounds for application in solar cells. The ternary A/sup II/B/sup IV/C/sub 2//sup V/ chalcopyrite systems were selected because of their inexpensive constituent elements and tetrahedral geometry. Polycrystalline samples of the ternary arsenides with Cd and Zn as the group II element and Ge, Si, Sn as the group IV element were synthesized. Thin films were deposited by vacuum evaporation of the bulk ternary arsenides. The stoichiometries of the films were irreproducible and were usually deficient in the lower vapor pressure group IV element. Films made by evaporating polycrystalline ZnAs/sub 2/, which also has a tetrahedral bonding structure, had stoichiometries generally in the range from Zn/sub 3/As/sub 2/ to ZnAs/sub 2/. The former compound is formed by the decomposition of ZnAs/sub 2/ to Zn/sub 3/As/sub 2/ and As/sub 4/. The intermediate stoichiometries are thought to be mixtures of the decomposition products. Preliminary results from annealing of the films indicate that heat treatment produces the stoichiometries expected for one of the two forms of zinc arsenide. The as-deposited films are amorphous when the substrate temperature is kept below 100/sup 0/C. The a-ZnAs/sub x/ films were characterized. EDAX and Auger analysis showed that films were homogeneous in the plane of the substrate, but that some variation occurred in the depth profile of the films. This change in composition is consistent with the sample decomposition which occurs during the evaporation. The as-prepared films were p-type with room temperature resistivities on the order of 10/sup 2/-10/sup 4/..cap omega..-cm. Optical absorption measurements gave optical band gap values of 1.2 eV for a-Zn/sub 3/As/sub 2/ and 1.5 eV for a-ZnAs/sub 2/. The ZnAs/sub x/ films were photoconductive.
Zhang, Zhi-Qian
A three-dimensional immersed smoothed finite element method (3D IS-FEM) using four-node tetrahedral element is proposed to solve 3D fluid–structure interaction (FSI) problems. The 3D IS-FEM is able to determine accurately ...
Steller Structure Treatment of Quadratic Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y.; Shao, C.; Chen, X.
2001-07-01
A scheme for considering stellar structure by taking advantage of the quadratic theory of gravitation in four-dimensions is proposed, citing the fact that the possible deviation of gravity in astrophysical systems from the Newtonian inverse square law can be explained through the use of this theory. A modified Lane-Emden equation is derived by making use of the linearized static field equation of quadratic gravity and the polytropic equation of state for a fluid. The influence on stellar structure of the additional force included in quadratic gravity is investigated. It is shown that the additional force can be treated as a perturbation of a bound system by solutions of the modified Lane-Emden equation and an order-of-magnitude analysis. %ZY. Fujii, Nature (London) 234 (1971), 5; Phys. Rev. D9 (1974), 874. D. R. Long, Phys. Rev. D 9 (1974), 850. J. O'Hanlon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 29 (1972), 137. D. R. Mikkelson and M. J. Newman, Phys. Rev. D 16 (1977), 919. R. V. Wagoner, Phys. Rev. D 1 (1970), 3209. J. Z. Xu and Y. H. Chen, Gen. Relat. Gravit. J. 23 (1991), 169. K. S. Stelle, Gen. Relat. Gravit. J. 8 (1978), 631. C. Xu and G. F. R. Ellis, Class. Quant. Grav. 8 (1991), 1747. A. Eddington, The Mathematical Theory of Relativity, 2nd ed. (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1924). W. Pauli, Theory of Relativity (Pergamon Press, New York, 1921). H. A. Buchdahl, Proc. Edinburgh Math. Soc. 8 (1948), 89. J. D. Barrow and A. C. Ottewill, J. of Phys. A 16 (1983), 2757. M. B. Mijic, M. S. Morris and W. M. Suen, Phys. Rev. D 34 (1986), 2934. A. L. Berkin, Phys. Rev. D 42 (1990), 1017. N. D. Birrell and P. C. W. Davies, Quantum Field in Curved Space (Cambridge University Press, 1982). E. T. Tomboulis, Quantum Theory of Gravity, ed. S. M. Christensen (Bristol: Adam Hilger 1984). H. J. Treder, Ann. der Phys. 32 (1975), 383. S. Weinberg, Gravitation and Cosmology: Principles and Applications of the General Theory of Relativity (Wiley, New York 1972). E. N. Glass and G. Szamosi, Phys. Rev. D 35 (1987), 1205.
Quadratic quantum cosmology with Schutz' perfect fluid
Babak Vakili
2009-12-01
We study the classical and quantum models of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology, coupled to a perfect fluid, in the context of the $f(R)$ gravity. Using the Schutz' representation for the perfect fluid, we show that, under a particular gauge choice, it may lead to the identification of a time-parameter for the corresponding dynamical system. Moreover, this formalism gives rise to a Schr\\"{o}dinger-Wheeler-DeWitt (SWD) equation for the quantum-mechanical description of the model under consideration, the eigenfunctions of which can be used to construct the wavefunction of the Universe. In the case of $f(R)=R^2$ (pure quadratic model), for some particular choices of the perfect fluid source, exact solutions to the SWD equation can be obtained and the corresponding results are compared to the usual $f(R)=R$ model.
CPHD filters with unknown quadratic clutter generators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahler, Ronald
2015-05-01
Previous research has produced CPHD filters that can detect and track multiple targets in unknown, dynamically changing clutter. The .first such filters employed Poisson clutter generators and, as a result, were combinatorially complex. Recent research has shown that replacing the Poisson clutter generators with Bernoulli clutter generators results in computationally tractable CPHD filters. However, Bernoulli clutter generators are insufficiently complex to model real-world clutter with high accuracy, because they are statistically first-degree. This paper addresses the derivation and implementation of CPHD filters when first-degree Bernoulli clutter generators are replaced by second-degree quadratic clutter generators. Because these filters are combinatorially second-order, they are more easily approximated. They can also be implemented in exact closed form using beta-Gaussian mixture (BGM) or Dirichlet-Gaussian mixture (DGM) techniques.
Quadratic magnetic field dependence of magnetoelectric photocurrent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Junfeng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Cui, Xiaodong
2011-04-01
We experimentally study the spin and electric photocurrents excited by a linearly polarized light via direct interband transitions in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well. In the absence of a magnetic field, the linearly polarized light induces a pure spin current due to the spin-orbit coupling, which may be transformed into a measurable electric current by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The induced electric photocurrent is linear with the in-plane magnetic field. Here, we report a quadratic magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in the presence of an additional perpendicular component of the magnetic field. We attribute the observation to the Hall effect of magnetoelectric photocurrent.
Quadratic magnetic field dependence of magnetoelectric photocurrent
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Junfeng; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing; Zhang, Fu-Chun; Cui, Xiaodong
2012-02-01
We experimentally study the spin and electric photocurrents excited by a linearly polarized light via direct interband transitions in an InGaAs/InAlAs quantum well. In the absence of a magnetic field, the linearly polarized light induces a pure spin current due to the spin-orbit coupling, which may be transformed into a measurable electric current by applying an in-plane magnetic field. The induced electric photocurrent is linear with the in-plane magnetic field. Here, we report a quadratic magnetic field dependence of the photocurrent in the presence of an additional perpendicular component of the magnetic field. We attribute the observation to the Hall effect of magnetoelectric photocurrent.
Linear-quadratic games of resource depletion
Epple, D.; Hansen, L.P.; Roberds, W.
1983-01-01
In this paper we describe some methods for quantitatively analyzing dynamic, multiple agent models in which at least one agent takes into account his influence on the aggregate environment such as the degree of competitiveness in the petroleum industry. We confine our attention to models in which the agents solve stochastic, quadratic optimization problems subject to linear constraints. Discussion is presented in the context of a resource depletion example. The players are resource suppliers; the task is to compare their behavior when they play alternative dynamic games. Our approach to solving these models of dynamic games is first to deduce the stochastic Euler equations for each of the agents and then to simultaneously solve these stochastic Euler equations subject to the respective transversality conditions. The solution strategy involves factoring the characteristic polynomial of the system of stochastic difference equations. 22 refs.
Compact stars with quadratic equation of state
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ngubelanga, Sifiso A.; Maharaj, Sunil D.; Ray, Subharthi
2015-05-01
We provide new exact solutions to the Einstein-Maxwell system of equations for matter configurations with anisotropy and charge. The spacetime is static and spherically symmetric. A quadratic equation of state is utilised for the matter distribution. By specifying a particular form for one of the gravitational potentials and the electric field intensity we obtain new exact solutions in isotropic coordinates. In our general class of models, an earlier model with a linear equation of state is regained. For particular choices of parameters we regain the masses of the stars PSR J1614-2230, 4U 1608-52, PSR J1903+0327, EXO 1745-248 and SAX J1808.4-3658. A comprehensive physical analysis for the star PSR J1903+0327 reveals that our model is reasonable.
Contemporary Mathematics Heights and quadratic forms: Cassels' theorem and its
Fukshansky, Lenny
Contemporary Mathematics Heights and quadratic forms: Cassels' theorem and its generalizations Lenny Fukshansky Abstract. In this survey paper, we discuss the classical Cassels' theorem on existence as Cassels'-type theorems for small-height zeros of quadratic forms with additional conditions. We conclude
Analysis of Students' Error in Learning of Quadratic Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zakaria, Effandi; Ibrahim; Maat, Siti Mistima
2010-01-01
The purpose of the study was to determine the students' error in learning quadratic equation. The samples were 30 form three students from a secondary school in Jambi, Indonesia. Diagnostic test was used as the instrument of this study that included three components: factorization, completing the square and quadratic formula. Diagnostic interview…
ON THE ROLE OF QUADRATIC OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR SCHR
Fermanian Kammerer, Clotilde
ON THE ROLE OF QUADRATIC OSCILLATIONS IN NONLINEAR SCHR Ë? ODINGER EQUATIONS R â?? EMI CARLES that the nonlinear term has an e#ect at leading order only if the initial data have quadratic oscillations; the proof, CLOTILDE FERMANIAN KAMMERER, AND ISABELLE GALLAGHER Abstract. We consider a nonlinear semi--classical Schr
Quadratic kinetic equations are linear in the tensor product space
Grzybowski, H.T.
1988-10-01
It is shown that quadratic kinetic equations are linear in the tensor product space. The technique presented and applied to the Boltzmann equation renders quadratic operators linear and can be directly applied to equations having polynomial-type nonlinearities and describing the evolution of probability density functions or distributions.
QUADRATIC MINIMA AND MODULAR FORMS II Barry Brent
and Sloane have improved Siegel's bound in [Mallows, Odlyzko, and Sloane 1975].) John Hsia [private communication to Glenn Stevens] suggested that Siegel's a* *p- proach might be extended to higher levels, modular forms, * *quadratic forms, quadratic minima. The author is grateful to his advisor, Glenn
Nonlinear Quadratic Pricing for Concavifiable Utilities in Network Rate Control
Boutaba, Raouf
Nonlinear Quadratic Pricing for Concavifiable Utilities in Network Rate Control Quanyan Zhu of Waterloo Email: rboutaba@uwaterloo.ca Abstract--This paper deals with a category of concavifiable functions within an interval of interest using a quadratic pricing term so that we obtain as a result a concave
RQL: Global Placement via Relaxed Quadratic Spreading and Linearization
Chu, Chris C.-N.
gener- ated the best results at the two recent ISPD placement con- tests [13,14]. These analytic placersRQL: Global Placement via Relaxed Quadratic Spreading and Linearization Natarajan Viswanathan 1 that a good quadratic placement, followed by local wirelength-driven spreading can produce excellent results
Weaving a Parabola Web with the Quadratic Transformer
NSDL National Science Digital Library
2012-07-19
Investigate how the graph of a quadratic function and its symbolic expression relate to each other. Start with a set of four graphs, which we?ll call a Parabola Web. Experiment with manipulating them with transformations such as shifting and reflection. Learn about quadratic equations in vertex and root form, and explore how changing these equations affect the graphs.
Computing Symmetrized Weight Enumerators for Lifted Quadratic Residue Codes
Duursma, Iwan M.
Computing Symmetrized Weight Enumerators for Lifted Quadratic Residue Codes I. M. Duursma Dept of a disjoint weight enumerator. Symmetrized weight enumerators are given for the lifted quadratic residue codesÆciently compute weight enumerators of linear codes over primary integer residue rings. For the lifted QR
On copositive programming and standard quadratic optimization problems
Immanuel M. Bomze; Mirjam Dür; Etienne de Klerk; Cornelis Roos; Arie J. Quist; Tamás Terlaky
2000-01-01
A standard quadratic problem consists of finding global maximizers of a quadratic form over the standard simplex. In this paper, the usual semidefinite programming relaxation is strengthened by replacing the cone of positive semidefinite matrices by the cone of completely positive matrices (the positive semidefinite matrices which allow a factorization FFT whereF is some non-negative matrix). The dual of this
Effects of Classroom Instruction on Students' Understanding of Quadratic Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vaiyavutjamai, Pongchawee; Clements, M. A.
2006-01-01
Two hundred and thirty-one students in six Grade 9 classes in two government secondary schools located near Chiang Mai, Thailand, attempted to solve the same 18 quadratic equations before and after participating in 11 lessons on quadratic equations. Data from the students' written responses to the equations, together with data in the form of…
Tangent Lines without Derivatives for Quadratic and Cubic Equations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Carroll, William J.
2009-01-01
In the quadratic equation, y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c, the equation y = bx + c is identified as the equation of the line tangent to the parabola at its y-intercept. This is extended to give a convenient method of graphing tangent lines at any point on the graph of a quadratic or a cubic equation. (Contains 5 figures.)
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NONVARYING STRATA
Moeller, Martin
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NONÂVARYING STRATA DAWEI CHEN AND MARTIN M Ë? OLLER Abstract. We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic di#erentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6, 3, -1), (3
ENDS OF STRATA OF THE MODULI SPACE OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS
Boissy, Corentin
ENDS OF STRATA OF THE MODULI SPACE OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS CORENTIN BOISSY Abstract. Very few results are known about the topology of the strata of the moduli space of quadratic differentials. In this paper, we prove that any connected component of such strata has only one topological end. A typical flat
ENDS OF STRATA OF THE MODULI SPACE OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
ENDS OF STRATA OF THE MODULI SPACE OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS CORENTIN BOISSY Abstract. Very few results are known about the topology of the strata of the moduli space of quadratic differentials. In this pa- per, we prove that any connected component of such strata has only one topological end. A typical
A quadratic programming-based method for quantized system identification
Wang, Jiandong
) systems. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Keywords: SystemA quadratic programming-based method for quantized system identification Xian'en Liu Jiandong: This paper proposes a quadratic programming (QP)-based method, for linear dynamic system identification from
Towards classification of laminations associated to quadratic polynomials
Sutherland, Scott
Towards classification of laminations associated to quadratic polynomials A Dissertation, Presented of the Dissertation Towards classification of laminations associated to quadratic polynomials by Carlos Cabrera Doctor by Lyubich and Minsky. In particular, we prove that the topology of such laminations is de- termined
Quadratic Modeling Exercises Michael Herzog and Qiyam Tung
Lega, Joceline
. In some sense, you have all the tools you need: quadratics and solving systems of linear equations 4 engineers do in real life. Having said that, you will still get a good taste of why we need the quadratic equation, there is no sense of time. Velocity is the change of y with respect to time over x with respect
Elastic Model Transitions Using Quadratic Inequality Constrained Least Squares
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Orr, Jeb S.
2012-01-01
A technique is presented for initializing multiple discrete finite element model (FEM) mode sets for certain types of flight dynamics formulations that rely on superposition of orthogonal modes for modeling the elastic response. Such approaches are commonly used for modeling launch vehicle dynamics, and challenges arise due to the rapidly time-varying nature of the rigid-body and elastic characteristics. By way of an energy argument, a quadratic inequality constrained least squares (LSQI) algorithm is employed to e ect a smooth transition from one set of FEM eigenvectors to another with no requirement that the models be of similar dimension or that the eigenvectors be correlated in any particular way. The physically unrealistic and controversial method of eigenvector interpolation is completely avoided, and the discrete solution approximates that of the continuously varying system. The real-time computational burden is shown to be negligible due to convenient features of the solution method. Simulation results are presented, and applications to staging and other discontinuous mass changes are discussed
Quadratic algebras for three-dimensional superintegrable systems
Daskaloyannis, C. Tanoudis, Y.
2010-02-15
The three-dimensional superintegrable systems with quadratic integrals of motion have five functionally independent integrals, one among them is the Hamiltonian. Kalnins, Kress, and Miller have proved that in the case of nondegenerate potentials with quadratic integrals of motion there is a sixth quadratic integral, which is linearly independent of the other integrals. The existence of this sixth integral implies that the integrals of motion form a ternary parafermionic-like quadratic Poisson algebra with five generators. In this contribution we investigate the structure of this algebra. We show that in all the nondegenerate cases there is at least one subalgebra of three integrals having a Poisson quadratic algebra structure, which is similar to the two-dimensional case.
Quadratic divergences and quantum gravitational contributions to gauge coupling constants
Toms, David J. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)
2011-10-15
The calculation of quadratic divergences in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a possible cosmological constant is considered. We describe a method of calculation, using the background-field method, that is sensitive to quadratic divergences, is respectful of gauge invariance, and is independent of gauge conditions. A standard renormalization group analysis is applied to the result where it is shown that the quadratic divergences do lead to asymptotic freedom as found in the original paper of Robinson and Wilczek. The role and nature of these quadratic divergences is critically evaluated in light of recent criticism. Within the context of the background-field method, it is shown that it is possible to define the charge in a physically motivated way in which the quadratic divergences do not play a role. This latter view is studied in more depth in a toy model described in an appendix.
Quadratic divergences and quantum gravitational contributions to gauge coupling constants
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Toms, David J.
2011-10-01
The calculation of quadratic divergences in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a possible cosmological constant is considered. We describe a method of calculation, using the background-field method, that is sensitive to quadratic divergences, is respectful of gauge invariance, and is independent of gauge conditions. A standard renormalization group analysis is applied to the result where it is shown that the quadratic divergences do lead to asymptotic freedom as found in the original paper of Robinson and Wilczek. The role and nature of these quadratic divergences is critically evaluated in light of recent criticism. Within the context of the background-field method, it is shown that it is possible to define the charge in a physically motivated way in which the quadratic divergences do not play a role. This latter view is studied in more depth in a toy model described in an appendix.
On the stability of tetrahedral relative equilibria in the positively curved 4-body problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diacu, Florin; Martínez, Regina; Pérez-Chavela, Ernesto; Simó, Carles
2013-08-01
We consider the motion of point masses given by a natural extension of Newtonian gravitation to spaces of constant positive curvature, in which the gravitational attraction between the bodies acts along geodesics. We aim to explore the spectral stability of tetrahedral orbits of the corresponding 4-body problem in the 2-dimensional case, a situation that can be reduced to studying the motion of the bodies on the unit sphere. We first perform some extensive and highly precise numerical experiments to find the likely regions of stability and instability, relative to the values of the masses and to the latitude of the position of the three equal masses. Then we support the numerical evidence with rigorous analytic proofs in the vicinity of some limit cases in which certain masses are either very large or negligible, or the latitude is close to zero.
Single walled carbon nanotube network—Tetrahedral amorphous carbon composite film
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iyer, Ajai; Kaskela, Antti; Johansson, Leena-Sisko; Liu, Xuwen; Kauppinen, Esko I.; Koskinen, Jari
2015-06-01
Single walled carbon nanotube network (SWCNTN) was coated by tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) using a pulsed Filtered Cathodic Vacuum Arc system to form a SWCNTN—ta-C composite film. The effects of SWCNTN areal coverage density and ta-C coating thickness on the composite film properties were investigated. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements prove the presence of high quality sp3 bonded ta-C coating on the SWCNTN. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) forming the network survived encapsulation in the ta-C coating. Nano-mechanical testing suggests that the ta-C coated SWCNTN has superior wear performance compared to uncoated SWCNTN.
On nuclear spin statistics in rotational transition intensities in tetrahedral AB4 molecules
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosenberg, A.; Susskind, J.
1979-01-01
A general expression is derived for the integrated intensity of rotational transitions in the vibronic ground state of tetrahedral molecules, taking into account the nuclear spin statistics. It is shown that the ratio of this expression to previously published spin-free integrated intensities depends only on the tensor character N of the operator driving the transition, the appropriate rotational quantum numbers J and J', and the nuclear spin of the identical nuclei. Tables are given for N = 3, 4 and J no more than 50, which enable the calculation of integrated intensities for octopole and hexadecapole collision-induced dipole-moment transitions, centrifugal-distortion-induced dipole-moment transitions, and centrifugal-distortion-induced anisotropic-polarizability-tensor Raman transitions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lalvani, Haresh; Collins, Timothy J.
1991-01-01
Morphology (the study of structure and form) of the octahedral-tetrahedral (octet) truss is described. Both the geometry and symmetry of the octet truss are considered. Morphological techniques based on symmetry operations are presented which enable the derivation of reduced-part-count truss configurations from the octet truss by removing struts and nodes. These techniques are unique because their Morphological origination and they allow for the systematic generation and analysis of a large variety of structures. Methods for easily determining the part count and redundancy of infinite truss configurations are presented. Nine examples of truss configurations obtained by applying the derivation techniques are considered. These configurations are structurally stable while at the same time exhibiting significant reductions in part count. Some practical and analytical considerations, such as structural performance, regarding the example reduced-part-count truss geometries are briefly discussed.
Tetrahedral symmetry in nuclei: Search for its fingerprints in the Actinide and Rare-Earth regions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curien, D.; Dudek, J.; Mazurek, K.
2010-01-01
In series of recent theory articles, predictions have been formulated suggesting the existence of nuclear states whose mean-field Hamiltonians and thus the implied geometrical shapes, are characterized by tetrahedral symmetry. Following these publications, series of experiments for the Rare-Earth region have been proposed and performed. In this article, we shortly summarize the theory evolution developed in the original articles and discuss the status of the issue in light of the preliminary results of the ongoing experimental analyses. More recent theoretical results cross checked with extended literature investigations, suggest that the Actinide region might contain the best experimental candidates to investigate the fingerprints of the symmetry. A proposition is made to prove it via lifetime measurements with the so-called "microwave method".
Electric dipole moments in {sup 230,232}U and implications for tetrahedral shapes
Ntshangase, S. S. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Bark, R. A.; Datta, P.; Lawrie, E. A.; Lawrie, J. J.; Lieder, R. M.; Mullins, S. M. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Aschman, D. G.; Mohammed, H.; Stankiewicz, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7700 (South Africa); Bvumbi, S.; Masiteng, P. L.; Shirinda, O. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville ZA-7535 (South Africa); Davidson, P. M.; Nieminen, P.; Wilson, A. N. [Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Dinoko, T. S.; Sharpey-Shafer, J. F. [Department of Physics, University of the Western Cape, Bellville ZA-7535 (South Africa); Elbasher, M. E. A. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, 7601 Matieland (South Africa); Juhasz, K. [Department of Information Technology, University of Debrecen, Egyetem ter 1, H-4032 Debrecen (Hungary)
2010-10-15
The nuclei {sup 230}U and {sup 232}U were populated in the compound nucleus reactions {sup 232}Th({alpha},6n) and {sup 232}Th({alpha},4n), respectively. Gamma rays from these nuclei were observed in coincidence with a recoil detector. A comprehensive set of in-band E2 transitions were observed in the lowest lying negative-parity band of {sup 232}U while one E2 transition was also observed for {sup 230}U. These allowed B(E1;I{sup -{yields}}I{sup +}-1)/B(E2;I{sup -{yields}}I{sup -}-2) ratios to be extracted and compared with systematics. The values are similar to those of their Th and Ra isotones. The possibility of a tetrahedral shape for the negative-parity U bands appears difficult to reconcile with the measured Q{sub 2} values for the isotone {sup 226}Ra.
X-ray topography of a natural twinned diamond of unusual pseudo-tetrahedral morphology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fritsch, Emmanuel; Moore, Moreton; Rondeau, Benjamin; Waggett, Richard G.
2005-06-01
The internal morphology of a natural twinned diamond was investigated using X-ray section topography. The diamond consisted of two crystals joined along a {1 1 1} plane whose remote ends were triangular {1 1 1} faces with sizes approximately 4 mm on the edge. A coating of fibrous growth obscured the morphology of the good quality diamond inside. Although the coat displayed re-entrant surfaces near the twin plane along three edges of the crystal, X-ray topography showed the inner crystal to protrude outwards along these same edges. The good quality inner core displayed the classical "spinel law" twinned octahedral morphology whereas the fibrous rim showed a typical sphalerite-like twinned tetrahedral morphology. A possible growth mechanism which could account for this is discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ryltsev, R. E.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.
2013-11-01
The local order units of dense simple liquid are typically three-dimensional (close packed) clusters: hcp, fcc, and icosahedrons. We show that the fluid demonstrates the superstable tetrahedral local order up to temperatures several orders of magnitude higher than the melting temperature and down to critical density. While the solid-like local order (hcp, fcc) disappears in the fluid at much lower temperatures and far above critical density. We conclude that the supercritical fluid shows the temperature (density)-driven two-stage “melting” of the three-dimensional local order. We also find that the structure relaxation times in the supercritical fluid are much larger than ones estimated for weakly interactive gas even far above the melting line.
Amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon layered structures resulting from film growth energetics
Siegal, M.P.; Barbour, J.C.; Provencio, P.N.; Tallant, D.R.; Friedmann, T.A. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1421 (United States)
1998-08-01
High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) shows that amorphous-tetrahedral diamondlike carbon (a-tC) films grown by pulsed-laser deposition on Si(100) consist of three-to-four layers, depending on the growth energetics. We estimate the density of each layer using both HRTEM image contrast and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. The first carbon layer and final surface layer have relatively low density. The bulk of the film between these two layers has higher density. For films grown under the most energetic conditions, there exists a superdense a-tC layer between the interface and bulk layers. The density of all four layers, and the thickness of the surface and interfacial layers, correlate well with the energetics of the depositing carbon species. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}
Quantifying tetrahedral adduct formation and stabilization in the cysteine and the serine proteases.
Cleary, Jennifer A; Doherty, William; Evans, Paul; Malthouse, J Paul G
2015-10-01
Two new papain inhibitors have been synthesized where the terminal ?-carboxyl groups of Z-Phe-Ala-COOH and Ac-Phe-Gly-COOH have been replaced by a proton to give Z-Phe-Ala-H and Ac-Phe-Gly-H. We show that for papain, replacing the terminal carboxylate group of a peptide inhibitor with a hydrogen atom decreases binding 3-4 fold while replacing an aldehyde or glyoxal group with a hydrogen atom decreases binding by 300,000-1,000,000 fold. Thiohemiacetal formation by papain with aldehyde or glyoxal inhibitors is shown to be ~10,000 times more effective than hemiacetal or hemiketal formation with chymotrypsin. It is shown using effective molarities, that for papain, thiohemiacetal stabilization is more effective with aldehyde inhibitors than with glyoxal inhibitors. The effective molarity obtained when papain is inhibited by an aldehyde inhibitor is similar to the effective molarity obtained when chymotrypsin is inhibited by glyoxal inhibitors showing that both enzymes can stabilize tetrahedral adducts by similar amounts. Therefore the greater potency of aldehyde and glyoxal inhibitors with papain is not due to greater thiohemiacetal stabilization by papain compared to the hemiketal and hemiacetal stabilization by chymotrypsin, instead it reflects the greater intrinsic reactivity of the catalytic thiol group of papain compared to the catalytic hydroxyl group of chymotrypsin. It is argued that while the hemiacetals and thiohemiacetals formed with the serine and cysteine proteases respectively can mimic the catalytic tetrahedral intermediate they are also analogues of the productive and non-productive acyl intermediates that can be formed with the cysteine and serine proteases. PMID:26169698
Turner, C. David; Kotulski, Joseph Daniel; Pasik, Michael Francis
2005-12-01
This report investigates the feasibility of applying Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) techniques to a vector finite element formulation for the wave equation in three dimensions. Possible error estimators are considered first. Next, approaches for refining tetrahedral elements are reviewed. AMR capabilities within the Nevada framework are then evaluated. We summarize our conclusions on the feasibility of AMR for time-domain vector finite elements and identify a path forward.
A Possible Test for Quadratic Gravity in $d \\ge 4$ dimensions
Janusz Garecki
2002-01-03
In this letter we consider the Einsteinian strengths and dynamical degrees of freedom for quadratic gravity. We show that purely metric quadratic gravity theories are much stronger in Einsteinian sense than the competitive quadratic gravity theories which admit torsion.
A decentralized linear quadratic control design method for flexible structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Su, Tzu-Jeng; Craig, Roy R., Jr.
1990-01-01
A decentralized suboptimal linear quadratic control design procedure which combines substructural synthesis, model reduction, decentralized control design, subcontroller synthesis, and controller reduction is proposed for the design of reduced-order controllers for flexible structures. The procedure starts with a definition of the continuum structure to be controlled. An evaluation model of finite dimension is obtained by the finite element method. Then, the finite element model is decomposed into several substructures by using a natural decomposition called substructuring decomposition. Each substructure, at this point, still has too large a dimension and must be reduced to a size that is Riccati-solvable. Model reduction of each substructure can be performed by using any existing model reduction method, e.g., modal truncation, balanced reduction, Krylov model reduction, or mixed-mode method. Then, based on the reduced substructure model, a subcontroller is designed by an LQ optimal control method for each substructure independently. After all subcontrollers are designed, a controller synthesis method called substructural controller synthesis is employed to synthesize all subcontrollers into a global controller. The assembling scheme used is the same as that employed for the structure matrices. Finally, a controller reduction scheme, called the equivalent impulse response energy controller (EIREC) reduction algorithm, is used to reduce the global controller to a reasonable size for implementation. The EIREC reduced controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has the property of matching low-frequency moments and low-frequency power moments. An advantage of the substructural controller synthesis method is that it relieves the computational burden associated with dimensionality. Besides that, the SCS design scheme is also a highly adaptable controller synthesis method for structures with varying configuration, or varying mass and stiffness properties.
Generation of 2D and 3D (PtS, Adamantanoid) Nets with a Flexible Tetrahedral Building Block
Tian, Jian; Motkuri, Radha K.; Thallapally, Praveen K.
2010-09-01
The self-assembly of a flexible tetrahedral linker tetrakis[4-(carboxyphenyl)oxamethyl]methane acid with various transition metals (Cu, Co and Mg) results in a 2D layered structure and 3D frameworks with PtS and adamantanoid topology. The PtS net exhibits permanent porosity as confirmed by BET and gas adsorption experiments.
Frey, Pascal
be either continuous or discontinuous. By tracking the change of q it is possible to identify the locationA novel coupled level set and volume of fluid method for sharp interface capturing on 3D 2009 Available online 14 December 2009 Keywords: VOF Level set Free surface Tetrahedral grid Finite
Ren, Dong-Hong; Qiu, Dan; Pang, Chun-Yan; Li, Zaijun; Gu, Zhi-Guo
2015-01-14
A new class of chiral tetrahedral iron(II) cages were prepared from subcomponent self-assembly with high diastereoselectivity. The cages can be interconverted through imine exchange. The chiral cages displayed a spin transition close to room temperature, and the transition temperatures were affected by the substituent and uncoordinated solvents. PMID:25426503
Francesca Aicardi
2008-03-27
The continue fractions of quadratic surds are periodic, according to a theorem by Lagrange. Their periods may have differing types of symmetries. This work relates these types of symmetries to the symmetries of the classes of the corresponding indefinite quadratic forms. This allows to classify the periods of quadratic surds and at the same time to find, for an arbitrary indefinite quadratic form, the symmetry type of its class and the number of integer points, for that class, contained in each domain of the Poincare' model of the de Sitter world, introduced in Part I. Moreover, we obtain the same information for every class of forms representing zero, by the finite continue fraction related to a special representative of that class. We will see finally the relation between the reduction procedure for indefinite quadratic forms, defined by the continued fractions, and the classical reduction theory, which acquires a geometrical description by the results of Part I.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khoreshok, A. A.; Mametyev, L. E.; Borisov, A. Yu; Vorobyev, A. V.
2015-09-01
Presents the results of modeling the stress-strain state in the mating structural elements of the attachment disk tools various design on triangular and tetrahedral prisms working bodies of roadheaders selective action in the destruction of coalface of heterogeneous structure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibson, J. S.; Rosen, I. G.
1986-01-01
An abstract approximation framework is developed for the finite and infinite time horizon discrete-time linear-quadratic regulator problem for systems whose state dynamics are described by a linear semigroup of operators on an infinite dimensional Hilbert space. The schemes included the framework yield finite dimensional approximations to the linear state feedback gains which determine the optimal control law. Convergence arguments are given. Examples involving hereditary and parabolic systems and the vibration of a flexible beam are considered. Spline-based finite element schemes for these classes of problems, together with numerical results, are presented and discussed.
Models for the 3D singular isotropic oscillator quadratic algebra
Kalnins, E. G.; Miller, W.; Post, S.
2010-02-15
We give the first explicit construction of the quadratic algebra for a 3D quantum superintegrable system with nondegenerate (4-parameter) potential together with realizations of irreducible representations of the quadratic algebra in terms of differential-differential or differential-difference and difference-difference operators in two variables. The example is the singular isotropic oscillator. We point out that the quantum models arise naturally from models of the Poisson algebras for the corresponding classical superintegrable system. These techniques extend to quadratic algebras for superintegrable systems in n dimensions and are closely related to Hecke algebras and multivariable orthogonal polynomials.
Estimation of wildlife populations using the quadrat method of sampling
Hribar, John Richard
1970-01-01
, method is that, in order to insure any accuracy at all, it is necessary to sample a large number of quadrate, usually far more than the budget would permit. In practical experi- ence, then, it is the usual procedure to sample as many quadrate... CHAPTER III MODIFICATION OF THE METHOD 3. 1 Need for Modification Experience has shown that the assumption most difficult to satisfy is that of l~ accuracy in enumerating the animals in each of the sampled quadrate. All too often, animals are not seen...
A Quadratic Closure for Compressible Turbulence
Futterman, J A
2008-09-16
We have investigated a one-point closure model for compressible turbulence based on third- and higher order cumulant discard for systems undergoing rapid deformation, such as might occur downstream of a shock or other discontinuity. In so doing, we find the lowest order contributions of turbulence to the mean flow, which lead to criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement. Rapid distortion theory (RDT) as originally applied by Herring closes the turbulence hierarchy of moment equations by discarding third order and higher cumulants. This is similar to the fourth-order cumulant discard hypothesis of Millionshchikov, except that the Millionshchikov hypothesis was taken to apply to incompressible homogeneous isotropic turbulence generally, whereas RDT is applied only to fluids undergoing a distortion that is 'rapid' in the sense that the interaction of the mean flow with the turbulence overwhelms the interaction of the turbulence with itself. It is also similar to Gaussian closure, in which both second and fourth-order cumulants are retained. Motivated by RDT, we develop a quadratic one-point closure for rapidly distorting compressible turbulence, without regard to homogeneity or isotropy, and make contact with two equation turbulence models, especially the K-{var_epsilon} and K-L models, and with linear instability growth. In the end, we arrive at criteria for Adaptive Mesh Refinement in Finite Volume simulations.
Optimal power flow using sequential quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejdawi, Imad M.
1999-11-01
Optimal power flow (OPF) is an operational as well as a planning tool used by electric utilities to help them operate their network in the most economic and secure mode of operation. Various algorithms to solve the OPF problem evolved over the past three decades; linear programming (LP) techniques were among the major mathematical programming methods utilized. The linear models of the objective function and the linearization of the constraints are the main features of these techniques. The main advantages of the LP approach are simplicity and speed. Nonlinear programming techniques have been applied to OPF solution. The major drawback is the expensive solution of large sparse systems of equations. This research is concerned with the development of a new OPF solution algorithm using sequential quadratic programming (SQP). In this formulation, a small dense system the size of which is equal to the number of control variables is solved in an inner loop. The Jacobian and Hessian terms are calculated in an outer loop. The total number of outer loop iterations is comparable to those in an ordinary load flow in contrast to 20--30 iterations in other nonlinear methods. In addition, the total number of floating point operations is less than that encountered in direct methods by two orders of magnitude. We also model dispatch over a twenty four-hour time horizon in a transmission constrained power network that includes price-responsive loads where large energy customers can operate their loads in time intervals with lowest spot prices.
Are ghost surfaces quadratic-flux-minimizing?
S. R. Hudson; R. L. Dewar
2010-01-02
Two candidates for "almost-invariant" toroidal surfaces passing through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMin) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use families of periodic pseudo-orbits (i.e. paths for which the action is not exactly extremal). QFMin pseudo-orbits, which are coordinate-dependent, are field lines obtained from a modified magnetic field, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest descent of magnetic action, $\\oint \\vec{A}\\cdot\\mathbf{dl}$. A generalized Hamiltonian definition of ghost surfaces is given and specialized to the usual Lagrangian definition. A modified Hamilton's Principle is introduced that allows the use of Lagrangian integration for calculation of the QFMin pseudo-orbits. Numerical calculations show QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces give very similar results for a chaotic magnetic field perturbed from an integrable case, and this is explained using a perturbative construction of an auxiliary poloidal angle for which QFMin and Lagrangian ghost surfaces are the same up to second order. While presented in the context of 3-dimensional magnetic field line systems, the concepts are applicable to defining almost-invariant tori in other $1{1/2}$ degree-of-freedom nonintegrable Lagrangian/Hamiltonian systems.
Quadratic gravity from BF theory in two and three dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paszko, Ricardo; da Rocha, Roldão
2015-08-01
A polynomial action in the gauge fields is proposed for two and three dimensions, reproducing quadratic gravity. Such action is further amenable for quantization and based upon the topological BF theory.
Controlling the disorder properties of quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals
Arie, Ady
Controlling the disorder properties of quadratic nonlinear photonic crystals Idith Varon,* Gil demonstrate a modulation scheme for disordered nonlinear crystals that combines periodic modulation and disordered sections. The crystal is divided into a set of identical periodically poled building blocks
Quadratic discrete Fourier transform and mutually unbiased bases
Maurice Robert Kibler
2010-10-28
The present chapter [submitted for publication in "Fourier Transforms, Theory and Applications", G. Nikolic (Ed.), InTech (Open Access Publisher), Vienna, 2011] is concerned with the introduction and study of a quadratic discrete Fourier transform. This Fourier transform can be considered as a two-parameter extension, with a quadratic term, of the usual discrete Fourier transform. In the case where the two parameters are taken to be equal to zero, the quadratic discrete Fourier transform is nothing but the usual discrete Fourier transform. The quantum quadratic discrete Fourier transform plays an important role in the field of quantum information. In particular, such a transformation in prime dimension can be used for obtaining a complete set of mutually unbiased bases.
ON GENERALIZED NEWTON ALGORITHMS : QUADRATIC CONVERGENCE, PATH-FOLLOWING
Malajovich, Gregorio
ON GENERALIZED NEWTON ALGORITHMS : QUADRATIC CONVERGENCE, PATH-FOLLOWING AND ERROR ANALYSIS GREGORIO MALAJOVICH Abstract. Newton iteration is known (under some precise conditions) to con- verge) to actually compute Newton iteration exactly. In this paper, approximate Newton iteration is investigated
An efficiently solvable quadratic program for stabilizing dynamic locomotion
Kuindersma, Scott
We describe a whole-body dynamic walking controller implemented as a convex quadratic program. The controller solves an optimal control problem using an approximate value function derived from a simple walking model while ...
Scale-invariant rotating black holes in quadratic gravity
Guido Cognola; Massimiliano Rinaldi; Luciano Vanzo
2015-07-21
Black hole solutions in pure quadratic theories of gravity are interesting since they allow to formulate a set of scale-invariant thermodynamics laws. Recently, we have proven that static scale-invariant black holes have a well-defined entropy, which characterizes equivalent classes of solutions. In this paper, we generalize these results and explore the thermodynamics of rotating black holes in pure quadratic gravity.
The period function of reversible quadratic centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mardeši?, P.; Marín, D.; Villadelprat, J.
In this paper we investigate the bifurcation diagram of the period function associated to a family of reversible quadratic centers, namely the dehomogenized Loud's systems. The local bifurcation diagram of the period function at the center is fully understood using the results of Chicone and Jacobs [C. Chicone, M. Jacobs, Bifurcation of critical periods for plane vector fields, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 312 (1989) 433-486]. Most of the present paper deals with the local bifurcation diagram at the polycycle that bounds the period annulus of the center. The techniques that we use here are different from the ones in [C. Chicone, M. Jacobs, Bifurcation of critical periods for plane vector fields, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 312 (1989) 433-486] because, while the period function extends analytically at the center, it has no smooth extension to the polycycle. At best one can hope that it has some asymptotic expansion. Another major difficulty is that the asymptotic development has to be uniform with respect to the parameters, in order to prove that a parameter is not a bifurcation value. We study also the bifurcations in the interior of the period annulus and we show that there exist three germs of curves in the parameter space that correspond to this type of bifurcation. Moreover we determine some regions in the parameter space for which the corresponding period function has at least one or two critical periods. Finally we propose a complete conjectural bifurcation diagram of the period function of the dehomogenized Loud's systems. Our results can also be viewed as a contribution to the proof of Chicone's conjecture [C. Chicone, review in MathSciNet, ref. 94h:58072].
Quadratic weighted median filters for edge enhancement of noisy images.
Aysal, Tuncer Can; Barner, Kenneth E
2006-11-01
Quadratic Volterra filters are effective in image sharpening applications. The linear combination of polynomial terms, however, yields poor performance in noisy environments. Weighted median (WM) filters, in contrast, are well known for their outlier suppression and detail preservation properties. The WM sample selection methodology is naturally extended to the quadratic sample case, yielding a filter structure referred to as quadratic weighted median (QWM) that exploits the higher order statistics of the observed samples while simultaneously being robust to outliers arising in the higher order statistics of environment noise. Through statistical analysis of higher order samples, it is shown that, although the parent Gaussian distribution is light tailed, the higher order terms exhibit heavy-tailed distributions. The optimal combination of terms contributing to a quadratic system, i.e., cross and square, is approached from a maximum likelihood perspective which yields the WM processing of these terms. The proposed QWM filter structure is analyzed through determination of the output variance and breakdown probability. The studies show that the QWM exhibits lower variance and breakdown probability indicating the robustness of the proposed structure. The performance of the QWM filter is tested on constant regions, edges and real images, and compared to its weighted-sum dual, the quadratic Volterra filter. The simulation results show that the proposed method simultaneously suppresses the noise and enhances image details. Compared with the quadratic Volterra sharpener, the QWM filter exhibits superior qualitative and quantitative performance in noisy image sharpening. PMID:17076391
Chen, Yuanyuan; Farquhar, Erik R.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D.
2012-01-01
Aminopeptidases are key enzymes involved in the regulation of signaling peptide activity. Here, we present a detailed biochemical and structural analysis of an evolutionary highly conserved aspartyl aminopeptidase called DNPEP. We show that this peptidase can cleave multiple physiologically relevant substrates, including angiotensins, and thus may play a key role in regulating neuron function. Using a combination of x-ray crystallography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and single particle electron microscopy analysis, we provide the first detailed structural analysis of DNPEP. We show that this enzyme possesses a binuclear zinc-active site in which one of the zinc ions is readily exchangeable with other divalent cations such as manganese, which strongly stimulates the enzymatic activity of the protein. The plasticity of this metal-binding site suggests a mechanism for regulation of DNPEP activity. We also demonstrate that DNPEP assembles into a functionally relevant tetrahedral complex that restricts access of peptide substrates to the active site. These structural data allow rationalization of the enzyme's preference for short peptide substrates with N-terminal acidic residues. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the physiology and bioinorganic chemistry of DNPEP and other M18 family aminopeptidases. PMID:22356908
Sala, Alessandro; Turini, Giuseppe; Ferrari, Mauro; Mosca, Franco; Ferrari, Vincenzo
2011-01-01
Surgical simulation requires to have an operating scenario as similar as possible to the real conditions that the surgeon is going to face. Not only visual and geometric patient properties are needed to be reproduced, but also physical and biomechanical properties are theoretically required. In this paper a physically based patient specific simulator for solid organs is described, recalling the underlying theory and providing simulation results and comparisons. The main biomechanical parameters (Young's modulus and density) have been integrated in a Mass-Spring-Damper model (MSDm) based on a tetrahedral structured network. The proposed algorithms allow the automatic setting of node mass and spring stiffness, while the damping coefficient have been modeled using the Rayleigh approach. Moreover, the method automatically detects the organ external layer, allowing the usage of both the surface and internal Young's moduli: for the capsule (or stroma) and for the internal part (or parenchyma). Finally the model can be manually tuned to represent lesions with specific biomechanical properties. The method has beed tested with various material samples. The results have shown a good visual realism ensuring the performance required by an interactive simulation. PMID:22255350
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Aiping; Zhu, Jiaqi; Han, Jiecai; Wu, Huaping; Jia, Zechun
2007-09-01
We investigate the growth process and structural properties of phosphorus incorporated tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C:P) films which are deposited at different substrate biases by filtered cathodic vacuum arc technique with PH 3 as the dopant source. The films are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, residual stress measurement, UV/VIS/NIR absorption spectroscopy and temperature-dependent conductivity measurement. The atomic fraction of phosphorus in the films as a function of substrate bias is obtained by XPS analysis. The optimum bias for phosphorus incorporation is about -80 V. Raman spectra show that the amorphous structures of all samples with atomic-scaled smooth surface are not remarkably changed when PH 3 is implanted, but some small graphitic crystallites are formed. Moreover, phosphorus impurities and higher-energetic impinging ions are favorable for the clustering of sp 2 sites dispersed in sp 3 skeleton and increase the level of structural ordering for ta-C:P films, which further releases the compressive stress and enhances the conductivity of the films. Our analysis establishes an interrelationship between microstructure, stress state, electrical properties, and substrate bias, which helps to understand the deposition mechanism of ta-C:P films.
Non-Axial Octupole Deformations and Tetrahedral Symmetry in Heavy Nuclei
Mazurek, Katarzyna [Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Cracow (Poland); Dudek, Jerzy [Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Universite Louis Pasteur, F-67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)
2005-11-21
The total energies of about 120 nuclei in the Thorium region have been calculated within the macroscopic-microscopic method in the 5-dimensional space of deformation parameters {alpha}20, {alpha}22, {alpha}30, {alpha}32 and {alpha}40. The macroscopic energy term contains the nuclear surface-curvature dependence as proposed within the LSD approach. The microscopic energies are calculated with the Woods-Saxon single particle potential employing the universal set of parameters.We study a possible presence of the octupole axial and non-axial degrees of freedom all-over in the ({beta}, {gamma})-plane focussing on the ground-states, secondary minima and in the saddle points. In fact, a competition between axial and tri-axial octupole deformation parameters is obtained at the saddle points and in the secondary minima for many isotones with N > 136. The presence of the tetrahedral symmetry minima is predicted in numerous nuclei in the discussed region, although most of the time at relatively high excitation energies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yeo, Reuben J.; Dwivedi, Neeraj; Tripathy, S.; Bhatia, C. S.
2015-03-01
Developing ultrathin and highly wear-resistant overcoats for magnetic tape heads is one of the current research areas of interest, because of its potential to delay pole tip recession and increase the operational lifetime of high areal density tape drives. Using optimized process conditions and an appropriate overcoat design, we report on the development of a ˜20 nm thick silicon nitride/tetrahedral amorphous carbon (Si/SiNx/ta-C) bilayer overcoat, where the ta-C film was deposited by a filtered cathodic vacuum arc process. The bilayer overcoat deposited on a functional tape head survived 40-50 × 106 m of testing with commercial tape media under standard industrial testing conditions. The excellent wear resistance of the overcoat was attributed to the generation of high (˜72%) sp3 carbon content and the formation of strong interfacial bonds, such as Si-C, C=N, nitrile, and (Al, Ti)N at the interfaces, as confirmed by various spectroscopic techniques. This study demonstrates the pivotal role of high sp3 carbon bonding combined with enhanced interfacial bonding in developing an ultrathin yet durable protective overcoat for magnetic tape heads.
Symmetric High Convergence Double-Shell Capsule Implosions Using Tetrahedral Hohlraums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watt, R. G.; Delamater, Norman D.; Gobby, Peter L.; Gomez, Veronica M.; Moore, Joyce E.; Pollak, Gregory D.; Varnum, William S.; Colvin, Jeffrey D.
1999-11-01
Double-shell capsules have historically been ignored as too hydrodynamically unstable to reach ignition and high gain at low energies in available laboratory facilities. Recent non-cryogenic double shell ignition target designs for NIF have led to an experimental program on double shell implosions. Recent "tetrahedral" hohlraum implosions at Omega with several new double shell target designs, intended to either shield the inner glass microballoon from Au M band preheat or to reduce absorption of M band preheat by the inner shell and to allow imaging of the compressed core, show improved YOC, relative to the 1-2% historical observations. Initial implosion results show significantly improved YOC with burn averaged convergence ratios equal to that of current NIF double shell ignition target designs. In particular, several of the capsules had YOC near 1 at a burn averaged CR of 27, the highest YOC seen to date at such a convergence ratio. Primary diagnostics in these implosions have been neutron measurements, with compressed core imaging added in the recent experiments. Individual implosion data and comparisons between all NOVA and OMEGA double shell implosions, as well as available single shell data will be presented.
Zhang, Xiu-Ling; Cheng, Kai; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jian
2014-01-01
Presented here are three imidazole-linked tetrahedral zinc phosphonate frameworks based on a special ligand 2-(1-imidazole)-1-hydroxyl-1,1'-ethylidenediphosphonic acid (= ImhedpH4) with both an organic imidazole linker and inorganic phosphonate groups. Three new compounds, namely, [Zn2(ImhedpH2)2(ox)](H2ppz) (1), Zn3(ImhedpH)2(H2O)4 (2) and [Zn3(Imhedp)2](H2ppz) (3) (ox = oxalate and ppz = piperazine), were obtained by hydrothermal synthesis and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 shows a chain structure with the ox ligands linking the [Zn2(ImhedpH2)2] units, and the resulting chains are further connected to form a 3D structure through the strong N-H···O and O-H···O hydrogen bonds between the neighboring chains. Compound 2 displays an inorganic layer structure with dangling imidazole units, where these protonated imidazoles also act as pillars between adjacent inorganic layers. Compound 3 features an unusual chiral three-dimensional (3D) Zn-Imhedp framework with guest H2ppz(2+) cations. It can be topologically represented as a 4-connected qtz network. Furthermore, the luminescent properties of the three compounds were investigated in the solid state. PMID:24100382
Chen, Yuanyuan; Farquhar, Erik R.; Chance, Mark R.; Palczewski, Krzysztof; Kiser, Philip D. (Case Western)
2012-07-11
Aminopeptidases are key enzymes involved in the regulation of signaling peptide activity. Here, we present a detailed biochemical and structural analysis of an evolutionary highly conserved aspartyl aminopeptidase called DNPEP. We show that this peptidase can cleave multiple physiologically relevant substrates, including angiotensins, and thus may play a key role in regulating neuron function. Using a combination of x-ray crystallography, x-ray absorption spectroscopy, and single particle electron microscopy analysis, we provide the first detailed structural analysis of DNPEP. We show that this enzyme possesses a binuclear zinc-active site in which one of the zinc ions is readily exchangeable with other divalent cations such as manganese, which strongly stimulates the enzymatic activity of the protein. The plasticity of this metal-binding site suggests a mechanism for regulation of DNPEP activity. We also demonstrate that DNPEP assembles into a functionally relevant tetrahedral complex that restricts access of peptide substrates to the active site. These structural data allow rationalization of the enzyme's preference for short peptide substrates with N-terminal acidic residues. This study provides a structural basis for understanding the physiology and bioinorganic chemistry of DNPEP and other M18 family aminopeptidases.
Output-Adaptive Tetrahedral Cut-Cell Validation for Sonic Boom Prediction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
2008-01-01
A cut-cell approach to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) that utilizes the median dual of a tetrahedral background grid is described. The discrete adjoint is also calculated, which permits adaptation based on improving the calculation of a specified output (off-body pressure signature) in supersonic inviscid flow. These predicted signatures are compared to wind tunnel measurements on and off the configuration centerline 10 body lengths below the model to validate the method for sonic boom prediction. Accurate mid-field sonic boom pressure signatures are calculated with the Euler equations without the use of hybrid grid or signature propagation methods. Highly-refined, shock-aligned anisotropic grids were produced by this method from coarse isotropic grids created without prior knowledge of shock locations. A heuristic reconstruction limiter provided stable flow and adjoint solution schemes while producing similar signatures to Barth-Jespersen and Venkatakrishnan limiters. The use of cut-cells with an output-based adaptive scheme completely automated this accurate prediction capability after a triangular mesh is generated for the cut surface. This automation drastically reduces the manual intervention required by existing methods.
The Electronic Structure and Memory Device Applications of Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKenzie, D. R.; Gerstner, E. G.; Merchant, A. R.; McCulloch, D. G.; Goa, P. E.; Cooper, N. C.; Goringe, C. M.
The introduction of nitrogen dopant sites into tetrahedral amorphous carbon produces changes in the structure and the electronic density of states that can be modelled using molecular dynamics. In this work we use both a tight-binding approach and a Car-Parrinello density functional theory approach. In a comparison of these, we found that the former tends to overestimate the strain energy of 3 membered carbon rings relative to the latter and to experiment, explaining the reduced occurrence of 3 membered rings in networks and simulated using tight-binding. Experiment shows that at approximately 3% of nitrogen, the network begins to change rapidly with nitrogen content. In this form, an additional electronic conduction mode is found experimentally, of the Poole-Frenkel type, which can be turned on and off at will. The conduction is turned on by negative voltage excursion and quenched by a positive one. This conduction bistability can be exploited to produced a simple new type of memory device in which the high conductivity state (``on'') is a digital ``1'' and the low conductivity state (``off'') is a digital ``0''. The operating characteristics of the device are excellent, with more than one million read cycles having been demonstrated without deterioration of the discrimination between the ``on'' and ``off'' states. Molecular dynamics is used to study the configuration of the nitrogen atoms, yielding a possible candidate for the site responsible for the Poole-Frenkel conduction.
Kaskel, Stefan; Dong, Zhen-Chao; Klem, Michael T; Corbett, John D
2003-03-24
The title compound, the Tl-richest in the K-Tl system, has been synthesized in Ta containers via direct reaction of the elements at 400 degrees C followed by quenching to room temperature and subsequent annealing at 150 degrees C for 4 weeks. It crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Cccm (No. 66) with a = 16.625(1) A, b = 23.594(2) A, c = 15.369(2) A (22 degrees C), and Z = 8. Two different Tl(12) units consisting of augmented tetrahedral stars are condensed into layers of such tetrahedra, and further Tl(2) dumbbells and the potassium cations also interconnect the stars and layers into a three-dimensional network. The former anionic Tl(8) subunits clearly resemble those in the heteroatomic 3-D structure of cubic Cr(3)Si before their augmentation with bridging atoms. The compound is metallic (rho(270) = 22.6 micro omega x cm, alpha = 0.0023 K(-)(1)) and shows Pauli-like paramagnetic susceptibility (chi(296) = 1.1 x 10(-4) emu/mol). EHTB calculations illustrate the importance of Tl p-orbital bonding, the positive Tl-Tl overlap populations up to E(F), and greater strengths of the Tl-Tl bonding between and about the surface of the augmented Tl(12) units. Cations between the thallium layers play specific and important roles in the structure. PMID:12639115
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pothoczki, Szilvia; Temleitner, László; Pusztai, László
2011-01-01
Analyses of the intermolecular structure of molecular liquids containing slightly distorted tetrahedral molecules of the CXY3-type are described. The process is composed of the determination of several different distance-dependent orientational correlation functions, including ones that are introduced here. As a result, a complete structure classification could be provided for CXY3 molecular liquids, namely for liquid chloroform, bromoform, and methyl-iodide. In the present work, the calculations have been conducted on particle configurations resulting from reverse Monte Carlo computer modeling: these particle arrangements have the advantage that they are fully consistent with structure factors from neutron and x-ray diffraction measurements. It has been established that as the separation between neighboring molecules increases, the dominant mutual orientations change from face-to-face to edge-to-edge, via the edge-to-face arrangements. Depending on the actual liquid, these geometrical elements (edges and faces of the distorted tetrahedra) were found to contain different atoms. From the set of liquids studied here, the structure of methyl-iodide was found to be easiest to describe on the basis of pure steric effects (molecular shape, size, and density) and the structure of liquid chloroform seems to be the furthest away from the corresponding "flexible fused hard spheres" like reference system.
hp calculators HP 50g Solving for roots of polynomials and quadratics
Vetter, Frederick J.
hp calculators HP 50g Solving for roots of polynomials and quadratics The Numeric Solver Practice finding roots of polynomials and quadratics #12;hp calculators HP 50g Solving for roots of polynomials and quadratics hp calculators - 2 - HP 50g Solving for roots of polynomials and quadratics The Numeric Solver
Hepburn, Iain; Cannon, Robert; De Schutter, Erik
2013-01-01
We describe a novel method for calculating the quasi-static electrical potential on tetrahedral meshes, which we call E-Field. The E-Field method is implemented in STEPS, which performs stochastic spatial reaction-diffusion computations in tetrahedral-based cellular geometry reconstructions. This provides a level of integration between electrical excitability and spatial molecular dynamics in realistic cellular morphology not previously achievable. Deterministic solutions are also possible. By performing the Rallpack tests we demonstrate the accuracy of the E-Field method. Efficient node ordering is an important practical consideration, and we find that a breadth-first search provides the best solutions, although principal axis ordering suffices for some geometries. We discuss potential applications and possible future directions, and predict that the E-Field implementation in STEPS will play an important role in the future of multiscale neural simulations. PMID:24194715
Mohanty, Debasish [ORNL; Li, Jianlin [ORNL; Abraham, Daniel P [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Huq, Ashfia [ORNL; Payzant, E Andrew [ORNL; Wood III, David L [ORNL; Daniel, Claus [ORNL
2014-01-01
Discovery of high-voltage layered lithium-and manganese-rich (LMR) composite oxide electrode has dramatically enhanced the energy density of current Li-ion energy storage systems. However, practical usage of these materials is currently not viable because of their inability to maintain a consistent voltage profile (voltage fading) during subsequent charge-discharge cycles. This report rationalizes the cause of this voltage fade by providing the evidence of layer to spinel-like (LSL) structural evolution pathways in the host Li1.2Mn0.55Ni0.15Co0.1O2 LMR composite oxide. By employing neutron powder diffraction, and temperature dependent magnetic susceptibility, we show that LSL structural rearrangement in LMR oxide occurs through a tetrahedral cation intermediate via: i) diffusion of lithium atoms from octahedral to tetrahedral sites of the lithium layer [(LiLioct LiLitet] which is followed by the dispersal of the lithium ions from the adjacent octahedral site of the metal layer to the tetrahedral sites of lithium layer [LiTM oct LiLitet]; and ii) migration of Mn from the octahedral sites of the transition metal layer to the permanent octahedral site of lithium layer via tetrahedral site of lithium layer [MnTMoct MnLitet MnLioct)]. The findings opens the door to the potential routes to mitigate this atomic restructuring in the high-voltage LMR composite oxide cathodes by manipulating the composition/structure for practical use in high-energy-density lithium-ion batteries.
High-order expansion of T 2 × e Jahn–Teller potential-energy surfaces in tetrahedral systems
Daniel Opalka; Wolfgang Domcke
2010-01-01
A high-order expansion of the three potential-energy surfaces of the T2×e Jahn–Teller effect in tetrahedral systems is presented. It is shown that the expansion of the vibronic matrix can be obtained from two diagonal matrices determined from symmetry-invariant polynomials. The method is applied to the methane cation in its triply degenerate electronic ground state, which is known to exhibit an
Gong K.; Vukmirovic M.B.; Ma C.; Zhu Y.; Adzic R.R.
2011-11-01
We synthesized the Pt monolayer shell-Pd tetrahedral core electrocatalysts that are notable for their high activity and stable performance. A small number of low-coordination sites and defects, and high content of the (1 1 1)-oriented facets on Pd tetrahedron makes them a suitable support for a Pt monolayer to obtain an active O{sub 2} reduction reaction (ORR) electrocatalyst. The surfactants, used to control size and shape of Pd tetrahedral nanoparticles, are difficult to remove and cause adverse effects on the ORR. We describe a simple and noninvasive method to synthesize high-purity tetrahedral Pd nanocrystals (TH Pd) by combining a hydrothermal route and CO adsorption-induced removal of surfactants. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), used as a protecting and reducing agent in hydrothermal reactions, is strongly bonded to the surface of the resulting nanocrystals. We demonstrate that PVP was displaced efficiently by adsorbed CO. A clean surface was achieved upon CO stripping at a high potential (1.0 V vs RHE). It played a decisive role in improving the activity of the Pt monolayer/TH Pd electrocatalyst for the ORR. Furthermore, the results demonstrate a versatile method for removal of surfactants from various nanoparticles that severely limited their applications.
A transient, quadratic nodal method for triangular-Z geometry
DeLorey, T.F.
1993-06-01
Many systematically-derived nodal methods have been developed for Cartesian geometry due to the extensive interest in Light Water Reactors. These methods typically model the transverse-integrated flux as either an analytic or low order polynomial function of position within the node. Recently, quadratic nodal methods have been developed for R-Z and hexagonal geometry. A static and transient quadratic nodal method is developed for triangular-Z geometry. This development is particularly challenging because the quadratic expansion in each node must be performed between the node faces and the triangular points. As a consequence, in the 2-D plane, the flux and current at the points of the triangles must be treated. Quadratic nodal equations are solved using a non-linear iteration scheme, which utilizes the corrected, mesh-centered finite difference equations, and forces these equations to match the quadratic equations by computing discontinuity factors during the solution. Transient nodal equations are solved using the improved quasi-static method, which has been shown to be a very efficient solution method for transient problems. Several static problems are used to compare the quadratic nodal method to the Coarse Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) method. The quadratic method is shown to give more accurate node-averaged fluxes. However, it appears that the method has difficulty predicting node leakages near reactor boundaries and severe material interfaces. The consequence is that the eigenvalue may be poorly predicted for certain reactor configurations. The transient methods are tested using a simple analytic test problem, a heterogeneous heavy water reactor benchmark problem, and three thermal hydraulic test problems. Results indicate that the transient methods have been implemented correctly.
Mesh considerations for finite element blast modelling in biomechanics.
Panzer, Matthew B; Myers, Barry S; Bass, Cameron R
2013-01-01
Finite element (FE) modelling is a popular tool for studying human body response to blast exposure. However, blast modelling is a complex problem owing to more numerous fluid-structure interactions (FSIs) and the high-frequency loading that accompanies blast exposures. This study investigates FE mesh design for blast modelling using a sphere in a closed-ended shock tube meshed with varying element sizes using both tetrahedral and hexahedral elements. FSI was consistent for sphere-to-fluid element ratios between 0.25 and 4, and acceleration response was similar for both element types (R(2) = 0.997). Tetrahedral elements were found to become increasingly volatile following shock loading, causing higher pressures and stresses than predicted with the hexahedral elements. Deviatoric stress response was dependent on the sphere mesh size (p < 0.001), while the pressure response was dependent on the shock tube mesh size (p < 0.001). The results of this study highlight the necessity for mesh sensitivity analysis in blast models. PMID:22185582
Tests of A 3D Self Magnetic Field Solver in the Finite Element Gun Code Michelle
E. M. Nelson; J. J. Petillo
2005-01-01
We present some tests of a new prototype three-dimensional (3d) self magnetic field solver in the finite-element gun code MICHELLE. The first test is a fixed ray of current in a square drift tube. The magnetic field converges linearly or quadratically with element size when using a linear or quadratic basis, respectively. The second test is a relativistic axisymmetric laminar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Boscheri, Walter; Dumbser, Michael
2014-10-01
In this paper we present a new family of high order accurate Arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) one-step ADER-WENO finite volume schemes for the solution of nonlinear systems of conservative and non-conservative hyperbolic partial differential equations with stiff source terms on moving tetrahedral meshes in three space dimensions. A WENO reconstruction technique is used to achieve high order of accuracy in space, while an element-local space-time Discontinuous Galerkin finite element predictor on moving curved meshes is used to obtain a high order accurate one-step time discretization. Within the space-time predictor the physical element is mapped onto a reference element using a high order isoparametric approach, where the space-time basis and test functions are given by the Lagrange interpolation polynomials passing through a predefined set of space-time nodes. Since our algorithm is cell-centered, the final mesh motion is computed by using a suitable node solver algorithm. A rezoning step as well as a flattener strategy are used in some of the test problems to avoid mesh tangling or excessive element deformations that may occur when the computation involves strong shocks or shear waves. The ALE algorithm presented in this article belongs to the so-called direct ALE methods because the final Lagrangian finite volume scheme is based directly on a space-time conservation formulation of the governing PDE system, with the rezoned geometry taken already into account during the computation of the fluxes. We apply our new high order unstructured ALE schemes to the 3D Euler equations of compressible gas dynamics, for which a set of classical numerical test problems has been solved and for which convergence rates up to sixth order of accuracy in space and time have been obtained. We furthermore consider the equations of classical ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) as well as the non-conservative seven-equation Baer-Nunziato model of compressible multi-phase flows with stiff relaxation source terms.
Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with tetrahedrally close-packed structure
Reinelt, Douglas A. [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0156 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275-0156 (United States); Kraynik, Andrew M. [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 (United States)] [Engineering Sciences Center, Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0834 (United States)
2000-05-01
The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to quasistatic, simple shearing flow is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by using the Surface Evolver to calculate foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3}, where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new structure associated with each stable solution branch results from an avalanche of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization. (c) 2000 Society of Rheology.
Yang, Xingyi; Haubold, Lars; DeVivo, Gabriel; Swain, Greg M
2012-07-17
Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) consists of a mixture of sp(3)- and sp(2)-bonded carbon ranging from 60 to 40% (sp(3)/sp(3)+sp(2)) depending on the deposition conditions. The physical, chemical, and electrochemical properties depend on the sp(2)/sp(3) bonding ratio as well as the presence of incorporated impurities, such as hydrogen or nitrogen. The ability to grow ta-C at lower temperatures (25-100 °C) on a wider variety of substrates as compared to CVD diamond is an advantage of this material. Herein, we report on the structural and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-incorporated ta-C thin films (ta-C:N). The incorporation of nitrogen into the films decreases the electrical resistivity from 613 ± 60 (0 sccm N(2)) to 1.10 ± 0.07 ?-cm (50 sccm N(2)), presumably by increasing the sp(2)-bonded carbon content and the connectedness of these domains. Similar to boron-doped diamond, these materials are characterized by a low background voltammetric current, a wide working potential window (~ 3 V), and relatively rapid electron-transfer kinetics for aqueous redox systems, including Fe(CN)(6)(-3/-4) and Ru(NH(3))(6)(+3/+2), without conventional pretreatment. Additionally, there is weak molecular adsorption of polar molecules (methylene blue) on the ta-C surface. Overall, the properties of the ta-C and ta-C:N electrodes are such that they could be excellent new choices for electroanalytical measurements. PMID:22715911
Simple shearing flow of dry soap foams with TCP structure[Tetrahedrally Close-Packed
REINELT,DOUGLAS A.; KRAYNIK,ANDREW M.
2000-02-16
The microrheology of dry soap foams subjected to large, quasistatic, simple shearing deformations is analyzed. Two different monodisperse foams with tetrahedrally close-packed (TCP) structure are examined: Weaire-Phelan (A15) and Friauf-Laves (C15). The elastic-plastic response is evaluated by calculating foam structures that minimize total surface area at each value of strain. The minimal surfaces are computed with the Surface Evolver program developed by Brakke. The foam geometry and macroscopic stress are piecewise continuous functions of strain. The stress scales as T/V{sup 1/3} where T is surface tension and V is cell volume. Each discontinuity corresponds to large changes in foam geometry and topology that restore equilibrium to unstable configurations that violate Plateau's laws. The instabilities occur when the length of an edge on a polyhedral foam cell vanishes. The length can tend to zero smoothly or abruptly with strain. The abrupt case occurs when a small increase in strain changes the energy profile in the neighborhood of a foam structure from a local minimum to a saddle point, which can lead to symmetry-breaking bifurcations. In general, the new foam topology associated with each stable solution branch results from a cascade of local topology changes called T1 transitions. Each T1 cascade produces different cell neighbors, reduces surface energy, and provides an irreversible, film-level mechanism for plastic yield behavior. Stress-strain curves and average stresses are evaluated by examining foam orientations that admit strain-periodic behavior. For some orientations, the deformation cycle includes Kelvin cells instead of the original TCP structure; but the foam does not remain perfectly ordered. Bifurcations during subsequent T1 cascades lead to disorder and can even cause strain localization.
Sylvester's law of inertia for quadratic forms on vector bundles
Giacomo Dossena
2013-08-06
This paper presents a generalisation of Sylvester's law of inertia to real non-degenerate quadratic forms on a fixed real vector bundle over a connected locally connected paracompact Hausdorff space. By interpreting the classical inertia as a complete discrete invariant for the natural action of the general linear group on quadratic forms, the simplest generalisation consists in substituting such group with the group of gauge transformations of the bundle. Contrary to the classical law of inertia, here the full action and its restriction to the identity path component typically have different orbits, leading to two invariants: a complete invariant for the full action is given by the isomorphism class of the orthonormal frame bundle associated to a quadratic form, while a complete invariant for the restricted action is the homotopy class of any maximal positive-definite subbundle associated to a quadratic form. The latter invariant is finer than the former, which in turn is finer than inertia. Moreover, the orbit structure thus obtained might be used to shed light on the topology of the space of non-degenerate quadratic forms on a vector bundle.
Amalgamated Products of Ore and Quadratic Extensions of Rings
Johnson, Garrett
2012-01-01
We study the ideal theory of amalgamated products of Ore and quadratic extensions over a base ring R. We prove an analogue of the Hilbert Basis theorem for an amalgamated product Q of quadratic extensions and determine conditions for when the one-sided ideals of Q are principal or doubly-generated. We also determine conditions that make Q a principal ideal ring. Finally, we show that the double affine Hecke algebra $H_{q,t}$ associated to the general linear group GL_2(k) (here, k is a field with characteristic not 2) is an amalgamated product of quadratic extensions over a three-dimensional quantum torus and give an explicit isomorphism. In this case, it follows that $H_{q,t}$ is a noetherian ring.
Quadratically consistent nodal integration for second order meshfree Galerkin methods
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duan, Qinglin; Wang, Bingbing; Gao, Xin; Li, Xikui
2014-08-01
Robust and efficient integration of the Galerkin weak form only at the approximation nodes for second order meshfree Galerkin methods is proposed. The starting point of the method is the Hu-Washizu variational principle. The orthogonality condition between stress and strain difference is satisfied by correcting nodal derivatives. The corrected nodal derivatives are essentially linear functions which can exactly reproduce linear strain fields. With the known area moments, the stiffness matrix resulting from these corrected nodal derivatives can be exactly evaluated using only the nodes as quadrature points. The proposed method can exactly pass the quadratic patch test and therefore is named as quadratically consistent nodal integration. In contrast, the stabilized conforming nodal integration (SCNI) which prevails in the nodal integrations for meshfree Galerkin methods fails to pass the quadratic patch test. Better accuracy, convergence, efficiency and stability than SCNI are demonstrated by several elastostatic and elastodynamic examples.
Fermionic Meixner probability distributions, Lie algebras and quadratic Hamiltonians
L. Accardi; I. Ya. Aref'eva; I. V. Volovich
2014-11-17
We introduce the quadratic Fermi algebra, which is a Lie algebra, and show that the vacuum distributions of the associated Hamiltonians define the fermionic Meixner probability distributions. In order to emphasize the difference with the Bose case, we apply a modification of the method used in the above calculation to obtain a simple and straightforward classification of the 1--dimensional Meixner laws in terms of homogeneous quadratic expressions in the Bose creation and annihilation operators. There is a huge literature of the Meixner laws but this, purely quantum probabilistic, derivation seems to be new. Finally we briefly discuss the possible multi-dimensional extensions of the above results.
Simultaneous zeros of a Cubic and Quadratic form
Zahid, Jahan
2010-01-01
We verify a conjecture of Emil Artin, for the case of a Cubic and Quadratic form over any $p$-adic field, provided the cardinality of the residue class field exceeds 293. That is any Cubic and Quadratic form with at least 14 variables has a non-trivial $p$-adic zero, with the aforementioned condition on the residue class field. A crucial step in the proof, involves generalizing a $p$-adic minimization procedure due to W. M. Schmidt to hold for systems of forms of arbitrary degrees.
Rational quadratic Bézier curve fitting by simulated annealing technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mohamed, Najihah; Abd Majid, Ahmad; Mt Piah, Abd Rahni
2013-04-01
A metaheuristic algorithm, which is an approximation method called simulated annealing is implemented in order to have the best rational quadratic Bézier curve from a given data points. This technique is used to minimize sum squared errors in order to improve the middle control point position and the value of weight. As a result, best fitted rational quadratic Bézier curve and its mathematical function that represents all the given data points is obtained. Numerical and graphical examples are also presented to demonstrate the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method.
Computing intersections between non-compatible curves and finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durand, Raul; Farias, Márcio M.; Pedroso, Dorival M.
2015-07-01
This paper presents a method to find all intersections between curved lines such as structural line elements and finite element meshes with intentions to generate smaller, non-compatible, line cells (e.g. bar elements) between crossings. The intersection finding algorithm works for two and three-dimensional meshes constituted by linear, quadratic or higher order elements. Using the proposed algorithm, meshes can then be automatically prepared for finite element analyses with techniques for embedding elements within others or analyses that require lines within solids. The application of the method is demonstrated by a number of numerical examples illustrating its capabilities in handling complex geometries, relative speed and convenience.
Computing intersections between non-compatible curves and finite elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Durand, Raul; Farias, Márcio M.; Pedroso, Dorival M.
2015-09-01
This paper presents a method to find all intersections between curved lines such as structural line elements and finite element meshes with intentions to generate smaller, non-compatible, line cells (e.g. bar elements) between crossings. The intersection finding algorithm works for two and three-dimensional meshes constituted by linear, quadratic or higher order elements. Using the proposed algorithm, meshes can then be automatically prepared for finite element analyses with techniques for embedding elements within others or analyses that require lines within solids. The application of the method is demonstrated by a number of numerical examples illustrating its capabilities in handling complex geometries, relative speed and convenience.
Frequency comb generation in quadratic nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ricciardi, Iolanda; Mosca, Simona; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio
2015-06-01
We experimentally demonstrate and theoretically explain the onset of optical frequency combs in a simple cavity-enhanced second-harmonic-generation system, exploiting second-order nonlinear interactions. Two combs are simultaneously generated around the fundamental pump frequency, with a spectral bandwidth up to about 10 nm, and its second harmonic. We observe different regimes of generation, depending on the phase-matching condition for second-harmonic generation. Moreover, we develop an elemental model which provides a deep physical insight into the observed dynamics. Despite the different underlying physical mechanism, the proposed model is remarkably similar to the description of third-order effects in microresonators, revealing a potential variety of new effects to be explored and laying the groundwork for a novel class of highly efficient and versatile frequency comb synthesizers based on second-order nonlinear materials.
Frequency comb generation in quadratic nonlinear media
Ricciardi, Iolanda; Parisi, Maria; Maddaloni, Pasquale; Santamaria, Luigi; De Natale, Paolo; De Rosa, Maurizio
2014-01-01
Optical frequency combs are nowadays routinely used tools in a wide range of scientific and technological applications. Different techniques have been developed for generating optical frequency combs, like mode-locking in lasers and third-order interactions in microresonators, or to extend their spectral capabilities, using frequency conversion processes in nonlinear materials. Here, we experimentally demonstrate and theoretically explain the onset of optical frequency combs in a simple cavity-enhanced second-harmonic-generation system, exploiting second-order nonlinear interactions. We develop an elemental model which provides a deep physical insight into the observed dynamics. Moreover, despite the different underlying physical mechanism, the proposed model is remarkably similar to the description of third-order effects in microresonators, revealing a potential variety of new effects to be explored. Finally, exploiting a nonlinearity intrinsically stronger than the third-order one, our work lays the groundw...
Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Prum, Richard O
2008-06-01
We use a tetrahedral color space to describe and analyze male plumage color variation and evolution in a clade of New World buntings--Cyanocompsa and Passerina (Aves: Cardinalidae). The Goldsmith color space models the relative stimulation of the four retinal cones, using the integrals of the product of plumage reflectance spectra and cone sensitivity functions. A color is represented as a vector defined by the relative stimulation of the four cone types--ultraviolet, blue, green, and red. Color vectors are plotted in a tetrahedral, or quaternary, plot with the achromatic point at the origin and the ultraviolet/violet channel along the Z-axis. Each color vector is specified by the spherical coordinates theta, phi, and r. Hue is given by the angles theta and phi. Chroma is given by the magnitude of r, the distance from the achromatic origin. Color vectors of all distinct patches in a plumage characterize the plumage color phenotype. We describe the variation in color space occupancy of male bunting plumages, using various measures of color contrast, hue contrast and diversity, and chroma. Comparative phylogenetic analyses using linear parsimony (in MacClade) and generalized least squares (GLS) models (in CONTINUOUS) with a molecular phylogeny of the group document that plumage color evolution in the clade has been very dynamic. The single best-fit GLS evolutionary model of plumage color variation over the entire clade is a directional change model with no phylogenetic correlation among species. However, phylogenetic innovations in feather color production mechanisms--derived pheomelanin and carotenoid expression in two lineages--created new opportunities to colonize novel areas of color space and fostered the explosive differentiation in plumage color. Comparison of the tetrahedral color space of Goldsmith with that of Endler and Mielke demonstrates that both provide essentially identical results. Evolution of avian ultraviolet/violet opsin sensitivity in relation to chromatic experience is discussed. PMID:18419340
Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Anders, Andre; Vilaithong,Thiraphat; Intasiri, Sawate
2006-09-10
Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films were produced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) plasma sources operated in sequential pulsed mode. A negatively pulsed bias was applied to the substrate only when carbon plasma was generated. Films thickness was measured after deposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver pads were used as substrate for the of the measurement sheet resistance. The microstructure and composition of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It found that the electrical resistivity decreases with an increase of the Mo content, which can be ascribed to an increase of sp2 content and an increase of the sp2 cluster size.
Pasaja, Nitisak; Sansongsiri, Sakon; Intasiri, Sawate; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Anders, Andre
2007-01-24
Metal-containing tetrahedral amorphous carbon films wereproduced by dual filtered cathodic vacuum arc plasma sources operatedinsequentially pulsed mode. Negatively pulsed bias was applied to thesubstrate when carbon plasma was generated, whereas it was absentwhen themolybdenum plasma was presented. Film thickness was measured afterdeposition by profilometry. Glass slides with silver padswere used assubstrates for the measurement of the sheet resistance. Themicrostructure and composition of the films were characterizedbyRamanspectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering, respectively. It was foundthat the electrical resistivity decreases with an increaseof the Mocontent, which can be ascribed to an increase of the sp2 content and anincrease of the sp2 cluster size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaarour, A.; Ouardi, O.; Meskine, M.
2015-03-01
The use of tensor models adapted to tetrahedral molecules such CH4, SiH4, GeH4... that use mathematical tools (group theory, irreducible tensor operators) and the characteristics of symmetrical molecules, gives good results. Starting from an experimental spectrum, we can calculate some parameters of the Hamiltonian and consequently the energy levels. Once the line positions are determined, we calculate the parameters of the dipole moment of these molecules and consequently the rovibrational intensities. Both software STDS and SPVIEW, we determined the parameters of the Hamiltonian and those of the dipole moment.
Mercer, T.W. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science; DiNardo, N.J. [Drexel Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Atmospheric Science]|[Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Martinez-Miranda, L.J.; Fang, F. [Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.; Siegal, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1994-12-31
The structure and composition of tetrahedral-coordinated amorphous diamond-like carbon films (a-tC) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of graphite has been studied with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The nanometer-scale surface structure has been studied as a function of growth parameters (e.g., laser energy density and film thickness) using contact-mode and tapping-mode AFM. Although the surfaces were found to be generally smooth, they exhibited reproducible structural features on several size scales which correlate with the variation of laser energy and th excited ion etching.
INERTIA-CONTROLLING METHODS FOR GENERAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING
Gill, Philip E.
INERTIA-CONTROLLING METHODS FOR GENERAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING PHILIP E. GILL, WALTER MURRAY the inertia of the reduced Hessian, which is never permitted to have more than one nonpositive eigenvalue. (We call such methods inertia-controlling.) This paper presents an overview of a generic inertia
NONLINEAR MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL VIA FEASIBILITYPERTURBED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC
Wright, Steve
NONLINEAR MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL VIA FEASIBILITYPERTURBED SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING REPORT TWMCC200202 Abstract. Model predictive control requires the solution of a sequence of continuous panion report), then discuss its adaptation to the problems arising in nonlinear model predictive control
Robustness of quadratic hedging strategies in finance via Fourier transforms
Vanmaele, Michèle
consider two models for the stock price process. The first model is a geometric L´evy process in which the robustness of the quadratic hedging strategies we use pricing and hedging formulas based on Fourier transform technically be performed under a related pricing measure that is a risk-neutral measure. Under this measure
SUPPORT VECTOR REGRESSION WITH A GENERALIZED QUADRATIC LOSS
Sperduti, Alessandro
, the loss function is usually (heuristically) chosen on the basis of the task at hand. For example, when input patterns (eventu- ally corrected by the targets of the involved examples), which can be coded as cross-coefficients of pairs of errors in a fully quadratic form, and then to modu- late the strength
Second Order Backward Stochastic Differential Equations with Quadratic Growth
Dylan, Possamai
2012-01-01
We prove the existence and uniqueness of a solution for one-dimensionnal second order backward stochastic differential equations introduced by Soner, Touzi and Zhang (2010), with a bounded terminal condition and a generator which is continuous with quadratic growth in z. We also prove a Feyman-Kac formula and a probabilistic representation for fully nonlinear PDEs in this setting.
Analysis of Quadratic Diophantine Equations with Fibonacci Number Solutions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Leyendekkers, J. V.; Shannon, A. G.
2004-01-01
An analysis is made of the role of Fibonacci numbers in some quadratic Diophantine equations. A general solution is obtained for finding factors in sums of Fibonacci numbers. Interpretation of the results is facilitated by the use of a modular ring which also permits extension of the analysis.
Cosmological Vorticity in a Gravity with Quadratic Order Curvature Couplings
J. Hwang; H. Noh
1997-10-07
We analyse the evolution of the rotational type cosmological perturbation in a gravity with general quadratic order gravitational coupling terms. The result is expressed independently of the generalized nature of the gravity theory, and is simply interpreted as a conservation of the angular momentum.
Statistical Mechanics of Linear Systems & Quadratic Path Integrals
Deutsch, Josh
Homework 5 Optional Statistical Mechanics of Linear Systems & Quadratic Path Integrals 1. Examine a general linear system, say an arbitrary network of springs under the influence of constant forces. You can chain in an external potential v(r). It is often called the Greens function for the polymer. Here
1 Statistical Mechanics of Linear Systems and Quadratic Path Integrals
Deutsch, Josh
Homework 6 Due 6/4/08 1 Statistical Mechanics of Linear Systems and Quadratic Path Integrals 1. Examine a general linear system, say an arbitrary network of springs under the influence of constant chain in an external potential v(r). It is often called the Greens function for the polymer. Here
Confidence set interference with a prior quadratic bound. [in geophysics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
Neyman's (1937) theory of confidence sets is developed as a replacement for Bayesian interference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) when the prior information is a hard quadratic bound. It is recommended that BI and SI be replaced by confidence set interference (CSI) only in certain circumstances. The geomagnetic problem is used to illustrate the general theory of CSI.
Root Refinement for Real Polynomials using Quadratic Interval Refinement
Waldmann, Uwe
Root Refinement for Real Polynomials using Quadratic Interval Refinement Michael Kerber MPI consider the problem of approximating all real roots of a square-free polyno- mial f with real coefficients. Given isolating intervals for the real roots and an arbitrary positive integer L, the task
Visualising the Complex Roots of Quadratic Equations with Real Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bardell, Nicholas S.
2012-01-01
The roots of the general quadratic equation y = ax[superscript 2] + bx + c (real a, b, c) are known to occur in the following sets: (i) real and distinct; (ii) real and coincident; and (iii) a complex conjugate pair. Case (iii), which provides the focus for this investigation, can only occur when the values of the real coefficients a, b, and c are…
Decomposition of Quadratic Variational Florian Becker, Christoph Schnorr
Schnörr, Christoph
Decomposition of Quadratic Variational Problems Florian Becker, Christoph Schn¨orr Image. In this paper we address the decomposition of the general class of qua- dratic variational problems, which will deliver data volumes taken with high-speed cameras, that cannot be handled within the working memory
Solving Systems of Multivariate Quadratic Equations over Finite Fields
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
the Gröbner basis of the cor- responding ideal is the best choice in this context. One class of algo- rithms Quadratic (MQ) equations is hard in general. More precisely, the associated MQ-problem is known to be NP with a solution in 2005 [5]. Before then it was hard to theoretically analyze the complexity of attacks using F4
Adaptive continuous-time linear quadratic Gaussian control
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Guo, L.; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
1999-09-01
The adaptive linear quadratic Gaussian control problem, where the linear transformation of the state A and the linear transformation of the control B are unknown, is solved assuming only that (A, B) is controllable and (A, Q(1)(1/2)) is observable...
MQ Challenge: Hardness Evaluation of Solving Multivariate Quadratic Problems
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Department of Informatics, Kyushu University 6 Leading Graduate School Promotion Center, Ochanomizu University Abstract. Multivariate Quadratic polynomial (MQ) problem serve as the basis of security multivariate polynomial maps as public keys. The security of MPKC is thus based on the one
MRSAM: A Quadratically Competitive Multi Robots Navigation Algorithm
Shapiro, Amir
Department of Mechanical Engineering Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel {sarids,ashapiro}@bgu.ac.il Yoav Gabriely Department of Mechanical Engineering Technion, Israel Institute of Technology meerygMRSAM: A Quadratically Competitive Multi Robots Navigation Algorithm Shahar Sarid and Amir Shapiro
MRSAM: A Quadratically Competitive Multi-Robot Online Navigation Algorithm
Shapiro, Amir
Shapiro Department of Mechanical Engineering Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Israel {sarids,ashapiro}@bgu.ac.il Yoav Gabriely Department of Mechanical Engineering Technion, Israel Institute of Technology meerygMRSAM: A Quadratically Competitive Multi-Robot Online Navigation Algorithm Shahar Sarid and Amir
Universal Quadratic Lower Bounds on Source Coding Error Exponents
California at Berkeley, University of
source coding problem Source: xi px on finite alphabet X Coding system: Desired error probability Pr-Wolf Delay vs Blocks 4 Conclusions and open problems Chang and Sahai (UC Berkeley) Universal bounds CISS 2007Universal Quadratic Lower Bounds on Source Coding Error Exponents Cheng Chang Anant Sahai Wireless
On the Solution of Nonconvex Cardinality Boolean Quadratic Programming problems
Grossmann, Ignacio E.
On the Solution of Nonconvex Cardinality Boolean Quadratic Programming problems Ricardo M. Limaa University, PA, USA {ricardo.lima@lneg.pt, grossmann@andrew.cmu.edu} Abstract This paper addresses available to solve CBQP problems using the common available software. In the last decades significant theory
THE FUJITA EXPONENT FOR SEMILINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH QUADRATICALLY DECAYING
Pinsky, Ross
THE FUJITA EXPONENT FOR SEMILINEAR HEAT EQUATIONS WITH QUADRATICALLY DECAYING POTENTIAL. 35K55, 35B33, 35B40 . Key words and phrases. critical exponent, blow-up, global solution, Fujita, the so-called Fujita exponent, and one has the following dichotomy: if p > p, then for sufficiently small
Linear quadratic regulators with eigenvalue placement in a horizontal strip
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, Leang S.; Dib, Hani M.; Ganesan, Sekar
1987-01-01
A method for optimally shifting the imaginary parts of the open-loop poles of a multivariable control system to the desirable closed-loop locations is presented. The optimal solution with respect to a quadratic performance index is obtained by solving a linear matrix Liapunov equation.
Deflating Quadratic Matrix Polynomials with Structure Preserving Transformations
Tisseur, Francoise
of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL, UK bSchool of Mechanical, Materials, Manuf. Eng. & Management, University 2000 MSC: 15A18, 65F15, 65F30 1. Introduction Consider the quadratic matrix polynomial Q() = 2 M + C author 1The work of this author was supported by Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council grant
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga)
Epstein, Irving R.
Front velocity in models with quadratic autocatalysis Vladimir K. Vanaga) and Irving R. Epstein the dependence of the front velocity on the diffusion coefficients of X and R, the interconversion rates diffusion coef- ficients of X and R, DX and DR , respectively, raise the ques- tion of how the velocity
QUADRATIC CONVERGENCE FOR VALUING AMERICAN OPTIONS USING A PENALTY METHOD
Forsyth, Peter A.
and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of CanadaQUADRATIC CONVERGENCE FOR VALUING AMERICAN OPTIONS USING A PENALTY METHOD P.A. FORSYTH AND K.R. VETZAL Abstract. The convergence of a penalty method for solving the discrete regularized American option
Diagonalization of bosonic quadratic Hamiltonians by Bogoliubov transformations
Phan Thành Nam; Marcin Napiórkowski; Jan Philip Solovej
2015-08-28
We provide general conditions for which bosonic quadratic Hamiltonians on Fock spaces can be diagonalized by Bogoliubov transformations. Our results cover the case when quantum systems have infinite degrees of freedom and the associated one-body kinetic and paring operators are unbounded. Our sufficient conditions are optimal in the sense that they become necessary when the relevant one-body operators commute.
About Zhang's premodels for Siegel disks of quadratic rational maps.
Chéritat, Arnaud
About Zhang's premodels for Siegel disks of quadratic rational maps. Arnaud Ch´eritat CNRS, Univ. Toulouse Feb. 2011 A. Ch´eritat (CNRS, UPS) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011 1 / 33 #12;Let us show) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011 2 / 33 #12;A. Ch´eritat (CNRS, UPS) About Zhang's premodels Feb. 2011
Quantum electroweak symmetry breaking through loop quadratic contributions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Dong; Cui, Jian-Wei; Wu, Yue-Liang
2015-06-01
Based on two postulations that (i) the Higgs boson has a large bare mass mH ?mh ? 125 GeV at the characteristic energy scale Mc which defines the Standard Model (SM) in the ultraviolet region, and (ii) quadratic contributions of Feynman loop diagrams in quantum field theories are physically meaningful, we show that the SM electroweak symmetry breaking is induced by the quadratic contributions from loop effects. As the quadratic running of Higgs mass parameter leads to an additive renormalization, which distinguishes from the logarithmic running with a multiplicative renormalization, the symmetry breaking occurs once the sliding energy scale ? moves from Mc down to a transition scale ? =?EW at which the additive renormalized Higgs mass parameter mH2 (Mc / ?) gets to change the sign. With the input of current experimental data, this symmetry breaking energy scale is found to be ?EW ? 760 GeV, which provides another basic energy scale for the SM besides Mc. Studying such a symmetry breaking mechanism could play an important role in understanding both the hierarchy problem and naturalness problem. It also provides a possible way to explore the experimental implications of the quadratic contributions as ?EW lies within the probing reach of the LHC and the future Great Collider.
FIVE SQUARES IN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION OVER QUADRATIC FIELDS
Xarles, Xavier
FIVE SQUARES IN ARITHMETIC PROGRESSION OVER QUADRATIC FIELDS ENRIQUE GONZ´ALEZ-JIM´ENEZ AND XAVIER) there is a non-constant arithmetic progression of five squares. This is carried out by translating the problem that the only non-constant arithmetic progression of five squares over Q( 409), up to equivalence, is 72 , 132
Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation With Quadratic Communication
Cortes, Corinna
Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation With Quadratic Communication Martin Hirt1 , Jesper Buus can be se- curely computed with communication complexity O(cn2 ) bits, which improves means that an adversary corrupting some of the parties, cannot achieve more than controlling
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Ms. Schultz
2007-03-08
To find quick facts on elements The Photographic Periodic Table of Elements-shows a photograhpic representation of most of the elements (remember some are invisible gases) The Element Song Click on the following links to find quick facts about the elements and peridoic table: Periodic Table of Elements: LANL - Originally this resource, the Periodic Table, was created by Robert Husted at Los Alamos National Laboratory during his time ...
Idealized Studies With A Finite Element Model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Harig, S.; Danilov, S.; Kivman, G.; Schröter, J.
The Finite Element Method provides advantages when applied to oceanographic tasks. The discretization of the model domain is characterized by its large flexibility in mesh refinement and representation of shore lines and bathimetry. Furthermore, boundary conditions can be directly implemented. FENA (Finite Element Model for the North Atlantic) is a 3D-model developed at AWI for investigations of the large scale circulation in the North Atlantic. It is based on primitive equations and uses a tetrahedral discretization. Experiments under idealized conditions have been carried out with FENA, approving the model's reliability. In a rectangular basin the general wind driven circulation of FENA shows results which approximate the analytical solutions. Additional simulations of the propagation of Rossby waves, as well as the influence of topography in a stratified ocean were performed and will be presented.
Gupta, Arvind K; Yadav, Ashok; Srivastava, Anant Kumar; Ramya, Kormathmadam Raghupathy; Paithankar, Harshad; Nandi, Shyamapada; Chugh, Jeetender; Boomishankar, Ramamoorthy
2015-04-01
A charge-neutral tetrahedral [(Pd3X)4L6] cage assembly built from a trinuclear polyhedral building unit (PBU), [Pd3X](3+), cis-blocked with an imido P(V) ligand, [(N(i)Pr)3PO](3-) (X(3-)), and oxalate dianions (L(2-)) is reported. Use of benzoate or ferrocene dicarboxylate anions, which do not offer wide-angle chelation as that of oxalate dianions, leads to smaller prismatic clusters instead of polyhedral cage assemblies. The porosity of the tetrahedral cage assembly was determined by gas adsorption studies, which show a higher uptake capacity for CO2 over N2 and H2. The tetrahedral cage was shown to encapsulate a wide range of neutral guest solvents from polar to nonpolar such as dimethyl sulfoxide, benzene, dichloromethane, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, and cyclopentane as observed by mass spectral and single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The (1)H two-dimensional diffusion ordered spectroscopy NMR analysis shows that the host and guest molecules exhibit similar diffusion coefficients in all the studied host-guest systems. Further, the tetrahedral cage shows selective binding of benzene, CCl4, and cyclopentane among other solvents from their categories as evidenced from mass spectral analysis. A preliminary density functional theory analysis gave a highest binding energy for benzene among the other solvents that were structurally shown to be encapsulated at the intrinsic cavity of the tetrahedral cage. PMID:25781912
Self-accelerating parabolic beams in quadratic nonlinear media Ido Dolev, Ana Libster, and Ady Arie
Arie, Ady
Self-accelerating parabolic beams in quadratic nonlinear media Ido Dolev, Ana Libster, and Ady Arie://apl.aip.org/authors #12;Self-accelerating parabolic beams in quadratic nonlinear media Ido Dolev,a) Ana Libster, and Ady
Nesic, Dragan
Quadratic Stabilization of Linear Networked Control Systems via Simultaneous Protocol: Networked control systems, Quadratic stability, Protocol design, Partial state feedback stabilization 1 and dy- namic protocols. In a static protocol, such as round robin (RR), the network transmissions
Mitchell, John E.
A semidefinite programming heuristic for quadratic programming problems with complementarity of complementarity constraints brings a combinatorial flavour to an optimization problem. A quadratic programming problem with com- plementarity constraints can be relaxed to give a semidefinite programming problem
Mitchell, John E.
A semidefinite programming heuristic for quadratic programming problems with complementarity of complementarity constraints brings a combinatorial flavour to an optimization problem. A quadratic programming problem with comÂ plementarity constraints can be relaxed to give a semidefinite programming problem
Peng, Haowei; Ndione, Paul F.; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan
2015-05-01
Transition metal oxides play important roles as contact and electrode materials, but their use as active layers in solar energy conversion requires achieving semiconducting properties akin to those of conventional semiconductors like Si or GaAs. In particular, efficient bipolar carrier transport is a challenge in these materials. Based on the prediction that a tetrahedral polymorph of MnO should have such desirable semiconducting properties, and the possibility to overcome thermodynamic solubility limits by nonequilibrium thin-film growth, we exploit both structure-property and composition-structure relationships to design and realize novel wurtzite-structure Mn??xZnxO alloys. At Zn compositions above x ? 0.3, thin films ofmore »these alloys assume the tetrahedral wurtzite structure instead of the octahedral rocksalt structure of MnO, thereby enabling semiconductor properties that are unique among transition metal oxides, i.e., a band gap within the visible spectrum, a band-transport mechanism for both electron and hole carriers, electron doping, and a band lineup suitable for solar hydrogen generation. A proof of principle is provided by initial photo-electrocatalytic device measurements, corroborating, in particular, the predicted favorable hole-transport properties of these alloys.« less
Rishavy, M A; Cleland, W W; Lusty, C J
2000-06-20
15N isotope effects have been measured on the hydrolysis of glutamine catalyzed by carbamyl phosphate synthetase of Escherichia coli. The isotope effect in the amide nitrogen of glutamine is 1. 0217 at 37 degrees C with the wild-type enzyme in the presence of MgATP and HCO(3)(-) (overall reaction taking place). This V/K isotope effect indicates that breakdown of the tetrahedral intermediate formed with Cys 269 to release ammonia is the rate-limiting step in the hydrolysis. A full isotope effect of 1. 0215 is also seen in the partial reaction catalyzed by an E841K mutant enzyme, whose rate of glutamine hydrolysis is not affected by MgATP and HCO(3)(-). With wild-type enzyme in the absence of MgATP and HCO(3)(-), however, the (15)N isotope effect is reduced to 1. 0157. These isotope effects are interpreted in terms of partitioning of the tetrahedral intermediate whose rate of formation is dependent upon a conformation change which closes the active site after glutamine binding and prepares the enzyme for catalysis. An Ordered Uni Bi mechanism for glutamine hydrolysis that is consistent with the isotope effects and with the catalytic properties of the enzyme is proposed. PMID:10852731
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peng, Haowei; Ndione, Paul F.; Ginley, David S.; Zakutayev, Andriy; Lany, Stephan
2015-04-01
Transition metal oxides play important roles as contact and electrode materials, but their use as active layers in solar energy conversion requires achieving semiconducting properties akin to those of conventional semiconductors like Si or GaAs. In particular, efficient bipolar carrier transport is a challenge in these materials. Based on the prediction that a tetrahedral polymorph of MnO should have such desirable semiconducting properties, and the possibility to overcome thermodynamic solubility limits by nonequilibrium thin-film growth, we exploit both structure-property and composition-structure relationships to design and realize novel wurtzite-structure Mn1 -xZnxO alloys. At Zn compositions above x ?0.3 , thin films of these alloys assume the tetrahedral wurtzite structure instead of the octahedral rocksalt structure of MnO, thereby enabling semiconductor properties that are unique among transition metal oxides, i.e., a band gap within the visible spectrum, a band-transport mechanism for both electron and hole carriers, electron doping, and a band lineup suitable for solar hydrogen generation. A proof of principle is provided by initial photo-electrocatalytic device measurements, corroborating, in particular, the predicted favorable hole-transport properties of these alloys.
Kunkel, Peter
The linear quadratic optimal control problem for linear descriptor systems with variable coefficients Peter Kunkel 3 Volker Mehrmann y 17.01.97 Abstract We study linear quadratic optimal control, 93B11, 93B40 1 Introduction In this paper we study the linearÂquadratic optimal control problem
Bobrow, James E.
A Fast Sequential Linear Quadratic Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Nonlinear Optimal Control control problem using sequence of linear quadratic subproblems. Each subproblem is solved efficiently an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm is the well-known Linear Quadratic optimal control
On Randers Metrics of Quadratic Riemann Curvature Benling Li and Zhongmin Shen
Shen, Zhongmin
On Randers Metrics of Quadratic Riemann Curvature Benling Li and Zhongmin Shen September 30, 2007 Abstract In this paper, we study Randers metrics with quadratic Riemann cur- vature as in the Riemannian case. We find equations that characterize R-quadratic Randers metrics. In particular, we show that R
Alignment-orientation conversion by quadratic Zeeman effect: Analysis and observation for Te2
Auzinsh, Marcis
Alignment-orientation conversion by quadratic Zeeman effect: Analysis and observation for Te2 I. P momenta into orientation due to quadratic correction to Zeeman effect. Circularity rate up to 0 of the quadratic correction to the Zeeman effect in diatomic mol- ecules. In particular, we direct now our
An Attribute Weight Setting Method for k-NN Based Binary Classification using Quadratic Programming
Coenen, Frans
An Attribute Weight Setting Method for k-NN Based Binary Classification using Quadratic Programming. In this paper, we propose a new attribute weight setting method for k-NN based classifiers using quadratic the attribute weight setting problem as a quadratic programming problem and exploits commercial software
The Quadratic-Chi Histogram Distance Family Ofir Pele and Michael Werman
Peleg, Shmuel
. The Quadratic-Form part of QC members takes care of cross-bin relationships (e.g. red and orange), alleviating distance family, the Quadratic-Chi (QC). QC members are Quadratic-Form distances with a cross-bin 2 -like normaliza- tion. The cross-bin 2 -like normalization reduces the effect of large bins having undo influence
Fourteen years of mapped, permanent quadrats in a northern mixed prairie, USA
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This historical dataset consists of 44 permanent 1-m2 quadrats located on northern mixed prairie in eastern Montana, USA. Individual plants in these quadrats were identified and mapped annually from 1932 through 1945. Quadrats were located in six pastures assigned to cattle grazing treatments with l...
C. A. J. Fletcher
1983-01-01
Three-, five-, and seven-point minimum truncation error finite difference schemes are compared with linear, quadratic, and cubic rectangular finite element schemes, in view of solutions to the one- and two-dimensional Burger's equations with moderate to severe internal and boundary gradients. In one dimension, the quadratic finite element scheme and the five-point finite difference scheme are computationally the most efficient, while
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,
Students examine the periodic table and the properties of elements. They learn the basic definition of an element and the 18 elements that compose most of the matter in the universe. The periodic table is described as one method of organization for the elements. The concepts of physical and chemical properties are also reviewed.
Toward Verification of USM3D Extensions for Mixed Element Grids
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pandya, Mohagna J.; Frink, Neal T.; Ding, Ejiang; Parlette, Edward B.
2013-01-01
The unstructured tetrahedral grid cell-centered finite volume flow solver USM3D has been recently extended to handle mixed element grids composed of hexahedral, prismatic, pyramidal, and tetrahedral cells. Presently, two turbulence models, namely, baseline Spalart-Allmaras (SA) and Menter Shear Stress Transport (SST), support mixed element grids. This paper provides an overview of the various numerical discretization options available in the newly enhanced USM3D. Using the SA model, the flow solver extensions are verified on three two-dimensional test cases available on the Turbulence Modeling Resource website at the NASA Langley Research Center. The test cases are zero pressure gradient flat plate, planar shear, and bump-inchannel. The effect of cell topologies on the flow solution is also investigated using the planar shear case. Finally, the assessment of various cell and face gradient options is performed on the zero pressure gradient flat plate case.
Linear quadratic regulators with eigenvalue placement in a specified region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, Leang S.; Dib, Hani M.; Ganesan, Sekar
1988-01-01
A linear optimal quadratic regulator is developed for optimally placing the closed-loop poles of multivariable continuous-time systems within the common region of an open sector, bounded by lines inclined at + or - pi/2k (k = 2 or 3) from the negative real axis with a sector angle of pi/2 or less, and the left-hand side of a line parallel to the imaginary axis in the complex s-plane. The design method is mainly based on the solution of a linear matrix Liapunov equation, and the resultant closed-loop system with its eigenvalues in the desired region is optimal with respect to a quadratic performance index.
Exploring $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}$ in the quadratic basis
Tomas Prochazka
2014-11-27
We study the operator product expansions in the chiral algebra $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}$, first using the associativity conditions in the basis of primary generating fields and second using a different basis coming from the free field representation in which the OPE takes a simpler quadratic form. The results in the quadratic basis can be compactly written using certain bilocal combinations of the generating fields and we conjecture a closed-form formula for the complete OPE in this basis. Next we show that the commutation relations as well as correlation functions can be easily computed using properties of these bilocal fields. In the last part of this paper we verify the consistency with results derived previously by studying minimal models of $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}$ and comparing them to known reductions of $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}$ to $\\mathcal{W}_N$. The results we obtain illustrate nicely the role of triality symmetry in the representation theory of $\\mathcal{W}_{\\infty}$.
Observers for Systems with Nonlinearities Satisfying an Incremental Quadratic Inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Corless, Martin
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of state estimation for nonlinear time-varying systems whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. These observer results unifies earlier results in the literature; and extend it to some additional classes of nonlinearities. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero. Observer design involves solving linear matrix inequalities for the observer gain matrices. Results are illustrated by application to a simple model of an underwater.
Quantum integrals of motion for variable quadratic Hamiltonians
Cordero-Soto, Ricardo, E-mail: ricardojavier81@gmail.co [Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States); Suazo, Erwin, E-mail: erwin.suazo@upr.ed [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaquez, call box 9000, PR 00681-9000 (Puerto Rico); Suslov, Sergei K., E-mail: sks@asu.ed [School of Mathematical and Statistical Sciences and Mathematical, Computational and Modeling Sciences Center, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1804 (United States)
2010-09-15
We construct integrals of motion for several models of the quantum damped oscillators in a framework of a general approach to the time-dependent Schroedinger equation with variable quadratic Hamiltonians. An extension of the Lewis-Riesenfeld dynamical invariant is given. The time-evolution of the expectation values of the energy-related positive operators is determined for the oscillators under consideration. A proof of uniqueness of the corresponding Cauchy initial value problem is discussed as an application.
From synchronization to multistability in two coupled quadratic maps
Rui Carvalho; Bastien Fernandez; R. Vilela Mendes
2000-05-26
The phenomenology of a system of two coupled quadratic maps is studied both analytically and numerically. Conditions for synchronization are given and the bifurcations of periodic orbits from this regime are identified. In addition, we show that an arbitrarily large number of distinct stable periodic orbits may be obtained when the maps parameter is at the Feigenbaum period-doubling accumulation point. An estimate is given for the coupling strength needed to obtain any given number of stable orbits.
FRW in quadratic form of $f(T)$ gravitational theories
G. G. L. Nashed
2015-06-26
We derive asymptote solution of a homogeneous and isotropic universe governed by the quadratic form of the field equation of $f(T)$ gravity. We explain how the higher order of the torsion can provide an origin for late accelerated phase of the universe in the FRW. The solution makes the scalar torsion $T$ to be a function of the cosmic time $t$. We show that for the equation of state $p=\\omega \\rho$ with $\\omega\
Central Control, Sewers and (0,1) quadratic programming
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kolechkina, Alla; van Nooijen, Ronald
2013-04-01
We consider small sewer systems that combine foul water and storm water sewer functions in flat terrain. These systems are a combination of local gravity flow networks connected by pumps. The pumps are usually fixed speed, so they are on or off. We formulate a (0,1) quadratic programming problem, provide an overview of known solution methods and examine the relative speed of different solution methods.
Quadratic Volume-Preserving Maps: Invariant Circles and Bifurcations
Holger R. Dullin; James D. Meiss
2008-07-04
We study the dynamics of the five-parameter quadratic family of volume-preserving diffeomorphisms of R^3. This family is the unfolded normal form for a bifurcation of a fixed point with a triple-one multiplier and also is the general form of a quadratic three-dimensional map with a quadratic inverse. Much of the nontrivial dynamics of this map occurs when its two fixed points are saddle-foci with intersecting two-dimensional stable and unstable manifolds that bound a spherical ``vortex-bubble''. We show that this occurs near a saddle-center-Neimark-Sacker (SCNS) bifurcation that also creates, at least in its normal form, an elliptic invariant circle. We develop a simple algorithm to accurately compute these elliptic invariant circles and their longitudinal and transverse rotation numbers and use it to study their bifurcations, classifying them by the resonances between the rotation numbers. In particular, rational values of the longitudinal rotation number are shown to give rise to a string of pearls that creates multiple copies of the original spherical structure for an iterate of the map.
Measurement of quadratic electrogyration effect in castor oil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Izdebski, Marek; Ledzion, Rafa?; Górski, Piotr
2015-07-01
This work presents a detailed analysis of electrogyration measurement in liquids with the usage of an optical polarimetric technique. Theoretical analysis of the optical response to an applied electric field is illustrated by experimental data for castor oil which exhibits natural optical activity, quadratic electro-optic effect and quadratic electrogyration effect. Moreover, the experimental data show that interaction of the oil with a pair of flat electrodes induces a significant dichroism and natural linear birefringence. The combination of these effects occurring at the same time complicates the procedure of measurements. It has been found that a single measurement is insufficient to separate the contribution of the electrogyration effect, but it is possible on the basis of several measurements performed with various orientations of the polarizer and the analyser. The obtained average values of the quadratic electrogyration coefficient ?13 in castor oil at room temperature are from - 0.92 ×10-22 to - 1.44 ×10-22m2V-2 depending on the origin of the oil. Although this study is focused on measurements in castor oil, the presented analysis is much more general.
Revisiting the naturalness problem: Who is afraid of quadratic divergences?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi
2012-07-01
It is widely believed that quadratic divergences severely restrict natural constructions of particle physics models beyond the standard model (SM). Supersymmetry provides a beautiful solution, but the recent LHC experiments have excluded large parameter regions of supersymmetric extensions of the SM. It will now be important to reconsider whether we have been misinterpreting the quadratic divergences in field theories. In this paper, we revisit the problem from the viewpoint of the Wilsonian renormalization group and argue that quadratic divergences—which can always be absorbed into a position of the critical surface—should be simply subtracted in model constructions. Such a picture gives another justification to the argument [W. A. Bardeen, Report No. FERMILAB-CONF-95-391-T] that the scale invariance of the SM, except for the soft-breaking terms, is an alternative solution to the naturalness problem. It also largely broadens possibilities of model constructions beyond the SM since we just need to take care of logarithmic divergences, which cause mixings of various physical scales and runnings of couplings.
Symmetric global partition polynomials for reproducing kernel elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Juha, Mario J.; Simkins, Daniel C.
2014-11-01
The reproducing kernel element method is a numerical technique that combines finite element and meshless methods to construct shape functions of arbitrary order and continuity, yet retains the Kronecker- property. Central to constructing these shape functions is the construction of global partition polynomials on an element. This paper shows that asymmetric interpolations may arise due to such things as changes in the local to global node numbering and that may adversely affect the interpolation capability of the method. This issue arises due to the use of incomplete polynomials that are subsequently non-affine invariant. This paper lays out the new framework for generating general, symmetric, truly minimal and complete affine invariant global partition polynomials for triangular and tetrahedral elements. Optimal convergence rates were observed in the solution of Kirchhoff plate problems with rectangular domains.
Efficient Nonlinear Solvers for Nodal High-Order Finite Elements in 3D
Jed Brown
2010-01-01
Conventional high-order finite element methods are rarely used for industrial problems because the Jacobian rapidly loses\\u000a sparsity as the order is increased, leading to unaffordable solve times and memory requirements. This effect typically limits\\u000a order to at most quadratic, despite the favorable accuracy and stability properties offered by quadratic and higher order\\u000a discretizations. We present a method in which the
Water Adsorption at the Tetrahedral Titania Surface Layer of SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1)
2013-01-01
The interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of great interest for both fundamental science and applications. We present a combined theoretical (density functional theory (DFT)) and experimental (scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES)) study of water interaction with the two-dimensional titania overlayer that terminates the SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) surface and consists of TiO4 tetrahedra. STM and core-level and valence band PES show that H2O neither adsorbs nor dissociates on the stoichiometric surface at room temperature, whereas it does dissociate at oxygen vacancies. This is in agreement with DFT calculations, which show that the energy barriers for water dissociation on the stoichiometric and reduced surfaces are 1.7 and 0.9 eV, respectively. We propose that water weakly adsorbs on two-dimensional, tetrahedrally coordinated overlayers. PMID:24353755
Water Adsorption at the Tetrahedral Titania Surface Layer of SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1).
Wang, Zhiming; Hao, Xianfeng; Gerhold, Stefan; Novotny, Zbynek; Franchini, Cesare; McDermott, Eamon; Schulte, Karina; Schmid, Michael; Diebold, Ulrike
2013-12-12
The interaction of water with oxide surfaces is of great interest for both fundamental science and applications. We present a combined theoretical (density functional theory (DFT)) and experimental (scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and photoemission spectroscopy (PES)) study of water interaction with the two-dimensional titania overlayer that terminates the SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) surface and consists of TiO4 tetrahedra. STM and core-level and valence band PES show that H2O neither adsorbs nor dissociates on the stoichiometric surface at room temperature, whereas it does dissociate at oxygen vacancies. This is in agreement with DFT calculations, which show that the energy barriers for water dissociation on the stoichiometric and reduced surfaces are 1.7 and 0.9 eV, respectively. We propose that water weakly adsorbs on two-dimensional, tetrahedrally coordinated overlayers. PMID:24353755
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreici, Emiliana-Laura
2012-08-01
In this paper we modeled the crystal field and spin-Hamiltonian parameters for tetrahedral coordinated Mn5+ doped in Li3VO4 host matrix. The numerical theoretical crystal field parameters were computed with C3v site symmetry of the Mn5+ impurity ions, in the frame of the superposition model of crystal field, taking into account the effects of the bond formation between the Mn5+ and first coordination sphere of O2- ions coordination. The Hamiltonian of the Li3VO4: Mn5+ system has been diagonalized in a complete basis set spanned by all wave functions of the 3d2 electron configuration. The obtained results give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data. The spin-Hamiltonian parameters of the system (g?, g? factors and for D zero field splitting energy) are calculated in perturbation theory method, and good agreement with experimental data is obtained.
Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu
2012-01-01
Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols. PMID:22993693
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu
2012-09-01
Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols.
Jiang, Long; Ju, Ping; Meng, Xian-Rui; Kuang, Xiao-Jun; Lu, Tong-Bu
2012-01-01
Mechanically Interlocked molecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are of great interest due to their fascinating structures and potential applications, while such molecules have been mainly restricted to comprising components of interlocked rings or polygons. The constructions of infinite polycatenanes and polyrotaxanes by discrete cages remain great challenge, and only two infinite polycatenanes fabricated by discrete cages have been reported so far, while the structures of polyrotaxanes and polypseudo-rotaxanes fabricated by discrete build units have not been documented to date. Herein we report the first example of a two-dimensional (2D) polypseudo-rotaxane fabricated by stool-like build units, the second example of a one-dimensional (1D) polycatenane, and the second example of a three-dimensional (3D) polycatenane, which were assemblied by discrete tetrahedral cages. The pores of dehydrated 3D polycatenane are dynamic, and display size-dependent adsorption/desorption behaviors of alcohols. PMID:22993693
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Trace elements are defined as mineral elements that occur in living systems in micrograms per gram of body weight or less. Trace elements of greatest practical concern in human health are iodine, iron and zinc. Suggestive evidence is emerging that cobalt (as vitamin B12), copper, selenium, boron and...
Rocha, Bernardo M.; Kickinger, Ferdinand; Prassl, Anton J.; Haase, Gundolf; Vigmond, Edward J.; dos Santos, Rodrigo Weber; Zaglmayr, Sabine; Plank, Gernot
2011-01-01
Electrical activity in cardiac tissue can be described by the bidomain equations whose solution for large scale simulations still remains a computational challenge. Therefore, improvements in the discrete formulation of the problem which decrease computational and/or memory demands are highly desirable. In this study, we propose a novel technique for computing shape functions of finite elements. The technique generates macro finite elements (MFEs) based on the local decomposition of elements into tetrahedral sub-elements with linear shape functions. Such an approach necessitates the direct use of hybrid meshes composed of different types of elements. MFEs are compared to classic standard finite elements with respect to accuracy and RAM memory usage under different scenarios of cardiac modeling including bidomain and monodomain simulations in 2D and 3D for simple and complex tissue geometries. In problems with analytical solutions, MFEs displayed the same numerical accuracy of standard linear triangular and tetrahedral elements. In propagation simulations, conduction velocity and activation times agreed very well with those computed with standard finite elements. However, MFEs offer a significant decrease in memory requirements. We conclude that hybrid meshes composed of MFEs are well suited for solving problems in cardiac computational electrophysiology. PMID:20699206
Implementation of B-splines in a Conventional Finite Element Framework
Owens, Brian C.
2010-01-16
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 1. Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2. Knot Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 3. Basis Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 4. Non-recursive Calculation of B-spline Basis... 3 Implementation of elemental calculations and assembly : : : : : : : : 22 4 Lagrangian sextic interpolation of seven nodal values : : : : : : : : : 26 5 Nodes and normalized coordinate system of quadratic element (d=2) 27 6 Basis functions of a...
Wald, Ingo
Interactive Isosurface Ray Tracing of Time-Varying Tetrahedral Volumes Ingo Wald, Heiko Friedrich instructions on the CPU en- courage coherent ray tracing techniques, which amortize the costs of · Ingo Wald is with the SCI Institute, University of Utah, as well as with Intel Corp, Santa Clara, CA; E-mail: wald
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jeschke, Anja; Behrens, Jörn
2015-04-01
In tsunami modeling, two different systems of dispersive long wave equations are common: The nonhydrostatic pressure correction for the shallow water equations derived out of the depth-integrated 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, and the category of Boussinesq-type equations obtained by an expansion in the nondimensional parameters for nonlinearity and dispersion in the Euler equations. The first system uses as an assumption a linear vertical interpolation of the nonhydrostatic pressure, whereas the second system's derivation includes an quadratic vertical interpolation for the nonhydrostatic pressure. In this case the analytical dispersion relations do not coincide. We show that the nonhydrostatic correction with a quadratic vertical interpolation yields an equation set equivalent to the Serre equations, which are 1D Boussinesq-type equations for the case of a horizontal bottom. Now, both systems yield the same analytical dispersion relation according up to the first order with the reference dispersion relation of the linear wave theory. The adjusted model is also compared to other Boussinesq-type equations. The numerical model with the nonhydrostatic correction for the shallow water equations uses Leapfrog timestepping stabilized with the Asselin filter and the P1-PNC1 finite element space discretization. The numerical dispersion relations are computed and compared by employing a testcase of a standing wave in a closed basin. All numerical values match their theoretical expectations. This work is funded by project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe - FP7-ENV2013 6.4-3, Grant 603839. We acknowledge the support given by Geir K. Petersen from the University of Oslo.
Doubly-curved variable-thickness isoparametric heterogeneous finite element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Minich, M. D.; Chamis, C. C.
1977-01-01
This paper describes an element streamlined for the analysis of doubly-curved, variable-thickness structural components and illustrates its effective application to vibration and static problems. The element is isoparametric, doubly-curved, thin-shell and triangular with variable thickness and accounts for anisotropic, inhomogeneous elastic material behavior. The element has six nodes (three corner and three mid-side) with five degrees-of-freedom (DOF) per node - three translations and two rotations. Quadratic isoparametric interpolation polynomials are used to express the element geometry and displacement variables in terms of corresponding nodal variables.
Use of edge-based finite elements for solving three dimensional scattering problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chatterjee, A.; Jin, J. M.; Volakis, John L.
1991-01-01
Edge based finite elements are free from drawbacks associated with node based vectorial finite elements and are, therefore, ideal for solving 3-D scattering problems. The finite element discretization using edge elements is checked by solving for the resonant frequencies of a closed inhomogeneously filled metallic cavity. Great improvements in accuracy are observed when compared to the classical node based approach with no penalty in terms of computational time and with the expected absence of spurious modes. A performance comparison between the edge based tetrahedra and rectangular brick elements is carried out and tetrahedral elements are found to be more accurate than rectangular bricks for a given storage intensity. A detailed formulation for the scattering problem with various approaches for terminating the finite element mesh is also presented.
Quadratic Interaction in the Quantum Cheshire Cat Experiment
W. M. Stuckey; Michael Silberstein; Timothy McDevitt
2015-07-15
In a July 2014 Nature Communications paper, Denkmayr et al. claim to have instantiated the so-called quantum Cheshire Cat experiment using neutron interferometry. Crucial to this claim are the weak values PI = 0 and PII = 1, which must imply that the neutrons at detector O took path II through the interferometer, and the weak values SzI = 1 and SzII = 0, which must imply that the z component of the neutrons' spin at detector O took path I through the interferometer. Given these weak values and implications, according to the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation, "the neutron and its spin are spatially separated" in their experiment. While they measured the correct weak values for the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation, the corresponding implications do not obtain because, as we show, those weak values were (unavoidably) measured with both a quadratic and a linear magnetic field Bz interaction. Indeed, their data show that the effect of Bz in path I is a 3% increase in the neutron intensity at detector O, while the effect of Bz in path II is a 3% decrease in the neutron intensity at detector O. The 3% increase is attributable to the linear Bz interaction and accounted for theoretically by the weak value SzI = 1, in accord with the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation. The 3% decrease is attributable to the quadratic Bz interaction and accounted for theoretically by the weak value PII = 1, in contradiction with the quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation. Therefore, we posit that weak values can only be interpreted as meaning the particle and one of its properties have been spatially separated, i.e., quantum Cheshire Cat interpretation, if the relevant interaction can be made weak enough to render the quadratic contribution to the interaction negligible.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.
2015-02-01
The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.
Cyclicity of a fake saddle inside the quadratic vector fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
De Maesschalck, P.; Rebollo-Perdomo, S.; Torregrosa, J.
2015-01-01
This paper concerns the study of small-amplitude limit cycles that appear in the phase portrait near an unfolded fake saddle singularity. This degenerate singularity is also known as an impassable grain. The canonical form of the unperturbed vector field is like a degenerate flow box. Near the singularity, the phase portrait consists of parallel fibers, all but one of which have no singular points, and at the singular fiber, there is one node. We demonstrate different techniques in order to show that the cyclicity is bigger than or equal to two when the canonical form is quadratic.
Dark state in a nonlinear optomechanical system with quadratic coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yue-Xin; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng
2015-07-01
We consider a hybrid system consisting of a cavity optomechanical device with nonlinear quadratic radiation pressure coupled to an atomic ensemble. By considering the collective excitation, we show that this system supports nontrivial, nonlinear dark states. The coupling strength can be tuned via the lasers that ensure the population transfer adiabatically between the mechanical modes and the collective atomic excitations in a controlled way. In addition, we show how to detect the dark-state resonance by calculating the single-photon spectrum of the output fields and the transmission of the probe beam based on two-phonon optomechanically induced transparency. Possible application and extension of the dark states are also discussed.
Nios II hardware acceleration of the epsilon quadratic sieve algorithm
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyer-Bäse, Uwe; Botella, Guillermo; Castillo, Encarnacion; García, Antonio
2010-04-01
The quadratic sieve (QS) algorithm is one of the most powerful algorithms to factor large composite primes used to break RSA cryptographic systems. The hardware structure of the QS algorithm seems to be a good fit for FPGA acceleration. Our new ?-QS algorithm further simplifies the hardware architecture making it an even better candidate for C2H acceleration. This paper shows our design results in FPGA resource and performance when implementing very long arithmetic on the Nios microprocessor platform with C2H acceleration for different libraries (GMP, LIP, FLINT, NRMP) and QS architecture choices for factoring 32-2048 bit RSA numbers.
Quadratic Interaction Functional for General Systems of Conservation Laws
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bianchini, Stefano; Modena, Stefano
2015-09-01
For the Glimm scheme approximation to the solution of the system of conservation laws in one space dimension with initial data u 0 with small total variation, we prove a quadratic (w.r.t. Tot. Var. ( u 0)) interaction estimate, which has been used in the literature for stability and convergence results. No assumptions on the structure of the flux f are made (apart from smoothness), and this estimate is the natural extension of the Glimm type interaction estimate for genuinely nonlinear systems. More precisely, we obtain the following results: a new analysis of the interaction estimates of simple waves;
Quantum mechanical study of a generic quadratically coupled optomechanical system
H. Shi; M. Bhattacharya
2013-04-22
Typical optomechanical systems involving optical cavities and mechanical oscillators rely on a coupling that varies linearly with the oscillator displacement. However, recently a coupling varying instead as the square of the mechanical displacement has been realized, presenting new possibilities for non-demolition measurements and mechanical squeezing. In this article we present a quantum mechanical study of a generic quadratic-coupling optomechanical Hamiltonian. First, neglecting dissipation, we provide analytical results for the dressed states, spectrum, phonon statistics and entanglement. Subsequently, accounting for dissipation, we supply a numerical treatment using a master equation approach. We expect our results to be of use to optomechanical spectroscopy, state transfer, wavefunction engineering, and entanglement generation.
Ultracold two-level atom in a quadratic potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Soto-Eguibar, F.; Zúñiga-Segundo, A.; Rodríguez-Lara, B. M.; Moya-Cessa, H. M.
2015-08-01
We use a right unitary decomposition to study an ultracold two-level atom interacting with a quantum field. We show that such a right unitary approach simplifies the numerical evolution for arbitrary position-dependent atom-field couplings. In particular, we provide a closed form, analytic time evolution operator for atom-field couplings with quadratic dependence on the position of the atom; e.g. a two-level atom near an extremum of a cavity field mode amplitude. Our approach allows us to show that the center of mass wave function may be squeezed by choosing a proper atom-field initial state.
High Resolution Spectra of Novae and the Quadratic Zeeman Effect
Robert Williams; Elena Mason
2006-02-27
High resolution spectra of novae after outburst reveal distinctive characteristics in the line profiles and intensities. The higher Balmer lines are often broader than the lower members of the series, and the relative profiles and intensities of the [O I] \\lambda\\lambda6300, 6364 doublet differ from normal values. We suggest these features may be caused by the Quadratic Zeeman Effect from magnetic fields exceeding B=10^6 gauss. Taken together the emission and absorption lines point to multiple origins for the ejecta on both the erupting white dwarf and the cool secondary star.
The holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
Srijit Bhattacharjee; Sudipta Sarkar; Aron C. Wall
2015-04-23
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is non stationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a Second Law.
The holographic entropy increases in quadratic curvature gravity
Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Wall, Aron
2015-01-01
Standard methods for calculating the black hole entropy beyond general relativity are ambiguous when the horizon is non stationary. We fix these ambiguities in all quadratic curvature gravity theories, by demanding that the entropy be increasing at every time, for linear perturbations to a stationary black hole. Our result matches with the entropy formula found previously in holographic entanglement entropy calculations. We explicitly calculate the entropy increase for Vaidya-like solutions in Ricci-tensor gravity to show that (unlike the Wald entropy) the holographic entropy obeys a Second Law.
Tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Browkin, Jerzy; Gangl, Herbert
For all quadratic imaginary number fields F of discriminant d>-5000, we give the conjectural value of the order of Milnor's group (the tame kernel) K_2 O_F, where O_F is the ring of integers of F. Assuming that the order is correct, we determine the structure of the group K_2 O_F and of its subgroup W_F (the wild kernel). It turns out that the odd part of the tame kernel is cyclic (with one exception, d=-3387).
Rigorous performance bounds for quadratic and nested dynamical decoupling
Xia, Yuhou; Uhrig, Goetz S.; Lidar, Daniel A. [Department of Mathematics and Department of Physics, Haverford College, Haverford, Pennsylvania 19041 (United States); Lehrstuhl fuer Theoretische Physik I, Technische Universitaet Dortmund, Otto-Hahn Strasse 4, D-44221 Dortmund (Germany); Department of Electrical Engineering, Department of Chemistry, and Department of Physics, Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)
2011-12-15
We present rigorous performance bounds for the quadratic dynamical decoupling pulse sequence which protects a qubit from general decoherence, and for its nested generalization to an arbitrary number of qubits. Our bounds apply under the assumptions of instantaneous pulses and of bounded perturbing environment and qubit-environment Hamiltonians such as those realized by baths of nuclear spins in quantum dots. We prove that if the total sequence time is fixed then the trace-norm distance between the unperturbed and protected system states can be made arbitrarily small by increasing the number of applied pulses.
Confidence set inference with a prior quadratic bound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1989-01-01
In the uniqueness part of a geophysical inverse problem, the observer wants to predict all likely values of P unknown numerical properties z=(z sub 1,...,z sub p) of the earth from measurement of D other numerical properties y (sup 0) = (y (sub 1) (sup 0), ..., y (sub D (sup 0)), using full or partial knowledge of the statistical distribution of the random errors in y (sup 0). The data space Y containing y(sup 0) is D-dimensional, so when the model space X is infinite-dimensional the linear uniqueness problem usually is insoluble without prior information about the correct earth model x. If that information is a quadratic bound on x, Bayesian inference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) inject spurious structure into x, implied by neither the data nor the quadratic bound. Confidence set inference (CSI) provides an alternative inversion technique free of this objection. Confidence set inference is illustrated in the problem of estimating the geomagnetic field B at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) from components of B measured on or above the earth's surface.
An Instability Index Theory for Quadratic Pencils and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bronski, Jared; Johnson, Mathew A.; Kapitula, Todd
2014-04-01
Primarily motivated by the stability analysis of nonlinear waves in second-order in time Hamiltonian systems, in this paper we develop an instability index theory for quadratic operator pencils acting on a Hilbert space. In an extension of the known theory for linear pencils, explicit connections are made between the number of eigenvalues of a given quadratic operator pencil with positive real parts to spectral information about the individual operators comprising the coefficients of the spectral parameter in the pencil. As an application, we apply the general theory developed here to yield spectral and nonlinear stability/instability results for abstract second-order in time wave equations. More specifically, we consider the problem of the existence and stability of spatially periodic waves for the "good" Boussinesq equation. In the analysis our instability index theory provides an explicit, and somewhat surprising, connection between the stability of a given periodic traveling wave solution of the "good" Boussinesq equation and the stability of the same periodic profile, but with different wavespeed, in the nonlinear dynamics of a related generalized Korteweg-de Vries equation.
Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian Regulator Developed for a Magnetic Bearing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Choi, Benjamin B.
2002-01-01
Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) control is a modern state-space technique for designing optimal dynamic regulators. It enables us to trade off regulation performance and control effort, and to take into account process and measurement noise. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch at the NASA Glenn Research Center has developed an LQG control for a fault-tolerant magnetic bearing suspension rig to optimize system performance and to reduce the sensor and processing noise. The LQG regulator consists of an optimal state-feedback gain and a Kalman state estimator. The first design step is to seek a state-feedback law that minimizes the cost function of regulation performance, which is measured by a quadratic performance criterion with user-specified weighting matrices, and to define the tradeoff between regulation performance and control effort. The next design step is to derive a state estimator using a Kalman filter because the optimal state feedback cannot be implemented without full state measurement. Since the Kalman filter is an optimal estimator when dealing with Gaussian white noise, it minimizes the asymptotic covariance of the estimation error.
Quadratic Reciprocity and the Group Orders of Particle States
DAI,YANG; BORISOV,ALEXEY B.; LONGWORTH,JAMES W.; BOYER,KEITH; RHODES,CHARLES K.
2001-06-01
The construction of inverse states in a finite field F{sub P{sub P{alpha}}} enables the organization of the mass scale by associating particle states with residue class designations. With the assumption of perfect flatness ({Omega}total = 1.0), this approach leads to the derivation of a cosmic seesaw congruence which unifies the concepts of space and mass. The law of quadratic reciprocity profoundly constrains the subgroup structure of the multiplicative group of units F{sub P{sub {alpha}}}* defined by the field. Four specific outcomes of this organization are (1) a reduction in the computational complexity of the mass state distribution by a factor of {approximately}10{sup 30}, (2) the extension of the genetic divisor concept to the classification of subgroup orders, (3) the derivation of a simple numerical test for any prospective mass number based on the order of the integer, and (4) the identification of direct biological analogies to taxonomy and regulatory networks characteristic of cellular metabolism, tumor suppression, immunology, and evolution. It is generally concluded that the organizing principle legislated by the alliance of quadratic reciprocity with the cosmic seesaw creates a universal optimized structure that functions in the regulation of a broad range of complex phenomena.
Analytical Solution of Projectile Motion with Quadratic Resistance and Generalisations
Ray, Shouryya
2013-01-01
The paper considers the motion of a body under the influence of gravity and drag of the surrounding fluid. Depending on the fluid mechanical regime, the drag force can exhibit a linear, quadratic or even more general dependence on the velocity of the body relative to the fluid. The case of quadratic drag is substantially more complex than the linear case, as it nonlinearly couples both components of the momentum equation, and no explicit analytic solution is known for a general trajectory. After a detailed account of the literature, the paper provides such a solution in form of a series expansion. This result is discussed in detail and related to other approaches previously proposed. In particular, it is shown to yield certain approximate solutions proposed in the literature as limiting cases. The solution technique employs a strategy to reduce systems of ordinary differential equations with a triangular dependence of the right-hand side on the vector of unknowns to a single equation in an auxiliary variable....
Electroweak vacuum stability and finite quadratic radiative corrections
Isabella Masina; Germano Nardini; Mariano Quiros
2015-07-07
If the Standard Model (SM) is an effective theory, as currently believed, it is valid up to some energy scale $\\Lambda$ to which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is sensitive throughout radiative quadratic terms. The latter ones destabilize the electroweak vacuum and generate the SM hierarchy problem. For a given perturbative Ultraviolet (UV) completion, the SM cutoff can be computed in terms of fundamental parameters. If the UV mass spectrum involves several scales the cutoff is not unique and each SM sector has its own UV cutoff $\\Lambda_i$. We have performed this calculation assuming the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) is the SM UV completion. As a result, from the SM point of view, the quadratic corrections to the Higgs mass are equivalent to finite threshold contributions. For the measured values of the top quark and Higgs masses, and depending on the values of the different cutoffs $\\Lambda_i$, these contributions can cancel even at renormalization scales as low as multi-TeV, unlike the case of a single cutoff where the cancellation only occurs at Planckian energies, a result originally obtained by Veltman. From the MSSM point of view, the requirement of stability of the electroweak minimum under radiative corrections is incorporated into the matching conditions and provides an extra constraint on the Focus Point solution to the little hierarchy problem in the MSSM. These matching conditions can be employed for precise calculations of the Higgs sector in scenarios with heavy supersymmetric fields.
Electroweak vacuum stability and finite quadratic radiative corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masina, Isabella; Nardini, Germano; Quiros, Mariano
2015-08-01
If the Standard Model (SM) is an effective theory, as currently believed, it is valid up to some energy scale ? to which the Higgs vacuum expectation value is sensitive throughout radiative quadratic terms. The latter ones destabilize the electroweak vacuum and generate the SM hierarchy problem. For a given perturbative ultraviolet (UV) completion, the SM cutoff can be computed in terms of fundamental parameters. If the UV mass spectrum involves several scales, the cutoff is not unique and each SM sector has its own UV cutoff ?i. We have performed this calculation assuming the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) is the SM UV completion. As a result, from the SM point of view, the quadratic corrections to the Higgs mass are equivalent to finite threshold contributions. For the measured values of the top quark and Higgs masses, and depending on the values of the different cutoffs ?i, these contributions can cancel even at renormalization scales as low as multi-TeV, unlike the case of a single cutoff where the cancellation only occurs at Planckian energies, a result originally obtained by Veltman. From the MSSM point of view, the requirement of stability of the electroweak minimum under radiative corrections is incorporated into the matching conditions and provides an extra constraint on the focus point solution to the little hierarchy problem in the MSSM. These matching conditions can be employed for precise calculations of the Higgs sector in scenarios with heavy supersymmetric fields.
Tonneson, L.C.
1997-01-01
Trace elements used in nutritional supplements and vitamins are discussed in the article. Relevant studies are briefly cited regarding the health effects of selenium, chromium, germanium, silicon, zinc, magnesium, silver, manganese, ruthenium, lithium, and vanadium. The toxicity and food sources are listed for some of the elements. A brief summary is also provided of the nutritional supplements market.
Rauchfuss, Thomas B.
with solutions of elemental sulfur in various donor solvents is described. Complexes of the type ZnS6(N.22(2)". In the solid state ZnS6(TMEDA) adopts a tetrahedral geometry with a seven-membered ZnS6 ring. A variety of reactivity studies were conducted on Zn&(TMEDA). Solutions of ZnS6(TMEDA) undergo ligand exchange
Adaptive Meshing Techniques for Viscous Flow Calculations on Mixed Element Unstructured Meshes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mavriplis, D. J.
1997-01-01
An adaptive refinement strategy based on hierarchical element subdivision is formulated and implemented for meshes containing arbitrary mixtures of tetrahendra, hexahendra, prisms and pyramids. Special attention is given to keeping memory overheads as low as possible. This procedure is coupled with an algebraic multigrid flow solver which operates on mixed-element meshes. Inviscid flows as well as viscous flows are computed an adaptively refined tetrahedral, hexahedral, and hybrid meshes. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by generating an adapted hexahedral mesh containing 3 million vertices on a relatively inexpensive workstation.
Wang, Z J
2012-12-06
The overriding objective for this project is to develop an efficient and accurate method for capturing strong discontinuities and fine smooth flow structures of disparate length scales with unstructured grids, and demonstrate its potentials for problems relevant to DOE. More specifically, we plan to achieve the following objectives: 1. Extend the SV method to three dimensions, and develop a fourth-order accurate SV scheme for tetrahedral grids. Optimize the SV partition by minimizing a form of the Lebesgue constant. Verify the order of accuracy using the scalar conservation laws with an analytical solution; 2. Extend the SV method to Navier-Stokes equations for the simulation of viscous flow problems. Two promising approaches to compute the viscous fluxes will be tested and analyzed; 3. Parallelize the 3D viscous SV flow solver using domain decomposition and message passing. Optimize the cache performance of the flow solver by designing data structures minimizing data access times; 4. Demonstrate the SV method with a wide range of flow problems including both discontinuities and complex smooth structures. The objectives remain the same as those outlines in the original proposal. We anticipate no technical obstacles in meeting these objectives.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kim, Kwang Joo; Koh, Tae Young; Kim, Chul Sung; Lee, Young Bae
2014-01-01
Polycrystalline titanomagnetite (Ti x Fe3- x O4) thin films prepared by using a sol-gel process exhibited a phase-pure spinel structure for Ti compositions up to x = 0.6. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) investigation disclosed an increase of the Fe2+ concentration with increasing x, indicating a reduction in ionic valence, Fe3+ ? Fe2+, induced by Ti4+ occupation of the cationic sublattice. Analyses on XPS and X-ray diffraction spectra of the Ti x Fe3- x O4 samples suggest that the Fe2+ ions prefer the tetrahedral sites while the Ti4+ ions prefer the octahedral sites of the sublattice. Magnetic hysteresis measurements on the Ti x Fe3- x O4 films revealed significant loss of the saturation magnetization (M s ) with increasing x: M s is reduced to 50% that of Fe3O4 for x = 0.10 and to 10% for x = 0.60. The big loss of M s caused by small Ti doping suggests a significant disruption of the inter-site Fe3+-Fe3+ super-exchange interaction in thin-film titanomagnetites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsirlin, A. A.; Rabie, M. G.; Efimenko, A.; Hu, Z.; Saez-Puche, R.; Tjeng, L. H.
2014-08-01
We have investigated the electronic structure of the high oxidation state material YCrO4 within the framework of the Zaanen-Sawatzky-Allen phase diagram. While Cr4+-based compounds such as SrCrO3/CaCrO3 and CrO2 can be classified as small-gap or metallic negative-charge-transfer systems, we find using photoelectron spectroscopy that YCrO4 is a robust insulator despite the fact that its Cr ions have an even higher formal valence state of 5+. We reveal using band-structure calculations that the tetrahedral coordination of the Cr5+ ions in YCrO4 plays a decisive role, namely to diminish the bonding of the Cr 3d states with the top of the O 2p valence band. This finding not only explains why the charge-transfer energy remains effectively positive and the material stable, but also opens up a new route to create doped carriers with symmetries different from those of other transition-metal ions.
Smallenburg, Frank; Filion, Laura; Sciortino, Francesco
2014-01-01
One of the most controversial hypotheses for explaining the origin of the thermodynamic anomalies characterizing liquid water postulates the presence of a metastable second-order liquid-liquid critical point [1] located in the “no-man’s land” [2]. In this scenario, two liquids with distinct local structure emerge near the critical temperature. Unfortunately, since spontaneous crystallization is rapid in this region, experimental support for this hypothesis relies on significant extrapolations, either from the metastable liquid or from amorphous solid water [3, 4]. Although the liquid-liquid transition is expected to feature in many tetrahedrally coordinated liquids, including silicon [5], carbon [6] and silica, even numerical studies of atomic and molecular models have been unable to conclusively prove the existence of this transition. Here we provide such evidence for a model in which it is possible to continuously tune the softness of the interparticle interaction and the flexibility of the bonds, the key ingredients controlling the existence of the critical point. We show that conditions exist where the full coexistence is thermodynamically stable with respect to crystallization. Our work offers a basis for designing colloidal analogues of water exhibiting liquid-liquid transitions in equilibrium, opening the way for experimental confirmation of the original hypothesis. PMID:25264453
Cortés-Arriagada, Diego; Oyarzún, María Paz; Sanhueza, Luis; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro
2015-07-01
The interaction of arsenic(III) onto the tetrahedral Au20 cluster was studied computationally to get insights into the interaction of arsenic traces (presented in polluted waters) onto embedded electrodes with gold nanostructures. Pollutant interactions onto the vertex, edge, or inner gold atoms of Au20 were observed to have a covalent character by forming metal-arsenic or metal-oxygen bonding, with adsorption energies ranging from 0.5 to 0.8 eV, even with a stable physisorption; however, in aqueous media, the Au-vertex-pollutant interaction was found to be disadvantageous. The substituent effect of a platinum atom onto the Au20 cluster was evaluated to get insights into the changes in the adsorption and electronic properties of the adsorbent-adsorbate systems due to chemical doping. It was found that the dopant atom increases both the metal-pollutant adsorption energy and stability onto the support in a water media for all interaction modes; adsorption energies were found to be in a range of 0.6 to 1.8 eV. All interactions were determined to be accompanied by electron transfer as well as changes in the local reactivity that determine the amount of transferred charge and a decrease in the HOMO-LUMO energy gap with respect to the isolated substrate. PMID:26061641
Conductive tracks of 30-MeV C60 clusters in doped and undoped tetrahedral amorphous carbon
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krauser, J.; Gehrke, H.-G.; Hofsäss, H.; Trautmann, C.; Weidinger, A.
2013-07-01
In insulating tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C), the irradiation with 30-MeV C60 cluster ions leads to the formation of well conducting tracks. While electrical currents through individual tracks produced with monoatomic projectiles (e.g. Au or U) often exhibit rather large track to track fluctuations, C60 clusters are shown to generate highly conducting tracks with very narrow current distributions. Additionally, all recorded current-voltage curves show linear characteristics. These findings are attributed to the large specific energy loss dE/dx of the 30-MeV C60 clusters. We also investigated C60 tracks in ta-C films which were slightly doped with B, N or Fe during film growth. Doping apparently increases the ion track conductivity. However, at the same time the insulating characteristics of the pristine ta-C film can be reduced. The present C60 results are compared with data from earlier experiments with monoatomic heavy ion beams. The investigations were performed by means of atomic force microscopy including temperature dependent conductivity measurements of single ion tracks.
Integrability of Quadratic Non-autonomous Quantum Linear Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez, Raquel
The Quantum Harmonic Oscillator is one of the most important models in Quantum Mechanics. Analogous to the classical mass vibrating back and forth on a spring, the quantum oscillator system has attracted substantial attention over the years because of its importance in many advanced and difficult quantum problems. This dissertation deals with solving generalized models of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation which are called generalized quantum harmonic oscillators, and these are characterized by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian of linear momentum and position operators. The primary challenge in this work is that most quantum models with timedependence are not solvable explicitly, yet this challenge became the driving motivation for this work. In this dissertation, the methods used to solve the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are the fundamental singularity (or Green's function) and the Fourier (eigenfunction expansion) methods. Certain Riccati- and Ermakov-type systems arise, and these systems are highlighted and investigated. The overall aims of this dissertation are to show that quadratic Hamiltonian systems are completely integrable systems, and to provide explicit approaches to solving the time-dependent Schr¨odinger equation governed by an arbitrary quadratic Hamiltonian operator. The methods and results established in the dissertation are not yet well recognized in the literature, yet hold for high promise for further future research. Finally, the most recent results in the dissertation correspond to the harmonic oscillator group and its symmetries. A simple derivation of the maximum kinematical invariance groups of the free particle and quantum harmonic oscillator is constructed from the view point of the Riccati- and Ermakov-type systems, which shows an alternative to the traditional Lie Algebra approach. To conclude, a missing class of solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation for the simple harmonic oscillator in one dimension is constructed. Probability distributions of the particle linear position and momentum, are emphasized with Mathematica animations. The eigenfunctions qualitatively differ from the traditional standing waves of the one-dimensional Schrodinger equation. The physical relevance of these dynamic states is still questionable, and in order to investigate their physical meaning, animations could also be created for the squeezed coherent states. This will be addressed in future work.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Daniel, Esther Gnanamalar Sarojini; Saat, Rohaida Mohd.
2001-01-01
Introduces a learning module integrating three disciplines--physics, chemistry, and biology--and based on four elements: carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and silicon. Includes atomic model and silicon-based life activities. (YDS)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tsang, Chin Fu
1975-01-01
Discusses the possibility of creating elements with an atomic number of around 114. Describes the underlying physics responsible for the limited extent of the periodic table and enumerates problems that must be overcome in creating a superheavy nucleus. (GS)
Thermodynamics of charged Lifshitz black holes with quadratic corrections
Moises Bravo-Gaete; Mokhtar Hassaine
2015-03-11
In arbitrary dimension, we consider the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian supplemented by the more general quadratic-curvature corrections. For this model, we derive four classes of charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for which the metric function is shown to depend on a unique integration constant. The masses of these solutions are computed using the quasilocal formalism based on the relation established between the off-shell ADT and Noether potentials. Among these four solutions, three of them are interpreted as extremal in the sense that their mass vanishes identically. For the last family of solutions, the quasilocal mass and the electric charge both are shown to depend on the integration constant. Finally, we verify that the first law of thermodynamics holds for each solution and a Smarr formula is also established for the four solutions.
Thermodynamics of charged Lifshitz black holes with quadratic corrections
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bravo-Gaete, Moisés; Hassaïne, Mokhtar
2015-03-01
In arbitrary dimension, we consider the Einstein-Maxwell Lagrangian supplemented by the more general quadratic-curvature corrections. For this model, we derive four classes of charged Lifshitz black hole solutions for which the metric function is shown to depend on a unique integration constant. The masses of these solutions are computed using the quasilocal formalism based on the relation established between the off-shell Abbott-Deser-Tekin and Noether potentials. Among these four solutions, three of them are interpreted as extremal in the sense that their masses vanish identically. For the last family of solutions, both the quasilocal mass and the electric charge are shown to depend on the integration constant. Finally, we verify that the first law of thermodynamics holds for each solution and a Smarr formula is also established for the four solutions.
Wind turbine power tracking using an improved multimodel quadratic approach.
Khezami, Nadhira; Benhadj Braiek, Naceur; Guillaud, Xavier
2010-07-01
In this paper, an improved multimodel optimal quadratic control structure for variable speed, pitch regulated wind turbines (operating at high wind speeds) is proposed in order to integrate high levels of wind power to actively provide a primary reserve for frequency control. On the basis of the nonlinear model of the studied plant, and taking into account the wind speed fluctuations, and the electrical power variation, a multimodel linear description is derived for the wind turbine, and is used for the synthesis of an optimal control law involving a state feedback, an integral action and an output reference model. This new control structure allows a rapid transition of the wind turbine generated power between different desired set values. This electrical power tracking is ensured with a high-performance behavior for all other state variables: turbine and generator rotational speeds and mechanical shaft torque; and smooth and adequate evolution of the control variables. PMID:20434153
A Fixed-Point Iteration Method with Quadratic Convergence
Walker, Kevin P. [Engineering Science Software, Inc.; Sham, Sam [ORNL
2012-01-01
The fixed-point iteration algorithm is turned into a quadratically convergent scheme for a system of nonlinear equations. Most of the usual methods for obtaining the roots of a system of nonlinear equations rely on expanding the equation system about the roots in a Taylor series, and neglecting the higher order terms. Rearrangement of the resulting truncated system then results in the usual Newton-Raphson and Halley type approximations. In this paper the introduction of unit root functions avoids the direct expansion of the nonlinear system about the root, and relies, instead, on approximations which enable the unit root functions to considerably widen the radius of convergence of the iteration method. Methods for obtaining higher order rates of convergence and larger radii of convergence are discussed.
Regularized quadratic cost function for oriented fringe-pattern filtering.
Villa, Jesús; Quiroga, Juan Antonio; De la Rosa, Ismael
2009-06-01
We use the regularization theory in a Bayesian framework to derive a quadratic cost function for denoising fringe patterns. As prior constraints for the regularization problem, we propose a Markov random field model that includes information about the fringe orientation. In our cost function the regularization term imposes constraints to the solution (i.e., the filtered image) to be smooth only along the fringe's tangent direction. In this way as the fringe information and noise are conveniently separated in the frequency space, our technique avoids blurring the fringes. The attractiveness of the proposed filtering method is that the minimization of the cost function can be easily implemented using iterative methods. To show the performance of the proposed technique we present some results obtained by processing simulated and real fringe patterns. PMID:19488167
Consultant-Guided Search Algorithms for the Quadratic Assignment Problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iordache, Serban
Consultant-Guided Search (CGS) is a recent swarm intelligence metaheuristic for combinatorial optimization problems, inspired by the way real people make decisions based on advice received from consultants. Until now, CGS has been successfully applied to the Traveling Salesman Problem. Because a good metaheuristic should be able to tackle efficiently a large variety of problems, it is important to see how CGS behaves when applied to other classes of problems. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for the Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP), which hybridizes CGS with a local search procedure. Our experimental results show that CGS is able to compete in terms of solution quality with one of the best Ant Colony Optimization algorithms, the MAX-MIN Ant System.
Type III and N solutions to quadratic gravity
Tomáš Málek; Vojt?ch Pravda
2011-06-01
We study exact vacuum solutions to quadratic gravity (QG) of the Weyl types N and III. We show that in an arbitrary dimension all Einstein spacetimes of the Weyl type N with an appropriately chosen effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ are exact solutions to QG and we refer to explicitly known metrics within this class. For type III Einstein spacetimes, an additional constraint follows from the field equations of QG and examples of spacetimes obeying such constraint are given. However, type III pp-waves do not satisfy this constraint and thus do not solve QG. For type N, we also study a wider class of spacetimes admitting a pure radiation term in the Ricci tensor. In contrast to the Einstein case, the field equations of generic QG determine optical properties of the geometry and restrict such exact solutions to the Kundt class. We provide examples of these metrics.
Renormalisation of correlations in a barrier billiard: Quadratic irrational trajectories
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamson, L. N. C.; Osbaldestin, A. H.
2014-03-01
We present an analysis of autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards using a renormalisation approach for quadratic irrational trajectories. Depending on the nature of the barrier, this leads to either self-similar or chaotic behaviour. In the self-similar case we give an analysis of the half barrier and present a detailed calculation of the locations, asymptotic heights and signs of the main peaks in the autocorrelation function. Then we consider arbitrary barriers, illustrating that typically these give rise to chaotic correlations of the autocorrelation function which we further represent by showing the invariant sets associated with these correlations. Our main ingredient here is a functional recurrence which has been previously derived and used in work on the Harper equation, strange non-chaotic attractors and a quasi-periodically forced two-level system.
Quadratic Time, Linear Space Algorithms for Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization and Gaussian
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
Quadratic Time, Linear Space Algorithms for Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization and Gaussian Sampling most time-efficient (quadratic-time) variant requires the storage of the Gram- Schmidt basis applications. At the core of our improvements is a new, faster algorithm for computing the Gram
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this note, a new method for computing the partial fraction decomposition of rational functions with irreducible quadratic factors in the denominators is presented. This method involves polynomial divisions and substitutions only, without having to solve for the complex roots of the irreducible quadratic polynomial or to solve a system of linear…
QUADRATIC EXPANSIONS AND PARTIAL REGULARITY FOR FULLY NONLINEAR UNIFORMLY PARABOLIC EQUATIONS
Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÃ© de
QUADRATIC EXPANSIONS AND PARTIAL REGULARITY FOR FULLY NONLINEAR UNIFORMLY PARABOLIC EQUATIONS JEAN-PAUL DANIEL Abstract. For a parabolic equation associated to a uniformly elliptic operator, we obtain a W 3 a quadratic expansion. The argument combines parabolic W 2, estimates with a comparison principle argument
Are ghost-surfaces quadratic-flux minimizing? S.R. Hudsona
Hudson, Stuart
Are ghost-surfaces quadratic-flux minimizing? S.R. Hudsona and R.L. Dewarb aPrinceton Plasma through magnetic islands, namely quadratic-flux-minimizing (QFMIN) surfaces and ghost surfaces, use, and ghost-surface pseudo-orbits are obtained by displacing closed field lines in the direction of steepest
The period function of quadratic centers P. Mardesic, D. Marin and J. Villadelprat
Marín, David
The period function of quadratic centers P. Mardesi´c, D. Mar´in and J. Villadelprat Institut de diagram of the period function associated to a family of quadratic centers, namely the dehomogenized Loud's systems. The local bifurcation diagram of the period function at the center is fully understood using
Single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays
Single-photon spontaneous parametric down-conversion in quadratic nonlinear waveguide arrays Diana Accepted 19 February 2014 Available online 5 March 2014 Keywords: Quasi-phase-matching Down-conversion parametric down-conversion of a single-photon pump in quadratic nonlinear waveguides and waveguide arrays
A New Scheme for Zero Knowledge Proof based on Multivariate Quadratic Problem and Quaternion Algebra
International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)
A New Scheme for Zero Knowledge Proof based on Multivariate Quadratic Problem and Quaternion problem. This novel problem uses quaternion algebra in conjunction with MQ. Starting with the simultaneous multivariate equations, we transform these equations into simultaneous quaternion based multivariate quadratic
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Strickland, Tricia K.; Maccini, Paula
2013-01-01
The current study focuses on the effects of incorporating multiple visual representations on students' conceptual understanding of quadratic expressions embedded within area word problems and students' procedural fluency of transforming quadratic expressions in standard form to factored-form and vice versa. The intervention included the…
Optimal Quadratic Spline Collocation Methods for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere
Toronto, University of
Optimal Quadratic Spline Collocation Methods for the Shallow Water Equations on the Sphere Anita T, for solving the shallow water equations (SWEs) in spherical co ordinates. A quadratic spline collocation was at the Department of Computer Science, University of Toronto. y Partly supported by Natural Sciences and Engineering
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NON-VARYING STRATA
Chen, Dawei
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NON-VARYING STRATA DAWEI CHEN AND MARTIN M Â¨OLLER Abstract. We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic differentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6, 3, -1
SIEGELVEECH CONSTANTS AND VOLUMES OF STRATA OF MODULI SPACES OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS
Boyer, Edmond
SIEGELVEECH CONSTANTS AND VOLUMES OF STRATA OF MODULI SPACES OF QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS ELISE GOUJARD Abstract. We present an explicit formula relating volumes of strata of mero- morphic quadratic. In this paper we will evaluate the number of such cylinders on S in terms of the volumes of some strata, using
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NON-VARYING STRATA
Moeller, Martin
QUADRATIC DIFFERENTIALS IN LOW GENUS: EXCEPTIONAL AND NON-VARYING STRATA DAWEI CHEN AND MARTIN MÂ¨OLLER Abstract. We give an algebraic way of distinguishing the components of the exceptional strata of quadratic differentials in genus three and four. The complete list of these strata is (9, -1), (6, 3, -1), (3, 3, 3, -1
NON-DEGENERATE QUADRATIC LAMINATIONS ALEXANDER BLOKH, DOUGLAS K. CHILDERS, JOHN C. MAYER,
Blokh, Alexander
NON-DEGENERATE QUADRATIC LAMINATIONS ALEXANDER BLOKH, DOUGLAS K. CHILDERS, JOHN C. MAYER, AND LEX-degenerate quadratic lamination. 1. Introduction Laminations were introduced by Thurston [19] as a tool for studying if and only if (x) = (y). The equivalence P is called the (d-invariant) lamination (generated by P
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields of discriminants > 5000
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields of discriminants > Â5000 of OF (the tame kernel). Â· WF is the Hilbert kernel of F (the wild kernel). Â· ep is the p-rank of K2OF's conjecture one can compute conjectural values of orders of the tame kernels K2OF of quadratic imaginary
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields of discriminants > --5000
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields of discriminants > --5000 OF is the Milnor group of OF (the tame kernel). . WF is the Hilbert kernel of F (the wild kernel). . e p is the p's conjecture one can compute conjectural values of orders of the tame kernels K 2 OF of quadratic imaginary
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields of discriminants > -5000
Table of tame and wild kernels of quadratic imaginary number fields's conjecture one can compute conjectural values of orders of the tame kernels K2OF of quadratic imaginary known concerning the p-rank of K2OF and of its subgroup WF called the wild kernel, it is possible
Confidence set inference with a prior quadratic bound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backus, George E.
1988-01-01
In the uniqueness part of a geophysical inverse problem, the observer wants to predict all likely values of P unknown numerical properties z = (z sub 1,...,z sub p) of the earth from measurement of D other numerical properties y(0)=(y sub 1(0),...,y sub D(0)) knowledge of the statistical distribution of the random errors in y(0). The data space Y containing y(0) is D-dimensional, so when the model space X is infinite-dimensional the linear uniqueness problem usually is insoluble without prior information about the correct earth model x. If that information is a quadratic bound on x (e.g., energy or dissipation rate), Bayesian inference (BI) and stochastic inversion (SI) inject spurious structure into x, implied by neither the data nor the quadratic bound. Confidence set inference (CSI) provides an alternative inversion technique free of this objection. CSI is illustrated in the problem of estimating the geomagnetic field B at the core-mantle boundary (CMB) from components of B measured on or above the earth's surface. Neither the heat flow nor the energy bound is strong enough to permit estimation of B(r) at single points on the CMB, but the heat flow bound permits estimation of uniform averages of B(r) over discs on the CMB, and both bounds permit weighted disc-averages with continous weighting kernels. Both bounds also permit estimation of low-degree Gauss coefficients at the CMB. The heat flow bound resolves them up to degree 8 if the crustal field at satellite altitudes must be treated as a systematic error, but can resolve to degree 11 under the most favorable statistical treatment of the crust. These two limits produce circles of confusion on the CMB with diameters of 25 deg and 19 deg respectively.
Determination of ventilatory threshold through quadratic regression analysis.
Gregg, Joey S; Wyatt, Frank B; Kilgore, J Lon
2010-09-01
Ventilatory threshold (VT) has been used to measure physiological occurrences in athletes through models via gas analysis with limited accuracy. The purpose of this study is to establish a mathematical model to more accurately detect the ventilatory threshold using the ventilatory equivalent of carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) and the ventilatory equivalent of oxygen (VE/Vo2). The methodology is primarily a mathematical analysis of data. The raw data used were archived from the cardiorespiratory laboratory in the Department of Kinesiology at Midwestern State University. Procedures for archived data collection included breath-by-breath gas analysis averaged every 20 seconds (ParVoMedics, TrueMax 2400). A ramp protocol on a Velotron bicycle ergometer was used with increased work at 25 W.min beginning with 150 W, until volitional fatigue. The subjects consisted of 27 healthy, trained cyclists with age ranging from 18 to 50 years. All subjects signed a university approved informed consent before testing. Graphic scatterplots and statistical regression analyses were performed to establish the crossover and subsequent dissociation of VE/Vo2 to VE/VCO2. A polynomial trend line along the scatterplots for VE/VO2 and VE/VCO2 was used because of the high correlation coefficient, the coefficient of determination, and trend line. The equations derived from the scatterplots and trend lines were quadratic in nature because they have a polynomial degree of 2. A graphing calculator in conjunction with a spreadsheet was used to find the exact point of intersection of the 2 trend lines. After the quadratic regression analysis, the exact point of VE/Vo2 and VE/VCO2 crossover was established as the VT. This application will allow investigators to more accurately determine the VT in subsequent research. PMID:20802290
Blind deconvolution estimation of fluorescence measurements through quadratic programming.
Campos-Delgado, Daniel U; Gutierrez-Navarro, Omar; Arce-Santana, Edgar R; Skala, Melissa C; Walsh, Alex J; Jo, Javier A
2015-07-01
Time-deconvolution of the instrument response from fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) data is usually necessary for accurate fluorescence lifetime estimation. In many applications, however, the instrument response is not available. In such cases, a blind deconvolution approach is required. An iterative methodology is proposed to address the blind deconvolution problem departing from a dataset of FLIM measurements. A linear combination of a base conformed by Laguerre functions models the fluorescence impulse response of the sample at each spatial point in our formulation. Our blind deconvolution estimation (BDE) algorithm is formulated as a quadratic approximation problem, where the decision variables are the samples of the instrument response and the scaling coefficients of the basis functions. In the approximation cost function, there is a bilinear dependence on the decision variables. Hence, due to the nonlinear nature of the estimation process, an alternating least-squares scheme iteratively solves the approximation problem. Our proposal searches for the samples of the instrument response with a global perspective, and the scaling coefficients of the basis functions locally at each spatial point. First, the iterative methodology relies on a least-squares solution for the instrument response, and quadratic programming for the scaling coefficients applied just to a subset of the measured fluorescence decays to initially estimate the instrument response to speed up the convergence. After convergence, the final stage computes the fluorescence impulse response at all spatial points. A comprehensive validation stage considers synthetic and experimental FLIM datasets of ex vivo atherosclerotic plaques and human breast cancer cell samples that highlight the advantages of the proposed BDE algorithm under different noise and initial conditions in the iterative scheme and parameters of the proposal. PMID:26222960
Spin dynamics and magnetoelectric properties of the coupled-spin tetrahedral compound Cu2Te2O5Cl2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besara, T.; Choi, E. S.; Choi, K.-Y.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.; Lemmens, P.; Berger, H.; Dalal, N. S.
2014-08-01
We report on the spin dynamics and discovery of magnetoelectricity in the coupled-spin tetrahedral compound Cu2Te2O5Cl2. Te125 NMR measurements show an anomalous resonance frequency shift and a signal wipe-out phenomenon around the Néel temperature TN = 18.2 K, which could be attributed to the anomalous critical slowing down of the Cu spin fluctuations on the NMR time scale (˜10-100 MHz). The critical exponent of (T1T)-1?(T-TN)-? is 0.40 ± 0.03, as compared to 0.5 for a three-dimensional mean-field model. This is in contrast to the Br compound [S.-H. Baek et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 180405 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.180405], which exhibits pronounced singlet dynamics with a large spin gap. Electric polarization (Pc) is observed along the c axis for temperatures below TN under finite magnetic field but not sensitive to the electric poling. Pc increases sharply over zero to 2 T and then reaches saturation. Below TN, Pc changes its sign depending on the applied magnetic field direction, positive for the H?c axis and negative for H ? c axis. We discuss possible explanations for the observed magnetoelectric (ME) behavior in terms of linear ME effect, spin-driven multiferroicity, and an exchange striction of intertetrahedral exchange paths involving the Te4+ lone-pair ions. Our results suggest that Cu2Te2O5Cl2 is a type of ME material whose properties are tuned by intertetrahedral exchange interactions involving polarizable Te4+ ions.
Protopopova, V S; Wester, N; Caro, M A; Gabdullin, P G; Palomäki, T; Laurila, T; Koskinen, J
2015-04-14
In this paper we show that the electronic properties of ultrathin tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) films are heavily dependent on their thickness. By using scanning tunnelling spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and conductive atomic force microscopy, it was found that a decrease of ta-C thickness from 30 to 7 nm leads to (i) the narrowing of the band gap; (ii) appearance of shallower monoenergetic traps as well as the increase of their concentration; (iii) the increase of the equilibrium concentration of free charge carriers and their mobility; which were caused by (iv) the increase in the sp(2) fraction. However, beyond a certain ta-C thickness (7 nm) the electronic properties of the studied samples start to deteriorate, which is highly likely related to titanium oxide formation at the Ti/ta-C interface. The same tendency is observed for the sample with beforehand air-formed native titanium oxide at the interface. With respect to the last point, it is suggested that the ta-C layer has no uniform coverage if its thickness is small enough (less than 7 nm). The experimental results were rationalized by detailed atomistic simulations. By using the so-called "Tauc plot" we introduce the possibility of the coexistence of bulk and surface band gaps originating from the large increase in sp(2) bonded carbon atoms in the surface region compared to that in the bulk ta-C. The results from the simulations were found to be consistent with the experimental measurements. The previously stated variation in the electronic properties of the layers as a function of their thickness was also exhibited in the electrochemical properties of the samples. It appears that the thinner ta-C layers had more facile electron transfer kinetics as determined with a ferrocenemethanol (FcMeOH) outer sphere redox system. However, if the ta-C layer thickness was reduced too much, the films were not stable anymore. PMID:25751653
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Konicek, A. R.; Grierson, D. S.; Sumant, A. V.; Friedmann, T. A.; Sullivan, J. P.; Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Sawyer, W. G.; Carpick, R. W.
2012-04-01
Highly sp3-bonded, nearly hydrogen-free carbon-based materials can exhibit extremely low friction and wear in the absence of any liquid lubricant, but this physical behavior is limited by the vapor environment. The effect of water vapor on friction and wear is examined as a function of applied normal force for two such materials in thin film form: one that is fully amorphous in structure (tetrahedral amorphous carbon, or ta-C) and one that is polycrystalline with <10 nm grains [ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD)]. Tribologically induced changes in the chemistry and carbon bond hybridization at the surface are correlated with the effect of the sliding environment and loading conditions through ex situ, spatially resolved near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. At sufficiently high relative humidity (RH) levels and/or sufficiently low loads, both films quickly achieve a low steady-state friction coefficient and subsequently exhibit low wear. For both films, the number of cycles necessary to reach the steady-state is progressively reduced for increasing RH levels. Worn regions formed at lower RH and higher loads have a higher concentration of chemisorbed oxygen than those formed at higher RH, with the oxygen singly bonded as hydroxyl groups (C-OH). While some carbon rehybridization from sp3 to disordered sp2 bonding is observed, no crystalline graphite formation is observed for either film. Rather, the primary solid-lubrication mechanism is the passivation of dangling bonds by OH and H from the dissociation of vapor-phase H2O. This vapor-phase lubrication mechanism is highly effective, producing friction coefficients as low as 0.078 for ta-C and 0.008 for UNCD, and wear rates requiring thousands of sliding passes to produce a few nanometers of wear.
Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)
Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge
NSDL National Science Digital Library
Coordinates for tracking the International Space Station and the Mir Space Station are available here from NASA's Johnson Space Center Flight Design and Dynamics Division. The Orbital Elements page offers real-time data for use in ground track plotting programs. The site cautions the data are for ground track plotting programs only and "should not be used for precise applications or analysis!"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Herald, Christine
2001-01-01
Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hofmann, S.
The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell closure beyond 208Pb is at a proton number Z=114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N=172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical `SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods have been developed which allowed for the identification of new elements at production rates of one atom per month. Using cold fusion reactions which are based on lead and bismuth targets, relatively neutron-deficient isotopes of the elements from 107 to 113 were synthesized at GSI in Darmstadt, Germany, and/or at RIKEN in Wako, Japan. In hot fusion reactions of 48Ca projectiles with actinide targets more neutron-rich isotopes of the elements from 112 to 116 and even 118 were produced at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR) at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna, Russia. Recently, part of these data which represent the first identification of nuclei located on the predicted island of SHEs were confirmed in two independent experiments. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is ? emission rather than fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical studies. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques. At a higher sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will be in the center of interest of future experimental work. New data will certainly challenge theoretical studies on the mechanism of the synthesis, on the nuclear decay properties, and on the chemical behavior of these heaviest atoms at the limit of stability.
Measurement of the quadratic slope parameter in the KL-->3?0 decay Dalitz plot
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Somalwar, S. V.; Barker, A.; Briere, R. A.; Gibbons, L. K.; Makoff, G.; Papadimitriou, V.; Patterson, J. R.; Wah, Y. W.; Winstein, B.; Winston, R.; Yamamoto, H.; Swallow, E. C.; Bock, G. J.; Coleman, R.; Enagonio, J.; Hsiung, Y. B.; Ramberg, E.; Stanfield, K.; Tschirhart, R.; Yamanaka, T.; Gollin, G. D.; Karlsson, M.; Okamitsu, J. K.; Debu, P.; Peyaud, B.; Turlay, R.; Vallage, B.
1992-04-01
We report a value of -[3.3+/-1.1 (stat)+/-0.7(sys)]×10-3 for the quadratic slope parameter h in the Dalitz plot of the KL-->3?0 decay. This result is obtained from a sample of 5.1×106 decays. The validity of the ?I=1/2 rule in the quadratic term is investigated using this result. This is the first measurement of the 3?0 slope parameter, and also the most sensitive measurement of any of the quadratic slope parameters for the charged or neutral kaons.
Indefinite quadratic forms and the invariance of the interval in Special Relativity
John H. Elton
2009-08-03
A simple theorem on proportionality of indefinite real quadratic forms is proved, and is used to clarify the proof of the invariance of the interval in Special Relativity from Einstein's postulate on the universality of the speed of light; students are often rightfully confused by the incomplete or incorrect proofs given in many texts. The result is illuminated and generalized using Hilbert's Nullstellensatz, allowing one form to be a homogeneous polynomial which is not necessarily quadratic. Also a condition for simultaneous diagonalizabilityof semi-definite real quadratic functions is given.
Temporal Dynamics and Nonclassical Photon Statistics of Quadratically Coupled Optomechanical Systems
Shailendra Kumar Singh; S. V. Muniandy
2015-06-24
Quantum optomechanical system serves as an interface for coupling between photons and phonons due to mechanical oscillations. We used the Heisenberg-Langevin approach under Markovian white noise approximation to study a quadratically coupled optomechanical system which contains a thin dielectric membrane quadratically coupled to the cavity field. A decorrelation method is employed to solve for a larger number of coupled equations. Transient mean numbers of cavity photons and phonons that provide dynamical behaviour are computed for different coupling regime. We have also obtained the two-boson second-order correlation functions for the cavity field, membrane oscillator and their cross correlations that provide nonclassical properties governed by quadratic optomechanical system.
Temporal Dynamics and Nonclassical Photon Statistics of Quadratically Coupled Optomechanical Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Shailendra Kumar; Muniandy, S. V.
2015-05-01
Quantum optomechanical system serves as an interface for coupling between photons and phonons due to mechanical oscillations. We used the Heisenberg-Langevin approach under Markovian white noise approximation to study a quadratically coupled optomechanical system which contains a thin dielectric membrane quadratically coupled to the cavity field. A decorrelation method is employed to solve for a larger number of coupled equations. Transient mean numbers of cavity photons and phonons that provide dynamical behaviour are computed for different coupling regime. We have also obtained the two-boson second-order correlation functions for the cavity field, membrane oscillator and their cross correlations that provide nonclassical properties governed by quadratic optomechanical system.
Generation and dynamics of quadratic birefringent spatial gap solitons
Anghel-Vasilescu, P. [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Dorignac, J.; Geniet, F.; Leon, J. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb, Departement de Physique Theorique, UMR 5221 CNRS-UM2, Universite Montpellier 2, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France); Taki, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, Atomes et Molecules, CNRS-INP-UMR8523, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, F-59655 Villeneuve d'Ascq (France)
2011-04-15
A method is proposed to generate and study the dynamics of spatial light solitons in a birefringent medium with quadratic nonlinearity. Although no analytical expression for propagating solitons has been obtained, our numerical simulations show the existence of stable localized spatial solitons in the frequency forbidden band gap of the medium. The dynamics of these objects is quite rich and manifests for instance elastic reflections, or inelastic collisions where two solitons merge and propagate as a single solitary wave. We derive the dynamics of the slowly varying envelopes of the three fields (second harmonic pump and two-component signal) and study this new system theoretically. We show that it does present a threshold for nonlinear supratransmission that can be calculated from a series expansion approach with a very high accuracy. Specific physical implications of our theoretical predictions are illustrated on LiGaTe{sub 2} (LGT) crystals. Once irradiated by a cw laser beam of 10 {mu}m wavelength, at an incidence beyond the extinction angle, such crystals will transmit light, in the form of spatial solitons generated in the nonlinear regime above the nonlinear supratransmission threshold.
Inverse problem of quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonians
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guo, Guang-Jie; Meng, Yan; Chang, Hong; Duan, Hui-Zeng; Di, Bing
2015-08-01
Using an algebraic approach, it is possible to obtain the temporal evolution wave function for a Gaussian wave-packet obeying the quadratic time-dependent Hamiltonian (QTDH). However, in general, most of the practical cases are not exactly solvable, for we need general solutions of the Riccatti equations which are not generally known. We therefore bypass directly solving for the temporal evolution wave function, and study its inverse problem. We start with a particular evolution of the wave-packet, and get the required Hamiltonian by using the inverse method. The inverse approach opens up a new way to find new exact solutions to the QTDH. Some typical examples are studied in detail. For a specific time-dependent periodic harmonic oscillator, the Berry phase is obtained exactly. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11347171), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. A2012108003), and the Key Project of Educational Commission of Hebei Province of China (Grant No. ZD2014052).
Phase transitions in the quadratic contact process on complex networks.
Varghese, Chris; Durrett, Rick
2013-06-01
The quadratic contact process (QCP) is a natural extension of the well-studied linear contact process where infected (1) individuals infect susceptible (0) neighbors at rate ? and infected individuals recover (1?0) at rate 1. In the QCP, a combination of two 1's is required to effect a 0?1 change. We extend the study of the QCP, which so far has been limited to lattices, to complex networks. We define two versions of the QCP: vertex-centered (VQCP) and edge-centered (EQCP) with birth events 1-0-1?1-1-1 and 1-1-0?1-1-1, respectively, where "-" represents an edge. We investigate the effects of network topology by considering the QCP on random regular, Erd?s-Rényi, and power-law random graphs. We perform mean-field calculations as well as simulations to find the steady-state fraction of occupied vertices as a function of the birth rate. We find that on the random regular and Erd?s-Rényi graphs, there is a discontinuous phase transition with a region of bistability, whereas on the heavy-tailed power-law graph, the transition is continuous. The critical birth rate is found to be positive in the former but zero in the latter. PMID:23848741
Phase Transitions in the Quadratic Contact Process on Complex Networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varghese, Chris; Durrett, Rick
2013-03-01
The quadratic contact process (QCP) is a natural extension of the well studied linear contact process where a single infected (1) individual can infect a susceptible (0) neighbor and infected individuals are allowed to recover (1 --> 0). In the QCP, a combination of two 1's is required to effect a 0 --> 1 change. We extend the study of the QCP, which so far has been limited to lattices, to complex networks as a model for the change in a population via sexual reproduction and death. We define two versions of the QCP - vertex centered (VQCP) and edge centered (EQCP) with birth events 1 - 0 - 1 --> 1 - 1 - 1 and 1 - 1 - 0 --> 1 - 1 - 1 respectively, where ` -' represents an edge. We investigate the effects of network topology by considering the QCP on regular, Erd?s-Rényi and power law random graphs. We perform mean field calculations as well as simulations to find the steady state fraction of occupied vertices as a function of the birth rate. We find that on the homogeneous graphs (regular and Erd?s-Rényi) there is a discontinuous phase transition with a region of bistability, whereas on the heavy tailed power law graph, the transition is continuous. The critical birth rate is found to be positive in the former but zero in the latter.
Phase transitions in the quadratic contact process on complex networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Varghese, Chris; Durrett, Rick
2013-06-01
The quadratic contact process (QCP) is a natural extension of the well-studied linear contact process where infected (1) individuals infect susceptible (0) neighbors at rate ? and infected individuals recover (1?0) at rate 1. In the QCP, a combination of two 1's is required to effect a 0?1 change. We extend the study of the QCP, which so far has been limited to lattices, to complex networks. We define two versions of the QCP: vertex-centered (VQCP) and edge-centered (EQCP) with birth events 1-0-1?1-1-1 and 1-1-0?1-1-1, respectively, where “-” represents an edge. We investigate the effects of network topology by considering the QCP on random regular, Erd?s-Rényi, and power-law random graphs. We perform mean-field calculations as well as simulations to find the steady-state fraction of occupied vertices as a function of the birth rate. We find that on the random regular and Erd?s-Rényi graphs, there is a discontinuous phase transition with a region of bistability, whereas on the heavy-tailed power-law graph, the transition is continuous. The critical birth rate is found to be positive in the former but zero in the latter.
Mechanical cooling in single-photon optomechanics with quadratic nonlinearity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Wen-ju; Yi, Zhen; Sun, Li-hui; Xu, Da-hai
2015-08-01
In the paper we study the nonlinear mechanical cooling processes in an intrinsic quadratically optomechanical coupling system without linearizing the optomechanical interaction. We apply scattering theory to calculate the transition rates between different mechanical Fock states using the resolvent of the Hamiltonian, which allows for a direct identification of the underlying physical processes, where only even-phonon transitions are permitted and odd-phonon transitions are forbidden. We verify the feasibility of the approach by comparing the steady-state mean phonon number obtained from transition rates with the simulation of the full quantum master equation, and also discuss the analytical results in the weak coupling limit that coincide with two-phonon mechanical cooling processes. Furthermore, to evaluate the statistical properties of steady mechanical state, we respectively apply the Mandel Q parameter to show that the oscillator can be in nonclassical mechanical states, and the phonon number fluctuations F to display that the even-phonon transitions favor suppressing the phonon number fluctuations compared to the linear coupling optomechanical system.
Phase Transitions in the Quadratic Contact Process on Complex Networks
Varghese, Chris
2013-01-01
The quadratic contact process (QCP) is a natural extension of the well studied linear contact process where infected (1) individuals infect susceptible (0) neighbors at rate $\\lambda$ and infected individuals recover ($1 \\longrightarrow 0$) at rate 1. In the QCP, a combination of two 1's is required to effect a $0 \\longrightarrow 1$ change. We extend the study of the QCP, which so far has been limited to lattices, to complex networks. \\comment{as a model for the change in a population through sexual reproduction and death.} We define two versions of the QCP -- vertex centered (VQCP) and edge centered (EQCP) with birth events $1-0-1 \\longrightarrow 1-1-1$ and $1-1-0 \\longrightarrow 1-1-1$ respectively, where `$-$' represents an edge. We investigate the effects of network topology by considering the QCP on random regular, Erd\\H{o}s-R\\'{e}nyi and power law random graphs. We perform mean field calculations as well as simulations to find the steady state fraction of occupied vertices as a function of the birth rat...
Methods for optimizing large molecules. II. Quadratic search
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farkas, Ödön; Schlegel, H. Bernhard
1999-12-01
Geometry optimization has become an essential part of quantum-chemical computations, largely because of the availability of analytic first derivatives. Quasi-Newton algorithms use the gradient to update the second derivative matrix (Hessian) and frequently employ corrections to the quadratic approximation such as rational function optimization (RFO) or the trust radius model (TRM). These corrections are typically carried out via diagonalization of the Hessian, which requires O(N3) operations for N variables. Thus, they can be substantial bottlenecks in the optimization of large molecules with semiempirical, mixed quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical (QM/MM) or linearly scaling electronic structure methods. Our O(N2) approach for solving the equations for coordinate transformations in optimizations has been extended to evaluate the RFO and TRM steps efficiently in redundant internal coordinates. The regular RFO model has also been modified so that it has the correct size dependence as the molecular systems become larger. Finally, an improved Hessian update for minimizations has been constructed by combining the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) and (symmetric rank one) SR1 updates. Together these modifications and new methods form an optimization algorithm for large molecules that scales as O(N2) and performs similar to or better than the traditional optimization strategies used in quantum chemistry.
Monitoring bioeroding sponges: using rubble, Quadrat, or intercept surveys?
Schönberg, C H L
2015-04-01
Relating to recent environmental changes, bioerosion rates of calcium carbonate materials appear to be increasing worldwide, often driven by sponges that cause bioerosion and are recognized bioindicators for coral reef health. Various field methods were compared to encourage more vigorous research on bioeroding sponges and their inclusion in major monitoring projects. The rubble technique developed by Holmes et al. (2000) had drawbacks often due to small specimen sizes: it was time-costly, generated large variation, and created a biased impression about dominant species. Quadrat surveys were most rapid but overestimated cover of small specimens. Line intercepts are recommended as easiest, least spatially biased, and most accurate, especially when comparing results from different observers. Intercepts required fewer samples and provided the best statistical efficiency, evidenced by better significances and test power. Bioeroding sponge abundances and biodiversities are influenced by water depth, sediment quality, and most importantly by availability of suitable attached substrate. Any related data should thus be standardized to amount of suitable substrate to allow comparison between different environments, concentrating on dominant, easily recognized species to avoid bias due to experience of observers. PMID:25920717
Quadratic Optimization in the Problems of Active Control of Sound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loncaric, J.; Tsynkov, S. V.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
We analyze the problem of suppressing the unwanted component of a time-harmonic acoustic field (noise) on a predetermined region of interest. The suppression is rendered by active means, i.e., by introducing the additional acoustic sources called controls that generate the appropriate anti-sound. Previously, we have obtained general solutions for active controls in both continuous and discrete formulations of the problem. We have also obtained optimal solutions that minimize the overall absolute acoustic source strength of active control sources. These optimal solutions happen to be particular layers of monopoles on the perimeter of the protected region. Mathematically, minimization of acoustic source strength is equivalent to minimization in the sense of L(sub 1). By contrast. in the current paper we formulate and study optimization problems that involve quadratic functions of merit. Specifically, we minimize the L(sub 2) norm of the control sources, and we consider both the unconstrained and constrained minimization. The unconstrained L(sub 2) minimization is certainly the easiest problem to address numerically. On the other hand, the constrained approach allows one to analyze sophisticated geometries. In a special case, we call compare our finite-difference optimal solutions to the continuous optimal solutions obtained previously using a semi-analytic technique. We also show that the optima obtained in the sense of L(sub 2) differ drastically from those obtained in the sense of L(sub 1).
Quadratic Measurement and Conditional State Preparation in an Optomechanical System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brawley, George; Vanner, Michael; Bowen, Warwick; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja
2014-03-01
An important requirement in the study of quantum systems is the ability to measure non-linear observables at the level of quantum fluctuations. Such measurements enable the conditional preparation of highly non-classical states. Nonlinear measurement, although achieved in a variety of quantum systems including microwave cavity modes and optical fields, remains an outstanding problem in both electromechanical and optomechanical systems. To the best of our knowledge, previous experimental efforts to achieve nonlinear measurement of mechanical motion have not yielded strong coupling, nor the observation of quadratic mechanical motion. Here using a new technique reliant on the intrinsic nonlinearity of the optomechanical interaction, we experimentally observe for the first time a position squared (x2) measurement of the room-temperature Brownian motion of a nanomechanical oscillator. We utilize this measurement to conditionally prepare non-Gaussian bimodal states, which are the high temperature classical analogue of quantum macroscopic superposition states, or cat states. In the future with the aid of cryogenics and state-of-the-art optical cavities, our approach will provide a viable method of generating quantum superposition states of mechanical oscillators. This research was funded by the ARC Center of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems.
The quadratic spinor Lagrangian, axial torsion current, and generalizations
Roldao da Rocha; J. G. Pereira
2007-03-13
We show that the Einstein-Hilbert, the Einstein-Palatini, and the Holst actions can be derived from the Quadratic Spinor Lagrangian (QSL), when the three classes of Dirac spinor fields, under Lounesto spinor field classification, are considered. To each one of these classes, there corresponds a unique kind of action for a covariant gravity theory. In other words, it is shown to exist a one-to-one correspondence between the three classes of non-equivalent solutions of the Dirac equation, and Einstein-Hilbert, Einstein-Palatini, and Holst actions. Furthermore, it arises naturally, from Lounesto spinor field classification, that any other class of spinor field (Weyl, Majorana, flagpole, or flag-dipole spinor fields) yields a trivial (zero) QSL, up to a boundary term. To investigate this boundary term we do not impose any constraint on the Dirac spinor field, and consequently we obtain new terms in the boundary component of the QSL. In the particular case of a teleparallel connection, an axial torsion 1-form current density is obtained. New terms are also obtained in the corresponding Hamiltonian formalism. We then discuss how these new terms could shed new light on more general investigations.
Graph Modeling for Quadratic Assignment Problems Associated with the Hypercube
Mittelmann, Hans; Peng Jiming; Wu Xiaolin
2009-07-02
In the paper we consider the quadratic assignment problem arising from channel coding in communications where one coefficient matrix is the adjacency matrix of a hypercube in a finite dimensional space. By using the geometric structure of the hypercube, we first show that there exist at least n different optimal solutions to the underlying QAPs. Moreover, the inherent symmetries in the associated hypercube allow us to obtain partial information regarding the optimal solutions and thus shrink the search space and improve all the existing QAP solvers for the underlying QAPs.Secondly, we use graph modeling technique to derive a new integer linear program (ILP) models for the underlying QAPs. The new ILP model has n(n-1) binary variables and O(n{sup 3} log(n)) linear constraints. This yields the smallest known number of binary variables for the ILP reformulation of QAPs. Various relaxations of the new ILP model are obtained based on the graphical characterization of the hypercube, and the lower bounds provided by the LP relaxations of the new model are analyzed and compared with what provided by several classical LP relaxations of QAPs in the literature.
Phase evaluation in FTM interferometry using piecewise quadratic function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pokorný, P.
2014-12-01
In the interferometry, the Fourier Transform Method (FTM) is one of the efficient ways for an interferogram evaluation and it can be used in many practical applications. Fourier transform used in the process of phase reconstruction gives an opportunity to eliminate some unwanted phenomena which are carried in the interferogram due to the process of measuring - for example a random noise of the sensor or a variation in the background intensity. Moreover, reconstructed phase can be obtained only from one registered interferogram, thus this method can be simply implemented in a real measurement process. During the FTM interferometry, an interferogram is reconstructed in several steps. Viewed from a mathematical part and a software implementation, the most complicated is a step called unwrapping; discontinuous image - as a result of atan function - is processed and the continuous phase is retrieved. This work presents a modified solution of an interferogram phase reconstruction without using the unwrapping process - the phase is obtained from its gradient using the piecewise quadratic function.
Mechanical cooling in the single-photon quadratical optomechanics
Wen-ju Gu; Zhen Yi; Li-hui Sun; Da-hai Xu
2015-04-25
In the paper we study the nonlinear mechanical cooling processes in the intrinsic quadratically optomechanical coupling system without linearizing the optomechanical interaction. We apply the scattering theory to calculate the transition rates between different mechanical Fock states with the use of the resolvent of Hamiltonian, which allows for a direct identification of the underlying physical processes, where only even-phonon transitions are permitted and odd-phonon transitions are forbidden. We verify the feasibility of the approach by comparing the steady-state mean phonon number obtained from transition rates with the simulation of the full quantum master equation, and also discuss the analytical results in the weak coupling limit that coincide with two-phonon mechanical cooling processes. Furthermore, to evaluate the statistical properties of steady mechanical state, we respectively apply the Mandel Q parameter to show that the oscillator can be in a nonclassical mechanical states, and the phonon number uctuations F to display that the even-phonon transitions favor to suppress the phonon number uctuations compared to the linear coupling optomechanical system.
A stable elemental decomposition for dynamic process optimization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cervantes, Arturo M.; Biegler, Lorenz T.
2000-08-01
In Cervantes and Biegler (A.I.Ch.E.J. 44 (1998) 1038), we presented a simultaneous nonlinear programming problem (NLP) formulation for the solution of DAE optimization problems. Here, by applying collocation on finite elements, the DAE system is transformed into a nonlinear system. The resulting optimization problem, in which the element placement is fixed, is solved using a reduced space successive quadratic programming (rSQP) algorithm. The space is partitioned into range and null spaces. This partitioning is performed by choosing a pivot sequence for an LU factorization with partial pivoting which allows us to detect unstable modes in the DAE system. The system is stabilized without imposing new boundary conditions. The decomposition of the range space can be performed in a single step by exploiting the overall sparsity of the collocation matrix but not its almost block diagonal structure. In order to solve larger problems a new decomposition approach and a new method for constructing the quadratic programming (QP) subproblem are presented in this work. The decomposition of the collocation matrix is now performed element by element, thus reducing the storage requirements and the computational effort. Under this scheme, the unstable modes are considered in each element and a range-space move is constructed sequentially based on decomposition in each element. This new decomposition improves the efficiency of our previous approach and at the same time preserves its stability. The performance of the algorithm is tested on several examples. Finally, some future directions for research are discussed.
Yang, Jann
Experimental verifications of a structural damage identification technique using reduced order finite-element model Rui Lia , Li Zhoua , Jann N. Yangb a MOE Key Lab of Structure Mechanics and Control technique, referred to as the adaptive quadratic sum-square error (AQSSE) technique, has been proposed
Brakerski, Zvika
The main results of this work are new public-key encryption schemes that, under the quadratic residuosity (QR) assumption (or Paillier’s decisional composite residuosity (DCR) assumption), achieve key-dependent message ...
ON 2-CLASS FIELD TOWERS OF SOME IMAGINARY QUADRATIC NUMBER FIELDS
Lemmermeyer, Franz
. Let k = Q( d ) be an imaginary quadratic number field with discrim- inant d = -4pqq , where p 5 mod can easily be deduced from genus theory. We put m = pqq , where p, q, q satisfy the conditions in Thm
Observers for a class of systems with nonlinearities satisfying an incremental quadratic inequality
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Acikmese, Ahmet Behcet; Martin, Corless
2004-01-01
We consider the problem of state estimation from nonlinear time-varying system whose nonlinearities satisfy an incremental quadratic inequality. Observers are presented which guarantee that the state estimation error exponentially converges to zero.
Orbital instability of standing waves for the quadratic-cubic Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Natali, Fábio; Pastor, Ademir
2015-08-01
We consider the Klein-Gordon-Schrödinger system with quadratic and cubic interactions. Smooth curves of periodic- and solitary-wave solutions are obtained via the implicit function theorem. Orbital instability of such waves is then established.
OPTIMIZATION OF TURBOMACHINERY AIRFOILS WITH A GENETIC/SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM
Dennis, Brian
OPTIMIZATION OF TURBOMACHINERY AIRFOILS WITH A GENETIC/SEQUENTIAL QUADRATIC PROGRAMMING ALGORITHM words: shape optimization, aerodynamic design, turbomachinery, aerodynamics, genetic algorithms-magneto- gasdynamic effects. In the case of a turbomachinery aerodynamics, sources of entropy production other than
Quadratic voltage profiles in lead acid cells during slow, steady processes
Haaser, Robert Anthony
1999-01-01
-zero charge density in the bulk of the electrolyte, an electric field that varies linearly across the cell and a voltage prose that varies quadratically. To test this theory, experiments were performed, using platinum reference electrodes to read the voltage...
Using Simple Quadratic Equations to Estimate Equilibrium Concentrations of an Acid
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brilleslyper, Michael A.
2004-01-01
Application of quadratic equations to standard problem in chemistry like finding equilibrium concentrations of ions in an acid solution is explained. This clearly shows that pure mathematical analysis has meaningful applications in other areas as well.
Canonical, Lie-algebraic and quadratic twist deformations of Galilei group
Marcin Daszkiewicz
2009-01-27
New Galilei quantum groups dual to the Hopf algebras proposed in [1] are obtained by the nonrelativistic contraction procedures. The corresponding Lie-algebraic and quadratic quantum space-times are identified with the translation sectors of considered algebras.
A Branch-and-Bound Algorithm for Quadratically-Constrained Sparse Filter Design
Wei, Dennis
This paper presents an exact algorithm for sparse filter design under a quadratic constraint on filter performance. The algorithm is based on branch-and-bound, a combinatorial optimization procedure that can either guarantee ...
The existence of periodic orbits and invariant tori for some 3-dimensional quadratic systems.
Jiang, Yanan; Han, Maoan; Xiao, Dongmei
2014-01-01
We use the normal form theory, averaging method, and integral manifold theorem to study the existence of limit cycles in Lotka-Volterra systems and the existence of invariant tori in quadratic systems in ?(3). PMID:24982980
Derivation of a Tappered p-Version Beam Finite Element
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hinnant, Howard E.
1989-01-01
A tapered p-version beam finite element suitable for dynamic applications is derived. The taper in the element is represented by allowing the area moments of inertia to vary as quartic polynomials along the length of the beam, and the cross-sectional area to vary as a quadratic polynomial. The p-version finite-element characteristics are implemented through a set of polynomial shape functions. The lower-order shape functions are identical to the classical cubic and linear shape functions normally associated with a beam element. The higher-order shape functions are a hierarchical set of polynomials that are integrals of orthogonal polynomials. Explicit expressions for the mass and stiffness matrices are presented for an arbitrary value of p. The element has been verified to be numerically stable using shape functions through 22nd order.
Sh. Khachatryan; A. Sedrakyan
2012-08-21
We present most general one-parametric solutions of the Yang-Baxter equations (YBE) for one spectral parameter dependent $R_{ij}(u)$-matrices of the six- and eight-vertex models, where the only constraint is the particle number conservation by mod(2). A complete classification of the solutions is performed. We have obtained also two spectral parameter dependent particular solutions $R_{ij}(u,v)$ of YBE. The application of the non-homogeneous solutions to construction of Zamolodchikov's tetrahedral algebra is discussed.
Ti7-containing, tetrahedral 36-tungsto-4-arsenate(III) [Ti6(TiO6)(AsW9O33)4]20-.
Wang, Kai-Yao; Bassil, Bassem S; Lin, Zheng-Guo; Haider, Ali; Cao, Jie; Stephan, Holger; Viehweger, Katrin; Kortz, Ulrich
2014-11-21
We have prepared the Ti7-containing, tetrahedral 36-tungsto-4-arsenate(III) [Ti6(TiO6)(AsW9O33)4](20-) (1) by a simple, one pot procedure. Polyanion 1 contains a novel Ti7-core, comprising a central TiO6 octahedron surrounded by six TiO5 square-pyramids, and capped by four {As(III)W9} trilacunary fragments. The title polyanion is solution-stable, as shown by (183)W NMR and mass spectrometry, and exhibits interesting biological properties. PMID:25254349
Nahrwold, Sophie, E-mail: nahrwold@fias.uni-frankfurt.de; Berger, Robert, E-mail: r.berger@fias.uni-frankfurt.de [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany) [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Goethe-University Frankfurt am Main, Ruth-Moufang-Str. 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Clemens-Schöpf-Institute, Technical University Darmstadt, Petersenstr. 22, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schwerdtfeger, Peter, E-mail: p.a.schwerdtfeger@massey.ac.nz [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand) [Centre for Theoretical Chemistry and Physics, The New Zealand Institute for Advanced Study, Massey University Albany, Private Bag 102904, North Shore City, Auckland 0745 (New Zealand); Fachbereich Chemie, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Hans-Meerwein-Str., D-35032 Marburg (Germany)
2014-01-14
Density functional theory within the two-component quasi-relativistic zeroth-order regular approximation (ZORA) is used to predict parity violation shifts in {sup 183}W nuclear magnetic resonance shielding tensors of chiral, tetrahedrally bonded tungsten complexes of the form NWXYZ (X, Y, Z = H, F, Cl, Br or I), as well as for the heavier systems NWHAtF and NWH(117)F for comparison. The calculations reveal that sub-mHz accuracy is required to detect such tiny effects in this class of compounds, and that parity violation effects are very sensitive to the choice of ligands.
Sequential design of discrete linear quadratic regulators via optimal root-locus techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shieh, Leang S.; Yates, Robert E.; Ganesan, Sekar
1989-01-01
A sequential method employing classical root-locus techniques has been developed in order to determine the quadratic weighting matrices and discrete linear quadratic regulators of multivariable control systems. At each recursive step, an intermediate unity rank state-weighting matrix that contains some invariant eigenvectors of that open-loop matrix is assigned, and an intermediate characteristic equation of the closed-loop system containing the invariant eigenvalues is created.
Two-stage quadratic integer programs with stochastic right-hand sides
Osman Y. Özalt?n; Oleg A. Prokopyev; Andrew J. Schaefer
We consider two-stage quadratic integer programs with stochastic right-hand sides, and present an equivalent reformulation\\u000a using value functions. We propose a two-phase solution approach. The first phase constructs value functions of quadratic integer\\u000a programs in both stages. The second phase solves the reformulation using a global branch-and-bound algorithm or a level-set\\u000a approach. We derive some basic properties of value functions